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OU1 66992 

With the Compliments of 










I. The azalea walk. Magnolia, South Carolina 






Illustrated with Colored Plates, Four Thousand Engravings in the Tcoct y 
and Ninety-six Full-page Cuts 

VOL. 1 A-E 

PAGES 1-1200. FIGS. 14470 
Being Vols. I and II of Original Edition 

New York 




COPYRIGHT, 1928, 1942, BY L. H. BAILEY 

All rights reserved no part of tint, book may be reproduced in any form 
without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a re- 
viewer who wts/ir<. to quote brief passages in eonnection with 
a review wntten for inclusion in magazine or newspaper 

Vol I Set up and Kle.tronpptl I'uMisliwl Mr h 25, 191 t Vol IT Set up am 
and Klectrotvped Published .Tuh 22. 1 C H 4 K.-pi mted May, 1917, March, 191<) 
Reissued with corrections March 1922 Jit-printed (Vol T and II combined), Jnn 
uar\, 1025, January, l l 27 Tulv, 1028, Alav 105(1 Fehniarj, 1933, Febrnarv 
1<>3-j Popular Edition, Pubhslied October, 19'? r . . November, l f H", , October, 1957, 
May, l'!3 f ), March 1941, March, 1943, April, 1914, January, 1917, NON embei , l'47, 
May, 1950 


FOURTEEN years ago the present Editor wrote the preface to Volume I of the 
Cyclopedia of American Horticulture. The purpose of that work was ''to make 
a complete record of the status of North American horticulture as it exists at 
the close of the nineteenth century;" it was the effort to include "all the species 
which are known to be in the horticultural trade," together with outlines of "the horti- 
cultural possibilities of the various states, territories and provinces/' to present bio- 
graphical sketches of eminent American horticulturists not then living, and in general 
to discuss the cultivation and handling of horticultural crops. In the preface to Volume 
IV of that work the Editor expressed the hope that the Cyclopedia would never be 
revised. "If new issues are called for, mere errors should be corrected; but beyond this, 
the plates should be left as they are," for it was the purpose of the book that it should 
stand as a, measure of that time. The different volumes have been separately reprinted, 
but about eight complete re-issues of that Cyclopedia have been made, with such 
corrections of errors as have been reported; in one restricted edition, published by 
Doubleday, Page & Co., the same work was bound in six volumes, together with an 
enlarged preface and a key to the families and genera. 

The present Cyclopedia, although founded on the former compilation,, is a new work 
with an enlarged scope. While the older work will no longer be published, it neverthe- 
less stands by itself; and the two should be quoted as independent cyclopedias. The 
geographical boundaries are wider in the present work, due to the fact that the United 
States and Canada have both acquired new tropical connections and interests in recent 
years. It has not been the effort to cover completely the horticultural floras of Porto 
Rico, Hawaii, and other islands, for that would involve the tropical flora of the 
globe; but it is the intention to include the most outstanding species grown in a horti- 
cultural way in those islands. A fuller treatment has also been given of the plants grown 
in southern Florida, southern California, and the other southernmost areas of the 
continental United States. 

The treatment in the former Cyclopedia was confined closely to species in "the 
trade," to those plants "sold in the United States and Canada." The present work 
accepts this basis in general, for the lists of nurserymen, seedsmen, and fanciers indicate 
very closely the plants that actually are grown, and it would manifestly be impossible as 
well as undesirable to include all the plants that may be found in botanic gardens, or in 
the grounds of specialists and amateurs who collect specimens from original sources, 
or those introduced for purposes of experiment or test or only for scientific study : 
but "the trade" is interpreted more liberally in this work, to include the offerings of 



many European dealers because those dealers supply American customers, to account 
for species mentioned prominently in European horticultural periodicals as well as in 
American periodicals, and to insert such plants as are known to be subjects of exchange 
or to be frequently in cultivation in any region, even though their names may not be 
found in a commercial list. While it is intended to account for all the species in the 
trade, it is not intended to name the garden varieties; for the variety lists change too 
rapidly for discussion in cyclopedic works. The mention of varieties in the leading 
group-articles is more a matter of record than of recommendation. 

Care has been exercised to exclude species that are evidently not now of interest 
to horticulturists, even though their names may be found in the literature; for the 
introduction of many dead entries would not only violate the purpose to make a current 
record, but would make the books too voluminous and would confuse the student with 
too many names and details. It is desired that the treatment shall be contemporaneous, 
and that it shall be rescued as far as desirable from the older glasshouse method of 
transatlantic work. The Cyclopedia aims to account for the plants horticulturally 
grown within its territory which are now the subjects of living interest or likely to be 
introduced, to discuss the best practices in the growing of the staple flower and fruit 
and vegetable crops, to depict the horticultural capabilities of the states and provinces, 
to indicate the literature of the field, and incidentally to portray briefly the lives of 
the former men and women who have attained to a large or a national reputcition in 
horticultural pursuits. 

The method in the Cyclopedia, in other words, turns about two purposes, the 
identification of species, and the cultivation of plants. Both are essential to an 
understanding of horticulture. The former lends itself readily to usual cyclopedic 
treatment, the latter expresses itself as a manual of practice. The combination pro- 
duces an irregular literary product, but it is hoped that the result is not inharmonious. 

The cultural details involve special difficulties. The North American continent 
presents so many conditions that advice for outdoor work cannot be too specific in a 
work of this kind without leading to serious mistakes. What is advised by a good 
grower in one place may be contradicted by a good grower in another place. Even in 
under-glass treatment, in which conditions are largely artificial, difficulties often arise 
in trying to apply in America the instructions given for European practice. It is not 
possible for one to grow plants by a book; in this work the cultural details are not 
directions so much as statements of standard practice: this practice will need to be 
considerably modified in many cases if the best result for special conditions or objects 
is to be secured. In the former Cyclopedia the culture was often presented by two 
persons of unlike experiences for the express purpose of meeting the needs of amateurs; 
but readers seem to think this to be confusing and the practice has not been followed 
in the present work. However, special effort has been made to secure the best cultural 
advice for the plants requiring peculiar or particular handling, and this advice will be 
found in the discussion of the different crops and plants under their respective heads 


and in addition many practical class-articles have been prepared for the aid of tht 
cultivator and designer. These class-articles are mostly as follows: 

Alpine Plants 





Design, Floral 




Diseases and Insects 









Hotbeds and Coldframes 



Evaporating Fruit 



Aut umn-Gardemng 








Basket Plants 















Seeds and Seedage 


Florists' Plants 

Machinery and Implements 






Botanic Garden 

Foi ebtry 










Walks, Drives and Path- 




Watering [ways 

Culinary Herbs 




Cut-Flower Industry 




There is marked growth in outdoor horticulture in North America. The largest 
extension in the present Cyclopedia, so far as taxonomic work is concerned, is in the 
description of trees and shrubs. There is widespread interest in these subjects. We are 
beginning to realize our native resources in woody plants, to understand how to make 
use of our many climates and natural conditions; and to incorporate freely into our 
cultivated flora many of the trees and shrubs of China and other regions, under the 
stimulus of the Arnold Arboretum and other agencies. The resources of the Arboretum 
have been placed at the command of the Cyclopedia through the careful and original 
work of Alfred Render. Similar aids have been extended from other sources, and 
particularly from the Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction service of the United 
States Department of Agriculture. 

While hardy plants and outdoor gardening seem to be increasing rapidly in 
favor, there is a decided tendency toward the breaking-up of large fanciers' collections, 
in private establishments, of old-time glasshouse plants. It is now quite impossible, 
for example, to find in this country any large private collections of the species of 
begonias or of the varieties of camellias or of the show pelargoniums; orchid collections 
of notable extent are few. The demand of the trade is for relatively few species, and the 
commercial collections are mostly concerned with a few stock kinds and florists' plants, 
together with a small addition of annual novelties, rather than with the former long 
lists of many separate and interesting species and varieties. Even private places, 
especially private greenhouses, are devoted very largely to cut-flowers and florists* 
plants. It is incumbent on a cyclopedia of this kind, however, to preserve the accounts 
of these begonias, orchids, palms, cacti, succulents, "stove plants," and others, even 
though many of them may be known to very few; and the Editor hopes that the 
amateur will regain his ascendancy and that collections of plants because they are 
plants may not perish from amongst us. 

There has been great extension in recent years in commercial floriculture and in the 


forcing of vegetables. We now think in terms of cropping under glass. The range of 
species of plants involved in these industries is relatively small, but the areas are large, 
the business is receiving the attention of able men and women, and the glasshouse 
industries are making important contributions to the lives of the people. The recent 
growth of the commercial fruit-growing industry is also notable. Once largely restricted 
to narrow regions and to "fruit belts," the growing of fruits for market has now 
assumed the proportions of a great industry comparable with the staple agricultural 
productions. An effort has been made to catch something of the spirit of all these 
large efforts, as well as to provide information and advice for the amateur and the 
home gardener. 

When the Cyclopedia of American Horticulture was made, there were few special- 
ists in the systematic botany of cultivated plants. The Editor hopes that the publica- 
tion of that Cyclopedia has contributed something to the acceleration of interest in this 
long-overlooked subject. Howbeit, the number of competent specialists, and of 
those intelligently interested in the subject, is now large enough to have enabled the 
Editor to cover many of the important groups. The cacti have been placed mostly in 
the hands of J. N. Rose; a number of tropical plants have been handled anew by 
W. E. Safford; the orchids, aroids and bromeliads by George V. Nash; euphorbiads 
by J. B. S. Norton, Citrus and related genera by Walter T. Swingle, Nymphaeaceae by 
H. S. Conard; the ferns by R. C. Benedict; most grasses by A. S. Hitchcock, special 
groups by Norman Taylor, chiefly among the composites, palms, and tender araliads; 
suggestions on cultivated forms and on cultivation have been contributed by C. P. 
Raffill, of the tropical department, Kew; the survey of families of plants and most 
of the editorial work on the general introductory key have been in the hands of 
K. M. Wiegand; and many small groups and special genera have found new treatment 
by persons who have given them careful study over a considerable period of tune. 
The results of modern scientific studies are now beginning to be positively reflected in 
the identification of garden plants, and in the advice for the cultivation and handling 
of horticultural crops and products. With so many persons partaking, it is of course 
impossible to secure uniformity of taxonomic handling in the various groups, but the 
gain of having the contributions of specialists will abundantly offset this small 
technical disadvantage. 

And yet, it is true that very much of the work is necessarily compiled from litera- 
ture rather than constructed from a direct study of the plants themselves. There is no 
herbarium or other complete and authentic repository of all the species of plants sold by 
dealers. The best that can be done in very many cases is to accept the name appearing 
in a catalogue and to attach to it the most authentic or most adaptable description of 
a recognized botanical species of the same name; there is no telling whether the dealers' 
plant is properly determined or whether it represents the botanical species bearing the 
same name. It is impossible now to know how many wrong determinations, inaccurate 


and insufficient descriptions, and faulty judgments have been perpetuated from author 
to author through long series of years. All these matters must be worked out in years 
to come, when the horticultural plants in the various groups shall have been systemati- 
cally studied with care. The Editor repeats the hope expressed in the preface written 
fourteen years ago "that every entry in this book will be worked over and 
improved within the next quarter century." 

Many persons aside from the leading authors have contributed to the enterprise in 
the most helpful spirit. The Editor's daughter has borne much of the burden of the 
office and editorial detail. Gardeners, fruit-growers, florists, vegetable-growers, teachers 
and experimenters, botanists, and the printers, have responded with good fellowship 
and with something like patriotic pride. Their names will be recorded in the concluding 
volume; and the public that uses the book will reward them with its gratitude. 

Nor should the institutions that have afforded all these persons the opportunities to 
make their contributions be overlooked. Aside from those agencies already mentioned, 
the Cyclopedia is under special obligation for the use directly or indirectly of books and 
collections to Cornell University, the United States Department of Agriculture, the 
New York Botanical Garden, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, the Missouri Botanical 
Garden, the Gray Herbarium, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, the agricultural 
colleges and experiment stations, and others. Seed merchants, nurserymen, and other 
commercial establishments of standing, have been very ready with suggestions and help. 

Many new illustrations have been added, representing the work of several artists. 
Most of the new work has been made by B. F. Williamson, New York City; F. Sohuyler 
Mathews, Cambridge, Mass.; Miss M. E. Eaton, of the New York Botanical Garden; 
Mrs. M. W. Gill, Washington; C. H. L. Gebfcrt, Boston; and Miss Matilda Smith, of the 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England, whose initials will be recognized on the plates 
of the famous Botanical Magazine. By permission of Professor Sargent, much of the 
accurate and beautiful work of C. E. Faxon and others in Garden and Forest, a journal 
that was discontinued more than fifteen years ago and is now out of the market, has been 
adapted and made available for the present reader; record is made in the text of the 
pictures of species, at the places where they are used. Some of the work in the old govern- 
ment surveys of the great West has also been brought to the use of the general public. 

It is not wholly with satisfaction that one puts forth a work of this magnitude. The 
responsibility increases with the largeness of the enterprise, for users do not readily 
purchase new and corrected editions of a work of this extent. Every care has been 
taken to present an accurate and faithful account, and this is as far as the responsibility 
can extend. The Editor can not expect to make another cyclopedia of horticulture; 
but he hopes that these six volumes will comprise another step in the collecting, assort- 
ing and appraising of our horticultural knowledge. 


December 30. 


IN THE five years that have intervened since the Standard Cyclopedia of Horti- 
culture was completed and published, relatively little change has occurred in the 
general introduction of plants new to cultivation in North America. Many species 
have been disseminated in an experimental way, as by the Office of Foreign Seed 
and Plant Introduction of the United States Department of Agriculture, and other 
agencies, but for the most part they have not yet become a regular part of the commerce 
in horticultural plants although many of them promise important results. The exten- 
sive discoveries of E. H. Wilson, exploring in China and elsewhere for the Arnold 
Arboretum of Harvard University, are likely to add many riches to our horticulture 
as they become distributed and known. The unrecognized or improperly named species 
long in the country are probably many, and it is the part of investigators to uncover 
them. The introduction of plants from many parts of the world into Florida, southern 
Texas, Calif oinia, and other mild regions newly settled has been rapid within the 
past generation, and the material has not been sufficiently studied. The cultivated 
flora as a whole is in need of careful exploration. The more than 27,000 Latin-named 
species and varieties admitted in the Cyclopedia comprise in themselves an extensive 
flora. How many of these things are now in active cultivation, what their adaptabilities 
may be, what satisfaction is gained in the growing of them, are problems awaiting the 
attention of thoughtful students. 

If to this imperfectly known flora are added the probabilities of introductions 
in the future to supply the vast domain of the continent, together with the wide varia- 
tions and the hybridizations likely to result, the imagination scarcely runs to the limits 
of the subject. In the marginal regions, as along northern and southern boundaries 
and in the developing semi-arid parts, great experiments are still to be made hi the 
adaptability of plants, undoubtedly calling for the introduction of species yet strange 
to us. Species of the native flora are now regularly collected, grown, and introduced 
to the public, and many of these will probably yield important variations and changes 
in the future. 

The lists of horticultural varieties of fruits, vegetables, and flowers undergo constant 
changes and fluctuations. Varieties are supplanted by new and often by better ones; 
fashions and demands change; the legitimate desire for novelty must be met. It is 
fortunate that the vegetable kingdom is plastic. As these horticultural varieties are 
often fugitive, and as their adaptation varies so widely in different parts of the country, 
they are purposely not treated in this Cyclopedia, as well as because the space at the 



command of the volumes precludes such extended discussion. Yet, even if the varieties 
come and go, they are nevertheless one of the first concerns of the horticulturist, par- 
ticularly in these days when it is so necessary to meet specific requirements of markets 
and connoisseurs. This knowledge of varieties is to be obtained as other current informa- 
tion is acquired, whether in horticulture, engineering, zoology, or medicine, by means 
of the trade periodicals, publications of commercial firms and of institutions, corres- 
pondence, discussions in societies, and other kinds of alertness. 

The special mark of the horticulture of this day is its strong commercial trend. 
This means that the demand is good for plants and their products. Floriculture, once 
the exclusive domain of amateurs, has now become a staple industry and a source of 
national wealth. The same is true of fruit-growing and other fields, although they 
developed earlier. The investigations of experiment-stations have supplied a base 
of fact and determinable knowledge on which to build and to protect these industries. 
Machines and many clever devices have aided their extension. The facilities for com- 
munication, transportation, storage, and distribution have aided them as they have 
assisted other activities. The publication of technical and trade journals tends always 
to standardize the industries and to make men resourceful. The commercial movement 
in horticulture tends to reduce the number of species and varieties, as compared with 
an unorganized amateur activity. 

The amateur interest in horticulture preserves the species and the miscellaneous 
varieties, inasmuch as the plants are grown for the human interest in them. This 
amateur activity is large. Probably it is larger than ever before, although it may be 
distanced by the commercial activities and by the market movements. In fact, to a 
large extent, the amateur is the market. This is true of the trade in species and varieties 
of iris, peonies, gladioli, and others. By every means, the amateur spirit in horticulture 
is to be encouraged as a resource to the people and as one of the means of providing a 
satisfying background to life. 

The first volume of this Cyclopedia was published in 1914 and the sixth in 1917. 
Those years saw considerable activity in the introduction of plants. These introductions, 
numbering 89 species and Latin-named varieties, are described in the addendum to 
Vol. VI, pages 3565-3573. This is much less than one-half of one per cent of the total 
number described in the Cyclopedia. In 1917, the United States entered the World 
War, and Canada was already in. We are not to expect so great activity in plant 
introduction in those fateful years. It would scarcely be worth while to revise the 
Cyclopedia throughout for the purpose of entering the novelties. 

Attention should be called to the Finding-List, published as a supplement to 
Vol. VI, beginning page 3575. This list was made for the purpose of harmonizing 
current trade names with the botanical names in the Cyclopedia. It was compiled 
in cooperation with the American Joint Committee on Horticultural Nomenclature 
representing the national horticultural associations of the country, and it was separately 
published by the Committee. The Finding-List is practically a current trade index 


to the Cyclopedia, and it also includes a few changes in nomenclature. The user of the 
Cyclopedia should understand the significance of this List. 

In the present issue of the Cyclopedia, certain typographical corrections have 
been made. It has not been thought necessary to introduce such changes in nomen- 
clature as have resulted from new studies of certain genera by different authors, par- 
ticularly as some of the changes are of doubtful significance in horticulture. 






Index to the Synopsis 78 


Index to the Key . 137-147 

NAME-LIST: English equivalents of the Latin names of species .... 148-159 
GLOSSARY of usual botanical and horticultural technical words .... 160-170 
TEXT, A AND B 171-602 


Facing pftge 

I. The azalea walk, Magnolia, South Carolina (in color) . . Frontispiece 

II. Vegetation areas. Aquatic, marsh and upland floras, and showing the relation 

of farm lands ... . ... 18 

III. Desert vegetation. The giant cactus (Carnegiea giganted) ; also bushes of Opuntia 

fulgida, and in the foreground the low fine growths of Bigelovia Hartwegii . 42 

IV. Upland vegetation. Trees on a wind-swept plateau . . . .79 
V. Anemone coronaria, an old garden favorite ....... 171 

VI. A good example of aquatic gardening, with water-lilies and Japanese iris . . 230 

VII. The flowers of the apple tree . ' . . 313 

VIII. The York Imperial apple (in color) . .... 331 

IX. Arboretum. Plantation of American oaks at the Arnold Arboretum; Solidago 

canadensis underplanting ... . 352 

X. Arboriculture. Picea pungens, the Colorado blue spruce .... 373 

XI. Arboriculture. A palm plantation, with Corypha wnbraculifera in the foreground 389 

XII. Asparagus, variety Colossal . .... 412 

XIII. Bean. The bush lima (in color) . .... 460 

XIV. Foliage begonias well grown in banks, with ferns and similar plants . . . 479 
XV. The American blackberry. The Agawam, about natural size . . . 510 

XVI. Botanic garden. The formal garden of the Johns Hopkins University . . 523 

XVII. The arrangement of bouquets . ...... 534 

XVIII. Canadian orchard development. The tidewater country in Nova Scotia . . 562 

XIX Canadian orchard development. The bench lands of British Columbia . . 575 

XX. A border of hardy bulbs (in color) 594 


Facing page 

XXI. Cherry. Specimen fruits of one of the heart cherries (in color) . , .612 

XXII. Carnations. Types of the American winter-flowering varieties 630 

XXIII. Cattleya Lawrenceana . . . 686 

XXIV. Coelogyne cristata, one of the popular and easily grown orchids 710 

XXV. Celery. The cultivation under field conditions, at the hillmg-up or banking 

stage (in color) 724 

XXVI. Sweet cherry in flower and fruit ..... 741 

XXVII. Coconut in flower and fruit. Southern Florida. (Fla. Photo. Concern) 773 

XXVIII. Stowell Evergreen sweet corn . . 803 

XXIX. Cranberry-picking in a New Jersey bog. (Photo, by Elizabeth C. White) 832 

XXX. Chrysanthemum. Two of the florist's types (in color) 861 

XXXI. The White Spine cucumber . . 901 

XXXII. The Fay currant, one of the leading red varieties 917 

XXXIII. Cycas circinahs, the male plant. (Photograph by Henry Pittier) 931 

XXXIV. Dahlia. Jeanne Charmet, one of the most beautiful Decorative dahlias 

(in color) 953 

XXXV Dendrobium superbum as grown in the American tropics . . 978 

XXXVI. A border of dianthus and digitalis . . 1009 

XXXVII. Draccena Goldieana, a "foliage plant" from tropical Africa . . 1069 

XXXVIII. The California poppy. Eschscholtzia calif ormca ..... 1120 

XXXIX. Eucalyptus viminahs in California 1148 



The main account of each genus, in large type and 
separate paragraph for each species, represents the 
plants probably now in cultivation or at least of major 

The "supplementary lists" in smaller type at the end 
of the articles include names of plants not known to be 
in the trade but which may be mentioned in horticul- 
tural literature, and also such Latin-form names of 
the trade as are imperfectly understood and cannot be 
placed under their proper species. These parts are less 
critical finding-lists of other or extra species. 

The Cyclopedia undertakes to account for the 
species in cultivation within its territory to the close 
of the year 1912; but in practice the introductions are 
included to the date of the closing of the different 

The size-marks on the illustrations, as (x H), 
indicate the amount of reduction as compared with 
natural size, this scale being determined merely by 
measuring the flat diameter of a drawing and not 
representing bulk or perspective. 


The practice of the Cyclopedia of American Horti- 
culture in signing the leading and most important 
articles with the name of the author is here retained. 
The original author, so far as living or as he has desired, 
has revised or rewritten his articles for the present work. 
In very many cases, another person has now revised the 
articles, and the name of the reviser is indicated by a 
dagger (f) If the revision has amounted practically 
to a complete rewriting of the article, the original 
author's name may not appear, even though some small 
parts or features of the original article may be retained; 
this is for the purpose of safeguarding the original 
author as well as recognizing the work of the present 
author: the first Cyclopedia stands as the record of ita 
own work. 

A name in parentheses, as "(G. W. Oliver)," at the 
close of a paragraph, indicates that the person is the 
author of that particular paragraph and of no other in 
the article. When a person is responsible for more than 
one paragraph in an article, his part is set off by a sepa- 
rate heading in such a way that it cannot be mistaken. 

It is desired to secure experts and specialists for the 
articles; when this has not been accomplished, the task 
of revision has fallen to the Editor. 

Effort has been made to bring the different parts of 
the work into as much uniformity of plan and treatment 
as is possible in an undertaking of this kind; references 
have been ompared; proofs have been submitted to 
two or more persons in case of difficult t>r doubtful sub- 

jects; and the advice as to cultivation has been checked 
by practical growers. 


The nomenclature follows in the mam the regu- 
lations of the "Vienna code," being the principles 
adopted by the International Botanical Congress held 
in Vienna in 1905. This code was adopted by the 
International Horticultural Congress held at Brussels 
in 1910, with adaptations to horticultural practice. 
When no combination has yet been made under the 
Vienna code, the prevailing usage for the particular 
genus (as expressed in latest monographs) is followed. 
That is, there is no attempt to reduce all names to one 
system except so far as combinations have already 
been made under the international rules, both because 
a cyclopedia of horticulture is hardly the place in 
which to make original combinations (except inci- 
dentally), and because there is little likelihood that 
any of the formal systems \\ill have permanency The 
subject of nomenclature, and the attitude of the Editor, 
will be discussed under "Names and Nomenclature" 
in Vol. IV. Botanical names should not be changed 
lightly, or for the purpose of regularizing any particular 
scheme or plan, or to make them always conform to 
an arbitrary set of rules Botanical names do not be- 
long to botanists, to do with them as they will. The 
public has good rights in these names; and this is par- 
ticularly true in the names of cultivated plants, for they 
may then have standardized commercial value. The 
only stability, of course, is usage; and usage can rarely 
be forced into hard-and-fast regulations In this Cyclo- 
pedia, the interest is in stability of names rather than 
in priority of naiaes, therefore it accepts the principle of 
the "nomina conservanda" of the Vienna code, so far as 
it retains generic names that have been established in 
general usage for fifty years following their publication, 
even though the particular names in that list may not 
have been adopted in every instance. 

Not all the changes in names arise from the applica- 
tion of rules of nomenclature. Many of them are the 
results of taxonomic studies, which make new definitions 
for genera and species. In this Cyclopedia, there are 
marked examples of such changes in the citrus genera, 
in the cacti, and other groups. These changes are to 
be expected as a result of closer studies of the various 
groups, of accumulation of specimens from many 
regions, and the progressive modification of views as 
to the constitution of genera and species; they are 
expressions of a living botany. Such changes will be 
particularly demanded in horticultural plants, foJ 
most of these groups have not yet been studied with 
critical care. 




Attention is called to the fact that the names of 
genera and species in this work are marked to indicate 
the accepted pronunciation. The indications are accent 
marks placed over a vowel. The accent designates (1) 
stress, or the emphatic syllable, and (2) the length of 
the emphatic vowel. Following the American custom, 
as established by Gray and others, a grave accont (^) 
is employed to designate a long vowel, and an acute 
accent (') a short vowel 

Thus officinale is pronounced ofnci-nay-h; micro- 
cdrpus is pronounced micro-cdr-pus. It should be 
remembered that the final e terminates a separate 
syllable, as commii-ne, vulga-re, gran' -de This final e 
takes the short sound of i, as in whip 

Ordinarily in diphthongs the mark is placed over the 
second letter. Thus, in aiirea the au is meant to have 
its customary long sound, as if written awe. In eu- 
it has practically the long sound of u, as m Pseitdo- 
Quina, Pseiid-Acdcia Double vowels take their cus- 
tomary English sounds, as ee and oo. Thus, the oo in 
Hodken is to be pronounced as in hook. In most cases, 
the letters 01 (from the Greek, meaning like to) are to 
be pronounced separately if the z is the penultimate 
syllable (next to the last), it is long, as m ywccoW/es; 
if the i is the antepenultimate syllable (third from the 
end), it is short, as in rhomboi-dea In dioicus and 
monoicus, however, the 01 is a true diphthong, as in 

These pronunciations follow, in general, the common 
English method of pronouncing Latin names. However, 
many of the Latinized forms of substantive and per- 
sonal names are so unlike Latin in general construction 
that the pronunciation of them may not follow the rule 
As a matter of fact, biological nomenclature is a lan- 
guage of itself thrown into a Latin form, and it should 
not be a source of regret if it does not closely follow 
classical rules in its pronunciation of outlying or non- 
Latin names. 

It has seemed best to make an exception to strict liter- 
ary rules in the case of personal commemorative names 
in the genitive: we retain, so far as possible, the pro- 
nunciation of the original name. Thus, a plant named 
for Carey is called Ca-reyi, not Carby-i; for Sprenger, 
Spr6ng-eri, not Sprengbr-i; for Forbes, Forbs'-n, not 
Forbbs-ii. It cannot be expected that uniform consis- 
tency has been attained in this matter. It is not 
always known how the person pronounced his name; 
and many personal names do not make conformable 
Latinized words No arbitrary method of pronouncing 
personal names is likely to be satisfactory. 

It may be well to add what are understood to be 
the long and short sounds of the vowels 

as in cane d as in cone. 

as in can 6 as in con. 

as m mete. ft as in jute. 

as in met. 6 as in jut. 
as in pine. 
as in pin. 
y is often used as a vowel instead of i. 


The original spelling of generic and specific names 
is preferred; that is, the spelling used by the person 
who made the name. In some cases this original 
orthography does not conform to the etymology of 
the name, particularly if the name is made from that 
of a person Such a case is Diennlla, named for Diere- 
ville. Ideally, the name should bo spelled Dieremllea. 
but Tournefort and Linnaeus did not so spell it 

In accordance with the best authorities, the digraph 
SB is used m the words cacrulca, caerulesccns, caespitosa, 
cassia, cc is used in ccclcstis and ccelestmum. 

The type ligatures a? and & have been dropped from 
Latin-made names that have come into the vernacular. 
Thus, as a common or English name, Spiraea becomes 
spirea, Pseonia becomes peonia or peony, Brodiaea 
becomes brodiea, Crataegus becomes crategus. 


There are two groups of keys in the Cyclopedia, 
the main key, in Vol I, to leading families and genera, 
and the keys to the species in the different genera in 
all the volumes. The user of the Cyclopedia should forth- 
with familiarize the method of the keys Page 79 

To facilitate the study of the plants, the species 
have been arranged systematically or horticulturally, 
under the genus, rather than alphabetically, and in 
large or complex genera, an alphabetical index has 
been supplied for rapid reference The grouping of the 
species is founded preferably on horticultural rather 
than on botanical characters, so that the arrangement 
does not always express botanical relationships. 

The species-keys are arranged primarily to aid the 
gardener in making determinations. Every effort is 
made sharply to contrast the species rather than to 
describe them A word of explanation will facilitate 
the use of the keys The species are arranged in cotirdi- 
nate groups of various ranks, and groups of equal rank 
are marked by the same letter. Thus, group A is 
coordinate with AA and with AAA, and group B with BB 
and BBB; and the B groups are subordinate to the A 
groups, and the c groups to the B groups, and so on. 
Moreover, whenever possible, the coordinate keys 
begin with the same catchword: thus, if A begins 
"flowers," so do AA and AAA; and this catchword is 
not used for keys of other rank. As an example, refer 
to Abutilon, page 177. Look first at A, beginning 
"Lvs.," then at AA, also beginning "Lvs." Under AA 
are the cobrdmate divisions B and BB, each with 
"Foliage" for the catchword. Under B there are no 
subdivisions, but under BB there are divisions c and 
cc, each with "Fls." for a catchword. Under c there are 
no subdivisions, but cc has two codrdmate divisions, 
D, DD, each with "Blossoms" for a catchword. Again, D 
happens to have no division, but DD has the divisions 
E and EE with "Lf.-blades" as the catchword. In other 
words, if the plant in hand does not fall under A, the 
inquirer goes at once to AA. If it falls under AA, then he 
determines whether it belongs to B or to BB, and so on. 


A display of a scheme would stand as follows: 
A. Leaves, etc. 

B. Flowers, etc. 
c. Fruits, etc. 

D. Pods, etc. 
DD. Pods, etc. 

E. Seeds, etc 
BE Seeds, etc. 
cc. Fruits, etc. 
BB Flowers, etc. 
AA. Leaves, etc. 

B. Roots, etc. 

c. Flowers, etc 

D. Margins of leaves, etc. 
DD Margins of leaves, etc 
cc. Flowers, etc. 
BB. Roots, etc. 
BBB. Roots, etc. 
AAA. Leaves, etc. 

When the genus is large or the treatment is compli- 
cated, the key may be placed separately at the begin- 
ning rather than to be divided among the paragraphs; 
this allows the student to see the entire scheme or 
plan at once. See Acer, page 196 


caps capsule. 

cult cultivated, cultivation. 

diam diameter. 

E East. 

jl flower 

fls flowers. 

fld flowered (as few-fld.). 

fr fruit. 

frs fruits 

ft foot, feet. 

in inch, inches 

incl including. 

infl inflorescence (cluster). 

intro introduced. 

If leaf 

Ift leaflet. 

Ivd leaved. 

Ivs leaves. 

N North. 

Prop propagated, propagation. 

S South. 

segm., segms segment., segments. 

st stem. 

sts stems. 

sub/am subfamily. 

syn synonym. 

Trop tropics, tropical. 

var variety. 

W West. 

t reviser (of! 

00 (sign of infinity) . . . numerous, many. 


To aid the student in the verification of the work, 
and to introduce him to the literature of the various 
subjects, citations are made to the portraits of plants 
in the leading periodicals to which the American 
referrer is most likely to have access These references 
to pictures have been verified, as far as possible, both 
in the MS and in the proof A uniform and regular 
form of citation ib much to be desired, but is extremely 
difficult to secure because periodicals rarely agree in 
methods. It was decided to omit the year in most cases, 
because of the pressure for space, but the student who 
lacks access to the original volumes may usually 
ascertain the year by consulting the bibliographical 
notes below. 

An arbitrary and brief method of citation has 
been chosen. At the outset it seemed best to indicate 
whether the cited picture :s colored or not. This ac- 
counts for the two ways of citing certain publications 
containing both kinds of pictures, as The Garden, 
Revue Horticole, and Gartenflora The figures given 
below explain the method of citation, and incidentally 
give some hints as to the number of volumes to date, 
and of the number of pages or plates in one of the latest 

Standard works on the bibliography of botany 
are Pntzel's "Thesaurus" and Jackson's "Guide to 
the Literature of Botany," also, Jackson's "Catalogue 
of the Library of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew " 
Render's "Bradley Bibliography," a guide to the 
literature of the woody plants of the world, is invalu- 
able The Catalogue of the Library of the Arnold 
Arboretum, Harvard University, now being printed, 
will afford an excellent guide to the literature of botany, 
particularly as it relates to woody plants 

AF. ... The American Florist Chicago A trade 
paper founded August 15, 1885 The vol- 
umes end with July Many pictures re- 
peated m "Giig " (14 1524= vol and page ) 

A.G. . . . American Gardening New York. Represents 
14 extinct horticultural periodicals, includ- 
ing The American Garden (1888-1890) 
(20-890 vol and page) 

B The Botanist Edited by Maund No years 

on title pages Founded 1839 Eight vols , 
50 colored plates in each vol (8.400= 
vol and col plate.) Cumulative index 

B B ... Bntton & Brown An Illustrated Flora of the 
Northern U S , etc New York, 1896-98 
Ed 2 in 19U (3 5S8=vol and page of ed 
1, (rd 2) 3 vol and page of ed 2) 

B.H. ... La Belgique Horticole Ghent. 35 vols. 

B.M. . . . Curtis' Botanical Magazine. London. 
Founded 1787 The oldest current peri- 
odical devoted to garden plants The vol. 
for 1912 is vol 138 of the whole work. 
Index to first 107 vols by E. Tonka. 
London (7690 =col plate.) 

B.R. . . . Botanical Register (1815-1847) Vols 1-14 
edited by Edwards, vols 15-33 by Land- 
ley In vols 1-23 the plates are numbered 
from 1-2014 In vols 24-33 they are num- 
bered independently in each vol. There are 
688 plates in vols. 24-33. "An Appendix to 
the First Twenty-three Volumes" (bound 
separately or with the 25th vol.) contains 
an index to the first 23 vola. An index to 
vols. 24-31 maybe found in vol. 31. (1198 
col. plate. 33:70 vol. and col. plate.) 



B.T. . 

C.O. . 

Em. . . 
F. . . . 


F.C. . 

F.E. . 

F.M. . 

F.R. . 

F.S. . 


F.W. . 

G.F. . , 
GL. . . 

G.M. . , 
Gn. . . , 

Gng. . , 

Gn. M. 

G.O.H. , 

. Bulletin de la Socie'tfi dendrologique de France 
Pans. Founded 1906. One vol. each year. 
Illustrated (1907: 198 year and page.) 

, Bntton. North American trees. New York. 
1908 All American trees illustrated 

, Country Life in America. Founded Nov. 1901. 
Two volumes a year. (12: 75 vol and 
page ) 

, Cogmaiix Dictionnaire Iconographfque des 
Orchid6es Colored plates, with descriptions. 
(6=col plate ) 

, Emerson, G B Trees and Shrubs of Mas- 
sachusetts. Boston. 2 vols. 149 plates 

, The Florist London 1840-1884 (1884: 
192 year and page opp col plate ) Edi- 
tors and title pages changed many times. 
Known as the Florist, Florist's Journal 
and Florist and Pomologist. Sometimes 
improperly called British Florist. 
Floral Cabinet Knowles & Westcott. Lon- 
don 1837-1840 3 vols , 4to 

, The Florists' Exchange New York A trade 
paper, whose pictures sometimes are re- 
peated in "A G " Founded Dec 8, 1888. 
(1 1 : 1298 vol and page ) 

, Floral Magazine London Series I 1861- 
1871, 8\o Series II 1872-1881, 4to. 
(1881 450=year and col plate ) 

, Florists' Review Chicago A trade paper. 
Vol 1, Dec. 2, 1897, to May 26, 1898. Two 
vols a year (4 oGO=vol and page ) 

, FloredesSeires. Ghent (1845-1880) Incon- 
sistent in numbering, but the plate numbers 
are always found on the plate itself or on the 
page opposite Valuable but perplexing 
indexes in vols 15 and 19 23 vols. (23 : 2481 
vol and col plate ) 

. Flora and Sylva London 1903-1905 Edited 
by W Robinson 3 vols (2.24=vol and 
page opposite colored plate 2, p. 31 vol. 
and page containing black figure ) 

. The Floral World and Garden Guide Lon- 
don Edited by Shirley Hibberd 1858- 
1880 No plates until 1868 (1875.33=year 
and col. plate ) 

. Gardening, Illustrated London Founded 
March 1, 1880 Vols begin with the March 
number (10.25=vol and page ) 

. The Gardeners' Chronicle London. Series I. 
(1841-1873) is cited by year and page. 
Series II or "New Scries" (1874-1886), is 
cited thus II 26.824^=sencs, volume and 
page Series III is cited thus III 26*416. 
Two vols a year, beginning 1874 A select 
index is scattered through 1879 and 1880. 
Consult II. 12. vin (1879), and similar places 
in subsequent vols. 

. Garden and Forest New York. 1888-1897. 
(10'518=vol. and page ) 

. Garden Life London Incorporates The 
Gardening World after May 1, 1909 Cited 
only from vol 16 (16.54=vol and page ) 

. Gardeners' Magazine London Ed by 
Shirley Hibberd Founded 1860 Cited 
from vol 31 on. (42 872 vol and page ) 

. The Garden London Founded 1871 Two 
vols. a year through 1906 Since then 
one vol (56: 458=- vol. and page opp. 
sol. plate, 56, p 458 vol and page con- 
taining black figure ) An Index of the first 
20 vols was separately published Com- 
plete Index of Colored Plates to end of 1897 
in vol. 54, p 334. 

. Gardening. Chicago. Founded Sept. 15. 
1892. Vols. end Sept. 1. (7: 384 vol. and 
oage. ) 

. The Garden Magazine. Garden City, N. Y. 
Founded 1905. (7: 543 vol. and page.) 

. Gardening World. Founded 1884. Incorpora- 
ted after 1909 in Garden Life. (7: 118 vol. 
and page.) 

. Guimpel, Otto & Hayne. Abbildungen der 
f remden in Deutachland ausdauernden Hols- 
arten. Berlin, 1825. 144 ool. plates. 

G.Z. . 
HBK. . 

H.H. . 

Gt Gartenflora. Berlin. Founded 1852. (Gt. 

48:1470 vol. and col. plate. Gt. 48, p. 
670= vol. and page containing black 
figure ) 

. Die Gartenwelt. Founded 1896 The first 
year it appeared under the title "Hesdorf- 
fers Monatshefte fur Blumen- und Garten- 
freunde " (13.58=vol and col plate. 13, 
p. 58=vol and page ) 

. Guimpel, Willdenow and Hayne Abbildung 
der deutscher Holzarten. 2 vols Berlin 
1815-20 216 col. plates. 

. Illustrirte Garten-Zeitung. Founded Oct 1856. 
One col plate m each month. (4: 88=- vol. 
and coK plate.) 

. Hirnboldt, Bonpland & Kunth. Nova Genera 
et Species, etc. Paris. 1815-25 7 vols 

. Hooker, Exotic Flora. London, 1823-7. 232 
col plates 

. L' Horticulteur Francais 1st series 1851- 
1859 2nd series 1859-1872 (1853 273 = 
1st series, year and col plate II 1860381 
=2rid series, year and col plate ) 

. Hough, Handbook of Trees of the Northern 
States and Canada Lowville, N Y 1907 
All trees of the region illustrated, all parts 
of the trees, including bark represented by 
photographic reproductions 

. Hooker's Icones Plantarum London. 
Founded in 1837 Contains up to 1913 
3,000 black plates in 30 vols The plates 
with botanical descriptions in Latin 

. L'Horticulteur Univcrsel Pans 1839-1845. 
8 vols with col plates The first 6 vols 
edited by C Lemaire Vol 7 and 8 called 
Deuxifeme and Nouvelle s6ne (7. 28 =~ vol. 
and plate ) 

. Hempel and Wilhclm Baume und Straucher 
desWaldes Wien, 1889-99 3 vols GO beau- 
tiful col plates and numerous black illustra- 
tions m the text (3.45=vol and col plate, 
3, p 113=vol and page containing black 

. L'lllustration Horticole Ghent (1854-1896 ) 
(43 72== vol and col plate ) The volumes 
were numbered continuously, but there were 
6 series. Series 1 = 1854-63 Series 11 = 
1864-9 Series 111=1870-80 Series IV 
=1881-6 Series V = 1887-93 Series VI 
=1894-6 The plates \vere numbered con- 
tinuously in the 16 vols from 1 to 614 
m vols 17-33 they run from 1 to 619 in 
series V from 1 to 190 in Series VI they 
begin anew with each vol Valuable indexes 
in vols 10 and 20 Scries V in 4to, the rest 

. Icones Seiectie Horti Thenensis Bruxelles, 
1899-1909. 6 vols with 240 plates (6 220 
vol and black plate ) 

. Jardin, journal bi-mensuel d'horticulture gen- 
erale Paris Founded in 1887 (10 36 
vol and page opp col plate, 10, p 345 
=vol and page containing black figure ) 

. Journal of the College of Science, Imperial Uni- 
versity Tokyo, Japan Founded in 1886, 33 
vols up to 1913 Contains black plates and 
figures in the text of plants of E. Asia. 
(6: 3 vol. and plate) 

. Le Jardin Fleuriste Ghent 1851-1854. 
Edited by C Lemaire 4 vols with 430 
col plates and black figures in the text. 
(4.421 vol and col plate, 4, p 66=-vol 
and page containing black figure.) 

. Journal of Horticulture. London Founded 
in 1848 as The Cottage Gardener. Series 
III only is cited, beginning 1880 (III. 
39:504=senes, vol , page ) 

. Journal de la Soci6te d'horticulture de France 
Pans. Founded in 1827 as Annales et Jour- 
nal de la Societe roy d'horticulture de Paris. 
Only series IV is cited, beginning 1900 (IV 
1:209 series, vol. and page containing 
black figure.) 

H.W. . 

I.H. . 


J.F. . . 

J.H. . . 




JJEL8. . . Journal of the Horticultural Society of Lon- 
don. Founded in 1846. 9 vols. from 1846- 
55. A new series started in 1866 The earlier 
series is cited by the year, the new series by 
the volume (1846. 188=-year, page opposite 
plate, 28.394, fig. 96=vol , page opposite 
black plate or containing black figure, and 
fig in case of several figures ) 

L.B.C. . . The Botanical Cabinet Loddiges 1817- 
33. 100 plates in each vol Complete index 
inlastvol (20.2000=vol and col. plate.) 

L.D. . . . Loiseleur-Deslongscharnps, Herbier g6oral 
de 1'amateur Pans, 1816-27. 8 vols with 
574 col plates There is a second series, 
1839 -44 m 4 vols with 309 plates which is 
very rare and not quoted 

L.I. . . . Lavaliee, Arboretum Segrezianum; Icones 
seleetae Pans, 1880-5 36 black plates 
of trees and shrubs 

Lind . . . Lmdcnm Ghent Founded 1885. Folio. 
Devoted to orchids 

Lowe. . . . Beautiful Leaved Plants E J Lowe and 
Howard London 1864. (60col plate ) 

M. . . . A. B. Freeman-Mitford The Bamboo Gar- 
den London 1896 (224=page ) 

M D. ... Mitteilungen der Deutschen dendrologischen 
Gescllschaft Bonn Founded in 1892. 
(1912, p 161-=ycar and page containing 
black figure, 1910.1 year and page opp. 
col plate ) 

M D.G. . . Moller's Deutsche Gartner-Zeitung Erfurt. 
Founded IHHfl (1X97 4 25 ==y ear and page ) 

Mn .... Meohan's Monthly Gennantown, Phila- 
delphia Founded 1891 (9 192=vol and 
page opp col plate ) 

Mn N. . . Meehan The Native Flowers and Ferns of the 
United States Philadelphia 1878-80. 4 vols. 
in 2 series (II 2 J=series, vol and plate.) 

MX Michaux Histoire des arbres forestiors de 

1'Amenque aeptentrionale Paris, 181013 
3 vols with 138 plates The English trans- 
lation under the title The North American 
Sylva has 150 plates (3 4=*vol and plate ) 

N.D. . . . Nouveau Duhamci Traite. des arbres et 
arbustes Pans, 1801-19 7 vols with 488 
col plates The first edition by Duhamel du 
Monceau \vas published in 1755 and contains 
only 250 black plates, the second edition 
was edited bv several botanists and is really 
an entirely new work (7 33 =vol and plate ) 

O Orchis Beilagc zur Gartenfiora (1910 88= 

year and col plate 1910, 'p. 88=year and 
page ) 

O.K. . . . Orchid Review London Founded 1893. (18: 
169= vol and plate.) 

PG ... Popular Gardening Buffalo. 1885-90. (5:270 
vol and page ) 

P.M. . . . Paxton's Magazine of Botany. London. 1834 
49 (16 376=vol and page opposite col. 
plate ) Vol 15 has index of first 16 vols. 

R Reichenbachia Edited by Fred Sander. Lon- 
don. Founded 1886 Folio. 

R.B. . . . Revue de 1'Horticulture Beige et Etrangere. 
Ghent Founded 1875. (23:288=*vol and 
page opp col. plate ) 

R.F.G. . . Reichenbach Icones Florae Gennanicae et Hel- 
vetica? Leipzig. Founded in 1834 25 
vols. with more than 3,000 col. plates 
issued up to 1913. 

R.H. . . . Revue Hortioole. Dates from 1826, but is 
now considered to have been founded in 
1829. (1899:596 year and page opp. col. 
plate 1899, p. 596 year and page opp. 
black figure.) 

S Schneider. The Book of Choice Ferns. Lon- 
don. In 3 vols. Vol. 1, 1892. Vol. 2, 1893. 
Vol. 3, 1894. (1 390 vol. and page ) 

S.E.B. . . Sowerby, English Botany Ed. 3. London, 
1863-1902. 13 vols. with 1952 plates The 
first edition was published 1700-1814 m 36 
vols. Only the third edition is quoted. 

S.H. . . . Sexnaine Horticole. Ghent. Founded 1897. 

(3 : 548 vol and page. ) 
S.I.F. . . . Shirasawa Iconographie des essences fores- 

tieres du Japon. Tokyo. 1900-8. 2 vols, 

with 161 col. plates. (2: 73 = vol. and 

S.M. . . . Sargent. Manual of the Trees of North 

America Boston and New York, 1905. 

(810=page con taming black figure.) 
S.O.B. . . Schmidt Oesterreieh's allgememe Baumzucht. 

Wien, 1792-1822 4 vols with 240 col. 

plates. (4.237=vol and plate.) 
S.S Sargent. The Rilva of North America. 13 

vols. Vol 1, 1891 Vol 12, 1898 (12:620=- 

vol and plate, not colored ) 
S.T.S. . . . Sargent Trees and Shrubs Boston and New 

York, 1902-13 2 vols 200 black plates 

of trees and shrubs, native and foreign. 

(2:147 vol and plate ) 
8.Z Siebold & Zuccarini. Flora Japonica. Vol. 

1,1835-44 Vol 2 partly by Miquel, 1845-70. 

(2.150=vol and plate) 
V Vick's Magazine Rochester, N Y. Founded 

1878 Volt! numbered continuously through 

the 3 series Vols begin with Nov. (23 . 250 

=vol and page ) 
V.F. . . . Vilmorin & Bois Fruticetum Vilmonmanurn. 

Paris, 1904 (205=- page containing black 

figure ) 

V.O. . . . James Veitch & Sons A Manual of Orchida- 
ceous Plants, cultivated under glass in 

Great Britain London 1887-94. 
W.D.B. . . Watson, Dendrologia Bntannica London, 1825 

2 vols. with 172 col. plates (2:160 vol. and 



By common consent, the Latin name of a plant, in 
order to be considered by botanists, must first be 
regularly published by a reputable author in a rep- 
utable book or periodical As an index to this name, 
the name of its author is published with it whenever an 
accurate account of the species is given Thus, "Ber- 
bens anstata, DC." (p. 490) means that this name was 
made by De Candolle. This citation at once dis- 
tinguishes De Candolle's Berbens anstata from any 
other Berbens aru>tata, for example, from Sims' 
(p. 492). It is always possible that some other author 
may have given the same name to some other plant, 
in which case the older name must stand In some 
cases, the fact that there are two plants passing under 
one name is indicated in the citation. "Berbens sinensis, 
Hemsl, not Poir " (p. 490, nos. 10, 11) means that 
Hemsley and Poiret applied the name B. sinensis to 
different plants. B ihcifoha, Forst , is not the same as 
B.iLicifoha, Hort. (p 492, nos 27, 31); "Hort " means 
that the particular name is one in use amongst horti- 
culturists, that it is a garden name. 

The citation of authorities gives a clue to the time 
and place of publication of the species It is an index 
'to the literature of the subject. It is no part of the idea 
merely to give credit or honor to the man who made 
the name. It is held by some that the authority is an 
integral part of the name, and should always go with 
it; but common usage dictates otherwise, for the 
authority is never pronounced with the Latin words 
in common speech. The authority is a matter of iden- 
tification, not of language. 

Following are the authors moat frequently c.ted m BK. K Ut N. E. Brown, Roy.. Botanic Garden., Kw; 

this Cyclopedia: 

ADANS Michael Adanson, 1727-1806 France. 

AIT. William Alton, 1731-1793 England 

AIT f. William Townsond Alton, the son, 1766-1849. 


ALL. Carlo Alhoni, 1725-1804. Italy. 
ANDERS , T. Thomas Anderson, Director of Botanic Gar- 
den in Calcutta 

ANDB Henry C. Andrews, botanical artist and engraver, 
conducted The Botanists' Repository from 1799- 
1811, and illustrated books on heaths, geraniums and 

ANDRE Edward Andre, 1840-1911, first editor of Illustra- 
tion Horticole, later editor-m-chief of Revue Horticole. 
ANT. Franz Antoine, director of the royal gardens at 

Schdnbrunn, 1815. 

ARN. George Arnold Walker Arnott, 1799-1868. Scot- 
ASCHERS Paul Ascherson, professor of botany, Berlin. 


AUBL. J B C F. Aublet, 1720-1778 France. 
AUCT , AUTH. Authors, referring to usage by various or 

many writers. 

BACKH J. Backhous, English botanist and traveler. 
BAILL H Baillon, author of the great natural history of 

plants m French 

BAKER John Gilbert Baker, formerly keeper of the Her- 
barium of the Royal Gardens, Kew, England. 
BALT Charles Baltet, frequent contributor to Revuo 


BART William P. C Barton, 1787-1856 Pennsylvania. 
BARTR William Bartram, 1739-1823 American botartist. 
BATEM James Bateman, writer and student of orchids. 

BEAUV. Ambroise Mane Francois Joseph Palisot de 

Beauvois, 1755-1820 Franco. 
BECC O. Beccan, Italian botanist and writer on E Indian 


BECK Lewis C Beck, 1798-1853. New York. 
BEISSN. L Beissner, Inspector of the Botanic Gardens 
at Bonn, and Instructor at Poppelsdorf. Pub. "Haud- 
buch der Nadelholzkunde " 

BENTH George Bentham, 1800-1884, one of the dis- 
tinguished botanists of England, one of the authors 
of Benthain & Hooker's "Genera Plantarum " 
BENTH & HOOK. George Bentham and J. D. Hooker 

authors of "Genera Plantarum." England. 
BERQER. Ernst Berger, died 1853. Germany. 
BERNH Johann Jacob Bernharch, 1774-1850 Germany. 
BERT Carlo Guiseppe Bcrtero, 1789-1831. Died between 

Tahite and Chile. 
BIBB Friedrich August Marschall von Bierberstem, 1768- 

1826 German botanist, lived later in Russia. 
BIQEL Jacob Bigelow, 1787-1879. Massachusetts 
BLUME Karl Ludwig Blumo, born 1796 at Braunschweig, 
died 1862 at Lcyden. Wrote much on Javan plants. 
Bois. D6sire Georges Jean Marie Bois, editor of Revue 

Horticole Paris. 
Boiss Edmond Boissier, 1810-1886 Switzerland. Author 

of "Flora Onentahs" and other works. 
BOJER W Bojer, 1800-1856, author of a Flora of Mauri- 
tius Austria. 

BONPL Aim6 Bonpland. 1773-1858. France. 
BORKH. Montz Balthasar Borkhausen, 1760-1806. Ger- 

BB., R. Robert Brown, born 1773, Scotland, died 1858, 

London Author of many important works. 
BRIT. Nathaniel Lord Britton, Director of New York 

Botanical Garden, New York City. 
BRONON Adolpho Th6odore Brongmart, 1801-1876. 

BUCH.-HAM Francis Buchanan, later Lord Hamilton, 

wrote on Indian plants. 
BUCKL Samuel Botsford Buckley, 1809-1884. United 


BULL William Bull, plant merchant London. 
BULL. Pierre Bulliard, 1742-1793, author of the great 

"Herbier de la France" in 12 folio volumes, with 600 


BUNGE Alexander von Bunge, 1803-1890 Russia. 
BURM Johannes Burmann, 1706-1779, professor at 

Amsterdam, wrote on plants of Ceylon and Malabar. 
BUHM f Nickolous Laurens Burmann, 1734-1793. Son 

of Johannes 
CARR. Ehe Abel Carnere, 1816-1896, distinguished French 

botanist and horticulturist, editor of Revue Horticole. 
GASP Robert Caspary, professor of botany at University 

of Komgsberg 1818-1887 
CASS Alexandre Henri Gabriel Cassmi, Comte de 1781 

1832 France 

CAV Antonio Jose Oavamlles, 1745-1804. Spain. 
CERV Vmcentc Cervantes, 1759 (?) -1829 Spanish botanist. 
CHAM. Adalbert von Chamisso, poet and naturalist, 

1781-1838 Germany 
CHAPM Alvan Wcntworth Chapman, 1809-1899, authoi 

of "Flora of the Southern United States " 
CHOIS Jacques Denys Choisy, 1799-1859 Switzerland. 
CLOS Dominique Clos, professor of botany and director 

of the gardens at Toulouse Born 1821. 
COON Alfred Cogniaux, French botanist. 
COLEBR Henry Thomas Colebrooke, 1765-1837. England. 
COLLA Luigi Colla, 1766-1848 France 
COULTER John M Coulter, University of Chicago 
CUNN Richard Cunningham, 1793-1835 Colonial bot- 
anist in Australia 
CUNN , A. Allan Cunningham, born 1791, Scotland, died 

1839, Sidney, Australia Brother of Richard 
CURT. William Curtis, 1746 1799 England Founder 

of the Botanical Magazine, now known as Curtis' 

Botanical Magazine 

CURTIS. Moses Ashley Curtis, 1808-1873. North Car- 

DC Augustm Pyramus De Candollo, 1778-1841, projec- 
tor of the Prodromus, and head of a distinguished 

family Alphonse De Candollc, the son (1806-1893), 

and Casimir De Candolle, the grandson, are also 

quoted in this work. 

DECNE. Joseph Decaisne, 1809-1882. France. 
D DON. See Don, D. 

DESF. Ron6 Louiche Desfontames, 1750-1833. France. 
DESV. Augustm Nicaise Desvaux, 1784-1856. France. 
DEVR Willem Hendnk de Vriese, 1807-1862, professor 

of botany at Leyden Wrote on medical plants and 

plants of the Dutch East Indies. 
DICKS. James Dickson, 1738-1822, Scotch writer on 

flowerless plants 
DIELS Ludwig Diels, professor of botany, Marburg, 

DILL. Johann Jacob Dillenius, professor of botany in 

Oxford. 1687-1747. 


DIPP. Dr. L. Dippel, of Darmstadt, Germany. Den- 

drologist, pub. "Handbuch der Lauhholzkunde " 
DON. George Don, 1798-1856 England. 
DON, D. David Don, brother of George, 1800-1841. 

DONN. James Donn, 1758-1813, author of "Hortus Can- 

tabrigiensis " England. 

DOUGLAS David Douglas, 1799-1834, collector in north- 
western America Scotland 
DRUDE Prof O. Drude, of Dresden, Germany. 
DRY Jonas Dryander, 1748-1810 Sweden. 
DUCHESNE Antome Nicolas Duchesne, 1747-1827. 

DUMORT. Barthelemy Charles Dumortier, 1797-1878. 


DUNAL. Michel Felix Dunal, 1789-1856 France. 
DUNN. Stephen Troyte Dunn, Kew, England 
DYER W T Thistlcton-Dyer, Director of Kew Gar- 
dens, 1885-1905, editor of the Flora of Tropical Africa, 

EATON, A Amos Eaton, 1776-1842, author of a "Manual 
of Botany for North America," 1st ed. 1817; 8th ed. 

EATON, D C Daniel Cady Eaton, professor at Yale Col- 
lege, and writer on ferns 

EHRH. Fricdnch Ehrhart, 1742-1795 Germany. 
ELL Stephen Elliott, 1771-1830 South Carolina. 
ELLIS John Ellis, 1711- 1776 England 
ENDL Stephan Ladislaus Endhcher, 1804-1849, profes- 
sor at Vienna Numerous works 
ENOELM George Engelmann, 1M)<)-1884 Missouri. 
ENQLER Prof A. Engler, of Berlin, joint author of 
Englcr and PrantPs "Naturhrhen Pflanzenfamihen." 
ESCH Johann Friedrick Eschseholz, 1793 1831 Germany. 
FEE Antonio Laurent Apollmaire Fee, 1789-1874. 


FENZL Edward Fenzl, professor and custodian of botani- 
cal museum at Wiens, 1808-1879. 
FERN Merntt Lyndon Fernald, assistant professor of 

botany, Cambridge, Mass 
FISCH Friedrioh Ernst Ludwig von Fischer, 1782-1854. 


FORB John Forbes, catalogued heaths, willows, coni- 
fers, and other plants at Woburn Abbey 
FORBK Pehr Forskal, 1736-1768, collected in Egypt 

and Arabia 
FORST Johann Remhold Forster, 1729-1798 Germany. 

(Also Georg Forster, the son ) 
FRANCH. A Frauchet, Jardin des Plantes, Paris 1834- 

FRASER John Fraser, 1750-1811, traveled in America 

1785-96 Had a son of same name 
FROEL Joseph Aloys Froehch, 1766-1841 Germany. 
F v. M Ferdinand von Mueller, royal botanist of 
Australia, author of many works on economic plants. 
See Muell. 

GABBTN. Joseph Gaertner, 1732-1791 Germany. 
GAONEP. Francois Gagnepam, French botanist, writing 

chiefly on Asiatic plants. 

GAUD. Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupre, 1789-1864 France. 
GAWL. See Ker. 

GMEL. Samuel Gottlieb Gmelm, 1743-1774. Russia. 
GOBFP. Heinrich Robert Goeppert, 1800-1884, professor 

at Breslau. Wrote much on fossil botany. 
GOBI*. George Gordon, 1806-1879, author of the "Pine- 
turn," London, 1858. 
GRAIBN Paul Graebner, professor of botany Berlin 

GRAY. Asa Gray, 1810-1888, Harvard University, Massa- 
chusetts. America's most noted botanist 

GREENM. J. M. Greenman, writes from ILirvaid Uni- 
versity on Mexican plants. Now at the Field Museum, 

GRIFF William Griffith, 1810-1845 England. 

GRISEB , GRIS Hcmrich Rudolph August Gnsebach, 
1814-1879 Germany 

HARMS Prof Hermann Harms Berlin. 

HASSK Justus Karl Hasskarl, born 1811 Germany. 

HAYNE. Fnednch Gottlob Huyne, 1763-1832, professor 
at Berlin Medicinal plants, trees and shrubs 

HAW Adrian Hardy Haworth, 1772-1833 England 

HBK Fnedrich Alexander von Humboldt, 1796-1859. 
Germany. Aime Bonpland, 1773-1858 France Karl 
Sigismund Kunth, 1788-1850 Germany Authors of 
a great work on plants of the New World 

HEMSL. W. Bottmg Hcm&ley, Keeper at Kew, has written 
many reviews of genera of horticultural value in The 
Gardeners' Chronicle and elsewhere 

HENFR. Arthur Henfrey, 1819-1859 English botanist. 

HENRY Augustine Henry, collector of Chinese plants. 
Cambridge, England 

HENRY, L. Prof Louis Henry Writer on woody plants, 

HERB. William Herbert, 1778-1847 England. 

HOCHST Christian Fnedrioh Hochstetter, 1787-1860, 
descnbed many African plants 

HOFFM Georg Franz Hoffmann, 1761-1826 Germany. 

HOOK. William Jackson Hooker, 1785-1865. England. 

HOOK, f Joseph Dalton Hooker, the son, 1817-1911 

HORT. Hortorum, literally of the gardens Placed after 
names current among horticulturists, but not neces- 
sarily all horticulturists Often used Tvith less exact- 
ness than names of authors Frequently indicates 
garden or unknown origin Many of these plants have 
never been sufficiently described ' 

Hoar Nicolaus Thomas Host, 1761-1834 Germany. 

JACQ Nicolaus Joseph Jacqum, 1727-1817 Austria 

JAUB Hippolyte Francois de Jaubert French botanist. 
Born 1798 

Juss Antome Laurent Jussieu, 1748-1836, the first to 
introduce the natural families of plants France. 

KARSTEN Hermann G K W. Karsten German botanist, 

KARW Wilhelm Karwinsky von Karwm, collector in 
Brazil, died 1855 

KAULF. Georg Fnedrich Kaulfuss, professor at Halle, died 
1830 He described the ferns collected by Chamisso 

KBR. John Bellenden Ker, 1765 (*)-1871, botanist, wit 
and man of fashion First known as John Gawler. 
In 1793 was compelled to leave army because of sym- 
pathy with French Revolution His name was changed 
in 1804 to John Ker Bellenden, but he was known to his 
friends as Bellenden Ker First editor of Edwards' 
Botanical Register 
KER-GAWL. See Ker. 
KIRCHN G. Kirchner, writer of the botanical part of 

"Arboretum Muscaviense " 

KLATT Friednch Wilhelm Klatt, a German botanist. 
KLOTZSCH. Johann Fnedrich Klotzsch, 1805-1860, cu- 
rator of Royal herbarium at Berlin, monographer of 

KOCH. Karl Koch, 1809-1879 Germany. 
KOEHNE Emil Koehne, professor at Berlin. Pub. 
"Deutsche Dendrologie." 



KOMAB. Vlademir Leontyevitch Komarov, writer on 

plants of eastern Asia St. Petersburg. 

KOST Vmcenz Franz Kosteletzky. Bohemian botanist. 

KOTSCHY Theodor Kotschy, assistant curator at Vienna, 
1813-1866. Wrote on oriental plants. 

KRANZL F. Kranzlm, Berlin, writes on orchids in The 
Gardeners' Chronicle. 

K. Sen See Schumann. 


KUNTZB Otto Kuntze German botanist; chiefly known 
as a strong advocate of priority in nomenclature. 

LAG. Mariano Lagasca, 1776-1839, one of Spain's moat 
distinguished botanists. 

LAM Jean Baptiste Antome Pierre Monnet Lamarck, 
1744-1829, author of the Lamarckian philosophy of 
organic evolution France 

LANOS Georg Heinrich von Langsdorf, 1774-1852, Rus- 
sian consul-general in Brazil 

LAUTH Thomas Lauth, 1758-1826, professor of anatomy 
at Strassburg, wrote a 40-page monograph on Acer 
in 1781 

LECQ Henry Lecoq, born 1802, once professor at Cler- 
mont-Ferrand, wrote an elementary botany, a dic- 
tionary of botanical terms, a book on hybridization, etc. 

LECONTE John Eaton LeConte, 1784-1860 Pennsylvania. 

LEDEB Karl Fnednch von Ledebour, 1785-1851. 

LEHM Johann Georg Christian Lehmann, 1792-1860, 
professor at Hamburg, wrote several monographs, and 
described many new plants 

LEHM , F C. F C. Lehmann, German collector in 
South America 

LEIOHT. Max Leichthn, horticulturist, Baden-Baden, 

LBM Charles Lemaire, 1800-1871, works on cacti and 
botany of cultivated plants Belgium. 

LEVEILLE Augustine Abel Hector Leveill6, professor of 
botany, Le Mans, France 

L'HER C L L'Hentier de Brutelle, 1746-1800 France. 

LICHTBT. August Gerhard Gottfield Lichtenstem, 1780- 
1851 Germany 

LIND <fe ROD L Linden and E Rodigas, once adminis- 
trator and editor, respectively, of L'Ulustration Hor- 

LIND J Linden, 1817-1898 Belgium. For many years 
director of L' Illustration Horticole. 

LIND , L Lucien Linden, associated with J. Linden for 
some years on L' Illustration Horticole 

LINDL John Lmdley, 1799-1865, one of the most illus- 
trious of English horticulturists. 

LINOELSH Alexander Lingelshenn Breslau, Germany. 

LINK Heinrich Fnednch Link, 1767-1851. Germany. 

LINN Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Lmn6), 1707-1778, 
the "Father of Botany," and author of binomial 
nomenclature Sweden 

LINN, f Carl von Linn6, the son, 1741-1783. Sweden. 

LIPSKY Vladimir Ippohtovitch Lipsky, writer chiefly 
on plants from Central Asia. St. Petersburg. 

LODD Conrad Loddigos, nurseryman near London, con- 
ducted Loddiges' Botanical Cabinet from 1817-33, 
20 vols , 2,000 colored plates. 

LOBS Theodor Loesener, professor of botany, Berlin. 

LOISEL Jean Louis Auguste Loiseleur-Deslongchamps, 
1774-1849 France 

LOUD. John Claudius Loudon, 1783-1843, an extremely 
prolific English writer. 

LOUR. Juan Louraro, 1716-1796, missionary in China. 


MAKING Tomitaro Makino. Tokyo, Japan. 
MARSH. Humphrey Marshall, 1722-1801. Pennsylvania. 
MART. Karl Fnodnch Phihpp von Martius, 1794-1868, 

professor at Munich, monographer of palms, founder of 

the great Flora Brasihensis, and author of many works. 
MAST. Maxwell T. Masters, late editor of The Gardeners' 

Chronicle, wherein ho has described great numbers of 

new plants of garden value, author of "Vegetable 

Teratology," etc 1833-1907 
MATSITM Jinzo Matsumuro Tokyo, Japan 
MAXIM. Karl Johann Maximowicz, 1827-1891, one of the 

most illustrious Russian systematic botanists; wrote 

much on Asian plants 
MEDIKUS Fnednch Casmir Mechkus, 1736-1808, director 

of the garden at Mannheim, wrote a book of 96 pages 

in German on North American plants in 1792 
MEISN. Karl Friedrich Meisner, 1800-1874 Switzer- 
METT. Georg Heinnch Mettenms, 1823-1866, professor at 

Leipzig, wrote on flowerless plants 
MEY. Ernst Heinnch Friedrich Meyer, 1791-1851. 

MEY , C A Carl Anton Meyor, 1795-1855, director 

botanic garden at St. Petersburg, wrote on Russian 

MEZ. Dr Karl Mez, director of the botanic garden at 

Kdmgsberg, monographer of the bromohads 
MICHX Andr6 Michaux, 1746 1802 France, but for 

ten years a resident of North America 
MICHX f. Francois Andre Michaux, the son, 1770-1855. 

MILL Philhp Miller, 1691-1771, of Chelsea, England, 

author of a celebrated dictionary of gardening, which 

had many editions 
MIQ Fnedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel, 1811 1871. 

MITFORD. A B. Freeman-Mitford, English amateur, 

author of "The Bamboo Garden " 
MOENCH Konrad Moonch, 1744-1805 Germany 
MONCH See Moench 
MOORB Thomas Moore, 1821-1887, curator of Chelsea 

Botanic Garden, author of "Index Fihcum," and other 

well-known works. 

MOQ Alfred Moqum-Tamlon, 1N04-1803 France 
MORR Charles Jacques Edouard Morrcn, of Ghent. 


MOTT S Mottet, frequent contributor to Revue Hor- 
ticole, tianslutor of Nicholson's "Dictionary of Gar- 
dening " 
MUELL ARU Jean Mueller, of Aargau, 1828-1896, wrote 

for De Candolle's "Prodromus," vol 16 
MUELL , C Carl Mueller, 1817-1870, who edited vols. 

4-6 of Walpers' "Annuals " 
MUELL , F Ferdinand von Mueller, royal botanist at 

Melbourne, has written much on Australian and 

economic botany 1825-1896 

MUHL. Henry Ludwig Muhlenberg, 1756-1817. Penn- 

MURR. Johann Andreas Murray, 1740-1791 Germany 
MUHH., A. Andrew Murray, 1812-1878, author of "The 

Pines and Firs of Japan." London, 1863 
NAUDIN. Charles Naudin, 1815-1899, botanist, frajuent 

contributor to Revue Horticole 
N. E. BR. N. E. Brown describes many new plants in 

Gardeners' Chronicle. See Br., N E. 



NEKS. Christian Gottfried Neea von Eaenbeok, 177d- 

1858 Prussia 
NICHOLS George Nicholson, curator at Kew, author of 

"The Dictionary of Gardening." 1847-1908 
NUTT Thomas Nuttall, 1786-1859 Massachusetts. 
O'BRIEN James O'Brien, current writer on orchids in 

The Gardeners' Chronicle 
OLIV Daniel Oliver, once curator at Kew, and founder 

of the Flora of Tropical Africa 
ORPH Theodor Georg Orphamdes, professor of botany at 

Athens Died 1886. 
ORTEGA, ORT. Casimiro Gomez Ortega, 1740-1818. 


OTTO Friedrich Otto, 1782-1856 Germany. 
PALL. Peter Simon Pallas, 1741-1811, professor and 

explorer in Russia Germany. 
PAMPAN Renato Pampanim, writer on Chinese plants. 

Florence, Italy 
PAV See Ruiz & Pav 

PAX Ferdinand Pax, professor at Breslau, Germany. 
PAXT Joseph Paxton, 1802-1865 England 
PERS Christian Hendnck Persoon, 1755-1837 Germany. 
PHIL Rudolph Amandus Philippi, 1808-1904. Santiago, 

PLANCH Jules Emile Planchon, professor at Mont- 

pclhcr France 1833-1900 
POHL Johann Emmanuel Pohl, 1782-1834, professor at 

Vienna, wrote a large book on travels in Brazil 
Pom Jean Louis Mane Poire t, 1755-1834 France. 
PRAIN Sir David Pram, Director of the Royal Botanic 

Gardens, Kew, since 1905 

PRESL Karri Bomv eg Pr< si, 1794-1852 Bohemia 
PUUHH Frederick T Pursh (or Pursch), 1771-1820. 

Germany, but for twelve yeart> in vhe United States. 
RAODI Guiboppc Raddi, \77(y 1829 Italy 
RAK Constantino Samuel Rafiiu seme-Schmaltz, 1784- 

18-+2. Profesbor of Natural history, Transylvania 

University Lexington, Kentucky 
R Bit Robert Blown born 1773, Scotland, died 1858, 

London Author of many impoitant works 
RbuKL Eduaid von Regel, 1H15-1892, German, founder 

of Gaitfnflora, Director Botanic Garden at St Peters- 

REHD Alfred Rehdcr, Arnold Arboretum, Massachu- 
REICHB Hcinnch Gottlieb Ludwig Reichenbach, 1793- 

1879 Germany 

REICHB f Ilomnch Gustav, 1823-1889, son of the pre- 
ceding Orchids 

RICH John Ru hardson, 1787-1865. Scotland. 
RKHAUD Louis Claude Mane Richard, 1754-1821. 

RIDDELL John Leonard Riddell, 1807-1865, professor of 

chemistry in Cincinnati and New Orleans 
ROB. B L Robinson, Director Gray Herbarium of Harvard 

University is editing "The Synoptical Floru of North 

America " 
ROD Emile Rodigas, for some years connected with 

L' Illustration Horticole. 
RODR. J. B Rodrigues, Brazilian botanist, writer on 

palms and Brazilian botany 
ROEM. Johann Jacob Roemer, 1763-1819. Switzerland 

Also M J Roemer 

ROSCOE William Roscoe, 1753-1831 England 
ROSE J. N Rose, assistant curator, United States 

National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution. Mexi- 
can plants. 

ROTH. Albrecht Wilhelm Roth, 1757-1834. Physician at 

Vegesack, near Bremen. 

ROXBO. William Roxburg, 1759-1815 India 
ROYLE John Forbes Royle, born 1800, at Cawnpore, 

died 1858 London. Professor in London. Plants of 

Ruiz & PAV Hipohto Ruiz Lopez, 1764-1815, and Jose 

Pavon, authors of a Flora of Peru and Chile. Spain 
RUPR Franz J Ruprccht, 1814 -1870 Russia 
RYDB Per Axel Rydberg New York Botanical Garden. 
8. <fe Z. Sec Sieb & Zucc 
SABINE Joseph Sabme, 1770-1837 England 
SAFFORD W. E Safford, United States Department of 

Agriculture, Washington 

SALISB Richard Anthony Salisbury, 1761-1829 England. 
SALM-DYOK Joseph, Prince and High Count Salm- 

Reifferscheidt-Dyck, born at Dyck, 1773, died 1861. 

Wrote on Aloe, Cactus, Mesembryanthemum 
SAKO Charles Sprague Sargent, Director Arnold Arbo- 
retum, author of "Silva of North America " 
SAV L Savatier, writer on Japanese plants 
SAVI Gaetano Savi, died 1841 Italy 
SCHEIDW. Michael Joseph Scheidweiler, 1799-1861, profes- 
sor of botany and horticulture at Horticultural Insti- 
tute of Ghent 

St-HK Christian Schkuhr, died 1811 Germany 
SCHLECHT Diedrich Franz Leonhard von Schlechten 

dahl, 1794-1866. Professor at Halle, wrote several 

memoirs in Latin and German 
SCHNEID Camillo Schneider, author of "Handbuch der 

Laubholzkunde " Vienna 
SCHOTT Hcmneh Wilhelm Schott, 1794-1865 Wrote 

much on aroids with Nyman and JCot-schy 
SCHRAD. Hemrich Adolph Schrader, 1767-1836 Germany. 
SCHULT Joseph August Schultes, 1773-1831 Germany 
SCHUM Christian Friednch Schumacher, 1757-1830 

SCHUMANN Karl Montz Schumann, 1851-1904, professor 

of botany, Berlin Wrote much on Cactacea? 
SCHUR Phihpp Johann Ferdinand Schur, 1785-1848 

Scuw , SCHWEIN Lewis David von Schweimtz, 1780- 

1834 Pennsylvania 

SCHWEINF. George Sthwemfurth Germany Born 1836. 
SCHWER. Graf Fritz von Schwerm, German authority on 


SCOP Johann Anton Scopoli, 1723- 1788 Italy 
SEEM Berthold Seemann, Hanover, 182.5-1872 Wrote 

on palms, and botany of the voyage of the Herald 
SIBTH. John Sibthorp, 1758 1796, author of a Flora of 

Greece England 
SIEB. & Zucc Phihpp Franz von Siebold, 1796-1866, and 

Joseph Gerhard Zuccarmi, 1797-1848 Germany 
SIMS John Sims, 1792-1838 England, for many years 

editor of Curtis' Botanic al Magazine 

SMALL. John Kunkel Small. New York Botanical Garden. 
SMITH. James Edward Smith, 1759-1828 England. 
SOLAND Daniel Solander, 1736-1782 England 
SPACH. Eduard Spach, born 1801 Strassburg, died 1879. 

Author of "Histoire Naturelle des Vegetaux." 
SPAETH. L Spaeth, Berlin, nurseryman, died 1913. H. L. 

Spaeth, the present head of the firm 
SPRENO. Kurt Sprengel, 1766-1833 Germany. 
STEUD. Ernst Gottlieb Steudel, 1783-1856. Germany. 
STEV. Christian Steven, 1781-1863. Russia. 
ST. HIL. Auguste de Saint Hilaire, 1779-1853. France. 
SWA.BTZ. Olof Swartz, 1760-1818. Sweden. 



SWEET. Robert Sweet, 1783-1835, author of many well- 
known works, as "Geramacese," "British Flower Gar- 
den " 

SWINGLE Walter T Swingle, United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington 

TAUSCH Ignaz Friedrich Tausch Died 1848. Austria. 

TENORE. Michelo Tenore, 1780-1861 Italy. 

THORE Jean Thore, 1702-1823, physician at Dax. 

THUNB. Carl Peter Thunberg, 1743-1822, wroto "Flora 
Japonica" (1784) Sweden. 

TOD. Augustmo Todaio, director of the botanic gardens 
at Palermo 1818-1892 

TORK John Torrey, 1796-1873 New York 

THAUTV Ernst Rudolph von Trautvctter. 

TREL William Trelease, professor of botany, Univer- 
sity of Illinois 

TUCKM Edward Tuckerman, 1817-1886 Massachusetts. 

TURCZ Nicolaus Turczamnow Died 1864. 

UNDERW Prof Lucien M Underwood, Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York, N. Y , has written much on ferns, 

URBAN Ignatius Urban, of the Kongl Bot. Garten, near 
Berlin, writer on Brazilian and West Indian plants. 

VAHL. Martin Vahl, 1749-1804 Denmark 

VAN HOUTTE. Louis Van Houttc, 1810-1876, founder 
and publisher of Flore des Serres. 

VEITCH John Gould Veitch, 1839-1867, and successors, 
horticulturists at Chelsea, England. 

VENT Etienne Pierre Ventenat, 1757-1808 France. 

VERL B Verlot, contributoi to Revue Horticole 

VERSCH Ainbroise Verschaffelt, 1825-1886, founder and 
publisher of L'lllustratioii Horticole at Ghent, Belgium. 

VILL Dominique Villars, 1715-1814 France 

VILM Several generations of the family of Vilmonn, 
Paris, seedsmen and authors of many books and 
memoirs on botany and horticulture Pierre Philippe 
Andre Leveque de Vilmonn, 1740-1804 Pierre Vil- 
monn, 1810-1860 Henry L de Vilmonn, died 1899 

Voss. A. Voss, author of botanical part of VUmorin's 


WAHL Georg Wahlenberg, 1781-1851. Sweden. 
WALDST. Franz Adam, Graf von Waldstem, 1759-1823. 

WALL. Nathanael Walhch, born 1786, Copenhagen, died 

1854 London Wrote on plants of India and Asia. 
WALP Wilhelm Gerhard Walpers, 1816-1853. 
WALT. Thomas Walter, about 1740-1788, author of 

"Flora Carolmiana " South Carolina 
WAKO. Friedrieh Adam Julius von Wangenheim, 1747 

1800. Germany 
WANON. Walter Wangerm, monographer of Cornace. 


WARBCZ Joseph Warsccwicz, 1812-1866 
WATS. Sereno Watson, 1826-1892 Harvard University. 
WEB Fnediieh Weber, 1781-1823 Germany 
WEDD H A World* 11, wrote for De Candolle's "Pro- 

dromus," vol 16, etc 
WELW. Fnedrich \V ehvitsch, 1806-1872. 
WENDL. Hermann Wendland, Director Royal Botanic 

Garden at Herrenhausen, one of the chief writers on 

WIGHT. Robert Wight, writer on Indian plants. 1796- 


WILLD. Karl Ludwig Willdenow, 1765-1812 Germany 
WILSON. Ernest II Wilson, collector of Chinese plants. 
WITH, WITHER. William Withering, 1741-1799 Eng- 
WITTM. Max Karl Ludwig Wittmack, editor of Gar- 

tenflora. Professor at Berlin. 
WOOD. Alphonso Wood, 1810-1881 Of his "Class-Book 

of Botany," 100,000 copies have been sold m 

ZABEL Hermann Zabel, wrter on woody plants, 1832- 

1912. Germany 
Zucc Joseph Gerhard Zuccarmi, 1797-1848, professo* 

at Munich. 

The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture 



Most modern botanists, as well as zoologists, now think that organisms have descended, through the ages. 
from ancestors which differed in many ways and often markedly from the present organisms, out were in general 
of a less specialized type It is, indeed, thought that the original life was of an exceedingly simple nature, and that 
during the countless ages its descendants have gradually diverged from one another much as the branches of a tree 
diverge from its trunk, until we have the enormous wealth of species and extreme diversity, and great complexity 
of structure exhibited by the plants and animals existing today Just as through descent in the human race we 
have groups of individuals called families, the members of which are more closely related to each other by descent 
than to other individuals, so we have groups of related species and genera forming similar natural families The 
attempt of the so-called systematic botanist of the present day is to interpret the evolutionary history of plants, 
to discover these natural families, and to represent this knowledge of history and relationship in a synopsis of the 
plant kingdom Such a synopsis, therefore, attempts to show an actual "blood relationship, the real genealogy 
of the plant kingdom Before the theory of evolution became widely accepted as a result of Darwin's labors, 
systems of classification were either wholly arbitrary, and planned simply for convenience in dealing with the vast 
number of existing organisms (eg, the sexual system of Linnaeus), or they were based on the morphological 
relation of the flower to a certain floral plan Since, however, the floral plan depends largely on descent, these last- 
named systems often accidentally approached in many respects very closely to the natural svstems based on 
evolution instead of placing the "highest" tvpes of plants (the most recent) last in their classification, as is now 
done, the idealists placed them first, hence the Kanunculace.r, with parts separate and hjpogynoUH, and there- 
fore most ideal, is found first in such a classification The fusion of parts in the Composite, and (he union of parts 
in the Gamopetahr were thought to represent a less perfect condition Likewise, the Apetahe, with parts lacking, 
were still less peifeet, and therefore were placed later The Gjmnosperms were somewha* arbitrarily placed next, 
followed by the Monocotyledons, in which the grasses were placed last. These m turn were followed rjy the fernfe 
and the lower groups This was the system used in Bentham and Hooker's "Genera Plantarum," a great work 
which, notwithstanding the change in s>stera, is still a standaid authority in descriptive botany 

In the system adopted for the present synopsis, that used by Engler and Prantl in the gieat German work, 
"Die Naturlichen Pflaiuenfamihen, the sequence is from the most primitive and the most ancient toward the most 
specialized and most modern, from the lower alga; to the fungi, mosses, liverworts, ferns,. g> rnnospcrms, and 
flowering plants Here the Monoeotyledonous line culminates in the highly specialized Orchidacese, and the 
Dicotyledonous line in the equally specialized Composite These two families, therefore, are now thought to repre- 
sent the present culmination of nature's handiwork in the two great lines of development in flowering plants. 

In the present synopsis of the Ptendophvta and Spermatophyta, the treatment of large groups, sequence 
of families arid family limits, is, except in a few cases, that of our most recent great work edited by Engler and 
cited above Among the mosses and lower plants, an abridgment of the system used in Strasburger, Noll, Schenk 
and Karsten's "Text-Book of Botany," and other text-books, has been used The statistics as to genera 
and species are taken from Engler and Prantl, and aie intended as general information, and may not in all cases 
conform to the limitations as worked out by the difteient authors in the Cyclopedia In some cases, particularly 
in Cactacea?, other authorities have been followed 

As no genera of the Thallophyta or Bijophvta are definitely treated in the body of the Cyclopedia, these two 
roups have been introduced into the synopsis largely as a background and as a proper perspective to the plant 
ingdom Therefore, in these groups no divisions smaller than classes have been considered In the Ptendophyta 
and Spermatophyta, the plan has been to include in the synopsis every familv that has at least one genus repre- 
sented in the body of the original Cyclopedia A few other families of minor horticultural value have found 
place in the present Cyclopedia and are not included in this synopsis Although the ti eat merit in each case has 
been of necessity reduced to great brevity, it is hoped that the condensed account of important structural char- 
acteristics, size of family, range, and economic value w ill be of aid in forming a conception of what each family 
represents To render this conception more \ivul, a list of the important cultivated genera and their common 
names has been appended to the treatment of each familj 

The number of species in the plant kingdom is not definitely known. It has been estimated that more than 
120,000 species of Spermatophvta and more than 60,000 species of lower plants are described According to the 
treatment in Engler and Prantl, these legions are classified in 640 families, of which 278 are of the higher plants 
and 362 of plants below the Spermatophyta The number of known species, however, is being rapidly increased 
as research and exploration progress, so that the numbers given above are at best only approximate. The fig- 
ures are also modified by disagreement as to what are species and what are varieties, some persons recognizing 
more or fewer species than others in a given genus or group 

The names of the natural families are mostly derived from the names of a leading genus (as Verbenacex. 
Ranunculacex) or from some marked characteristic of the group as a whole (e g , Composite, composite or com- 
pound flowers, Cruciferse, cross-like flowers). Commonly the family name terminates in the form acex, with 
the accent long on the antepenultimate syllable (e g , Rosacex, pronounced Ro-say-si-ee) . The simple termina- 
tion se is used mostly for subfamilies and tribes, but there are marked exceptions, as in Leguminos<f 

The illustrations accompanying this text are designed to show mainly such structural characteristics as are 
of importance in the separation of families For this reason, floral diagrams have been freely introduced These 

1 (1) 




diagrams are idealized cross-sections of the flower, and show particularly the number of parts in each floral set and 
their exact position, both of which are very frequently of diagnostic importance The illustrations have been 
prepared by F. Schuyler Mathews under the direction of the writer. They were in part drawn from life, and 
m part adapted from standard texts The most frequent * urces are Baillon, "Natural History of Plants": 
Engler and Prantl, "Die Naturhchen Pflanzenfamilien; 5 ' Sirs urger, Noll, Schenk and Karsten, 'Text-Book of 
Botany"; Warming, "Systematic Botany." 
The following is an outline of the vegetable kingdom as tre xi in the succeeding pages: 

Division I. Thallophyta. 
Class I 'Bacteria 

II. Cyanophyceae. 

III. Flagellata. 

IV. Myxomycetes. 
V. Pendmeaj. 

VI. Conjugatae. 
VII Diatomeaj. 
VIII. Heterocontae. 
IX Chlorophyceae. 
X. Characeae. 
XI. Phaeophycese. 
XII Rhodophyceae. 

XIII. Phycoinycetea. 

XIV. Eumycetes. 
XV Lichenes 

Division II. Bryophyta. 
Class I Hepatic. 

II Musci 

Division III Ptendophyta. 
Class I Fihcmse 

Sub-class I Eusporangiatae. 
Order 1 Ophioglossales. 

Family Ophioglossacesc, page 7. 
Order 2 Marattiales, 

Family Marat tiacese, 7 
Sub-class II Lcptosporangiatse. 
Order 3 Filicales 
Family Hymenophyllaceae, 8. 
Cyatheacese, 8 
Polypodiaceae, 8 
Ceratoptendaceae, 8. 
Schizoeaceae, 9 
Glcichemacese, 9 
OsmundacesD, 9 
Order 4 Hydroptendales. 
Family Marsileacesp, 9 
Salvimaccso, 10. 
Class II Equisetinae 

Order 5 Kquisetales 

Family Equisetaceae, 10 
Class III. Lycopodinse 

Order 6 Lycopodiales 

Family Lyoopodiaeeac, 10. 
Order 7 Solagmellalos 

Family Selagmellaoese, 10 
Division IV Spermatophyta or Siphonogamia (Pha- 


Sub-division I GymnospermaB. 
Order 8 Cycadales 

Family Cycadacese, 11. 
Order 9 Ginkgoalos 

Family Ginkgoacese, 11. 
Order 10. Comferales. 
Family Taxaceae, XI. 
Pmacejfi, 12. 
Order 11 Gnetales. 

Family Gnetaceae, 12. 
Sub-division II Angiospermae. 
Class I MonocotyledonesB 
Order 12 Pandanales 
Family Typhaceae, 13. 

Pandanacese, 13. 
Order 13. Helobiae 
Family Naiadacese, 13. 

Aponogetonacese, 13. 

Family Ah'smaceae, page 13. 
Butomacece, 14. 
Hydrochantacese, 14. 
Order 14. Glumiflorae. \S* 
Family Gramme, 14 
Cyperaccse, 15. 
Order 15 Pnncipes >< ./' 

Family Palmaooac, 16. 
Ordor 16 Synanthce. 

Family Cyclanthaceae, 17. 
Order 17 Spathiflor{e <VipX X" 
Family Araoesr, 17 

Tx^mnaceaj, 18. 
Order 18 Farmosaj 

Family Brornt^liaoese, 18. 

Commehnacese, 18. 
Pontodormceaj, 18, 
Order 19 Lihflonr 

Family Juncacetfi, 19 ~ 

Lihaceae, \^\^ ^ 
Amaryllidaoeffi, 20. 
Tacoacotp, 20 
Diosconaceae, 20. 
Lndaoeae, 21 /* 
Order 20 Scitammeee ^ 
Family Musacesp, 21 

Zmgiberaccse, 21. 
Cannace;e, 22 
Marantaeoir, 22 
Order 21 Microspormap /" 

Family Orchidaceae, 22 Y 
Class II Dicotyledonese 
Sub-clavss I Archichlamydeae (Choripetal and 

Order 22 Verticillales 

Family Casuarinacea?, 23 
Order 23 Pipcralcs 

Family Saururaceae, 23. 
Piporacoae, 23 
Chloranthacea3, 24. 
Order 24 Sahcales 

Family Sahcaceae, 24 
Order 25 Mynoales 

Family Myncacoie, 24. 
Order 26 Juglandales 

Family Juglandace85, 25. 
Order 27 Fagalos 

Family Botulaceae, 25. 

Fagaceas, 25. 
Order 28 Urticalos 

Family Ulmaceae, 25. S~ 
Moraceas, 26. v^ 
Urticacesc, 26. 
Order 29 Proteales. 

Family Proteaceifi, 27. 
Order 30 Santalales \/^ 

Family Loranthaceae, 27. ^^^ 
Santalace33, 27 
Olacacese, 27. 
Order 31 Anstolochiales 

Family Anstolochiaceae, 28 
Order 32 Polygonales. 

Family Polygonacese, 28 
Order 33 Centrospermae. 
Family Chenopodiaceae. 29X* 
Amarantaceae, 29 / 
Nyctagmaceac, 29 ^ 
Phytotaccaceae, 30 


Family Aizoaceee, page 30. 
Portulacaceae, 30. 

Basellacese, 30. 
Caryophyllacese, 31. 
Order 34 Ranales. / 

Family Nymphaeaceae, 31. 

Trochodendraceae, 32. 
Rauunculaceae, 32. 

Lardizabalaceac, 33. 
Berberidacete, 33 

Menispermaceae, SS./^ 

Magnohaceae, 33 ^^ 

Calycanthaceee, 34... 

Annonaceae, 34 ^-^^ 

Mynstieaceae, 35. 

Mommiaccae, 35. 

Lauraceae, 35 

Order 3^ Hho?adales .X 

Family Papaveraceae, 35. ^^ 

Fumariaoea*, 36. ^ 

Crucifera?, 36 \*s s 

Cappandacea3, 36. ^^ 

Rosedaceas, 37 

Monngaeese, 37. 
Order 36 Sarracemales. 
Family Sarraceniaceae, 37. 

Nepenthaceas, 38. 

Droseracese, 38. 
Order 37 Resales 

Family Crassulacece, 38. 

Cephalotaceae, 38. 

Saxifragaceac, 39. 

Pittosporaceie, 39. 

CunomaceiE, 39 

Brumaceo?, 39 

TJamamehdaceae, 40. 

Platanaceie, 40. 

Rosacece, 40. .^ 

Legummosas, 41. ^^ 
Order 38 Geramales. 
Family Geramacea?, 42. 

Oxahdaceaj, 43. 

Tropaeolaceae, 43. 

Lmaceae, 43 

Erythroxylaceae, 44. 

Zygophyllacese., 44 > x' 

Rutaceffi, 44. - -^ 

Simarubacese, 44. 

Burseraceas, 45. ^^ 

Meliacese, 45 ^ 

Malpighiaceae, 45. 

Tremandraceas, 46. 

Polvgalaceae, 46. ^ 

Euphorbiaceae, 46. ^^ 
Order 39 Sapindales 
Family Buxacea?, 47. 

Empetraceae, 47. 

Conanacece, 47. 

Limnanthaceae, 48. ., 

Anacardiacese, 48. '^^ 

Cynllaeea3, 48 

Aquifohaceae, 48. 

Celastraceae, 49. 

Stackhousiacese. 49. 

Staphyleace, 49. 

Aceraceae, 49 

Hippocastanaceae, 50. 

Sapmdaceae, 50 

Melianthaceaa, 50. 

Balsammaceas, 50. 
Order 40 Rhamnales 
Family Rhamnaceas, 51. 

Vitaceae, 51. 
Order 41 Malvales. 

Family Elaeocarpaceae, 51. 

Tihace, 52. \^^ 

Family Malvaceae, page 52 
Boxnbacaceie, 53. 
Stercuhacese, 53. \* 
Order 42 Parietales 

Family Dillemaceae, 53. 
Ochnaceae, 53. 
Ternstrcemiaceffl, 54. 
Guttiferae, 54 
Hyponcacese, 54 
Tamancace, 55 
Fouquienaceae, 55. 
Cistaceac, 55. 
Bixaooae, 55 
Violacoae, 56 
Flacourtiacejfi, 56. 
Staohyuraceae, 56. 
Pafisifloraeeae, 56. 
Carirarogp. 57 
Loasaooir, 57 
Begomaeeae, 57. 
Order 43 Opuntiales 

Family Cactacea 1 , 57. 
Order 44 Mvrtiflora? 

Family Thymcliracece, 58. 
Ela'ugnaceae, 59. 
Lythracey?, 59 
Pumcaceap, 59 
Lecythidaceic, 59 
Rhizophoracese, 59. ^* 
Combret aeese, 60. ^^. 
Myrtacea?, 60 ^^^"^ 
Molastomacea 1 , 60. 
Onagracojp, 61 
Hydroeai>ac<\r, 61. 
Halor;xgi(lacca% 61. 
Order 45 UinbclUfloia> 

Family Arahaoea 1 , f>2 ^*~ 

Umbolhfoi.T, 62.^^^^ 
Cornacouc, 63 

Sub-class II MctachlamydoaeorSympetalflB. 
Order 16 Eriralos 

Family Clothracea?, 63. 
Pyrolarea 1 , 63 
Monotropaceac, 63. 
Encacejje, 64 
Epacridacesr, 64 
Diapensiaceas, 64 
Order 47 Prim u lales 
Family Myrsmaeese, 64 
Primulaeea?, 64 
Phimbagmaceae, 65. 
Order 48 Ebenales ^ 

Family Sapotaccac, 65 ^^"^ 
Ebenaceae, 65 
Styracacese, 66 
Syrnplocaceae, 66. 
Order 49 Contorts? ^*~ 

Family Oleacetr, 66 ^^ 
Loganiaceac, 67. 
Gentianaceae, 67. 
Apocynaceaa, 67 
Asclepiadaceae, 67.^ 
Order 50 Tubiflora- 

Family Convolvulaceae, 68. 
Polemomaceas, 68 
Hydrophyllaceae, 68. 
Boragmaceae, 69. 
Verbenaceae, 69. 
Labiatas, 70 v. 
Nolanaceae, 70. 
Solanaceae, 70 ' 
Scrophulanacese, 71. 
Bignomacese, 71 \^~ 
PedahaceiE, 72 
Martymaceffi, 72. 
GeenenaccsB. 72. 


Family Lentibulanacese, page 73. 

Globulariace, 73. 

Acanthaceae, 73. v^x-""^ 

Myoporaceae, 74. 

Phrymaceae, 74. 
Order 51. Plant agmales. 

Family Plantagmaceee. ^ 
Order 52 Rubialea ^^X^ 

Family Rubiace<fi, 74 ^"^ 

Caprifohaoeae, 74. 

Valenanaceie, 75 

Dipsacaceae, 75 / 

Order 53. Campanulales / 

Family Cucurbitaceae, 75 v 

Campanulacejp, 76 ^ 

Composite, 7C 


Plants characterized rather indefinitely by the absence 
of an archegomum around the egg, and the absence of 
the type of a-ntheridium found among the highei plants 
The plant body is rarely differentiated into organs 
simulating stem and leaves, and no true vascular 
tissue is found in the group Formeil^ the Thallophyta 
were divided into the Algjp, Fungi, and Lichens, but 
this, though a good classification on physiological 
grounds, docs not indicate actual relationship so well 
as the modern division into fifteen classes founded on 
structure, as follows 


Unicellular or filamentous organisms without green 
color, possibly "degenerated" from the Cyanophyce.T, 
with no true nucleus, the cell-wall often gelatinous repro- 
duction wholly asexual by division into two equal. por- 
tions and subsequent separation (fission), or by asexual 
spores, one of which may be produced in each cell Bac- 
teria are probably the smallest known organisms, some 
being not over .00003 inch in diameter In form, the 
cells are either oblong, spherical or spiral, and may be 
separate or united in groups or chains, and may be either 
motile by means of cilia or non-motile Bacteria, while 
showing little structural diversity, have become highly 
specialized physiologically, and it is on this basis that 
the species are usually distinguished Many cause disease 
among animals and human beings, while others cause 
disease among plants. Nitrifying bacteria in the soil are 
of vital importance to higher plants Bacteria and fungi 
are the causes of decay 

CLASS II CYANOPHYCE.E (Blur-green Algre) 

Unicellular or filamentous algae of blue-green color; 
true nuclei wanting cell-wall often gelatinous 
reproduction wholly asexual by fission or by asexual 
spores borne as in the bacteria The blue-green alga? 
inhabit water, damp soil, damp rocks, or damp) tree 
trunks, where they often form filamentous or gelatinous, 
dark green patches The aquatic forms prefer water 
containing much organic matter and hence are abun- 
dant in sewers. Certain species inhabit flower-pots in 
greenhouses, and brick walls 


Simple unicellular aquatic organisms intermediate 
between the Thallophyta and Protozoa During a por- 
tion of their life they possess no cell-wall, and often show 
amoeboid movements The cells contain a nucleus, 
pulsating vacuole, and chlorophyll; and one or more 
cilia are present Some reduced forms are colorless 
and saprophytic Reproduction is wholly asexual by 
fission and thick-walled resting spores Found in 
waters of ponds and streams. 


A very distinct and independent group, formerly 
often classified in the animal kindgom. The plants 
consist of naked masses of protoplasm called plasmodia, 
which contain many nuclei but no chlorophyll These are 
found in forests and damp, shady places When ready 
to fruit, the plasmodia move toward the light and away 
from the water, hence ascend grass stems, stumps and 
logs, where they transform into elaborately constructed 
sporangia The asexual spores, each enclosed by a cell- 
wall, are distnbuted by the wind, germinate, produce 
a ciliated bit of naked protoplasm which swims in the 
soil moisture, multiply by division and at length fuse 
with neighboring protoplasts to form the plasmodmm, 
which latter may be sometimes a foot in breadth Dur- 
ing unfa voi able weather, the plasmodia are often trans- 
formed into sclerotia Plasmodiophora bra^sicj?, which 
is the cause of the club-root of cabbage, is the only 
Myxomyeete of great economic importance 


A small group mostly inhabiting the sea, more rarely 
fresh water They are unicellular, free-swimming 
organisms with nucleus, vacuole, chromatophores, ana 
cilia The cell is usually surrounded by a cellulose, 
sculptured, or pitted and transversely furrowed, wall. 
Reproduction is by cell-division and swarm-spores 
Sexual reproduction has recently been discovered 
The Peiidmrtp often form an important part of the 
plankton in the sea 


Green filamentous or unicellular fresh-water alg: 
cell-wall and nuclei present . reproduction by division 
of the plant body, and bv sexual spores, which latter 
result from the union of two body cells by means of a 
connecting tube (conjugation) Plants of the sub-group 
Desmidiaceic are not filamentous, but often btar- 
shapcd, lunate, or geminate in outline The Zygne- 
macese are filamentous with star-shaped (Zygnema), 
spiral (Spirogyra), or plate-like chloroplastids The 
Conjugate are of little economic importance 


Unicellular alga? of very peculiar and interesting 
habit The wall consists of two sihcious valves, one of 
which fits over the other like the lid of a box These 
valves arc frequently very beautifully sculptured 
Through division, new cells and new walls are formed, 
which are always smaller than before, until finally as a 
limit a sexual spore is produced which reestablishes the 
si/e of the cell Diatoms inhabit stagnant water, wet 
rocks, and the sea They are either free-floating or 
pedicclled and attached The sihcious walls will resist 
burning Diatoms contain little, if any, chlorophyll, 
arid are mostly saprophytic A large part of the oceanic 
plankton is composed of Diatoms 


A small group of green algae, inhabiting wet soil or 
water, but of little, if any, economic importance The 
/oospores have unequal cilia, and the chloroplastids 
are yellowish green and oil-producing Asexual resting 
spores also occur Conjugating zoospore-hke gametes 
are found in some genera Botrydmm and Confervt 
are examples of this class 


A large and important group of fresh-water, or rarely 
marine, algae Plant body unicellular, filamentous, or 
even thalloid the cells contain chloroplastids and pro- 
duce starch reproduction sometimes vegetative, but 
also by asexual zoospores; sexual reproduction con- 


eists of the the fusion of two zodspore-like gametes, or 
the fusion of one such gamete and a specialized non- 
motile egg The latter condition is characteristic of 
the higher forms in nearly all the sub-groups of the 
Chlorophyceae The plant body in the Order Siphonales 
is peculiar in that it consists of a continuous tube with- 
out cross-walls. Some common genera in this class are 
Volvox, Chlamydomonas, Pandorma, Protococcus, 
Pediastrum, Scenedesmus, Ilydrodictyon (Water-net), 
Ulothrix, Ulva (Sea-lettuce), (Edogomum, Cladophora, 
Caulerpa, and Vauchena 

CLASS X. CHARACE^ (Stoneworts) 

Attached plants (I inch to 1 yard in length) of fresh 
or brackish water, consisting of a slender htorn, which 
bears at each node a whorl of branches, usually again 
bearing whorled branchlets The mternodes consist of 
one immense multmucleated cell often as much as 
3 inches long, which is naked or inclosed in a sheath 
of smaller cells The branches are similarly constructed 
though the cells are correspondingly smaller Asexual 
spore-reproduction is absent Sexual reproduction is 
by means of an egg-cell inclosed in a jacket of spiral 
wall-cells, and of sperm-cells inclosed in an antheridmm 
which has a multicellular wall These sexual organs 
are borne at the nodes of the branchlets The fertilized 
egg and its investment becomes a thick-walled resting 
structure Many species of Chara and Nitella, the 
only two genera, have the power to deposit lime from 
solution, and thus become mcrusted with that substance, 
hence the popular name In this way the Characea) 
have played a part in the filling up of calcareous lakes 
and the production of new land They are mostly in- 
habitants of calcareous waters 


A large group of salt-water algse, \vell known in all 
waters of the globe but most abundant m the colder 
regions Plant body attached, usually thalloid and 
branched, but very diverse, in some cases filamentous, 
in others disk-shaped or globular The larger forms of 
Laminana are sometimes 200 feet long The chroma- 
tophores of the Phaeophyeeie contain a brown pigment 
which gives to these plants a brown or yellowish color 
instead of green The thallus is often very tough and 
cartilaginous, to resist the waves Zoospores are often 
produced In sexual reproduction, the j^amctes are 
either similar and motile, rarely non-motile, or more 
often the sperm is motile while the egg is much larger 
and non-motile Details of structure in respect to 
reproduction, however, are very great 

The thallus of various species of Pha^ophyceac yields 
iodine and soda Some species (e g , Laminana sac- 
channa) yield mannitc and are used m the Orient for 
food. The dried stalks of L. digitata and L. Clou^oni 
have been used m surgery. Fucus and other genera 
are used as manure. 

One species, Sargassum bacciferum, has accumulated 
in great quantities in the Atlantic Ocean between the 
Bermuda Islands and the Spanish coast, in the so-called 
"Sargasso Sea " 


Mostly marine algaj, a few only inhabiting fresh 
water, widely distributed, but most abundant in the 
tropics and temperate region at lower depths. The 
thallus is very diverse, filamentous, branched, often 
thalloid, attached by holdfasts, and red, violet, or 
purple in color, rarely green. True starch is not found 
Asexual spore-reproduction is frequent These spores 
are non-motile and produced m fours (tetraspores). 
Sexual reproduction is by dissimilar gametes, the 
anthendium becoming without change a single non- 
motile sperm-cell. The egg-cell is prolonged upward 
into a Blender tube (trichogyne). The fertilized egg 

by division gives rise to a globular mass of short fila- 
ments (cystocarp) which produce asexual spores. These 
spores in turn give rise to the mature plant The 
cystocarp and its spores, thus following fertilization, 
suggest the alternation of generations found m the 
mosses and liverworts and all higher plants. About 
300 species of Rhodophycejje have been described. 

Carragheen, or Irish moss, used in jellies and pud- 
dings, is the dried thallus of Chondrus cnspus and Gigar- 
tina mamillosa of northwestern Europe Agar-agar, 
used in the preparation of culture media in bacteriology 
and mycology, is obtained from various species of this 


A large group of parasitic or saprophytic organisms 
(fungi), without chlorophyll' thallus (mycelium) of 
much-branched filaments (hypha?), usually without 
cross-walls (non-septate), as in the algal group Si- 
phonezfi' asexual reproduction by motile or non-motile 
sporas which are usually borne in sporangia, and by 
conidia which are cells abstncted from the tips of 
specialized hyphae sexual reproduction diverse, either 
by the conjugation of similar gametes, or by tne con- 
jugation of a specialized anthcndial branch (male) and 
an enlarged oogomal branch (female) which contains 
the egg, free sperm-cells are rare The order O6*my- 
cetes, with differentiated gametes, contains the following 
important fungi Saprolegma (water-mold), a whitish, 
aquatic mold growing on decaying plants, insects, or 
living fishes, Olpidmm 6ross?ra, parasitic in cells at the 
base of the stem of young cabbage plants causing their 
death, Phytophthora infe^lans (potato disease), Plasmo- 
pnra viticola, downy or false mildew of the grape, Albugo 
Candida, white rust of Cruciferac, Pythiumde Baryanum, 
causing damping off of seedlings Order Zygomycetes, 
with similar gametes, contains Mucor mucedo, white 
mold of bread, fruits, etc , Rhizopus^nigncans, a mold 
on bread, fruit, etc , Empnsa muscx. parasitic on 
housefhes, causing their death and producing a white 
halo about them on the surface where they die. 


A very large and important group of saprophytic or 
parasitic organisms (fungi) without chlorophyll' thallus 
(rn>cehum) composed of fine tubular threads, which are 
septate sexual organs usually obscure or apparently 
wanting asexual reproduction by spores or by conidia, 
a modified form of which is termed basidia The 
conidia and basidia do no , always represent homolo- 
gous organs The group is divided into Ascomycctes 
and Basuhomycetes The Ascomycetes are character- 
ized by a group of usually 8 spores inclosed in a unicel- 
lular sac (ascus), which is produced immediately after 
the imperfect sexual fertilization The asci are borne in 
spherical bodies (perithecia) or in open cups (apothecia) 
The Pensporiacea?, Discomycetes, Pyrenomycetes, and 
TubcracesB arc orders within this sub-class Among the 
many important economic fungi belonging here are 
the following Erysiphea3 (Downy Mildews); Aspergil- 
lus and Penicilhum (Fruit Mold, Blue Mold); Mor- 
chella (Morel), edible, Nectna (Currant Cane Rust and 
Tree Canker) ; Clnvicepx purpurea (Ergot), parastic in the 
ovaries of grams, Taphrma (including Exoascus), caus- 
ing witches' broom, leat curl of peach, plum pockets, 
etc , Saccharomyces (Yeast), causing fermentation 
in saccharine solutions The Basidiomycetes are 
characterized by the production of four spores on a 
special hyphal tip or thread (basidium). Each spore 
is raised on a minute slender stalk (stengma) These 
spores, in some cases, if not in all, follow immediately 
after a nuclear fusion, which probably represents a 
reduced sexual act. In this group are the Ustilagmece 
(Smuts), infesting the ovaries of grains, etc , the Ure- 
dinea 1 (Rusts), which infest a wide variety of culti- 
vated and wild plants, and among which may be men- 



tioned the wheat rust; the Hymenomycetes (Mush- 
rooms, Toadstools, and Bracket Fungi), which are 
saprophytic or inhabit timber, and the Gasteromycetes 
(Puff-balls), which are saprophytic. The rusts exhibit 
alternation of generations to a most remarkable degree, 
the different generations often inhabiting different host 
plants and possessing a wholly different appearance, as 
well as a wholly different method of spore-formation 
The Hymenomycetes are saprophytic, except the genus 
Exobasidium which inhabits the living foliage of various 
plants, the genus Annillaria which infests living tree- 
trunks, and many genera of the Polypoiaoeae (Bracket 
Fungi) which also attack the wood of living trees The 
last-mentioned fungi, including Arraillaria, inhabit the 
trunks and branches of forest trees, causing their death 


Green, gray or highly colored plants of very diverse 
habit and habitat, either thalloid, fruticose or crusta- 
ceous, and growing on the soil, bark of trees, rocks, or 
rarely on foliage, propagation by division of the thallus 
or by the separation of special minute powdery parts 
(soredia) spore-reproduction by ascospores borne in 
penthecia or apothecia, rarely by basidiospores. Tho 
lichen thallus is not a tangle organism, but is prob- 
ably a symbiotic btructure, comprised fundamentally 
of fungus hyphee between which many unicellular green 
alga) are distributed, usually in a definite fashion 
The fungi belong to the Ascomycetes in the great 
majority of cases, rarely to the Basidiomycetcs The 
alga; may belong to the Chlorophyceae, in which case 
they are unicellular, or to the Cyanophyceap, in which 
case they are either unicellular or m chains Because 
the symbiotic structure behaves as a unit, it has been 
decided to continue to treat the lichens as a class by 
themselves, rather than to consider the algal and fungal 
components independently in their respective groups. 
Except as soil-producers, lichens are of little economic 
importance* Cetrana islandica furnishes Iceland moss; 
titicta pulmonana was once used in medicine, Cladonia 
rangifenna furnishes the mam food of tho reindeer in 
Lapland, and, possibly, of other arctic animals; Roccdla 
tmctona of Africa and the East Indies is the source of 
the chemical indicator, litmus and of the dye orchil or 


(Mosses and Liverworts) 

Small green plants of simple structure, either thalloid 
or differentiated into stem and leaves true roots 
wanting vascular tissue absent alternation of gen- 
erations well developed, the gamete-bearing generation 
dominant female gamete (egg) inclosed in a flask- 
shaped multicellular archegomum male gametes (sperm- 
cells) inclosed within a multicellular anthendial wall: 
fertilized egg producing the bpore-beanng generation 
(sporogomum) which consists of a parasitic or semi- 
parasitic capsule usually borne upon a seta. 

The Bryophytes are divided into two great classes, 
namely the Hepatic (Liverworts) and the Musci 
(Mosses) Each of these in turn is divided into several 
orders, whichj as usual, contain one or more families. 
Mosses and liverworts are widely distributed over the 
earth, the latter seeming to prefer limestone regions 

The Hepaticse are characterized by a spore-bearing 
generation consisting of a stalked or sessile simple cap- 
sule, which contains spores and elongated sterile elatera, 
and splits into teeth or valves at maturity. The 
plant body (gamete-bearing generation) consists either 
of a thalloid, algal-like, dichotomously branching, 
ribbon-like structure, or of a slender axis bearing the 
very thin leaves, one coll in thickness, and destitute 
of a rmdrib. The leaves are usually arranged in two 
lateral lows, with often a third row of small dissim- 

ilar leaves on the under side, so that the shoot is 
strongly dorsi-ventral. The lateral leaves frequently 
bear at the base a curious lobe that is infolded or 
even flask-shaped, and probably aids in the conserva- 
tion of water on the dry rocks and tree trunks which 
many of these plants frequent. The under side of the 
stem or thallus is usually provided with rhizoids that 
take the place of roots The thalloid hvei worts are 
inhabitants of damp or wet situations, some being 
aquatic, in the North, they are found on damp soil, wet 
rooks, or among damp moss The majority of fohose 
liverworts inhabit similar places, only comparatively 
few genera and species being xerophytie Filaments of 
the alga, Nostoc, pencil ate the cavities in the thallus 
of Antnoceros and there form endophytio colonies Veg- 
etative reproduction is accomplished by the branching 
of the thallus, or by the production of special buds, 
called gemma;, either on the edge of the leaf or thal- 
lus, or in special cup-like receptacles borne on the sur- 
face of the thallus 

The Hopatica; are divided into four principal orders 
as follows Older I Ricciales. Thalloid, floating or 
amphibious sexual organs sunken in the thallus. 
capsule sessile, thin-walled, endophytio, nregularly 
dehiscent Order II Marchantiales. r l halloid areh- 
egonia and anthenrha usually borne on special branches 
of the thallus capsule often stalked, usually regularly 
dehiscent Marchantia was foimerly used as a remedy 
in diseases of tho liver, hence the name liverwort. 
Order 111 Anthocerotales. Thalloid one ehloroplast 
m each coll sexual oigans superficial capsule very 
slender, chlorophyll- and stomatc-boarmg, continuing 
to elongate by ba^al grow th Order IV - - Jungerman- 
niales. Thalloid or fohose capsule usually splitting 
to the base into four valves 

The Musei (Mosses) differ from the Hepaticse mainly 
in the more olaboiato capsule, winch in the -young 
state commonly contains chloiophyll, is provided with 
stomatos, and contains a central column of sterile 
tissue (columolla) erienoled by tho spore -bearing 
chamber Tho dohisconoo of tho capsule is apical and 
transverse, and consists in tho format ion ot a lid (oper- 
culum) which falls off exposing the mouth of the an- 
nular spore-chamber This mouth is surrounded by a 
single or double low of numerous hygroscopic teeth 
(poristome) , which, by their bending, regulate the 
escape of spores in wot and dry weather No elatcrs 
are produced Tho sporogomum of the moss is, there- 
fore, not only a more independent structure from the 
standpoint of nutrition than is that of most liverworts, 
but is constructed along wholly different lines On the 
summit of the capsule is usually found a delicate, 
diversely shaped, hood-like cap not organically con- 
nected with it and easily detached, called the calyptra 
This is the enlarged upper portion of the archegomum 
which, after rupture, io borne aloft on the summit c f 
the growing sporogomum. The plant-body (gamete- 
bearing generation) is never thalloid; and tho leaves, 
which are provided with a midiib, are frequently of 
several cells in thickness Tho germination of the spore 
does not result at once in a moss plant, but produces 
a creeping filamentous branched, algal-like growth 
(protonema) on which at length are borne the buds 
that give rise to the moss-stem proper 

The Musci arc subdivided as follows: Order I 
Sphagnales (Bog or Peat Mosses) . Structure of stem 
and leaf peculiar, consisting of dead, tracheid-like cells 
without protoplasm and provided with pits or thicken- 
ing bands, regularly interspersed among slender, living 
cells containing protoplasm and chloroplastids. Under 
ordinary conditions, the tracheid-like cells are filled 
in part with air, and hence the plant has a grayish 
hue. In the presence of ram or abundant soil-water, 
the water is drawn into tho cells by capillarity until 
the still apparently dry plant contains a surprisingly 
large quantity of water, which will flow out on squeezing 


in the hand. The capsule possesses no penstome, and 
the spore-sac is continuous over the top of the colu- 
mella Peat mosses are large, branched plants growing 
in extensive colonies m wet or damp situations in 
northern countries They are especially abundant on 
the floating moors which surround certain small ponds, 
and by their decay play an important part in the filling 
m of these ponds They continue to thrive in these 
"bogs" until the conditions at length become too dry. 
Peat mosses, therefore, form a large component of 
"peat," and m this way the Sphagriales have played a 
very interesting part in the evolution of the present 
surface of the earth Because of the power to retain 
water, sphagnum is of economic importance to nursery- 
men and florists, who use this moss extensively m pack- 
ing stock for shipment, in germinating seeds, and for 
other purposes Some species of sphagnum are eaten 
m Lapland by the icmdeer Mixed with the hair of the 
reindeer, they are used for stulhng mattresses Order 
II Andreales. A small group of rook mosses. The 
spore-chamber is continuous over the summit of the 
columella, and the capsule dehisces by four longitudinal 
slits Order 111 -Phascales. A small group of minute 
terrestrial mosses with few leaves, but a persistent 
protonema capsule indehiscent, at length decaying. 
Order IV Bryales. A large group containing the 
majority of the mosses capsule dehiscing by an oper- 
culum, penstome present, spore-sac interrupted at 
the summit by the columella Certain species were 
formerly used as astimgents and diuretics Le^kea 
i>ericea has been used to stop the flow of blood from 
wounds Species of Hypnum and Fontenahs are used 
in Norway and Sweden, by the peasants, to fill cracks 
in the walls of huts Hypnum tnqntlrum is sometimes 
used in place of sphagnum for packing plants 

With the exception of sphagnum, the mosses and 
liverworts do not seem to be in the trade. 


Eggs borne in archegoma sperm-cells in anthendia: 
alternation of generations clearly evident, the spore- 
bearing generation dominant true vascular tissue 
present, also true roots 



Sub-class I. Eusporangwia* Sporangwl watt several 
celh in thickness 


1 Ophioglossacese (from the genus Ophioglossum, 
adder's tongue, m reference to the fruiting spike). 
ADDER'b-ToNGUE FAMILY lug 1 Plants small or of 
medium size, often somewhat fleshy leaves various, 
entire or often much divided, not circulate in vernation; 
veins forking 01 netted, base of leaf cap-like, enclosing 
the succeeding leaf sporangi i scattered, borne on the 
margin of the much modified fertile portion of the 
leaf, which is usually separated from the sterile by a 
stalk, globular in form, the walls several cells in thick- 
ness, annulus wanting, dehiscence by a straight hori- 
zontal or vertical fissure prothalhum subterranean, 
tuber-like, chlorophylless, containing mycorrhizal fungi, 

Three genera and about 50 species occur, of general 
distribution Several species of Botrychium and one of 
Ophioglossum are found in the eastern United States. 
The sheathing base of the leaf, the solitary, thick- 
walled sporangia without an annulus, and the subter- 
ranean saprophytic prothalha are important character- 

Two genera are sometimes grown in North America. 
Botrychium (Moonwort Ferns, Grape Ferns) and 
Ophiogloesum (Adder's Tongue) 


2 Marattiaceae (from the genus Maraltia, named m 
honor of Maratti, Italian botanist). MARATTIA FAM- 
ILY Fig 1. Stately tropical ferns with thickened, 
often erect, stems leaves usually very large, from nearly 
entire to several times pinnate, circmate, inclosed when 
young by the prominent stipules indusium present or 
absent sporangia in son on the under face of the leaf, 
either separate or united into a capsule-like body (syn- 
angium); the walls several cells in thickness, annulus 
wanting, or greatly reduced, dehiscence by clef ts, pores, 
or, in case of the "synangia," first by valves and then 
by slits prothalhurn a gieen heart-shaped thallus on 
the surface of the soil, sometimes branched 

Four genera and about 23 species are found in 
tropical regions, but extend into the south temperate 

1. MARATTIACEK 1 Angioptcns, ^rus 2 Marattia, synan- 
gmm OPHIOQLOSSACE^E 3 Ophioglossum, a, whole plant, 6, 
dehiscing sporangia 4 Botrychmni, sporangia EQUISETACE c 

5 Equisetum, a, cross-section stem, 6, fruit stem, r, sterile stem, 
d, sporophyll and sporangia, e, spore and elater LICOPODIACE*. 

6 Lycopodmm, o, fruit branch, 6, <porophyll and sporangium 
SELAQINELI+AC^B 7. Selaugmella, a, fruit spike, 6, spore showing 
prothallium and archegoma 

zone. The fern-like habit, the prominent stipules, the 
thick-walled sporangia borne in son or synangia, the 
absence of a well-developed annulus, and the green 
thalloid omersed prothalha, are important characteris- 
tics. The family is probably very old geologically 

The thick, starchy stem of Angioptens and some 
Marattiaa are locally used for food The fleshy stipules 
of Marattia fraxinea are eaten, the spicy leaves of some 
species are used to season food. The slime from the 
stipules of M Douglasn is used medicinally by the 

Three genera are known to American horticulture 
and are occasionally grown as ornamental greenhouse 
plants Angioptens^ Danaja, and Marattia, represent- 
ing less than a half-dozen cultivated species 


Subclass II. Leplosporangiatse Sporangia! watt 
one cell in thickness 


3, Hymenophyllaceee (from the genus Hymeno- 
phyttwn, signifying membrane-leaved). FILMY-FERN 
FAMILY. Fig 2 Very delicate ferns, small or minute in 
size, frequently epiphytic leaves entire, 1-3-pinnate. or 
dichotomously divided, rarely thalloid or orbicular, 


reduced in thickness to a single layer of cells between 
the veins, and thus often resembling the leaves of 
mosses, stomates absent; ultimate or all veins dichoto- 

mous. son marginal, raised on a slender columnar pro- 

2 Ih MKNOPHYLUM EV 1 Hynicnophyllum, Hor1,on of oru-i 
CYATHEAC FK 2 Alsophila, sporangium POLYPODIACEAB .3 A*- 
puliuni, a, pinnule with son, b, section of sorus 4 Adiantum, 
prothallium with young fern plant 5 Polypodium, a, archego- 
nnim, fe, anthendium, c, sperm 6 Peranema, sporangium. GLEICH- 
FNIA.US4B 7 Gleichoma, sporangium. 

jcction of the veinlet. indusium cup-shaped: sporan- 
gium thin-walled; dchiscence vertical or oblique; 
annulus complete, horizontal: prothallium thalloia or 
filamentous, often much branched. 

There are 2 genera and about 200 species growing 
upon rocks and trees in the damp, shady forests of the 
tropics, and in New Zealand. One species reaches 
central Europe and another reaches Kentucky. The 
family is readily distinguished by the delicate leaf, 
pedicelled sorus and equatorial annulus. 

The Hymenophyllacese require a warm and very 
humid atmosphere, and, therefore, most species are 
difficult to cultivate 

Several species of Hymenophyllum and Tnchomanes 
are m cultivation in America. 

4. Cyatheaceae (from the genus Cyathea, signifying 
cup+c&ntain, in reference to the cup-shaped indusium). 
CYATHEA FAMILY Fig. 2. Usually tree ferns with 
large, much-compounded ? circulate leaves, son globu- 
lar, borne on the under side of the leaf: veins forking: 
indusmm usuallv present, bi-valvular, cupular or uni- 
lateral: sporangia thin-walled, sessile or short-pedi- 
celled, obovoid ; annulus complete at the pedicel, 
oblique, dehiscence transverse: prothallium ordinary, 

This family has 7 genera and about 300 species, of 
which 115 belong to Cyathea, 112 to Alaophila, and 44 
to Heinitelia They are distributed in the tropics of 

both hemispheres The Cyatheaceae is closely related 
to the Polypodiace from which it differs only in the 
slightly oblique annulus which passes just at one side 
of the insertion of the pedicel, and is therefore unin- 
terrupted at that point 

The dense, woolly covering of the stem of many species 
is sometimes collected for stuffing pillows The starchy 
pith of some New Zealand Cyatheacese was formerly 
used for food In India, an intoxicating drink is pre- 
pared from the pith. Several species are important 
greenhouse ferns 

Five genera at least are listed in the American 
trade. Alsophila, Cibotmm (Scythian Lamb), Cyathea, 
Dicksoma, Hemiteha. 

5 Polypodiaceae (from the genus Polypodium, signi- 
fying many feet, in allusion to the branched rootstock 
of some species) POLYPODY FAMILY Fig 2 Ferns of 
very diverge habit, rarely arborescent leaves of nor- 
mal texture, entire or pmnatifidor multisect, circmate; 
veins forking- son mostly on the under side of the leaf, 
indusmm peltate, fringed, capillary, cupular, elongated, 
unilateral or wanting sporangia thin-walled, long- or 
short-stalked; annulus vertical, interrupted by the 
pedicel; dehiscence transverse prothallium thalloid, 
green, growing upon the surface ot the soil, mostly 

Polypodiaccir has more than 100 genera and about 
4,000 species of wide distribution, especially abundant 
in humid regions and in forests The largest genera are. 
Dryoptens (or Aspidium), 450 species, Polypodium, 
500 sp , Asplemum, 150-200 sp ; Elaphoglossum, 80- 
100 sp ; Adiantum, 80 sp , and Ptens, Blechnum, 
Polystichurn and Aspidium about 50-70 species each 
The family is most closely related to the Cyatheacese 
The presence of son, the thm-wallod sporangium with 
vertical interrupted annulus and transverse dehiscence 
are distinctive- This comprises the larger number of 
ferns, and is often called the Fern Family 

Some of the most striking variants are the walking- 
leaf fern with undivided lanceolate leaves which take 
root at the apex and repeat the process several times, 
all the plantlets remaining for a time connected, the 
hart's -tongue fern with broadly lanceolate - oblong, 
entire frond; the epiphytic staghorn fern with erect, 
forked, fertile fronds and orbicular entire, sterile fronds 
closely imbricated over the short btem and support In 
many species the fertile and sterile fronds are dimorphic 
The stems of some species are slender and climbing, 
others long, slender and creeping, some are very stout 
and erect (tree ferns) 

The ferns are of little economic importance except 
as ornamental plants The starchy rootstocks of some 
species are eaten locally, as are also the young shoots 
The rootstock of Dryoptens (Aspidium) Fihx-mas is a 
reputed vermifuge. 

About 60 species are m cultivation in America 
Among these are 1 Adiantum (Maidenhair Fern), 
Aspidium (Shield F.) ; Asplenmm (Spleenwort) ; Camp- 
tosorus (Walking-leaf F.); Dennstsedtia (Dicksoma) 
(Fragrant F.); Onoclea (Sensitive F, Ostrich F.); 
Pelhea (Chff Brake) ; Phegopteris (Beech F ) ; Platyce- 
num (Staghorn F); Polypodium (Polypody F.), 
Polystichum (Holly F , Christmas F.) , Pteris (Common 
Brake); Scolopendrium (Hart's-tongue F.). 

b. Ceratopteridaceee (Parkenacesc) (from the genus 
Ccratopteris, meaning horn-fern). CERATOPTEBIS 
FAMILY Aquatic ferns rooting in the mud' leaves of 
two sorts, the ones less divided with broader segments 
and veins more or less anastomosing; the more aerial 
fertile ones much divided, with narrow segments, and 
revoli'te margins which later almost completely inclose 
the scattered sporangia: indusium wanting, sporangia 
globular, thin-walled with a very diverse broad nearly 
complete or nearly wanting annulus; rarely the annulue 
wanting; dehiscence transverse: prothallia unisexual, 
thalloid, untheridia not superficial. 



Only one genus and a few species of tropical distri- 
bution are known, the only aquatic species among the 
true ferns The habit, the absence of son, the variable 
annulus, and the sunken antheridia are distinctive. 

This fern is sometimes cooked and eaten as greens. 

One or two species are frequently grown for aquana 
and aquatic gardens. 

7. Schizaeaceae (from the genus Schizsea, cleft, alluding 
to the leaves) CURLY-GRASS FAMILY. Fig 3. Ferns 
of very diverse habit, some extremely small, others 
climbing, stem mostly oblique or horizontal* leaves 
very diverse, usually pinnate or palmate: veins forking 
sporangia thin-walled, usually scattered, at first mar- 
ginal, later sometimes exceeded by the margin of the 
frond, often appearing spiked or pamcled, sessile, no 
apparent indiihium, annulus transverse, apical, com- 
plete, dehiscence vertical, fertile portion of the frond 
usually much modified prothallmm of all genera ex- 
cept Schizaea ordinary, that of the latter genus fila- 
mentous and extremely branched, resembling that of 
the filmy ferns 

In this family are 4 genera and about 70 species, 
mostly tropical, rare in the colder regions Two species 
reach the eastern United States, one of which extends 
to Newfoundland. The solitary sporangia and trans- 
verse apical annulus are important characteristics. 

The curly grass (Schizxa pusilla) inhabits bogs, 
where it may form extended mats of dry, woolly 
"grass" 13 inches high The sterile leaves are without 
laminae. Lygodium palmatum is the "climbing fern" 
of eastern America The leaf, not the stem, of this 
plant has unlimited growth, and twines. 

Four genera are in the American trade. Anemia, 
Lygodium, Mohria, and Schizsea. 

8 Gleichemaceae (from the genus Gleichenia, named 
in honor of W. F. Von Gleichen, 1717-1783) GLEICH- 
ENIA FAMILY. Fig 2. Terrestrial ferns with peculiar 
foliage leaves several times forking owing to the 
arrested growth of the mam divi&ions which develop in 
succeeding boasons, only the ultimate branches pinnate 
(except in one genus) indusium none sporangia in son 
on the under side of the leaf, thin-walled, sessile, pear- 
shaped, annulus complete, running obliquely around 
the back and over the top, line of dehiscence extending 
vertically down the ventral side from, a constricted 
apical place in the annulus prothalhum ordinary, green. 

Two genera and about 26 species occur in tropical lands 
and the south temperate zone The family is related 
to the Schiza?acese but the habit is very different. The 
peculiar forking of the leaves, as well as the unusual 
annulus and peculiar dehiscence, are characteristic. 

A few species of Gleichenia are in cultivation in 
North America. 

9. Osmundacese (from the genus Osmunda, derived 
from Osmunder, the Saxon name of the god Thor). 
OSMUNDA FAMILY Fig 3 Ferns of ordinary habit, 
rarely aboiesoent' rhizome mostly vertical, thick: leaves 
large, circulate, 1-3-pmnate, rarely thin and stomate- 
less, petiole somewhat sheathing at the base, fibro- 
vascular bundle 1; veins forking- indusia wanting: 
sporangia scattered on the under side of the ordinary 
leaf, or on the margin or on both sides of modified 
fertile portions of the leaf, thin-walled, short-stout- 
pedicelled, globular; annulus imperfect, consisting of a 
group of cells on one side; line of dehiscence vertical, 
extending from this group up over the summit: prothal- 
hum ordinary, green. 

There are 3 genera and 10 or 12 species of general 
distribution, and others in the Australian region Three 
species occur in the eastern United States The family 
is related to the Gleichemaceae and SchizaeacesD. The 
peculiar dehiscence, and the scattered sporangia with 
the annulus consisting of a group of cells, instead of a 
ring, are distinctive 

The family has practically no economic importance, 
except as ornamental plants, except that the root 

masses are used as matrix on which to grow orchids 
and other epiphytic plants (see Osmundine) Some 
have been used in medicine, although their virtues are 
questionable. The family contains some of our most 
stately native ferns. 

All three genera are in American horticulture: 
Leptopteris (leaves thin and no stomates); Osmunda 
(Royal Fern, Cinnamon Fern), Todea (Grape Fern). 


10. Marsileaceae (from the genus Marsilea, in honor 
of Giavanni Marsigli, or Aloysius Marsih, Italian natural- 
ists ) MARSILEA FAMILY Fig 3 Perennial marsh or 
aquatic plants with filiform and creeping rhizomes, 
leaves all from rootstocks, circmate, rachis without 
blade or with four leaflets borne together at the apox; 
leaflets, when present, fan-shaped, rounded at apex; 
veins dichotomous sporangia of two sorts, macro- 
sporangia bearing macrosspores which give rise to egg- 
cells, and microsporangia bearing microspores which 
give rise to sperm-cells, both borne together in tiny 
chambers (son) in globular capsule-like conceptacles 
(sporocarps) which arise from the rootstock or lower 
portion of the leaf, and arc either stalked or sessile: 


3. SCHIZJBACE.K 1 Aneimia, sporangium OSMCNDACE^J 2 
Osmuncla, sporangium, a, front view, 6, back view SALVINIACE* 
3 Salvima, a, whole plant, 6, section of sporocarps showing 
sporangia MAHSILKACK^ 4 Marsilea, o, whole plant, b, sporo- 
carp germinating, c, sporocarp emitting gelatinous thread with 
son 5 Pilulana, a, cross-section of sporocarp, 6, sporocarp 
emitting sporangia 

male and female prothallia very much reduced, remain- 
ing inclosed within the spore-wall, which in the case of 
the macrospores early becomes ruptured on one side to 
expose the archcgoma 

Two genera (Marsilea and Pilularia) and about 60 
species occur, of which 52 or 54 belong to Marsilea. 
The distribution is general, though mainly tropical. 
Marsilea is represented m the United States by one 
native and one introduced species The family is closely 
related to the Salvmiaceae, but the peculiar habit an<) 
unusual sporocarps are distinctive. 



At maturity, a gelatinous mass escapes from the 
sporocarp, and on this mass the son are borne in 
somewhat characteristic fashion in different species. 
The leaflets of the clover-like leaves of Marsifea, in 
emersed forms, show sleep movement, as do those of 
clover. These leaflets float upon the water to the vary- 
ing depths of which the petioles accommodate them- 
selves; but the plant may grow emersed on mud, in 
which case the petioles are erect like clover The leaves 
of Pilularia are filiform, pointed, and destitute of blade. 

In Australia, the sporocarps of Marsilea Nardu and 
M Drummondu, which contain much starch and other 
nutritious material, are used by the natives for food. 
They are ground into a powder, mixed with water and 
baked. Fish and marsilca "fruits" form almost the 
sole food of some tribes. 

One species, Marsilea quadnfoha, is in cultivation 
in America for aquatic gardens. 

1 1 Salviniaceee (from the genus Salnma in honor of 
A M. Salvmi, Italian scientist) SALVINIA FAMILY. 
Fig. 3. Small, floating aquatic plants, resembling large 
Lemnas (Salvima) or fohaceous liverworts (Azolla). 
stem reduced -or wanting leaves few, orbicular or oval 
(Salvmia); or numerous, minute and imbricated 
(Azolla) sporangia and spores of two sorts as in Mar- 
silea, but borne on basal columns in the single cavity 
of the sporocarp; at first both sorts of sporangia are 
present but only one kind matures so that the sporo- 
carp becomes entirely "male" or entirely "female." 
prothallmm partly endosporoub, only a portion of either 
the male or female prothallium emerging from the 
spore wall. 

The family has 2 genera and about 15 species, of 
which 11 belong to Salvmia; generally distributed but 
principally tropical Each genus is represented in the 
eastern United States by one native species The 
family is related to the Marsileaceaj, but the habit, the 
structure of the sporocarps, and the separation- of 
macrosporangia and microsporangia in different sporo- 
carps are distinctive 

The "roots" of Salvmia represent a modified leaf 
Each leaf of Azolla is two-lobed, one lobe floating, 
the other submerged. A small cavity inclosed by the 
upper lobe is always inhabited by a nostoc-hke alga, 
between which and the Azolla there is indication of a 
symbiotic relationship Azolla possesses true roots. 

The family is of almost no economic importance 

One species of Salvmia and two species of Azolla 
are occasionally grown in water-gardens. 


12. Eauisetaceae (from the genus Eqmsetum, meaning 
horse-bristle). HORSE-TAIL FAMILY Fig 1 Plants of 
striking appearance, often with rhizomes and with a 
straight, aerial, striated axis bearing whorls of connate, 
scale-like leaves at the nodes' from the nodes also fre- 
quently arise slender branches of different structure 
which bear different but still scale-like leaves the stem 
is hollow, and besides the central canal often contains 
numerous additional large canals imbedded in the 
outer tissue . spores of one kind (not microspores and 
macrospores) sporangia 5-9, borne on the under 
surface of peltate, polygonal scales which form a 
terminal cone, dehiscence longitudinal; spores green, 
provided with several hygroscopic "elaters which aia 
in dissemination prothalha green, unisexual, the female 
largest, branched. 

A single genus and about 24 species are known, of 
which one section is tropical, the other of temperate 
distribution. Ten species are native in the eastern 
United States The family is very distinct and shows 
no definite relationship to any existing plants The 
habit, the undifferentiated spores, the peltate sporo- 
phvlls. and the dioecious emergent prothalha are dis- 

tinctive The arrangement of the canals and also 
of the stomates along the stem are important in the 
distinction of species. 

The stems of E. hiemale, rich in silica, were formerly 
much used for scounng and for polishing woods, and 
are still used to some extent. E. arvense and E. sylvati- 
cum have been used for polishing tin vessels, hence the 
name "tin weed " Several species have been used in 
medicine, as diuretics. E. giganteum is employed as an 
astringent. E arvense and E, palustre are bad weeds 
in parts of Europe. 

Several species have been advertised by American 
dealers in native plants. 


13. Lycopodiaceae (from the genus Lycopodium, wolf- 
foot, from a fancied resemblance) CLUB-MOSS FAMILY. 
Fig 1. Branched plants of moderate size, stems often 
erect when short, usually prostrate, pendent, or creep- 
ing leaves very numerous, small, subulate or oblong, 
moss-like, often imbricated, rarely the leaves all basal 
(Phylloglossum) sporophylls either similar to the 
leaves, or much modified and forming terminal "cones." 
sporangia and spores of one sort (not macrospores and 
microspores), the former remform, borne at the base 
of a leaf on the upper side, dehiscence longitudinal 
prothalha more or less cylindrical or amorphous, in some 
species green, in others colorless, saprophytic, sub- 
terranean or subcortical 

The club-moss family contains 2 goncra and about 
100 species, all but ono of which belong to Lycopodium, 
distributed m all parts of the world except tne very 
dry regions The majority of the epiphytic species 
are tropical, but several terrestrial species extend to 
the arctic circle Twelve of the species are native in the 
eastern United States The family is not closely related 
to any other The habit, the undifferentiated spores, 
and the prothallmm are distinctive. 

The branching of Lycopodium is of two types, the 
dichotomous, and the monopodial (a central axis from 
which lateral blanches arise). On these types sub- 
genera are based. 

The spores of Lycopodium (principally of L clava- 
tum), which are produced in great quantities, are used 
by apothecaries for coating pills, and by metal-workers 
These spores are highly inflammable and were formerly 
used in theaters to produce flashlights. L. Selago is 
emetic, drastic, vermifugal, and emmenagogue. L. 
myrsimlis and L. catharhcum are purgative Several 
othe r species have been used locally for various com- 
plaints The creeping steins of L. clavatum and L. 
complanatum are often used for Christmas and church 

Several species of Lycopodium (Club-moss, Ground 
Pine, Creeping Pine) are gathered or protected in 
America for decorative purposes or for the spores. 


14. Selaginellaceae (from the genus SelagineUa, 
diminutive of Selago, ancient name of Lycopodium). 
SELAGINELLA FAMILY. Fig 1. Moss-like or lycopodium- 
hke plants, often of moderate size, usually profusely 
and dichotomously branched, more rarely monopodial; 
creeping, pendent or erect, sometimes climbing and 
several meters long, or minute and 1-3 cm. long: 
leaves moss-like, very small, usually densely placed, 
often imbricated, often of two sizes (the branches 
therefore strongly dorsiventral) ; ligule present, borne 
at the base of the leaf on the upper side roots borne on 
"rhizophores" which are probably modified branches: 
spores of two sorts (microspores and macrospores) in 
separate sporangia, borne m the leaf axils: sporophylls 
frequently modified, forming a cone or spike: prothalha 



endosporous, the spore wall of the macrosporea soon 
rupturing and exposing the archegoma 

The one genus ; Selagmella, and about 500 species 
are widely distributed, but mostly tropical The 
majority prefer damp forests, but some (e g , *S' rupeb- 
tria) are xerophytic Three species are native in the 
eastern United States The family is related to the 
Lycopodiaccae superficially, but not in the spores and 
in the prothalha. which are more closely allied to 
another family, the Isoctacea? The habit, the foliar 
hgule, the undifferentiatcd spores, and the endosporous 
prothaUia are distinctive 

The spores of Selagmclla have been used in the same 
manner as those of Lycopodium, but are less easily 
obtainable >S concinna and V obtusa have been used 
for diarrhea and dysentery Several Mexican species 
are used locally for medicine. *S. convoluta is employed 
in the East Indies as an aphrodisiac The rosette-like 
>'. lepidophylla of Mexico is the best-known "resur- 
rection plant " When dry, it rolls into a ball and 
becomes brown, when the air is humid, the branches 
spread out and the green upper surfaces are exposed 

Many species of Sclaginella are in choice American 
collections, but very few are commonly in tht trade 
They are mostly grown for greenhouse and for table 
decoration under the name of "l^copodium." 



15 Cycadaceae (from the genus O/cs, the Greek 
name of a certain palm) CYCHS FAMILY Fig 4 Moic 
or less \voody plants, \\ith thick, unbranehed, columnar 
or tuberous stem leaves alternate, pinnate .stamens 
and carpels borne in cones or in temporarily terminal 
clusters scales of the stammate cone bearing veiy 
many scattered anthers on the under side the caipels 
open, not forming a closed ovary, either leaf-like pm- 
natifid and bearing maigmal ovules, or peltate \\ith 2 or 
more suspended ovules, the latter very large, often 1 
inch long, orthotropous, with 1 integument, becoming 

Cyeadaeejr has genera and about 85 specie 1 *, dis- 
tributed in tropical and subtropical regions Zamia 
is the largest genus, with 30 species The family stands 
isolated among the gymnosperms The palm-like 
habit, pinnate leaves, vciy numerous scattered stamens, 
and, in Cycas, the leaf-like carpel, aie distinctive 
Differences more important to the morphologist aie to 
be found in the cmbrjology, especially in the fertiliza- 
tion by motile sperm-cells The leaves are circulate 
when unfolding, like of a fern The CjeadaceiB 
represent an ancient family far more numerous in past 
geologic ages Many fossil .species aie known 

Various species of Cycas in the Moluccas and Japan, 
especially C reroluta, yield a sago in the pithy part of 
the stem which the natives bake into bread The 
Hottentots eat the pith of Encephalartos, making 
from it "Kafir bread ' The seeds of Cycas and Zamia 
are edible The leaves of Oycas are used at funoials 
and church festivals as "palm branches " 

Several genera are in cultivation in America for 
greenhouse use and outdoors in the South These are 
Bowenia, Ceratozarma of Mexico, Cycas (Sago Palm) of 
the far East; Dioon of Mexico, Encephalartos of South 
Africa, Macrozamia of Australia, Stangena of South 
Africa, Zamia (Coontie, Comptie) of tropical America 


16. Ginkgoaceae (from the genus Ginkao. the Japanese 
name). GINKGO FAMILY. Fig 4. Much-branched tree 

with deciduous leaves secondary wood without true 
vessels, resin-tubes present leaves alternate, fan-shaped 
like the pinnules of Adiantum, veins forking, anthers 
borne in pedicelled pairs on a slender axis, without 
bracts, the whole somewhat catkin-like no true pistil- 
late cone, ovules borne in pairs at the summit of 
branched peduncles, each ovule surrounded at the base 
by a fleshy ring, fruit drupaceous Fertilization is by 
means of motile sperms 

A single genus of one species occurs in China and 
Japan Fossil species are known. The family is dis- 
tantly related to the Comferae, but the peculiar foliage, 
as well as the absence of cone structure and the great 
reduction of sporophylls, is distinctive 

(hnkqo biloba (gmkgo, maidenhair tree, Kew tree), 
the only species, is grown as a park tree. 


4 ("\( \OAfB 1 Cycis, a 
snlo \\ilh anthers 2 Zamif 
Ginkgo, a, leaf, 6, ovules, c, sti 

th ovules, c, male 


17 Taxaceae (from the genus Taxus, the classical 
name, probably from the Greek meaning boiv, for which 
the wood is used) . YEW FAMILY Fig. 5 Much-branched 
trees or shrubs, with resin-tubes in the bark and no 
tine vessels in the secondary wood leaves alternate, 
needle-like or scale-like, persistent stamens borne on 
the protected portion of more or less apically thickened 
or peltate scales (sporopM 11s) forming a small cone 
pistillate cones wanting, ovules borne singly or two 
together on a fleshy or rudimentary carpel (sporophyll), 
mveited or straight, the outer integument forming an 
.inline fnnt a div seed surrounded by the fleshy often 
highh colored anllus, the receptacle also of ten enlarged 
and foinung a fleshy part of the fruit 

Taxaceac has 8 genera and about 70 species widely 
distributed, of which 40 belong to the genus Podocarpus 
The family is related to the Conifcrse, but differs in the 
reduction of the pistillate cone to a single ovule, in 
the modification or suppression of the sporophyll, and 
in the aril or anllus The closely related Ginkgoacea; 
has a different st animate inflorescence fertilization is 
by means of pollen-tubes 

The timber produced by the tropical eastern species 
of Podocarpus and of Dacrydium (heron pine an 



damion pine) is highly valued. The yew wood is 
hard and susceptible of a high polish. It is used in 
cabinet work and for bows. The seed and shoots of yew 
are said to be poisonous, but the anllus is harmless. 

In cultivation in America are a few genera foi orna- 
mental purposes 1 Ccphalotaxus, East Asia, Podocar- 
pus, Chile, Japan, Australia, grown m the South, Taxus 
(Yew), Europe, Asia, North America; Torreya (Cali- 
fornia Nutmeg) , California to Florida 

18. Pinaceae (from the genus Pinus, the classical 
Latin name) PINE FAMILY Fig 5 Tiee or shrub, with 
no true vessels in the secondary wood, but with resm- 
tubes. leaves linear, or needle-like, or scale-like, 
alternate or opposite, evergreen or deciduous anthers 
and ovules both in true cones plainly subtended by 
scales (sporophylls) ; the stiunmate scales usually 
bearing 2-6, rarely more, anthers on the under side; 
the pistillate bearing 1-2, rarely many, ovules on the 
upper side, or peltate and ovule-bearing under the 
crown or at its base; ovules with 1 integument: fruit 


5 TAXACEB 1 Taxus, o, male cone, 6, fruit (seed and aril) 
PINACEA: 2 Tsuga, female cone 3 Picea, female cone-scale with 
ovules. 4 Pseudotsuga, female cone 5 Chamsecynans, female 
cone 6 Sequoia, female cone 7. Jumperus, a, female cones 
(berries), 6, cross-section berry GNETACE^B. 8 Ephedra, a, 
female inflorescence, 6, male inflorescence 

a dry woody cone with dry, often winged seeds between 
the scales; or berry-like through the union of the fleshy 

Sub-family 1 Cupressmese Cone-scales opposite; 
ovules erect leaves opposite or whorled. 

Sub-family 2. Abietmeae Cone-scales alternate; 
ovules inverted leaves alternate 

There are 25 genera and about 240 species, widely 
distnbuted but most abundant in temperate legions 
The largest genus is Pinus with 70 species. The family 
is related to the TaxaceiE and Ginkgoaceae, from which 
it differs m the presence of true stammate and pistillate 
cones It also differs from the latter m the absence of 
motile sperm-cells. 

The Pinaceae, like other Gymnosperms, is an old 
group, more abundant in former geologic ages Many 
fossil species are known The Sequoias of California 
were formerly more abundant, extending to Greenland. 
The young plants of many Cuprcssineaj possess foliage 

lite different in appearance from the mature foliage, 
the leaves being longer and more spreading These 
juvenile forms have been called Retimsporas, a name 
which has been applied also to all cultivated species of 
Charncecypans Juniper "berries" are fleshy cones 
with peltate, fused scales The leaves of Larix, Pseu- 
dolarix and Cedrus are deciduous. The branchlcts and 
leaves are deciduous in Taxodium. The cone-scales 
of many Abietmese are double, an outer thinner 3- 
toothed scale, and a thick inner scale that bears the 
ovules (see Pseudotsuga) 

Among the Pinacecc are some of our most valuable 
timber trees, e g , cedar, arborvitse, spruce, fir, hem- 
lock and redwood The resin from various pines when 
distilled yields spints of turpentine and rosin, when 
dry-distilled, it yields tar Venice turpentine is the 
reisinous exudation of European larches Canada 
balsam that of Abies balsamea Dammar resin is from 
the Malayan Agathis Dammara Kauri resin is the 
semi-fossilized resin of Agathis austrahs of Australia 
and New Zealand Sandarac resin is from Callitris 
quadrivalvis of Northwest Afnca Amber is the fos- 
silized resin of prchistonc conifers around the Baltic. 
Oil of savin is from the leaves and twigs of Jumperus 
sabina, and oil of cedar from Thuya accidentally Juniper 
berries, from J commums of Europe and America, are 
diuretic and also used for flavoring gin. Edible seeds 
are produced by Pinus Pinea (stone pine) of the 
Mediterranean, P Cembra of Europe and Sibena, P. 
Parryana and P eduhs of the southwestern United 
States, Podocarpus nenifoha of the East Indies, Arau- 
caria braziliana of Brazil, and A Bidmlln of Australia 
Bread is made by the Laps and Eskimos from the 
inner bark of Pinus sylvestns and Abiet* alba, also from 
various Pinacese by our northwestern Indians Deodar 
(Cedrus Deodnra) is sacred to the Hindoos Cedrus 
Libani is the cedar of Lebanon. Pine bark was form- 
erly used for tanning. 

Many genera are m cultivation in Amenca Among 
these are Abies (Fir, Balsam); Araucana (Norfolk 
Island Pine, Monkey Puzzle), Callitna (Cypress Pine), 
Cedrus (Cedar of Lebanon, Deodar), Chamgecypans 
(White Cedar, Yellow Cedar, Hinoki Cypress, Sawara 
Cypress, Retimspora, Japanese Cedar), Cryptomena; 
Capressus (Cypress, Monterey Cypress), Jumperua 
(Red Cedar, Jumper, Savin) ; Larix (Larch, Tamarack, 
Hackmatack); Libocedrus (Incense Cedar, White Ce- 
dar), Picea (Spruce); Pinus (Pine, Pmnon, Soledad); 
Pseudolanx (Golden Larch), Pseudotsuga (Douglas 
Spruce, Red Fir); Sciadopitys (Umbrella Pine), Se- 
quoia (Big Tree of California, Redwood), Taxodium 
(Bald Cypress, Deciduous Cypress) ; Thuya (Arborvi- 
tae, White Cedar) ; Thuyopsis, Tsuga (Hemlock Spruce). 

Order 11. GNETALES 

19. Gnetacese (from the genus Gnetum, derived from 
Gnemon, said to be the old Malay name of the plant). 
GNETUM FAMILY. Fig 5 Very peculiar semi-woody 
plants of diverse habit leaves large and broad, or modi- 
fied, or reduced, or opposite, or whorled no resin-tubes 
m the stem, secondary wood containing true vessels, 
true flowers present, with a 2-4-parted perianth, 
unisexual, rarely bisexual; stamens 2-8; pistillate 
perianth becoming juicy or wing-like in fruit and inclos- 
ing one naked orthotropous seed with 1 or 2 integu- 

The family consists of 3 genera and about 35-40 
species, widely distnbuted. It is distinguished from 
the Coniferte by the presence of a perianth, the absence 
of resin-tubes, and the presence of vessels in the 
secondary wood The endosperm development, also, 
approaches that of the Angiosperms. The fertilization 
is by means of pollen-tubes. The three genera are 
very distinct. Ephedra, of the tropics of both hemis- 
pheres, is much branched, with slender jointed striate 



equieetum-like sterns, leaves scale-like at the distant 
nodes; Gnetum of South Amenca, except one species, 
is a group of vines or shrubs with large broad leaves 
like those of an Angiosperm, Welwitschia of South 
Afnca is a desert plant with a thick subterranean stem 
bearing two ribbon-like leaves 6 feet long, lying flat 
on the ground, and with a terminal cluster of cone-like 

It is doubtful whether any of these are regularly in 
the American i/rade 



Order 12 P AND AN ALES 

20 Typhaceae (from the genus Typtia, the old Greek 
name). CATTAIL FAMILY Fig. 6 Perennial maish 
herbs, with creeping rootstoeks, and long-linear, erect, 
mostly basal leaves flowers monoecious, naked, in a 
dense terminal spike, which is btammate above and 
pistillate below, each sex subtended by one bract-like 
spathe, perianth 0, stamens 2-5, filaments connate, 
bearing long, silky hairs, carpels 1, ovaiy 1 -celled, 
raised on a stipe which also bears long, silky hairs* 
ovule 1, suspended; style slender, fruit a nutlet; seed 

A single genus and about 12 species occur in the 
tropical and temperate zones Fossil species are known. 
The family is closely related to the Spargamacesc, with 
which it was formerly united These two families con- 
stitute a very distinct group of simple-flowered Mono- 
cotyledons The habit, the flowers borne in spikes with- 
out perianth, the hairy pedicels, the absence of bracts, 
and the simple pistil, aie together distinctive. 

The starchy root stocks are sometimes used for food 
The leaves are woven into matting, and into chau- 
bottoms, and are used for calking barrels The pollen 
has been used as a .substitute for the spores of Lyco- 
podium The rootstock is used in East Asia for d> seii- 
tery and urethntis, and the leaves in various localities 
for thatching cottages A vain attempt has been 
made to utilize the .silky hairs of the fruit for making 

Two species of Typha (Cattail Flag, Reed Mace), 
both native, are in the American trade for water-gar- 

21 Pandanaceae (from the genus Pandanus, derived 
from a Malay name) SCHEW-PINE FAMILY Fig 6 
Shrubby or arborescent plants stems simple or 
branched, with prop-roots leaves spirally arranged, 
densely placed, sword-shaped, often canaliculate, clasp- 
ing, stiff, edges and midrib often spiny-serrate flowers 
on simple or branched spadices, dioecious, naked, 
spathes caducous, stamens densely packed, separated 
or united in fascicles, scattered over the spadiv, and 
not in definite flowers, pistillate spadix simple, ovaiics 
numerous, coherent in bundles, or isolated, not in real 
flowers, stigma sessile, ovules solitary or several fruit 
drupaceous, cohering in multiple fruits, seed albumi- 

There are 3 genera and about 350 species, natives of 
the tropics of the Old World The family is unique. 
The floral structure, while much like that of Typha, 
suggests also the Palmacea; As in Typha, actual flowers 
cannot here be distinguished. 

The fleshy pericarps of some are eaten The strong 
odor of the stammate flowers is either agreeable or dis- 
agreeable, depending on the species, in the former case 
the flowers arc used for perfumery. The leaves of Patt- 
danus utilis are made into bags for shipping coffee, 
and the plant is now cultivated for that purpose in 
the West Indies 

Ten to 15 species of Pandanus (Screw Pine, Cande- 
labrum Tree, Chandelier Tree) are in greenhouse cul- 
tivation in America. 

Order 13. HELOBI^E 

22. Naiadaceas (from the genus Naias, denved from 
the Greek, meaning a water nymph) PONDWEED 
FAMILY Fig 6 Immersed aquatic herbs leaves 
mostly cauhnc, opposite or alternate, the floating often 
differing from the submerged in shape and texture: 
flowers axillary or spicate, bisexual or unisexual, peri- 
anth of 4 herbaceous segments, or wanting, stamens 
1-4, rarely more, carpels 1-0, mostly distinct, 1 -celled, 
1-ovuled fruit a nutlet, endosperm none, embryo 
curved, rarely straight. 

Naiadaceas has 10 genera and about 100 species 
widely distributed, but most abundant in temperate 
regions. The largest genus is Potamogeton with 50 
species The family is a very heterogeneous one which 
has been divided or united in many ways by different 
authors As here treated it is distinguished by the 
aquatic habit, greenish, often reduced perianth, few 
stamens, and few, separate, 1 -seeded carpels A spathe- 
hke bract usually incloses the inflorescence 

The dried leaves of Zostera and Posidoma have been 
used since ancient times in Venice to pack glassware. 
They are now widely used for packing Plants of 
Potamogeton and Zostera are employed as manure. 

Several species of Potamogeton (Pondweed) and 
one of Zarmichelha are possibly in the American trade, 
tor water-gardens 


'4 a, 

6 T\PHACE,B 1 Typha a, inflorescence, 6, male flower, c, 
female flower PANDAN\OEE 2 Pandanus, a, portion male 
inflorescence, b, female inflorescence, vertical section NAIAD- 
ACFK 3 Naias.a, male flower, b, female flower. 4 Potamogeton, 
a, flower, 6, vertical section nutlet 

23 Aponogetonacese (from the genus Aponogeton, 
derivation obscure) APONOGETON FAMILY Aquatic 
herbs with tuberous rhizomes, and basal, submerged 
or floating leaves, blade linear to oval, palmately 
parallel- veined, with transveisc veinlets, the general 
tissue between the veins often wanting, thus producing 
a remarkable openwork latticed effect, flowers spicate, 
bisexual, regular, hypogynous penan th of several petal- 
oid parts; stamens usually 6, rarely more; carpels 
mostly 3, rarely 4-0, separate, ovules 2-, mostly basal, 
anatropous* fruit pouch-like, endosperm none 

The single genus, with its 15 species oocu r s in Africa, 
Madagascar, tropical Asia and Australia The family 
is related to the Naiadaceac, with which it was formerly 
united, and from which it is distinguished by the petaf- 
oid perianth, several ovules, and straight embryo. 

The roots are sometimes eaten by natives. 

A ponogeton distachyus (Cape pondweed, water haw- 
thorn) is cultivated m water-gardens 

24 Alismaceae (from the genus Ahsma, the Greek 
name). WATER-PLANTAIN FAMILY. Fig. 7. Herbace- 



ous marsh plants with milky juice loaves mostly basal, 
sheathing, with a scale m the axil ; blade various, float- 
ing or erect, often sagittate, varying m size and width 
with the depth of the water, palmately parallel-veined 
with cross vemlets flowers bisexual or unisexual, reg- 
ular, hypogynous, m whorls of 3, sepals 3, more or less 
hyaline, petals 3, white and petaloid, stamens C to 
many, in several whorls, carpels very many, separate 
or rarely coherent, spirally arranged or in a whorl, 
1-ovuled, rarely 2-5-ovuled fruit dry, rarely dehiscent, 
seed ba^sal, anatropous, exalbummous, embryo curved. 

The family has 10 genera and about 50 species, dis- 
tributed throughout the warmer and temperate zones 
The family is related to the Butomaeese and Junca- 
ginaeetc, which are all peculiar m having an axillary 
mtra vaginal scale The whorled flowers, differentiated 
perianth, numerous carpels, and mostly solitary, basal, 
exalbummous seeds are distinctive 

The acrid juice formerly led to the occasional use of 
these plants in medicine The tubers and rhizomes of 
-Sagittana were eaten by the American Indians as 
wappato ; and arc cultivated in China They are said 
to come into the Chinese market at San Francisco, pre- 
served in liquid. 

Two genera are in cultivation for water-gardens: 
Ahsma (Water Plantain), native, and Sagittaria 
(Arrowhead), some native 

25 Butomaceae (from the genus Hutormis, signifying 
ox -f- to cut, in reference to the rough leaves) Fig 7 
Aquatic or marsh herbs leaves basal, with an axial 
scale, sometimes with milky juice blade linear or 
oval, veins palmately parallel with cross vemlets, or 
nearly vemless. flowers solitary or umbelled, bisexual, 
regular, hypogynous, sepals 3, .subherbaceous, petals 3, 
colored, imbricated, stamens 9 or more, whorled, 
carpels 6 or more, separate, ovules numerous, borne 


7 AU8MA< KM 1 Alisma, a, inflorescence, b, flower, c, floral 
diagram, d, truit 2 iSatfittana, a, trmt, b, ac-hene BuTOMAf'K' 
3 Butomus, flowor HiDROciMRiTir E 4 Elodoa, female flower 
branch 5 Vallisnerm, a, halni ai"t flower, b, fern.ile flower. 

between the rr:*igins and midrib of the carpel' fruit 
iry, dehiscent, seed anatropous, exalbummous, embryo 
straight or 3urved 

The family contains 4 genera and about 5 species, 
natives of the temperate and tropical zones of the Old 
World, and the tropics of the New World The family 
is related to the Ahsmacesp and Juncagmacese, from 
the former of which it differs principally m the numerous 
ovules and their peculiar position 

The roots and seeds of Butomus were once used as 
emollients The baked roots of Butomus are eaten m 
North Asia. 

Two genera are m cultivation for water-gardens: 
Butomus (Flowering Rush), and Limnochans (Water 

2o Hydrochantaceae (from the genus Hydrochans, 
derived from the Greek meaning wate? and rejoice). 
FHOG'S-BIT FAMILY. Fig 7 Submerged aquatic herbs, 
rarely floating, the flowers usually at first inclosed by 
a 2-bracted spathic, leaves alternate or opposite, very 
divcise, cordate, linear or ribbon-like flowers usually 
unisexual, regular, epigynous, perianth in 2 series, 
composed of ,3 imbricated or valvate, calicoid parts, 
and 3 convolute petaloid parts, rarely of only 3 divisions, 
stamens m 1 to several series of 3, some often stami- 
riodia, carpels 2-15, ovary interior, 1-celled with parie- 
tal placentae, or imperfectly several-celled, stigmas 3- 
6 fruit not regularly dehiscent, submerged, some- 
what fleshy; seeds many, exalbummous 

There aie 14 genera and about 40 species widely 
distiibuted The family is related to the Ahsmacere 
and Naiadacew The differentiation into calyx and 
corolla, the usually numerous .stamens, the inferior, 
1-celled ovary with parietal placenta 1 , and the exalbumi- 
nous seeds are together characteristic The plants of 
this family are very diverse in appearance and often 
striking Fossil species are known The pollination of 
Valhsneria is very remarkable (See Kerner and Oliver, 
"Natural History of Plants") 

Etodca canadensts, introduced into Europe from 
America, has there become so abundant as to impede 
navigation The plants of Hydrochans, Stratiotes, and 
Elodea are used as fodder and as manuie in Europe 
The starchy rootstocks of Otteha and Boottia are 
eaten in India as pot-herbs, also the tubers and fruits 
of Erialus The fibers fiom the leaves of Enalus are 
used in India Valh^ntrui altermfoha is employed m 
India in the pieparation of sugar. 

Five genera are in cultivation in America, mostly for 
aquaria Elodea( Water weed, Ditch-Moss, Water Thvme, 
Water Pest) ; Hydrochans (Frog's-Bit) , Limnobium 
(American Fiog's-Bit), Stratiotes (Water Soldier, Water 
Aloe), Valhsneria (Eel-Grass, Tape-Grass) 


27. Graminese (from the Latin signifying grass) 
GRASS FAMILY Fig 8 Herbs, or sometimes almost 
tiee-hke stems hollow or solid leaves usually linear, in 
2 ranks, composed of a sheath which is usually open 
down the front, a sessile blade, and a hgule at the 
junctuie of blade and sheath flowers bisexual or uni- 
sexual, naked, or with the perianth reduced to 1-3 tiny 
scales, borne in specialized spikelets composed of 3 01 
more 2-ranked scales, the first 2 empty (called empty 
glumes), the others termed flowering glumes or lem- 
mas, and 1 scale on each secondary flower-bearing 
axis, called a palet or palca, stamens 2-3, "xserted for 
wind-pollination, carpel 1; ovary 1, 1-cclled, 1-ovuled, 
stigmas feathery, usually 2 fruit a caryopsis, seed 
with endosperm, and embryo with an absoibing organ 

Grammejr is a family of 300-400 genera and per- 
haps 5,0(K) species distributed all over the eaith The 
largest genera are Pamcum with 300-400 species, Pas- 
palum with 160 species, and Poa with 100 species The 
Grammes and Cyperaceac form a verv distinct group 
The usually hollow stem, the open sheaths, the hgule, 
the 2-rankcd leaves, and the peculiar spikelet-structure 
are the best characters to separate Grammeac from Cy- 
perace< The Indian corn is one of the most modified of 
grasses It is monoecious The stammate spikelets are ar- 
ranged on finger-like branches of the tassel at the sum- 
mit of the plant , the pistillate spikelets are borne on the 
cob, which is supposed to be composed of similar finger- 
like portions grown together. Each spikelet is 2-flowered, 
but only 1 flower bears an ovary. The kernel is this 
ovary, and the chaff on the cob represent the glumes 
and palets. The grasses are divided into 13 tribes. 



The grasses are among the most useful of plants. 
The following, among others, are, or have been, used 
as medicine Rhizome of Agropyron repens (quick- or 
quack-grass) is emollient, and aperient (several other 
grasses have the same properties) Root of Arundo Do mix 
(reed) is diuretic and sudorific Phragmites commums 
was formerly considered dcpurative and anti-syphilitic. 
Calamagrostis was used by the French peasants as a 
diuretic Perotis latifolui IH used in India for the same 
purpose, as are also the seeds of Coix Lacryma-Jobi in 
China. The roots of Mara suns granulans are used in 
India for intestinal troubles. The aromatic, fragrant 
roots of various Andropogons (or Cymbopogons) are 
used for medicine and for perfume in India and else- 
where, e g , A. Nardus (false bpikenard, citronella), A. 
citratus (lemon-grass). A lamer arid A Schoenanthus 
(sweet rush, ginger-grass, geranium-grass) are used in 
Africa and Arabia as a stimulant, antispasrnodic and 
diaphoretic, and for perfume. 

The following are used for food. Seeds of wheat, 
barley, rye, oats, rice, Indian corn and millet , also seeds 
of Andropogon arundinacc us var vulgar e (sorghum), and 
var Durra (durra) Pennibetutn arnericanum (pearl 
millet) is an important food of the negro races, and Poa 
abij^nnica and Kleusine are important in East Africa 
Sugar is obtained fiom the stems of heveral species, 
most important of which arc Saccfvirum ojfficinaium 
(sugar-cane), and Andropogon nrundinaceuss var sac- 
r karat us or A Sorghum (sugar sorghum) 

Many grasses are used as fodder for cattle, as, for 
instance, our pasture and hay graces Poa pratenns 
(June grass, Kentucky blue grass), Phlcum prattitv> 
(timothy), Festuca ovmn, etc (fescue), Agro^i^ alba 
(red-top), Dactyhs glomerala (orchaid-grass), Cynodon 
Dactylon (Beimuda-giass) Some grasses are poisonous 
to stock, eg, Loh um innuludum (darnel), and the 
Peruvian Fet>luca quadndintata 

Straw from cereals is used for matting, upholstery, 
bedding, hats and for making paper 

The bamboos yield very important building material 
in the East Like the palms, the bamboos are used for 
almost every conceivable purpose, and are among the 
most useful of plants 

Several grasses, ( ther than those above mentioned, 
contain a fragrant principle, e g, roots of Vttiveua 
zizamoidcs (vetiver or kius-kus of India) used to 
perfume rooms, and to keep insects out of clothing 
Hierochloe odorata (vanilla- or holy-grass) is used in 
Europe in religious ceremonies, and by the American 
Indians for making baskets Anthoxanthiim odoratum is 
the European sweet-grass, now introduced into America. 

The most important ornamental species are Phalanx 
arundmatea, Stipa pennata, Cortadena argentea, Lagums 
ovatus, Hordeum jubatum. Aft Acanthus binensis, Briza, 
Arundo, Phragmites, Enanthus, Penmsetum, Th>ba- 
nokena, and Bamboos 

In America 70-80 genera are cultivated, or are 
important as natural fodder plants or weeds Among 
these are Agropyron (Quack-Grass, Couch-G , Quiek- 
G ), Agrostis (Bent-G , Red-Top, Cloud-G ,Tickle-G , 
Fly-away-G ) , Aira (Hair-G ) , Andropogon (Silver- 
beard-G , Johnson-G , Lemon-G ) , Anthoxanthum 
(Sweet Vernal-G.) , Ammophila (Beach-G . Marram-G ) , 
Arundmana (Large Cane, Switch Cane, Scotch Cane) , 
Arundo (Giant Reed); Avena (Oats); Bamboo, Briza 
(Quakmg-G ) ; Bromus (Brome-G , Rescue-G.) , Cala- 
magrostis (Reed Bent-G, Blue-jomt-G., Pony-G.); 
Calamovilfa (Purple Bent-G ) , Cenchrus (Sand-bur, 
Bur-G ); Chlons (Fmger-G ); Cmna, Coix (Job's Tears, 
Tear-G , Corn Beads); Cortadena (Pampas-G ), Cyno- 
don (Bermuda-G ) ; Cynosurus (Crested Dog's-tail, 
Silky-awned Dog's-tail); Dactyhs (Cock's-foot, Or- 
chard-G); Dactyloctemum (Crowfoot-G.); Desmazena 
(Spike-G ): Deschampsia (Hair-G , Hassock-G.); Dig- 
itana (Crab-G , Fmger-G ); Distichhs (Salt-G., Marsh 
Spike-G.), Echmochloa (Barnyard-G ) ; Elcusme (Crab- 

G , Yard-G , Dog's-tail, Wire-G., African Millet); Ely- 
mus (Lyme-G , Wild Rye, Terrel-G ), Eragrostis, En- 
anthus (Woolly Beard-G , Plume-G , Wool-G , Ra- 
venna-G.); Euchhrna (Teosmte); Festuca (Fescue-G ), 
Glycena or Pamculana (Reed Meadow-G , Manna-G ); 
Coitadena, Hierochloe (Vanilla-G , Holy-G , Seneca-G , 
Sweet-scented-G ) . Holcus (Meadow Sof t-G ) , Hordeum 
(Squirrel-tail-G , Wild Barley, Barley); Hystnx or 

8 GRAMINE^E 1 a, part of a grass panicle, b, apikflet 
2 A\cna, a, portion of paint le, b, spikckt,*- g .empty glume, jl g , 
flowering glume or lemma, pal , palet or palea, c, ground-plan o 
spikolct. 3 Phleum, spikelet 4 Phalans, shpath and hgule 

Asprella (Bottle-G.) ; Lolmm (Darnel, Rye-G ) ; Mihum 
(Wild Millct-G), Miscanthus (Eulalia, Himalaya 
Fairy-G ) , Ophsmenus; Oryza (Rice); Oryzopsi.s (Moun- 
tain Rice) ; Panicum (Panic-G , Old-iWitch-G , Millet. 
Broom Corn Millet) , Penmsetum (Pearl Millet) ; Pha- 
lans (Canary-G , Gardener's Garters) , Phleum (Timothy- 
G , Herd's-G ), Phragrmtes (Common Reed); Phyllos- 
tachys (Bamboo, m part), Poa (Blue-G , Kentucky 
Blue-G , Meadow-G ); Saccharum (Sugar-cane), Secale 
(Rye) jSetana (Millet, IIunganan-G , Fo\tail-G , Pigeon- 
G ), Spartina (Cord-G ), Sphenophohs, Stenotaphrum 
(St August ine-G ); Stipa (Feathered-G , Esparto-G , 
Porcupme-G ) , Tnpsacum (Gama-G., Sesarnc-G.); 
Triticum (Wheat, Spelt) 

28 Cyperaceae (fiom the genus Cyperus, the ancient 
Greek name) SEDGE FAMILY Fig 9 Herbaceous plants 
with grass-like habit and solid stems leaves alternate, 
in 3, rarely 2, vertical rows, linear, sheaths closed 
flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular, hypogynous. 
boine in variously disposed spikelets, subtended and 
hidden by overlapping scales none of which are regu- 
larly empty as in the grasses, no true palets, perianth 
reduced to bn.stles, scales, or 0, stamens 2-3; 
carpels 2-3; ovary 1-celled, 1-ovulcd; style 1; stig- 
mas 2-3 fruit an achene; seeds basal, anatropous, 

There are G5 genera and about 3,000 species, inhabit- 
ing the whole earth More than 500 species belong to 
the genus Carex, 400 to Cyperus, and 200 to Scirpus 
They are abundant in swampy regions The family 
is closely related to the Grammea*, from which it differs 
in the often 3-ranked leaves, solid stem, the absence of 
palets and of regular empty glumes, and the presence, 
in most cases, of a perianth and 3 carpels Most 
divergent from the ordinary is Carex, the flowers of 
which are monoecious, and the pistillate, though naked, 
are inclosed in a flask-shaped structure called a peri- 



gynium, which probably corresponds to the modified 
palet of the grass spikelet The elongated perianth forms 
the wool of the wool-grass or cotton-grass The scales 
of the spikelet are in 2 ranks in Cyperus and Duhchium; 
in many ranks in the other genera 

The Cyperaceac are of far less economic importance 
than the Grammes The rhizomes of several species 
of Carex were formerly used as a remedy in syphilis. 
Scirpus lacustris is astringent and diuretic, but other 

9 CYPERACETC, 1 Scirpus, a, poition of inflorescence, b, flower 
2 Enophorum, spikelet 3 Carex, a, inflorescence, b, vertical 
section pcrigymum PALMAPEE 1 Chamserops, a, bpathe and 
spadix, 6, floral diagram CYCLANIHACE^E. 5. Cyclanthus, mflo- 
recence b. Curludovica, inflorescence. 

species also possess this property. The foLage of 
Enophorum has been used for dysentery The spongy 
pith of the Enophorum stem was used by German 
peasants for tapeworm. The tubers of Cyperus escu- 
lenlus, now a weed in all countries, were cultivated 
by the Egyptians for food The leaves of many species 
of CyperaceiE have been woven into mats, chair- 
bottoms, and the like The Egyptians made parchment 
from the pith of Cyperus Papyrus The rhizomes of 
Eleochans tubcrosa arc used in the manufacture of 
starch, in China and India Ci/peru? wanobus and C 
pertenms, of India, are fragrant and used in making 
perfumery Some cances are used in making rugs 

Several genera are in cultivation in America, mostly 
for water-gardens, table decorations, and the con- 
servatory Carex (Sedge); Cyperus (Umbrella Palm, 
Egyptian Paper Plant, Egyptian Papyrus, Chufa); 
Duhchium, Eleochans, Enophorum (Cotton-Grass, 
Wool-Grass); Mapania; Scirpus (Bulrush Sedge). 


29 Palmaceae (from the Latin name palma) 
PALM FAMILY Fig 9 Woody plants of various habit, 
low, or arborescent, or climbing, usually unbranched, 
sometimes spmescent 1 leaves forming a crown at summit 
of stem except in Calamus, alternate, coriaceous, pal- 
mately or pmnately veined, eptire or pinnatmd or 
palmatifid, often very large, inflorescence a simple or 

much-branched spadix, with or without a subtending 
spathe, the latter often woody, flowers unisexual, 
rarely bisexual, often sunk in the spadix, perianth of 
6 parts in 2 series, greenish, often woody, valvate in 
the starmnate, imbricated or convolute in the pistillate 
flower; stamens 6, raicly 3 or many, on or around a 
disk, separate or united, carpelb 3, larely fewer, sepa- 
rate or forming a 1-3-celled ovarv, each cell 1-ovulcd, 
but all except one seed in the ovaiy may abort, stigmas 
usually 3 fruit a berry or diupe, pericarp fleshy or 
fibrous; seeds albuminous. 

Palmacesc has 128 genera and about 1,000 species of 
tropical distribution, 10-15 species are found in the 
southern United States The laigest genera are 
Calamus with about 200 species, Hactns with 90 
species and Chamaxlorea with 60 species The family 
is very distinct, having no close relatives, but it evi- 
dently belongs to the spathe- and spadix-beanng group. 
Th habit, eonaeeous plicate leaves which are entire 
in the bud, the woody flowers and inflorescence, the 
3 sepals and 3 petals, the usually 6 stamens, and the 
3 carpels, each with 1 seed, are together distinctive 

Palm leaves are always entire in the bud, and if 
later pmnatind or palmatifid, become so on unfolding 
In this respect the palms are unique The leaves are 
plicate in the bud, and, on opening, the plates of the fan 
expand and either remain united or, more frequently, 
split down along the folds In the pinnate species 
the rachis between the folds elongates so that the 
divisions are separated, and the \vell-kno\vn palm leaf 
is produced The splitting may be at the top of the 
fold, or at the bottom, depending on the genus, and 
is an impoitant characteristic in classification Some 
of the largest seeds in the plant kindgom belong to the 
Palmacese, as, for example, the coconut This fnnt is 
produced from an originally 3-celled ovary, 2 cells of 
which abort 

Next to the grasses, the palms are the most generally 
useful of all plants It is said that probably there is 
not a species but that is useful in some way Many 
yield textile fibers The wood is used to build houses 
and the leaves to thatch the roofs The leaves are also 
made into mats, baskets, hats, and the like The 
fibrous bud-sheaths are used as hats, or for fiber Some 
species contain starch or sugar in the trunk The fruits 
of many contain sugar, protein, starch, or oil Compara- 
tively few arc medicinal "The palm is called King of 
Plants and is said to supply all me wants of an inhabi- 
tant of the tropical zone It yields sugar, milk, solid 
cream, wine, vinegar, oil, cordage, cloth, cups, wood 
for building, thatch and other products " Coconuts, 
tht fruit of Cocos micifcra. form one of the most im- 
portant foods of the tiopics The date fruit (Phatnix 
dactyhfera of the Sahara) is also impoitant Mctroxylon 
Rumphu, and other species, yield sago A feimented 
liquor known as palm wine, lay mi or arrack, is made 
from the juice of Arcnga sacchaiifera, Bora^uv flabelli- 
formis, Metrocylon Rumphu, Maun tin miiifera, and 
others The central bud of the cabbage palm and 
others is used for food Most palm oil is from the fruit 
of 7?km guineensis of West Africa, which is now culti- 
vated in America It is used like olive oil , or vn the 
North for making soap Vegetable wax is obtained 
from the leaves and stems of Cerojryhm andicolum of 
Peru, also from Copermna cenfera (carnauba wax). 
The famous 'giant double coconut is from Lodoicea 
sechellarum of the Seychelle Islands The fruit of 
Areca Catechu of the East Indies and India yields an 
astringent juice which, mixed with the leaves of the 
betel pepper and lime, is chewed by the inhabitants 
of tropical Asia Coconut fiber is important for making 
ship cables. The very slender stems of Calamus, often 
300 feet or even 500 feet long (it is reported 1,200 or 
1,800 feet, but not verified) and scarcely larger than a 
pipe-stem or a finger, are called rattan, and used for 
furniture. Much of the dragon's blood of the druggists 



is the rod juice of the fruit of Calamus Draco Palm- 
leaf fans are made from the palmately veined leaves of 
several species The saw palmetto (Sabal wrrulata) 
of the southern states is medicinal The seeds of Phy- 
telcphas macrocarpa have a very hard endosperm 
known as vegetable ivory, used for carving as a sub- 
stitute for ivory 

Probably 100 genera are in the trade Except in the 
tropics, they are almost entirely ornamental greenhouse 
plants Among these are. Areca (Betel Nut), Attalea, 
Bactns, Calamus, Caryota (Fish-tail Palm, Wine 
Palm, Toddy Palm); Ceroxylon (Wax Palm), Chamai- 
dorea, Cocos (Coco Palm, Coconut, Pindo Tree), 
Corypha (Talipot Palm), Dacmonorops, JOlacis (Oil 
Palm), Erythea (Blue Palm), Geonorna, Hedyscepe 
(Umbrella Palm), Howea (Flat Palm, Thatch Leaf 
Palm, Curly Palm), Livistona, Oreodoxa (RoyaV Palrn, 
Cabbage Palm), Phoenix (Date Palm); Phytdephos 
(Ivory Palm); Hhapis, Khapidophyllum (Blue Pal- 
metto, Needle Palmetto); Sabal (Dwarf Palmetto, 
Blue Palm, Cabbage Palmetto), Serenaea (Saw Pal- 
metto), Thrmax, Trachycarpus (Fortune's Palm); 
Washmgtonia or Pntchardia (Weeping Palm). 


30 Cyclanthaceae (from the generic name Cyclan- 
thus, which has reference to the spiral arrangement of 
the flowers) CvrLANTiirs FAMILY Fig 9 Stemless or 
caulescent, palm-like, somewhat woody plants, often 
climbing leaves alternate, coriaceous, cleft or parted, 
flowers in a dense terminal unbranched spike (spadix), 
with several bract-like spathes beneath, staminate flow- 
ers grouped in 1 bundles accompanying the pistillate, 
or both in conspicuous alternating spirals, staminate 
perianth reduced and fimbnate, or 0, stamens 6 to 
many, borne in groups, perianth of the pistillate flo\\er 
0, or of 1 fleshy parts accompanied by 4 long, twisted, 
exerted st.immodia, carpels 4, united below, sunken in 
the spadix, ovary 1-eelled, many-ovuled, with parietal 
placentae fruit multiple, a berry-like spike The tissue 
of the spadix splits into valves, coiling up from the base 
to apex and thus inclosing the fruitlets which deli- 

This family has 5 genera and about 50 species, of 
which 35 belong to Carludoviea They are confined to 
the tropics of America, and stand intermediate between 
the PalmacecC and Araeea* The family is distinguished 
by the combination of palm-like foliage, numerous 
ovules, thick spadix, and closely associated staminate 
and pistillate flowers 

The flowers of Oyc/an//ms Inpartilus of Brazil are 
vanilla-scented, cultivated, and cooked with meat as an 
aphrodisiac The leaves of Carludomca paltnata furnish 
the material for the panama hats 

Several species of Cai ludovica are in the American 
trade as greenhouse plants 


31 Araceae (from the genus Arum, the ancient name 
of these plants) ARUM FAMILY Fig 10 Herbs, shrubs, 
or trees, of the most diverse habit and appearance, often 
climbing, or epiphytic with aerial roots, rarely floating, 
usually subflcshy, juice sometimes milky leaves ensi- 
form or broad, parallel- or netted-vemed, entire or 
variously cut flowers bisexual or unisexual, rarely 
reduced to a single stamen and carpel, regular, hypogy- 
nous or epigynous, disposed on an unbranched fleshy 
axis (spadix), which is usually subtended by a special 
bract (spathe); perianth 0, or of 4-8 parts, stamens 
1 to many, carpels 1 to several; ovary superior or in- 
ferior, 1 to several-celled, 1 to many-ovuled; style and 
stigmas various' fruit a berry; seeds albuminous, outer 
integument fleshy 

Araceoc has over 100 genera and about 900 species, 
widely distributed, hut most abundant m the tropics, 


especially as epiphytes in the deep, damp forests The 
majority in the temperate regions are swamp-planta. 
The largest genera are Philodendron with 100 species, 
and Arisserna with 50 species The family stands as 
the type of the spathe-bearmg plants Its close relatives 
are the Lemnaceae, Palmaceae, and Cyclanthacece, from 
which it is distinguished more by general habit and 
texture than by structural details 

The pollination of the Araceae is often complicated 
and remarkable (see Kerner and Oliver) The transfer 
of the pollen is mostly accomplished by flics, which 
are f recently attracted by lurid color and carrion 
scent The leaves of Monstera are remarkable for 
their peculiar perforations, while the massive petioles 
of other Araceae are sometimes mottled like snakeskm 
Pistia is a much-reduced floating aquatic, transitional 
to the Lemnaceao The aerial roots of the epiphytic 
species are frequently covered with a special water- 
absorbing tissue The unfolding spathes of the Araccse 
are noted for the heat evolved The tissues are usually 
very mucilaginous and filled with needle-like crystals 
of calcium oxalate These crystals are supposed to 
give the pungent flavor to Indian turnip simply by 
mechanically penetrating the tongue 

Many species have been used locally for medicine. 
Lagcnandra toxtcaria of Ceylon is extremely poisonous. 

10 ARACE,E 1 Anstpma, spathe and spadix 2 Arum spadix 
with male and female fltnveiN LEMNACEA 3 Lemna, a, whole 
plants, b, male and female floweis, and spathe BROMUJAC*. t. 4 
Bromeha, flower 5 Ananas, a, fruiting inflorescence, b, floral 
diagram. COMMELINACI 6 Commchna, flower 7 Tradcscantm. 

Dieffcnbachia Segwne and Anssema tnphyllum are 
violent irritants when chewed, causing the mouth to 
swell Arum maculatum of Europe was used by the 
ancients as an excitant The roots of Symplocarpus 
have been used for asthma and colds The roots of 
Acorns Calamus (sweet flag) are aromatic and used 
for coughs, colds, and the like The thick rootstocks 
and roots of many have been used for food, e. g , Oron- 
tium aquaticum of North America, Colocasia antiquo- 
rum of India, macrorhiza (taro) of the Pacific 
Islands, and Pellandra tnrgtmca of North America. 
The rhizomes of Arisxma maculatum and Calla valux- 



iris, mixed with cereals, according to Linmrus, serve 
for food among the Laps and Finns. Portland arrow- 
root is derived from Arums The delicately flavored, 
micy fruits of Monstera delictosa are eaten in Mexico. 
The shoots of Xanlhosoma sagittifolium^ called caraibe 
cabbage, are eaten as a vegetable in the Antilles. The 
aerial roots of aroids are used to tie bundles of sarsa- 
panlla sent to Europe and America. 

Because of their odd habit and strange appearance, 
as well as, in some cases, for real beauty, many Aracese 
are in cultivation, mostly as conservatory plants. 
Many genera are m the American trade Among these 
are: Acorus (Sweet Flag); Alocasia; Amorphophallus 
(Devil's Tongue, Snake Palm, Stanley's Wash-Tub), 
Anthunum, Ansaema (Indian Turnip, Jack-m-the- 
Pulpit, Dragon Root, Fringed Calla), Arum (Black 
Cafla, Solomon's Lily, Lord and Ladies, Cuckoo Pint, 
Wake-Robin of England); Biarum, Caladmm, Calla; 
Colocasia, Dieffenbachia; Hehcodiceros (Hairy Arum) , 
Monstera (Ceriman, Shingle Plant), Nephthytis; Oron- 
tium (Golden Club); Peltandra (Water Arum) ; Pistia 
(Water Lettuce, Tropical Duckweed); Pothos; Sauro- 
matum; Schizmatoglottis, Spathiphyllum, Symplocar- 
pus, or Spathyema (Skunk Cabbage), Xanthosma 
(Malanga), Zantedeschia, or Richardia (Calla Lily, 

32 Lemnaceae (from the genus Lemna, an old Greek 
name of uncertain origin) DUCKWEED FAMILY Fig 10. 
Tiny aquatic plants floating or submerged, the plant 
body reduced to an oval or oblong, flat, or globular thallus, 
which multiplies rapidly by marginal buds, and may or 
may not bear 1 or more roots on the under side: flowers 
unisexual, naked, monoecious, the stammate consisting 
of 1 stamen; the pistillate of 1 flask-shaped, 1-celled 
pistil, with several ovules, the latter orthotropous or 
anatropous, the micropyle transformed into a cap. fruit 
a several-seeded utncfe 

There are 3 genera and about 25 species, distributed 
over the whole earth, except the arctics The family is 
related to the Araccsc, from which it is supposed to 
have degeneratoxi. The flowers, which rarely occur, are 
borne in minuto pits in the edge or upper surface of 
the thallus, either 1 stammate and 1 pistillate, or 2 
stammate and 1 pistillate together; m some genera 
provided with a spathe corresponding to the spathe m 
the Araccse. The roots, when present, are balancing 
organs to resist the upsetting of the plant by the waves 
Wolffia is the tiniest flowering plant, the whole 
plant sometimes in size only half the diameter of a 

By the very rapid vegetative multiplication of some 
species, ponds are often completely covered with a 
green coating, and these plants may then become of 
economic importance 

Lemna ana Spirodela are often grown in aquaria. 

Order 18. FARINOSE 

33. Bromeliacese (from the genus Bromeha, in honor 
of Olaus Bromel, a Swedish botanist). PINEAPPLE 
FAMILY. Fig 10. Herbs or subshrubs, mostly epiphytic : 
leaves usually basal, alternate, linear, trough-like, 
sheathing at the base, mostly stiff and spiny-serrate, 
usually covered in part or all over with peltate scale-like 
hairs or glands, flowers in spikes, racemes, panicles or 
heads, often in the axils of imbricated, highly colored, 
bracts, usually bisexual, regular, epigynous or hypogy- 
nous; perianth of 6 parts, definitely differentiated into 
calyx and corolla; parts free or united; stamens 6, often 
borne on the perianth; anthers introse; ovary inferior 
or superior, 3-celled; ovules many; style 1; stigmas 3. 
fruit a berry or capsule, more or less surrounded by 
the persistent perianth; seeds albuminous 

The family has 40 genera and about 900 species, 
almost exclusively of tropical and subtropical Amer- 
ica. Tillandsia usneoides reaches Florida and Texas. 

Tillandsia is the largest genus with 120 species. The 
family is closely related to the Liliacea) and Amaryl- 
hdaceae. The peculiar stiff leaves, the conspicuous 
bracts, the herbaceous calyx, the mealy endosperm, 
and, in general, the epiphytic habit, are distinc- 
tive. There are few families more easily recognized 
than this. 

The most important economic species is the pine- 
apple (Ananas sativus), the fruit of which is an impor- 
tant article of commerce. Its unripe juice is used as a 
vermifuge and diuretic. Florida or Spanish moss 
(Tiilandsia usneoides) is used in the preparation of 
a stiptic ointment It is also used to stuff mattresses, 
under the name of vegetable hair BiLlberqia linctona is 
the source of a dye The leaves of pineapple yield a 
beautiful fiber Bromeha Pinguin is a vermifuge em- 
ployed in the West Indies. 

There are several genera grown in America, all for 
ornamental purposes except the pineapple. Among these 
are: ^Echmea, Ananas (Pineapple) ; Billbergia, Bromeha 
(Pinguin of Jamacia, Wild Pine), Cryptanthus, Dyckia; 
Guzmanma; Nidularmm, Pitcairma, Tillandsia (Span- 
ish Moss, Florida Moss. Long Moss), Vriesia 

34 Commelinaceae (from the genus Commelma dedi- 
cated to J. and G Commelm, Dutch botanists of the 
early 18th century). SPIDERWORT FAMILY Fig 10 Herbs 
with knotty stems, and somewhat sheathing, alternate, 
flat or channeled, cauline leaves flowers usually bisexual, 
almost or quite regulai, hypogynous, perianth of 6 
parts, in 2 series, differentiated into a green calyx and 
colored corolla; the petals separate or united into a tube, 
mostly quickly disappearing, and dissolving into a viscid 
liquid; stamens 6, or reduced to 3, with or without 
stammodia; some anthers often sterile and altered, the 
filaments usually provided with characteristic long 
hairs, ovary superior, 2-3-oelled, few-seeded, style 1, 
stigma usually captitate fruit a capsule. 

Twenty-five genera and about 300 species occur, 
widely distributed m the tropics and subtropica 
Eleven species reach the northeastern United States. 
The largest genus is Commelma, with 88 species The 
family is not closely related to any other The general 
habit, the complete differentiation of the perianth into 
calyx and corolla, the slight irregularity of the flower, 
the peculiar stamen-hans, and the transformed anthers, 
are together distinctive The peculiar deliquescent 
character of the petals in many genera is of interest 

The rhizomes of several species of Commelma con- 
tain starch, besides the mucilage, and are eaten The 
rhizome of C Rumphu is an emmenagrogue The tubers 
of Aneilema medicum are used m China for coughs 
and lung diseases A decoction of ('yttnotix axillans 
is used by the Indians for chopsy The family is 
most important from the point of view of orna- 
mental use. 

Several genera are grown in America, all for ornament 
Among these are 1 Aneilema, Cochhostema, Commelma 
(Day Flower); Diohonsandra, Tradescantia (Spider- 
wort, Wandering Jew); Zebrma (Wandering Jew) 

35. Pontederiaceae (from the genus Pontederia, 
named in honor of Pontedera, professor at Padua m 
the 18th century) PICKEREL-WEED FAMILY Fig 11. 
Upright or floating, fleshy, water- or swamp-plants- 
leaves alternate, petioles sheathing; blade cordate, 
oval, or orbicular, or reduced to the linear flattened 
petiole: flowers not bracted, bisexual, irregular, hypogy- 
nous; perianth of 6 similar parts, in 2 whorls, more or 
less connate, persistent; stamens 3 or 6, rarely 1, inser- 
ted unequally on the perianth-tube; anthers introse; 
ovary superior, 3-celled and ovules many, or 1-celled 
and 1-seeded, style 1; stigmas 3' fruit a capsule, or an 
achene enveloped by the fleshy persistent base of the 
perianth; embryo as long as the endosperm. 

The family contains 6 genera and about 20 species, of 
which 9 belong to the genus Heteranthera, and about 
5 to Eichhorma. They are distributed m the swamps of 









the warmer parts of the earth, except Europe The 
family is most closely related to the Liliaceac, from \vhieh 
it diners m the irregular flowers, m the syrnpodial 
method of growth, in anatomical characters, and 
principally in the abundant mealy endosperm 

A decoction of the root of Monochona vaym iltf of the 
Far East is used for liver and stomach complaints, the 
root is chewed for toothache; pulverised and mixed 
with sugar it is used for asthma; the loaves bruised 
and mixed with milk are used for cholera, and the 
shoots are edible. Eichhornui cra,^ipe}> is a floating 
fleshy plant with beautiful flowers It has become so 
abundant in Florida as to interfere senou>ly with steam- 
boat navigation in the rivers The large violet flowers 
of both Eichhorma and Pontederia are valued m 
cultivation for water-gardens 

Two genera are frequent m cultivation* Eiehhorma 
(Water Hyacinth), from South America; and Ponte- 
deria (Pickerel- weed), native 

Order 19 LILIFLOU^K 

36 Juncaceae (from the genus Juncus, classical name, 
derived Irom j anyere, to join) FAMILY Fig 11 
Rush-like or grass-like herbs or shrubs flowers numer- 
ous, very small, bisexual, regular, hypogynous, perianth 
of ft similar, separate parts, greenish or brownish, 
chaffy; stamens 3 or b' in 2 whorls, carpels 3, ovary 1- 

PONTEDLRI \< CA, 1 Pontodcna, floral dmj'i im Jt M \- 
CK*. 2 Lu/uU flowci J Junrus o. flowir, b, tfoial diagram 
LILIALIA. 1 DrncBcn.i, flower "> Fntillarm, floral diagram 
A\H.HYIIID\CF E Lcucoium, a, flower, 6, floial diagram 7 
Narcissus, flower 

or 3-celled, ovules 3 to many, stigmas 3' fruit a cap- 
sule; seeds mostly very small, albuminous, anatropous 

JuncacejF has 7 genera and about 175 species, of 
which 100 belong to the genus Juncus, widely distrib- 
uted in temperate and cold regions, both north and 
south, but rare m the tropics The family is closelv 
related to the Lihaeeie, from which it differs only m 
the rush- or grass-like habit and scanous perianth 
Fossil species are known The leaves are sheathing 
and the blades are either flat, or tubular and nodulose 
Distichia of the Andes is densely heath-hke or moss- 

The stems and leaves of many species are used for 
binding, or for weaving into mats Light hats are 
made from the pith of certain species m India and 
China The pith is also used for candlewicks 

In cultivation in America are 2 genera for water- 
gardens Juncus; Priomurn, woody. Xanthorrho?a is 
transferred to the Lihaceie 

37. Liliaceae (from the genus Lihum, classical Latin 

name). LILY FAMILY Fig 11 Herbs, shrubs, or trees, 
usually with lootstocks or bulbs, sometimes climbing 
leaves alternate, rarely with petiole and blade flowers 
bisexual, rarely unisexual, regular, hypogynous, rarely 
epigynous, riot subtended by spathes; perianth petaloid, 
of 6 similar parts, in 2 series, the parts separate or 
connate, rarely differentiated into a green calyx and 
colored corolla; stamens 6, rarely fewer, hypogynous, or 
borne upon the perianth; carpels 3, rarely more or fewer, 
united, rarely free, ovary usually 3-celled, ovules 
1 to many in each cell, styles and stigmas 1-3 fruit a 
capsule or berry 

There are about 200 genera and 2,000 species, distrib- 
u'ed m all parts of the world The large genera arc 
Smilax with 200 species, Alhum with 250 species, 
Asparagus with 100 species, Aloe with 85 species and 
Scilla with SO species The Lihacea?, taken in the 
broader sense, as is done by Ben I ham & Hooker, and 
by Engler, is an easily iceogm/ed group except in unu- 
sual cases The regular, b-parted perianth, stamens, 
and .J-celled superior ovary are distinctive The family 
has been divided by Engler into 1 1 tribes The Lihaceae 
furnishes a host of cultivated plants 

The following plants, among others, have been or are 
used in medicine Amianthwm mtuscatoxicum of North 
America as a narcotic and a fly poison, various species 
of Uvulana of North America as a gargle and for rattle- 
snake bites, the root of Poljgonatum sp in Europe as 
a vulnery, and the berries as an emetic and purgative, 
the berries of timdacnia ractmosa of North America as 
a tonic, the root of Convallana majahs of Europe as a 
purgative, the leaves of titreptopus amplexicauhs of 
North America as a gargle, the roots of Ruscus of 
Europe as a diuretic and ernmenagoguc, the roots of 
Srnilax sp of the tropics (the sarsapanllas of commerce) 
as a tonic and diuretic, the roots of Asparagus oflicinalis 
in Europe as an aperient, the berries ^as a diuretic and 
aphrodisiac, and the shoots as a seda'tive and cardiac, 
the roots of Cordylme of the southern tropics for 
dysentery, the flowers of C deflcxa as an eirimenagogue, 
the resin from Xanthorhcra hat,hh<> (Botany Bay gum, 
with a fragrance like benzoin) in Australia for throat 
troubles, the resin of X au^lrahs (grass tree gum, 
eaith shellac, or nut pitch) for various purposes, the 
tubers of OpJnopogon japonic us (serpent's beard) in 
China and .Japan for abdominal troubles; the bulbs of 
Gage.i of Europe as an emetic, the flowers of Hemero- 
calhs of Europe as a cordial, the leaves of species of 
Aloes of the Old World as a tonic, puigative, and ern- 
menagogue (A Penyi is Socotrme aloes, A vein is 
Baibadoes aloes, and A spicata is Cape aloes), the 
bulb of Urginea mantima (squills) of the Mediterra- 
nean as a diuretic, expectorant, and emetic; Alhum sp 
as a vermifuge and carminative, the bulbs of Hya- 
cmthus, Muscan, and Ormthogalum of Europe as 
purgatives and diuretics, Ormthogalum altissimum of 
the Cape as a remedy for asthma and catarrh; Anthen- 
cum and Asphodelus as diuretics and emmenagogues; 
Tulbaghia of the Cape as a vermifuge and for phthisis; 
the poisonous root of Vcratrum album (white helle- 
boie) of Europe as a violent purge and emetic, and to 
exterminate vermin, V mqruni (black h ) of Europe, 
and V viride (green h ) of the United States, occasion- 
airy, for the same purpose; fichcenoraulon ojficinahs 
(cavadilla or sabadilla) of Mexico for vermin and as a 
vermifuge, the narcotic, poisonous root and seeds of 
Cohhicum oflicinale of Europe as a cathartic, emetic, 
and sedative, and Hclonias bullata of North America 
as a vermifuge The roots of Glonosa, also, are poison- 
ous Dracitiia Draco, the dragon tree of the Canaries 
and Teneriffe, famous for the extreme age and size of 
the trees, was superstitiously revered by the ancients 
The red resinous astringent exudation of these plants 
was called di agon's blood 

The following have been used for food Bulbs of 
Camassia esculenta, western United States, bulbs and 



leaves of Alhum ep. (onion, leek, eschalot or shallot, 
rochambole) ; shoots of Polygonatum, Europe, United 
States; shoots of Asparagus ojficinahs, roots of Cordy- 
line sp . in South Sea Islands, and there called ti. The 
seeds 01 Ruscus are a substitute for coffee. 

A few have been used for other purposes: Hoots of 
Yucca for soap; fibers of New Zealand flax (Phormium 
tenax) for fabrics; and the fragrant root of DianeUa 
nemorosa for incense. 

For ornament, great numbers of genera and species 
are in cultivation. 

Very many genera are in cultivation, some common, 
for ornamental purposes unless otherwise stated Among 
these are Agapanthus (African Lily, Lily-of-tho-Nile) ; 
Aletns (Colic Root), native, Alhum (Onion, Chives, 
Cives, Garlic, Leek, Shallot), ornament and food; 
Asphodehne (True Asphodel, King's Spear); Asphodelus 
(Branching Asphodel; , Bessera (Mexican Coral Drops) ; 
Brevoortia (Floral Fire-Cracker), Brodiuea, Calochortus 
(Star Tulip, Globe Flower, Manposa Lily, Butterfly 
Tulip); Camassia (Camass); Chionodoxa (Glory-of-t he- 
Snow); Chlorogalum (Soap Plant, Amole), Chntoma, 
native: Colchicum (Meadow Saffron, Autumn Crocus); 
Cordyhne (Dracaena), Dasyhnon; Dracaena (Dragon 
Tree); Erythromum (Dog's-tooth Violet, Adder's 
Tongue); Eucomis (Royal Crown, Pineapple Flower); 
Fntillana (Crown Imperial, Black Lily, Checkered 
Lily); Funkia (Day Lily, Plantain Lily), Galtonia 
(Giant Summer Hyacinth), Gastena; Glonosa (Climb- 
ing Lily); Haworthia, Helomas (Swamp Pink, Stud 
Pink), Hemerocallis (Yellow Day Lily, Lemon Lily), 
Hyacmthus (Hyacinth); Kniphoha (Red-hot-poker 
Plant. Torch Lily, Flame Flower), Lachenaha (Cape 
Cowslip) . Lapagena (Chilean Bellflowcr) ; Leucocrmum 
(Sand Lily) ; Lilium (Lily, Easter Lily, Madonna Lily, 
Tiger Lily, Japan Lily, Turk's-cap Lily); Littoma 
(Climbing Lily), Maianthemum (False Lily-of-the- 
V alley, Two-leaved False Solomon's Seal), native; 
Medeola (Indian Cucumber Root), native; Molanthium 
(Bunch Flower); Milla (Mexican Star, Mexican Star of 
Bethlehem, Frost Flower, Floating Star), Muscari 
(Grape Hyacinth, Musk Hyacinth, Feathered Hya- 
cinth); Narthecmm (Bog Asphodel) , Nohna, Nothos- 
cordum (Yellow False Garlic, Streaked-leaved Garlic) ; 
Oakesia (Wild Oats), native; Ormthogalum (Star of 
Bethlehem); Paradisea (St. Bruno's Lily, St Bernard's 
Lily), Paris (Herb Pans, Love Apple, True Love); 
Phonnium (New Zealand Flax); Polygonatum (Solo- 
mon's Seal); Ruscus (Butcher's Broom); Sanseviena 
(Bow-string Hemp) ; Scilla (Squill, Wild Hyacinth, Blue- 
bell, Harebell, Spanish Jacinth, Sea Onion, Starry Hya- 
cinth, Cuban Lily, Hyacinth of Peru, Peruvian Jacinth) ; 
Semele (Climbing Butcher's Broom); Smilacma (False 
Solomon's Seal), native; Smilax; Strcptopus (Twisted 
Stalk), native; Tricyrtis (Toad Lily), Trillium (Wake- 
Robin, Birthroot, Bethroot, White Wood Lily, Ground 
Lily), native; Tntelcia (Spring Star-Flower); Tuhpa 
(Tulip) ; Urginea (Sea Onion, Squills) , Uvulana (Bell- 
wort, Wild Oats), native; Veratrum (False Hellebore. 
White Hellebore, Green Hellebore, Black Hellebore, 
Indian Poke); Xanthorrhcea (Grass Tree, Grass Gum, 
Black Boy); Xerophyllum (Turkey's Beard); Yucca 
(Spanish Bayonet, Adam's Needle, Bear Grass, Silk 
Grass); Zygadenus (Fly-poison). 

38 Amarylhdaceae (from the genus Amaryllis 
named for a nymph celebrated by Virgil) AMARYLLIS 
FAMILY. Fig. 11. Caulescent or acaulescent herbs, bul- 
bous- or fibrous-rooted, leaves alternate, elongated, 
entire: flowers bisexual, regular or irregular, epigynous, 
usually borne singly or in clusters from a spathe-hke 
bract; perianth 01 6 similar parts in 2 series, usually 
connate below into a tube and sometimes with a tubular 
or cup-shaped crown in the throat; stamens 6, some 
occasionally stammodial, anthers introrse; ovary inferior, 
3-celled; ovules numerous, anatropous; style 1; stigmas 
1-3 fruit a capsule, rarely a berry; seeds albuminous. 

There are 71 genera and about 800 species, widely 
distributed but most abundant in the steppe regions 
of the tropics and subtropics Five species are found in 
the northeastern United Statas Ihe largest genera 
are Crinum with 60 species, and Hypoxis, and Hip- 
peastrum with 50 species each The family is most 
closely related to the Lihaceae; less closely to tho 
Iiidace^e The 6-parted perianth, 6 stamens with 
introrse anthers, and inferior 3-celled ovary, are together 

The bulbs or rootstocks of some species have- been 
used in medicine Those of Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus 
and Leitcoium vernum arc vigorous emetics Those of 
Cnnuni zeylnmcum of the Moluccas, Amaryllis Bella- 
donna, of the Cape of Good Hope, and Buphane toxi- 
caria of South Africa are violent poisons The latter 
is used by the Kafirs to poison their arrows In South 
America the farinaceous tubers of the Alstrcemeriuo are 
eaten. The most important plants are the Yuccas 
From the terminal bud of these, a sugary liquid is 
obtained which by the Mexicans is made into a fer- 
mented drink, called pulque, when distilled this drink 
is called mescal The juic-e of the leaves has been used 
for syphilis, scrofula, and cancers The leaf-fibers 
yield vegetable silk or sisal hemp, and are also made 
into paper Razor-strops and cork are made from the 
pith The flowers are sometimes boiled and eaten 

Forty or more genera are in cultivation in America, as 
ornamental plants in greenhouse and garden Among 
these arc. Agave (Century Plant, Sisal Hemp, Pulque 
Plant), Alstroeineria, Amaryllis (Belladonna Lily), 
Besehorneria; Bomarea, Bravoa (Mexican Twin 
Flower), Cooperia (Evening Star, Giant Fairy Lily); 
Crmum (St John's Lily, Flonda Swamp Lilv) , Euchans 
(Amazon Lily, Star of Bethlehem), Eurycles (Brisbane 
Lily), Furcra?a, Galanthus (Snowdrop), Gnfhnia (Blue 
Amaryllis), Hjemanthus (Blood Lily), Hippeastrum 
(Amaryllis, Lily-of-the-Palace. Barbadoes Lily), Hy- 
menocalhs (Spider Lily, Sea Daffodil); Hypoxis (Star 
Grass), native, Leucomm (Snowflake), Lycons (Golden 
Spider Lily) j Narcissus (Narcissus, Jonquil, Daffodil, 
Pneasant's Eye) ; Nerme (Guernsey Lily) , Pancratium 
(Spider Lily, Spirit Lily); Polianthes (Tuberose); 
Sprekeha (Jacobacan Lily); Tecophilsea (Chilean Cro- 
cus) , Vallota (Scarborough'Lily) , Zephyranthes (Zephyr 
Flower, Fairy Lily, Atamasco Lily) 

39 Taccaceae (from the genus Tacca, from the Malay 
name) TACCA FAMILY Pig 12 Herbaceous plants 
leaves large, entire, or commonly pmnatifid or bipmna- 
tifid, all basal' flowers saucer- or urn-shaped, bisexual, 
regular, epigynous, penanth of 6 nearly separate simi- 
lar parts in 2 series, stamens 6, borne on the base 
of the perianth ; filaments queerly broadened and 
cucullate, ovary inferior, 1 -celled, or incompletely 3- 
cclled, ovules numerous; placentae parietal; style um- 
brella-like, the terminal disk variously lobed, and bear- 
ing the peculiar stigmatic pores beneath: fruit a capsule 
or berry; seed albuminous. 

Taccaceae has 2 genera and 10 species, inhabitants 
of the tropics of both hemispheres, mostly of the 
Malay archipelago. A very distinct family of doubtful 
relationship, even suggesting several Dicotyledonous 
families, but probably close to the Diosconaccse and 
Amaryllidacesc. The acaulescent habit, the epigynous 
bisexual flowers, the six queer stamens, and the 1-celled, 
many-ovuled ovary, are together distinctive. 

Several species 01 Tacca, c. g., T. pinnatifida, possess 
tubers from which a starchy meal, called arrowroot, ia 
made in the East Straw hats are made from the stems 
of Tacca by the Tahitians. 

Tacca pinnatifula and T. cristata are cultivated 
sparingly in America 

40 Dioscoreaceae (from the genus Dioscorea, named 
in honor of Dioscondes). YAM FAMILY. Fig. 12. 
Chmbine or twining herbs or shrubs* leaves alternate, 
mostly arrowhead-shaped, flowers bisexual or umaex- 



ual, regular, small, and inconspicuous; perianth of 6 
similar parts, in 2 series; stamens usually 6, or the 3 
inner stammodia, ovary inferior, 3-celled, rarely 1- 
celled, placenta) axile or parietal; ovules 2 m each 
cell, superposed, anatropous, stigmas 3, or each 2- 
parted. fruit a capsule or berry, seed albuminous 

Nine genera arid about 170 species, of which 150 
belong to the genus Dioscorca, are distributed very 
generally m the tropics and m the subtropics, and 
extend sparingly into the north temperate zone They 
are most abundant m South America and the West 
Indies One species reaches north to southern New 
England The family is related to the Amarylhdacejc 
and Lihaeea) The climbing habit, peculiar leaves, 
definite stamens, inferior 3-celled ovary, and 2 albumi- 
nous seeds are distinctive Most Dioscoriace spring 
from a tuberous base, which is sometimes very large 
and conspicuous Odd tubers arc borne in the leaf- 
axils of species of Dioscorea and llajama. 

The tuberous root of Dwscorea Batatas yields the 
yams of eastern commerce, a very important article 
of food in the Far Eat>t Those of several other species, 
including our own native D villosa, are also cultivated 
in vanous parts of the tropics. The leaves of some 
species are used in intermittent fevers The tubers of 
Tamils commums were formerly employed as a pur- 
gative, and were also applied to bruises, hence the 
nam "beaten woman's herb." The shoots are eaten 
like asparagus 

Two genera are in cultivation in the United States, 
mostly in the South Dioncorea (Yam, Chinese Potato, 
Cinnamon Vine, Air Potato), Testudmana (Hottentot's 
Bread, Tortoise Plant, Elephant's Foot), rarely grown 

41. Iridaceae (from the genus Ins, the rainbow) 
IRIS FAMILY. Fig. 12 Herbs or sub-shrubs with fibrous 
roots or often tuberous rootstocks (oormb) leaves 
mostly basal, equitant, linear flo\\orb usually showy, 
bisexual, regular or irregular, epigynous, each with 2 
spathe-hke bracts, perianth of petaloid parts in 2 
scries, usually unlike, generally connate into a tube; 
stamens 3, the inner whorl wanting, separate or con- 
nate, anthers extroise, ovary inferior, 3-celled, rarely 
1-celled, ovules few to many, anatiopouh, style 1, stig- 
mas 3 fruit a capsule, seeds albuminous 

The ins family has 57 genera and about 1,000 species 
of wide distribution The two mam centers are the 
Cape of Good Hope and subtropical America The 
family is not plainly related to any other, perhaps most 
closely to the Amarylhdacej? The ensiform equitant 
leaves, the 6-parteu showy perianth, the 3 extrorse 
stamens, and the inferior 3-celled ovary, are together 

The rootstocks of many Iridaceae are purgative and 
diuretic, e g , Iris florcnhna, I gcrm-amra, I palhda, 
and /. vert>icolor. The rootstock of /. florentina is 
fragrant and used for sachet peifume and tooth-powder 
(orris root). / Pt>eudacorus and/ versicolor have been 
used for dropsy and diarrhea /. faetuhbsima was an 
ancient remedy for scrofula and hysteria. The stigmas 
of Crocus sativus have been renowned since earliest 
times as an emmenagogue, they are deep orange in 
color, and used also m dyeing and as a condiment. Iris- 
green of the painters was prepared by treating violet 
iris flowers with lime The seeds of /. Pseiulacorut* have 
been used as a substitute for coffee. The rootstocks of 
Homena colhna of South Africa are very poisonous The 
family contauis many well-known ornamental plants. 
In America, many genera are in cultivation, all for 
ornamental purposes Among these are: Belamcanda 
(Blackberry Lily, Leopold Flower); Crocus; Freesia; 
Gladiolus; Hermodactylus (Sriake's-head Ins); Ins 
(Fleur-de-lis, Iris, Gladwin); Ixia; Morsea (Wedding 
Iris) ; Schizostylis (Crimson Flag) ; Sisyrinchium (Blue- 
eyed Grass, Satin Flower, Hush Lily) ; Sparaxis (Wand 
Flower), Tigndia (Tiger Flower, Shell Flower), Tn- 
toma (Blazing Star). 

Order 20. SCITAMINB^J 

42. Musaoeae (from the genus Musa, the Arabic 
name) BANANA FAMILY. Fig 12 Large, semi-ligne- 
ous herbs, the stout stem enveloped at base by the 
sheathing petioles, unbrauched leaves alternate, entire, 
convolute, pmnately parallel- veined: flowers bisexual, 
or unisexual, irregular, cpigj nous, borne m the axil of 
a bract in spikes with subtending spathes, nectaries 
ovarian, perianth of 6 parts, in 2 series, the parts un- 
equal in size and shape, separate or variously united, 
stamens 0, 5 fertile and 1 stammodium, ovary inferior, 
3-celled; ovules solitary and basal, or numerous and 
axile, anatropous, style 1; stigmas usually 3 fruit 

12. TA.CCACEE 1 Tacca, flower DIOSCOREVCEE 2 Dios- 
corea, leaf and fruit IniDACfc^v 3 Crocus, a, vertical section 
ft hole plant, b, floral diagram 4 Sisynnchium, flower MUBA- 
o E 5 Musa, a, flower, it, stamen, b, floral diagram ZIN- 
oinFRAct*. 6 Zmgibor, a, flower, at , stamen, b, floral diagram 

fleshy and pulpy or drupaceous, indehiscent, dehiscent 
or separating into f nutlets, seeds with pensperm; 
embryo straight. 

Six genera and about 60 species occur, 30 of which 
belong to the genus Hehcoma and 20 to Musa, of gen- 
eral tropical distribution Fossil species are known. 
The family is related to the Marantacea), Zingiberaceae 
and Cannaceae; with the la^t it is often united These 
families all have irregular flowers of the same type, and 
inferior ovaries; but the Musaceae differ in their 
slightly differentiated calyx and corolla, in the 5 fertile 
stamens, and in the absence of aromatic principles 

The banana (Musa paradisiaca, M sapientum, etc ) 
is the most important economic plant, the fruit of 
which is widely used for food. The pith of the stem, 
top of the floral spike, and also the shoots, are eaten as 
vegetables The fibers from the petioles of Musa textihs 
are made into thread and fabrics The leaves are used 
to thatch huts. The traveler's tree (Ravenala mada- 
gascanenais) holds sufficient water at the leaf bases to 
serve for drink The water is obtained by boring the 
sheath The seeds of this tree are eaten 

Four genera are in cultivation in the South and in 
conservatories, for ornament; and one also, Musa, for 
the fruit Hehcoma (Bahsier, Wild Plantain) , Musa (Ba- 
nana, Plantain Tree, Chumpa, Adam's Fig) ; Ravenala 
(Traveler's Tree); Strehtzia (Bird of Paradise Flower). 

43. Zingiberaceae (from the genueZingiber, the Indian 



name). GINGER FAMILY Fig 12. Herbs with creeping 
or tuberous rhizomes, rarely \vith fibrous roots leaves 
basal or caulme, alternate, sheathing, blade with ligulc 
at. top of petiole, linear or elliptic, the pmnately 
parallel veins strongly ascending flowers bisexual, 
irregular, epigynous, perianth of parts, in 2 series, 
differentiated into a tubular 3-toothed or spathiform 
somewhat herbaceous calyx, and a tubular unequally 
3-lobed corolla, 1 stamen only us fertile, opposite this is 
a large petaloid staminodium, and there are sometimes 
other smaller ones, ovary inferior, 3-eellcd, rarely 1- 
eelled, ovules many in each cell, style 1, stigma usually 

1 fruit a capsule, seed with largo pensperm, small 
endosperm, and straight ernbrjo 

There are 24 genera and about 270 species, distributed 
in the tropical regions of the eastern hemispheie Only 

2 genera are in America. The largest genera are Amo- 
mum, with 50 species, and Alpima, with 40 species 
The family is related to the Musaceae, Marantace.e 
and Cannacesc, but diffeis in the hgule, the aromatic oil, 
the sharp differentiation of the perianth, the single 
stamen, and the large single staminodium 

To the spicy aromatic flavor of the rhizomes and 
fruits the family owes its useful qualities Ginger is 
from the rhizomes of Zingiber ojfficmale, cultivated from 
India Cardarnon fruits are from Eletkina Cardamo- 
mum of farther India Curcuma or turmeric is from 
the rhizomes of Curcunui longa, cultivated from south- 
east Asia This is used in medicine, and for flavor- 
ing pickles In it is a >ellow dye The seeds of Amo- 
nium Melegueta of west Africa aie the grains of paia- 

13. CAN^ACEB 1 Canna, a, flower, b, floral diagram 
MARANTACE*: 2 Maranta, a, flower, pistil removed, b, floral 
diagram ORCHIDACE-B: 3, a, flower, b, column, front 
view, r, pollinia and gland, d, floral diagram 4* Cypriprdium. 
a, flower, b, column, under side, c, column, side view, d, floral dia- 
gram (tt , fertile stamen, ster , sterile stamen, stig , stigma, g, 
gland, p., pistil). 

dise of commerce. Galangal, used inperfumery, is the 
rootstock of Alpima Galanga of the East Indies. 

Seveial genera are in cultivation in America, mostly 
grown for ornamental purposes in greenhouses and 
principally in the South. Among these are Alpima 
(Shell Flower); Ainomum; Curcuma (Curcuma, Tur- 
meric), Klettaria (commercial Cardamon seeds), He- 
dychium (Butterfly Lily, Ginger Lily, Garland Lity); 
Kamipfena, Zmgiber (Ginger) 

44 Cannaceae (from the genus Canna, the origin of 
the name not clear). CANNA FAMILY. Fig 13 Similar 
to the Marantaeeaj in all but the following structural 
details no joint nor hgule at summit of petiole, ovulca 
many in each cell of the ovary, embryo stiaight 

This family contains a single genus and 25-50 species 
of tropical and subtiopical America 

The starchy rhuome of C edidit, is grown and eaten 
in the \\est Indies and Australia The arrowroot 
starch of the English and French is derived from C 
cocctnea of the West Indies and South America The 
cannas are popular ornamental garden plants 

45 Marantaceee (from the genus Maranta, named 
for Maranti, a Venetian botanist and physician of the 
10th century) ARROWROOT FAMILY Fig 13 Herbs with 
rhizomes leaves mostly basal, with an articulation at 
the summit of the petiole, blade linear to oval, pmnately 
patallel-vemed inflorescence usually surrounded by 
sputhe-hkcbraets; floweis bisexual, irregular, epigynous, 
perianth of 6 parts, plainly differentiated into calyx and 
coiolla, the latter somewhat irregular, one stamen of the 
inner set fertile, petaloid, with lateral anther, the two 
others of the inner whorl tiansformed into enlarged 
stammodia, usually 1 or 2 of the outer whorl also 
present as petaloid stammodia, ovary inferior, 3-celled, 
rarely 1-2-celled, ovule 1 in each cell; style flat and 
twisted or lobed fruit a capsule or beny, seeds with 
pensperm, and aril, embryo curved 

Marantaeeie has 12 genera and about 160 species, of 
damp situations in the tropics, mostly American The 
laigest genus is Calathea with GO species The tamily 
is related to the Cannacea?, Zmgiberacete, and Musa- 
eea? The joint at the summit of the petiole, the typo 
of stamen-irregularity, the 1 -seeded cells of the ovary, 
and the curved embryo are distinctive 

The rhizome of Mnranta nrundmacea is cultivated in 
t ropical America, and furnishes themarant a arrowroot of 
commerce, rhizomes of some other species are eaten 
Many species are ornamental, mostly for conservatory. 

Five or 6 genera are in cultivation in America, as 
Calathea (Rattlesnake Plant), Maranta, Phrymum; 
Strornanthe; Thalia 


46 Orchidaceae (from the genus Orchis, an ancient 
name of these plants) ORCHID FAMILY Fig 13 Her- 
baceous plants of very diverse habit and structure; ter- 
restrial, epiphytic or saprophytic, somutimeH climbing; 
the terrestrial with fibrous roots or with thickened tuber- 
like roots, the epiphytic often with the base of the leaf 
and adjoining stem swollen, forming a pseudobulb; the 
saprophytic without chlorophyll , the epiphytic often with 
aerial hanging roots are provided with a water-absorb- 
ing layer (velamen) leaves alternate, succulent, coria- 
ceous or membranous, linear to oval flowers bisexual, 
rarely unisexual, irregular, epigynous, perianth of 6 
parts, in 2 series, usually all petaloid; one petal larger, 
forming the lip (labellum) ; stamens originally 6, but all 
except 1 or 2 wanting, or reduced to staminodia, united 
with the pistil, pollen-grams compound, granular, or 
aggregated into masses (polhnia) which are either free 
in the anther or attached by a stalk to a viscid apical or 
stigmatic gland; carpels 3; ovary inferior, 1- or 3-celled; 
ovules very numerous, style united with the stamens to 
form the column; stigma in the front of the column, or 
on a projecting lobe, fruit a capsule, seeds very minute. 


This is an important family of more than 400 gencia 
and between 6,000 and 10,000 species Orchids are very 
widely distributed, except in the arctics, but are most 
numerous m the tropics Those of temperate regions 
are mainly terrestrial, those in the tropics commonly 
epiphytic The large genera are Kpidendrum, 500 spe- 
cies; Habenana, Dendrobium, Bulbophyllum, and On- 
cidnun, 200-600 species each; Masdevalha, Odonto- 
glossum, and Maxillana, each 100 or more species 

From the standpoint of the intricate and very special 
mechanisms evolved in order to insure cross-pollination, 
the orchids are the most wonderful of our insect- 
pollinated plants For a detailed account see Darwin's 
"Fertilization of Orchids," or Keinerand Oliver's "Natu- 
ral History of Plants " In general, the insect visiting the 
showy flower for the honey comes in contact with the 
sticky gland above the stigma, thereby pulling it out, 
along with the attached pollen masses While the insect 
is going to another flower, the pollen masses dry and 
bend down until they are in position to strike the viscid 
stigma, which tears away and retains some of the pollen. 
The method of pollination in Cypnpedium is fundamen- 
tally different Some orchids (e g , Catasetum) possess a 
sensitive explosive mechanism that forcibly ejects the 
pollen mass, often to the distance of 2 or 3 feet The 
minute seeds of the orchids are well adapted to be 
disseminated by the wind and find lodgment in the 
crevices of the bark of trees and on other supports. 

Orchids are divided into large groups as follows 

Group I Diandnc The two lateral stamens of the 
inner whorl fertile, the dorsal of the outer whorl 
stammodial or fruitful, the others absent Cypnpe- 
dium, Selempedium, Paphiopedilum, and others 

Group II Monandro; The dorsal stamen of the 
outer whorl fruitful, all the others wanting By far 
the majority of the species belong here .Subgroup I. 
Polhma connected by caudicles with a gland at base 
of anther near stigma Subgroup 2. Pollen without 
caudicles or with these attached to a gland at apex of 

The family is very distinct and easily distinguished 
Its only near relatives aie the Burmanmaceaj The 
peculiar structure of the stamens and pistil, together 
with the minute exalbummous seeds arc distinctive 

The Orchidaeeir is perhaps the most important 
family from the standpoint of ornamental gardening. 
To grow these singular, fantastic, showy, and often 
sweet-scented flowers has in recent years become almost 
a craze. It is estimated that, whereas Lirmueus knew 
but a dozen exotic orchids, at the present day more 
than 2^500 are known to English horticulturists. 
Plants in the family useful for other purposes are few. 
The most important is vanilla, derived from the capsule 
of Vanilla plamfoha of Mexico, and now widely culti- 
vated m the tropics Faham (Angrjecum fragrans of 
Bourbon) has a fragrant, bitter-almond-like taste, the 
leaves are used for indigestion and tuberculosis, and are 
known as Bourbon tea. Salep is derived from the 
roots of various terrestrial orchids of the Mediterra- 
nean region The roots of hclleborme (Epipactis lati- 
folia) are used for rheumatism. The root of Spiranthes 
diuretica of Chile is renowned as a diuretic. The flow- 
ers of Habenana conopsea are used for dysentery. Spi- 
ranthes autumnahs and Habenana bifolia are said to 
be aphrodisiac. The roots of Cypnpedium pannflorum 
var. pubescens are frequently used in America as a 
substitute for valerian. 

Sub-class 1. Archichlamydese (Chonpetalse and Apetalae) 


47 Casuarinaceae (from the genus Casuanna, de- 
rived from the resemblance of the branches to the 
feathers of the bird cassowary). CASUARINA FAMILY. 

Fig 14. Shrubs, or much-branched trees, with t\m habit 
of the horse-tail (Eqmsctum) or Ephedra branches 
whorled, jointed, stnate leaves replaced by striate, 
many-toothed sheaths flowers monoecious or dioecious, 
th.e stammate in spikes, the pistillate in heads, perianth 
of the stammate flower of 2, rarely 1, bract-like parts; 
stamen 1; perianth of the pistillate flower 0, ovary 
1-celled, rarely 2-celled, 2-4-ovuled, stigmas 2. fruit 

14 CAStTAiiiVACK* 1 Casuanna, a, portion of male inflores- 
cence, b, diagram of whorl of flowors, c, female flower, d, female 
flower, cross-section ,S\LRI;R\C KK 2 Saururus, a, flower, b, 
floral diagram PIPERACE B 3 Piper a inflorescence m fruit, b, 
portion of spike with flowers, r, female flower, vertical section 
CHLORANTHACF 4 Chloranthus, a, flower, vertical section, b, 
floral diagram 

dry, often samaroid, inclosed by the woody valve-like 
bracts, seeds 2, or 34, orthotropous, ascending 

A single genus containing about 20. species occurs in 
Australia and the neighboring islands, extending to 
Madagascar and to southeast Asia The family is very 
distinct and its relationships are in doubt It is placed 
here in the system because of the simple flowers The 

Eecuhar habit, reduced stammate flowers, and peculiar 
-uit are characteristic 

The wood of Casuanna cquisehfoha is very hard, and 
called ironwood It is used in ship-build ing, and by the 
Indians for war-clubs, the powdered bark is used to 
dress wounds, or for diarrhea A brown dye is obtained 
from the same plant 

A few species of Casuanna (Beefwood, She Oak) are 
cultivated m the South for timber and ornament 


48 Saururaceae (from the genus Saururus, meaning 
lizard's tail, in allusion to the long slender spike). 
LIZARD'S-T AIL FAMILY Fig 14 Herbs leaves alternate, 
large and broad flowers bisexual, regular, in a long, 
dense spike, perianth 0, stamens 6 or fewer, hypo- 
gynous or united with the pistil; carpels 3-4, separate, 
or united in to a 3-4-cellod ovary, ovules 2 to several, 
parietal; stigmas as many as the carpels: fruit of 
follicles, or a lobed berry 

Three genera and about 4 species are found in tem- 
perate or subtropical Asia and North America The 
family is related to the Pipcrace, with which it is 
frequently united From that family it differs in 
having several carpels in each flower and several 
parietal ovules for each carpel 

Saw urns cernuus (lizard's tail), a native herb, is 
in the trade as a garden plant for wet soil 

49 Piperacese (from the genus Piper, an ancient 
name of pepper). PEPPER FAMILY Fig 14 Herbs, 
shrubs, or rarely trees, leaves alternate, rarely opposite 
or whorled* flowers in dense spikes, bisexual, or uni- 
sexual, regular, perianth 0, stamens 1-10, ovary 



l-celled, ovule 1, basal; stigmas 1-4, rarely more, sessile: 
fruit a dry or fleshy berry 

There are 9 genera and about 1,025 species, confined 
to the tropics The largest genera are Piper with 600 
species arid Feperomia with 400 species The family is 
related to the Saururacea), with which it is often united; 
otherwise it stands alone as a distinct type, the system- 
atic position of which is uncertain The spicate inflores- 
cence, naked flowers, and l-celled, 1-seeded ovary are 

The unripe fruit of Piper nigrum (Java, etc ) yields 
black pepper The ripe fruit of the same plant yields 
white pepper Long pepper is the whole spike of 
P longuni of India The drug cubebs is obtained 
from P Cubeba Betel consists of the leaves of 
P Belle, which in India arc mixed with the areca nut 
and masticated (p 16) From an extraction of the roots 
of P methysticum (ava, or kava-kava), mixed with 
the milk of coconuts, an intoxicating drink is made in 
the Pacific Islands Some species of Peperomia are 
eaten as salads, others chewed as betel 

Some genera are in cultivation in America as green- 
house foliage plants Peperomia, 10 or more species, 
Piper (Pepper, Black Pepper, Japanese Pepper) 

50 Chloranthacese (from the genus Chloranthus, 
signifying qrecn flower*,} CHLORANTHUS FAMILY Fig 
14 Herbs, shrubs or trees leaves opposite flowers 
bisexual or unisexual, regular, very small, subtended 
by bracts, and mostly borne in spikes; perianth 0, 
stamens in the bisexual flowers 1-3, united \v ith each 
other and with the ovaiy, in the stammate inflorescence 
inserted on a common axis and forming a spike; 
carpels 1, with 1 pendent ovule, stigma sessile, fruit 

Three genera and about 35 species occur, in tropical 
America, East Asia, and the islands of the Pacific 
Ocean The family is related to the Piperacea 1 and 
Saururaceae The opposite leaves, the few starrtens, 
which are often unilaterally united with the 1-cellcd 
ovary, and the suspended ovule, are peculiar 

The roots of Chtoranthut> ojfficinahs have a camphor- 
like odor, and are used in the East as a febrifuge 

One species of Chloranthus is grown m greenhouses 
for foliage and berries 

Order 24. SALICALES 

51. Salicaceae (from the genus Sahx, the classical 
Latin name) WILLOW FAMILY Fig 15 Shrubs or 
trees, creeping in the arctics' leaves alternate, simple: 
flowers diux'ious, both sexes in catkins, 1 flower to each 
scale; perianth 0; disk piesent, cup-shaped or finger- 
like, stamens 2-many, separate or united, ovary often 
pedicelled, l-celled. placenta? 2, parietal, ovules numer- 
ous; stigmas 2, often each 2-lobed fruit a capsule; 
seeds with a basal tuft of long hairs 

Sahcacea; has 2 genera and about 180 species, of 
which 160 belong to the genus Sahx, inhabitants of 
the north temperate and arctic zones, a few in the 
tropics and in South Africa The family is not definitely 
related to any other family, though possibly to the 
Tamancacece The flowers of both sexes in catkins, 
the glandular disk, and the dehiscent many-seeded 
capsule with comose seeds, are distinctive 

The bark of many species has been used for inter- 
mittent fevers and for tanning leather A yellow dye 
occurs in the bark of Populus alba and P tremula, 
also in Srihr alba, S. daphnoides, and others The 
resinous buds of P balsamifera, or tacamahac, furnish 
American balm of Gilead The stammate catkins of 
8 xgypliaca are odoriferous and are used in the East 
in medicinal waters, as a cordial, and as a sudorific 
Willow and poplar wood is soft and light The twigs 
of several species of Salix are universally used in 

The two genera are in cultivation in America, as 

ornamental plants and for shelter-belts and basket- 
work and sometimes for timber Populus (Poplar, As- 
pen, Tacamahac, Balm of (iilead [not the original], 
Cottonwood, Abele); and Sahx (Willow, Osier). 

Order 25. MYRI CALKS 

52 MyricaceaD (from the genus Mynca, the ancient 
name of the Tamarisk). SWKICT (!ALE FAMILY Fig 15 
Shrubs or trees leaves alternate, usually simple, resin- 
ous 1 flowers monoecious or dio?cious, * in catkins or 
spikes, single for each bract, perianth 0, stamens 4-6, 
or 16, in the axil of the bract (scale), ovary l-celled, 
1-ovuled, stigmas 2 fruit a drupe, usually slightly 
horned by union with the bracteoles, seed solitary, 
orthotropous, basal 

IS. SALICAOE,E 1 Sahx, a, mule flower, 6, female flower, r. 
cross-section ovary 2 Populua, a, male flowe r, 6, delude ing fruit, 
Mi me AC EE 3 Mynca, a, male flower, b, female flower Juo- 
I ANDAC Et, 4 Juglans, a, diagiam male flowci , b, diagram female 
flower, c, vertical section female flowr BETULAI ^x. 5 Oorylus, 
a, diagram male flower, b, diagram fern lie flo\urs b Uetula, a, 
male flowers, b, female flowers, c, diagram male flowers, d, diagram 
female flowers 7 Alnus, a, male flowers, b, female flowers, c, dia- 
gram male flowers, d, diagram female floweis (i, scale, a, b, and c, 
bractiolea of the first, second and third orders, p, perianth, a, 
gland ) 

One genus with about 35 species is generally dis- 
tributed over the more temperate parts of the earth 
The Myncaceui are related to the other amentiferous 
families, e g , Juglandacea;. Fagacete and Betulaceae 
The indehiscent, 1 -seeded fruit, basal seeds, two 
carpels, absence of perianth, and simple leaves are 
characteristic of the family 

Mynca Gale and other species are used for tanning 
leather. M Gale has also been used in the preparation 
of beer. The wax from the drupelets of M cerifera 
and M. enrolments is used for making candles The 
fruit of M sapida and M Nagi is edible, M (Comp- 
tonia) asplemfoha has been used as a tonic A volatile 
oil is obtained from the fruits of M Gale The root 
of M cerifera is emetic and purgative 

M. Nagi is cultivated in California for the edible 
fruit M asplemfolia, native in the United States, is 
grown for ornament. Other species are sometimes 



53. Juglandaceae (from the genus Juglans, a con- 
traction of the Latin Joins glans, the nut of Jupiter). 
WALNUT FAMILY. Fig 15. Trees or shrubs, of ten resin- 
ous leaves alternate, exstipulate, pmnately compound: 
flowers monoecious, small; the stammate in drooping 
catkins with single perianth of 4 parts, or rarely 0, one 
flower for each bract, the pistillate 2-3 together, with 
perianth of 4 parts adherent, to the ovary as are also 
the bract and bracteole; ovary inferior, 1-celled; ovule 
1, basal, orthotropous; stigmas usually 2- or 4-branched: 
fruit a nut with a fleshy exocarp, or bursting irregularly, 
or 4-valved, or winged 

In this family are 6 genera and about 35 species of 
the north temperate zone The largest genus is Carya 
with 10 species The family is related to other Amen- 
tifenxj, e g., Myncaceac, Fagaceai, and Betulacea*. The 
indehiscent, 1-seeded fruit, basal seeds, 2 carpels, 
perianth and pinnate leaves are distinctive. Fossil 
species are known 

The wood of English walnut is highly valued, but 
that f Juglans nigra (black walnut) is one of the 
most valuable of woods Hickory wood is prized for 
its hardness and toughness The fruits of the English 
walnut (J icQia), butternut (J. cinerea), and of 
species of Carya (hickory) are among the most im- 
portant food-nuts The leaves and bark of Carya and 
Juglans are purgative Green dyes are obtained from 
Carya tumaito^i, and yellow from C ovata, C sui- 
cata, and C ylabia. Walnut oil and hickory oil are in 
the trade 

The cultivated genera m America are Carya or 
Hicoria (Hickory, Pecan, Bitternut, Pignut, Mockernut, 
Shellbark, Kmgnut), native and hardy; Juglans 
(Walnut, Butternut, English Walnut), ornamental, fruit, 
and timber, Platycarya, ornamental, Pterocarya, orna- 

Order 27 FAGALES 

54. Betulaceae (from the genus Betula, the ancient 
Latin name of the birch) BIHCH FAMILY Fig 15 Trees 
or shrubs, leaves alternate, simple, mostly pmnately 
parallel-veined: flowers monoecious, regular, much 
reduced, the stammate in slender catkins; the pistillate 
m short spikes, rarely in flexuoua catkins or geminate; 
3 flowers, rarely by reduction 2 or 1 flower behind each 
bract; perianth of the siammate flower single, 2-4-lobed 
or 0; stamens 2-10; perianth of the pistillate flower 
absent in Botula and Alnus, m other genera an epigy- 
nous crown of several tiny scales; ovary inferior, origi- 
nally 2-cclled and each cell 1-ovuled, but only one cell 
and 1 seed maturing; stigmas 2: fruit an indehiscent 
nutlet, often winged; either separating from the bract 
and bracteoles (Alnus, Betula), or falling with them, in 
which case these organs form a protective involucre 
(Corylus), or a winged or bladdery organ concerned in 
seed -dissemination (Carpmus, Ostrya); seeds anatro- 
pous, exalbuimnous. 

Six genera and about 75 species inhabit the extra- 
tropical northern hemisphere; many are arctic, some of 
which are creeping. Fossil species are known The 
family is related to the Fagaceae and other amentif- 
erous families. The pistillate flowers in spikes, the 
presence of a perianth m one or the other sex, the 
cymose group of flowers for each bract, the 2 carpels, 
and the single integument of the seed are characteristic. 

The wood of Alnus and Betula is prized by wagon- 
makers, cabinet-makers and turners' charcoal for gun- 
powder is made from this wood The twigs of Betula 
are made into brooms. The bark of Betula papynfera 
strips off m thin plates and is used for making canoes 
and for writing-paper. The very thin bark-layers of B 
Bhojpattra of India also furnish writing-paper. Vinegar 
and beer are made from the sugary sap of Betula, which 
is also considered an efficient antiscorbutic. The bark 

of Alnus and Betula is used in tanning Russia leather, 
and other kinds Hazelnuts are the fruit of Corylus; 
filberts of Corylm Avellana. Oil of betula has a flavor 
like wintergreen. The wood of Ostrya is very hard and 
prized for beetles. The wood of all the Betulacese is 
good for firewood. 

Several genera are m cultivation in America for orna- 
ment or for the fruit (Corylus) such as Alnus (Alder) ; 
Betula (Birch), Carpmus (Hornbeam Tree, Blue 
Beech, Water Beech) , Corylus (Hazel, Filbert, Cobnut) ; 
and Ostrya (Hop Hornbeam, Ironwood, Leverwood). 

55. Fagaceae (from the genus Fagus, the classical 
name, in allusion to the esculent nuts). BEECH FAMILY. 
Fig 16. Trees or shrubs leaves simple, alternate flow- 
ers monrccious, the stammate in slender catkins, one 
flower with each bract and a perianth of 4-6 parts, the 
pistillate solitary or in groups of 3, epigynous, the 

nanth reduced, ovary mostly 3- or 6-celled; ovules 
i each cell, suspended, all but one in the ovary 
aborting, integuments 2, stigmas 3 fruit a 1-seeded 
nut, which singly, or in a group of 2-3, is surrounded by 
a special involucre. 

The family has 5 genera and about 600 species, all 
natives of the subtropical and temperate northern 
hemisphere, except the antarctic genus, Nothofagus 
The largest genera are Qucrcus with 200 species, and 
Pasania with 100 species The family is related to the 
Betulaceae and other amentiferous families, but the 
stammate flowers alone m catknu, the indehiscent 1- 
seeded fruit, the 3 carpel^, and the special involucre 
are distinctive There has been much debate as to the 
morphology of the involucre, whether it is composed 
of the bracteolos of the little dichasium, or represents 
sterile scales of the condensed catkin, or is a wholly 
new outgrowth of the subfloral axis The latter is a 
recent view of Engler This involucre becomes the 
bur in beech and chestnut, and the cup in the oak. 
The \\oodof white oak, red oak andmany other species 
is very valuable, as is also that of beech and chestnut. 
The bark of Querciu* Subcr of Spam yields bottle-cork 
The bark of Q vdutirui of America is called quercitron, 
and is used to dye yellow The kermes insect, which 
furnishes a crimson dye, lives on Q coccifera of the 
Mediterranean The stings of gall in&ects produce the 
commercial oak-galls from which tanmc and gallic 
aoid are obtained, and from which ink was made Offici- 
nal creosote is distilled from the tar of species of Fagus. 
The nut-like fruits of Castanoa, Fagus, Quercus Ilex, 
Q Robur, and Q JUgilops are eaten. The cups of Q. 
jEgilops are sold for dyeing black and for tanning The 
bark from many species of this family is used for tan- 

In America several genera are cultivated for ornament, 
food, and timber: Castanoa me (Chestnut, Chinqua- 
pin); Castanopsis Fagus (Beech); Nothofagus, little 
Known; Quercus (Oak, Black Jack). 

Order 28. URTICALES 

56. Ulmaceae (from the genus Ulmus, the classical 
name). ELM FAMILY. Fig 16. Trees or shrubs with- 
out milky mice' leaves alternate, usually oblique' flow- 
ers bisexual or unisexual, regular, small ; perianth simple ; 
parts 4-5, rarely 3-7; stamens of the same number 
opposite the sepals, rarely twice as many, not elasti- 
cally incurved; ovary superior, 1-cellod, 1-ovuled; the 
ovule suspended, anatropous; stigmas usually 2. fruit 
nut-like, drupaceous, or winged. 

Thirteen genera and about 140 species are generally 
distributed in all but the polar regions. The largest 
genus is Celtis, with 60 species. The family is closely 
related to the Urticacese and Moracefc. Its non- 
elastic stamens, and suspended anatropous seeds are 
important distinguishing characters 

The seeds of some species of Celtis are edible. The 
wood is used to make wind instruments, and the like. 



Elm wood is of use in the crafts. The mucilaginous 
bark of slippery elm ( Vlmusfulva) is used for poultices 
and coughs The fragrant wood of Plnnera Abelicea of 
Crete is false sandalwood 

There are several genera in cultivation m America. 
Among these are. Aphananthe, ornamental; Ccltis (Net- 
tle Tree, Hackberry. Sugarberry), hardy, ornamental; 
Planera (Water Elm), ornamental, Ulmus (Elm), orna- 
mental, and for timber; Zelkova, ornamental. 

57 Moracese (from the genus Moms, the classical 
name) MULBERRY FAMILY Fig 16. Herbs, shrubs, or 
trees, sometimes climbing 1 juice milky: leaves alternate: 
flowers dioecious or monoecious, regular, small, mostly 
in heads or spikes, or lining the hollow pvriform fleshy 
axis of the inflorescence (Ficus) ; perianth single, of 4. 
rarely 2-6, imbricated parts, more or less united ana 
fleshy in the pistillate flower, stamens of the same num- 
ber and opposite the sepals, usually inflexed in the bud 
and elastic; ovary superior, sessile or stipitate, 1-celled, 
1-ovuled; the ovule suspended, amphitropous, rarely 

16. FAQACE^J 1 Quercus, a, male flowers, 6, fe , 

c, diagram female flower, d, fruit 2 Castanea, a. diagram female 
flower, b, involucre and 3 fruita ULMACKK 3 Ulmus, a, flower, 
6, fruit MORACK^I 4 Morus, a, male flower, b, fruit 5 Humu- 
lus, a, female flower, b, vertical section fruit 6 Cudrania, pistil 
7 Ficus, vertical section female inflorescence (for explanation of 
letters see Fig 15) 

basal, stigmas 1-2 fruit an achene or drupe envel- 
oped by the fleshy perianth, or on a fleshy gyno- 
phore, or composed of achenes in a fleshy hollow com- 
mon receptacle 

Moracese contains 55 genera and about 950 species, 
mostly of tropical distribution, 6 species of which are 
native in the eastern United States. The largest genus is 
Ficus with 600 species. The family is frequently united 
with the Urticaceae and differs from that family only 
in the presence of milky juice, in the two stigmas, and 
in the usually suspended seed From the Ulmaceae it 
differs in the inflexed elastic stamens 

The fruit of the black mulberry (Morus mgra) has 
been eaten since earliest times Those of M. rubra (red 
mulberry), and M alba are also used for food The 
bread fruit (Artocarpus incisa) of the South Sea 
Islands is now cultivated for food everywhere m the 

tropics The leaves of Morus indica are eaten in India: 
those of M . rubra in America M serrata is cultivated 
for fodder The fig is the fleshy receptacle of the inflo- 
rescence of Ficus Cunca. For the structure and pollina- 
tion of this remarkable plant see Kerner and Oliver's 
"Natural History of Plants." The leaves of Morus are 
diuretic and anthelmmtic The juice of Antians toxv- 
cana is used by the Javanese to poison arrows Hops 
are used in medicine, also to flavor beer Hashish, 
bhang or Cannabis indica is obtained from Cannabis 
saliva, and is much used in the East as a narcotic to 
chew and smoke like opium The fibers of C tativa are 
hemp. The bark of Broussonetia furnishes clothing to 
the South Sea Islanders The wood of Madura auran- 
liaca is flexible, the yellow juice of the fruit of this 
plant was used by the Indians to paint their faces. 
Cudrania javanensit* yields a dye The milky juice of 
Ficus elaslica and other species yield commercial rub- 
ber. F. indica is a banyan tree of India F religv* 
osa is the sacred fig The leaves of various species of 
mulberry are used to feed silkworms Shellac is ob- 
tained from a small hemipterous insect which lives on 
F. laccifera and F. reliywsa in India 

Several genera are in cultivation in America, the 
majority in the far South Among these are Arto- 
carpus (Bread Fruit, Jack Fruit), cultivated in the 
West Indies and in botanical gardens, Brosimum 
(Bread Nut), tropical, Bioubsonctia (Paper Mul- 
berry), ornamental, semi-hardy; Cannabis (Hemp), 
grown for fiber or ornament, Cudrania, grown for 
hedges; Ficus (Fig, India Rubber Plant, Banyan 
Tree, Creeping Fig, Peepul Tree), grown in warm re- 
gions and in the greenhouses, Humulus (Hops), grown 
for the fruit, Maclura (Osage Orange), for hedges; 
Morus (Mulberry), for fruit, and leaves for silkworms 

58. Urticaceae (from the genus Urtica, the classical 
Latin name of the plant, signifying to burn) NETTLE 
P'AMILY Fig 17 Herbs, shrubs or trees, rarely climb- 
ing leaves alternate or opposite flowers unisexual, 
regular, perianth single, rarely 0, usually green, con- 
sisting of 4-5, rarely 2 3, separate or united parts, im- 
bricated or valvate, stamens as many, and opposite 
the segments, inflexed and uncoiling elastic-ally, ovary 
sessile, or pedicelled, or rarely united with the perianth, 
1-celled, 1-ovulcd, style 1; stigma feathery fruit an 
achene or drupe; seeds basal, orthotropous; embryo 

The 41 genera and about 475 species are mainly 
tropical, a few in North America and fewer m Europe. 
The largest genus is Plica, with 100 species. The family 
is very closely i elated to the Moracecc and Uhnaceae, 
with which it was formerly united The apetalous 
anemophilous flowers, with elastic stamens opposite 
the sepals, and the 1-cellcd ovary, with a single basal, 
orthotropous seed, are distinctive Many of the Urti- 
caceae arc covered with stinging hairs cont aining formic 
acid The common nettles are examples Cystoliths 
are common in the leaves 

Pariftana diffusa and P. erecta contain niter, and 
have been used as diuretics Nettles were used by 
doctors to flog patients m order to pioduce a counter 
irritation of the bkm. a practice called "urtication." 
Other species have been used locally as medicine. 
Laportea stimulans has been used as a fish-poison The 
bast fibers of many species are useful ; e g , Urtica dioica, 
U cannabma, Laportea canadensis, and especially the 
China grass or ramie (Baehmena nwed). The fibers of 
this latter have long been used m the Netherlands The 
young foliage of many Urticacea? is used as spinach. 
The tuberous root of Pouzolzia tuberosa is eaten 

The following are in cultivation in America; three of 
them are ornamental: Pelhonia, a greenhouse creeper; 
Pilea (Artillery Plant), a garden and greenhouse plant; 
and Urera, a greenhouse shrub The other genus, 
Urtica (Nettle), is grown for fiber, and Boehmena 
occurs occasionally in cultivation 



Order 29. PROTEALES 

59. Proteaceae (from the genus Protea, from Proteus, 
a self-transforming sea-god, in allusion to the great di- 
versity of the genus). PROTEA FAMILY Fig 17 Shrubs 
or tiees, rarely herbs leaves alternate flowers bisexual, 
rarely unisexual, regular or irregular, perianth of one 
series, paits 4, separate or variously united, or labiate, 
valvate; stamens 4. opposite the perianth parts, 
hypogynous or inserted on the perianth; hypogynous 
stalk (gynophorc) usually developed, often bearing a 
ring of scales, or swellings, or a cup, carpel 1, ovary 
superior, 1-eelled, ovules 1 1o several, style slender, 
stigma slender or enlarged fruit unsymmetrieal, capsu- 
lar, drupaceous, or nut-like, or a samara or follicle, 
seeds sometimes winged 

There are 49 genera and about 1 ,000 species, mostly 
Australian, but many also in South Africa, and a few 
in South America The largest geneia are Grevillca, 
with 160 species, and ITakea, with 100 species The 
family is perhaps distantly related to the Loranthaceae, 
Santalacea*, and Urlicacea?, but the relationship is 
little understood The 4 valvate .sepals, 4 stamens, 
and the unsyrnmetrical, 1-eclled ovary, raised on an 
appendaged gynophore are distinctive The ^mall 
flowers are usually aggregated in heads or spikes 
surrounded by biacts The Proteacete, for the most 
part, inhabit counti ies in which a very dry windy season 
alternates with a ramv season, and many of them are 

Grtvillca robusto, Kmghtia exctha, Embothnurn 
coccineum, Lutco^pcrfnum ronocarpum (redwood), and 
Protea grandiflora (wagen-boom) are useful for timber. 
The wood of the last species is used for wagon- 
wheels The seeds of se\eral species are eaten A bit- 
ter pnnciple is found in Ijititadtndion argenteum of 
Africa; a gum resin in CrevtUea lobusta of Australia 
A golden d\e is obtained from the Australian Pcr^ooma 
saccotn Gcvuina avellaiin (Chilean hazelnut) furnishes 
an edible fruit, as does also lirabeium btellatifohum 
(wild chcslnut of South Africa), and Mncndamia 
terrufvha ((Queensland nut) Banksia and Protea fur- 
nish important bee-plants 

The genera in cultivation in America are mostly the 
following Banksia, Gevuina (Chilean Nut, Chile Hazel), 
grown in California, Grevillea (Silk Oak), in greenhouse 
and California, Leucadenclron (Silver Tree of the Cape), 
grown in California, Macadamia (Australian Nut), in 
southern California, Protea, in southern California; 
Telopea (Waratah, Warratau), in California 


60 Loranthacese (from the genus Loranthus, meaning 
thong flower, significance not clear) MISTLETOE P'AMILY 
Fig 17 Herbs or subshrubs, parasites or half- 
parasites, with or without chlorophyll, rarely rooted 
in the earth leaves usually opposite, rarely alternate, 
thick and green, or reduced to scales flowers bisexual 
or unisexual, usually regular, receptacle of the pistillate 
flower cup-shaped, united with the ovary, perianth 
undifferentiated, usually in 2 series of 2 or 3 parts each, 
of which the outer may be calyx and the inner corolla, 
stamens as many as the parts of the perianth and oppo- 
site them, free, or united with the perianth, ovary 1- 
celled, inferior; ovule 1, orthotropous; stigma 1, often 
sessile' fruit a 1-seeded berry. 

The 21 genera and about 600 species are mostly 
inhabitants of tropical countries, but extend into the 
temperate zone. One species reaches Newfoundland. 
Loranthus, the largest genus, contains 200 species, and 
Phoradendron contains 80 species The family is 
related to the Santalaceae and Proteaceai The habit, 
the cup-shaped receptacle, the position and number of 
the stamens, and the 1-celled, 1-seeded fruit are dis- 
tinctive The fruits are often very viscid and easily 
become fastened to the branches of trees where they 

germinate and grow The inflorescence is often much 
reduced and inconspicuous. 

The viscid substance of the fruit is called birdlime, 
and is used for catching small birds. Various species 
have been used locally as medicine The mistletoe 
(Viscum album) of Europe was worshipped by the 
Gauls When gathered from the oak it was considered 
sacred by the Druids. 

Phoradendron Jiavescens (American mistletoe) is 
gathered and sold in the market 

61 Santalaceae (from the genus Kantalum, the 
Latin name for sandalwood) SANDALWOOD FAMILY. 
A family closely related to the Loranthaceae, from which 
it differs only in the more numerous ovules and the 
general habit The Santalaceae are commonly inde- 
pendent plants or root parasites, while the Loranthacese 
are usually aerial parasites 

The Santalacese consists of 26 genera and about 250 
species, in the temperate and tropical regions 


17. URTICACE*: 1 Urtica, a, male flower, b, female flower, c, 
female flower, vertical section PROTEACE^E 2. Bankaia, a, in- 
florescence, b, flower 3 Protea, flower 4. a and 6, pistils of Pro- 
teaceae LORANIHACE, 5 Phoradendron, a, inflorescence, 6, 
vertical section inflorescence. OLACACK.B 6 Linosma, flower 7. 
Linosma, floral diagram. 

The aromatic and sweet-scented wood of the tree, 
Santalum alburn, has been used medicinally, and is 
used in perfumery and cabinet-making Other species 
of Santalum, also of Fusanus, Acanthosyns, Colpoon, 
and Exocarpus are also used in cabinet work The 
sweet flesh of the fruit of some species, the thickened 
pedicels or oily seeds of others, are edible 

Queer tendril-like brushes on the fruits of the reduced 
aerial genus My/odcndron of South America serve as 
flying organs and later twine about the support 

Buckleya of the southeastern United States is some- 
times cult i vated , also Pyrulana 

62 Olacacese (from the genus Olax, signifying a fur- 
row, application unknown) OLAX FAMILY Fig. 17. 
Trees or shrubs, sometimes twining or climbing, with 
alternate, entire leaves flowers mostly bisexual, regu- 
lar, perianth single, the divisions (sepals?) 4-5, rarelv B 



valvate; stamens 4-10, often adnate to the perianth 
or connate, disk present, diverse, carpels 3, rarely 2-5; 
ovary superior, 1-celled, rarely falsely 3-5-cclled, 
ovule 1; style 1: fruit usually a drupe inclosed in the 
accrescent and persistent perianth, seed albuminous 

Olacaceae has 25 genera and about 140 species of 
tropical distribution, two of which reach southern 
Florida Olax is the largest genus The Olaeaceie are 
related to the Loranthacese and Santalacese 


18. ABISTOLOCHIAC.EE 1 Asarum, a, flower, b, floral diagram. 
2 Aristolochia, flower POLK. JON \t b 3 Fagopyrum, u, flower, 
b, floral diagram 4 Polygonum, sheathing stipule 5 Rumex, 
fruiting calyx CHENOPODIA< t. b Chenopodium, a, flower, b, 
fruit AMAHANTAtkE 7 Amar.uitua, <z, fruit, 6, vertical section 
aced. 8 Achyranthe'i, flower 

The family is of little economic importance Some 
species are valuable for their hard timber The drupes 
of Ximenia are eaten in Senegal. Olax zeylanwa has a 
fetid wood, used locally for fevers. 

One species, Ximenia amencana (hog plum) is 
native in Florida and the tropics, and is of moderate 
value for the fruit 


63 Aristolochiaceae (from the genus Aristolochia^ 
in reference to its supposed medicinal properties in 
connection with child-birth) BIKTHWORT or DUTCH- 
MAN'S PIPE FAMILY Fig 18 Herbs or woody plants, 
the latter mostly twining leaves alternate, usually 
broad and entire flowers bisexual, epigynous, regular 
or irregular, perianth of one series, the parts mostly 3, 
connate, often petaloid, very diverse, sometimes regu- 
lar with the parts nearly separate, sometimes with a 
long tube which is swollen below, abruptly curved 
above, and with an abruptly spreading entire border, 
stamens 6-36, separate and inserted on the ovary, or 
united with the style, ovary inferior, rarely superior, 4- 
or 6-, rarely 5-, celled, ovules many, style 1; stigmas 
4 or 6. fruit a capsule 

Five genera and about 210 species are known, 180 
species of which belong to Aristolochia They are dis- 
tributed in the warm parts of the earth, but are most 
numerous in South America Seven or 8 species are 
native in northeastern North America. The family is 

not definitely related to any other, but is placed pro- 
visionally near the Polygonacesc, not however because 
related to that family, but because equally simple in 
structure Three scale-like organs between the perianth 
and stamens in Asarum are probably tiue petals The 
flowers of most Aristolochiaceae are lurid in color and 
pollinated by flies Many are cai i ion-scented and afford 
an additional attraction for thcbc insects The perianth 
in Anstoloehia assumes remarkable shapes, some ot 
which have led to the name "Dutchman's pipe " 

The rootstock of Asajum canadensc (Canada snake- 
root or wild ginger) is aromatically peppeiy, and used 
to flavor wines, the breath, and the like Ari^lolochia 
reticulala, of Arkansas, and Anstolochia Serpentana, of 
the eastern United States, furnish the serpentaria of 
medicine, used as a tonic and as a febrifuge The 
latter plant is Virginia snakeroot The common name 
arises from the reputed efficacy of these plants and 
other species of the family as remedies for snake-bites 

The genera in cultivation in America are Aristolo- 
chia (Buthwort, Virginia Snakeroot, Dutchman's Pipe, 
Pelican Flower, Goose Flower), hardy or greenhouse 
twiners, Asarum (Wild Ginger, Canada Sriakeroot), 
low hardy border herbs. 


64. Polygonacese (from the genus Polyqonum, de- 
rived from the Greek meaning manykna"> in reference 
to the swollen joints of some species) Bu< KWHEAT 
FAMILY Fig IK Herbs, shrubs, or trees, sometimes 
twining stem often knotty leaves alternate, rarely 
opposite, bimple, usually with a sheathing stipular 
growth (ochrea) at the base fknvers bisexual or unisex- 
ual, regular, perianth apparently of one set, though 
sometimes in 2 whorls, the parts usually 3, 5, or b, dis- 
tinct or connate at base, the inner set sometimes much 
enlarged and modified with hooks, spines, \\mgs, or 
tubercles, stamens 1-15, usually 6, 8, or 9, usually op- 
posite the perianth parts, mostly separate and hypogy- 
nous, ovary superior or nearly so, compressed or 3- 
angled, of 2-1-carpels, but 1-celled or falsely 3-celled, 
ovule solitary, styles and stigmas 2-4 fruit a flat, an- 
gled, or winged achene, seeds usually not inverted 

Thirty genera and about 700 species occur, mostly 
in the noith temperate zone of both continents The 
largest genera are Poljgonum, 150 species, Coccoloba, 
125 species, Enogonum, 120 species, and Rumex with 
100 species The family is not closely related to any 
other, but is usually placed near the Chenopodiaceac 
because of its simple floral structure and for want of a 
better place The stipular sheaths or, when absent, the 
involucrate heads (Enogonum), arid 1-celled fruit with 
a single orthotropous .seed, aie distinctive. 

The foliage of the Polygonacese contains an acid, for 
which reason it is frequently eaten as salads or pot-herbs. 
Among plants used for this purpose are several species 
of Rumex, petioles of Rheum Rhaponticum, and Oxyna. 
The seeds of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculent urn) con- 
tain much starch and are made into flour In medi- 
cine, rhubarb (Rheum officinalc) , employed as a purge 
and tonic, has been in use since earnest times, and its 
origin is lost in antiquity, though probably it is a na- 
tive of China Yellow dock (Rumex Crispins) is a tonic. 
Smartweed (Polygonum Hydropiper) has an acrid juice 
that will produce a blister. A blue dye is obtained 
from P. hnctonum of China. The roots of Cattigonum 
Pallasia are used in Siberia to stay hunger, and the 
fruits to quench thirst The astringent drug, bistorta, 
is from P Bixtorta The leaves of P. onentale are 
smoked like tobacco in China 

Several genera are m cultivation in America for 
ornament and food. Among these are Antigonon 
(Mountain Rose, San Miguehto), very showy climbers, 
Coccoloba (Sea Grape, Shore Grape, Pigeon Plum), 



trees both of greenhouse and the South, used for timber 
and edible fruit, Enogonum, garden plants, Fagopyrum 
(Buckwheat), grain, Muenlenbeckia (cultivated as 
Coccoloba or Tapeworm Plant), greenhouse, Poly- 
gonum (Smartwced, Jomtwced, Knotweed, Prince's 
Feather, Kiss - me - over - the-gaiden - gate, Lady's 
Thumb, Mountain Fleece, Secalme), hardy ornamental 
herbs, Rheum (Rhubarb, Pie-plant Wine Plant), food, 
medicine, and ornament, Ilumex (Dock, Sorrel, Sheep 
Sorrel, Canaigre, Rais Colorada, Herb Patience, Spin- 
age Dock, Curly Dock), ornamental plants, food-plants 
and weeds. 


65 Chenopodiaceae (from the genus Chenopodium, 
which means goose foot, from the shape of the leaves). 
GOOSEFOOT FAMILY Fig 18. Herbs, shrubs, or rarely 
small trees, often very fleshy with reduced branching 
and foliage, and very and remarkable in form 
leaves alternate, rarely opposite, often fleshy or reduced 
to scales flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular, very 
small, perianth of one series, the parts 1-5, separate 
or united, greenish, imbricated, persistent, stamens as 
many as the perianth parts, or fewer, opposite them, 
hypogynous or borne on the perianth, often connate, 
hypogynous disk usually present, ovary superior, 
1 -celled, 1-ovuled, style and stigmas 1--4 fruit dry, 
rarely fleshy, usually indehiscent, inclosed in the very 
diverse perianth which is often hard, or fleshy, or 
thorny, or hooked, embryo coiled 

This family contains 73 genera and about 550 
species, distiibutcd all over the world, but principally 
confined to .saline or alkaline habitats A few nave 
become weeds in good garden soil The famil;, is 
closely related to the Amai.intaeea), Phytolaccaceiu, 
Caryoph \llacHve and Port ulacuceie, all of which have 
an annular embryo The fleshy habit, absence of 
ecanous bracts, 1-celled, 1 -seeded ovary, and coiled 
embryo arc distinctive V remarkable family of ht- 
toial plants, often with \\ater-storing tissue, spines, 
queer fruits, and the like 

The most important economic species is the beet 
(Beta vulqnris), the enlarged loot of which is used for 
food and for sugar, the foliage as a pot-herb Species 
of Chenopodium, Atuplex, Spinacia and others are 
eaten as greens Of those spinach is the most famous 
The -\oung shoots of Sahcorma (gla-siswort, marsh sam- 
phire) are eaten as a pot-herb and are pickled. These 
shoots are also used foi making glass and soaps be- 
cause of the soda contained The seeds of Chenopodium 
Quinoa are made into flour in Peiu The foliage of Chen- 
opodium Bod ?/s and Chcnopodnim mnbroi>ioidc<i is fra- 
grant-scented The seeds of Chenopodium anthebmnii- 
ium (wonnseed) are a well-known vermifuge Cheno- 
podium mexicanum yields sapomn Atnplcx horlctisis 
(orach) of Europe and Asia, yields an indigo dye, and 
the leaves are edible Soda is obtained by burning 
many species Salsola Kali var tenui folia (Russian 
thistle) is a bad weed 

Several genera are in cultivation in America, largely 
for food, but some for ornament Among these are: 
Atnplex (Orach, Sea Purslane), food and ornament; 
Beta (Beet, Mangel-wurzel, Mangel, Chard, Swiss 
Chard, Spinach Beet), food and ornament, Chenopodium 
(Good King Henry, Mercury, Markery, Feather Gera- 
nium, Jerusalem Oak, Wormseed, Mexican Tea), orna- 
ment, food, medicine; Cycloloma (Cyclone Plant), 
ornament, Kochia (Mock Cypress), ornament; Spinacia 
(Spinach, Spmage), food 

66 Amarantaceae (from the genus Amarantus, de- 
rived from the Greek, signifying unfading, the bracts 
are scanous and unchanging) AMARANTH FAMILY. Fig. 
18 Herbs, shrubs, or rarely trees leaves opposite or 
alternate, rarely fleshy: flowers bisexual or unisexual, 
email, regular, usually surrounded by scanous bracts; 
perianth simple, in one series of 5, rarely 1, 2, 3, or 4, 

separate or united parts, stamens opposite the perianth 
parts, of the same number or fewer, rarely more nu- 
merous, hypogynous or pengynous, separate or united, 
the stamen-tube often with fringed appendages at the 
top, hypogynous disk usually present; ovary superior, 
free or slightly united with the perianth, 1-celled, 
1 to many-seeded, style 0, or 1, or several, stigrnas vari- 
ous fruit a berry, an achene, or dehiscent by a lid; 
usually surrounded by the perianth, embryo coiled 

The 40 genera and about 450 species are distributed 
everywhere except in the arctics; most abundant 
within the tropics The family is very closely related 
to the Chenopodiaceae and Phytolaccaceie, also to the 
Caryophyllaceaj and Portulacaceaj. The single peri- 
anth, scanous persistent bracts, and 1-seeded fruit 
are distinctive 

Many species of Amarantus are eaten as greens. 
Gomphrensi arborewens is a tonic Many Amaran- 
taecue are weeds in cultivated grounds Some are im- 
portant ornamental plants The garden forms of 
Celosia cri^tala are remarkable for their fasciated 

In cultivation in America are Amarantus (Love- 
lies-bleeding, Prince's Feather, Joseph's Coat), gar- 
den annuals, Bosea, ornamental, Celosia (Cocks- 
comb), garden annuals; Gomphrena (Globe Amaranth, 
Bachelor's Button), garden annual; Ircsme or Achy- 
ranthes, bedding plants; Telanthcra (Alternant hera), 
bedding plants, Tnchinium or Ptilotus, greenhouse. 

67 Nyctaginaceae (from the generic name Nyctago, 
a synonym of Mirabilis, meaning niyht, in reference to 
the crepuscular or nocturnal flowering of the Four- 
O'clock). FouR-O'cLO( K FAMILY Fig 19 Herbs, 
shrubs, or trees leaves usually opposite, entire' flowers 
bisexual, rarely unisexual suriounded by an involucre 
of separate or united bracts which incloses 1 or several 
flowers, corolla absent; perianth parts united, very 
diverse in consistency, form and color, often petaloid, 

19 NYCTAGINACE *c 1 Mirabihs, a, flower; 6, floral diagram, 
2 Meea, flower PHYTOLACCACE*: 3 Phytolacca, a, flower, 6. 
floral diaKram, c, vertical section of seed AIZOACE^B 4 Mollugo, 
a, flower, 6, vertical section of seed 5 Aizoon, floral diagram 6. 
Mesembryanthemum, flower. PORTULACACEJO 7. Calandnnm, 



valvate or plicate persistent after flowering, and often 
woody or leathery, enveloping the fruit, stamens 1-30, 
united at the has?, unequal, hypogynous, ovary of 1 
carpel, 1-celled, 1-ovuled; style 1, stigina 1. fiuit an 

The family has 18 genera and about 150 species, 
principally natives of America from Colorado to Chile. 
A few are scattered in other parts of the world The 
largest genus is Pisoma with 40 species, Neea has 30 
species The family is related to the Phytolaccacese. 
The floral bracts, absence of corolla, peisistent peri- 
anth enveloping the very thin-walled fruit, and the 
1-seeded, 1-celled ovary, are distinctive 

The roots of Boerhavia and of Mvabihs Jalapa are 
purgative, and are sold as a (substitute for jalap The 
foliage of several species of Bocihavia is used as vege- 
tables The natives of the Hawaiian Islands catch 
birds with the very sticky fruits of the native species 
The leaves of Neea theifcra are used as tea in Bia/il, 
also as a black dye 

In America 3 genera are in common cultivation 
Abronia, gafden annuals; BougamvilUea, gieenhouse 
shrubs, Mirabihs (Four-o'clock, Marvel of Peru). 

68 Phytolaccaceae (from the genus Phytolncca, de- 
rived from the Greek meaning plant and Inc, in refer- 
ence to the red juice of the fruit) POKEWEED FAMILY. 
Fig 19 Herbs, shrubs, or trees leaves mostly alter- 
nate, simple flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, regu- 
lar; perianth of one series, divisions 4-5, separate, per- 
sistent, not modified m fruit; stamens of the same 
number as the parts of the perianth and alternate with 
them, or more numerous, often connate at base, hypog- 
ynous, disk obscure or annular, ovary usually supe- 
rior, rarely inferior, caipels 1 to many, fiee, or united 
into a several-celled ovaiy, ovules 1 for each carpel, 
styles as many as the caipels fruit a berry, utricle, 
nut, or samara; embryo curved. 

The pokeweed family contains 22 genera and about 
100 bpecies, mostly of tropical and subtropical America 
and South Africa One species reaches the eastern 
United States All the genera are small The family is 
related to the Aizoaeea?, also to the Caryophyllaceie, 
Chenopodiacea?, Nyctagmacea 1 , and other families 
with curved embryos. The several 1-seeded carpels 
and non-accrescent perianth are usually distinctive 

The red juice of the fruit of Phytolncca dccandrn was 
used by the American Indians for staining baskets, and 
the like The roots of this plant are medicinal (emetic, 
cathartic), and the young shoots arc eaten 

A few genera are in cultivation in America Among 
these are Phytolacca (Pokebeny, Pokeweed, Scokc, 
Garget, Pigeonberry, Inkberry), native, hardy, rarely 
cultivated as a pot-herb, and Rivma (Rough Plant), 
ornamental garden and greenhouse plants 

69 Aizoaceae (from the genus Aizoon, derived from 
the Greek meaning always alive, in reference to the 
persistence of life in desert habitats) CARPET-WEED 
or ICE-PLANT FAMILY Fig 19 Erect or prostrate, 
often fleshy herbs or sub-shrubs, either the stem or the 
leaves, or both, curiously modified to reduce surface 
and store water; rarely ordinary herbaceous plants: 
leaves opposite, alternate or whorled, simple and mostly 
entire* flowers bisexual, regular, hypogynous or epigy- 
nous, perianth of one set of 4-5 separate or united 
parts, stamens 5, alternating with the penanth parts, 
or by the splitting up of each becoming very numer- 
ous, in which case many of the outer are changed into 
long, showy, petaloid stammodia, the whole then some- 
what resembling the head of an aster; ovary 2 -20-celled, 
superior or inferior; placenta) axial, basal, or parietal, 
ovules mostly numerous, stigmas 2-20: fruit capsular 
or nut-like; embryo curved or annular. 

Eighteen genera and about 500 species are known, 
of *which 300 belong to the genus Mesembryanthemum; 
mostly inhabitants of the desert or, at least, dry por- 
tions of tropical and south-tropical regions The large 

genus, Mesembryanthemum, is almost exclusively South 
African, but reaches the Mediterranean One species 
of Aizoacece (Sesuvium) is native in the eastern United 
States The family is related through some genera 
to the Phytolaccaceae, through others to the Caryophyl- 
laceac and Poitulacaceie The annular embryo places 
the Aizoaceae in this group The apetalous, often 
falsely polypetalous, flowers, with several-celled ovary, 
and curved embryo, are characteristic 

The fruits of Mesembryanthemiim edule (Hottentot 
fig) are edible The leaves of Mesembryanthemum are 
used as a vegetable on the borders of the African 
desert Tctrngonia ejcpansa (New Zealand spinach) is 
cultivated as a pot-herb Me^cnibryanthernum crys- 
talhnutn (ice-plant) of the Mediterranean region, with 
leaves covered with peculiar vesicular hairs filled with 
a viscid liquid, which sparkles in the sunlight like frost, 
is cultivated as a cui losity Other species are cultivated 
for their strange appearance 

Many species of Mesembryanthemum (Fig Man- 
gold, and Ice-plant) are moie or less cultivated in 
America, also one species of Tetragonn (New Zealand 
Spinach, New Zealand Ice-plant) 

70 Portulacaceae (from the genus Portulaca, an old 
Latin name of unknown origin) PUK?L\NE FAMILY 
Fig 19 Herbaceous or .suff rut icose leaves often fleshy, 
sometimes connate flowers bisexual, usually regular, 
sepals 2, petals 4-5, raiely more, sometimes connate 
at the base, fugaeeou.s, .stamens in 1 or 2 whorls, hy- 
pog>nous (except m Portulaca), equal in number to the 
petals and opposite them, or double the number and 
alternating with them, or fewer, or, by multiplication, 
very man> , ovary 1-celled, with a f ice-central or basal 
placenta; ovules 2 to man> , .style 2-.J-parted fruit a 
capsule, opening by a valve or lid, rarely mdehiscent, 
embryo curved or annular 

Most of the 17 genera and about 150 species are 
inhabitants of the warmer, dry or arid regions, for 
which their fleshy stiucture and frequently prostrate 
or ca'spitose habit arc an adaptation They arc most 
abundant in South America and the Cape of Good 
Hope, also common in western North America The 
Portulacacca 1 are most closely related to the Carvo- 
phyllacese and Aizoaceae The 2 sepals, 1-celled ovary 
with central placenta, sevcial styles, and curved or 
coiled embryo are distinctive In the common pur- 
slane and a few other species, the capsule opens by a 
terminal lid, which, sepaiating along a trans veise line, 
falls off and thus allows the seeds to escape In Por- 
tulaca the ovary is partly inferior 

Most of the Portulacacecc are mucilaginous, some are 
slightly bitter and have been used as a mild tonic The 
herbage of Portulaca oleracea is eaten as a salad or as 
greens, and is also said to be sedative and an antidote 
for scurvy Several species of Calandnnia, Tahnum 
and Claytoma, are used as pot-herbs The roots of 
Claytonia tubcrosa of Siberia are edible, as are also the 
roots of the western Lewisia 

About one-third of the genera are in cultivation in 
America. Portulaca grandiflora (Rose Moss) its orna- 
mental, P. oleracea (Purslane or Pusley) is a pot-herb, 
the Montias are also pot-herbs Lewisia, Tahnum, 
Spraguoa and Claytonia arc mostly ornamental 

71 Basellaceae (from the genus I-lasella, the Malabar 
name of the plant) BA&ELLA FAMILY Fig 20. Climb- 
ing, perennial heibs, rarelv slightly woody leaves alter- 
nate, broad, often fleshy, flowers bisexual, regular, 2 
bracteolate, sepals 2, petals 5, separate or connate, 
imbricated, peisistent, stamens 5, opposite the petals 
and attached to their base; ovary superior, l-celled, 
ovule 1, basal, curved; style and stigma 1-3' fruit 
mdehiscent, inclosed in the corolla; embryo spiral. 

There are 5 genera and about 15 species, all except 
one species being confined to tropical America, mostly 
m the Andes Boussmgaultia, the largest genus, con- 
tcwxs 10 species. The family is related to the Cheno- 



podiaceaB with which it has been united; also to the 
Polygonaceac and Portulacaceae. The twining stem, 
and the two sets of floral envelopes, together with the 
1-celled ovary and single seed, are distinctive. 

Basella alba (red and white spinach) is eaten as a 
pot-herb. The starchy root of Ullucus tubcrot>us is 
eaten in Peru It is used as a substitute for the potato, 
which it resembles 

The genera apparently in Cultivation in America are. 
Anredera; Basella (Malabar Nightshade), grown as 
ornamental greenhouse plants, or eaten as spinach, and 
Boussingaultia (Madeira Vine, Mignonette Vine), orna- 
mental garden or greenhouse plants 

72 Caryophyllaceae (from the genus Caryophyllut, an 
old botamral name for the clove pink [Dianthus], the 
application of the name obscure) PINK FAMILY Fig 
20 Herbs, rarely suffruticose, with opposite entire 
leaves' flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, regular; se- 
pals 5, separate or united, petals 5, rarely wanting, 
stamens twice as many as the petals, rarely fewer, hy- 
pogynous or pengynous, carpels 3-5; ovary superior, 
1-eelled with a tree-central or basal placenta, ovules 1 
to many, styles 3-5' fruit a capsule, rarely a berry, 
opening by valves or mdehiscent; seed albuminous, 
embryo strongly curved or coiled 

The pink family consists of 70 genera and from 
1,200-1,500 species, distributed over all parts of the 
earth, though most abundant in the temperate and sub- 

20 BAKSELiArtJE 1 Bousaingaultia, flower talyx ronio\ed 
CAKYOPHYLLACI,*. 2 Silone, flower i ARrostermna (Lyohnis). 
seed 4 Areriana, flower 5 Sagma, flower Spersula, iloral 
diagram 7 Paronyohia, flower 

arctic zom Many have become weeds in cultivated 
ground and are now very \\idely dispersed. The 
Caryoph} llaceie are related to the Chenopodiacca?, 
Amarantace:e, Phytolaeeacese, Portulacaceap, Nyctagi- 
nacete and Aizoacca?, all of which have a coiled, curved 
or annular embryo Of these, the Phytolaccace;e proba- 
bly represent more nearly the ancestral type 13y most 
recent authors (see Pax) the llleccbraceue (Paronychia, 
Anychia, Sclcranthus and Hermaria) are included in 
the Caryophyllacej? The curved embryo, the 1-celled 
ovary with several styles and central placenta, the 10 
stamens, the 5 separate petals and the opposite entire 
leaves are together distinctive 

The family is very naturally divided into two dis- 
tinct tiibcs. Tribe I Silenoidex Sepals united form- 
ing a tubular calyx; stamens hypogynous This in- 
cludes Silene, Lychnis, Dianthus, Tunica, Saponana 
and Gypsophila. 

Tnbe II. Alsinoidesr Sepals separate; stamens 
mostly pengynous Includes Spergula ? Ccrastium, 
Stellaria, Arenana, Sagma, Paronychia, Anychia, 
Hermaria and Scleranthus 

In the Silenoidese, the long-clawed petals often have 
a scale at the top, the five together forming a tiny 
crown Some species of Silene and Lychnis flower only 
at night or in cloudy weather, and are pollinated by 

night-flying moths The bracts at the base of the flower 
in Dianthus are distinctive. The petals of chickweed 
are curiously 2-parted, simulating 10 petals. 

The Caryophyllacese are of little economic impor- 
tance. Some were formerly used in medicine, but have 
fallen into disrepute The roots of Saponana officmalts 
contain a saponaceous substance, saponm, and have 
been used for washing, whence the common name 
"soapwort " Saponm is a powerful local irritant, and, 
if applied strong, is said to kill either muscular or ner- 
vous tissue Spergula arvcniis has been used as a 
fodder plant. Many members of the family are well- 
known ornamental plants, of which the most famous 
is Dianthus Caryophyllus, the carnation pink. 

Perhaps 20 genera (including Illecebraceae) are 
grown, mostly for ornament Among these are' Are- 
nana (Sandwort) , Cerast mm (Mouse-ear Chickweed), 
Dianthus (Carnation, Clove Pink, China Pink, Plumed 
Pink, Sweet William, Picotee, Grenadine). Gypsophila 
(Baby's Breath), Lychnis (Ragged Room, Maltese 
Cross, Dusty Miller); Paronychia (Whitlow-wort), 
Sagma (Pearl-wort), Saponana (Bouncing Bet, Soap- 
wort, Cow Herb); Silene (Catchfly, Campion, Wild 
Pink), Spergula (Spurry), Stellaria (Chickweed, Star- 
wort); Tunica. 

Order 34 RANALES 

73 Nymphaeaceas (from the genus Nymphsea, a 
name intended for the white water-lilies; dedicated by 
the Greeks to the water nymphs) WATER-LILY FAM- 
ILY Fig 21 Aquatic herbs leaves alternate flowers 
usually bisexual, regular, the organs, in part at least, 
spirally arranged; sepals mostly 4, rarely 3, 5, 6, or 12, 
petals 3-many, usually very numerous, hypogynous, 
or more or less epigynous, often a distinct transition 
to the stamens, stamens very numerous (rarely 6), 
inserted with the petals, carpels rarely 3-4, usually 
many, rarely distinct, usually cohering m a whorl or 
sunken m the enlarged receptacle; stigmas radially 
arranged on a sessile disk (as in poppy) or single 
fruit mdehiscent or irregularly dehiscent, usually 
fleshy, seeds several. 

Nymplueacese has 8 genera and about 60 species, 
distributed m all parts of the world, but more especially 
in tropical South America The family is closely 
related to the other families with spiral structure of the 
flower, as the Ranunculaceaj, Magnohacetc and Dille- 
macere There is also a relation to Podophyllum o< 
the Berber idaceap, and to the Papaveracese The habit, 
spiral arrangement of floral parts, when present, the 
numerous stamens, the usually coherent carpels, and 
the typo of fruit, are characteristic 

The leaves of Nelunibo are raised on long petioles, 
those of Nymphsea usually float, those of Brasema are 
covered with a thick layer of slime, those of Victoria 
reqia are 5-8 feet in diameter and floating. The recep- 
tacle of Nelumbo in fruit is like an inverted top with 
the ripe 1-seeded carpels loosely rattling m small cavi- 
ties on the flat surface. The Nymphseacea? in stem 
structure and character of the embryo shows a transi 
tion to the monocotyledons 

Because of their unique appearance among plants, 
some species were venerated by the ancients. The lotus 
of the Egyptians, represented on their monuments 
and statues of their gods 5,000 years ago, was 
Nymphsea cserulea or N. Ijotiis, though Nelumbo 
nucifera has long passed under that name. (See arti- 
cle on Nympha?a ) The rootstocks of the Nymphsea- 
ceac contain abundant starch, mucilage and sugar, 
which render them nutritive The seeds are edible 
p,nd the negroes of the Nile used them as millet. The 
Egyptians still eat the seeds and rootstocks The 
seeds and rootstocks of Euryale ferox are cultivated 
and eaten m China. 

In the American trade a few genera appear. Cabomba 
(Fish-Grass), with dissected submerged leaves and 



white flowers, is grown in aquaria; Brasenia (Water 
Shield) is grown in aquatic gardens, as are also various 
species of Nuphar (Yellow Water-Lily, Spatterdock, 
Cow Lily); Nymphca (White Pond-Lily); Nelumbo 
(Indian Lotus, so-called Egyptian Lotus, and Water 
Chinquapin); Victoria regia, and the similar Euryale 
fercx. The white water-lilies have latterly been called 
Castalia, but the name Nymphaea as applied to them 
has good historical standing and is retained in this 
work, Nuphar is still held for the yellow pond-lilies. 

74. Trochodendraceoe (from the genus Trochoden- 
dron, from the Greek wheel, plus tree) TROCHODEN- 
DRON FAMILY Trees or shrubs leaves alternate or 
opposite, with oil-glands: flowers bisexual or unisexual, 

21. NYMPHACE.S:: 1. Nelumbmm, fruit 2. Nymphsea, flower 
3 Nuphar, fruit RANUNCULACE-B 4 Ranunculus, a, flower, 6, 
fruit 5 Aquilegia, fruit 6 Clematis, fruit 7 Petals of various 
genera, o, Coptis , 6, Eranthis , c, Ranunculus, d, Aquilegia, e, 

regular, hypogynous or pengynous; sepals and petals 
wanting; stamens numerous, spirally arranged, car- 
pels separate, sometimes half immersed in the recep- 
tacle, 2 to many in one whorl; ovules 1 to many, fruit a 
follicle, or mdehiscent. 

Only 3 genera and 6 species are known, all of Eastern 
Asia. The family is closely related to the Magnoli- 
acese, in which it has been included by many authors. 
It has the same spiral structure of the flower, and sepa- 
rate carpels, but the perianth is wanting 

Trochodendron is one of the very few angiosperms 
in which the secondary wood is made up entirely of 
tracheids with bordered pits, without true vessels, as 
in the Coniferae. 

The family is of little economic value The wood of 
some species is used locally. In America, Cercidiphyllum 
japonicum and Euptelea polyandra are in cultivation 
as hardy, ornamental woody plants 

75. Ranunculaceae (from the genus Ranunculus, 
from the Latin signifying a little frog, because many of 
these plants are aquatic or marsh plants) BUTTERCUP 
FAMILY. Fig. 21 . Herbs or shrubs of diverse habit * flow- 
ers bisexual rarely unisexual, spirally constructed except 
often the perianth, regular or irregular; sepals 3 to 
many, usually 5, separate, often petaloid; petals 3 to 

many, or 0, often in the form of honeyglands; stamens 
usually very numerous, hypogynous, carpels 1 to many, 
usually separate fruit an achene or follicle, rarely a 
capsule or a berry, seeds with endosperm 

The 27 genera and about 680 species are distributed 
mainly in the north temperate and subarctic regions. 
Clematis, Anemone and Delphinium cross the equator 
southward The largest genus is Ranunculus The 
family is related to the Magnoliaceae, Annonacese, Dil- 
lemaceso, Nymphseaceae, and other families with 
acyclic flowers and numerous carpels The spiral 
floral structure, the numerous hypogynous stamens, 
and the usually separate carpels are the most dis- 
tinctive characteristics The Ranunculacese is proba- 
bly a very old f amilv, and by some authors is thought 
to represent more closely than others the stock from 
which the dicotyledons have sprung 

The floral structure is very interesting and very 
variable The petals, when not wanting, are rarely 
normal In one series a transition is shown from the 
stannnode-like nectary of Coptis to the petal-like 
nectary of Ranunculus, in another series the nectar- 
bearing petals are spurred or variously irregular, as in 
Aconitum, Delphinium and Aquilegia In the last 
two genera, the flowers also have become extremely 
irregular. The fruits show an equally great diversity. 
Fiom the primitive follicular type, they have become 
modified into achenes with a suspended or erect ovule, 
into a berry, or, in Nigella, even into a several-celled 
capsule by the fusion of the carpels The wind-pol- 
linated Thahctrum shows great reduction and modi- 
fication on that account The stalked carpels of Coptis 
vsmiulate an umbel of separate fruits Finally the foliage 
of several species of Ranunculus has become very much 
dissected on account of the aquatic habit, and the 
plants, therefore, simulate a Mynophyllum 

The Ranuncufaceifi is divided by Prantl into three 
tribes as follows* 

7V? be I. Fruit follicular, carpels fleshy, outer seed- 
coat long, e g Pacoma and Hydrastis 

Tribe II Fruit usually follicular, carpels rarely fleshy, 
outer seed-coat not longer than the inner, e g , Caltha, 
Helleborus, Coptis, Actsea, Aquilegia, Delphinium, etc 

Tribe III Fruit an achene, e g , Anemone, Clematis, 
Ranunculus, Thahctrurn, etc. 

The family contains many plants useful to mankind. 
Many are cultivated for their ornamental flowers 
The seeds, leaves and roots contain a bitter acid 
principle which is very irritating and in many cases 
poisonous. Because of this, many species of Anemone, 
Clematis, and so on, have been used to produce blisters, 
and beggars are said to have made use of C Vitalba to 
produce artificial sores and thus excite pity The 
roots of Coptis (gold-thread) are bright yellow, and 
have been used both as bitters and for the dye-stuffs 
contained Hydrastis (golden seal) is a well-known 
tonic and stomach corrective Aconite is a powerful 
narcotic drug much used to allay fever Slow cooking 
usually dissipates the poisonous properties of the Ran- 
unculacete, thus enabling the vegetative portion m 
many cases to be eaten as greens. Ranunculus Thora 
and R sceleratus were named by the Romans "sar- 
donia" because they are said to excite convulsive 
sardonic laughter. 

Two dozen or more genera are in cultivation in 
America, almost entirely for ornamental purposes. 
Among these are Aconitum (Aconite, Monkshood, 
Wolfsbane); Actsea (Baneberry, Red and White Co- 
hosh); Adonis (Pheasant's Eye, Adonis); Anemone 
(Anemone, Windflower, Patens, Pasgue Flower) ; Aqui- 
legia (Columbine) , Caltha (Marsh Mangold, American 
Cowslip); Clematis (Virgin's Bower); Coptis (Gold- 
thread) ; Delphinium (Larkspur) ; Eranthis (Winter Aco- 
nite) ; Helleborus (Christmas Rose) , Hydrastis (Golden 
Seal, Orange Root); Nigella (Love-m-a-Mist, Devil-in- 
a-Bush, Fennel Flower); Paeoma (Peony, Pmey); 



Ranunculus (Buttercup, Crowfoot) , Thahctrum (Mea- 
dow Rue); Trautvetteria (False Bugbane); Trolhus 
(Globe Flower), Xanthorrhiza (Shrub Yellow Root). 

A considerable industry has recently sprung into 
existence in which Hydrastis is grown for the medici- 
nal value of the roots 

76 Lardizabalaceae (from the genus Lardizabala, 
named in honor of a Spanish naturalist, Lardizabala y 
Unbe) LARDIZABALA FAMILY Mostly twining plants 
with palmately compound leaves flowers polygamous or 
unisexual, rudiments of the other sex organs present, 
regular, hypogynous, sepals 6, petaloid, in two whorls, 
petals hone, stamens 6, hypogynous; usually with 
nectaries between stamens and petals, carpels 3, 
rarely 6-9 or numerous, separate, ovules many rarely 
one, parietal; fruiting carpels baccate, indehiscent or 

This family has 8 genera and 18 species, inhabitants 
of the Himalayas, China, Japan, and Chile The family 
is related to the Berberidacese, with which it was for- 
merly united, and to the Memspermaceae, from both of 
which it is distinguished by the several-seeded fruit 
and by other characters 

The fruits of most species arc edible. The stems of 
Boqinla and Lardizabala are used as cordage 

Lardizabala, Stauntoma, Akebia and Sargentodoxa 
are in the Amencan trade 

77 Berberidaceae (from the genus Herberts, derived 
from Berberys which is the Arabic name of the fruit) 
BARBERRY FAMILY Fig. 22 Herbs or shrubs with 
large, compound leaves, or small and simple, or spine- 
like leaves flow ers bisexual, regular, hypogynous, sepals 
3-9 in 1-3 series, petals 4-9 or more, in several whorh, 
often changed to nectaries, stamens as many as the 
petals and opposite them, rarely twice as many, anthers 
peculiar, opening by valves which roll upward, ovary 
1-celled with several ovules, style almost 0, stigma 
mostly peltate fruit a beiry or capsule 

The family Berberidaceae has 8 genera and about 
200 species, distributed through north temperate 
Europe, Asia and America Bcrberis extends along the 
Andes to the Straits of Magellan Fossil spceie-s in the 
Tertiary are known The family i& related to the 
Ranunculacese, Papavcracete and Fumanacese There 
is also an evident relation to the ^lagnohacese and 
Annonaceiv The cyclic flowers, definite stamens 
opposite the petals, the solitary carpel, and usually 
the dehiseence of the anthers are distinctive In 
Podophyllum, the anthers open longitudinally in the 
ordinary way, and the stamens are twice the number 
of the petals The stamens of Berbens are irritable, 
flying toward the stigma when touched, and then 
scattering the pollen 

The fruit of the common barberry (Berbens vulgans) 
contains oxalic acid and is used as a preserve, the yel- 
low inner bark and stems are astringent and yield the 
yellow "berbenne," which is also a purgative This 
yellow color formerly induced doctors to administer 
Berbens for jaundice The fruits of the mahomas of 
California are also eaten as a preserve The wood of 
the Indian and South American species of Berbens 
is used as a dye The root of Podophyllum (mandrake 
or May apple) is purgative and poisonous, the ripe 
fruit of this plant is fleshy arid edible Many other 
species have been used for medicine in various parts of 
the world Berbens vulgaris is the famous host-plant 
of the secidial stage of the wheat rust 

The genera that are in the American trade are 
mostly grown as unusual herbaceous plants in gardens 
and are not widely known Many species of the 
shrubby and spiny Beibens, and also of Mahonia, 
are grown for ornamental purposes Akebia, a well- 
known woody twiner with palmate leaves and curious 
purple flowers, is now placed in the Lardizibalacese, 

78 Menispermacese (from the genus Memspermum, 
derived from the Greek meaning moonseed). MOON- 

SEED FAMILY. Fig 22. Woody climbers, leaves alternate: 
flowers dioecious, regular, sepals usually 6, in 2 series; 
petals 6, in 2 series, stamens 6, hypogynous, opposite 
the petals, sometimes monadelphous; carpels usually 
3, rarely more, separate, 1-ovuled, much curved m 
fruit, seed half-inverted, embryo usually curved: fruit 
compound of sessile or stipitate drupelets 

There are 56 genera and 150 species, distributed 
mostly in the tropical and subtropical portions of both 
hemispheres None are found in Europe Three species 
are native in the northeastern United States The 
Memspermaceae are related to the Berbendaeese, the 
Annonacejje and the Magnoliaeeie The numerical plan 
of 3, the 2 whorls of sepals and petals, the curved seed, 
the drupelets, and the absence of oil-glands, are dis- 
tinctive. Cross-sections of the twining stems often 
present peculiar patterns due to the unequal growth 
of the cambium 

Several species are used in medicine Joteorhiza 
palmatus of tropical Africa has a turnip-shaped root 
which was much used as a tonic The roots of species 
of Cissampelos are administered in Brazil in cases of 
snake-bites The bark of several species yields a yellow 
dye Arwimirta Cocculus of tropical Asia has extremely 
poisonous fruits (fish-berries or cocculus) used to 
intoxicate and poison fibh which are thus obtained m 
abundance, but are sometimes dangerous to eat The 
narcotic principle, nicrotoxine, is almost as poisonous 
as strychnine In England, beer is said sometimes to 



2 Mermpermum, fruit MAONOLIACE^B 3 Magnolia, a, flower; 
b, floral diagram, L, fruit CALYCANTHACE.B 4 Calycanthus, r 
flower, b, fruat 

be adulterated with the fruit (called cocculus indicus) 
of this plant. 

Few genera are in cultivation in America for orna- 
mental purposes, mostly m the southern states, and 
especially Florida. Cissampelos (Velvet Leaf or Pareira 
Brava), tonic and diuretic, m Florida, Menispermum 
(Moonseed Vine, from the curved fruit), hardy, native; 
Cocculus carohnus of the southeastern United States, 
semi-hardy; C tnloba, E. Asia, hardy 

79 Magnoliaceae (from the genus Magnolia, which 
was dedicated to P. Magnol, a professor of Botany at 


Montpelher in the 17th century.) MAGNOLIA FAMILY. 
Fig 22 Woody plants with alternate, entire or lobed 
leaves, and usually large stipules, each pair of which 
forms a hood over the young growth above, the outer 
pair of stipules serving as bud-scales, and each pair leav- 
ing a scar which completely encircles the stem flowers 
usually bisexual, regular, hypogynous, the parts 
spirally arranged except sometimes the sepals and 
petals; sepals 3, petals 6 to many, separate, stamens very 
numerous, carpels usually many and usually separate; 
ovary 1-celled, 1- to several-seeded, arranged spirally or 
in a whorl (Ilhcium) at the top of the receptacle fruit 
a follicle, or samara, or indehiscent and fleshy 

Ten genera and about 80 species are distributed 
principally in the subtropical and temperate portions of 
Asia and America, but are absent in Africa, Europe and 
the arctic regions The Magnohaceic are most closely 
related to the Annonaccsc and Calycanthacete The 
peculiar stipules, the spiral structure of the hypogyn- 
ous flower, and the separate carpels are distinctive 
In Magnolia, the outer seed-coat is fleshy and red, 
when ripe the seeds fall out biiu remain suspended by 
the uncoiled 'spiral vessels of the raphe and funiculus 

The wood is generally valuable for timber, while all 
parts, such as leaves and bark, contain a bitter resin, 
which m some species is fragrantly aromatic Michelia 
Champaca is cultivated m tropical Asia for its sweet 
flowers which are carried about as a perfumery Its 
aromatic and acrid bark and buds are used in rheuma- 
tism. The bark of Talauma elegant is Ubed in Java as a 
stomachic. The seeds of Magnolia Yulan have been 
used from prehistoric times m China as a febrifuge It 
is said that the aromatic bark of the tulip tree is a 
substitute for cascanlla and quinine Drimys Wmteri 
has long been used as a stimulant in Central and South 
America, and, by importation, m Europe The fruit 
of Ilhcium verum, a Chinese shrub, is very pleasantly 
aromatic, resembling anise, from which, and its remark- 
able star-like whorled carpels, it is called "star anise " 
It is much used as a condiment in oriental countries. 
The bark of Ilhaum amsatum (I religiot>um) was 
formerly burned as incense in the temples of Japan 
For a long period the name llhcium animtum was 
thought to apply to the star anise, but this mistake was 
rectified in the B M. 7005 Linodendron Tuhpijera 
furnishes the valuable "whitewood" or "yellow poplar" 
of commerce. The wood of various species of Mag- 
nolia is used in cabinet-work 

Several genera are in cultivation in America, all except 
Ilhcium as ornamental trees and shrubs. Among these 
are Ilhcium (Star Anise); Linodendron (Tulip Tree); 
Magnolia (Magnolia, White Bay, Beam Tree, Cucumber 
Tree) ; and Schizandra, a procumbent warty shrub 

80 Calycanthaceae (from the genus Calycanthus, 
derived from the Greek, which means a cup and flower, 
referring to the peculiar receptacle) CALYCANTHUS 
FAMILY. Fig 22 Shrubs with opposite leaves and aro- 
matic bark flowers bisexual, regular, pengynous, spirally 
constructed, parts of the perianth numerous, petaloid, 
not clearly differentiated into calyx and corolla, 
stamens 10-30 (5 m Meratia); carpels numerous, sepa- 
rate, inserted on the inner face of the hollow receptacle, 
each 1-2-ovuled, in fruit forming 1-seeded achenes, 
which are completely inclosed by the fleshy recep- 
tacle; seeds, exalbummous, cotyledons spirally rolled. 

Calycanthus, with 4-6 species, is confined to the south- 
ern United States and California, Meratia has two 
ries in China and Japan The family is related to 
MagnohacesB and the Annonaceae in the spiral 
structure of the flowers, but differs in the exalbummous 
seed, the perigynous flowers arid the opposite leaves. 
By some authors the family has been placed near the 
Rosacea) because of the pengynous flowers, but the 
spiral arrangement is not that of this latter family. 
The aromatic bark, the magnolia-like flowers, and the 
peculiar rose-like fruits are distinctive. 

The bark of Calycanthus flondus is used in America 
as a tonic under the name Carolina allspice. 

All the species are in cultivation m the northern 
United States as ornamental shrubs 

81. Annonaceae (from the genus Annona, which is 
from Mcnona, its Banda name) CUSTARD-APPLE 
FAMILY Fig 23 Tiees or shrubs, with simple and en- 
tire alternate leaves flowers usually bisexual, regular, 
hypogynous; sepals 3; petals usually 6, commonly 
valvate, rarely imbricated; stamens spirally arranged; 
numerous, carpels usually numerous and separate 
(united in Monodora), 1- to several-ovuled fruit berry- 
like, rarely capsular, often constricted between the 


From 500-600 species in 46 genera are found 
mostly in the tropical regions of Asia, Africa and Amer- 
ica, the majority occurring in the Old World. Only 

the genus Asimina is extra-tropical in Atlantic North 
America and in Australia The family is most closely 
related to the Magnohaceae, but also to the Myristi- 
caceae, Memspermaceae, Calyeanthacese and Dilleni- 
aceai The plan of 3 in calyx and corolla, the nu- 
merous spiral stamens, the usually separate carpels, the 
berry-like fruit and ruminate endosperm are dis- 
tinctive There is great structural diversity m the 

The Annonaceae is rich m useful plants. The Malayans 
use the bark of several species for rheumatic pains, 
and the fruit of others as a stomachic With the 
flowers of Uvana they prepare an ointment to ward off 
fevers European women in India formerly used the 
scented flowers of this plant in hair-oil Many species 
of Annona and Asimina produce edible fruit, as for 
example, the sweet-sop (Annona squamosa), the sour- 
sop (Annona muncata), the custard-apple (Annona 
reticulata), and the northern papaw (Asimina tnloba). 

A few genera are in cultivation m America, mostly 
m Florida and southern California. Annona, cultivated 



for the fruit; Asimma, ornamental, in the North; Arta- 
botrys, climbing, ornamental, sweet-scented, used for 
perfume, Duguetia, cultivated for the fruit in Florida 

82 Myristicaceee (from the genus Myristica, mean- 
ing an anointing medium, in reference to the fragrant 
fruit). NUTMEG FAMILY. Fig 23. Trees or shrubs 
leaves alternate, coriaceous, entire flowers dioscious, 
regular, small, perianth of one series, the 3 parts con- 
nate, 3-lobed, stamens 3-18, monadelphous, carpel 1, 
superior, ovary 1 -celled, ovule 1, stigma sessile, entire 
or lobed. fruit a fleshy capsule, seed with a fleshy, 
lacimate aril 

The family contains 1 genus and about 80 species, 
of tropical distribution, principally in tropical Asia 
The family is most closely related to the Annonaceue 
The dioecious flowers with only one set of floral envel- 
opes, and that consisting of 3 parts, the monadelphous 
stamens, the 1-celled, 1-ovuled ovary and the aril are 

All parts of Mynstieacese contain a fragrant oil, 
which, however, is most abundant in the fruit The 
seeds of Mynstica fragrant, of the Moluccas, furnish 
the well-known nutmeg, used as a condiment The 
aril of the same fruit is mace The fruits of other 
species are also sparingly used as condiments 

Myrif>tica fiagrans is cultivated and naturalized in 
the West Indies 

83 Monimiaceae (from the genus Mommia, named 
for the wife of Mythndates) MOMMIA FAMILY Fig 23 
Trees or shrubs with aromatic glands leaves opposite 
or whorled, rarely alternate' flowers usually bisexual, 
regular, pengjnous, the more or less cup-shaped 
receptacle conspicuous, variously formed; perianth 
of 1 or 2 whorls, inconspicuous, stamens numerous, 
rarely few, scattered over the inner face of the recep- 
tacle, anthers often opening by uplifting vahes, caipels 
numerous, all separate, also scattered over the recep- 
tacular cup, ovaries 1-ovuled, style and stigma 1 for 
each carpel fruit an achene or drupe, borne on the 
receptacle and sessile or pedicelled, or immersed in the 
fleshy often urn-shaped receptacle \\hich becomes part 
of an aggregate accessory fruit and frequently com- 
pletely incloses the achcncs 

Contained in this family arc 31 genera and about 
150 species, of tropical and subtropical distribution, 
principally of the South Sea Islands and Australia: 
borne, however, reach South America, Africa, and 
other countries The largest genus is Siparuna, con- 
taining GO species The family is related to the Caly- 
canthacea?, as is plainly evident in the fruit The usu- 
ally enlarged receptacle, the peculiar fruit, and the 
1-seeded carpels are distinctive 

The Mornmiaceuc have {stimulating properties Peu- 
mus leaves are used to promote digestion, like tea 
and coffee The fruits of this plant are edible, as are 
also those of Lauretta btmpemrens The wood of 
Atherotpcrma moschalum is much sought for ship- 
building, the bark is a substitute for tea 

Peumus (Chilean Holdo) is advertised in California: 
valuable for its timber, edible fruits, and ornamental 

84 Lauracese (from the genus Laurus, the old Latin 
name). LAUREL FAMILY Fig. 23 Trees or shrubs 
with fend or aromatic bark leaves alternate, rarely 
otherwise, sunple, punctate flowers bisexual or unisex- 
ual, regular, parts of the perianth similar, usually 6, in 
2 whorls; stamens in. 3-4 whorls of 3 each, pengynous 
or epigynous, some often stammodial and glandular; 
anthers opening by uplifting valves, ovary superior or 
very rarely inferior, 1-celled, 1-ovuled, style 1, stigma 
2-3-lobcd fruit a berry ; drupe, or dry, often seated on 
a thickened pedicel or inclosed in a nollow receptacle 

The 39 genera and about 900 species inhabit mostly 
tropical regions, but extend into the temperate re- 
gions Six species are found in the northeastern United 
Stat'-s The largest genera are Ocotea with 200 species. 

and Litsea with 100 species The family is related to 
the Mommiaceai, and stands between that family and 
the Thymelseacefle The undifferentiated perianth, nu- 
merous stamens with uplifting valves, and 1-celled, 
1 -seeded ovary are distinctive 

The Lauracoae are useful on account of the aromatic 
oil The leaves of laurel (Laurus nobilis) are used for 
flavoring and for packing figs Cinnamon is from 
the bark of Cinnnmonium ztylamcum, Cinnumomum 
Ormia yields cassia cinnamon The bark of the root 
of Sassafras variifolium is the sassafras of commerce 
Camphor is obtained by distillation from Cinnamomum 
CV/w/,Wa The fruit of Per sea yratissinui is the avo- 
cado of South America, eaten by both men and 
animals Many fragrant woods are obtained from 
this family, as, for example anise wood (Ocotea 
cymbarurn), bebeeru wood, greenheart (Nectandra 
Rodxei), or clove -cassia pepper wood (DicypeLlium 
raryophyllatum) so named because of the pungency of 
the dust, Madeira mahogany (Persea indica), fetid till 
(Ocotea fietens), sweet wood (Nectandra exaltata), and 
fatinkwood (Ocotea buUata) 

Among thft genera in cultivation in this country 
are Benzoin (Spice Bush, Benjamin Bush, Wild All- 
spice, Fever Bush), native, ornamental, Cinnamomum 
or Camphora (Camphoi Tree), introduced in Florida 
and California, Cinnamomum (Cinnamon, Cassia 
Buds), cultivated under glass, Laurus (Sweet Bay), 
ornamental, conservatory, Persea (Red Bay, Bull Bay, 
Avocado), greenhouse and South, Sassafras, native 
ornamental, and Umbellulana (California Laurel), 
ornamental, in the South and California. 


85 Papaveraceae (from the genus Papaver, derivation 
obscure) POPPY FAMILY Fig 24 Annual or perennial 
herbs, or rarely shrubs, with jellow (Chehdomum), 
white (Papaver), or red (Sangumaria), or rarely watery ^ 
(Esehscholtzia) mice leaves usually alternate, often ' 
crenately toothed or lobed or divided flowers bisexual, 
regular, sepals 2, rarely '3, petals 4, rarely 6 or more, 
rarely wanting, stamens numerous in many whorls, 
h> pogynous, carpels 1 to many, connate into a 1-celled 
ovary, with the parietal placentae as many as the stig- 
mas, ovules 1 to man> , stvles as many as the carpels, 
usually wanting, stigmas distinct, or in a radiate disk, 
or lobed fruit capsular or sihquose, seed albuminous 

The 23 genera and about 80 species are widely dis- 
tributed in the north temperate zone, but are especially 
numerous in central and eastern Asia, the Mediter- 
ranean region and vvestein Noith America One species 
of poppy is found in the south temperate region in 
South \frica and Australia The family is closely 
related to the Fumanaceie (which see), with which it is 
united by many Eun>pean authors It is also related 
to Cappandaceae and Crucifero? There is, on the other 
hand, an affinity with the Berbcridaceae The milky 
juice, numerical plan of 2 or 3 in the perianth, numerous 
stamens, and 1-celled ovary with parietal placenta are 

In Papaver, an orbicular disk crowns the ovary on 
the top of which radiate the numerous stigmatic lines 
The capsules open by means of small valves between 
the placenta 1 and underneath the disk The capsule 
of Chehdomum is like a mustard fruit (sihque), in 
being long and slender and the lateral walls springing 
upward as valves, leaving the placentae exposed 

Many of the Papaveraceae are cultivated as orna- 
mental plants Some poppies are bad weeds in cul- 
tivated ground in Europe Papaver sommferum, a 
native of Asia, furnishes the opium of commerce, 
which is obtained by incisions made in the capsules 
Poppy oil is derived m France from the seeds of 
Papaver sommferum Sangumaria root is used in 
medicine as a sodatiV? 



A score of genera are in cultivation in America, all 
as garden plants Some of these are Boccoma (Plume 
Poppy of eastern Asia), Chehdonmm (Celandine), 
a weed from Europe; Dendromecon, shrubby, Esch- 
seholtzia (California Poppy), Mecanopsis (Welsh 
Poppy of western Europe), Papa ver (Poppy); Platy- 
stemon (Cream Cups), Plat y stigma, Sanguinana 
(Bloodroot), native, Stylophorum (Celandine Poppy), 

86. Fumariaceee (from the genus Fumana, which is 
from the Latin fumus, smoke, presumably referring to 
the nitrous odor of the roots when pulled from the 
ground). FUMITORY FAMILY. Fig 24. Herbaceous 
plants with alternate, dissected leaves flowers bisex- 
ual, regular or irregular, hypogynous; sepals 2, petals 
4, free or connate, in 2 unlike pairs, outer pair larger, 
either one or both petals of which are spurred or gib- 
bous, the two inner crested and united over the an- 
thers and stamens; anthers 6, borne on 2 filaments, 
carpels 2, united; ovary 1-celled, 1- to many-seeded, 
fruit a sihque, vesicular or mdehiscent, or transversely 
jointed, seeds albuminous. 

There are 6 genera and 130 species, mostly from the 
north temperate regions The family is closely related 
to the Papaveraccse with which it is often united The 


24 PAIAVERACF 1. Papavcr, a, 
Chelidomum fruit FUMARIACKE 3 Di 
flower 1, corolla removed CKLCIFUMS 
moved, b, floral diagram G Fruit, a, 
Lunaria, d, Raphanus 7 C'r 

wer, b and c, fruit 2 
e out m, flower 4 Fumaria 
5 Flower, a, perianth re- 
Brassica, b, Lepidium, c, 
ds of Cruciferse, showing 

, , , 

types of embryos, a, atcumbent, b, incumbent, r, couduphcate. 
CAPPAHiDACfc,jE 8 Cleome, flower 

bleeding-hcart-like flower, the plan of 2, the G anthers 
on 2 filaments, the 1-celled ovary, and the absence of 
milky juice are distinctive 

Fumana officinalis and some species of Corydahs 
have been used as medicine, but the family is of little 
economic importance, except for the few ornamental 

Following are the genera best known in cultivation: 
Adlumia (Allegheny Vine, Climbing Fumitory), a 
graceful native garden climber; Corydahs, with 1- 
spurred corolla; Dicentra (Bleeding Heart, Squirrel 
Corn, Dutchman's Breeches), with 2-spurred corolla, 
and Fumaria (Fumitory), with 1-spurred corolla. 

87 Cruciferae (from the Latin signifying cross- 
bearers, in reference to the cross-like appearance pro- 
duced by the four petals) MUSTARD FAMILY Fig 24 
Herbs, rarely shrubby leaves usually alternate, simple, 
often varying from entire to palmate or pinnatifid 
within the same genus flowers bisexual, regular, se- 
pals 4; petals 4, larely wanting, stamens 6, 4 long and 
2 shorter (tetradynamous), rarely fewer, very rarely 
more, hypogynous, carpels 2, united, ovary superior, 
2-, rarely 1-, celled with 2 parietal placentae at the 
edges of the septum fruit a silique (long;, or a silicic 
(short), rarely mdehiscent, seeds exalbuminous; the 
embryo variously curved and folded 

In the family are 208 geneia and 1,600 species, dis- 
tributed throughout the cold and temperate parts 
of both hemispheres, but especially abundant around 
the Mediterranean Sea, a few are tropical The Crueif- 
era) are closely related to the Cappandaeeip, Papavor- 
aceic, and Fumaiiacea* The 4 sepals, 4 petals, (> sta- 
mens (4 long and 2 short), and the peculiar fruit are 

The 6 stamens probably represent a reduction from 
2 sets of 4 each In Lepidium and other genera, there 
may be only 2 stamens The septum of the fruit re- 
mains upon the plant when the seeds and valves full 
The sihcles are often flattened, either perpendicular or 
parallel to the partition (in different genera) The 
embryos in the seed are folded so that the hypocotyl 
(radicle) and cotyledons lie side by side Distinct pat- 
terns are thus produced which are so constant as to be 
of great \alue in the classification within the family 
Three principal types are reeogm/ed cotyledons ae- 
cumbent, when the edges of the cotyledons are applied 
to the hypocotyl, incumbent, when the back of one 
cotyledon is applied to the hypocotyl; and conduphc- 
ate. when the cotyledons themsehes are also folded 
and enwrap the hypocotyl. In Leavenworthia, alone, 
the embryo is straight 

The flower of Crueiferse is of little value in classi- 
fication within the family; the important characters 
are in connection with the fruit and seeds. 

Many have become well-known weeds as, for exam- 
ple, charlock (Brassica am-mis), shepherd's purse 
(Capstlla Bursa-pastons), pepper grass (Lepidium), 
spring mustard (Barbarea), wild radish (Raphanus 
Raphamstrum). Many others are among the well- 
known old-fashioned ornamental plants of the garden, 
eg, rocket (Het,pens matronali*), stock or gilh- 
flower (Matthiola), wallflower (Cheiranthus), honesty 
(Lunaria) with large orbicular flat pods, candytuft 
(Iberis), sweet alyssum (Alyssum) Others are used as 
food, of which Brassica oleracea, a very variable species, 
is the most important, furnishing cabbage, cauliflower, 
kohlrabi and Kale. Brassica campcstn? furnishes the 
various forms of rutabaga Brassica alba furnishes 
white mustard, and Brassica myra, black mustard 
Railicuta N a^turtium-aqualicum is water-cress; Radi- 
cula Armoracia is horse-radish The rootstocks of 
Dentana are eaten in America under the name "crinkle 
root" Raphanus sativus is the garden radish; Lepid- 
ium sativum is garden cress The various organs of 
most Cruciferae contain an oily substance which is 
very pungent to the taste and which gives the peculiar 
flavor to the various cresses This oil is abundant in 
the seeds from which it is extracted (oil of mustard). 
The foliage of the various maritime Cruciferae have 
been found a useful article of diet in counteracting 
scurvy, for which reason the arctic Cochleana is called 
"scurvy-grass " The leaves of the woad of western 
Europe (I satis tinctoria) yield a blue dye Anastatica 
Hierochuntica is the original "rose of Jericho," the 
branches of which close and open when alternately 
dried and wetted. (See article on Resurrection Plants ) 

88. Capparidaceae (from the genus Cappans, the 
Greek name, from the Arabic kapar, capers). CAPER 
FAMILY. Fig 24. Herbs or rarely shrubs, flowers bisex- 



ual, more or less irregular, sepals 3-8, usually 4; petals 
4-8, rarely 0, hypogynous or pengynous, disk ring-like 
or scale-like or tubular at the base of the petals, sta- 
mens 6, rarely 4 or many, carpels 2 or more, ovary 
1- to several-celled, usually raised on an outgrowth 
(gynophore) of the pedicel-like axis, which may become 
much elongated in fruit, ovules numerous, style 1 orO; 
stigmas 1 to several fruit a capsule, silique, berry or 
drupe, embryo usually coiled. 

Thirty-four genera and about 350 species occur, 
mostly of tropical and subtropical distribution Thej' 
extend to Australia, the African deserts and into the 
western and eastern United Slates The family is very 
closely related to the Cruciferae and certain forms are 
difficult to distinguish from that family The non- 
tetradynamous stamens, and commonly 1-cellcd ovary 
are distinctive The gynophore is often very long, 
slender and conspicuous, and sometimes (Cynandrop- 
sis) carries up the stamens along with the pistil The 
detailed variation in the flower is very intricate 

Several genera are cultivated as ornamental plants 
The acrid oil in the fruit is stimulating, as in the Cruci- 
feraj, and for this reason sevoial genera have been used 
in medicine (Cleome, Polamsia, Cappans, etc) Cap- 
pans spnwsa of the Mediterranean region furnishes the 
capers of commerce, which are flower-buds preserved 
in salt and vinegar 

As garden plants, a few genera are in the American 
trade Cleome (Bee or Spider Plant), ornamental, 
Gynandropsis, ornamental, Cappaiis (Caper Plant), 
shrubby, grown in this country for ornament as well as 
for food, and Cratava, shrubby, grown in southern 

89. Resedaceae (from the genus /fcWa which is from 
the Latin, to calm, in allusion to supposed quieting 
properties) MKJNONFTTL FAMILY Horbs or shrubs: 
leaves usually alternate flowers mostlv bisexual, more 
or less irregular, cal\\ persistent, 4-8-parted, irregu- 
lar, petals 0-8, alternating with the sepals, stamens 
3-40, inserted within an irregular fleshy disk, carpels 
2-b, free, or united into a 1-celled ovary which is often 
imperfectly closed at the top, placenta 2-0, parietal; 
ovules manv, st>les or sessile stigmas 3-6 fruit usually 
a dehiscent capsule, rarely a berry, or composed of 
separate follicles; seeds remform, without endosperm; 
embryo curved 

About 15 species and 6 genera occur, mainly dis- 
tributed about the Meditenanean Sea This family is 
allied to the Crucifera* and Cappandaeese, from which 
it differs principally in general character The extra- 
fitammal disk, the numerous stamens, the 1-celled 
ovaiv or ovaiies with parietal placenta?, and the usually 
gaping summit of the ovary aie distinctive 

Reseda Lutcola (Dyei's weed) jields a yellow dye 
which was formerly much used R odorata (mignon- 
ette), a plant cultivated since early times, and whose 
origin was long considered unknown, although probably 
Egyptian, is extensively cultivated for the fragrance of 
its flowers 

90 Mormgacese (from the genus Monnga^ derived 
from the Malabar name of the plant) MOKINGA 
FAMILY Trees, with 2-3-pmnate alternate leaves: 
flowers bisexual, irregular, pengjnous, sepals 5, 
imbricated, petals 5, imbricated, unequal, lower 
reflexed, stamens 8-10, separate or united at the base, 
alternate ones shorter or reduced to stammodia; sub- 
ovarian disk present, lining the cup; ovary borne on a 
gynophore, 1-celled, placentae 3, ovules numerous, 
style 1. fruit a silique-hke capsule 

There is but one genus, containing 3 species, natives 
of northeastern Africa and India The family is dis- 
tinct, not related closely to any other, perhaps dis- 
tantly related to the Bignoniaceie, the Cappandaceae. 
the Violacese, or the Legummoseae Provisionally placed 
by Engler and Prantl between the Poppy group of 
families and the Rose group. 

Monnga arabica of Arabia (ben-nut) yields a useful 
oil which does not become rancid The root of one 
species is used in intermittent fevers. A tragaranth- 
hke gum exudes from the bark of M oleifera. 

M oleifera (horse-radish tree) is grown sparingly 
in the southern United States. The fruits and the 
roots are edible. 


91 Sarraceniaceee (from the genus Sarracema. in 
honor of Dr Sarracin, an early physician of Quebec, 
who sent the northern species to Kurope). PrrrnER- 
PLANT FAMILY Fig 25 Perennial herbs inhabiting 
bogs leaves all basal, tubular scapes 1-flowered, flow- 
ers bisexual, regular, sepals 4-5, imbricated, petals 5, 
hypogynous, or 0, stamens many but not apparently 
either cyclic or spiral, ovary superior, 3-5-, rarely 6-, 
celled, ovules numerous, style 1, stigmas 1-5 fruit a 

The Sarracemacesp has 3 genera and 8 species, of 
which 6 belong to the genus Sarracema, all American. 
Hchamphora is in British Guiana, Darhngtonia in 
California, and Sarracema in Atlantic North America 
from Newfoundland to Florida The family is most 
closely related to the Droseraceap and Nepenthaceae, 
but also to the Papaveracejp and Nymphjcacesc 

The Sarraeeniacea* are far-famed as insectivorous 
plants The pitchers are partly filled with a liquid con- 
taining a digestive enzjme Small insects which fall 
into the liquid, or are attracted by a sugary secretion, 
and are unable to escape because of various devices, 
are at length digested and absorbed Like the sun- 

25 SAURACENHCEE 1 Sarracema, a, flower, b, leaves NBPEN- 
THA(.K 2 Nepenthes, a, fomalr flower, b, leaf DROSERACEA 
3 Drowra, a, flower, 6, floral diagram , c, leaf 4 Dionaea, leaf 5 
Aldrovanda, leaf 

dews, these plants can inhabit soils poor in nitrates. 
The remarkable umbrella-shaped style, and fiddle- 
shaped petals of Sarracema are part of a very interest- 
ing mechanism for cross-pollination 

The family is of little economic importance. The 
rhizome of Sarracema purpurea w r as used in Canada as 
a specific against smallpox, but did not prove of value. 
Darhngtonia calif arnica and species of Sarracema 
are in the trade because of their peculiar habits and 
structure, and their botanical interest. They are grown 
mainly in the greenhouse. 



92. Nepenthaceee (from the genus Nepenthes, de- 
rived from the Greek signifying a magic potion, prob- 
ably in reference to the pitchers) NEPENTHES FAMILY. 
Fig. 25 Slightly woody or herbaceous plants, leaves 
alternate, consisting of a winged basal portion, a slender 
stalk-like intermediate portion, and a terminal urn- 
shaped pitcher with a rolling fluted border and a lid, 
the pitcher containing a watery fluid flowers dioecious, 
paniculate, regular, perianth of 4 parts, possibly 2 
sepals and 2 petals, imbricated, stamens 4-10, mona- 
delphous, ovarv superior, 3-4-celled, ovules numerous 
in each oell, fatigma sessile, discoid fruit a capsule 

A single genus with about 40 species occurs m the 
East Indies, Madagascar, the Seychelle Islands, and 
New Caledonia. Borneo has the gieatest number of 
species The family is related to the Sairaeemacea; and 
Droseraceae, although formerly considered related to 
the AnstolochiacofT The habit, the undiffcrcntmted 
perianth, the monadelphous stamens, and the 3-4-celled 
ovary, are distinctive A remarkable family of insectiv- 
orous plants. Along with the water secreted m the 
cavity of the pitcher is a pepsin-like substance, by the 
aid of which insects are digested, the dissolved material 
being later absorbed The slender part of the leaf 
in some species coils and serves as a tendril by means 
of which the plant climbs. 


4b A 

26 CR\88UL\CE,E 1 Sedurn, flower SAXiKRAGAGb/E 2 
Saxifrnga, flower 3 Ribes, a, floral diagram, b, flower 4 Par- 
nassia, a, floral diagram, 6, flower CEPHALOTACE^E. 5 Cephalo- 
tus, leaves 

In American greenhouses, many kinds of Nepenthes 
(Pitcher Plants), some of hybrid origin, are cultivated 
because of their curious habit 

93 Droseraceae (from the genus Drosera, derived 
from the Greek, meaning dewy) SUNDEW FAMILY. Fig. 
25 Very glandular herbs or sub-shrubs with alternate 
leaves flowers bisexual, regular, hypogyrious, rarely 
pengynous, sepals 4-5, imbricated, petals 5, imbri- 
cated; stamens in 1 or more whorls of 5; carpels 2-5; 
ovary superior, 1-3-celled. fruit a capsule with nu- 
merous seeds 

The 6 genera and about 100 species, 90 species of 
which belong to the genus Drosera, arc widely scat- 
tered over the earth. The family is related m floral 
structure to the Cistacece and Violaceae, and to the 

The Droseracese are noted as insectivorous plants. 
Drosera has a rosette of small basal leaves covered 
with sensitive motile tentacles that secrete a terminal 
drop of clear sticky fluid, the so-called dew, in which 
small insects are caught as on sticky fly-paper A 
digestive substance is then secreted and the organic 
matter absorbed. The leaves of Dionaea (the famous 
Venus' fly-trap of Carolina; have a conduplicate ter- 

minal lobe which closes violently when a fly alights upon 
the upper (inner) surface A marginal fringe prevents 
the escape of the insect; and it is in tune digested 
Aldrovanda of South Europe hah tiny traps similar 
to those of Dionaea, but the whole plant is aquatic, and 
resembles Utriculana 

Drosophyllum and Rorulula arc said to be used in 
Portugal and the Cape for the practical capture of 
flies in the house The leaves of some Droserae yield 
a purple dye. The liquids known as aqua-aim and 
rosogho (Italian) contain Drosera rotumhfolia as an 
essential ingredient. 

Drosera and Djomea arc in the American trade, 
mostly grown as greenhouse curiosities. 

Order 37. RO^ALES 

94 Crassulaceee (from the genus Crass w/a, diminu- 
tive of cra&sus, meaning thick) ORPINE FAMILY Fig. 
20 Herbs or .sub-shrubs leaves mostly alternate, com- 
monly fleshy flowers mostly bisexual, regular, sepals 
5, rarelv 3-30, imbricated, petals as many, rarely con- 
nate, stamens as many or twice as many as the petals, 
epipetalous or hypogjnous, rarely pengynous, separate, 
caipels as many as the petals, separate with a scale 
at the base of each, ovules numerous, rarely few or 
one fruit a gioup of follicles, rarely the carpels some- 
what united and ovary half-mfenoi 

Thirteen genera and about 500 species inhabit the 
drier parts of the earth, but principally South 
Afuca and South Europe The genus Sedum contains 
140 species, and Crassula 120 spe< ies This is a very 
definite familv, but closely related to the Sa\ifragace,c, 
from which it differs in the regular numerical plan, 
almost constantly separate ovaries, and predominat- 
ingly fleshy habit 

The Crassulaceic are well adapted to a dry climate 
The fleshy leaves are provided with water-storage 
tissue and a thick cuticle, and are often odd in shape 
and appearance These leaves lose water very slowly 
when separated from the plant, and will often remain 
fresh for weeks \\hen pinned to the wall, the leaf of 
Bryophyllum sends forth plant lets from the margin, 
and the stem of live-forever may grow and flower, so 
efficient is the protection against loss of water aiToided 
by the cuticle These plants, likewise, will grow for 
weeks or months in the collector's press 

The herbage contains much tannin and sometimes 
acid A refreshing dunk has been made from Semper- 
invum tectorum (houseleek) The fleshy leaves of the 
Crassulacese are cooling to wounds and burns Sedum 
Tdephium was formerly cultivated as a pot-herb 
Other species have been used for neaily similar pur- 

Several genera are in cultivation in America Of 
these, Scmpervivum is the well-known Houseleek or 
Old-hen-ana-chickens, Cotyledon is somewhat similar 
m growth, Scdum acie is Moss Stonecrop, and Sedum 
tnphyllum (X Telepfnum) is Live-forever, or Orpine. 

95 Cephalotaceae (from the genus Celphalotus, derived 
from the Greek meaning headed, said to refer to the 
capitate hairs at the base of the flower) CEPHALOTTH 
FAMILY Fig 26 Perennial scapose herbs leaves of 2 
kinds in a basal rosette, one lanceolate and ordinary, 
the other a petioled pitcher with winged sides, fluted 
mouth and a lid . flowers bisexual, regular, pengynous, 
perianth of 6 parts, apparently in one series, valvate. 
stamens 12, in 2 whorls, carpels 6, separate, arranged 
around the woody apex of the axis; 1-2 basal ovules m 
each: fruit dry, somewhat inflated. 

The family consists of but 1 genus and 1 species 
(Cephalotiis folhculans) , found in the swamps of King 
George's Sound, West Australia This family is related 
to the Saxifragacece, and was formerly united with that 
family, but differs in the peculiar habit, the wholly 
separate carpels arranged around the apex of the axis, 



and the basal seeds, related also to the Crassulaeejc, 
but lacks the hypogynous scales and has basal seeds 

This remarkable little insectivorous plant is culti- 
vated in greenhouses as a curiosity. 

96 Saxifragaceae (from the genus Saxifraga, derived 
from the Latin signifying to break rocks, in allusion 
to the habit of growing in the clefts of rocks). SAXI- 
FRAGE FAMILY Fig 2G. Herbs, shrubs, or small trees 
leaves alternate, rarely opposite flowers bisexual, usu- 
ally regular, hypogynous or pengynous, rarely epigyn- 
ous, sepals 4-5, rarely more or fewer; petals usually of 
the same number, valvate or imbricated, inserted with 
the stamens at the edge of a receptacular nectariferous 
disk, stamens of the same number as the petals and 
alternate with them, or twice as many and the outer 
opposite the petals, carpels 2, rarely 5, partly united, 
rarely separate, superior or half inferior, ovules nu- 
merous, styles and stigmas as many as the carpels fruit 
a capsule or berry 

There are about 70 genera and home 700 species, 
widely distributed but more abundant in temperate 
regions Many reach the arctics Some are fossil 
Saxifraga is the largest genus, with 200 species in the 
north temperate, arctic and Andean regions. Ribea 
has oO species The family is closely related to the 
Rosaceap, differing in the more abundant endosperm 
and constantly few carpels and few stamens, related 
also to the Crassulacea 1 , which has a regular numerical 
plan and hypogynous scales; and to the Cunomaceie 
and Hamamphdarea? 

The ovaries of Ribes, Philadelphia, Chrysosplemum, 
Deutzia, Hydrangea, and some Saxifragas, and a few 
other genera are almost wholly inferior Parnahsia has 
stammocha in clusters at the base of each petal The 
fruit of Ribes is a berry Some Heucheras have irregu- 
lar flo\\ers, also some Saxifragax, .some Hydrangeas 
and Tolmieas The peripheral flowers of Hydrangea 
often have enlarged corollas and are sterile Water- 
glands in the axils of the foliar teeth of some Saxifragas 
secrete a deposit of lime. 

The rough leaves of Deutzia scabra are used in Japan 
to polish \\ood The fruits of several species of Ribes 
are edible, R vulgare yields the red currant, R. 
Grobsulana, the English gooseberry, and also native 
goosebenies, R mqrum, the black currant Otherwise 
the family is of economic importance only for its 
ornamental species, which are numerous and largely 

Many genera are in cultivation in this country. 
Among these the following well-known names mav be 
noted Deutzia, Dccumana, climbing shrub, Golden 
Saxifrage (Chnsosplenium), Astilbc; Hydrangea; 
Mock-orange or Synnga (Philadelphia), Currants and 
Gooseberries (Ribes), False Mitre\\ort or False Bish- 
op's-oap or Foam-flower (Tiarella), Grass of Parnassus 
(rarnassia) ; Mitrewort or Bishop's-cap (Mitella); 
Alum Root or Coral Hells (Heuchcra); Saxifrage and 
Strawberry Geranium (Saxifraga) 

97 Pittosporaceae (from the genus Pittosporwn, 
the name referring to the viscid coating of the seeds) 
PITTOSPORTJM FAMILY Trees or shrubs, often climb- 
ing- leaves alternate, mostly leathery flowers bisexual, 
regular; sepals or divisions of the calyx 5, imbricated; 
petals 5, imbricated in the bud, claws often conmv- 
ent, or coherent, stamens 5, alternating with the petals, 
hyocgynous, no disk at the base; carpels 2, rarely 3-5; 
ovary 1- to several-celled, placentas parietal or axial; 
style 1 ; stigmas 1 to several fruit a capsule or berry: 
seeds numerous or few, unmet sod m a pulp or viscid 

All the 9 genera and about 90 species are natives of 
Australia, except the genus Pittosporum, which, how- 
ever, is of the Old World. The laigest genus is Pittos- 
porum containing 70 species The relationship of the 
family is doubtful. Though in the past supposed by 
different authors to be related to the Celastraceae, 

Polygalaceae, Caryophyllacese, Rutaceae, Saxifragaceue, 
Ericaceae, and so on, it is, according to Pax, most 
closely related to the Saxifragaceae. 

The Pittosporaceae all contain resinous aromatic 
bitter material in organized resin-canals or chambers. 
These give the fruit a disagreeable flavor. In spite of 
this disagreeable taste, it is said (Lemaout and De- 
came) that, ''The natives of Australia, who to ap- 
pease their hunger are reduced to filling their stom- 
achs with clay mixed with organic detritus, eagerly 
devour the fleshy fruits of this family." 

Most of the genera are in cultivation' Bellardiera; 
Bursana, a spiny shrub; Hymenosporum, a shrub with 
yellow flowers, Pittosporum (Pittosporum, Karo. Taw- 
hiwhi, Tarata, Tobira), evergreen, fragrant shrubs; 
Sollya (Australian Bluebell Creeper). 

98 Cunoniaceae (from the genus Cunonia, named 
after John Christian Cuno, an Amsterdam botanist of 
the 18th century) CUNONIA FAMILY. Fig 27 Trees 
or shrubs: leaves opposite or whorled, simple, ternate 
or pinnate: flowers small, densely crowded, usually 
bisexual, hypogynous, sepals 4-5, rarely 6, usually val- 
vate, petals 4-5, small, usually wanting; stamens twice 
as many as the sepals, rarely just as many or more nu- 

27. CUNONIACEE 1 Cunonia, a, flower, b, floral diagram 
BRUMACE^B 2 Brunia, a, flower branch, b, flower HAMAMFLIDACEE 
3 Hamamehs, a, flower, b, floral diagram, c, fruit 4 Liquidam- 
bar, fruit 

merous, exsertcd, attached near the edge of an intra- 
stammal disk, ovary mostly 2-celled, superior; ovules 
numerous, rarely few, styles 1-2; stigmas 2. fruit 
usually a capsule, rarely a drupe or nut. 

Nineteen genera and 120 species are known, 70 spe- 
cies of which belong to Wemmannia; all of South 
America or the Australian region, except one in South 

The family is closely related to the Saxifragaceae, 
with which it was formerly united, but because of the 
uniform floral structure and the position of the leaves, 
as well as the geographical distribution, it is now 
treated as distinct. 

The wood of some species is useful; otherwise the 
Cunoniaceae are of little economic importance Acro- 
phyllum venosum, an Australian evergreen shrub, is 
cultivated in greenhouses 

99. Bruniaceae (from the genus Brunia, named in 
honor of Cornelius Brun, a traveler in the East). 
BRUNIA FAMILY Fig 27. Heath-like shrubs- leaves 
alternate* flowers bisexual, regular, epigynous; sepals 
4-5, imbricated, petals 4-5, imbricated, stamens 4-5, 



alternating with the petals, free or united with the 
petals, or with each other, rarely an mtrastammal disk 
present; ovary inferior, 1-3-celled; ovules 1-2 in each 
cell: fruit dry, mdehiscent, or capsular. 

Twelve genera and about 50 species occur, all natives 
of South Africa. The family is related to various fami- 
lies of the Saxifrage group, as for instance, the Hama- 
mehdacese, but is distinct because of its heath-like 
habit The flowers are mostly in dense heads 

The family is of no economic importance. One 
species of Audouima (A cajntata) is said to be some- 
times in cultivation as Diosma capitata 

100 Hamamehdaceee (from the genus Hamamelis, 
an ancient Greek name applied to some tree). WITCH- 
HAZEL FAMILY Fig 27 Trees or shrubs leaves simple, 
alternate, flowers unisexual or bisexual, hypogynous, 
pengynous or epigynous; sepals 4-5; petals 4-5, or 0; 
stamens 4-5, rarely more, sub-ovarian disk rare, ovary 
2-celled; ovules 1 or several in each cell, fruit a woody, 
2-valved capsule, with a separating inner layer of dif- 
ferent texture, seeds often winged 

Twenty .genera and 50 species are known, widely 
distributed in subtropical or warm temperate regions 
of both hemispheres It is an ancient family more 
abundant in former ages, related to the Saxifragacese, 
and by some considered related to the Cornaceae or 
Araliaceae. Many fossil species are known The peculiar 
fruit is distinctive 

In some genera, as in Hamamelis, the seeds are 
forcibly expelled when the fruit opens, often to a dis- 
tance of 10 feet or more, much as wet apple seeds may 
be shot from between the thumb and finger. 

The family is of little economic importance Extract 
of the bark of Hamamelis is used as a liniment 
(witch-hazel) The twigs are supposed to have super- 
normal properties, especially m the detection of water 
in the earth They are frequently used in rural difctricts 
in the attempt to detect underground springs. Liquid- 
ambar Slyraciflua (sweet gum), of the southern 
United States, yields a balsam The oriental balsam, 
Styrax, is obtained from the eastern L. onentahs. This 
was formerly used in medicine. 

Perhaps half the genera are in cultivation, all for 
ornamental purposes Of these, Fothergilla, Corylopsis 
Hamamelis, and Liquidambar are the best known. 
Most of the species are hardy 

101 Platanacea; (from the genus Platanus, the ancient 
name of the tree, signifying broad) PLANE-TREE FAM- 
ILY Fig 28 Trees with alternate, broad, palmately 
veined leaves, flowers m dense heads, monoecious, regu- 
lar, pengynous, sepals usually 3-8, separate, thick, often 
with bracts at the base, petals of the same number, 
glabrous, stamens of like number alternating with the 
petals, connective peltate at the top; extra stammodia 
often present; carpels several, distinct, 1-seeded. 
fruit a caryopsis, angled from pressure, and truncate 
at top, surrounded by long hairs at the base; seed 

A single genus and about 6 species are distributed in 
southern Europe, southern Asia, and in North America. 
The family is related to the Saxifragacese and Hama- 
melidacea; The polypetalous pengynous flower, 
with as many stamens as petals, the separate carpels, 
and especially the peculiar inflorescence and leaf, are 
distinctive Fossil species are known 

The wood of Platanus is similar to maple and of 
value, but the most important use is for ornament Two 
species of Platanus (Plane-Tree, Buttonwood, Button 
Ball, Oriental Plane, Sycamore) are in cultivation in 

102 Rosaceae (from the genus Rosa, the ancient name 
of the rose) ROSE FAMILY. Fig 28. Herbs, shrubs, or 
trees, often thorny, sometimes climbing leaves alter- 
nate, rarely opposite flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, 
usually regular, pengynous; calyx of 4-5 imbricated 
or valvate sepals; corolla of as many imbricated petals, 

or 0; stamens 5 to many, in whorls of 5, borne on the 
cup of the receptacle at some distance from the carpels; 
cup lined with a glandulai disk; carpels 1 to many, 
separate and supenor or united and inferior, ovaries 
1 to several-ovuled; styles as many as the carpels, fruit 
a follicle, achene, drupe, pome, or hip: seeds usually 

There are about 90 genera and 1,500 species, widely 
distributed in all parts of the world, most abundant, 
perhaps, in the temperate regions The largest genera 
are Rubus, 180-200 species, Potentilla, 200 species; 
and Rosa, 100 species. The family is related to the 
Saxifragaceae ana the Legummosjc, also to the Caly- 
canthacesc The pengynous flower with cup lined by 
the glandular disk, the numerous cyclic stamens, and 


28 PLATANACE*:' 1 Platanus, a, flower, 6, floral diagram 
ROSACES 2 Fragana, a, flower, 6, fruit 3 Geum, fruit 4 
Rosa, o, floral diagram, 6, fruit 5 Spiraea, fruit 6 Prunus, a, 
flower, 6, fruit, 7. Pyrus, a, flower, 6, fruit LEGUMINOS^E 8. 
Pisum, a, flower, b, flower, petals removed, c, fruit 9 Des- 
modium, fruit 10. Cassia, flower. 11. Acacia, flower 

the separate, usually cyclic, carpels, are distinctive. 
The Ranunculacete is similar, but acyclic and hy- 

The family is divided into 6 very distinct sub- 
families, some of which, by certain authors, are con- 
sidered of family rank, as follows: I Fruit folhcular. 
e g , Spiraea, Physocarpus. Aruncus, Sorbana, and 
so on II Ovary compound, inferior: fruit fleshy, e g., 
Pyrus, Crataogus, Cotoneaster, Cydonia, Amelanchier, 
Mespilus, and the like III Fruit of achenes or 
separate drupelets, eg , Rubus, Fragana, Potentilla, 
Geum, Cercocarpus, Ulmana, Alchemilla, Agnmonia. 
Sanguisorba, and Rosa. IV Carpels connate, ana 
adnate to the hollow, but dry, receptacle, e g , Neurada 
and Grielum. V. Carpel 1, superior: fruit a drupe: 
style terminal, e g., Prunus. VI. Same as the last, but 



tyle basal and flowers often irregular, e.g , Chryso- 

The fruitlets of Rubus have a fleshy ovarian wall and 
xe drupelets The strawberry has a fleshy receptacle 
vith dry achenes scattered upon it. The rose fruit 
:onsists of a hollow, fleshy receptacle bearing achenes on 
ts inner face, that of Pyrus is similar, but the recep- 
acle and carpels have grown together into one struc- 
ure. The peach, cherry, and plum are each the pro- 
luct of one superior carpel. 

The following plants are cultivated for their fruits, 
ipple, pear, quince, cherry, plum, apricot, peach, 
Jmond, raspberry, blackberry, strawbeiry, arid medlar 
These fruits are eaten fresh, preserved in sugar, or 
ermented into vinegar or eider Rose fruits are also 
Deserved, and the fruits of mountain ash are used for 
naking a spirituous drink The petals of Rosa damn- 
\cena and R. galhca are macerated with oil of sesame to 
orm attar of roses The petals themselves yield 
)il of rose, from which rose-water is made. Many species 
mve been used in medicine, e g , rose, the seeds of which 
ire vermifugal Quince seeds contain mucilage and 
ire emolhent The conserve of rose is astringent 
\gnmony is nephritic, and is also used for pulmonary 
Catarrh and angina Alehemilla is astringent and A ul- 
lerary. The root of Fragana is diuretic and astringent 
Flowers of llagenw abywnica are a famous remedy 
or tapeworm Flowers of Ulmana are used to give a 
xwquet to wine, also as a sudorific and cordial The 
jark of Prunutt t>erotina (wild cherry bark) is tonic and 
jectoral. The bark of Quillajn Saponana (soap-bark 
^ree) of Chile, is a stimulant, diuretic and irritant, con- 
tains sapomn, and is used for washing delicate fabrics 
Griimmy exudations from the bark of cherry are some- 
Limes used in medicine Sanguisorba has been used for 
Forage, and as a condiment The seeds of many species of 
Primus and others yield oil in quantity 

Fifty or sixty genera are cultivated in America. 
Among these are Agnmonia (Agrimony), Alehemilla 
(Lady s Mantle), Amelanchier (Shadbubh, Juneberry, 
Service-berry), Aroma (Chokc-berrv) , Aruncus, Ccrco- 
c-arpus; Chrysobalanus (Cocoa Plum), Comarum 
(Marsh Cmquefoil); Cotoneaster, Crataegus (Haw- 
thorn, Scarlet Thorn, Washington Thorn); Enobot- 
rva (Loquat, Japan Plum), Exochorda (Pearl Bush), 
Fragana (Strawberry), Geum (Avens), Gillema or Por- 
teranthus (American Ipecac ; Bowman's Root), llolo- 
discus or Schizonotus, Kerna (Globe-flower, Japanese 
Rose) ; Margynearpus (Pearl Fruit), Mespilus (Medlar, 
Mespil); Ncviusiii, (Snow VNreath), Photima (Toyon, 
Tollon); Ph)soearpus (Nmebark), Potent ilia (Cinque- 
foil, Five-finger, Silver-weed) , Pyracantha, Pyrus (Pear, 
Apple, Crab), Quillaja (Soap-bark Tree); Raphiolepis 
(Indian Hawthorn), Rosa (Rose, Eglantine, Sweet- 
brier); Rubus (Bramble, Blackberry, Raspberry, Cloud- 
berry, Baked-apple Berry, Yellow Berry, Salmonberry, 
Wineberry, Blackcap, Thimbleberry, Dewberry); San- 
guisorba (Burret); Sorbana; Sorbus, (Mountain Ash, 
Rowan Tree, Dogberry, Service Tree, W 7 hite Beam- 
tree); Spiraea (Queen of the Meadows, Meadowsweet, 
Hardback, Steeple-bush, Bridal Wreath); Ulmaria 
(Meadowsweet, Queen -of -the -Prairie, Queen-of-the- 
Meadows); Waldstemia (Barren Strawberry, Yellow 

103. Le^uminosae (from legume, the name of the 
type of fruit characteristic of this family) PEA FAMILY. 
Fig 28. Herbs, shrubs, or trees, often twining leaves 
alternate, compound, rarely simple* flowers regular or 
irregular, usually bisexual, hypogynous or pcngynous, 
fundamentally polypetalous; sepals 5, more or less con- 
nate, often unequal ; petals 5, rarely fewer, nearly equal, or 
unequal, or more commonly papilionaceous (i. e , 1 dor- 
sal standard, 2 lateral cleaver-shaped wings, and 2 ven- 
tral, more or less connate, petals forming the keel); 
stamens 10 or very numerous, rarely 5, included or 
exserted, often inserted around a glandular disk, mona- 

delphous, 9 united and 1 separate, or all separate; car- 
pel 1, rarely 2-15, superior; ovary 1-celled, inequilat- 
eral, the single parietal placenta ventral but turned 
dorsally, ovules 1 to many fruit a legume, or, by re- 
duction, mdehiscent, or folhcular, or fleshy, often 
jointed between the seeds, and sometimes filled with 
pulp, seeds exalburnmous 

Lcguminosae contains 429 genera and about 7,000 
species, distributed over the whole earth, but most 
abundant in the tropics. This family and the Orchida- 
cese are, next to the Composite, the largest families 
of flowering plants The large genera winch contain 
100 or more species arc Astragalus, 1,200 species, 
Acacia, 450 sp , Cassia, 380 sp , Mimosa, 300 sp , Cro- 
tolana. 250 sp , Indigofera, 250 sp.; Trifohum, 250 sp , 
Bauhima, 150 sp ; Aspalanthus, 150 sp ; Oxytropus, 
150 sp ; Desmodmm, 150 sp , Inga, 140 sp ; Tephrosia, 
120 sp , Vicia, 120 sp , Pithecolobium, 110 sp , Lupi- 
IHLS, 100 sp , Psoralea, 100 sp , Dalea, 100 sp , Lathy- 
ru,s, 100 sp , Rhynchosia, 100 sp ; and Phaseolus, 100 
sp Taken in the broad sense, the family is a very nat- 
ural one, the nearest relatives being the Chrysobalanus 
section of the Rosarex The most constant distin- 
guishing character is the leguminous type of fruit 
When this occasionally var'es, the papilionaceous 
corolla, or the general Mimosa type of flower, is distinc- 
tive Except in the fruit, the family is very diverse, 
and the following sub-families have often been treated 
as distinct families 

Sub-family I Mimosa Flowers regular; corolla 
valvate, stamens 5-10, or very numerous, exserted. 
e g , Pithecolobium, Albizzia, Mimosa, and Acacia 

Sub-family II Ca;salpinir Flowers irregular, not 
papilionaceous, stamens 10 or fewer, not conspicuously 
exserted, corolla imbricated e g , Copaiba, Tamarmdus, 
Cercis, Bauhmia, Cassia, Gleditsia, Gymnocladus, 
Csrsalpmia, and the like 

Sub-family III Papihonateae Corolla papiliona- 
ceous, imbricated; stamens 5-10, included e g , Pisum, 
Lathyrus, Robinia, Vicia, Phaseolus, and so forth 

The leaves of many Ixjgurnmosap are motile Mimosa 
pudica, Cassia nictitant*, and others, are sensitive to 
touch, the leaflets, and often the leaves, q"uickly drooping 
when disturbed A great number show sleep movement, 
the leaflets drooping at nightfall The motile organ is 
the pulvmus at the base of the leaflet or leaf The lat- 
eral leaflets of De^modium gyrans are rhythmically and 
spontaneously motile The pollination of the papiliona- 
ceous flowers is complicated and interesting (See Kerner 
and Oliver's "Natural History of Plants ") The legumes 
of Desmodmm separate into 1-secded joints which are 
covered with hooked hairs, and, therefore, bur-like 
The roots of the Legummosac commonly bear tubercles 
containing nitrogen-fixing organisms, the product of 
which is uset 1 by the plant 

The economic plants are almost innumerable. The 
following are the most important. 

Plants used for food' Detanum senegalense of Sene- 
gambia, edible drupe, Castanospermum australe (Aus- 
tralian chestnut), Dolichos Lablab (black bean), 
Phaseolus vidgans (bean), Cicer anetmum (chick pea), 
Pitum satwum (pea), Ervum Lens (lentil) and Lupinus 
sps , all have edible seeds, Apios tubercsa, Psoralea 
hypogxa, and P. escidenla, edible tubers; A rachis hypo- 
gsea (peanut), and Voandzeia sithterranea, subterranean 
seeds; Lathyrus tuber osa, sugary tubers, much used 
before potatoes were known; and Cytisus scopanus, 
buds used as capers. 

Plants used as forage: Ceratonia Siliqua (St. John's 
bread), Onobrychis saliva (sainfoin), Vicia sativa 
(vetch), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Medicago lupulma 
(medick), Tnfohum species (clover), Glycine hispida 
(soy bean), Vigiia Catjang (cowpea), Lotus corni- 
culatw, Lupinus sps , Anthylhs Vulnerana, Hedy- 
sarum coronanum, Urmthopua safavus, Pisum nativum^ 
Ulex europseus 



Plants used for medicine: Acacia Senegal (gum aca- 
cia); A Catechu (catechu), astringent, tonic; Swartzia 
tomentosa, sudorific; Copaiba Langdorfu (balsam of 
Copaiba), of Brazil, for catarrh, Cassia sps , Orient, 
India, etc., leaves purgative; Tamanndus indica 
(tamarind), pulpy pods used; Sophora tomentosa, 
India, seeds arrest choleric vomiting, Toluifcra Balsa- 
mum (balsam of Tolu), South America, bronchial; 
Andira sps , tropical America, emetic, purge, narcotic, 
vermifuge; Ptcrocarpus Draco (dragon s blood), West 
Indies, astringent; P. Marsupium (gum kino), Butea 
frondosa (eastern kmo), Asia, Mucuna prunens (cow- 
itch or cowage), India, stinging hairs on pod, anthel- 
mintic, Astragalus gummifer (gum tragacanth), of the 
Onent; Colutea arborescent (bladder senna), purgative, 
emetic; Glycyrrhiza glabra, (licorice), Europe, emol- 
lient, Genista tinctoria, purgative; Cytisus scopanus. 
diuretic, Trigonella Fcenum - grxturn (fenugreek), Old 
World, food, condiment, horse-remedy, and so on; 
Anagyris fwtida (stinking wood), purgative and poi- 
sonous, Physostigma venosum (calabar bean), sedative, 
contracts the , pupil, poisonous; Astragalus sps , and 
Crotalana sps are loco- weeds, and poisonous to cattle; 
arrow-poisons are furnished by ErythrophloKim, 
Afceha, and Pithecolobmm Fifteen genera furnish 

Dye -stuffs Cxsalpinw echinata yields brazihne; 
Sophora japonica yields yellow dye, Indigofera linc- 
tona yields indigo, Genista tinctona, yields a dye; 
Hsematoxylon campechianum yields logwood and haema- 
toxylm Pterocarpus santahnum yields red sandal- 
wood, a brown dye 

Other purposes Copal varnish from Hymensea sps , 
Trachylobium sps , and Copaiba sps Many species are 
valuable timber trees A snuff-perfume as obtained 
from seeds of Coumarouna (tonka bean) Rosewood 
is from Dalbergia mgra, and other species African 
rosewood is from Pterocarpus erinaceus Red seeds of 
Abrus precatonus (jequinty) are used for necklaces, as 
are also those of Adenanthera Pavonina (Circassian 
seeds). Branches of Cytisus scopanus (broom) are used 
for basket-work. Ulex europs'us (furze) is used as fire- 
wood in France Many species furnish fibers for spin- 
ning Oil is obtained from seeds of peanut and others. 
Many are ornamental 

About 150 genera are cultivated in America, or are 
important to American agriculture Many of the spe- 
cies are among our most valuable ornamental and 
food-plants Some of these genera are Abrus (Crab's- 
eye Vine, Weather Plant); Acacia (Wattle, Kangaroo 
Thorn, Weeping Myall, Australian Blackwood, Mulga, 
Popinac, Opopanax, Cassie, Huisache, Espmo, Cavan, 
Gum Arabic Tree); Adenanthora (Red Sandalwood); 
Albizzia; Alhagi (Camel's Thorn), Amphicarpaea (Hog 
Peanut) ; Amorpha (Lead Plant, Bastard Indigo) , An- 
thyllis (Kidney Vetch, Sand Clover, Woundwort, Jupi- 
ter's Beard) ; Apios (Groundnut, Wild Bean) ; Aracms 
(Peanut, Goober); Astragalus (Milk Vetch); Baptisia 
(Wild Indigo), Bauhima (Mountain Ebony), Ca?sal- 
pinia (Brasilleto, Barbadoes Pride, Barbadoes Flower- 
fence, Dwarf Pomeiana); Canavaha (Jack Bean. 
Chickasaw Lima) ; Caragana (Pea Tree) ; Cassia (Wild 
Senna, Partridge Pea, Pudding Pipe Tree) ; Centrosema 
(Butterfly Pea) ; Cercis (Judas Tree, Red Bud) , Chori- 
zema; Cicer (Chick Pea), Cladrastis (Yellow-wood); 
Chanthus (Glory Pea, Glory Vine, Parrot's Bill) ; Ch- 
tona (Butterfly Pea); Colutea (Bladder Senna), Coro- 
nilla (Crown Vetch. Scorpion Senna), Crotalana (Rat- 
tle-Box) , Cytisus (Broom, Genista) ; Desmodium (Tick 
Trefoil, Telegraph Plant); Dolichos (Hyacinth Bean, 
Taukok, Black Bean), the species still much con- 
fused; Erythnna (Coral Tree); Galega (Goat's Rue); 
Genista (Dyer's Greenwood); Gleditsia (Honey Lo- 
cust, Sweet Locust, Three-thomed Acacia); Glycine 
iSoy Bean)- Glycyrrhiza (Licorice); Gymnocladus 
(.Kentucky Coffee Tree); Halimodendron (Salt Tree); 

Hedysarum (French Honeysuckle); Hosackia, Indigo- 
fcra (Indigo); Kennedya, Laburnum (Golden Cham, 
Bean Tree, Scotch Laburnum), Lathyrus (Sweet Pea, 
Tangier Scarlet P , Pride of California, Everlasting P , 
Two-flowered P., Flat P, Perennial P. Lord Anson's 
P , Marsh P , Sea P , Beach P , Prairie Vetchlmg, Black 
P., Black Bitter Vetch, Spring Bitter Vetch), Lens 
(Lentil); Lespodeza (Bush Clover, Japan Clover, lloop- 
kpop), Leueajna (White Popinac); Lotus (Bird's-foot 
Trefoil, Babies' Slippers, Winged Pea), Lupinus (Lu- 
pine, Sundial, Deer Cabbage), Millettia (Ironwood); 
Medicago (Alfalfa, Lucerne, Black or Hop Medick, 
Nonesuch, Snails, Tree Alfalfa, Moon Trefoil) , Meli- 
lotus (Sweet Clover), Mimosa (Sensitive Plant, Hum- 
ble Plant), Mucuna (Cowitch, Cowage, Velvet Bean, 
Banana Bean), Onobrychis (Sainfoin, Holy (Clover); 
Ononis (Rest-Harrow, Goat Root), Parkmsoma (Jeru- 
salem Thorn); Parochetus (Shamrock Pea, Blue Oxa- 
hs), Potalostemon (Prairie Clover), Phaseolus (Bean, 
Caracol, Snail-flower, Corkscrew Flower, Scarlet-run- 
ner, Dutch Casekmfe B , Metcalfe B , Moth B , Gram, 
Silva B., Civet B , Lima B , Kidney B , Bush B ); Pis- 
cidia (Fish-poison Tree, Jamaica Dogwood), Pisum 
(Garden Pea, Field P ), Pithecolubium, Prosopis (Mes- 
quite, Screw Bean, Tormllo), Pomciana (Royal Poin- 
ciana. Peacock Flower, Flomboyant), Psoralea (Scurfy 
Pea, Pomme Blanche), Puorana (Kudzu Vino), Robi- 
ma( Locust, False Acacia, Black Locust, Rose Acacia, 
Clammy Locust), Schrankia (Sensitive Brier); Sophora 
(Japan Pagoda Tree); Spartium (Spanish Broom); 
Sutherlandia (Bladder Senna), Swamsona (Winter 
Sweet Pea); Tamanndus (Tamarind); Templetonia 
(Coral Bush); Tephrosia (Goat's Rue, Catgut, Wild 
Sweet Pea, Hoary P.); Thermopsis, Tnfolium (Clover, 
Alsike, Cowgrass); Trigonella (Fenugreek), Ulex 
(Gorse, Whin, Furze), Vicia (Vetch, Tare, Broad Bean, 
Windsor B , English Dwarf B ) ; Vigna (Cowpea, Black 
Pea, China Bean), Wistaria (Chinese Wistaria, Kid- 
ney-bean Tree). 


104 Geraniaceae (from the genus Geranium, Crane's- 
bill, from geranos, a crane, in allusion to the cranelike 
beak of the fruit) GERANIUM FAMILY. Fig 29 Herbs 
and shrubs, sometimes fleshy leaves opposite or alter- 
nate, very diverse flowers bisexual, regular or slightly 
irregular, sepals .5, imbricated, persistent; petals 5, 
rarely fewer, imbricated or convolute; stamen* usually 
10, rarely more, hypogynous or pengynous, the outer 
set opposite the petals, some frequently antherless, 
somewhat monadelphous below, often glandular at the 
base, carpels 5, ovary 5 -celled, rarely 2-3-celled, 5- 
lobed, prolonged into a beak termmatd by the 5 styles; 
ovules 1 to many in each cell fruit rarely a capsule, 
more commonly splitting into 5 beaked sections, seeds 
with endosperm, straight or curved 

The family has 10 genera and 360 species, widely 
distributed over the whole globe The largest genera are 
Pelargonium (South Africa) with 175 species, and Ge- 
ranium with 160 species. Some fossil fruits of Gerani- 
acese are known. The Geraniaceae are related to the 
Oxalidaceae, Tropeeolaccse and Balsammacese , also to the 
LinacesD and Rutaceai The 5 sepals and petals, the 
10 stamens, the 5 carpels, and the more or less beaked 
or lobed fruit with its peculiar dehiscence, are together 

The flower of Pelargonium is slightly irregular, with 
a dorsal receptacular spur at the base of the calyx The 
fruits of all but 40 Geraniaceae dehisce elastically, 
throwing the seeds to a distance. The 5 carpels 
split away at base, coil up violently, and remain 
attached to the summit of a column which projects 
from the receptacle This method of dehiscence, when 
present, is characteristic of the Geramacese. 

The Geramaceee are astringent, several contain 
resin, and others contain free acids Several species of 



Geranium have been used as remedies for wounds, 
others for dysentery, and the like, some have been used 
as stimulants. Erodiwm mow hat um is valued because of 
a very strong odor of musk The resinous stems of Mon- 
sonia (South Afnea) bum readily, and have been used 
for torches The most important economic genus is 
Pelargonium, cultivated for ornament The foliage of 
some Pelargoniums is glandular and very fragrant 
("rose geraniums") Some species of Geranium also 
are ornamental The awn-like beak of Krodium fruits 
have been used as hygrometers 

Few genera arc in cultivation in America as orna- 
mental plants Erodium (Stork 's-bill), Geranium, 
(Crane's-bill), Pelargonium (so-called "Geraniums") 
Several cultivated genera, formerly included in the 
Geramaceac, are now placed in separate families, which 
see, eg, Irnpatiens (Halsammaceie), Tropa>olum (Tro- 
pajolaceic), Oxalis and Averrhoa (Oxahdacea?) 

105 Oxahdaceae (from the genus Oxalic, signifying 
acid, from the sour taste of the foliage) OXALIS FAM- 
ILY Herbs, rarely shrubby leaves usually compound, 
flowers bisexual, regular, sepals 5, persistent, imbri- 
cated, petals 5, convolute or imbricated, rarely united 
at the base, stamens 10 in 2 whorls, the outer set oppo- 
site the petals, filaments coherent below, those of the 
outer set shorter, one or both sets with external glandu- 
lar appendages at the base, hypogynous, ovary superior, 
5-celled, with a persistent central column (as in Ge- 
ramacea*)) styles separate fruit an ordinary capsule 
with each cell dorsally dehiscent, or a berry 

The Oxalis family contains 7 genera and about 230 
species, of which 220 belong to the genus Oxahs They 
are mostly of tropical and subtropical distribution. 
Oxahs occurs chiefly in South Africa and South 
America The Oxahdaceae were formerly united with 
the Geramaeeu', but differ in the fruit, which is a dehis- 
cent capsule or a berry and does not break up into 
separate carpels 

The species of Oxahs are often bulbous or tuberous, 
or the roots are enlarged as water-storage tissue The 
leaflets usually have a sensitive cushion at the base 
(pulvmus) and show sleep-movements The flowers of 
many are dimorphic or tnmorphic, i e , have stamens 
or styles of 2 or 3 lengths in the same species The 
seeds are forcibly ejected through the dorsal suture of 
the capsule by the elastic separation of the outer layer 
of the testa 

Oxalis contains much oxalic acid, which may be 
extracted for economic purposes It is somewhat seda- 
tive, and the sour taste has made some species useful 
as salads The starchy roots of some South American 
species are used for cattle-fodder The fruits of Aver- 
rhoa are used in the tropics as a substitute for goose- 
berries, which they resemble m flavor 

Two genera are grown m America Averrhoa (Caram- 
bola), 1 species grown for shade and fruit, and Oxahs. 

106 Tropaeolaceae (from the genus Tropscolum, from 
tropaion, a trophy, the leaves are shield-like, and the 
flowers resemble a helmet) NA&TURTIUM FAMILY F'g 
29 Diffuse or climbing succulent herbs with alternate, 
peltate or lobcd leaves flowers bisexual, irregular, 
spurred; sepals 5, imbricated, petals 5, imbricated, 
the upper two differing in shape from the lower three; 
stamens 8, separate, somewhat pengynous, ovary 
superior, 3-celled, 3-lobed, each cell 1 -seeded, style 1; 
stigmas 3 fruit splitting into 1-seeded, mdehiscent 
nutlets or drupelets. 

A single genus of about 35 species is found in the 
mountainous regions from Mexico to Chile The family 
was formerly included in the GeramaccsD. but is dis- 
tinguished by its separate stamens, its mdehiscent f nut- 
lets, and a very peculiar method of embryo develop- 
ment, in which the suspensor divides into three parts, 
one part growing into the placenta, another out into 
the ovarian cavity, and the third producing the embryo 
on its apex. The spur of the flower is an outgrowth of 

the obliquely cup-shaped receptacle at the base of the 
calyx, as in Pelargonium 

The herbage of Tropa?olum has an acrid taste like 
cress, and is often used for salad, hence the common 
name "nasturtium" or "Indian cress." 

In America, several species are grown for their showy 
flowers Tropjcolum majus is the most widely known 
species T peregnnum is the "canary-bird flower " 

107 Lmaceae (from the genus Linum, the Latin name 
for flax, from the old Celtic lint, a thread) FLAX FAM- 
ILY Fig 29 Woody or herbaceous plants leaves alter- 
nate or opposite, rarely whorled, simple, entire flowers 
bisexual, regular, calyx of 5, persistent, imbricated 
sepals, rarely 1-parted, with .J-hd lobes, petals r >, rarely 4, 
convolute, clawed, the claw sometimes crested, stamens 
5, alternate with the petals, with sometimes 5 additional 
stammodia, or 10, 15. or 20, hypogv nous, usually united 
at the often glandular base, ovary .5-, rarely 3- or 4-, 
celled or falsely 10-celled by the intrusion of the mid- 
rib, ovules few, styles as many as the cells of the 
ovary fruit a capsule or drupe 

There are 9 genera and about 120 species, of which 90 
species belong to Linum The Linacea 3 are related to 

29 G*RANHCE,E 1 Geranium, a, floral dngram, ft, fruit, 
r, fruit dohihcmg Tnop^oLArtE 2 Tropueolum, flower LINA- 
C&JK. 3 Linum, a, flower, 6, floral diagram 

the Geramacea? and Ovahdacen?, but also show a rela- 
tion to the Silenes in the Carv oph\ llacea 1 The many- 
stamened genera suggest the Ternstrurmaceap The 
family is most easily recogm/ed by the simple, regular 
pattern of the flower, and the numeucal plan of 5 (or 4) 
which is carried through all the floral parts For this 
reason, the flax was taken by the older botanists as a 
pattern flower. 

Linum aithnrlicum (Europe) was formerly used as a 
puigative A fixed oil is exti acted from the seeds of the 
common flax (Linum uf>itnti*>simuni), which is used m 
medicine as an emollient The most extensive use of this 
oil is in painting, its value being due to the property of 
drying into a hard, waterproof coating Flaxseed ineal, 
from which the oil has been expressed, is used for fodder 
and for poulticing The seed-coats of flax become very 
mucilaginous when soaked, on which account flaxseed 
has also been used as an emollient m the treatment of 
coughs and colds The cortical bast-fibers of the flax 
have been used since earliest times in textile industries 
As the basis of linen cloth, flax is one of the most useful 
of cultivated plants Flax was probably Asiatic in its 
origin Many species of Linum are ornamental, but 
are little grown. 

Two genera are cultivated in America' Linum, 
with species of annual garden plants; and Rcinwardtia, 
with species of conservatory sub-shrubs from India. 



108 Erythroxylaceae (from the genus Erythrotylon, 
the name signifying red wood, the wood of some species 
being red). COCA FAMILY Fig 30 Shrubs and small 
trees, leaves alternate flowers bisexual, regular, incon- 
spicuous, sepals 5, persistent, imbricated or valvatej 
petals 5, convolute or imbricated, with appendages on 
the inner face, or with projecting callosities, stamens 10, 
in 2 whorls, more or less connate into a tube, and 
externally glandular, ovary 3-4-celled, usually but 
1 cell developing in fruit, 1-2 ovules in each cell; styles 
3-4. fruit drupaceous, 1-2-seeded. 

Two genera and about 90 species arc known; all 
tropical, and reaching their greatest development in 

30. EHYTHROXYLACEI 1 Erythroxylon, a, flower of E 

n" hrum, b, flower, pennnth icmoved.of E Coca ZYOOPHYI L^CE^E 
ygophyllum, a, flower, b, floral diagram RUTACFE 3 iluta, 
a, flower, b, floral diagram, c, loaf. 

tropical South America, but extending northward to 
Mexico and southward m the Old Woild to Natal 
The family is closely related to the Lmacozc with which 
it was formerly united, but differs in the more promi- 
nent stamen-tube, the appendages on the petals, and 
the drupaceous non-capsular fruit 

The only important economic plant is the coca plant 
(Erylhroxi/lon Coca), a shrub famous as the source of 
cocaine Its origin is unknown, but it was eaily used by 
the Peruvians as a stimulant Coca is now grown to 
a limited extent in southern Florida and southern Cali- 
fornia, as well as in most tropical countries 

109. Zygophyllaceae (from the genus Zygophyllum, 
denv ed from the Greek signifying a yoke and leaf, the 
leaflets are in pairs) CALTROP FAMILY Fig 30 Herbs, 
shrubs, or trees leaves opposite, rarely alternate, mostly 
pmnately compound, flowers bisexual, regular, rarely 
irregular, rpals 4-5, persistent, imbricated or rarely 
valvate; petals 4-5, rarely 0, imbricated, rarely valvate; 
disk present, diverse, rarely wanting, stamens usually 
8 or 10, hypogynous, the outer opposite the petals, 
usually scales at the base of the filaments, ovaiy supe- 
rior, 4-5-celled, rarely falsely many -celled, ovules 
2 to several in each cell, style and stigma 1 fruit a 
capsule or sepaiatmg into fruitlets 

Twenty-one genera and about 150 species occur as 
natives of the wanner paits of the world, especially 
the dncr desert regions They are especially abundant 
in North Africa and the Mediterranean region This 
family is very closely related to the Rutaceir, fiom which 
it diffeis in the absence of glandular dots and oil, and 
in the presence of stipules The fruits are usually more 
or less lobed and sometimes winged or covered with 

The hard, faintly aromatic wood (hgnumvitai) 
of Guaiacum ojficmale is used for cabinet work and 
for pulleys The wood of this plant yields a resin used 
as a diaphoretic and purge The flower-buds of one 
species of Zygophyllurn arc used in place of capers. 

The Arabs use Z simplex to remove freckles. The 
fetid smell of this plant is so strong that even camels 
are said to reject it. Soda is obtained from species of 
Nitrana, which inhabit alkaline soil. 

Guaiacutn offianale is sometimes grown in southern 
Florida and southern California for ornament. Zygo- 
phyllum may be in cultivation 

110 Rutaceae (from the genus Hula, the ancient 
name) RL T E FAMILY. Fig 30 Herbs, shrubs, trees: 
leaves usually alternate, simple or variously cut or com- 
pound, usually with pellucid dots flowers bisexual, 
usually regular, sepals 4-5, otten coherent, imbricated, 
petals 4-5, imbricated or valvate, usually sepaiate; sta- 
mens 8-10, rarely 15, inserted at the base of a thick disk, 
usually distinct;* ovary superior, 2-5-lobed, 2-5-celled, 
each cell 1 to many-ovuled, nused on a prolongation of 
the receptacle, a glandular disk .it its base, styles 
usually connate, fruit a capsule opening by valves, or 
fleshy and indehiscent, or sepaiatmg into fruitlets, 
rarely winged. 

RutaeeiB contains over 100 geneia and about 900 
species, mostly of tropical countries but extending into 
temperate parts of Europe and Amenca Fagara, with 
more than 130 species, is the largest genus The Ruta- 
cea? are related to many of the Geranium group, especi- 
ally to Simarubaceae, Zygophyllamc, and Mehacea* 
The transparent dots in the leaves, the numerical plan, 
and especially the lobed ovary raised on the disk or 
stalk, aie together distinctive The is often much 
developed and very diversely constructed The outer 
stamens are usually opposite the petals not alteinato 
with them as might be expected In some cases the 
carpels aie entirely free below and united only by the 
styles or stignuH The seeds, except in the berry fruits, 
are only 1 or 2 The great development of oil-glands 
containing a fragiant oil is one of the most character- 
istic features of the family glands aie produced 
on all parts of the plant , ev en on the floral parts and sur- 
face of the fiuits The orange and lemon are examples 
of Rutaceu* with berry fruits, and they are widely cul- 
tivated and peiplexmgly vaiiable 

The volatile oil of the Rutacea 1 has been used to some, 
extent foi medicine and also for perfumeiy Extiaet 
of me has been used o.s a vermifuge The Romans 
used rue as a condiment Some species of me are .so 
pungent a*> to produce a, poisoning of the skin .similai to 
that pioduced by poison ivy The volatile oil is so 
copious in Dictamnus as to ignite readil> Several 
hIM i cies of Barosma (buchu) are tonic and diuretic The 
genus Citrus is the most useful It includes the orange, 
the bitter orange, the citron, the lemon, the lime, the 
grape-fiuit, the kid-glove oiange or tangerine, and the 
bergamot from the rind of which bergamot oil is manu- 
factured, used in perfumery The baik of the prickly 
shrub, Zanthoxvlum, is sometimes used as a tome 
The seeds of some species of Zanthoxylum are used to 
poison fish 

In cultivation in America or worthy of tiial are 20 
to 30 genera, used mostly for ornament and fruit. 
Among these are 1 Adenandra (Breath of Heaven); 
-<Egle (Bael Fruit, Bengal Quince); Atalantia, Balsam- 
ocitrus (African Bael-Funt); Caloderidron (Capo 
Chestnut); Casmnroa (White Sapota), Citrus (Oiange, 
Lemon), Dictamnus (Dittany, (!as Plant, Burning 
Bush), Fagara (Prickly Ash), Feronia (Wood Apple); 
Murray a (Orange Jessamine, Satinwood), Phellodcn- 
dron (Chinese Cork Tree), Poncirus (Trifoliate 
Orange), Ptelea (Hop Tree), Rut a (Rue), Tnphasia 
(Bergamot Lime, Lime Berry), Zanthoxylum (Prickly 
Ash, Chinese or Japanese Pepperwood, Toothache 

111 Simarubacese (from the genus Sttnajuba, which 
is the Caribbean name of Simaruba ojfficinali>>) QUAS- 
SIA. FAMILY. Fig. 31 Shrubs or trees leaves alternate or 
rarely opposite, pinnate, rarely simple, dotless flowers 
unisexual, regular; sepals 3-5, more or less connate, 
imbricated or valvate; petals 3-5, rarely 0, free or con- 
nate, vaiiouslv arranged in the bud, disk prominent, 
very diverse, miely 0, stamens usually twice the petals, 
filaments naked or with a scale; carpels 2-5, free, or 



connate at the base or by the styles, or completely 
united into a 2-5-ccllod, supcnor ovary; each cell 1-, 
rarely several-, ovuled; carpels m fruit drupe-like, 
rarely forming a berry or samaras 

About 28 genera and 140 species are generally distrib- 
uted in the tiopies, but extend into the temperate 
regions. The center of distribution is in tropical 
America Some fossil species are known. The family 
is closely related to the Hutacete, but differs in the 
absence of foliage-glands and in the presence of scales 
on the filaments It is also closely related to the Zygo- 

Most of the Simarubacea' contain a bitter principle, 
also, sometimes, a lesmous matter and an oil which is 
of value as a tonic- Qua^id anmra of tropical America 
furnishes the quassia wood, famous as a bitter tonic 
Puraimu ctftha, of Jamaica, also furnishes quassia 
of equal quality Branches of quassia and the pulver- 
ued bitter wood of species of Snnaniba are used in 
tropical America to drive away insects The seeds 
of tfitnuruhd C< dron are used for the same purpose 
Various species are used for snake-bites The leaves 
and sap of species of Puramnia furnish a beautiful 
violet ove 

Very few are in cultivation in America' Picrasrna, a 
serni-haidy shrub, and Ailanthus (Tree of Heaven), a 
well-known tree 

112 Burseraceae (from the genus Rursera, named in 
memoiy of Joachim Bursei, a botanist in Naples). 
BUUSKKA FAMIIY Fig .-51 Trees or shrubs, often very 
large, with usually alternate compound leaves flowers 
bisexual, regtthr, usually small and \ery numerous; 
sepals 3-5, moie or less connate, imbricated or often 
valvate, petals 3-5, usually separate, imbricated or val- 

f i \ 

31 SIMARUB\CK* 1 \ilanthus, a, flower, section l>, flower, 
coking in, c, fruit BuHMiRACt* 2 Bur&era, a, flower, /, floral 
ImKram MMIACKIC J Hwietenia, flower 4 Cedrela, lower 
> Mcha, floral diagram MALPIGHIACI^B G Caniarea, llower. 
' Mnlniehin.. floral diagram 




7 Malpighia, floral diagram 

vate; stamens usually twice as many as the petals, hy- 
pogynous, sometimes unequal, separate, the outer oppo- 
site the petals, disk present, annular or cup-shaped, 
rarely 0, sometimes adnate to the calyx, ovary superior, 
2-5-celled, ovules usually 2 in each cell, style 1 or 0. 
fiuit drupe-like with 2-5 stones or with a bony endo- 
carp or a capsule with the epiearp opening and expos- 
ing the connate bony pits, seeds cxalbummous 

The 1G genera and about 270 speeies are widely dis- 
tributed in tropical regions One species of Bursera 
reaches Florida The family is related to the Rutacea? 
and Simarubaceae, from which it differs in the presence 
of resin-chambers in the bark. It is also very closely 
related to the Anacardiacese. 

The family is very rich in resin and, therefore, is of 
considerable economic importance These resins are 
frequently aromatic or fragrant, hence many have been 
used as incense The resin myrrh is obtained from species 
of Cornmiphora of Arabia and Africa Mecca balsam 
is from the same genus Ohbanurn incense is derived 
fiom trees of the genus Boswelha, of India Frankin- 
cense is either this ohbanum or the resin from Bos- 
welha Carten A substitute foi dammar and copal 
has been obtained from the Burseraceae. 

Few species of the Burseraeeje are in cultivation in 
America 1 Bur^cra tiinunuba, as an ornamental green- 
house tree, and (Jaruga piimata, which is grown in 
Florida and California for the gooseberry-like fruit 

113 Meliacese (from the genus Melia, the Greek 
name of the somewhat similar rnanna-ash). MAHOGANY 
FAMILY. Fig 31 Trees or shrubs leaves usually alter- 
nate, pinnate or rarely simple flowers bisexual, rarely 
unisexual, pamcled, sepals 4-5, usually partly connate, 
imbricated, petals 15, rarely 3-8, separate, or con- 
nate or adnate to the stamens, stamens 8-10, rarely 
5. or numerous, hypogynous, filaments usually connate 
into a tube which is entire or lacerate, rarely free, disk 
present; ovary superior, 2-5-celled, rarely I- or many- 
celled, each cell 2-, raiely several-, ovuled, style and 
stigma 1 fruit a drupe, berrv, or capsule 

There are 42 genera and about bOO species, all con- 
fined to the tropics They enter the United States 
only in southern Florida Some fossil species are 
known The family is related to the Rutacea?, but 
lacks the resin and oil-glands It is closely related to all 
of the disk-bearing families, but is distinguished by the 
peculiar stamen-tube with teeth and fringe 

There is the greatest diversity in the arrangement 
of the anthers on the stammal tube and the dentation 
or fringing of the latter Very commonly there are 2 
stipule-like teeth just below the anthers The seeds 
are sometimes winged (in mahogam ) 'The leaves are 
rarely transparent-dotted (Fhndersia). 

Mdia Azetlarafh, iln Asiatic tree, is bitter, and has 
been used m medicine as a purgative and vermifuge. 
Other species of Mehaceau are purgative and emetic, or 
arc used for hcai tburn, and the like Sonte have the odor 
of garlic The bark of the Asiatic Wahura piscidia is 
used to stupefy fish The pulp of the fruit of Aglaia 
edidi? is said to be delicious The bitter bark of mahog- 
any has been used m place of quinine. The most cele- 
brated member of the family is Swieleiiin Muhogani of 
the West Indias and Peru, which furnishes the mahog- 
any timber of commerce The wood of the West Indian 
Cednla odorala is fragrant, and is the so-called cigar- 
box cedar, fiom which these boxes are made The 
sawdust of the South African sneezewood (PLcrorylon 
obliquum) causes sneezing, hence the popular name 

Five or more genera are in cultivation in Ameiica, all 
confined to southern California arid southern Florida, 
except Melia, which is common throughout the southern 
states, and Cttlrela \iruntas, hardy in Maws Among 
these are Cedrela (West Indian Cedar), Melia (Pride 
of India, China-berry Tree, Texas Umbrella Tree), 
Ptceroxylon (Sneezewood), Swietema (Mahogany) 

114 Malpighiaceae (from the genus Mnlpigfna, in 
honor of Marcello Malpighi, once professor of medi- 
cine at Pisa) MALPKJHIA FAMILY Fig 31 Trees or 
shrubs, most often climbing leaves usually opposite, 
often with pctiolar glands and jointed petioles flowers 
commonly bisexual, usually obliquely inegular, sepals 5 
mostly separate, some or all with large glands, petals 
5, fringed or toothed, slender-clawed, stamens 10, m 
part stammodial, rarely fewer, the outer opposite the 
petals, hypogynous or nearly so, usually connate below, 
anthers very diverse and odd; ovary superior, 2-3- 
cclled and lobed, rarely 5-celled, the cells 1-ovuled, 
styles 2-3, rarely connate fruit commonly separating 
into 2-3 nut-like portions which are entire, or pectmately 
winged, or naked, rarely a single nut or drupe, seeds 



exalbummous; embryo variously curved or spiral, 
rarely straight. 

This family has 55 genera and about 650 species, 
generally distributed m the tropics, but reaching to 
Texas and California in North America, and Port 
Natal m Africa They are most abundant in the tropi- 
cal forests of South America The family is closely 
related to the Zygophyllaceae, Sapindacere, and Ery- 
throxylaccae, as shown by the lobed and winged fruit, 
or clawed petals. The glandular calyx, clawed petals, 
the outer stamens opposite the petals, peculiar anthers, 
queer fruit, and curved embryo are together distinctive. 

The family is of little economic importance Various 
coloring matters and astringent tannins are contained 
in the bark, for which reason borne of the Malpighiaceae 
have been used for dysentery and intermittent fever. 
Some are used as a remedy for snake-bites The fiuits 
of certain Malpighiacese are sour, juicy and refreshing. 

Few species are m cultivation in North America, 
all in California, Florida or the West Indies. Gal- 
phimia and Stigmaphyllon are ornamental, MaJpighia 
glabra is the.Barbaaoes cherry, cultivated in the West 
Indies for the cherry-like fruit 

115 Tremandraceae (from the genus Trcmandra, 
which is from the Latin tremble and the Greek male, 
probably in allusion to the anthers) TREMANDRA 
FAMILY Fig 32 Shrubs or sub-shrubs, with opposite, 
whorled or alternate leaves, flowers bisexual, regular; 
sepals 4-5, rarely 3, valvate, petals of the same number 
as the sepals and alternating with them, colored, entire, 
separate induplicate- valvate, stamens 8 or 10, rarely 
6, hypogynous, m 1 or 2 whorls, anthers opening by a 
transverse terminal valve, or more or less prolonged 
into a beak with terminal pores, ovary superior, 
2-celled, style 1, stigma 1. fruit a capsule; seeds 1 or 2 
in each cavity 

In this family are 3 genera and about 23 species, of 
which 20 belong to the genus Tetratheca All are 
native of south and west Australia. The family is very 
similar to the Polygalacese, and separated from that 

1 Platythcca, floral diagram 
y, 6, flower, vortical section 


:, floral 

OALACE^: 2 Polygala, a. flower, b. flower, vortical section; c, floral 
diagram ECPHOHBIAC-I!.,*; 3 Euphorbia, a, involucre and flowers, 
b, involucre, vertical section 4 Croton, a, flower, b, floral dia- 
gram, male flower, c, floral diagram, female flower 

family only by the regular flowers. Platytheca is 
remarkable in having the four anther cells all in one 

Two genera are in the American trade, both tender 
heath-like plants Platytheca, and Tetratheca. 

116 Polygalacese (from the genus Polygala, an old 
Greek name applied later to this genus by botanists 
because of the supposed stimulative action of the plant 
on the lactation of cattle). MILKWORT FAMILY. Fig. 32 

Herbs, shrubs, or small trees, sometimes climbing or 
twining leaves mostly alternate, flowers bisexual, irreg- 
ular, sepals 5, imbricated, separate or somewhat coher- 
ent, the 2 inner largest and often winged or petaloid ; 
petals rarely 5, commonly 3, at least the 2 upper, and 
sometimes all more or less coherent with each other and 
with the stamen-tube, inner petal concave and often 
with a fringed crest (keel) , stamens 8, rarely fewer, in 2 
whorls, hypogynous, usually adherent to the keel petal 
and coherent into a tube which is slit dowi and open 
behind; anthers usually opening by terminal pores or 
slits, ovary superior usually 2-celled, ovule usually 
1 in each cell; style 1, dilated above; stigmas 1-4: 
fruit usually a capsule, rarely a drupe or samara, seeds 
pendulous, albuminous. 

Polygalacese has 10 genera and about 500 species, 
450 of which belong to the genus PolygaJa, widely dis- 
tributed over the earth but absent m New Zealand, 
Polynesia, arctic North America and arctic Asia The 
family is not closely related to any other. The peculiar 
perianth and stamens, and the 2-celled ovary, are to- 
gether very distinctive The floral parts, though simu- 
lating those of the Legummosae. are not homologous 

A bitter principle gives the Polygalacea? tonic and 
astringent properties Some species arc emetic The 
root of Polygala Senega (North America), so-culled 
"Senega or Seneca snakeroot," is used as an emetic 
and cathartic, but more especially as an expectorant 
This and many other species of Polygala are reputed 
antidotes for snake-bites, hence the name "snakeroot " 

Only the genus Polygala is m cultivation in N Amer- 
ica, or which 9 or 10 species are g^rown for ornamental 
purposes. Some are shrubs and 1 is an evergreen trailer 

117. Euphorbiaceae (from the genus Euphorbia, 
named in honor of Euphorbus, physician to King Juba) 
SPURGE FAMILY Fig 32 Herbs, shrubs or trees, of 
greatly varying habit, sometimes fleshy and cactus-like, 
often with milky juice: leaves mostly alternate flowers 
monoecious or dioecious, regular or irregular, both 
calyx and corolla present, or the latter absent, or 
both absent, or both much reduced, valvate or imbri- 
cated, the parts free, rarely united, mtrastarninal 
disk usually present in the stammate flowers, often 
changed to glands; stamens as many as the sepals, or 
twice as many, or reduced to 1, separate or monadel- 
phous; hypogynous disk in the pistillate flowers 
annular or cup-shaped or m4he form of glands, ovary 
superior, usually 3-celled, rarely 1-, 2-, or 4-celled, 
style and stigma various, ovules 1-2 in each cavity, 
side by side, suspended, anatropous; micropyle external, 
covered with a caruncle fruit splitting into three 
portions, leaving a central column, rarely indehiscent 
and berry-like, or drupaceous, seeds albuminous 

The 208 genera and about 4,000 species arc widely 
distributed, mainly in the tropics, but extend into 
temperate regions The largest genera are Euphorbia 
with about 700 species, Croton \vith 500-600 species, 
and Phyllanthus with 400 species. The family is 
related to the Geramales, as shown by the fru/t. The 
only constant characters of this great polymorphic 
family are the collateral anatropous ovules with micro- 
pyle external, the caruncle, the usually persistent axis 
of the fruit, and the albuminous seeds In Euphorbia, 
some sessile stammate flowers and a pedicelled pistillate 
flower are inclosed m a common involucre which bears 
various horn-like, or gland-like, or petaloid appendages. 
The variation in the inflorescence and floral structure 
throughout the family is very intricate 

The family is of great economic importance. Only 
the most important plants can be mentioned here The 
following are used in medicine The juice of Euphorbia 
Esula, E Cypansaias, E. Lathyns, E hehoscowa, and 
others, is purgative, as is al?o that of Mercunalis Cro- 
lon Tiglium yields the purgative croton oil. Ricinua 
communw yields castor oil Jatropha Curcas (physic 
nut) is purgative. Euphorbia Hyberna, Jatropha 



officinahs, Croton, and Stilh'.^ia sylvatica (queen's 
root) are used for syphilis Euphorbia corollata and E. 
Ipecacuanhas are emetic E. thymifoha is used as a ver- 
mifuge in India. Croton Elutcria yields cascanlla bark, 
a tonic The hairs of the capsule of Mattotus philip- 
pinenxim are in the trade as kamala The juice of E 
cotinifolia is used by the Caribbeans to poison arrows; 
that of Exaecaria Agallocha (blinding tree) is so acrid 
as to blind the eye into which it may chance to fall 
The juice of E balsarmfera, of the Canaries, is cooked 
and eaten as jelly. The seeds of Aleuntes tnloba are 
called "almonds," and eaten, as are also those of Con- 
ceveiba guyanensis. The fruit of E disticha is edible 
E. Emblica has fleshy, sweet fruit The most useful 
as food are the tuberous roots of the sweet manioc 
(Mamhot palmata var Aipn), eaten cooked or raw, and 
of the bitter manioc (M utilivsima), which is poisonous 
when raw, but when cooked is very widely used for 
iood in the tropics This root is the source of cassava 
bread, and tapioca. Phosphorescent juice is obtained 
from E pho^phorea of Brazil The fruit of Hura crepitans 
(sand-box) opens with a report like a pistol. It is 
cooked in oil to prevent dehisccnce, and used as a sand- 
box India rubber is obtained from the juice of Hcvea 
guyanensib, and other species Omphaka truindra yields 
a blackening mice used as ink Soap is made from the 
seminal oil of Jatiopha Curcas Oil from the seeds of 
Aleuntes cordata (Japanese oil tree) is used for light- 
ing. Turnsole (Crozophora tinctona), of the Mediter- 
ranean, yields a dye used to color Dutch cheese Other 
Euphorbiaceae yield dyes Sapium sebifcrum (Chinese 
tallow tree) yields a fat used for burning, and other 

Twenty to 30 genera are in cultivation in N. America 
for various purposes. Among these are: Aealvpha, 
ornamental; Aleuntoy (Candlenut, Candleberry Tree), 
California, Oodurum (Croton), ornamental; Euphorbia 
(Spurge, Snow-on-the-Mountam, Scarlet Plume, Pom- 
settia, Mexican Fire Plant, Hypocrite Plant, Painted 
Leaf, Fire-on-the-Mountam, Crown of Thorns, 
Medusa's Head, Caper Spurge, Mole Plant), green- 
house, garden, ornamental, Hevea (South Ameri- 
can Rubber Tree), botanical gardens and Florida, 
Jatropha (French Physic Nut), South; Mamhot 
(Ceara Rubber Tree. Cassava, Manioc Plant), South, 
food and ornamental, Pedilanthus (Hird Cactus, Jew 
Bush), greenhouse, Phvllanthus (Snow-bush, Emblic 
Myrobolan, Otaheite Gooseberry), greenhouse, garden, 
Putranjiva (Indian Amulet Plant), South; Ricinus 
(Castor-Oil Plant, Palma Chnsti), garden, ornamental; 
Stilhngia (Queen's Root, Queen's Delight); Sapium 
(Tallow Tree), South. 


118. Buxaceee (from the genus Buxus. the ancient 
name of the box). Buxus FAMILY. Herbs, shrubs or 
trees leaves opposite or alternate flowers monoecious, 
inconspicuous, hypogy nous disk wanting; corolla absent, 
calyx 4-parted, or in the pistillate flower 4-1^2-parted 
or 0, imbricated; stamens 4, opposite the lobes of the 
calyx, or numerous, ovary superior, 3-celled, rarely 2-4- 
celled, ovules 2, collateral, rarely 1, suspended, micro- 
pyle turned toward the axis; styles 2-3 fruit capsular 
and opening elastically, or fleshy; seeds with endo- 
sperm, with or without a caruncle. 

About 6 genera and 30 species inhabit the tropics and 
subtropics One species is native in the southeastern 
United States. The largest genus is Buxus with 19 
species Fossil species are known. The family is related 
to the Euphorbiaccie, with which it is united by some 
authors, and to the Celastracece and Empetraceee. 
The absence of milky juice, the calycoid perianth, the 
3-celled ovary with collateral suspended albuminous 
eeeds, and the axially directed micropyle are together 

The wood of the box (Buxus sempervirens) of Europe 
is close-grained and homogeneous; used for engraving 
and for the manufacture of musical instruments. A 
decoction of the wood was formerly used in medicine 
for fevers. Its leaves and seeds are purgative. Oil 
from the seeds of Simmondsia is used as a hair-tonic. 

Four or more genera are in cultivation m America. 
These are- Buxus (Box) ornamental; Pachysandra 

33 EMPETRACEK 1 Empetrum, a, flower, b, floral diagram. 
CORIARIACE* 2 Conana, a, flower, 6, floral diagram ANA- 
CARDiAct 3 Rhus, a, flower, 6, floral diagram 4 Anacardium, 
frvut CYRILLACKA 5 Cynlla, flower 

(Mountain Spurge), garden, ornamental; Sarcococca, 
greenhouse, ornamental; ana Simmondsva, California, 
for oil. 

119. Empetraceae (from the genus Empetrum, an 
ancient name signifying upon a rock) CROWBERRY 
FAMILY. Fig 33 Small encoid shrubs, leaves alter- 
nate, deeply furrowed beneath flowers polygamous or 
dioecious, small, regular, hypogynousf disk wanting, 
sepals 2-3, imbricated, petals 2-3, or 0, stamens of 
the Scome number as the petals and alternate with them; 
ovary superior, 2-9-celled, each cell 1-ovuled, style- 
branches 2-9, often fringed or toothed, fruit drupa- 
ceous, seed ascending, anatropous, albuminous, micro- 
pyle turned toward the outside. 

In the north temperate and arctic regions, and in the 
Andes, are found 3 genera and about 5 species. The 
family is related to the Buxaceac, and more distantly 
to the Euphorbiaceie and Celastraceae. The habit, 
the reduced or absent corolla, the few stamens, the 
1-scedcd ovary, the external micropyle, and the absence 
of the disk and aril are together distinctive 

The acid berries of Empetrum are eaten m north 
Europe and Kamtschatka, and also used to prepare a 
drink The fruit of Corema album has been used as a 
fever remedy, An acid dnnk is prepared from it in 

In North America, 2 genera are in cultivation* Cera- 
tiola, not hardy; and Empetrum (Crowberry), grown 
in rock-gardens 

120. Coriariaceae (from the genus Conana, derived 
from the Latin meaning a hide, used for tanning). 
COUH.RIA FAMILY. Fig 33. Shrubs with opposite or 
whorled, entire leaves, flowers bisexual, or unisexual, 
regular, sepals 5, imbricated; petals 5, smaller, but 
enlarging in fruit, fleshy, keeled within and pressed 
between the carpels; stamens 10, hypogynous; carpels 
5-10, superior, separate: fruitlets indehiscent, 1-seeded, 

This family consists of a single genus containing 8 
species, widely distributed in warm-temperate zones. 
Conariacese is not closely related to any other family; 



perhaps most closely to the Empetraceee. Some authors 
place it near the Sapindacctc or Phytolaocacece, or 
Rutacese It represents an ancient group. Fossil spe- 
cies are known. 

Conana myrtifoha (myrtle-leaved sumach) of the 
West Mediterranean region, contains much tannin and 
is used by curriers; its leaves and fruits are poisonous 
The fruit of C. ruscifoha of New Zealand contains a 
vinous juicej which is drunk as a beverage, but its 
seeds are poisonous. C ruscifoha also yields a black 
color used by shoemakers 

Two species are grown for ornamental purposes in 
eastern North America They are semi-hardy 

121. Limnanthaceae (from the genus Limnanthus, the 
name signifying marsh flower) LIMNANTHUS FAMILY. 
Herbs with alternate leaves, flowers bisexual, regular; 
sepals 3 or 5, valvate, petals 3 or 5, convolute, separate; 
stamens twice as many as the petals, the outer opposite 
the petals, often glandular at base; ovary superior, 3- 
or 5-lobed, 3- or 5-celled, ovules 1 in each cell, ascend- 
ing, micropyle directed downward and outward, stig- 
mas 3 or 5: fruit dry, separating into segments 

This is a small family of 2 genera and 5 species, all of 
North America. The family was formerly united with 
the Geramacese, to which the floral structure boars a 
superficial resemblance It is also related to the 
Anacardiacese and Sapindaceso It may be said to pos- 
sess the general floral structure and lobed ovary of the 
Geramacese, but the seed position of the two families 
last named 

Limnanthus Douglasii, of California, is grown for 
ornamental purposes. 

122. Anacardiaceae (from the genus Anacardium, the 
name meaning heart-like, in reference to the shape of 
the nut) CASHEW FAMILY Fig 33 Trees or shrubs 
with resinous bark, and alternate, simple or compound 
leaves' flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular, small, 
and numerous, epigynous, pengynous or hypogynous; 
sepals 3-5; petals 3-5, mostly imbricated, or 0, sta- 
mens 5 or 10, rarely many, inserted with trie petals at 
the edge or base of an annular, intra-stammal disk; 
ovary 1-, rarely 2-6-, celled, with 1 ovule in each cell; 
styles 1-6 fruit a drupe or nut, rarely dehiscent; seeds 
usually exalbummous 

There are 58 genera and about 400 species, most 
abundant in the tropical zone of both hemispheres, but 
represented by the genus Rhus as far north as Europe 
and the United States. Rhus is the largest genus, 
containing 120 species. The family is related to the 
Sapindaceae, but contains resin, and has an intra- 
stammal disk. It is also related to the Burseraceae 
and Simarubaceffi 

The disk m some genera becomes elongated into a 
stalk on which the ovary is raised. The drupe is some- 
times edible (Mangifera). In Anacardium, the nut- 
like fruit is situated on top of a fleshy edible receptacle. 
Sometimes the nut is surrounded by the edible recep- 
tacle In Cotinus. the pedicles become plumose and 
the whole much-branched inflorescence breaks off, 
and blows about, distributing the seeds. In Swm- 
tonia, the calyx or the corolla becomes enlarged and 
persistent and serves as a parachute in seed-dissemi- 
nation. Rhus Toxicodendron (poison ivy) and R Vermx 
(poison sumach, poison elder, poison dogwood) con- 
tain in all their parts an oily, extremely irritating 
substance, which often produces a very painful vesic- 
ular eruption that may last for several days. 

The Anacardiacese is a family of considerable eco- 
nomic importance Because of the resinous juice, it 
yields medicinal substances and varnishes. It also 
yields important edible fruits. Pistacia vera of Syria 
furnishes the pistachio nut; Pistacia Terebinthus of the 
Mediterranean yields Cyprus turpentine, formerly medi- 
cinal. The leaves of Rhus Conana of the Mediterra- 
nean are used for tanning fine leather. Rhus succedanea 
of Japan yields vegetable wax, which coats the seed 

within the capsule Melanorrhaea usitata yields a cele- 
brated black varnish of Burmah Mangifera indica of 
the East Indies is the mango tree, the fruit of which 
is large, juicy, sugary-acid and agreeable. Anacardium 
occidentals of tropical America is the cashew. This 
plant yields edible nuts and an edible receptacle. From 
it vinegar is made, also a peppery oil used as a condi- 
ment; and the trunk yields a valuable acacia-like gum. 
The seeds of Semecarpus (marking-nut tree) give an 
indelible black dye used in marking linen. Spondias 
purpurea is the so-called Spanish plum of the West 
Indies The fruit of Rpondias dutcis of the Pacific 
Islands is also frequently eaten Other species furnish 
the hog plum of the West Indies The mastic, a fra- 
grant gum-resin of the pharmacist, is obtained from 
Pistacia Lentiscus of the Orient 

Eight to 12 genera arc in cultivation m N. America, 
but with the exception of Rhus and Cotinua, mostly in 
the southern states, especially m southern Florida and 
southern California Among these are: Anacardium 
(Cashew Tree), Cotinus (Smoke-bush); Cyrtocarpa, 
fruit edible; Mangifera (Mango); Pistacia (Pistachio 
Nut) ; Rhus (Sumach, Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, Poison 
Elder, Poison Dog wood), 15 species; Schinus (California 
Pepper Tree, Peruvian Mastic), Semecarpus (Marking- 
nut Tree). 

123 Cynllaceae (from the genus Cynlla, named in 
honor of Dommico Cynllo, a professor of medicine at 
Naples). CYRILLA FAMILY. Fig 33. Shrubs with 
alternate, entire leaves flowers bisexual, regular, small, 
sepals 5, often enlarged in fruit, imbricated; petals 5, 
imbricated, slightly connate at base or separate; sta- 
mens 5 or 10, hypogynous, the inner sometimes want- 
ing, filaments dilated; ovary superior, 2-4-celled, 
ovules 1, rarely, 2-4 in each cell; style short; stigmas 
2' fruit a fleshy or dry capsule, or nearly dry drupe 
with wings, seeds albuminous. 

The 3 genera and only 5 species are all American, 
ranging from Virginia to Brazil The relationship of 
the Cynllaceac is doubtfully understood. It is probably 
closely related to the Aquifohacese, although some have 
placed it with the Ericaceae. The small polypetalous 
flowers, the few stamens, the several-celled, few-seeded 
ovary, the dry fruit and the non-anllate seeds are 
important characteristics. 

Cynlla racemiflora (leatherwood, black ti-ti) of 
the southeastern United States is occasionally culti- 
vated for ornamental purposes. 

124. Aquifohaceae (from Aqui folium, Tournefort's 
name for the genus Ilex, application obscure) HOLLY 
FAMILY. Fig 34 Trees or shrubs, with alternate or 
opposite, simple, often evergreen leaves flowers bisex- 
ual, rarely unisexual, very small, axillary, solitary or 
fascicled, rarely cymosc, sepals 3-6, more or less con- 
nate; petals 4-5, nearly separate, imbricated, stamens 
4-5, alternating with the petals, and sometimes adher- 
ing to them, hypogynous disk wanting; ovary superior, 
3 to many-celled, each cell 1-2-ovulcd, stigma subses- 
sile, lobed. fruit berry-like, seeds albuminous 

Three genera are known and about 280 species, of 
which 275 belong to the genus Ilex. These are widely 
distributed, but rare in Europe, the center of distribution 
being in Central and South America. Ten species are 
found wild in the northeastern United States. The 
Aquifohacesc are related to the Celastracese and the 
Anacardiaceae, from which they are distinguished by the 
absence of the hypogynous disk and by the general 

Ilex Aquifolium of Europe is used there for hedges 
and for indoor decoration. I. opaca is used for indoor 
decoration m this country. The leaves of both are 
thick, glossy, evergreen and spiny-toothed. /. para- 
guanensis furnishes mate, which is the tea of South 
America It was early cultivated by the Jesuits (1609- 
1768), and is even yet one of the most important culti- 
vated plants of South America, Other species of Ilex 


have been used m various parts of the world for medi- 
cine because of their astringent qualities and bitter 

Many species of Ilex (Holly, Dahoon, Cassena, 
Yaupon, Winterberry, Black Alder), and one of Nemo- 
pan thus (Mountain Holly) are grown as cultivated 
plants in America, all for ornamental purposes. 

125 Celastraceee (from the genus Celastrus, an ancient 
Greek name). STAFF-TREE FAMILY. Fig. 34. Shrubs or 
trees, often climbing: leaves alternate or rarely opposite, 
simple, not lobed. flowers bisexual or unisexual, small 
and greenish, regular; sepals 4-5, imbricated; petals 
4-5, imbricated ; stamens 4-5, alternate with the petals, 
rarely 10; disk present, lining the bottom of the calyx, 
sometimes adnate to the ovary, ovary superior, 2-5- 
celled, buried in the disk, or distinct and disk small; 
1-2 ovules in each cell; style 1, short; stigmas 2-5-lobed: 
fruit a drupe, or samara, or a capsule; seeds albuminous, 
usually with a pulpy aril. 

Thirty-eight genera and about 375 species are dis- 
tributed in all parts of the world except the arctic zone. 
They are especially numerous in the tropics. Euony- 
mus, Maytenus, and Celastrus are the largest genera 
The Celastracese are in some respects related to the 
Cyrillaceffi, in others to the Aquifohacese and Rhamna- 
ccaj. The small greenish flowers, the stamens alter- 
nating with the petals, the ovary sunken in the disk, 
and the aril are in general distinctive. There are excep- 
tions to all these characters 

The capsule of Celastrus and Euonymus frequently 
remains on the plant through late fall and early winter. 
It splits into from 3-5 valves, which become reflexed 
and expose the aril of the seeds The contrast in 
color between aril and pericarp is often very striking 
and ornamental The Cclastraeese are mostly pollinated 
by ants and flies which run over the disk for the honey. 

The Celastraceae are of but slight economic impor- 
tance Some have been Ubed for then emetic and pur- 
gative properties. Catha eduhs of East Africa has been 
long cultivated by the Arabs under the name khat; the 
leaves produce an agreeable excitement and it is con- 
sidered a very valuable remedy for plague The drupes 
of an Elreodendron are baid to be eaten in South Africa. 
The wood of some Celastraoeae is much valued for carving. 

In North America 6 or more genera of Celastraceae are 
grown for ornamental purposes Elaeodendron in warm- 
houses and in southern parts, Euonymus, hardy North; 
Gymnospona and Maytenus grown in southern regions; 
Pachistima, hardy, and Celastrus, a hardy vine 

126 Stackhousiaceae (from the genus Stackhousia, 
named in honor of John Stackhouse, a British botanist) 
STACKHOUSIA FAMILY Fig 34 Herbs with rather thick, 
alternate leaves flowers bisexual, regular, in spikes, ra- 
cemes or fascicles, sepals 5, imbricated ; petals 5, more or 
less, pengynous, long-clawed, the claws separate below, 
connate above; disk thin, clothing the msuie of the cup- 
shaped receptacle, stamens 5, pengynous, alternating 
with the petals, often unequal; ovary superior, 2-5- 
lobed, 2-5-celled, each cell 1-ovuled, styles 2-5, free or 
connate fruit of 2-5 separate, globose, angular, reticu- 
lated or winged, mdehiscent portions which separate 
from a central persistent column , seeds albuminous 

This is a very small family of 2 genera and 14 species; 
natives of Australia and adjacent islands It is probably 
related to the Celastracese more closely than to any 
other family. 

One species of Stackhousia is grown for ornamental 
purposes in California. 

127 Staphyleaceae (from the genus Staphylea, de- 
rived from the Greek meaning a cluster, probably in 
reference to the flower-cluster) BLADDERNUT FAMILY. 
Fig. 34. Trees or shrubs : leaves opposite or alternate, 
pinnately compound, stipulate: flowers bisexual, regular; 
sepals 5 ; imbricated, petals 5, imbricated; stamens 5, 
alternating with the petals, inserted outside the large, 
cup-shaped disk; ovary usually 3-celled; styles 3, sepa- 

rate or connate: fruit a capsule, often deeply 
sometimes mdehiscent and berry-like; seeds usually 
many in each cell, albuminous, sometimes with an aril. 

This family contains 5 or 6 genera and about 22 
species, in the north temperate zone, extending rarely 
to northern South America and to the Malay region. 
Fossil species are known The family is closely related 
to the Sapindacesc, in which it was formerly included, 
and from which it is separated by the abundant endo- 
sperm, the mtra-stammal disk, the more numerous 
seeds, the straight embryo, and various anatomical 
differences. The fruits of the bladderaut are an inch 
long, membranous and bladdery; the seeds become 
loosened and the fruit then is interesting to children 
as rattle-boxes. 

The family is of little economic importance. Three 
genera are cultivated in North America for ornamental 
purposes. These are: Euscaphis, Staphylea (Bladder- 
nut), and Turpima. 

128. Aceracese (from the genus Acer, the classical 
name of the maples, from the Celtic meaning hard). 

34. AQUIFOLIACE<*- 1. Ilex, a, flower; b, floral diagram CELA&> 
TRACE-K 2 Euonymus, a flower, b, floral diagram STACKHOI'BI- 
ACEK 3 SlackhouBia, flower. STAPHYLEACE*; 4 Staphylea, o, 
flower, b, fruit. 

MAPLE FAMILY. Fig. 35. Trees or shrubs- leaves oppo- 
site, exstipulate, simple or compound, flowers mostly 
unisexual, often bisexual ones intermixed, regular; 
sepals 4-5, separate or somewhat connate, imbricated; 
petals 4-5, or 0, imbricated, disk either extra-stammal 
or intrastaminal, usually flat, and sometimes lobed or 
divided, stamens 4-10, mostly 8, separate, inserted at 
the edge of the disk, ovary superior 2-celled, 2-lobed, 
much flattened contrary to the partition, style 1, stig- 
mas 2 fruit splitting into two portions, each a samara; 
seeds 2 in each cell, exalbuminous. 

There arc 2 genera and about 110 species; all but 
1 belong to the genus Acer They are mostly natives 
of mountainous or upland countries of the northern 
hemisphere Some fossil species have been discovered. 
The Aceracca; are closely related to the Sapindacese, 
with which they were formerly united, and from which 
they differ in the opposite, usually palmate leaves, the 
peculiar fruit, and regular flowers In position, the 
disk shows a transition between the Sapmdaceae and 
other families. The family is easily recognized by the 
opposite, exstipulate leaves, and peculiar fruit 

The wood of Acer saccharum (sugar maple, hard 
maple) is of great value for timber Bird's-eye maple 
and curly maple are forms of this species in which the 
growth of the cambium is irregular The manufacture 
of sugar from the sap of the sugar maple is an important 
industry in the northern states in early spring The 
sycamore of England is Acer pseudoplatamis] that of 
America is a species of Platanus The juice of Acer 
platanoides (Norway maple), and probably of others, 
is milky. 


Forty or more species of Acer (maple) are in cultiva- 
tion in N . America? or ornamental purposes. A cer Negun- 
do (box elder) is exceptional in having compound loaves. 

129. Hippocastanaceae (from the genus Hippocat>- 
tonum, the old generic name of the genus -/Eseulus, 
derived from the Greek meaning horse and chestnut). 
HORSE-CHESTNUT FAMILY. Fig. 35. Trees or shrubs: 
leaves opposite, exstipulate, palmately 3-9-fohato 1 flow- 
era, some bisexual, some stammate, irregular, sepals 5, 
separate or connate, imbricated, petals 4-5, unequal, 
clawed; stamens 5-8, separate; disk present, extra- 
Btaminal, often inequilateral; ovary 3-celled; ovules 2 
in each cell; style and stigma 1: fruit usually 1-cellcd 
and 1 -seeded, capsular, 3-valved; seeds very large, 

There are 2 genera and 22 species of general dis- 
tribution in the north temperate zone. Tho family is 
closely related to the Sapindaceae, with which it is often 
united, and from which it differs only in its larger 
flowers, palmately compound leaves and large seeds 
The Hippocastanacese, Sapindacese, Mehanthacese, 

35. AcERACEJE' 1 Acer, a, flower, b, fruit HIPPOCASTANACE*:- 

2 ^Esculus, a, flower, b, floral diagram, c, fruit SAPINDACE* 

3 Sapmdus, flower 4. Kcelreutena, vertical section fruit 

and some Acoracese are almost the only plants with 
extra-stammal disks. 

The horse-chestnut (/Esculus Hippocastanum) is a 
well-known shade tree, said to have been introduced 
into Europe by Clubius in 1575. The seeds, rich in 
starch, have been used for fodder. They have also been 
used to form the principal part of a certain kind of 
snuff, and the oil contained has been used to a slight 
extent in medicine The roots of viUsculus contain sapo- 
nm and have been uscd^ like soapberry, for washing 

Several species of Asculus are in cultivation in 
N. America. M glabra and M octandra, natives of the 
central United States, are called buckeyes 

130 Sapindaceae (from the genus Sapmdus, a con- 
traction of the Latin sapo-wdicus, Indian soap). SOAP- 
BERRY FAMILY. Fig 35. Trees or shrubs, rarely herbs, 
often climbing* leaves usually alternate, mostly com- 
pound, sometimes ternately, sometimes pmnately de- 
compound' flowers unisexual or polygamous, regular or 
irregular (i.e. obliquely unsymmetncal), small; sepals 
4-5, imbricated or rarely valvate; petals 4r-5, small or 
wanting, usually with scales or hairs at the base inside: 
disk well developed, situated between the petals ana 
the stamens (extrastammal) ; stamens usually 10 in 2 
whorla, more or less united at the base; ovary superior, 
mostly 3-celled and deeply 3-lobed; ovules typically 
1 in each cell; style 1* fruit very diverse, a firm or 
bladdery capsule, a berry, nut, or winged fruit; seeds 
without endosperm. 

The 118 genera and about 1,000 species are of trop- 

ical distribution. Only one species reaches northward 
as far as Kansas. The family is closely related to the 
Staphyleacete, Hippocastanacea*, and Aceracese, which 
see for differences; and more distantly to the Celastra- 
ceae. The small flowers, usually appendaged petals, 
10 stamens, extra-staminal disk, and 3-celled, few- 
seeded fruit are usually distinctive. 

The climbing Sapindacea; often have very peculiar 
stems in which many separate cambium rings have 
taken part. This renders the cross-section very peculiar, 
making it appear sometimes as a bundle of woody 
ropes tied together, with bark between them 

Tho Sapmdacejc are of considerable economic impop 
tance. The fruits of many are used locally for food, 
sometimes the flesh of the fruit, sometimes the aril 
being of importance The seeds of Sapmdus and other 
genera are often roasted and eaten as food Oil is 
obtained from the seeds of others Some are used locally 
for medicine. The seeds and other parts of many species 
are very poisonous, the fruits of species of Sapmdus be- 
ing used to poison fish The juice of Paulhnia pinnata 
(cururu) is used by savages in Guiana to poison their 
arrows The Lechcheuquana bee collects honey from 
tSerjania lelhahs which, when eaten even in small 
quantities, produces raving madness or even death 
The bark and berries of many species (e g , the soap 
tree, Sapmdus) contain saponm which reacts like soap, 
on which account they are used for washing Yellow 
and black dyes, used as cosmetics, are obtained from 
certain species. The very hard wood of certain 
Sapmdacecc is much prized for timber The hard, 
spherical, black seeds of Sapindus tiaponarw are btrung 
as beads. 

There are 15 or more genera of true Sapmdarojp grown 
m America Ko?lreutena (Varnish Tree) is hardv and 
ornamental Cardiospermum (Balloon Vine) is a tender 
annual with queer fruit Xanthoceras is a hardy orna- 
mental tree Paulhnia is a greenhouse climbing shrub 
The following are grown only in the southern .states or 
California Grcyia, Melicocca (Spanish Lime); Bhghia 
(Akee Tree), Dodomea, Ungnadia (Mexican or Spanish 
Buckeye) , Sapindus (Soapberry) 

The following cultivated genera are now referred to 
other families. Melianthus (Mehanthaceae), yEsculus 
(Hippocastanaceae); Acer (Aeeracca>), Ptzrroxylon 
(Meliaceip); Staphylea (Staphyleacea>) ; Kuscaphis 
(Staphyleacerc) , Turpima (Staphyleacese) 

131 Mehanthaceae (from the genus Mehanthus, 
derived from the Greek meaning honey and flower). 
MELIANTHUS FAMILY. Shrubs or trees 4 leaves alter- 
nate, entire or pinnate* flowers bisexual, irregular, 
soon inverted, sepals 5, imbricated, petals 4-5, sta- 
mens 4-5, or 10, free or slightly connate at the base, 
alternating with the petals, disk present, extrastammal, 
crescent-hhaped, or annular with 10 projections, carpels 
4-5, ovary 4-5-eelled, ovules 1 to many in each cell, 
style 1, stigma 4-5-lobed fruit a capsule, seeds albu- 
minous, sometimes anllate 

All the 3 genera and 17 species are natives of Africa 
The Melianthacese were formerly united with the 
Sapindaceae, with which they agree in the extra- 
stammal disk, but they differ in the vertically bisym- 
metncal, not obliquely bisymmetrical, flowers, and 
more abundant endosperm. 

In southern California, species of Melianthus are 
grown for ornament 

132. Balsaminaceae (from Balsamina, the old name 
of the genus Impatiens, probably derived from balassan t 
the Arabic name of these plants) . BALSAM FAMILY Fig. 
36 Herbs, very rarely epiphytic leaves various ' flowers 
bisexual, irregular, spurred, nodding; sepals 3-5, irreg- 
ular, imbricated often petaloid, the posterior very 
large and sack-like, and gradually prolonged backward 
into a honey-spur; petals 5, alternate with the sepals, 
separate, or united so as to appear as 3, lower petals 
much the larger, stamens 5, hypogynous, closelv 



covering the ovary like a hood; anthers coherent; 
ovary superior, 5-celled; ovules 3 to many in each cell, 
stigmas sessile, fruit a 5-valved capsule, the valves of 
which coil up elastically and forcibly distribute the 
seeds, or sometimes a 5-cclled drupe-like structure 

Contained in this family are 2 genera and about 220 
species, of which all but 1 belong to the genus Impa- 
tiens, widely distributed, but most abundant in the 
tropics of the Old World, wanting in South America 
The family is closely related to the Geramaceac, with 
which it was formerly united, but is distinguished by 
the 5 peculiar hypogynous stamens The honey-spur 
in this family is an outgrowth of the sepals, and not of 
the receptacle as in Pelargonium and Tropa;olum. 
There are extra-floral nectaries on the foliage of some 
species, which attract protective ants 

The sap of several species of Impatiens has been used 
as a dye to color red or yellow that of / biflora (North 
America) staining yellow, that of /. Balsamina (India) 
staining red, and used to color the skin and finger- 
nails The tubers of 7 hnctona of Abjssima are used 
for dyeing the feet and hands red or black Some species 
have been used as medicine Many are ornamental. 

There are several species of Impatiens in the North 
American trade / anrea and 7 biflora are the east 
American touch-me-nots or jewel-weeds; 7. Balsamina 
is the garden balsam; the other species are greenhouse 

Order 40. RHAMNALES 

133 Rhamnaceae from the genus Rhamnus. the old 
Greek name) BUCKTHORN FAMILY. Fig 36 Trees or 
shrubs, rarely herbs, sometimes spiny or climbing: 
leaves simple, mostly alternate flowers bisexual or 
unisexual, regular, pengynous, small, greenish, mostly 
axillary, sepals 5, rarely 4, valvate, petals 5, or 4, 
alternate with the sepals, stamens of the same number 
as the petals and opposite them; an mtrastammal disk 
lining the cup-shaped receptacle; ovary 2-4-celled, 
superior or inferior, colls 1-, rarely 2-, ovuled, styles 
2-4, more or less connate fruit drupaceous, or winged, 
or capsular 

Hhamnacea 1 has 40 genera and about 550 species 
very generally distributed over the earth Rhamnus is 
the largest genus (70 species), and the most widely 
distributed The family is represented by 6 native 
species in northeastern North America It is mo&t 
closely related to the Vitacea* and Cclastracea?, differing 
from the former in the simple entire leaves and 
strongly pengynous flowers, and from the latter in the 
stamens being opposite the petals 

The family is not of great economic importance The 
berries and bark of Khaninus cathartics (buckthorn) 
contain a bitter principle which is purgative. The 
fruits of some species of Hhamnus yield yellow or green 
dyes of some importance H dahurica and R. tinc- 
tona give Chinese green The bark of 7? cathartica 
and R Franqula (Europe) is used to dye yellow R 
Purshiana (California; is the cascara segrada of 
medicine, a strong purgative The fruits of Zizyphus 
Lottie arc pulpy and agreeable, and were much prized 
by the ancients The fruits of several species of Zizy- 
phus are eaten in various parts of the Old World The 
spiny branches of Paliurus Spina-Chnsti or Zizyphus 
Spwa-Chnsti are thought to have been those from 
which the crown of thorns was made. 

Nine or more genera are in cultivation in N America 
for ornamental purposes These are. Ceanothus (New 
Jersey Tea); Bercherma (Supple Jack); Gouania; 
Hovenia, Pahurus, Pomaderns, Rcynosia; Rhamnus 
(Buckthorn), Zizyphus (Jujube) 

134 Vitacese (from the genus Vitis, the classical 
name) GRAPE FAMILY Fig 36 Mostly climbing shrubs 
with tendrils, seldom upright shrubs or small trees, 
leaves alternate or opposite, very diverse, flowers bisex- 
ual, or unisexual small, numerous, regular; sepals 4-5, 

rarely 3-7, minute or obsolete; petals 4-5, rarely 3-7, 
valvate, separate (gamopetalous in Leea), stamens 
4-5, rarely 3-7, opposite the petals, somewhat pe- 
ngynous; disk evident annular or of separate lobes; 
ovary superior, 2-, rarely 3-6-, celled, with. 2, or rarely 
1, ovule in each cell; style 1 or 0, stigma capitate or 
peltate fruit a berry: seeds albuminous. 

The 11 genera and about 450 species are mostly of 
tropical and subtropical distribution. Fourteen species 
reach the northeastern United States The largest 
genus is Cissus with 250 species. Some fossil forms 
are known The Vitacea) are closely related to the 
Rhamnaccce. The climbing habit, the few stamens 
opposite the petals, the 2-carpelled berry, and the 
capitate stigma are distinctive 

The petals in Vitis remain connate at the tip as in 
the bud, but separate from each other at the base, and 
fall off as a cap The tendrils of the Vitacea? are borne 
at the nodes and opposite the leaves There has been 
much discussion as to whether the tendrils are apical or 

36 BAIS\MINACE^S \ Impations, a, flower, b, fruit RHAM- 
NACF.C 2 Khartum's a, flowtr, b, floral diagram VITACE^E: 
3 \ius, flower TILIACEE 4 Tiha, a, flower, b, floral diagram 
c, fruit. 

lateral, i e , whether the plant is sympodial or mono- 
podial The tips of the tendrils are in some species 
expanded into disk-like holdfasts The species of Cis- 
sus are mainly desert plants They arc often cactus- 
hke, with fleshy, angled, jointed, or terete stems, or 
have tubers or tuberous bases. 

The most important economic plant in the family is 
the grape (Vitis), which has been cultivated since early 
times V vimfcra is the wine grape of Europe and 
southern California, and has given rise to our green- 
house grapes; not hardy. V. Labrusca is one of the 

. . 

parents of most of our hardy grapes V vulpma and 
V cordifoha are frost or fox grapes Several species 
f Vitis arc grown for ornamental purposes only. Rai- 
ins are the dried fruit of certain species of Vitis, mostly 

V vimfera Virginia creeper or woodbine (Parthenocis- 
sus [Arnpelopsis] quinqut folia} and Boston ivy or Jap- 
anese ivy (7* tnrutpidnta) are ornamental. 

A few genera are in cultivation in America: Ampe- 
lopsis, Parthenocissus or Psedera; Cissus (Kangaroo 
Vine), and Vitis. 

Order 41. MALVALES 

135. Elceocarpaceae (from the genus Elaeocarpus, 
derived from the Greek meaning olive-fruit) . EL^OCAB 
PUS FAMILY. Trees or shrubs, with entire alternate or 
opposite leaves without slime-cells flowers usually bi- 
sexual, regular, hypogynous, involucre 0; sepals 4-5, 
separate or connate, valvate, petals 1-5, or 0, separate, 
rarely connate, usually valvate, often incised; stamens 
many, anthers opening by terminal pores; hypogy- 



nous intra-stammal disk present; ovary superior, 2- to 
many-celled, rarely 1 -celled, ovules many m each cell; 
style 1 , stigmas 1 to several fruit capsular or drupaceous. 

Seven genera and about 120 species are distributed 
in the tropics of both hemispheres. Elaeocarpus contains 
60 species and Sloanea 44 species. The family is 
closely related to the Tiliacete, with which it is often 
united and from which it is distinguished by anatomical 
characteristics, and usually albo by the often hairy and 
firm, or incised, petals, or by the absence of petals. 

A vegetable ivory used in carving is obtained from 
the large stone of the drupe of Elxocarput* snhsericus of 
India. Those of E. tuberculatus (India ana Java) are 
worn as amulets. The seeds of Sloanea dentata of 
Guiana arc eaten like chestnuts The bark of Cnno- 
dendron Patagua of Chile is used for tanning The wood 
of Anstoleha Maqui of Chile is variously used Its 
leaves are medicinal and its berries are edible 

Two genera are cultivated in North America: Aris- 
totelia, California; Elaeocarpus, not hardy 

136. Tihaceae (from the genus Tiha, the ancient 
Latin name of the Linden) LINDEN or BASSWOOD 
FAMILY. Fig 36. Trees, shrubs, or herbs, leaves 
mostly alternate, entire or variously lobed 1 flowers 
bisexual, regular: sepals 5, rarely 3 or 4, free or con- 
nate, usually valvate; petals as many as the sepals, 
convolute or imbricated, or valvate, rarely wanting or 
modified, stamens 10 or more, hypogynous, usually 
very numerous, filaments separate, or connate only at 
the base, or in 5-10 fascicles, some may be stami- 
nodia; anthers 4-celled, opening by slits or pores; ovary 
superior, 2-10-celled; ovules 1 to several in each cell; 
style 1; stigma rayed: fruit a capsule, or indehiscent 
and nut-like, or a drupe, rarely a berry, or separating 
into drupelets; seeds usually albuminous 

Most of the 35 genera and 270 species are tropical. 
The most important extra-tropical genus is Tiha 
(linden, basswood), which is widely distributed. 
Fossil species are known The Tihacese are related to 
the Malvaceae and Stercuhaceae, from which they are 
distinguished by the nearly distinct stamens, and 
4-cclled anthers The stamens are sometimes borne, 
along with the ovary, on a long stipe-like projection of 
the receptacle, sometimes cover the whole surface of a 
discoid receptacle, and sometimes are enveloped by 
the petals 

The Tihaoeie, like the Malvacea?, are mucilaginous. 
For this reabon, many have been used more or less in 
medicine The genus Tiha and other arborescent genera 
furnish very valuable timber; that of Grewia asiatica 
is flexible and used for bow-making In the tropics 
the foliage of Corchorus ohtonus is used as a pot-herb. 
The fruits of species of Grewia are used m India as 
a sherbet because of their agreeable juice Some mem- 
bers of the family yield cordage The beautiful seeds of 
many species are made into necklaces by the Indians. 

In North America 6 or more genera are m cultivation. 
Thev are all warmhouse plants, or are grown m south- 
ern California, except the Tihas (Rasswood, Lime, Lin- 
den), of which many species are grown in America 
The Tihas furnish some of our best-known hardv , orna- 
mental trees. Other genera are Entelea, Luehea, 
Grewia (with some half-hardy species), and Sparmanma 

137. Malvaceae (from the genus Mallow, altered 
from the Greek, m allusion to the mucilaginous emol- 
lient qualities). MALLOW FAMILY Fig 37 Herbs, 
shrubs or trees, with alternate, simple, usually pal- 
matcly veined leaves flowers bisexual, regular, sepals 
5, often united, valvate, frequently bracteolate at the 
base; petals 5, convolute, often adnate to the stamens, 
stamens very numerous, hypogynous, the filaments 
united into a tube (monadelphous), anthers 1-celled, 
pollen spiny; ovary superior, 2 to manv-celled, rarely 
1-celled, ovules in each cell 1 to many; styles and stig- 
mas usually as many as the carpels' fruit a capsule or 
separating into drupelets, very rarely fleshy. 

The Mallows include 39 genera and from 800 to 
900 species, distributed over the whole earth, except 
in the arctic zone, but most abundant in tropical 
America. The Malvacea) are closely related to the 

37. MALVVCEJE 1 Malva, a, flower, 6, floral diaRram, c, fruit; 
d, croBs-scction fruit 2 Hibiscus, flow or BOMBACACE.E 3 
Adansoma, flower STERCUIIACE* 4. Thcobroma, flower DIL,- 
LKNIACE^E 5 Dillema, flower 

Stercuhaceae and Tiliacea? From the former they arc 
distinguished by their 1-celled anthers and lough pollen, 
and from the latter by their monadelphous stamens as 
well as the 1-celled anthers The hollyhock-like flower 
is characteristic 

The foliage, stems, and seeds of most Malvaceae con- 
tain abundant mucilage for which, in some countries, 
they have been used as medicine Pungent and poi- 
sonous properties are apparently wanting Allhya ojftct- 
nahs (marsh mallow of Europe), Malva sylvestns and 
M. roiundifoha. both of Europe, have been used as 
emollients Hibiscus Sabdanffn and // digitalus (white 
and red kotmies of tropical Africa) have acid juice 
and are used in the preparation of refreshing drinks 
The capsule of //. (Abelmoschus) esculentus (okra or 
gumbo) of the tropics is eaten in soup, or cooked and 
seasoned The seeds of H. Abclmoschus of India, now 
widely cultivated in the tropics, are used for perfum- 
ery H Aow-nnensts (Chinese hibiscus or shoeblack 
plant) contains a coloring matter in the flower with 
which the Chinese blacken shoes and eyebrows Al- 
thaea cannatnna of southern Europe has fibers which 
may be used in place of hemp. The fibers of Urena 
lobata, Abutilon indicum, Sida, Hibiscus cannabinus, H 
tiliaceus, and others, are also used. The most useful 
genus is Gossypium (cotton) of Egypt, India, and trop- 
ical America, the abundant, long, woolly hairs on the 
seeds of which furnish the cotton of commerce. Cot- 
ton seed yields an oil which is used for fuel, cattle-food, 
soap, artificial butter, and many other purposes. Sev- 
eral mallows are weedy plants. 



Many of the genera in cultivation in N America are 
among the most important old-fashioned cultivated 
garden plants Among these are' Abutilon (Indian 
Mallow, Velvet Leaf) ; Altha>a (Marsh Mallow, Holly- 
hock), Calhrhoe (Poppy Mallow), Gossypmm (Cot- 
ton); Hibiscus (Bladder Ketmia, Roselle, Jamaica 
Sorrel, Okra, Gumbo, Rose of Sharon, Mountain 
Mahoe, Shoeblack Plant), Malope, Malvastmm; Pavo- 
ma, Sida; Spharalcea 

138 Bombacaceae (from the genus Bombax, from 
the Latin meaning silk or cotton) BOMBAX FAMILY 
Fig 37 Trees leaves mostly alternate, entire or digi- 
tate, often with slime-cells and stellate hairs flowers 
bisexual, regular or slightly irregular, involucre often 
present, sepals 5, separate or connate, valvate, petals 
5, twisted in the bud, stamens 5 to many, separate or 
monadelnhous, anther cells 1 -2 or more, pollen smooth; 
stammodia often present, ovary superior, 2-5-ccllcd, 
ovules 2 to many; style 1, stigmas 1-5. fruit dry or 
fleshy, dehiscent or mdehiseent 

There are 20 genera and about 100 species, of tropical 
distribution, mostly in America The family is closely 
related to the Malvaceae and often united with that 
family It is distinguished most easily by the smooth 
pollen and the often several-celled anthers 

Many Bombacacea- are very large trees The trunk 
of the baobab tree, or monkey's bread tree (Adansonia 
digitata) of tropical Africa is often 100 feet in circumfer- 
ence The wool produced in the fruit is of little value. 
The fruit of Duuo zibcthinu^ contains a cream-like sub- 
stance and is eaten The seeds of the green fruit of 
Mati^ta cordala of the Andes is edible The sour cucum- 
ber tree or cream of tartar tree is Adanwma Grcgorii 
The fruit contains tartanc acid 

Five or (j genera are m cultivation in this country m 
the South and m greenhouses Adansoma (Boabab 
Tree, Monkey's Bread), Bombax (Silk Cotton Tree); 
Chonsia (l< loss-silk Tree), Fnodendron; Pachira 

130 Stercuhaceae (from the genus filfnuha, deriva- 
tion obscure^ STEHCTLI\ FAMILY Fig 37. Trees, 
shrubs, or herbs, sometimes \ines leaves alternate, 
simple or digitate flowers bisexual or unisexual, usu- 
alh regular, sepals 3-5, somewhat united, vahate; 
petals wanting or reduced, stamens \ery remarkable 
and wonderfully diverse, in 2 whorls, those opposite 
the sepals reduced to stammodia or wanting, the 1 to 
man> others united into a tube, the anthers frequently 
alternating with sterile teeth, or variously arranged 
on the back of the tube, ovary superior, 4-5-celled; 
ovules several, stjles 4-5, distinct or connate fruit 
dry, raiely fleshy, or splitting into separate berries 

The 48 genera arid about 750 species are almost 
entirely confined to the tropics The family is related 
to the Malvaceie in the inonadelphous stamens, but 
differs m the 2-celled anthers, also related to the Bom- 
baeacea* and Tihaceie The valvate sepals, reduced 
petals, 4-5-celled ovar>, and especially the peculiar 
stamens, are distinctive 

The StercuhacesB, like the Malvaceae, contain abun- 
dant mucilage They also contain a bitter principle 
which renders them emetic and stimulant. The seeds 
of Theobroma Cacao, native of central and northern 
South America, furnishes cocoa, chocolate, and cocoa- 
butter Cola acumwata of Africa furnishes the cola 
nut, now very popular as an ingredient m a mildly 
stimulating drink It is said to form the mam con- 
stituent of the drink called "coco-cola " 

There are about 12 genera in cultivation in America, 
all either in tropical agriculture or in greenhouse cul- 
ture Ruhngia, Reevesia, and Pterospermum in south- 
ern California; Stercuha (Japanese \arnish Tree, Chi- 
nese Parasol Tree. Flame Tree), Fremontia and Gua- 
zuma in the South; Theobroma and Cola in the West 
Indies; Abroma, Dombeya, and Maherma (Honey Bell) 
mostly in the greenhouse. All are grown for orna- 
mental purposes except Theobroma and Cola. 


140 Dilleniaceae (from the genus Lhllenia, in honor 
of John James Dillemus, a professor of botany at 
Oxford). DILLENIA FAMILY lig 37 Trees or shrubs, 
often climbing, leaves alternate, very rarely opposite 1 
flowers bisexual, regular, hypogynous, sepals 5, rarely 
more or fewer, imbricated, persistent, petals 5 or fewer, 
imbricated, deciduous, stamens numerous, often very 
numerous, free or united in groups, anthers opening by 
slits or pores, carpels several, usually distinct, but 
often united, ovules numerous fruit a follicle, or a 
berry or a capsule, or inclosed in a fleshy calyx, which 
simulates a berry, seed albuminous, usually with 
an aril 

Nearly all the 11 genera and about 200 species are 
tropical, distributed chiefly in Australia, India, and 
tropical America, rarely in Africa Of these Dillema, 
Hibbertia and Tetracera are the largest genera The 
family is related to the Rammculacea} and Magnoha- 
ceae on the one hand, and to the Theaceae on the other. 
Its closest affinity is with the latter family. The woody 
habit, polypetalous flowers, very numerous stamens, 
usually separate carpels, albuminous seeds with arils, 
and straight embryo, are characteristic 

The Dilleniacea; are astringent, for which reason some 
are used medicinally, the fruits of some are eaten 
because acid, others are used as tonics Davilla of 
Brazil has been used for wounds; Curatella for ulcers; 
Tetracera a<spera of Guiana as a sudorific and diuretic, 
also for syphilis, intermittent fevers and scurvy The 
astringent bark of a species of Dillema is said to have 
been used in Asia for ulcerated sores The acid and 
inedible fruit of Ihllcina i^penosa serves to season 
dishes, and a syrup of the juice of the unripe fruit 
allays coughs, assists expectoration and is said to cure 
angina, the bark is also used for tanning Many species 
of Dillema furnish timber in the Indo region The rough, 
silicioua leaves of many of the tribe Tetracera;, espe- 
cially Curatella amcruana, have been used m Brazil 
to polish wood m place of sandpaper Some of the 
climbing species furnish drinking-water by incisions in 
the stem 

The flowers of many species are very beautiful, but 
few forms are in cultivation In this country the only 
one apparently is Dillema indica, a large magnoha-hke 
tiee with flowers 9 inches in diameter, grown in south- 
ern California and in Florida 

By recent authors (Gilg, in Engler and Prantl), 
Actimdia, a genus of vines from eastern Asia, has 
been placed in this family, although formerly included 
m the Theaceac A few species of Actmidia are in the 
American trade 

141. Ochnaceae (from the genus Ochna, which is 
from ochne, the Greek name of a wild pear tree; the 

38. OCHNA.CE.SI: 1 Ochna, fruit TERNSTRCEMIACE/E 2. Gordonia, 
Sower 3 Thoa, floral diagram 

resemblance is probably in the foliage). OCHNA FAMILY. 
Fig 38. Shrubs or trees, with alternate, simple or pin- 
nate, coriaceous leaves* flowers bisexual, regular, sepals 
4-5, imbricated, rarely 10; petals 5, rarely 3-4, or 10. 
usually convolute; stamens 1-3 times the number of 
the petals, sometimes with 1-3 series of stammodia, 
hypogynous, separate; anthers usually opening by 
tenmnal pores; an hypogynous stipe usually present 
(gynophore); ovary 4-5-celled, often deeply lobed, 
ovules 1 to many m each cell; style and stigmas 1-5: 



fruit coriaceous and mdehiscent,, or fleshy, or a capsule, 
or composed of the 1-seeded drupe-like lobes of the 
ovary which are whorled on the enlarged fleshy recep- 
tacle (Ochna). 

The family has 17 genera and 100 or more species, dis- 
tributed in the tropical regions of both hemispheres, 
most abundant perhaps in Brazil, but also abundant in 
Afuca The family is not closely related to any other but 
seems to stand between the Ranunculus group and the 
Hypencum group of families The many sepals, petals 
and stamens, the gynophore, and usually the lobed 
ovary, are distinctive 

The wood of some species of Ochnacezp has been 
used locally for timber, and, because of the pronounced 
astringent properties of some species, they have been 
used locally for fly-bites, ulcers, and so on 

Ochna multi flora, of Tipper Guiana, is cultivated in 
America This is grown occasionally in greenhouses 
because of the peculiar fruit, for an account of which sec 
the article on Ochna 

142 Ternstrcemiaceae (or Theacese) (from the genus 
Ternstr&mia , in honor of Ternstroem, a Swedish natuial- 
ist and traveler who died in 1745). TEA FAMILY Fig 38 
Large or small trees, with alternate, entire, leathery 
leaves flowers solitary or scattered, usually bisexual, reg- 
ular, sepals 5-7, imbricated, persistent, petals 5, raiely 4 
or more, nearly or quite separate; stamens very many, 
rarely 15 or fewer, usually hypogynous, separate or 
united at the base, or in 5 fascicles, usually adnate to 
the corolla below; ovary superior, 2-10-celled, ovules 1 
to many in each cavity; styles as many as the cells of 

39. HYPEHICACE.E 1 Hyporirum, species, a, flower, b, flower, 

rtals removed, c, fruit 2 \ ismia, floral diagram GUTTIFER.E 
Garcmia, a, flower, 6, flower, perianth remo\ed TAMAUICACE^E 
4 Tamarix, a, flower ,6, flower, pcmuth removed, c, floral diagram 

the ovary, or united into one fruit a capsule or inde- 
hiscent, dry or drupaceous; embryo more or less curved. 
In this family are 16 genera and 174 species of tropical 
and subtropical distribution. Stuartia reaches Vir- 
ginia and Kentucky, and Gordoma reaches Virginia 
This family is related to the Hypencaceac and Gut- 
tifene, also to the Dillemaceso From it are now usually 
excluded several genera which were formerly included. 
Of importance to us in this connection are Actimdia 
(transferred to the Dilleniaceae), and Stachyurus 

(transferred to the Stachyuraceae). The very numerous 
stamens, the type of ovary and the curved embryo are 
distinctive The numerous stamens have probably been 
produced by the splitting up of one set of 5, as in the 
Hyperieaeea 1 

Various glucosides and alkaloids are found in the 
foliage, on account of which Gordoma has been used 
for tanning leather, and other species have been used 
m medicine The most important species is Thea 
chinensis (tea) The bitter taste of tea is largely due 
to a glucoside, and the stimulating properties to an 
alkaloid, theme 

Exclusive of Actimdia and Stachyurus, 8 or 10 genera 
are in cultivation in N America Stuart la and Gordoma 
(Loblolly Bay) aie hardy Visriea, Ternstnrmia and 
Clcyera are grown in Florida Eurya and Schuna are 
Camellia-like warmhouse shiubs Camellia (Thea) is 
a famous genus of old-fashioned greenhouse shrubs 

143 Guttiferae (from the Latin signifying drop- 
bearing, in allusion to the resinous exudation) GAR- 
CINIA FAMILY Fig 39 Trees or shrubs, \vith opposite 
or whorled, rarely alternate leaves flowers legular, 
usually some bisexual and others unisexual on the 
same plant, rarely all bisexual, styles usually united 
and stigmas sometimes shield-shaped, otherwise as in 
the llypencacea 1 , to which family it is closely related, 
and with which the Guttifeia* is united by many authors 

Thirty-five genera and about 370 species inhabit 
the tropical regions of both hemispheres Clusia 
(America), with 80 species, and Garcmia (Old World), 
with 150 species, are the largest genera Many species 
are tropical trees of majestic size and handsome form, 
useful for timber The Clusias are mostly epiphytic 
shrubs w ith aerial roots and evergreen leaves 

The Guttifera? yield a yellow or greenish resinous 
juice when incisions are made Gamboge is an intensely 
yellow resinous pigment extracted from (larcinia 
Manila (Ceylon) It is also a powerful purgative. 
The blackish bitter juice of Clusia ro^ta (West Indies) 
is al&o a purgative The juice of species of Clusia (West 
Indies) may be used as a vaimsh The resin ol (' flava 
(hog-gurn) is a wound remedy Wounded swine smear 
themselves with the gum by rubbing against the plant, 
hence the name The pulpy fruit of (jarcinia Mangos- 
tana ("mangosteen" of the Moluccas), and Mammea 
amencana (West Indies) are delicious to many people. 

There are 3 or 1 genera in cultivation in warm Amer- 
ica Garcmia including the Mangosteen, cultu ated m the 
West Indies, and the Gamboge Tiee cultivated in the 
West Indies and Florida, Calophyllum, cultuated in 
southern Florida and bouthern California, Mammea 
amencana (Mammee Apple or St Domingo Apricot), 
cultivated in southern Florida and southern California 

144 Hypericacese (from the genus IIy]>encnrn, an 
ancient Greek name of unknown origin) ST JOHN'S- 
WORT FAMILY Fig 39 Herbaceous or woody plants 
leaves opposite or whorled, often pellucid punctate or 
black-punctate flowers bisexual, regular, cymose, sepals 
4-5, more or less connate, the outer smaller, rarely 4, 
with the 2 outer much larger, petals as many as the 
sepals, sessile or clawed, claw naked or with a honey- 
furrow or -pit; stamens many, hypogynous, usually in 
3-5 bundles the members of which are often more or 
less united, rarely monadclphous; ovary superior 3-5-, 
rarely 1-, celled, placenta? usually parietal, ovules 
numerous, styles 1-5, usually 3-5. fruit a capsule, 
rarely fleshy. 

About 8 genera and 260 species are known, of which 
200 are in the genus Hypencum, of the tropical and 
temperate regions throughout the world, but especially 
abundant in the north temperate zone The family is 
very closely related to the Guttiferae, with which it is 
united by Engler and Prantl under the latter name, 
also related to the TernstroemiaceaB (Theacea^) The 
fascicles of stamens probably represent individual 
stamens, each of which has become divided into many. 



The opposite pellucid-dotted leaves, fascicled sta- 
mens, and 3-5-celled ovary with separate styles are 

The balsamic exudations from the bark and wood, 
especially of the shrubby .species, were formerly used 
to some extent in medicine as an astringent. 

The genera in cultivation in America for ornamental 
purposes are. Ascyrum (St Andrew's Cross, St. Peter's- 
wort), and Ilypencum (St John's- wort) Some of the 
species are herbaceous and some are shrubby. Some 
of the Hypencums are very showy 

145. Tamaricaceae (from the genus Tamartx, said to 
have been named from the river Tamans, now Tambro, 
on the border of the Pyrenees). TAMARISK FAMILY. 
Fig 39 Shrubs or small trees, with alternate, mostly 
needle-like or scale-like, encoid leaves flowers bisexual, 
regular, sepals 4-5, petals 5, imbricated, withering 
and drying persistent, stamens equal to and alternate 
with the petals or double the number, inserted on a 
more or less evident disk, ovary superior, 1-celled, with 
3-4 parietal placentae, or placenta basal, ovules 2 to 
many, styles ,3-4, or stigmas sessile, seeds densely 
bearded at distal end, rarely winged fruit a capsule, some- 
times becoming falsely and incompletely several-celled. 

The 5 genera and about 90-100 species are mainly 
distributed in the Mediterranean region and in central 
Asia The family is related to the Frankeniaeese and 
Elatmaeeae, possibly also to the Sahcacese The eri- 
coid habit, withering-persistent petals, definite sta- 
mens, 1-celled ovary and bearded seeds arc distinctive. 
By means of small leaves, sunken stomata, water- 
storing tissue, and other contrivances, the Tamarica- 
cesc are adapted for life in the dry saline regions in which 
they live Foliage-glands excrete an excess of absorbed 
mineral matter, and this verv hygroscopic excretion 
accumulates on the surface of the plant 

The Tamancacea? contain much tannin, resin and 
oils, which render them bitter and astringent The 
bark of Myncana gcrmamca has been used for jaund^e; 
the galls of some species are used because astringent 
Tamarix mannijcra, "which grows on Mount Sinai 
and elsewhere in Arabia, secretes, as the result of the 
puncture of a cynips, a saccharine mutter, supposed 
by some to be the manna which fed the Hebrews in the 
desert " (See also Fraxinus Ornus } 

None of the genera in cultivation in N America is 
very hardy Tamanx (Tamarisk), M>riearia, all grown 
for the queer, fluffy foliage, and small, abundant flowers 

146 Fouquienaceae (from the genus Fouquieria, 
named in honor of Pierre E Fouquier, professor of 
medicine at Paris). CANDLEWOOD \MILY Similar to 
the Tamaricaceae and formerly united with that family, 
but differing in the gamopetalous corolla, the hgule- 
beanng, hairy stamens, partially united styles, median 
ovules instead of basal, and leaves without crystal 
glands or epidermal glands. 

The single genus and about 4 species are natives of 
Mexico and the southwestern United States. 

F splendent is the ocotilla, coach- whip cactus, vine 
cactus, or Jacob's staff of the Southwest, a spiny 
cactus-like shrub used by the Mexicans to make im- 
penetrable hedges A useful wax is obtained from 
the cortex of this species. The cortex is also used 
medicinally This species is in cultivation in the larger 
rockeries of California 

147 Cistaceae (from the genus Cistus, derived from 
the Greek, meaning a box or capside, on account of the 
shape of the capsule) ROCK-ROSE FAMILY. Fig. 40. 
Herbs or shrubs leaves mostly opposite' flowers bisex- 
ual, regular; sepals 3 or more, in f phyllotaxy; petals 5, 
rarely 3 or 0, quickly falling; convolutions of corolla 
and calyx in opposite directions; stamens numerous, 
hypogynous; ovary superior, 1-celled, with 3-10 pa- 
rietal placentae, or falsely 5-10-cclled by ingrowing 
partitions; ovules 2 to many, orthotropous, style 1; 
stigmas 1-3: fruit a capsule. 

In North America and around the Mediterranean 
Sea, 4 genera and about 70 species are distributed, also 
a few species in eastern Asia and in South America, 
The family is most closely related to the Violaceae 
and the Bixaceae, and more distantly to the Hyperi- 
caceae. The quickly falling convolute petals, many 

40. CiBTACB^fi 1 Helianthemum, flower 2. Cistus, floral 
diagram BIXACE^ 3 Bixa, floral diagram VIOI.ACE* 4. 
Viola, a, flower, b, flower, perianth r<>mo\ed, c. fruit, d, floral dia- 
gram PABBIFLORACE*. 5. o, flower , 6, cross-section of ovary. 

hypogynous stamens, 1-celled, many- seeded ovary, 
parietal placentse and copious endosperm are dis- 
tinctive features. 

In the dry region about the Mediterranean, the 
shrubby forms, especially Cistus ladaniferus and 
C monspthensis take part in forming extensive 
"maquis," or impenetrable evergreen thickets, where 
they alone form great stretches of vegetation. The Cis- 
tace^e prefer dry, sunny, sandy or alkaline soil. In 
America, Hudsoma forms carpets on the sand-dunes 
which are often strikingly beautiful when in flower. 
The family includes also Lechea (pin weed), and Helian- 
themum (rock-rose) 

In North America several species of Cistus, all 
shrubs, and of Helianthemum, are grown for orna- 
mental purposes, although they have no marked 
importance in this country. 

148 Bixaceae (from the genus Bixa, a name of South 
American origin) BIXA FAMILY. Fig 40. Trees or 
shrubs leaves alternate, simple or compound, flowers 
unisexual or bisexual, regular, "sepals 4-5, imbricated: 
petals 4-5, large and colored, imbricated and twisted 
in the bud, stamens numerous, anthers opening by 
slits, or rarely by pores (Bixa), hypogynous; carpels 
1 to several, united, ovary 1-celled, with 1 to several 
parietal placenta?, or falsely 3-celled; seeds many, with 
endosperm fruit fleshy or dry, mdehiscent or val- 
vular, in Bixa large and bristly-prickly all over 

All the 4 genera and 19 species (excluding the Fla- 
courtiaceae and other small families often here included) 
are tropical, from Mexico to Brazil and m Africa, 
Madagascar and Australia Bixa is now widely dis- 
tributed through the tropics. The Bixaceae are related 
to the Violaceae and Cistaceae, as well as to the Tihacese. 
The numerous stamens, compound but 1-celled ovary 
with many placentae are all important distinguishing 

Bixa Orellana furnishes the coloring matter known 
as "anatto," extracted from the pulp around the seeds, 



which is much used to give butter a rich yellow color 
and is also used in dyeing silks. The Canbbeans formerly 
tatooed themselves with this dye in order, it is said, to 
prevent mosquito-bites. The wood is very soft and 
serves only for tinder; the roots are aromatic and have 
been used to color and flavor soups. Maximilianea 
Gossypium furnishes a substitute for gum tragacanth 
in farther India. 

Bixa OreUana is in cultivation in the West Indies, 
where it is grown for the fruit. Several other genera 
in the American trade, which were formerly included 
in the Bixaceae, are now placed by Warburg in the 

149. Violacese (from the genus Viola, the ancient 
Latin name). VIOLET FAMILY. Fig. 40 Herbs, shrubs 
or small trees, rarely climbing leaves usually alternate: 
flowers bisexual, regular or irregular, sepals 5, separate 
or nearly so; petals 5, 1 often spurred, stamens 5, 
hypogynous or slightly pengynous, closely conmvent 
around the style, similar or dissimilar (2 spurred); 
ovary 1-celled; placenta 2-5, usually 3, parietal; ovules 
many; style 1: fruit a firm capsule with placenta? on the 
middle of the. valves, rarely a berry and indehiscent. 

Violacece has 15 genera and about 300 species, of 
which about 200 belong to the genus Viola These 
genera are grouped in three tribes? the Violese ; with 
irregular flowers, found chiefly in Europe, Siberia and 
North Amenca ; although the woody species are mainly 
natives of tropical America; the Paypayrolete and Rm- 
oreeae ? with regular flowers, are principally found in South 
America, Africa and Australia The family is closely 
related to the Cistacese. The tendency to irregular 
flowers, the peculiar stamens, the 1-celled ovary with 
usually 3 parietal placentae, and the anatropous ovules, 
are distinctive 

In the genus Viola and some other genera, a finger- 
like curved nectar-secreting horn projects backward 
from the connective of each of the two lower anthers 
into the spur of the lower petal In many species of 
Viola, almost all the seeds are produced by small 
apetalous cleistogamous flowers on short pedicels near 
the ground in midsummer, after the normal flowering 
period is over Thehe are very fertile, and quite 
diverse in structure, and, therefore, useful in classifica- 
tion Cleistogamous flowers are also produced m the 
genus Hybanthus. The capsules of most Violacese 
open elastically when ripe, the valves springing back 
and at the same time folding on the midrib so that the 
seeds are forcibly ejected as one would shoot a wet 
apple seed from between the fingers. 

The Violaceae have been used to a certain extent in 
medicine, their virtues being due to an alkaloid having 
emetic and laxative properties Hybanthus ipecacuanha 
("white ipecacuanha of commerce) funushes a substi- 
tute for ipecac. Various species of Viola and other 
genera have been used in many countries for skin 
diseases, as emetics, laxatives, and the like. Several 
species are ornamental ' 

Three genera are in the American trade: Corniostyhs 
or Calyptnon, a species of greenhouse woody climbers; 
Hybanthus or Solea, of the garden; and Viola (Common 
Pansy, Horned Pansy, Sweet English Violets, Wild 

150 Flacourtiaceee (from the genus Flacourtia, 
named in honor of E de Flacourt, a governor of 
Madagascar). FLACOURTIA FAMILY. Trees or shrubs, 
rarely climbing: leaves usually alternate and in 2 ranks: 
flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, regular; sepals 2-6, 
commonly 4-5, unbncated, rarely otherwise, petals 
0, or equal to the sepals, or many, unbncated or con- 
volute; stamens numerous, hypogynous or pengynous; 
receptacle enlarged and vanously modified, often sur- 
mounted by a diversely formed disk; ovary superior 
or nearly so, 1-celled; placenta) parietal; ovules numer- 
ous; styles and stigmas 1 to several: fruit dry or fleshy, 
dehiscent or mdehiscent. 

There are 70 genera and more than 500 species of 
tropical distnbution. The family is related to the 
Violacese, PassifloraceaB, and other families with similar 
parietal placentation, but is most closely related to the 
Bixacese with which it has often been united, and from 
which it differs mainly in the absence of slime-cells. 
In general, the peculiar ovary, the numerous stamens, 
the regular flower, and the enlarged receptacle are 

The sour fruit of several species is eaten, or preserved, 
in the tropics The seeds 01 Pangium edule are roasted 
and used for baking. The leaves of Caseana esculenta 
are eaten in India. The wood is little used. The bark 
of Neumannw theiformis is used like ipecac in Madagas- 
car. Chaulmugra oil is obtained probably from Gyno- 
cardia odorata of farther India. A peculiar resin is 
secured from species of Laetia of Cuba. Coccos oil, 
used in perfumery, is obtained from the Polynesian 
genus Myroxylon. The fixed oil of species of Pangium 
is used in cooking. 

Probably 5 or 6 genera are in cultivation in the 
warmer parts of North America* Aberia (Kei Apple); 
Azara; Carriena; Flacourtia (Rambustan, Governor's 
Plum); Idcsia, hardy in Mass., Oncoba; Xylosma. 

151. Stachyuracese (from the genus titachyurus, signi- 
fying -s pike-tail, in reference to the form of inflorescence). 
STACHYURUS FAMILY. Shrubs or small trees with alter- 
nate leaves* flowers bisexual or polygamous, regular; 
sepals 4, imbricated, petals 4, imbricated, stamens 8, 
separate; carpels 4, ovary superior, 1-celled. or falsely 
4-celled by the intrusion of the large parietal pkcentae; 
style and stigina 1, ovules many: fruit berry-like, 
pericarp leathery 

Only one genus and 4 tipecies occur in Japan, China, 
and the Himalayas The family is closely related to the 
Ternstroemiacejc with which it was formerly united 
and from which it differs in the fewer stamens, 1-celled 
ovary and entire stigma Useful apparently only as 
ornamental plants 

Two species are occasionally cultivated in America. 

152. Passifloraceae (from the genus Pas^flora , early 
travelers thought they had found emblems of the cruci- 
fixion in the flower, for a detailed account of which see 
article on Passiflora) PAS^ION-FLCW ER FAMILY Fig 40. 
Herbaceous or woody plants, usually climbing by 
axillary tendrils leaves alternate, simple or compound : 
flowers bisexual, or unisexual, usually involucrate, 
perigynous, calyx and corolla sometimes similar, sepals 
4-5, imbricated, often petaloid, petals 4-5, rarely 0, 
imbricated, often smaller than the sepals, sometimes 
fringed; a crown (outgrowth of receptacle) of many 
filaments between the petals and stamens, sometimes 
tubular or scale-like; stamens 4-5, usually opposite 
the petals, inserted on the edge of the cup-shaped 
receptacle, or at the base of the corona, or at the base of 
the pistil at the summit of a long gynophore, separate 
or connate; ovary superior, raised on a more or less 
distinct stalk (gynophore), 1-celled with 3-5 parietal 
placentae, ovules numerous; styles 3-5: fruit a berry or 

This family contains 18 genera and about 350 species, 
inhabitants principally of the tropical regions, especially 
of the New World Two hundred and fifty species be- 
long to the genus Passiflora, which extends as far north 
as southern Pennsylvania. The family is not closely 
related to other families, but finds its nearest affinities 
m the Loasacese, Turneracese and Begomaceae. The 
remarkable floral structure is distinctive. 

The pulpy aril of the seeds of Passiflora is used 
m tropical America in the preparation of cooling 
drinks. The flowers and fruit of P. rubra are narcotic. 
The roots of P. quadrangulans are very poisonous and 
sometimes used in small doses as a vermifuge. Many 
Passifloras are cultivated in the tropics as fruit plants. 

Many are in cultivation in America, namely Pasai* 
flora and Taesoma (Granadilla, Jamaica Honeysuckle, 


Water Lemon, May-Pop), some for the beautiful and 
odd flowers, some, especially in the South, for the fruit. 

153. Caricaceee (from the genus Canca, erroneously 
supposed to be a native of Caria; or from the Latin 
meaning a kind of dry fig). PAWPAW FAMILY. Fig. 41. 
Peculiar trees with straight, rarely branched, palm-like 
trunks, very abundant milky juice, and a terminal crowri 
of very large, alternate, palmately-lobed, rarely entire, 
leaves, flowers unisexual, small, nearly regular, sepals 
5; petals 5, m the staminate flowers connate, in the 
pistillate nearly separate; stamens about 10, inserted 
on the corolla; ovary superior, 1- or 5-celled, many- 
seeded; styles 5: fruit a large melon-like berry. 

This is a small family of 2 genera and 27 species, con- 
fined to tropical and subtropical America; mos>t abun- 
dant in the Andes. The Caneacete is united with the 
Passifloraceae by some authors, but is similar only in 

41 CARICACE^B 1. Canca, one form of flo\vcr opened LOASV- 
CE^E 2. Loasa, a, flower, b, floral diagram 3 Mentztlm, a, 
flower, 6, c, and d, typos of foliage Lairs BEGONIACE-E 4 lit'Konm, 
o, male flower, 6, female flower, c, cross-section ovary CACTACt.*- 
5. Pilocercus, flo\ver. 6. Opuntia, flower 

the fruit. It is also related to the Cucurbitacese by the 
fruit. The peculiar habit and abundant milky juice are 
very distinctive. 

'1 he large melon-like fruits of Canca Papaya are now 
cultivated and eaten throughout the tropics; those of 
other species are also eaten. The milky juice of C. 
Papaya contains a pepsin-like substance which will 
curdle milk. This substance will separate the fibers of 
meat, and hence the leaves and fruit are cooked with 
too fresh tough meat to make it tender. The juice 
has also been used as a remedy for dyspepsia 

Canca Papaya (South American pawpaw) is com- 
monly grown in greenhouses; and it, as well as two 
other species, are grown in southern California and 
Florida in the open. 

154. Loasaceffi (from the genus Zxxwa, the meaning 
unknown). LOASA FAMILY. Fig. 41. Erect or climbing 
herbs, rarely shrubby, with very peculiar and character- 
istic nairs, some hooked, some stinging: leaves oppo 
site or alternate, very diverse: flowers bisexual, regular, 
mostly pengynous (i e , receptacle usually extended 

beyond the ovary); sepals 4-5, imbricated, petal*- 
4-5, flat or cucullate; stamens 4-5, alternating with th< 
petals, or more commonly very numerous through 
doubling, the outer often converted into stammodia 
which resemble the petals; ovary usually inferior, and 
1-celled, with 3 parietal placentae; ovules numerous, 
fruit a capsub, rarely indehiscent, often spirally con- 

There are 13 genera and about 120 species confined 
to America from the Great Plains to Chile; most abun- 
dant in South America. This is a distinct family dis- 
tantly related to the Passifloraccse and the Begomaceip 
The very peculiar hairs constitute a good recognition 
character On Mentzeha there are three types of hairs: 
(1) Chinese pagoda-hko, broad at the base, (2) tuber- 
culate stem and harpoon-like top; (3) smooth stem and 
harpoon top The flowers with many stammodia are 
often large and cactus-like Very queer, grotesque, com- 
plex scales are produced in the flowers of certain genera 
(e g , Loasa) through the union of several stammodia 

Mentzfha hispida is a strong purgative, and is used 
by the Mexicans for syphilis. 

A few genera are in cultivation in North America Of 
these, Loasa is like a nettle, and the sting is very painful, 
but the flo\\ers are queer and interesting. Mentzeha 
comprises a number of garden annuals or biennials 
often with large showy flowers 

155. Begoniaceae (from the genus Begonia, named in 
honor of Michael Begon, a French promoter of botany). 
BEGONIA FAMILY. Fig 41. Herbs, rarely shrubby, 
hairs usually scale-like or branched leaves alternate, 
usually oblique* flowers monoecious, regular, epigynous, 
cymose, the staminate opening first, perianth of the 
staminate flowers of 2 valvate sepals and 2 petals, all 
petaloid; perianth of the pistillate flowers of 2 to many 
similar petaloid parts, stamens numerous, separate or 
nearly so; ovary inferior, 2-3-celled, usually sharply 
angled and winged, ovules numerous; styles 3, more or 
less branched and bearing very peculiar crescent- 
shaped, kidney-shaped, or, more often, spiral, velvety 
stigmas, rarely straight fruit a capsule, rarely a berry 

The Begonia family has 4 genera and about 500 
species, most of which belong to tht genus Begonia 
1 hey are widely distributed throughout the tropics, but 
perhaps most abundant in South America along the 
Andes to Mexico, and in the eastern Himalayas south- 
eastward to the Malay Peninsula The Begoniaceae 
constitute a distinct group remotely related to the Cac- 
taceie, Loasacea?, Pasbifloraceaj and Cucurbitaces> 

The family is of little economic importance except 
for ornamental purposes Many species contain oxalic 
acid and arc eaten as salad, and as a remedy for scurvy. 
The roots of some are astringent; others have a purga- 
tive root, used in certain tropics for syphilis and scrofula. 
The Begoniaceae is one of the most important orna- 
mental families 

Very many species and hybrids of Begonia are grown 
for greenhouse and bedding purposes, both for the 
flowers and the foliage. 


156. Cactacese (from the old Lmncean genus Cactus. 
a name \ised by the ancients to denote any spiny plant). 
CACTUS FAMILY. Fig. 41. Fleshy plants with watery or 
milky juice, a great reduction or complete absence of 
foliage, and very thick, rather sparingly branched, rarely 
unbranched stems, which are cylindrical, globular, 
flattened, or fluted, and often constricted or jointed 
leaves alternate, flat and leaf-like in Pereskia. scale-like 
or absent m other genera, usually bearing bundles of 
spines m the axils, which are triohomes, and which are 
of two kinds, long and stout, or minute and needle-like 1 
lowers bisexual, mostly regular, pengynous or epigy- 
xious, sepals and petals rarely 8-10, usually very many, 
similar, stamens many, inserted spirally or in group? 



on inside of the receptacle; ovary inferior, 1-celled, 
with 3 to many parietal plaoentac; ovules numerous; 
style 1; stigmas as many as the placentae fruit a berry; 
embryo straight or curved. 

The Cacti are almost entirely confined to the dry 
regions of tropical and subtropical America Mexico 
is the center of this distribution, but the Cactacese ex- 
tend from New York to Patagonia. A species? of Rhip- 
sahs has lately been found indigenous in West Africa. 
The family is related to the Begomacete, Loasaceae, and 
Passiflorace. The peculiar habit, perianth of many 
similar parts, many stamens, and inferior 1-cclled ovary 
are distinctive. The Cactacea) is divided into throe 
groups: (1) Cereus group, with receptacle extended in 
a tube beyond the ovary (pengynous), and no hooked 
spines, (2) Opuntia group, tube of the receptacle want- 
ing, hooked spines usually present; (3) Pereskia group, 
with fohaceous leaves, pamcled flowers, and no hooked 

The seeds of Rhipsalis, an epiphytic genus, are often 
viscid so as to adhere to tree trunks and the like. The 
ovaries of some Cactacea) are imbedded in the tisbue 
of the stem In this family, the thick stem is a watcr- 
storing organ. The/flatttened or fluted condition of the 
stem of most species is probably an adaptation which 
allows these stems to swell when wuter is abundant 
and contract when it is scarce without danger of 
rupturing the cuticle The variation in size and form 
among cacti is very great. The largest species is 
Carnegiea giganteus of Mexico, candelabra-like, 60 feet 

The fruit of Opunfia Ficus-indica, now naturalized 
in the Mediterranean region, is there eaten under the 
name of Indian fig. Opuntia Tuna of tropical America 
is the prickly pear, an edible fruit Opuntia vulgans of 
the eastern United States is also eaten under the name 
of prickly pear or Indian fig Fruits of Cereus trian- 
gulans, C gigantcus, and C Thurben are much prized. 
The stem and flowers of C. grandiflorus are used in 
medicine, producing an action on the heart Vermif- 
ugal properties are found in many Cactaccce An 
alcoholic drink is made by the Mexicans from the hap of 
species of Cereus The cochineal insect, a scale insect 
yielding the well-known dye, cochineal, lives upon spe- 
cies of Opuntia, Pereskia, and Nopalca, in tropical 

The total number of genera of Cactacecc which have 
been described up to the present time is about 70. 
although Dr. Karl Schumann, who monographed 
the family m 1899, recognized but 21. Of the many 
genera described, most are good and will probably 
stand A rational and uniform treatment of the family 
will doubtless show that there are no less than 75 ten- 
able genera The total number of names published is 
something over 3,800 This includes many specie? that 
have been transferred from one genus to another. The 
number of species recognized by Schumann is some- 
thing less than 700 Many of these species of Schumann, 
however, are known to be aggregates, and it is not 
unlikely that there are about 1,200 species in the 

The number of genera treated in this work is 35. 
They are in cultivation in America as odd plants for 
desert gardens, and as greenhouse curiosities Many 
have beautiful showy flowers, those of Cereus grandir 
florus (night-blooming cereus) being nearly one foot 
across, and opening only m the night. 

The reader will find the cacti described m this 
Cvclopedia under the following names: Acanthoccreus; 
Anhalomum = Anocarpus; Aporocactus: Anocarpus; 
Bergerocactus, Cactus; Carncgiea; Cephalocereus; 
Cereus, Disocactus; Echinocactus; Echmocereus; Echi- 
nopsis; Epiphyllum = Zygocactus; Escontria, Hanota; 
Harnsia, Heliocereus; Hylocereus; Lemaireocereus; 
Leptocereus; Leuchtenbergia; Lophophora; Mamil- 
lana; Melocactus = Cactus, Myrtiflocactus: Nopalea; 

Opuntia; Pachy cereus; Pelecyphora; Pereskia; Per- 
eskiopsis; Phyllocactus = Epiphyllum; Pilocereus = 
Cephalocereus, Rathbuma; Selemcereus; Schlumber- 
gera; Wilcoxia, Wittia; Zygocactus. 


157. Thymelaeaceae (from the generic name Thym* 
elsea, a Greek name meaning thyme + ohc or ml). ME- 
ZEREUM FAMILY. Fig 42 Shrubs or *rees, raicly 
herbs leaves alternate or opposite, simple, entire: 
flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular, receptacle devel- 
oped into a long tube which bears appendages in the 
throat, perianth umlifferentiated, often petuloid, parts 
4-5, imbricated, pengynous, stamens ua many as the 
sepals and alternate with them, or twice as many, or 

42 THYMEL-^ACUE 1 Daphne, flower. EI,AGX:E,E. 2. 
Eltragnus, a, male flower, b, bisexual flower, c, floial diagram, d 
and e, hairs from surface of leaf. LYTHKACK^ 3 lythrum, a, 
flower, b, tnmorphic flowers of L Sahiana, c, floral diagram. 
PUNIC ACF^C. 4. Pumca, a, flower, b, fruit, upper story, c, fruit, 
lower story. 

reduced to 2, perigynous; ovary superior, 1-celled, 
rarely 2-celled; ovule solitary, pendulous; style 1 or 0, 
stigma 1: fruit indehiscent, a nut, drupe, or berry; 
rarely a capsule. 

About 37 genera and 425 species arc widely distrib- 
uted over the earth. One species is native in north- 
western North America. The largest genera are Gmdia 
with 80-90 species, and Pimelea with 75 species The 
family stands between the Myrtiflorae and the Cactalcs, 
and also somewhat suggests the Passifloraceae The 
single perianth, the tubular receptacle, perigynous, defi- 
nite stamens, the appendages in the tube of the recep- 
tacle, and the superior 1-celled, 1-ovuled ovary are 

Gnidia cannata of South Africa and Daphne Meze- 
reum (mezereon) of Europe have been used as a purge; 
as has also the spurge flax (Daphne Gnidium) of 
South Europe, the caustic juice of which is used in a 
blistering ointment A blistering principle is obtained 
from the bark of Fumfera utihs of Brazil; also from 
Dirca palustns The roots of Thymelxa tinclona yield 
a j'ellow dye. Paper is made from the cauline fibers of 



several species, e.g , Daphne cannabina of India, Dirca 
palustris of the United States, Gnidia of Madagascar, 
and Lagetta of Jamaica. Cord is made from Lagetta 
fumfera and L linteana of South America The wood 
of Aqmlana Agallocha of India is aromatic, called 
aloewood One Pirrielea yields a balsam. Lace-bark is 
the product of Lagetta hnteana. 

Six or more genera are in cultivation in this country 
for ornament Among these are Daphne (Mezereon), 
greenhouse and garden, Dirca (Leatherwood, Moose- 
wood), native, hardy; and Pimelea (Rice Flower), 

158 Elaeagnaceae (from the genus Elxagnus, de- 
rived from the Greek name of the olive combined with 
that of the Chaste tree). OLEASTER FAMILY. Fig 42 
Trees and shrubs, covered with silvery and brown, pel- 
tate or stellate scales leaves alternate or opposite, sim- 
ple, entire flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular, pen- 
gynous, receptacle developed into a long tube beyond 
the ovary, more or less persistent, and inclosing the 
fruit, perianth of 1 series, parts 4, rarely 2 or 6, val- 
vate, stamens of the same number or double the num- 
ber, inserted in the tube; pengynous disk prominent, 
lobed; ovary superior, 1-celled, 1-ovuled, style 1; 
stigma 1 real fruit dry, mdehiscent, but appearing 
drupe-like because of the fleshy investing receptacle. 

Throe genera and about 30 species are found, of 
which about 25 belong to Elaeagnus, mostly steppe or 
rock plants, chiefly of south Asia, Europe and North 
America The family is closely related to the Thymeke- 
acea, which see for further relationship. The peculiar 
scales, the pengynous flowers, the 1-celled, 1-seeded 
ovary, and the fleshy but free receptacle are distinctive. 

The acid fruits of El&agnus angustifolia of Persia are 
eaten, also those of E lalifolia of India, and the seeds 
of tihfphtrdia argentea of North America 

There are 3 genera in cultivation in America, prin- 
cipally as hardy ornamental plants with silvery foliage: 
Elsragnus (Oleaster, Goumi), Hippophae (Sea Buck- 
thorn, Swallow Thorn), Shepherdia (Buffalo Berry) 

159 Lythraceas (from the genus l/ythrum, derived 
from the Greek meaning blood, in reference to the pur- 
ple flowers) LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY Fig 42 Herbs, 
shrubs, or trees leaves usually opposite or whorled 
flowers bisexual, usually regular, pengynous, recepta- 
cle ("calyx-tube ) tubular, ribbed, free from the ovary, 
bearing the 4 or 8 valvate sepals on its margin; petals 
of the same number as the sepals, or 0, and inserted with 
them, imbricated, stamens usually twice as many as 
the petals, rarely more (up to 200), or fewer (to 1), 
outer set alternate with the petals, and inserted some 
distance below them; ovary superior, 2-6-celled, many- 
ovuled fruit a capsule, rarely indehiscent. 

There are 22 geneia and about 450 species known; 
generally distributed, but more abundant in the trop- 
ics, especially in America. The largest genus is Cuphea 
with about 160 species The family is closely related 
to the Onagracea 1 , but differs in the superior ovary; it 
is albo related to the Melastomaceaj, but the sta- 
mens are normal 

Ly thrum Salicana has been used as an astringent; 
Ileimia and Cuphea have been used as purgatives and 
emetics Lawsonia inermis of Egypt is the famous 
henna, the perfume of the flower of which is renowned 
throughout the East, with an orange-red dye obtained 
from the leaves of this plant, women of the orient dye 
hair and nails Pemphis acidula is used as a pot-herb 
in Asia The flowers of Woodfordiaflonbunda yield the 
red dye of India called dhak. Lagerstrcemia furnishes 
very valuable timber 

In cultivation in N America are several genera* Cu- 
phea, species of garden annuals, Decodon (Swamp 
Loosestrife), native, but used for water-gardens ; Lyth- 
ium (Loosestrife); Lawsoma (Henna), cultivated in 
southern Florida and southern California; Lagerslrce- 
mia indica (Crape MynJe) cultivated in the South. 

160. Punicaceae (from the genus Pumca, derived 
from the Latin m reference to Carthage, near which 
city the plant is said to have grown, or from the Latin 
meaning scarlet, in reference to the flowers) POME- 
GRANATE FAMILY. Fig 42 Shrubs or commonly small 
trees, leaves mostly opposite, flowers bisexual, usually 
pengynous; receptacle campanulate or tubular, thick- 
ened above the ovary; sepals 5-8, fleshy, valvate; 
petals 5-7, imbricated, inserted with the sepals on the 
edge of the receptacle, btamens very numerous, clothing 
the tube of the receptacle; carpels in 1-2 (rarely 3) 
superimposed series, 3 m the lower and usually 5-7 in 
the upper, ovary more or less inferior, with as many 
cells as carpels; placenta? of the lower series axile, of the 
upper parietal, the cells many-ovuled; style and stigma 
1 fruit a berry, the pulpy central mass of which is 
formed from the fleshy outer seed-coats. 

This is a family of only 1 genus and 2 species, na- 
tives of the Mediterranean region and eastward to the 
Himalayas It was formerly united with the Lythra- 
ceae, but the peculiar ovary ib unique. Pumca Grana- 
tum is the famous pomegranate, cultivated for its fruit 
since the earliest times, and now widely spread over 
the tropics. This species is cultivated in the southern 
states and in greenhouses It has escaped in Florida 
161 Lecythidaceae (from the genus Lecythia, derived 
irom the Greek meaning an otl-jnr, in reference to the 
fruit) LECYTHIA FAMILY Fig 43. Trees, leaver alter- 
nate, large arid striking flowers bisexual, regular, pengy- 
nous or epigynous, sepals 4-6, rarely fewer, valvate; 
petals 4-6, imbricated, rarely more or fewer, stamen^ 
very numerous, somewhat monadelphous, many anther- 
less; intra-stammal disk often present, ovary inferior, 
2-6-celled, several ovules in each cell' fruit a hard- 
shelled berry or a capsule dehiscing by a lid 

The family has 18 genera and about 225 species, 
with a somewhat isolated distribution in various parts 
of the tropics, e g , North Bra/il, west coast of Africa, 
Malay Peninsula, Mozambique, and Samoa. The fam- 
ily was formerly united with the Myrtaceae but is dis- 
similar in some important details of vascular structure, 
and in the absence of volatile oils 

The most important economic plant is the Brazil- 
nut or para-nut (Berthollclia excelsa) of northern 
South America, the oily seeds of which are an impor- 
tant article of food. The seeds are in a box-like capsule, 
the lid of which falls off. The oily seeds of several other 
species are eaten, e g , the monkey-pot tree (Lecythis). 
Ihe fruits and roots of a number of species of Bar- 
ringtoma are used m Java and China to stupefy fish. 
The flowers of Gna*> cauhflora of the West Indies are 
used for tea. A cooling drink is made from the fruit of 
Couroumta guianemis of the West Indies. 

The Brazil-nut or nigger-toe is sparingly planted m 
southern California, Florida and the West Indies. 

162. Rhizophoraceae (from the genus Rhizophora, 
root-beanng, because of the numerous aerial roots). 
MANGROVE FAMILY. Fig 43. Trees or shrubs- leaves 
usually opposite, coriaceous flowers bisexual, epigynous 
or pengynous; sepals 3-14, more or less connate, valvate; 
petals of the same number, small, often lacerate; 
stamens 2-4 tunes as many, often in pairs opposite the 
petals; ovary inferior, usually 2-5-celled: fruit some- 
what juicy, crowned with the calyx, rarely dehiscent, 
usually a berry, rarely a drupe 

The 15 genera and about 50 species are distributed 
throughout the tropics The family is related to the 
Combretaceaj and Lythraceae; more distantly to the 
other families of the myrtaceous group. 

This is a small family of remarkable plants, mostly 
inhabiting mud-flats along the coast in the tropics. 
The stem soon perishes at the base and then the plant 
is supported by its numerous prop-roots alone The 
mud is so soft that otherwise the plants could probably 
not remain erect. The genus Rhizophora is almost 
unique in the vegetable kingdom because the seeds germi- 



natr on the plant. The hypocotyl may reach (he 
length of 3 feet, although usually less; it is club-shaped 
and heaviest at the apex, so that when the seedling 
eventually falls from the tree, it sticks in the mud 
vertically, with the h>pocotyl down, ready to giow. 

The Rhizophoracese are ot little economic importance 
Land is held in place and protected from the waves hy 
the mangrove The fruits of Amsophylluin are pluin- 
l:ke but poor. The mangrove grows wild on the 
Florida, Texas, and Mississippi coast, and has been 
offered for sale in California 

163 Combretacese (from the genus Combretitm, a 
name given to this plant by Pliny). COMIWKTUM FAM- 
ILY. Fig 13 Trees or shrubs, erect or climbing leaves 


2 Rhizophora, a, flower, 6, gunrunafinK fruit CoMBREr\th 

3 Combretum, a, flower, 6, floral diagram MYRT \ct-f. 4. 
Jambosa, a, flower, b, verticil it ( lion flowi r-bud r > Eucalyptus, 
a, flower-bud und lid, b, \ertieul section flower-bud. AltLAS- 
TOMACE-E Melautoma, a, flower, 6, floral diagram. 

alternate or opposite, simple or coriaceous* flowers 
bisexual or unisexual, regular, usually perigynous, 
receptacle enveloping the ovarv and often projecting 
into a slender tube; sepals 4--5, valvate, connate, petals 
4-5, or 0, stamens 4-5, alternating with the petals, or 
twice or thrice as manv; ovary 1-celled, infenor, 2-4- 
ovuled' fruit a drupe, or dry and winged, rarely 

In this family are 15 genera and about 280 species, 
mostly confined to the tropics of both hemispheres. 
The family is related to the Cornacete and the Rhi- 
zophoracesp, as well as more distantly to the Onagraceie. 

The trees are valuable for their hard, close wood; 
the tannin-containing bark and galls are used locally 
for tanning leather The seeds Known as myrobalans 
(Tcrminalia Chebula and T. Calappa) are much eaten 
in India A useful oil is obtained from these seeds. 
Black and yellow dyes are furnished by several species. 

Four to 6 genera are m cultivation in the Southern 
States arid the West Indies Tcrminalia Catfippa 
(tropical almond, myrobalan) is grown for nuts and 

shade Poivrea is a red-flowered shrub grown in 
southern Florida. One species of Combretum is a 
warmhouse climbing shrub Quisquahs, or rangoon 
creeper, is a peculiar climbing shrub grown in the 
warmhouse. It is at first erect, later climbing 

164 Myrtacese (from the genus Myrtus derived 
from the classical name myrtle, which probably meant 
perfume) MYUTLB FAMILY Fig 43. Usually shrubby 
or aiboresccnt aromatically fragrant plants leaves usu- 
ally opposite, thick, entire and pellucid-dotted flowers 
bisexual, regular, rarely perigynous; sepals mostly 
4-5, imbricated, petals 1-5, imbricated, stamens very 
numerous by splitting, often in fascicles which are 
opposite the petals, ovary inferior, 1- to many-celled 
fruit usually a berry, rarely a drupe or nut, seeds 
1- to many 

The 72 genera and 2,750 species are confined almost 
entirely to the tropics, but with two great centers of 
distribution, one m tropical America and the other in 
Australia Eugenia contains 625 species, and Euea- 
lyptus moie than 130 species This is a laige family re- 
lated to the MelastomaceiE, Onagraceae, and Lythiaceie 
The very rmmeious stamens, derived by the solitting of 
the few original stamens, and the oil-glands are dis- 
tinctive The petals of Eucalyptus remain hrmlv grown 
together, and, when the flower opens, they separate 
along a transverse line and are thrown off as a lid 

The Mvrtacea* are rich in volatile oils, also in tannin, 
acids, sugars, mucilage, and fixed oils. Cloves are the 
flo\\er-buds of Jamhovi caryophyllus The fruit of 
Pimenta oflidnalit i^ thought to combine the flavors 
of the nutmeg, cinnamon, and clove, and is therefore 
termed allspice Psuhntn (tiinjava is a tree cultivated 
in the tiopics for the much-pi ized fruits Oil of in) rica 
is obtained from the leaves of Pimenta acns of the 
West Indie?, and is used in making bay rum Oil of 
cajeput, a fragrant oil used in medicine, is secured 
from the leaves and t\\igs of the East Indian Mclaleuca 
Lcucadtndron The leaves of the European myrtle 
(Myrtnx comtnutiis) yield a distilled preparation known 
as oau-d'ange, used as a toilet article Other edible 
fruits are ro^e apples (Jambosa nuilttccensis and J vul- 
gant,) of the East Indies and Pacific Ocean Jambos 
berries are obtained from Jambof>a vulgaris, which is 
extensively cultivated in the tropics Oil of eucalyptus 
is an important aromatic oil obtained from the foliage 
of various species of that genus The wood of Eu- 
calyptus is hard, firm and elastic, and is much prized 
in wood-carving Many other species of this family 
are in use locally for food, condiments, medicine, 
timber, and so on 

About 20 genera are m cultivation in North America, 
mostlv in the South or Southwest Among these are 
the Bottle-brush (Callistemon), Cajaput Tree (Mela- 
leuca), Eucalyptus or Australian Blue-gum, Hose Apple 
or Jambos (Jambosa), Cayenne Cherry (Eugenia), 
Myrtle (Myrtus), Guava (Psidium), Allspice, Pimento 
(Pimenta), Brisbane Box (Tnstama), Turpentine Tree 
(Syncarpia), and Downy Myrtle (Hhodomyrtus) 

165 Melastomaceae (from the genus Melastoma, 
derived from the Greek block-mouth, because the berries 
of some of the species when eaten stain the mouth 
black) MELANOMA FAMILY. Fig 43 Herbs, shrubs 
or trees, erect, climbing or epiphytic branches often 4- 
sidcd leaves opposite or whorled, simple, mostly entire, 
usually palmately nerved throughout with transverse 
nervelets. flowers bisexual, regular or slightly irregular, 
often pcngynous, sepals 3-6, mostly 5, valvate, im- 
bricated or united into a calypt ra-like hood, petals 
commonly 5, convolute; stamens usually twice as 
many as the petals, rarely just as many; anthers mostly 
opening by terminal pores, indexed in the bud, often 
curved, connective very peculiar and diverse, with 
various appendages; often one anther cell wanting, the 
other mounted on the end of the lever-like, versatile, 
curved connective, ovary usually 4-5-celled, more or 



less inferior; ovules numerous m each cell; style and 
stigma I' fruit a berry, drupe or capsule, or dry and 
indehiscent, usually inclosed in the calyx 

Most of the 148 genera and about 2,800 species, are 
found in tropical America, wheic the species are very 
abundant and form a characteristic component of the 
vegetation; represented in the eastern United States 
by 4 species of Rhexia (deer-gras,s, meadow beauty) 
Melastomacea? is a very distinct, stnkmg and pecu- 
liar tropical family related to the- Myrtaceaeie and the; 
Lythraceap, recognized by the venation of the> leaves, 
and the unusual stamens The so-called "cauliflower" 
species, with the flowers borne duectly on the tree- 
trunks, are polunate'd by butterflie i s in the deep tropi- 
cal forests. Some Mtlafetomacc\r are myimeeophilejus, 
i e , furnish habitations or food for ants, which m turn 
protect the plant 

The fruits of several species are eaten The berries 
and bark of some yield cole)rmg matter of some impoi- 
tance A jellow dye is obtained from the leaves of 
Memecvlon of the East Indies and Africa, red and 
black fives are seemed from the berries of Tamonea 
(tropical America), Me'lastoma (East Indies), and so on 
The leaves of Tamonea thtvznn^ are used by the 
Peruvians in place of tea Some, because 1 of astringent 
properties, are locally used as medicine The most 
important use of the Melastomaoeic is ornamental 
The large', showy, queer flowers and striking foliage 
render them popular greenhouse plants in the North 

Some 20 geneia are- cultivated in N America, mostlv 
as warmhouse decorative plants, or foi summer bed- 
ding Few, if Miy, ha\e popular names 

166 Onagr&cese (from the genus Onar/ra, now a part 
of (Knothera, domed fiom the Gre-ek, a j/vW s.s, 
in reference to a fancied resemblance between the 1 
eais of that animal and the> lea\es of these plants) 
EVEN-IXC, PniMROhi: FVMILY Fig 11 Mostly heibs, 
rarely shrubs leaves opposite or alternate flowers 
bisexual, regular, pengjnous 01 epigvnous, sepals 1, 
rarelv 2-3, sep.uate or united, valvate, petals 4, or 
rarelv 2 or 0, mostlv el iwed, convolute, stamens of the 
same number as the petals or twice as maiiv, outer 
alternate' with the petals, o\arv 2-4-celled, inferior; 
ovules numerous, stvle 1, stigmas 1-1 fruit a capsule, 
rarely a bony or nut 

The ,'iO genera and 170 sp< <-ies ^re mostlv natives of 
the temperate portion of the New \\ orld (western United 
States and Mexico), but aie also abundant in South 
America Epilobium, containing !(>() species, is widely 
distributed in the cooler legions of be>th hemispheres 
This is a distinct familv, roeogm/< d bv the numerical 
plan of 2 01 1, 1he % usu illv pengvnous flowers, ancl the 
inferior ovarj with many ovules It is le'latodto 
Lvthracoo*, Melastomaooio, Mjrtacoo?, and other fami- 
lies of this group 

Fuchsia is shrubbv or even arborescent, and its 
fruit is a berry The tubular receptacle is piolonged 
beyond the enaiy in most genera, but not m Jussieua, 
Ludwigia, and Epilobium The seeds of Epilobium are 
comose, and are distributed, paiachuto-like, by the 
wind. The flowers of a number of specie's of (Enothera 
open only at night or m dark weather, and are pollinated 
by night-flying moths; hence the name evening prim- 

The wood of several species of Fuchsia furnishes ink 
and a black dye Ju^una pihw >ields a yellow dve. 
The berries of many Fuchsias are eaten, and preserved 
with sugar The y.mng shoots of E {niobium latifohum 
are eaten as gieens The roots of (Knot hern biennis 
have been unproved in Europe and furnish "rha- 
pontic" roots, which are eaten like celery The coma 
of the seeds of Epilobium has been used in Lapland to 
make lamp-wicks and has been spun into cloth, but 
without great success Many genera are cultivated for 
ornamental purposes because of the showy flowers 

About a dozen genera are cultivated in N America, 

among which are the following- Cirogpa (Enchanter's 
Nightshade), Epilobium (Willow Heib, Fire Weed), 
Fuchsia, Ludwigia (Water-purslane, Seed-box or Hat tie- 
box) , Clarkia, Q^notheia (Evening Primrose, Sundrops) , 
and Godotia These are mostly grown in the open as an- 
nuals or as hardy perennials, except Fuchsia, which is j 
greenhouse plant but often bedded out in summer 

Ib7 Hydroc aryaceae (from the Greek signifying 
water-walnut) W MLR Cm si NUT FAMILY Herbaceous, 
aquatic plants mostlv floating stems slender, clothed 
with opposite, pmnatif'd roots leaves alternate 
crowded at the summit of the stem, floating, rhomboid, 
petiolod, petioles foimmg thick, hollow floats flowers 
bisexual, regular, shghth pengynous, axillary, sepals 
4, petals 1, stamens 1, all sets alternating, ovary sur- 
rounded bv an erect, corona-like disk, half-mferiejr, 
2-oelled, cells 1-ovuled, st\le and stigma 1 fiuit a 
woody 1 -celled, 1 -sec-tied nut hearing on the surface 
the four divergent ,voody horn-like sepals and capped 
by the woody disk 

A single genus and 3 species occur, distributed in the 
Mediterranean region and eastwaid to eastern Asia. 
This is an ancient family, more common in the tertiary. 
The 1 family is related to the Onagracoa?, with which 
it is frequent lv united, and to the Haloragidaceae, 
ind is somewhat intermediate between these two 
families The fruit, disk, and habit are peculiar 

The> starchy seeds have a chestnut-like flavor and 
are eaten raw or cooked, for which reason the plants 
aie often cultivated The fruits are regulaiK sold 


44 ONVGRA.O JT 1 (Enothera, o, flower, b, floral diagram 
2 Epilobium, a flea, or, b, dphiscing fruit, c, seed 3 Circa>a, 
flouil diagram Hvu>u\umvcfc*. 4. Myriophyllum, a. portion 
of flowering plant, 6, female flower, c, male flower, petals removed 

in the markets of India; those of Trapa natans var. 
v< ibancn&is are used as beads 

Trajm natans (\\ater Chestnut, Water Caltrops) 
and T bis pi now (Smghara Nut) are giown in this 
countiy as aquarium plants See article on Trapa 

108 Haloragidacese (fiom the genus Haloragis, 
meaning &m + a beinj) WATER MILFOIL FAMILY. 
Fig 44 Heibs, aquatic or terrestrial, of very diverse 
appearance' leaves opposite or alternate, often in the 
same genus, pectinate (aquatic) to very large and 



divided: flowers Bisexual or unisexual, regular; sepals 
4, petals 4 or 0; stamens 8, the outer opposite the 
petals, or 4, rarely fewer; ovary inferior, 1-4-celled, 
each cell 1-ovuled: fruit nut-hke, often crowned by the 

Eight genera and about 100 species are known, of 
general distribution. These are most abundant in the 
southein hemisphere of the Old World. They are repre- 
sented In South America and elsewhere by the queer 
Gunnera and in the eastern United States by Hippuris, 
Mynophyllum and Proserpinaca. The family is closely 
related to the Onagraceac, but differs in having but 1 
ovule in each cell of the ovary. 

The aquatic forms are Utnculana-hke and floating, 
with slender stems and either finely pectinate leaves 
with filiform divisions (Mynophyllum) or linear and 
entire leaves (Hippuris). Gunnera of South America 
has broad kidney-shaped leaves varying from small to 
gigantically large. The leaves of this genus in Costa 
Ilica are said to be so large as to give shelter to three 
men on horseback. 

The fruits of Gunnera macrophylla are used as a 
stimulant m Java. The giant leaves, six feet broad, of 
Gunnera chilensis are used in Chile for tanning skins. 

Two species of Gunnera are almost, or quite, hardy 
in the mid-eastern United States, and are grown for 
luxuriant lawn foliage. Several species of the aquatic 
Mynophyllum are in cultivation, one of which is 
parrot s feather (M. proserpinacoides). 


169 Araliacese (from the genus Aralia, the meaning 
of which is unknown). GINSENG FAMILY. Fig 45. Herbs, 
shrubs, or trees, often prickly or climbing, stems solid, 
pithy leaves usually alternate, simple, or pinnately 
or ternately compound* flowers bisexual or unisexual, 
small, regular, epigynous, commonly m umbels; sepals 
minute, often almost wanting; petals 5, rarely more, 
valvate or imbricated, sometimes cohering at the apex 


45 ARALIACE^; 1 Aralia, a flower; 6, floral diagram. 2 
Hedera, portion -f inflorescence UMBELLIFER.B- 3 Ciouta, 
inflorescence 4 Foeniculura, a, flower, b, dehiscing fruit 5 
Artedia, fruit 6 Apmm, fruit 7. o, 6, and c t fruits of Umbel - 
hferse, croea-aectioa 

and deciduous as a cap; stamens usually 5, alternate 
with the petals, and inserted at the edge of an epigynous 
disk, rarely twice or thrice as many; ovary inferior, 
2-15-celled; cells 1-ovuled; styles as many as the car- 
pels: fruit a berry, rarely splitting into segments. 

Fifty-one genera and aoout 400 species are dis- 
tributed in tropical and temperate regions of both 
hemispheres. The two great centers of distribution are 
tropical America and the Malay Peninsula. The family 
is very closely related to the Umbelliferffi, but differs in 
the berry-like fruit with more numerous carpels. 

The leaves of the English ivy (Hedera Helix) were 
used in medicine in olden times. The roots of ginseng 
i > J nnax Ginseng and Sartor quniqmjoluun) arc, mui^ 
prized in China where they are carried about on the 
person as a charm against disease Those roots are 
now extensively and profitably cultivated m America 
for the Chinese trade. The roots of Araha nwiiundis 
(American sarsaparilla) are considered a tonic Chinese 
rice-paper is made from the pith of Tetrapnnax papyn- 
ferum simply by cutting the pith spirally into thin sheets. 
Many Araliaceso are grown as ornamental plants. 

Many genera are cultivated in America. Among 
these are Acanthopanax; Araha (including Spikenard, 
Hercules' Club or Devil's Walking-club, Wild Sarsapa- 
nlla, Bristly Sarsaparilla, Chinese Angelica Tree); 
Dizygotheca, Fatsia, Oreopanax, Polyscias, Pseud o- 
panax; Hedera (English Ivy), and Panax (Ginseng) 

170. Dxnbelliferae (from the predominating typo of 
flower cluster). PARSLEY FAMILY. Fig 45 Herbs or 
rarely shrubs stems often hollow, leavos alternato, 
rarely simple, usually ternately or pinnately compound . 
flowers minute, bisexual, regular or the outer irregular, 
epigynous ; borne m simple or compound umbols; 
sepals minute or wanting; petals 5, valvato and 
incurved in the bud; stamens 5, alternating with the 
petals, inserted around an epigynous disk, ovary 
2-celled, inferior, each cell 1 -seeded, styles 2 fruit 
very special, consisting of 2 dry, ribbed or winged, 
1-seeded, mdemscent carpels (moncarps), which sep- 
arate at the base but remain attached at the top to a 
very slender and flexuous Y-shaped stalk (carpophore) 
from which they dangle; between or under the ribs 
are oil-tubes. 

About 231 genera and 1,500 species are very com- 
monly found in all boreal temperate and subtropical 
lands, but are rare in the tropics except in tho moun- 
tains. The Umbelliferse is a distinct family, closely 
related to the Arahacese, and more distantly to the 
Cornacese. The umbels, the infenor ovary and the 
peculiar fruit are distinctive. 

The leaves are exceedingly diverse in sizo, shape 
and extent to which compounded Those of Eryngium 
are sword-shaped, or yucca-like, often spiny, those of 
Hydrocotyle are simple and often peltate. Azorella 
of the Andes and New Zealand is turf-like or oushion- 
hke, a xerophytic adaptation Some species of Angelica 
are immense herbs many feet high with enormous 
leaves. The flowers, in genoral, are uniform in structure 
and appearance, the greatest diversity being in the fruit 

Economic plants are abundant m the Umbelhferap; 
between 40 and 50 have been listed by some authors 
Various alkaloids and other compounds, some very 
poisonous, together with many kinds of resins, pro- 
duced in the foliage, roots or seeds, form tho basis of 
their economic importance. Plants used for food are 
celery (Apium graveolens), carrot (Daucus Carota), and 
parsley (Petroselinumsativum). Those used for flavoring 
are caraway (Carum Carui), anise (Pimjnnella Amsum), 
sweet Cicely (OsmorhizaorScandix). chervil (Anthnscus 
Cerefohum), dill ( Anethum graveolens), fennel (Fcemculum 
vulgare), lovage (Lewsticum officinale) Very poisonous 
plants are poison hemlock (Comum maculatum) , fool's 
parsley {Mthu&a Cynapiurn) and others The following 
drugs are obtained from this family, coriander (Conun- 
drum sativum), ammoniac resin (from Dorema Ammon- 



ittcura), galbanum (a rosin from species of Ferula). 
From various species of Ferula is obtained the vile- 
smelling gum-resin asafetida, used in medicine, which 
the Persians are .said to a,s a delicious condiment. 

There are 40-T>0 genera in cultivation in America, 
mostly hardy Some are grown for food, others for 
ornament Sea Holly (Krjngium), Saniele, or 
locally Black Snakeroot (Samcula), Carrot (Daucus), 
Coriander (Conandrum) ; Cumin (Cummum), Celery 
(Apium), Caraway (Carum), Gout-weed (/ICgopodium.), 
Sweet Cicely (Osmorhi/a), Mynh (not of medicine) or 
European Sweet Cicely (Myrrhis or, more properly, 
Scandix), Fennel (Fu-mculum), Lo\age (Levistieurn), 
Angelica (Angelica), Cow-parsnip (lleiaeleum) Poison 
hemlock (Comum) is a roadside weed 

171 Cornaceae (fiom the genus Connix, derived 
from the Latin horn, referring 1o the hardness of the 
wood) Do(j\\<x>n FAMILY Trees or shrubs, rarely 
herbs leaver opposite or e, entire, evstipulatc 
floweis bisexual, lately unisexual, regular, epigynous, 
sepals 1, minute or absent, petals i, usually v ah ate, 
stamens commonly of same number as petals and 
alternate with them, separate, cpigynous disk usually 
present, ovary inferior, 2-eelled, rarely 1-10-celled, 
ovuleh in each cell 1, rarely 2 fruit a drupe or berry 

The lo genera and about 120 species, of which 45 

r'les belong to the genus Corn us, are distributed in 
temperate portions of the northern hemisphere, 
principally in North America and Asia, some, how- 
ever, occur in South Afrua and New Zealand. The 
relationships of the fannlv aie doubtful Cornus is 
related to the Capiffohacea-, but some other genera 
suggest the Aralme< a 1 The woody or sub-ligneous 
habit, 1-merous-, pohpetalous epigynous flowers and 
the berry-like fruit with one seed in each cell are dis- 

Many species of Cornus have capitate flowers sur- 
rounded bv a large pttaloid imolucre (eg, Cornus 
tnat>, C flonda, (' < oiiadtn^i^) (' ((tiuultTiMi* and C. 
sutaca are herbaceous dogwoods lltlmnqui iuvi flora, 
of China and Japan, is a most remarkable plant with 
flowers borne at the centei of the leaf-blade attached to 
the midiib on the upper side 

The acid fruits of (' ?/ws are edible, and are used 
as a sherbet in the East 'I hose of <" cnpilata of the 
Himalayas have a Ihnor like strawberries and are 
eaten Manv Cornaee.e are oinamental woodj plants 

Several genera aie in cult i\:i1 ion here, of which mav 
be mentioned Cornus (Dogwood, Osier Dogwood), 
Aueuba, fiom Japan, Garrvo, from southern United 
States, Griselima from New Zealand, Nvssa (Sour 
Gum, Pepperulge, Tupelo) from the eastern United 
States Garrya, Nyss.i md otheis have been separated 
by some into other families 

Sub-class II MtiachUnnydiJ 3 , or Sympftalx 
Order 10 Emr vi i s 

172 Clethracese (fiom the genus Cltthra, the anrient 
Greek name of Alder) PLPPKUBI sn, or \\ HIT*, AU>KU 
FAMILY Fig 46 Tall shrubs or low trees leaves 
alternate* flowers bisexual, regular, hvpogvnous, disk 
absent, calyx 5-paited, persistent, eoiolla saiuer- 
shaned, of o separate petals, stamens 10, hvpogvnous, 
anthers opening by terminal poies, at first inverted, 
later erect; ovary superior, 3-celled, stjle 1, stigmas 
3; ovules numerous fruit a capsule 

A single genus and about 30 species are distributed 
in the tropical and subtropical regions of both hemi- 
spheres, mostly American Two species reach the 
eastern United States The family is eloselv related 
to the Pyrolaceaj and Eneacea? The polvpetalous 
corolla, temporarily inverted anthers and the 3-celled 
ovary are important characteristics There is one 
fossil species known 

A few species of Clethra are grown in North America 

for ornamental purposes C almfoha is the native 
white alder or sweet pepperbush 

173 Pyrolaceae (from the genus Pyrola, diminutive 
of Pjrus, possibly a resemblance in the foliage) SHIN- 
LEAF FAMILY. Fig. 46 Very low perennial herbs: 



THR^CE*:' 1 Clcthra, a, flower, fe, c 

E 2 Pyrola, HI flower, b, floral diagram ERJC 
<t* ,i \ndronnda, flowc-r 4 Kaltnia, flower 5 Rhododen- 
dron, flower Lnca, stamen 7 Vaccimura, a, flower, b, stamen. 

leaves alternate, basal or scattered, thick and ever- 
green in most species flowers bisexual, regular, with or 
without a hypogvnous disk, calyx 5-parted, persistent; 
corolla waxy, saucer-shaped, of 5 separate petals, sta- 
mens 10, Inpogvnous, anthers opening by terminal 
pore 1 *, inveited, ovary superior, 5-celled, many-ovuled; 
fat vie and stigma 1 fruit a capsule 

Theie are 3 genera and 20 species distributed in the 
boreal and temperate parts of Europe, Asia and 
America The polvpetalous flowers, inverted anthers 
and 5 carpels are characteristic The family is closely 
related to the Ericaceae and Clethraeeae 

Two species ot Chimaphila (Pipsissewa. Prince's 
Pine), one species of Moneses (One-flowered Pyrola), 
and a few species of P> rola (Shmleaf) are offered in the 
American trade for oinamental purposes. Otherwise 
the family is of no economic importance 

174 Monotropaceae (from the genus Monotropa, 
meaning one turn, in reference to the nodding flower). 
INDIAN- PIPE FAMILY Low, saprophytic herbs, without 
chlorophyll, white, yellowish, brownish, or blood-red 
in color leaves alternate, reduced to scales flowers 
1 to several, bisexual, regular, a lobed, hypogynous disk 
sometimes present, calyx 5-parted, rarely 0, corolla of 
4-5, separate, gibbous petals, these rarely coherent; 
stamens cS-10, hypogynous; anthers opening by slits, 
1-2-ceIled, often appendaged, ovary 4-5-celled, supe- 
rior, many-ovuled; style and stigma 1 fruit a capsule. 

The Indian-pipe family contains 8 genera and about 
12 species, all North American except 1 Himalayan 
species and 1 found in both Europe and America; 
most abundant in the West The family is closely 
related to the Ericaceae, Pyrolaceap and Clethraceaj, 
from which it differs mainly m method of nutrition. 



Snrcodes sanguinea, the Sierran snow plant, is bright 
red in color 

The Monotropacefo arc not known to be m cultiva- 

175 Ericaceae (from the genus Erica, the ancient 
name of the heath, from enco, to break). HKATII 
FAMILY. Fig 46 Shrubs or sub-shrubs leaves alter- 
nate, often evergreen, flowers bisexual, regular or 
slightly irregular, calyx 4-5-fid, persistent corolla 
gamopetalous, rarely polypetalous, often urccolate, 4- 
5-lobed, convolute or imbricated, stamens alternate 
with the petals, of the same number o- double the 
number, inserted at the bahe of a hjpcgynous disk, 
not epipetalous, anthers sometimes appendaged, open- 
ing by terminal pores, rarely by longitudinal slits, 
ovary superior or infoiior, 4-5-celled or falsely 10- 
celled, many ovuled, style and stigma 1 fruit a cap- 
sule, rarely a berry or drupe 

The 67 genera and about 1,400 species are very gen- 
erally distributed Erica, the largest genus, with 420 
species, is confined to the Old \Vorld The family is 
closely related to the Pyrolaceie and Clethraceir, also 
to the Epacridaceae and Diapen&iacea? The northern 
Ericaceae are largely evergreen and variously adapted 

47 DIAPENSIACF^: 1 Diaprnsia, a, flower, b, floral diagram 
PRIMULA* 2 Primula, a, flower b, floral diagram PLI , 
B\GIVACFB 3 Armona, flower 4 Statice, calyx G Plun bago, 
floral diagram 

in foliage to a xerophytic habitat Ledum is polypeta- 
lous Rhododendron has a funnel-form corolla, Kal- 
mia, a cup-shaped corolla with elastic stamens in pock- 
ets The anthers of Epigaca dehisce longitudinally. 

Arctostaphylo* Uva-UrM (bearberry) of Europe and 
America is medicinal The volatile oil of wmtergieen is 
obtained from the leaves, and stems, of the North 
American Gaulthena procumbens A very poisonous 
substance is found in some species of Rhododendion, 
Lyoma and Leucothoe, and possibly the poisonous 
quality of Kalmia and Rhododendron honey is due to 
this Species of Gaylussacia (North America) yield 
huckleberries, species of Vaccimum yield blueberries 
The fruits of V Myrlillua (Europe) are bilberries The 
European heaths furnish commercial honey Cranber- 
ries are the fruit of V macrocarpon and V Gxycoccus 
Many species of Eiicacese are ornamental 

Forty to 50 genera are in cultivation in N America. 
Among these are the Strawberry Tree or Madrona 
(Arbutus), Bcarberry (Arctostaphylos), Heather (Ca- 
luna); Heath (Erica), Trailing Arbutus or Mayflower 
(Epigsea) , Labrador Tea (Ledum) ; Sourwood of Sorrel 
Tree (Oxydendrum), Azalea, Rhodora, Rhododendron 
or Pinxter Flower (Rhododendron), Laurel (Kalmia); 
Blueberry and Cranberry (Vaccimum); Huckleberry 
(Gayluseacia) , also Men/iesia, Chamacdaphne, Cassiope, 
Andromeda, and others 

176. Epacridaceae (from the genus Epacm, derived 
from the Greek meaning on the top, many species grow- 


ing on hilltops). EPACRIS FAMILY. Shrubs or small 
trees, leaves alternate, usually stiff, small, and heath- 
like flowers bisexual, regular, hypogynous, disk pres- 
ent; calyx of 4-5 sepals, bracted at the base, corolla 
gamopetalous, 4-5-looed, stamens 4-5, hypogynous or 
epipetalous, anthers opening by longitudinal slits; 
carpels 4-5, ovary superior, 1-10-cellcd, ovules solitary 
or many; style and stigma 1. fruit a drupe or capsule. 

The 21 genera and about 300 species are almost 
exclusively confined tc Australia and New Zealand. 
One species is found in South America The family is 
closely related to the Ericaceae, but has one whorl of 
stamens. The genus Styphelia contains 172 species. 
S. ^apula furnishes edible berries 

A few species of Epacns are grown as ornamental 
plants in the greenhouses of North America. 

177 Diapensiaceae (from the genus Diapensia, the 
derivation of which is obscure). DIAPP:NSI\ FAMILY 
Fig 47 Low shrubs: leaves alternate, evergreen, rem- 
forin or imbricated or moss-like flowers bisexual, reg- 
ular, hypogynous, disk absent, calyx of 3-5 sepals; 
corolla with 5 separate petals, or gamopetalous, lobes 
imbucated; stamens 5, epipetalous or hypogynous, al- 
ternating with the corolla lobes, often also alternating 
with 5 staminodia, anthers opening by a longitudinal 
slit, ovary superior, 3-celled, ovules very numerous, 
style 1, stigmas 1-3 fruit a capsule 

Diapensiacea) has 6 genera and about 10 species 
of circumpolar distribution, extending southward to 
Carolina and the Himalayas The family is related to 
theP^ricaccsc, and to the Epacndacea The 3 carpels and 
5 stamens are important distinguishing characteristics. 
Four or more genera are in cultivation in America; 
of these, Galax aphylln (Galax) of North Carolina hap 
remform leaves; Pyxidanthera barbulata (Pyxie, Flow- 
ering Moss, or Pine-barren Beauty) of southern New 
Jersey has subulate leaves; Short la, of North Carolina 
and Japan, and Schizocodon soldanelloides (Fringed 
Galax) of Japan both have orbicular leaves. 


178. Myrslnaceae (from the genus Myrsine, the 
Greek name of Myrrh). MYRSINE FAMILY. Trees or 
shrubs leaves usually alternate, coriaceous, glandular- 
dotted, flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular, often 
very glandular; calyx 4-5-parted, peisistent, corolla, 
gamopetalous, rarely of separate petals, 4-5-lobed; 
stamens 5, opposite the lobes of the corolla, mostly 
epipetalous, separate or monadelphous; alternating 
fetammodia often present, ovary superior or inferior, 
1 -celled, placenta basal or free-central, ovules few or 
numerous, style and stigma 1. fruit a few-seeded berry 
or drupe 

Widely distributed in the tropics are 32 genera and 
about 550 species. Two species reach Florida. The 
family is related to the Primulacea?, but is woody, 
glandular, and has indehiscent fruits, also related to 
the Sapotaceae 

The leaves of Jaequmia are used in America to 
stupefy fish, the fruits of this genus are poisonous. 
The fruits of some species of Ardisia are edible. Bread 
is made in San Domingo from the crushed seed of 
Theophrastti Jussieui 

About a half-dozen genera are in cultivation in this 
country, but are little known. Jaequmia and Myrsine 
are grown in southern Florida and southern California; 
Ardisia is a genus of greenhouse shrubs. The species 
ascribed in the trade to Theophrasta on further study 
have been referred to other genera 

179 Primulaceae (from the genus Pnmida, from 
Latin primus (first), in reference to the early flowering 
of some European species). PRIMROSE FAMILY Fig 47. 
Herbs leaves mostly opposite or whorled, otten dotted 
or mealy flowers bisexual, regular, rarely slightly irreg- 
ular, calyx not bracteate, mostly 5-parted; corolla 



gamopetalous, 5-lobed, rarely of separate petals; 
stamens 5, epipetalous, opposite the corolla lobes, often 
alternating with stammodia; ovary superior, rarely 
half-inferior. 1-celled, many-ovuled, placenta free- 
central, style and stigma 1 fruit a capsule opening 
by valves or by a transverse lid 

The family has 28 genera and about 320 species of 
more or less cosmopolitan distribution, but most 
abundant in north temperate regions It is most 
closely related to the Myrsmacea; and Plumbagmaceie 
The herbaceous habit, dehiscent fruit, and many seeds 
are important distinguishing chara< tenstics The Mow- 
ers of this family often have styles and stamens of 
different lengths in the same species (heteromorphic), 
e g , Primula The free-central placentation is charac- 
teristic of this and related families 

Rhizomes of Primula were formerly used for diseases 
of the bladder Primrose wine is made from the floweis 
of Primula oflinnalit* and P vulgans Rhuomes of 
Cyclamen are purgative and emetic In some countries 
these rhizomes are used to stupefy fish, roasted they 
become good food for pigs (sowbread of Europe) 
Other species have been used in medicine Many are 
ornamental plants 

Twelve to 18 genera are in cultivation in North 
America Among these are the following well-known 
names Cyclamen, Dodecatheon (Shooting-star), An- 
drosacc (Rock Jasmine); Anagalhs (Pimpernel, Poor 
Man's Weather-glass); Ilottoma (Featherfoil, Water- 
Violet, Water-Yarrow) with aquatic inflated steins 
and fine leaves; Lysimachia (Loosestrife, Monevwort, 
Creeping Charlie), Primula (Primrose), Soldanella, 
Stieronema (Loosestrife) ; Tnentahs (Star Fkwer) 

180 Plumbaginaceae (from the genus Plumbago, 
from plumbum, lead, perhaps in reference to the lead- 
like stain given by the roots to the fingers) LE \U\\OKT 
FAMILY. Fig 47. Herbs or shrubs leaves alternate, 
linear or lanceolate- flowers bisexual, regular, ca ] yx 
bracteate, 5-fid, usually scarious, and plicate, angled or 
winged, sometimes eolored, persistent, corolla gamo- 

sometimes with intermediate stammodia, or twice ac 
many, epipetalous, ovary superior, 4- to many-celled; 
ovules 1 in each cell, basal, style and stigma 1 fruit 
a berry. 

There are 31 genera and about 400 species, of tropica/ 
distribution, rarely reaching the warm temperate zone 
One species extends to Virginia and two to Illinois. 
This is a distinct family, distantly related to the 
Myrsmaccae, Ebenacejp, and Styracacete 

The fruits of Lucuma mammosa (marmalade plum) 
and Achra*> Sapota (sapodilla), are very agreeable. 
Fruits of Illipe and Mimusops, both Asiatic, are 
edible The oil from the seeds of the oriental Illipe 
butyracea and of other species is galam butter, and shea 
butter It is used for food and soap The wood ot 
many species is very hard and valuable so-called 
ironwoods Several species of Palaquium of the East 
Indies yield gutta percha, as do other species of the 
family Gum chicle is obtained from Achras Sapota. 
Star-Apple is Chrywphyllum Caimto. West Indian 
medlar is Mimui>op)> Elangi 

Six to 10 genera are in cultivation in North America, 
mostly in the warmer parts Mimusops, Lucurna (Mar- 

, , 

petalous, or of 5 nearly separate petals, mostly con- 
volute, stamens .5, epipetalous, opposite the lobes of 
the corolla; ovary superior, 1-celled, ovule 1, basal, 

, , 

styles 5 fruit a capsule or utricle, invested bj the calyx 

The ten genera and about 250 species, of almost 
cosmopolitan distribution, are found usually inhabiting 
seacoasts and alkaline regions, they are most abundant 
in the Mediterranean region, and in Central Asia The 
family is closely related to the Primulacetc, but has only 
one seed 

A fatty substance in the root of certain Plumbagos 
gives a lead-colored stain to the fingers and paper 
These roots were formerly used for toothache, ulcers, 
and the like Beggars are said still to use them to 
produce sores The roots of Stalice lattfolui of Russia 
contain tannin and have been used for tanning 

There are 5 or 6 genera in cultivation in North 
America, Acanthohmon from Armenia, hardy, Armeria 
(Sea Pink, Thrift) of Europe and Asia, hard> , Ccra- 
tostigma of China, hardy, Plumbago (Leadwort), of 
Asia, Africa, Australia, mostly of the greenhouse, Statice 
(Sea Lavender), of Europe, Asm, North America, 
hardy Some species of this family are used for dry 

Order 48 EBENALES 

181 Sapotaceae (from the old generic name Sapota, 
derived from a native name of Achras Sapota) SAPO- 
DILLA FAMILY Fig 48 Trees or shrubs, juice milky 
leaves alternate, entire, coriaceous flowers usually bi- 
sexual, axillary, regular, calyx mostly of separate sepals 
m two whorls of 2, 3, or 4, or in one whorl of 5, corolla 
gamopetalous, lobes as many as the sepals, or twice as 
many, in one or two series, imbricated, sometimes with 
appendages which simulate extra corolla-lobes; stamens 
as many as the lobes of the corolla and opposite them, 


*- -wav w ^w. n -j- t | | -j-^ 

48 SAPOTACE-E 1 Lutuma, flower 2 Sideroxylon, floral 
diagram RIUNA<F;E 3 Diospyros, a, female flower, b, floral 
diagram, feimle flower ST^RACVCK*, 4 Styiax, a, flower, 6, 
cm ^-section ovary, c, fruit SYMPLOCALE,E o Symplocos, a, 
(lower. 6. cross-section fruit 

(lower, 6, c 

malade Plum) and Sideroxylon are grown in southern 
California and Florida, Dichopsis or Palaquium (wrongly 
called Isonandra), the commercial gutta percha tree, is 
cultivated m the South Burneha and Chrysophyllum 
are ornamental, the former hardy to Massachusetts 

182 Ebenaceae (from the Latin ebenus, meaning 
ebony) EHON\ FAMILY Fig 48 Trees or shrubs leaves 
alternate, coriaceous, entire flowers rarely bisexual, 
usually dioecious, regular, calyx 3-6-parted, persistent; 
corolla 3-6-lobed, hypogynous, gamopetalous, urceo- 
late, coriaceous, mostly imbricated and twisted; 
stamens short, usually double the number of the corolla- 
lobes, rarely as many or more numerous, hypogynous or 
epipetalous, separate or united in pairs, ovary superior, 
2-10-celled, with 1-2 suspended ovules in each cell, 
styles and stigmas 2-8 fruit berry-like, rarely sub- 

In this family are 5 genera and about 280 species, 
of which 180 belong to the genus Diospyros, they are 
inhabitants of tropical and subtropical regions, 
principally of the eastern hemisphere The greatest 
development of the family is m the East Indies and 
Malay Archipelago One species of Diospvros occurs 
in the eastern United States, from Rhode Island south- 
ward. The family is related to the Styracaceae, Synv 



plocaceae and Sapotacese. The superior several-celled 
ovary, unisexual flowers and absence of milky juice 
are important distinctive characters. 

The wood of many species, especially of the genus 
Diospyros, furnishes the ebony of commerce The 
fruit of Diospyros Lotus is known as date plum in 
Asia The fruit of the persimmon (Diospyros virgin- 
lana) is also edible The bark of persimmon is some- 
times used in medicine 

Three or 4 genera are in cultivation in North America 
for ornamental purposes Maba, from Natal, and 
Royena, from South Africa, are not haidy Diospyros 
(Common Persimmon and Kaki), hardy or tender, 
depending on the species, is grown for ornament or fruit 

183 Styracacese (from the genus Styrax, the ancient 
Greek name of the storax tree) STORAX FAMILY Fig 
48. Shrubs or small trees leaves alternate, simple flow- 
ers bisexual, regular; calyx 4-5-cleft, corolla mostly 4-5- 
lobed, the lobes almost separate, imbricated or valvate; 
stamens in one series, hypogynous or epipetaloua, 
twice as many as the lobes of the corolla, rarely just as 
many, separate or more or less united, ovary superior, 
rarely half-inferior, 1-celled at the top, 3-5-celled at 
the bottom, 1, rarely several, ovules in each cell, style 
1, stigmas 1-5 fruit a capsular diupe 

Six genera and about 100 species are distiibuted in the 
warmer regions of South and Central America, south- 
eastern United States, eastern Asia, and the Mediter- 
ranean region The family is very closely related to the 
Sy mplocacea; , also to the Ebenacejp and Sapotaeeie. 
The superior, imperfectly several-celled ovarv, bisexual 
flowers and absence of milky juice are distinctive 
Fossil species are known 

Styrax Benzoin of the East Indies yields the fragrant 
resin known as benzoin It is a pathological product 
of the tree Some Brazilian species of St>ia\ and some 
species of Pamphiha also yield a fragrant resin which 
is burned as incense in the churches The storax 6f 
the ancients was obtained from Liquidambar orientals 
(family Hamamehdacese). 

Two or 3 genera are in cultivation in America* 
Halesia (Silver Bell, Snowdrop Tree), of eastern United 
States, is hardy, Styrax (Storax) of China, Japan, and 
America, is semi-hardy. Pterostyrax of Japan is by 
some referred to Halesia. 

184 Symplocacese (from the genus Symplocos, de- 
rived from the Greek, meaning connected, referring to 
the stamens). SYMPLOCOS FAMILY. Fig 48 Trees or 
shrubs: leaves alternate, simple flowers bisexual, or less 
commonly unisexual, regular, calyx 5-lobed, gamosepa- 
lous, imbricated, corolla-lobes 5 or 10, in 1 or 2 scries, 
gamopetalous, imbricated, stamens 15 to many in 1-3 
or many series, separate, or slightly united with each 
other and the corolla, hypogynous or epipetalous, 
ovary inferior or half-inferior, 2-5-ccllcd, with about 
2 ovules in each cell, style 1; stigmas 1-5 fruit dru- 

Only one genus and about 275 species arc found in 
tropical lands; they are most abundant in the Malay 
region and East India A few species in Japan, and 
one in North America, extend the family into the 
temperate zone Symplocos tinctona reaches Delaware. 
The family is related to the Styracaceae, and is often 
united with it The inferior, completely several-celled 
ovary, and numerous stamens, are important charac- 
teristics Fossil species are known 

The bark of Symplocos racemosa is used as a medicine 
in the East Indies under the name lotus bark The 
leaves of S spicata and the roots of S tinctona are 
used in the preparation of yellow dye-stuffs S cratse- 
goides is a hardy ornamental shrub from Japan 

Order 49 CONTORTS 

185. Oleacece (from the genus Olea, derived from 
the Greek meaning, originally, olive tree, and later oil, 

i e , olive oil) OLIVE FAMILY. Fig 49. Trees or 
shrubs leaves opposite, simple or pinnate, flowers bi- 
sexual or unisexual, regular, small and numerous, calyx 
4-lobed, larely 4-1 5-lobed, valvate, corolla 4-lobed, 
raiely 6-12-lobed, gamopetulous, rarely polypetalous, 
or 0, hypogMious, valvate, stamens 2, rarely 3-5, 
epipetalous, alternate with the corolla-lobes, ovary 
superior, 2-celled, ovules usually 2 in each cell, style 1 
or 0, stigmas 1-2 fruit a drupe, berry, capsule, or 

Oleaceac has 20 genera and more than 400 species, 
of temperate and tropical lands; these are especially 
abundant in the East Indies and East Asia About 10 
species are native in northeastern North Amenca. 
Fossil species are known The family is related to the 
Logamacea>, possibly also to the Celastraeeie and 

49 OLEACE*: 1 Oloa, a, flow < r, b, floral diagram 2 Frnxi- 
iius, fruit LCKMMM * i 3 F oKiima, flowr r Gi NTIA:\AC t-i 4 
C< ntmna. a, flowrr, >>, floral diagram Ai-or\\Af * x. 5 Apocy- 
nuxn, a, flower, b, floral diagram, (, fruit G \ mca, pistil. 

Rubiacese The numerical plan of 4, the 2 stamens and 
the supenor ovaiy are important distinctive character- 

The most useful plant is the olive (Olca europsca) 
of the Orient, long cultivated m the Mediterranean 
region The oil expressed from the fruit is used as food, 
and for other purposes. The unripe fruits, preserved 
in brine, are the olives of commerce The bark of tho 
fringe tree and privet contains medicinal pnnciples of 
minor importance, as do also the leaves of the lilac. 
A saccharine exudation from the bark of Fraxinus 
Ornus of Sicily, induced by the puncture of a cicada, 
is manna (See, also, Tarnaruc mannifera) The wood of 
olive and ash are valuable The flowers of Osmanthus 
fragrans have been used to scent tea in China. 

A dozen genera are in cultivation m North America: 
Chionanthus (Fringe Tree), hardy, torsythia (Golden 
Bell), hardy; Fontanesia, hardy; Fraxmus (Ash), hardy: 
Jasmmum (Jasmine, Jessamine), of the greenhouse and 
the South; Ligustrum (Privet), hardy, Olea (Olive), 



not hardy; Osmanthus (Fragrant Olive and Devil- 
wood), not hardy; Phillyrea, not hardy, Schrebera, 
not hardy; and Synnga (Lilac), hardy. 

186 Loganiaceae (from the genus Logania, named in 
honor of J Logan, a botanist). LOGANIA FAMILY. Fig 
49. Herbs, shrubs, or trees' leaves opposite, simple 
flowers usually bisexual, regular, calyx 4-5-lobcd or 
-parted, corolla 4-5-, or 10-lobed, imbricated or con- 
volute; stamens epipetalous, of the same number as 
the lobes of the corolla and usually alternate with them, 
rarely reduced to 1; ovary superior, usually 2-celled, 
rarely 1-or 4-celled, ovules usually numerous, styles 1; 
stigmas 1-2 fruit a capsule, rarely a berry or diupe. 

The family contains 32 genera and about 360 species, 
of tropical distnbution A few genera only reach the 
temperate zone, 4 species of which are native in 
northeastern North America Fossil species are known. 
The family is related to the Apocynaceaj, Gentianaceae, 
Solanaeeao, Rubiacea, and Scrophulariacese. The oppo- 
site stipulate leaves, and 2-celled superior ovary, are 
important distinctive characters 

The seeds and bark of Strycknos nux-vomica contain 
a very poisonous alkaloid, strychnine, used as a nerve 
tonic Curare, with which the Indians of South 
America poisoned their arrows, is probably obtained 
from the bark of S toxifer. Other species of Strychnos 
are used in Java to poison arrows. The root of Spigelia 
(pink-root), an American plant, has been used as a ver- 
mifuge It is also poisonous Strychnos Ignatw, yields 
the poisonous Ignatius bean of India The nut of <S' 
potatorum is the clearing nut of India, which is used to 
purify foul water, by rubbing it on the inside of the 
vessel The roots of yellow jasmine (Gekrmium sem- 
pervirens) of the southeastern United States are used 
as a nerve tonic 

Three or 4 genera are in the North American trade, 
all ornamental' Buddleia, semi-hardy; Gelseinium 
(Yellow Jessamine), woody vine, semi-hardy, Spigelia 
(Pink-Root), herbaceous, hardy 

187. Gentianaceae (from the genus Gentiana, named 
m honor of King Gentius of lllyna, who, according to 
Pliny, first discovered the medicinal properties of these 
plants). GKNTIAN FAMILY Fig 49. Herbs, rarely 
shrubs or small trees' leaves opposite, rarely alternate 
or whorled, exstipulate flowers bisexual, regular, calyx 
4-5-parted, persistent, corolla 4-8-lobed, gamopetalous, 
hypogynous, convolute or induphcate, rarely valvate: 
btomons of the same number as the corolla-lobes and 
alternate with them, epipetalous, hypogynous disk 
usually present; ovary superior, 1-cclled, with 2 
parietal placentae, rarely 2-celled, ovules numerous 
fruit a capsule. 

The 63 genera and about 750 species are almost cos- 
mopolitan in distribution Three hundred species 
belong to the genus Gentiana, distributed mostly m the 
mountains of the north temperate zone, m the arctic 
zone and in the Andes, they are wanting in Africa 
Fossil species of Menyanthes are known The family 
is closely related to the Logamacea; The commonly 
1-cclled ovary, exstipulate leaves and the presence of 
a bitter principle are important characters. 

The general occurrence of a bitter principle renders 
the majority of Gcntianacese valuable as tonics, and 
appetizers. Most of the drug, gentian, is obtained 
from Gentiana lutea of Europe G punctata, G purpurea, 
and G. Pannonica are also used. Erythr&a Centaunum 
(centaury) furnishes a medicinal bitter principle. 
Tarhia guianensis is used as bitters in South America, 
under the name quassia. The b'tter principle of Men- 
yanthes is used as a medicine, and also as a substitute 
for hops m flavoring beer. The Gentianaceae are used 
medicinally in all parts of the globe. 

Several genera are m cultivation m North America: 
Erythnca, Eustoma, Frasera; Gentiana (Gentian); 
Menyanthes (Buckbean), Sabbatia; and Swertia. 
Nymphoides (Limnanthemum) (Floating Heart, Water 

Snowflake) is a genus of peculiar aquatic plants. 
Villarsia is a close relative of Nymphoides. 

188 Apocynaceae (from the genus Apocynum, the 
ancient name of the dogbane, from the Greek). DOG- 
BANE FAMILY Fig 49 Herbs, shrubs or trees with 
milky juice, often climbing leaves opposite or whorled, 
rarely alternate, entire, exstipulate flowers bisexual, 
regular; calyx 4-5-parted, corolla 4-5-lobed, hy- 
pogynous, gamopetalous, usually with appendages or 
folds in the throat, convolute or valvate, stamens 4-5, 
epipetalous, alternating with the corolla lobes, anthers 
usually sagittate and acute, pollen granular, hy- 
pogynous disk usually present and variously lobed; 
ovaries usually 2, rarely more or less united, mostly 
superior, each 1 -celled, many-seeded, style 1, usually 
bearing a fleshy ring below the solitary stigma fruit 
follicular with comose seeds, or indehiscent, or berry- 
like, or of nutlets, sometimes winged or prickly 

One hundred and thirty genera and about 1,000 
species occur, mostly in tropical countries in both 
hemispheres Five or G species reach northeastern 
North America The family is related to the Asclepia- 
daceae and Gentianaeca? The milky juice, sagittate 
anthers, absence of corona, stjlar ring, and usually 
separate ovaries but connate stales and stigmas, are 
important characteristics 

Many species of Landolphia yield commercial caout- 
chouc, as do also other genera, such as Urceola and 
\\ illoughbya Some are very poisonous, e g , Tan- 
ghinia of Madagascar, also Cerbera and Acocanthera 
Tanghima, the ordeal trooof Madagascar, "is the most 
poisonous of plants, a soed no larger than an almond 
suffices to kill twenty people " Death has followed 
the use of oleander \\oon as meat-skewers An infusion 
of its leaves is an insecticide, of its bark, a rat-poison. 
Some are heart-poisons, for example Strophanthus and 
Aspidosperma (quebracho bark) The bark of Alstoma 
is a tonic Allamanda cuthartica is purgative Several 
species furnish edible fruits tasting like citron Wnghtia 
tinctona furnishes an indigo, W tomentosa, a yellow dye 

About 20 to 25 genera are m cultivation in N America 
as ornamental plants, mostly in the South or in the 
greenhouse. Among these are* Allamanda, Canssa 
(Caraunda, Christ's Thorn); Amsoma; Apocynum 
(Dogbane), Nermm (Oleander); Tabernaernontana 
(Crape Jasmine, Nero's Crown), Trachelospermum 
(Star Jasmine); and Vinca (Periwinkle). 

189 Asclepiadaceae (from the genus A^depias, dedi- 
cated to JSsculapius) MILKWEED FAMILY Fig 50. 
Herbs or shrubs, sometimes fleshy, often climbing, gen- 
erally with milky juice leaves opposite, rarely otherwise, 
exstipulate. flowers bisexual, regular, very frequently 
in umbels, calyx 5-parted, imbricated, corolla 5-parted 
or -lobed, gamopetalous, hypogynous, a crown present, 
which is either an outgrowth of the corolla, or of the 
stamens ; or of both; stamens 5, mostly hypogynous, 
alternating with the lobes of the corolla, usually 
monadelphous, sometimes united with the styles, pollen 
usually agglutinated into polhnia, which are attached 
to glandular appendages of the stigma; disk absent; 
ovaiies 2, superior, each 1-cclled, many-seeded, styles 2; 
stigmas united, fruit of two follicles, seeds usually 

There are 217 genera and about 1,900 species, prin- 
cipally of the tropics, but many reach the temperate 
zone The family is distinct, and closely related only 
to the Apocynacesc. The Asclepiadaceae is one of the 
most extraordinary of families Most species have a 
milky juice Many in South Africa are fleshy, cactus- 
like plants Some are epiphytes with variously modi- 
fied foliage. One genus of epiphytes? bears foliar pitchers 
that catch and hold ram-water Some species are like a 
bundle of leafless whip-lashes, others have remarkable 
tuberous bases to store water The floral crown is 
most diverse; and the details of insect-pollination, 
especially the behavior of the polhnia, is very compli- 


cated The union of the two carpels by the stigma only 
is unique 

Pleurisy root (Asdepias tubfro^a) was formoily 
used extensively for lung and catarrhal disoiders 
Condurango, from the bark of Maiuienui Conduranyo, is 
a stomach tonic. The milky juice of many is medici- 
nal, some are emetics (Vineetoxicmn, Gomphocaipus, 
Secamone); others are purgative (Solenostcmma, 

Bcction, c, itamcns, d, pistil ami polliniii, i, pollinifi and uland, /, 
floral diagram CONVOI VX.T <u i* 2 Convolvulus, floral ih i- 
gram POIEMONIACE* -\ Phlox, flower 4 Polomonium, floral 
diagram HYDHOPHYLLAC t * /> Hydrophyllurn, flowrr G Phirc- 
ha, a, and b, ovary of two species 

Cynanchum); others are sudonfies (Hemulesmus) 
The acrid juiee of Gonolobus is used to poison arrows, 
that of Penploca to poison wolves, hence the name 
wolfbane and dogbane. The milk of (iytnnana 
lactiferum, the cow-plant of Cevlon, is edible, also 
that of the Cape, ()joit>tclma fVHhntum Some Indian 
species yield good bast fibers Aldisdenm tindoiui 
yields a "dye Seveial species yield caoutchouc The 
oschur or modar (Calotiopi^ pwruo) is probably the 
Bodom apple of the Bible The herbage of seveial 
species is cooked and eaten The acid stem of Sareos- 
temma is eaten as a salad In East Africa, Cynamhum 
narcotttemntoides is used to poison fr-h Many Ascle- 
piadacejp are ornamental plants 

About 20 genera are in cultivation in N America, 
mostly in the tropical horticulture of Floiida and 
California More genet allv cultivated and better 
known are A sclepias (Milkweed), Cynam hum (Mos- 
quito Plant, Cruel Plant), Hoya (\\ax-plant), and 
Penploca (Silk Vine). 

Order 50. TUBIFLOR^ 

190 Convolvulaceae (from the genus Convolvulus, 
signifying to entwine) MOUMMJ-GLOHY F \MILY Fig 
50 Herbs, shrubs or small trees, twining or erect, turf- 
forming shrubs, thorny shrubs, "switch plants," or 
yellow, leafless, twining parasites, often \\ith milky 
juice leaves alternate. flo\\ers bisexual, regular, pe- 
duncles very often bi-bracteate; calyx 5-parted, per- 
sistent, corolla more or less 5-lobed, usually plaited, 

gamopetalous, hypogynous, convolute; stamens 5 4 
slightly epipetalous, alternating uith the corolla-lobes; 
hypogynous disk present, usually lobed, ovary superior, 
2-celled, rarely more or fewer celled, each cell 1-2- 
ovuled, nucropyle duected downward and outward, 
styles 1-2, stigmas 1-2 fruit a capsule or a berry, very 
rarely bieakmg into 4 1-seeded nutlets 

Convolv ulace* has 40 genera with about 1,000 
species, of which 300 species belong to the genus 
Ipomoea and 160 species to the genus Convolvulus 
They are distributed in all regions except the arctics, 
but are especially numerous in tropical Asia and tropical 
America The family is i elated to the Solanaceie and 
Boi agmacea^, but also to the Polemomacea' and Hydro- 
phyllacea 1 The absence of a circulate inflorescence, 
the plaited corolla, the duection m which the mieiopyle 
is turned and the feu -seeded fruit are impoitant 
distinguishing chaiacteiistics The genus Cuscuta is 
parasitic and chloiophylless, receiving its nutriment 
by means of haustona from the plant upon which it 

Because of the substances contained in the milky 
juice, many species {ire medicinal The following are 
puiges jalap (Eioguninm Pwga), of Mexico; turbith 
(Opticulina Tuipct'lnini), of tin 4 East Indies, and seam- 
mony (Conrolvulus ticarnmonin), of the oiient The 
fleshy roots of Ipomam Batatas (sweet potato) are edible, 
also those of Convolvulus* Septum I pomcrn Pe^-capr^e 
is used in India to bind the sands along the coast. 
Convolvulus (uopanus of the Canaries furnishes the 
fragrant oil of ihodium, used to adulterate oil of rose, 
and sold also to rat-catchers as a hue for rats C>M uta 
Epihnum, and seveial other species, are bad pests in 
cultivated fields 

Several geneia aic in cultivation in N America 
Argyreia, tender twiners, Brewena, trailing, grown in 
Florida, Convolvulus (Bindweed, California, 
Rutland Beauty), mostly twining , Ipomoea (Morning- 
glory, Moonflouer, Cypress Vine, Indian Pink, Man-of- 
the-Earth, Blue Dawn Flower, Sweet Potato, Jalap), 
mostly turning, Jacquemontia, garden twmeis, Lett- 
somia, turners, grown in Florida 

191 Polemomacese (from the genus Folcmomum,w\ 
ancient name of doubtful application) POLEMONIUM 
FAMILY. Fig 50 Herbs, raiely uoodv leaves alter- 
nate, 01 the louer sometimes opposite, simple or pinnate 
flowers bisexual, regular, 01 nearly so, calyx o-cleft ; 
corolla 5-lobed, gamopetalous, hypogynous, convolute, 
stamens 5, epipetalous, olteinate with the corolla- 
lobes; hypogynous disk present, ovary superior, .3-, 
raiely 2- or 5-, celled, ovules in each cell mariv, larely 
1, style 1, 3-hd, rarely 5-fid, stigmas 3, larely 5 fruit 
a capsule 

About 8 genera and 200 species are known, these 
aie almost entirely American and principally North 
Ameiican Nearly 100 bpecies belong to the genus 
Giha The family is closely i elated to the Convolvula- 
ceze, and difficult to sepaiate from that family. The 
3 rnany-ovuled cells of the ovary are impoitant The 
disk of Cobaea is large and 5-lobed The terminal 
leaflet of this plant is a branched tendril 

Many Polemomacea) are grown as ornamental 
plants Polcmonium tjiuleum (Jacob's ladder, or Greek 
valerian) is used in borne countries as a remedy for 
various ailments 

About to 8 genera are cultivated in this country as 
omamental plants. Cantua, a shrub in the greenhouse; 
Cohaea, a climbing herb, mostly in the gieenhoufee, 
Giha, many species, for bedding, Lo?seha in the cool- 
house, Phlox (Phlox, Ground or Moss Pink), for bed- 
ding; Polemonmm, for bedding. 

192 Hydrophyllaceee (from the genus Hydrophyl- 
lum, meaning water-leaf). WATER-LEAF FAMILY Fur 50 
Annual or perennial herbs leaves mostly alternate, 
often lobed flowers bisexual, regular, mostly in circulate 
raceme-like clusters, calyx 5-cleft; corolla 5-lobed, often 


with scales in the throat, gamopetalous, hypogynous, 
imbricated; stamens 5, alternating with the corolla- 
lobes, slightly epipetalous, hypogynous disk present, 
ovary superior, 1-celled, rarely incompletely 2-eellcd, 
ovules 2 to several, style 1, stigmas 2. fruit a 

The 17 genera and about 170 species are found most 
abundantly in temperate North America, less com- 
monly southward to Patagonia A very few are found 
in south and east Africa, India, Japan, and the Hawai- 
ian Islands The family is most closely related to the 
Boragmaceir, but has a 1-celled ovary, more 1 distantly 
related to the Convolvulaceje and Polemomacea* 

Enodicii/on glulino^utn (yeiba, sail t a) of California 
has lately corne into use as an expectorant m throat arid 
lung trouble IlydropJiijllum tan<id(n\e has long had a 
reputation as a remedy for snake-bites poison-ivy 
poisoning, erysipelas, and other skin troubles 

About a halt dozen genera are in cultivation in X 
Ameneaas ornamental plants They are used principally 
for outdoor bedding Ernrnenarithe (California Yellow or 
Golden Bells), Hesperoehiron, H> droph> Hum (\\ater- 
leaf), Nemophila, and Phaceha 

193 Boragmacese (from the genus Borayo, an 
ancient name having reference to the roughness of the 
foliage) HORACE FAMILY Fig 51 Herbs, rarely shrubs 
or trees leaves usually alternate, very frequent lv 
rough-hairy floweis bisexual, regular, rarely irregular, 
inflorescence usually circulate, calvx 4-5-cleft, persist- 
ent; corolla 1-5-lobed, gamopetalous, hvpogwious, 
imbricated, often with scales or folds in the throat, 
btamens 5, epipetalous', alternating with the corolla- 
lobes, hypogvnous disk usually present; carpels 2, 
ovarv superior, 4-celled, either entne and style terminal, 
or 2-lobed, or more commonly deeply 4-lobed witli the 
style basal between the lobes, each cell 1-ovuled, 
stvle 1, stigmas usuallv 2 fimt rarelv a berrv, usuallv 
of 4 1 -seeded nutlets, with the surface variously smooth, 
polished, wrinkled, barbed, winged, or crested 

There aie S5 genera and about, 1,500 species widely 
distributed in the temperate and t topical /.ones, most 
abundant in the Mediterranean region and in western 
North America The largest gc'iieta are Cordia with 
230 species, and Hehotropium with 220 specie's Ihe 
family is most closely related to the Hydrophvllaceo?, 
also related to the Verbenacea. 1 and Labiatie The 1 e ir- 
cmate inflorescence, and 2-carpelled, 1-celled ovary 
with 1 seed m each cell, are distinctive character- 
istics. The fruit ot the Boragmaceve is most diverse, 
arid very important m classification within the farnilv 

Many species, native in Euiope, weie formerly u*cd 
tor medicine, for example, e'omfrev (fiympht/httn olfui- 
nalc), borage (liorago ojfuinali^), hound's-tongue (('//- 
noglobsuiti officinale), lungwort (Pulmonauo officunili^), 
viper's bugloss (Erfnum vidnare], bugloss (Andiuvi offi- 
cinalii*}, groin well (Lilhosperntuin ojfiiinalt}, and helio- 
trope (llrliolropiumenropxum) Tourntfolia umbdlala 
was used in Mexico as a febrifuge The roots of alkanet 
(Alkanna tinctoria) of South Europe and Asia contain 
a reel dye of commercial importance The roots of some' 
species of Anchusa, Onosma, Lithospermum and. \i- 
nehia also contain a red pigment The wood of some; 
species of Cordia is of value, as are also its bast libers 
The wood of several species of Ehretia is valuable*, and 
the fruit is edible. 

About 30 genera arc in cultivation in N America, 
mostly as hardy ornamental border plants Among 
these are Arnebia (Prophet's Flower, Arabian Piirn- 
rose); Anehusa (Alkanet, not the real), Boiago (Bor- 
age), used as a pot-herb or bee-plant, Cermthe 1 (ITonev- 
wort) , Cynoglossum (Hound's-tongue), Echium (Vipe>r's 
Bugloss), Lithospermum (Gromwell, Pueeoon, Indian 
Paint), Myosotulium (Giant Forget-me-not), Mvosotis 
(Forget-me-not); Mertensia (Virginian Cowslip, Vir- 
ginian Lungwort); Omphalodes (\ave-lwott, Creeping 
Forget-me-not) , Onosma (Golden Drops) , ( hiosmodium 

(False Gromwell); Pulmonana (Lungwort, Bethlehem 
Hage), and Sjmphytum (Comfrey) 

194 Verbenacese (from the genus Verbena, the Latin 
name for any sacred herb, application obscure) VER- 
VAIN FAMILY Fig 31 Herbs, shrubs, or trees leave* 
opposite, rarely whorled or alternate, simple or com- 


pound flowers bisexual, rarely regular, usually oblique 
or 2-hpped, calyx 4-5-, rarely 6-8-, toothed, corolla 
4 5-lobed gamopetalous, hypogynous, lobes imbri- 

cated, stamens 4, did^namous, rarely 5 or 2, epipetalous, 
hypogynous, disk present, ovary superior, of 2, 
rarely of 4 or .1, carpels, 2-. r >-eelled, but by false par- 
titions 1-10-celled, entne or 2-4-lobed, ovule usually 
solitary in each cell, stvle 1, stigma usuallv 1 fruit a 
drupe or beirv, often separating into drupelets 

Verbenacea 1 has 67 genera and about 750 species, 
mainly of tropical and subtropical distribution Eleven 
species reach the northeastern United States Lippia 
is the largest genus with 100 species, Clerodendron 
has 90 spceu's, and Verbena SO species The family is 
closelv related to the Labiata- and not clearly distinct 
from that family The predominatingly terminal 
stvle, and not deeply lobed ovary are the only differen- 
tiating characters 

Many speries have been used in medicine Verbena 
ha^tala as bitters, species of Lippia as tonics, /Egiphila 
<i(ilut(tri <? as a purge and remedy for snake-bites Species 
of Clerodendron ha\ e very sw eet -scented flowers They 


51 BOH<U.I\AH 1 H..I IKO, pistil 2 Syniphy turn, flow or 
I ( ynoKlovumi, fruit t OniphnUwlc's, fruit \vmus Act* T 
\ilwnn,flra,T < Lintanii, floial digram IMHI VTJF 7 Mrntha. 
flo\ ( r S 1 hymn-,, pistil ' S iK i-i, flown 1C) I annum, floral 
diiKram Noi \N\CET. It \olanu, a, flow or, b jnd c, pistils ot 
different species 

are used as purges, diuretics, and for liver, stomach, 
and lung complaints Lippia citriodora v-ields a fra- 
grant substance used in flavor ng cream, and other 
toods Several species have been ised as tea m America 
Duntnta Elhvr ,md species of Lantana have edible 
fruit Verbena officinali* of Europe is a tome, but more 
famous for its use in witchciaft It was celebrated 
among the Romans and Druids of Gaul and used by 
them in religious ceremonies The very valuable teak- 



wood is obtained from Tectona grandis of farther India 
and the East Indies. The white mangrove trees of 
Brazil belong to various species of the tribe Avicenmse 

A score of genera are in cultivation in North America. 
Among thcbe are. Amsonia, a greenhouse shrub, Calh- 
carpa, greenhouse or hardy shrubs, Caryoptens, a 
shrub, not hardy, Clerodendron (Turk's Turban), 
greenhouse or hardy, Duranta (Golden De\vdiop), cul- 
tivated in the South, Lantana, greenhouse or bedding 
herbs or shrubs, Lippia (Lemon Verbena), greenhouse 
or hardy shrubs or herbs, Petnca (Purple Wreath), 
greenhouse climber, Verbena, bedding or greenhouse 
herbs; Vitex (Chaste Tree, Hemp Tree, Monk's Pepper 
Tree), semi-hardy shrubs or trees 

195 Labiate (the name refers to the 2-hpped [bila- 
biate] character of the corolla of most species) MINT 
FAMILY Fig 51 Herbs or shrubs, commonly with a 
four-angled stem, and usually containing a fragrant 
oil leaves opposite or whorled. flowers bisexual, very 
rarely unisexual, irregular, rarely regular, usually 
bilabiate, calyx 5-toothcd or cleft, regular or 2-hpped: 
corolla 5-lobed, rarely 4-lobed, gamopetalous and 
hypogynous, 1 lip sometimes obsolete, the lobes im- 
bricated, stamens* 4, didynamous, or only 2, epipet- 
alous, hypogynous disk well developed, thick, entire 
or lobed, ovary superior, of 2 carpels, deeply 4-lobed, 
4-cellcd, each cell 1-ovuled, style basal or sub-basal; 
stigmas 2 fruit of 4 1 -seeded nutlets; the ectocarp 
rarely fleshy 

One hundred and fifty-seven genera and about 2,800 
species are distributed over the \vholc earth, but are 
especially abundant in the Mediterranean region and 
the orient, they are also abundant in the mountains 
of the subtropics The larger genera are Salvia, 500 
species, Hyptis, 300 species, Stachys, 180-200 species, 
Scutellana, ISO species; Nepeta, 150 species, Satureia, 
130 species, and IVucnum, 100 species The family is 
related to the Verbenace^e and to the Boragmacesr, 
also to the Scrophulanacea? and Acanthacesc The 4- 
angled stem, fragrant oil, 4-lobed ovary, the solitary 
ovules, and the nasal style are distinctive This is a 
difficult family for the student The characters for 
separating the genera reside mostly in the calyx, co- 
rolla and stamens The nutlets are less important in 
classification than in the Boragmaceae 

Owing to the volatile oil and bitter principles, the 
Labiatse are of more than usual economic importance 
Scutellana latfnflora (skullcap), tonic, nervine, Salvin 
officinahn (garden sage), tonic, also used as a condi- 
ment, Marrutnum vulgare (hoarhound), tonic, anthel- 
mintic, and expectorant; Hedeoma pulcgioides (Ameri- 
can pennyroyal), carminative and stimulant; Mentha 
spicata (spearmint) and Mentha pipenta (peppermint), 
carminative; Mentha Pulcgium (European penny- 
royal), carminative, mints are also used as condiments. 
The following oils are from Labiatse. Oil of thyme 
( Thymus Serpyllum) , rosemary (Rosmannut> offi.nnalii>) ; 
Lavender (LavnnduUi officmah^)\ spike (iMvandula 
Spica), origanum (Origanum Mnjorana) Catnip (Ne- 
pcta Cntaria) is a family sudorific Mother-wort (Leo- 
nurus Cardiaca} is a family stimulant and bitters The 
leaves of lavender and patchouli (Pogo^temon Patch- 
ouli} are used to keep insects from woolens, furs, and 
the like. Many other species have been used locally 
for various purposes 

Fifty or more genera are in cultivation in North 
America Most of these arc garden annuals or hardy per- 
ennials cultivated for the flavor or odor, for ornamental 
purposes, or for medicine Among these are Acantho- 
mintha (Thorny Mint), Ajuga (Bugle Weed); Cedro- 
nella (Balm of Gilead); Colons, Colhnsoma (Horse- 
balm, Horse-weed, Stonewort) ; Cumla (Maryland Dit- 
tany), Hedeoma (American Pennyroyal); Hyssopus 
(Hyssop), hardy shrub; Larmum (Dead Nettle); Lav- 
andula (Lavender); Leonotis (Lion's Ear, Lion's Tail); 
Lophanthus (Giant Hyssop), Marrubmm (Hore- 

hound); Melissa (Balm); Mentha (Mint, Spearmint, 
Peppermint, Japanese Mint, Bergamot Mint, Black 
Mint, White Mint, European Pennyroyal); Micromeria 
(Yerba Buena), Moluccella (Shell Flower, Molucca 
Balm), Monarda (Horsemint, Oswego Tea, Bee-balm, 
Fragrant Balm, Wild Bergamot); Nepeta (Catnip, 
Ground Ivy, Gill-run-over-the-ground) ; Ocimum (Ba- 
sil) ; Origanum (Marjoram) ; Phlomis (Jerusalem Sage) ; 
Physostegia (False Dragonhead, Obedient Plant) , Plec- 
tranthus (Cockle-spur Flower), Pogostemon (Patch- 
ouli Plant), Prunella or Brunella (Self-heal, Heal-all), 
Pycnanthemum (Mountain Mint). Rosmannus (Rose- 
mary, Old Man) ; Salvia (Sag^e, Clary, Scarlet Sage) ; 
Satureia (Savory); Scutellaria (Skull-cap), Stachys 
(Woundwort, Choro-gi, Chinese or Japanese Artichoke, 
Knot-root, Betony); Teucnum (Germander), Thymus 
(Thyme, Mothcr-of-Thyme) ; Trichostema (Blue Curls, 
Bastard Pennyroyal, Ramero), Westnngia (Victonan 

196. Nolanaceae (from the genus Nolana, derived 
from nola, a little bell, in reference to the corolla). 
NOLANA FAMILY Fig 51 Herbs or small shrubs 
leaves alternate, or opposite, flowers bisexual, regular, 
calyx 5-cleft, corolla 5-lobed, gamopetalous, hypog\- 
nous, plicate in the bud, stamens 5, slightly epipeta- 
lous, alternating with the lobes of the corolla; hypogy- 
nous disk well developed, often lobed; ovary superior, 
typically of 5 carpels, radially lobed, or both radially 
and transversely lobed, lobes 5-30, m fruit forming 5 - 
30 nutlets which are each 1-7-seeded, or sometimes 
both radially and transversely lobed 

There occur 3 genera and 50 species, confined to the 
west coast of South America Many species are mari- 
time. The family is related to the Convolvulacea>, also 
to the Boragmaceai and Solanaceir. The plicate corolla 
and very peculiarly lobed ovary derived from 5 carpels 
are distinctive 

A few species of Nolana, all prostrate plants, are cul- 
tivated in this country for ornamental purposes. 

197 Solanaceae (from the genus 8ol<mum, the sig- 
nificance unknown) NH.HTSHADE FAMILY Fig 52 
Herbs, erect or climbing shrubs, or small trees leaves 
usually alternate, flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, reg- 
ular, rarely irregular; calyx 5-cleft, corolla 5-lobed, 
gamopetalous, hypogynous, usually plicate in the bud, 
the folds twisted to right or left, rarely the tips of the 
folds valvate or imbricated; stamens 5, epipetalous, 
alternating with the corolla-lobes, hypogynous disk 
present, ovary superior, 2-celled, raicly falsely 1-, or 
moie, celled, ovules in each cell 1 to many; style 1; 
stigmas 1-2 : fruit a berry or capsule 

About 70 genera and 1,600 species, 900 of which be- 
long to Solanum, arc distributed in the tropical and warm 
temperate regions, the greatest number being in Cen- 
tral and South America. The family is related to the 
Scrophulanacese, Convolvulacear and Nolanacete. The 
regular, plaited corolla, and usually numerous seeds ai o 
important distinguishing characteristics Datura has a 
prickly fruit The calyx of Physahs is accrescent and 
inflated, surrounds the fruit ; and is often colored. 

Many Solanaceso contain narcotic or poisonous 
alkafoids and are used in medicine Belladonna (alka- 
loid atropme) is obtained from the roots of Atropa 
Belladonna, it was formerly used by women to 
dilate the pupils of the eye, hence the specific name. 
The leaves and flowers of Datura Stramonium (Jimson 
weed) constitute the stramonium of medicine (alka- 
loid daturme) Stramonium seeds were formerly 
used by magicians to produce fantastic visions, and by 
thieves to stupefy their victims. Henbane (alkaloid 
hyoscyamme) consists of the leaves and tops of Hyos- 
cyamus mger and is narcotic Mandragora is similar 
in effect to belladonna. It was used by sorcerers to 
produce hallucinations in their victims Scvpoha 
carniohca and Solanum carohnense (horse-nettle) 
have been used in medicine- The remedy, pichi, eon- 



sists of the dried twigs of Fabiana imbncata of Chile 
European bittersweet (<S Dulcamara) has been used 
as medicine, it is poisonous Black nightshade (>S 
mgrutn] and others are poisonous Tobacco is the dried 
leaves of Nicotiana Taba< utn Winter cherry (I'hyytli^ 
Alkekengn) is diuretic Chilli is a name for the fiuits of 
Capsicum annuurn ot South America Cayenne pepper 
is the innt of various species of Capsicum Tomato, or 
love apple, is the fruit of Ltjcopcr^icurn (scuhndnn 
( = Solatium Lycopi mcuw) Species of nightshade, when 
cooked, are eaten as greens EggpLtnt is the fruit of 
<S Mdongena of Asia Potatoes are the tubers of 8. 
tubvrosutn of Peru and Chile 

About 30 genera are cultivated in North America as 
ornamental plants 01 foi lood are Atiopa 
(Belladonna), Capsicum (Red or Cayenne Peppei), 
Cost rum, Cyphomandia (Tioe Tomato), Datuia 
(Angel's Trumpet, Datura), Ihoseyamus (Henbane), 
L>eium (Matnmony Vine, Box Thoin), Lycopeisicum 
(Tomato), [Knglei and Pi ant 1 unite this with Solanum); 
Mandragora (Mandiake ot history;; Nicotiana (Nico- 
tina, Tobacco), Nicandia (Apple of Peru), Nierern- 
bergia (Cup-fio\ver, A\ lute Cup); Petunia, Phjsahs 
(Ground Cheny, Stiawbeny Tomato, Alkekengi, Blad- 
der Cherry, Cape (Joosi Ixny, Chinese Lantern Plant); 
Salpiglossis, Schuanthus (Butterfly Flower, Poor man's 
Orchid), Stieptosolen, Solandra, and Solanum (Night- 
shade, Potato, Pepmo, Mtlon Pear, Melon Shrub, 
Eggplant, Guinea Squash, Aubeigmc, Jerusalem 
Cherry, Potato Vine, Bittersweet) 

19S Scrophulanaceae (fiom the ^erius tiiiophulana, a 
reputed remedy for scrofula) FK.WOKT FAMILY Fig 52 
Herb, , shrubs, or small tiees leaves alternate, opposite 
or whorled flowers bisexual, regular or commonly 
irregular, often bilabiate, m which case the throat is 
often closed b> a palate, calv\ 5-cleit, corolla "3-lobed, 
gamopetalous, h\pog\noas, iarel\ spurred at the base, 
imbricated, fertile stamens iaiel> 5, Usually 4 and 
didynamous, larelj 2, steiile often present as stannno- 
dia, epipetalous, h\pog\nous disk annulai or uni- 
lateral, ov.ii> supenoi, 2-eollod, ovules man\ , stvle 1; 
stigmas 1-2 fruit geneiallv a Capsule, rarely a berry 
Scrophuhuiacex is a famil\ ot 170 geneia and about 
2,500 species, distributed veiy generally over the whole 
earth A few are aquatic and have finely divided 
leaves Some are half-parasites on the roots of other 
lants A few are total parasites without (hlorophvll 
he largest genera are V rbascum containing IbO 
species, Calceolaiia with 1 44 species-, Veronica with 
200 species, and Pediculans with 250 species The 
family is i elated to the Solanacea 1 , to the Orobanohaooje 
and Gesnenacose The non-plicate imbiicated usually 
irregular corolla, reduced numbei of stamens, and 
2-celled, manv, -ovulod ovary, are distinctive characters. 
The economic uses of the Scrophularmcea^ are 
medicinal and ornamental \\iottica officinah^ has 
been used as a tonic and an astringent Virotuca 
Bectabunga has been used foi scurvy Suophulmia 
nodot>a was a remedy for fever s Antirrhinum was 
used as a diuretic Kupfira^ui officmalis was used m 
ophthalmia, and hence the name "eye-bright " 
(jraliola oflicmahb (poor man's herb) is a violent 
purgative Digitalis put puna is the most valuable 
medicinal plant m the family It is poisonous, and a 
well-known diuretic and sedative-narcotic The trop- 
ical Scopana duUi* is a febrifuge Veronica virgimui 
(Culver's root), Vcrba^nim Thapsus, Linana vul- 
ganSj and Chclone qlabia have also been used in med- 
icine The snapdragon and foxglove are well-known 
garden plants of this family 

Because of the showy flowers, 30 to 40 genera are 
in cultivation m N America for ornamental purposes 
Among these are Antirrhinum (Snapdragon), garden 
and greenhouse, Calceolaria, greenhouse plants, 
mostly from South America, Castillera (Painted Cup), 
garden plants; Chelone (Turtlehead), hardy 

plants, Collmsia, garden annuals; Digitalis (Foxglove), 
hardy garden plants, Erin us, hardy; Gerardia, 
harv.y, Gratiola, hardy; Hallena (African Honey- 
suckle), cultivated in the southern borders, Lmana 
(Butter-and-Eggs, Kemlworth Ivy, Mother-of -Thou- 
sands, Toad-flax), hardy and greenhouse, Mimulus 
(Monkey Flower, Musk Plant), garden annuals or hardy; 
Paulownia, semi-hardy tree; Pediculans (Lousewort, 
Wood Betony), hardy; Pentstemon (Beard Tongue, 
Pentstemon), hardy; Phy go-bus (Cape Fuchsia), mostly 
greenhouse, Rhorlochiton (Purple Bells), vine, garden 
annual, Russeha, greenhouse, Scrophulana (Figwort), 
hardy, Tetranema (Mexican Foxglove), greenhouse; 
Tor ema, garden, Verbascum (Mullein), hardy, Veronica 
(Speedwell, Culver's Root, Fluellen, Ground Hele, 
Angel's Eyes, Bird's Eyes), garden, mostly hardy 
or annual 

199 Bignoniaceae (from the genus Biqnoma, named 
for the Abbe Jean Paul Bignon, court librarian at Pans, 


52 SOLANACEB 1 Solanum, a, flower, 6, floral diagram 2. 
Nieotiaiia, flower SCROPHULARI^CF 3 Verbacum, flower 4 
Antirrhinum, a, flower, b, floral diagram 5 Strflphulana, flower 
KIGNOMACK*: 6 Campus, a, flo\\ or, b, floral diagram, c, fruit and 
seeds FEDALIACEE 7 Sesamum, floral diagram 

and a friend of the botanist Tournefort). BIQNONIA 
FAMILY Fig 52 Woody plants, rarely herbs, usually 
climbing or twining in the tropical forests leaves oppo- 
site, rarely alternate, usually compound flowers bisexual, 
more or less irregular, scarcely bilabiate, calyx 5-cleft, 
rarely bilabiate or soathc-hke, sometimes with appen- 
dages, corolla 5-lobed, gamopetalous, hypogynous, 
imbricated, stamens 4, didynamous, or only 2, the 
others stammodial, epipetalous, anthers various; hy- 
pogynous disk present, ovary superior, 2-celled, rarely 
1 -celled, many-ovulod, st>le 1 , stigmas 2* fruit a woodv 
capsule, seeds usually winged and very compressed; 

The family contains 100 genera and from 500-600 
species, principally natives of the tropics, these are 
most abundant m America Three species reach the 
northeastern United States, from Now Jersey and 
Ohio southward. The largest genus is Tabebuia with 



80 species The family is related to the Scrophulan- 
accac; but the peculiar fruit with winged seeds and the 
absence of endosperm are distinctive The climbing 
species may or may not have foliar tendrils These, 
when present, terminate in adherent disks The woody, 
tropical, climbing Bignomacea- are famed for the 
peculiar cambium growth which produces secondary 
thickening of such a nature as to give to the cross- 
section very odd and very diverse patterns, some of 
which are almobt geometrical in their regularity The 
wood in these patterns may be eithei divided into 
four wedges at right angles to each other, or four 
wedges may be superimposed on a .smaller circle of 
wood, or the wedges may be divided toward the 
periphery into peculiar finger-like portions, or there 
may be concentric rings of wood 

Catalpa and Tecoma have been used in medicine 
but are not officinal Caraboa (Jacaranda Copaia) 
contains an aromatic resin of the odor of coumann 
Many are ornamental plants with large, handsome 

About 20 genera are in cultivation in North America, 
all as ornamental plants. Among these are Bignoma 
(Trumpet Flower, Cross Vine, Quarter Vine), mostly 
greenhouse climbers, Catalpa, semi-hardy or hardy 
trees, Chilopsis (Desert Willow, Flowering Willow, 
Mimbres) cultivated in the South; Creseentia (Cala- 
bash Tree), cultivated South Others are Campsis 
(Trumpet Creeper, T Vine, T Honeysuckle) , Tecoma 
(Yellow Elder), Pandorea (Wonga-Wonga Vine, Bower 
Plant of Australia) , Tecomana (Cape Honeysuckle, 
climbing or erect shrubs or trees, cultivated mostly 
in the South, only one of which is fully hard} North 

200 Pedaliaceae (fiom the genus Pcdalium, signify- 
ing a rudder, in reference to the winged angles of the 
fruit). PEDALI i JM FAMILY Fig 52 Herbs, rarely shrubs, 
covered with peculiar slime-secreting glands leaves 
opposite, or alternate above flowers bisexual, irregular; 
calyx 5-cleft, corolla 5-lobed. gamopctalous, moic or 
less curved but indistinctly if at all 2-hpped, stamens 
4, didynamous, often with an extra staminoduim, sub- 
epipetalous, hypogynous disk inequilateial, ovary su- 
perior or rarely inferior, 2-4-celled or falsely 1 -celled, 
style 1; stigmas 2-4. fruit a capsule, or a hard indehis- 
cent structure which is often covered with stiff or 
hooked spines or wings, seeds 1 to several, attached to 
central placenta 

In this family are 14 genera and about 50 species, of 
tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Arabia, 
farther India, Ceylon, Austiaha, and East Indies 
They are mostly strand or xerophytic plants The 
family is most closely related to the Scrophulanaceac, 
and to the Martymacea?, with winch latter family it 
is often united The peculiai slime-glands, the queer 
fruit, and the axial seeds are important characters. 

The heeds of >et>amutn indicant yield an oil called 
benne oil or oil of sesame, which is used as food after 
the manner of olive oil The oil is also used as a cos- 
metic and as a medicine. This plant has been culti- 
vated for ages in the orient, and is now cultivated in 
other lands, the oil being used in the manufacture of 
soap Har pa go phylum procumbens is the famous 
grapple-plant of South Africa, the fruits of which are 
difficult to separate from wool and clothing The fruits 
of several species of Uncarma are almost as bad A 
mucilaginous medicinal drink is made from the leaves 
of Pedahum Murex in India. These leaves are also 
used to thicken milk, to which they give a rich appear- 

The genera in cultivation in N America are 1 Cera- 
totheca, ornamental greenhouse plants, and grown in 
Florida, with indistinctly hooked capsules, Sesamum, 
grown for oil, medicine, or ornament, outdoor annual, 
capsule not hooked 

201. Martyniacefle (from the genus Marlynia, in 
honor of Prof. John Martyn of Cambndge, England). 

MARTYNIA FAMILY. Fig. 53. Annual or perennial, glan- 
dular-hairy herbs, leaves opposite, or alternate: flowers 
bisexual, irregular, but not bilabiate; calyx 5-cleft; 
corolla 5-lobeel, gamopetalous, hypogynous; stamens 4, 
didynamous, rarely 2, the others stammodial, epipetal- 
ous, alternating with the corolla-lobes, hypogynous disk 
present, regular; ovary superior, of 2 carpels but 

53 M<umNiACE,E' 1 Martynia, , 
c. fruit Gt-sNEHiACExE- 2 Gesuerta, flower 
diagram LIVTIBUI ARIACE 4 Utricularu 
blarkhr, b, flower, c, flower duiRrani Gioi 
uluna, flo\v>r fa Cofkburma, vertical necti 

b, floral chaRram, 
Achimones, floral 
part of leaf with 

KlA<h 5 Glob- 


1-celled, placenta- parietal, ovules several, style 1, 
stigmas 2 fruit a more or less long, eui ved, beaked cap- 
sule, with a Meshy pericarp, becoming falsely 4-celled 

About 3 genera and 10 species inhabit tropical and 
subtropical America One species reaches southern 
Indiana The family is closely related to the Pedah- 
acete, with which it has generally been united The 
homed fruit, 1-cellcd ovary, parietal placenta? and 
less slimy pubescence, are distinctive characters 

The turnip-like root of Cramolfina annua, known in 
South America as escorzonera, is cooked with sugar 
or eaten as a vegetable The fruits of Martyma (or 
Probobcidea) louisiana (M pruboscidea) are sometimes 
used as pickles 

One jjjenus is in cultivation in this country, namely 
Martyma (Unicorn Plant, Proboscis Flower), of which 
3 or 4 species are grown The Cramolarias of the trade 
seem to be Marty mas 

202. Gesnenaceae (from the genus Gesnena, named 
after the early botanist Conrad Gesner of Zurich). 
(JESNERIA FAMILY rig 53 Herbs, rarely shrubs or 
small trees, sometimes climbing leaves usually oppo- 
site or whorled, simple* flowers bisexual, irregular, 
often bilabiate, calyx 5-parted; corolla 5-lobed, gamo- 
petalous, hypogynous, often gibbous below, imbricated; 
stamens rarely 5, usually 4 and didynamous, rarely 2, 
the sterile usually present as stammodia, cpipetalous; 
hypogynous disk present, diverse; ovary superior or 
inferior, of 2 carpels but 1-celled with 2 parietal pla- 
centae, often falsely 2-4-celled; ovules numerous; style 1 ; 
stigmas 1-2. fruit fleshy with pulpy placentae, or cap- 
sular, or sihque-like with twisted valves. 



Eighty-four genera and about 500 species arc widely 
distributed in the tropics and subtropics of both 
hemispheres The largest genera are Cyrtandra 
containing 180 species and lla-ttlera with about 100 
species The family IH related to the Scrophulanaccse, 
Orobanchaee^fi and Bignouiaceu* The 1-celled ovary 
without winged seeds, and the non-paraHitic habit are 

The only economic plants in the family are the 
ornamental, of which there are many The flowers 
throughout the family arc uncommonly large and 

Twentv or more genera are in cult ivation in N Amer- 
ica Arno'ng these are the following, all of greenhouse 
culture- Agalmjla, climbers, Kpiscia, Gcsnena, Iso- 
loma (Kohlena), Na-geha (Snulliianlha), Samtpaulia 
(Usambara Violet, African Violet), Smningia, includ- 
ing the Gloxinias; Streptocarpus (Cape Primrose), 
Tiiehosporum (01 /Kschvnanthus), trailing or drooping 

203 Lentibulariaceae (from the old generic name 
Ltntibukirin, said to mean /<ns, -j- a small pipe, signifi- 
cance obscure) Bi Annr.RwmT FAMILY Fig 53 
Aquatic or marsh herbs, or epiphytes leaves alter- 
nate, raiely \vhorled, \ery <liverse, sometimes finely 
dissected, or peltate, or o\ul, or lanceolate, .sometimes 
of two very distinct kinds, usually with very small 
scattered bladder-like lobes consisting of a complicated 
trap-like mechanism for catching tiny swimming organ- 
isms, or with the whole upper surface of the undivided 
leaf very glutinous so that insects stick fast to it, either 
all basal 01 all cauhrie, or both flowers bisexual, irregu- 
lar, calyx 2-5-cleft , persistent, eoiolla 5-lobed, more or 
less 2-hpped and with a spur or sack at the base, upper 
hp 2-lobed, lower 3-lobed, often with a palate in the 
throat; stamens 2, epipctalous, ovarv superior, of 2 
carpels but 1-celled, placenta free- cent lal, style 1, 
fctigmas 2 fruit a (apsule 

Belonging to this familv are 5 genera and about 300 
species, of which at least 200 belong to I tnculana, 
they are distributed in all parts of the globe but are 
more numerous in the tropics One fossil species is 
known. The f.umlv is related to the Scrophukiriaee;e 
The irregular corolla, 2 stamens, and 1-celled ovary 
with cential placenta, are important chaiacter.s This 
is a most interesting family of insectivorous plants, 
with the exception of Pmguicula, they are adapted to 
catch organisms that swim in the water of ponds, or, 
in ease of the epiphytes, in the rain-water in the 
cracks ami crevices of the host plant 

Ulncularias were formerly used locally as medicine. 
The secretion of the leaves of Pmguicula contains a 

1)epsm-like digestive ferment The Lapps use these 
eaves to curdle the reindeer rnilk, hence the common 
name, butterwort Danish peasant girls are said to use 

the juice as a hair-pomade Another account says, 
ngmeula leaves, whether fresh or dry, are used by 
the Lapps to thicken fresh still-warm milk, which 

neither curdles nor gives cream thereafter, but forms a 
delicious compact tenacious mass, a small portion of 
which will act similarly on another quantity of fresh 
milk " 

Two genera are in cultivation in N. America for their 
peculiar habit and curious orchid-like flowers, which 
are often very showy Pmguicula (Butterwort); and 
Utnculaiia (Bladderwort), mostly epiphytic 

204 Globulariaceae (from the, genus (Hobnlana, so 
named because the flowers are borne in heads) GLOB- 
ULARIA FAMILY Fig 53 Shrubs or herbs leaves 
alternate, simple flowers bisexual, bilabiate, borne m 
mvolucrate heads on a chaffy receptacle; calyx mostly 
5-parted, bilabiate or regular, corolla 5-lobed, gamo- 
petalous, hypogynous, upper lip sometimes obsolete, 
the lobes imbricated, stamens 4, didynamous, enipeta- 
lous, anthers exserted, by constriction often falsely 4- 
celled; hypogynoua disk usually reduced to a gland on 
one side; ovary superior, 1-celled, ovule solitary; style 

1 ; stigmas 1-2 . fruit a nutlet inclosed in the persistent 

The 3 genera and 20 species are confined to the 
Mediterranean region Seventeen species belong to the 
genus Globularia The family is related to the Scroph- 
ulariaeeae, but is distinguished by the solitary ovule 
and 1 -celled ovary Globulanas are easily mistaken 
for Scabiosas, because of the mvolucrate heads and 
exserted stamens 

Some species are locally used as remedies 

A few species of Globularia are in cultivation in 
this country, two are hardy, and a third is a green- 
house plant 

205 Acanthaceae (from the genus Acanthus, derived 
from the Greek, a spine, some of the plants are spiny). 
ACANIHITS FAMILY Fig 54 Herbs, or rarely shrubs 
or trees leaves opposite, rarely whorled flowers bisex- 
ual, irregular, usually bilabiate, cal> x 5-cleft , corolla 5- 
lobed, garnopetalous, hypogynous, the lobes imbricated; 
stamens usually 4, didvnamous, rarely 2, sometimes a 
starnmodium present, epipetalous, hjpogynous disk 
present, mostly small, ovary superior, 2-celled, each 
cell 2-4-, rarely many-, ovuled, style 1, stigmas 1-2, 
one lobe often small or wanting fruit a capsule, seeds 
exalbummous, aided in distribution by peculiar out- 
growths of the funiculus 

A<a,nthacea3 has 173 genera and about 1,500 species, 
of tropical distribution Few species extend into the 
Mediterranean region and into the United States Six 
species are found in the northeastern United States 
Two hundred species belong to the genus Ruelha, and 
250 to Justicia The family is related to the Bignom- 
acea?, and to the Scrophulariaceaj, as well as to the other 

54 ACANTHACEF, 1 Ruollia, flower 2 Justicia, opened fruit 
MYOPOIIA.CE* 3 Myoporum, a, flower, b, \ortioal section ovary. 
PHUYMA.CE/B 4 Phrynm, a, flower, b, fruiting calyx PLANTAGI- 
NACE^E. 5. Plantago, a, flo\vei, b, vertical section ovary, c, fruit. 

families of this group. The 2-celled ovary with 2-4 
ovules and the queer outgrowths of the funiculus are 

Many species are used in the tropics for medicine; 
for example, Astcracantha longifoha, a purge and su- 
dorific, Ju&ticia Gendarufsw, astringent, used in India 
for rheumatism, and the leaves sprinkled in clothing 
to keep insects away, Justicia pectorals, used for lung 
troubles. The young flowers of Blephans edulis and 
Abysfasia gangdica are eaten as vegetables Ruellia 
cihoba of the United States has recently been sold 
spuriously as Spigcha (pink root) 

Twenty to 30 genera are in cultivation m N America, 
except m a few cases, as ornamental greenhouse plants. 
Among these are. Acanthus (Bear's Breech), hardy 



herbs; Adhatoda, shrubs; Aphelandra, shrub*, Cros- 
sandra, shrub, Fittonia, herbs, Graptophyllum (Cari- 
cature Plant), shrubs, Jacobmia, herbs; Justieia, re- 
ferred to other genera, Pcristrophc, Ruelha, herbs or 
shrubs; Strobilanthes, often used also for bedding 

206. Myoporaceae (from the genus Myoporum, sig- 
nifying to shut a poie, in reference to the spots in the 
leaves which ure closed by a membrane) M IOPOIUJM 
FAMILY Fig 54 Shrubs or trees leaves alternate, rarely 
opposite, usually glandular or coolly floweis bisexual, 
regular or irregular, calyx 5-eleft, persistent, coiolla 
5-lobed, gamopetalous, hypogynous, stamens t, didyn- 
amous, the fifth a stammodmm, epipetaloiis; ovaiy 
superior, 2-celled or falsely 3-10-celled; usually 1-2, 
rarely 8, ovules in each cell, style 1, stigmas 1-2 fruit 

There are 5 genera and about 90 species, of which 57 
belong to Phohdia and 25 to Myoporum Thev are 
maml> natives of Australia, but scattered species occur 
in the West Indies, Japan, China, Hawaiian Islands, 
and elsewhere The family is related to the Scrophulari- 
aceae and to the Verbenaceo?. Tne few ovules, the 
presence of oil-glands and the pendulous seeds are dis- 

Myoporuin platycarpvtn is the sandal-tree or sugar- 
tree or dogwood of Austialia From it, a kind of manna 
is secreted, also a resin that is used like sealing-wax. 

Two species of Myoporum are grown as ornamental 
plants in this country 

55 RuaiAri K 1 Galmm, a, flower, ft, fruit 2 Houstonm, 
rtowor 3 Bouvardia, floral di-inram CAI-IUKM IACF E 4 Loui- 
cera, flower VALEUIANACEK f> \alenann, flower 

207 Phrymacese (from the genus Phrymn, a name of 
unknown derivation) LOPSEED FAMILY l*ig 54 Per- 
ennial herbs leaves opposite, simple fio\\ ens bisexual, bi- 
labiate, calyx 5-cleft, 2-lipped, corolla 5-lobed, 2-lipped, 
gamopetalous, hypogynous; stamens I, dielvnamous, in- 
cluded, epipetalous, ovary superior, 1 -celled, ovule 1, 
sub-basal, straight (orthotropous), style 1, stigmas 2 
fruit dry, indehiscent, inclosed in the abruptly reflexed 
calyx, the teeth of which are hooked 

A single genus and species occuis in the eastern 
United States and Kast Asia The family is related to 
the Verbenacea? and was formerly united with that 
family, but the peculiar, 1 -seeded fruit, with a straight 
orthotropous seed is distinctive 

Phryma Lcpto^tachyu (lopseed) has been in the 
trade as an ornamental garden plant 


208 Plantaginaceae (from the genus Plantago, the 
Latin name of the plant) PLANTAIN FAMILY Fig. 54. 
Annual or perennial herbs leaves alternate or opposite: 
flowers bisexual, or rarely unisexual, regular; calyx 
4-cleft; corolla 4-lobed, gamopetalous, hypogynous, scar- 
ious, imbricated; stamens 4, epipetalous or hypogynous, 
exserted, alternate with the corolla-lobes' ovay 
superior. 1-2-celled, rarely 4-celled, ovules 1 to many in 
each cell, style and stigma 1 fruit a circumscissile cap- 

sule, or an indehiscent nutlet, invested by the persistent 
calyx; seeds usually peltate 

Three genera anel about 200 species, of which all 
but 3 belong to the genus Plantago, are distributed 
over the whole earth The centers of distribution are 
the Me'diteiranean region and the Andes This is a 
very distinct gamopetalems family of doubtful relation- 
ship, possibly allied to the Labiatac 

Many European species were forme>rly used in 
medicine, the see^els as mucilaginous emollients in 
inflammatory ophthalmia, and the like, the leaves as 
bitter*. The seeds are used in India to stiffen muslins 
Plcintago lanceoldta, P Coronopns and P major are 
eaten as greens The seeds of several species are sold 
for feeding buds P lanceolata is used foi early pas- 

The family is not cultivated in N America, except 
possibly for birei-seed, pasturage, e)r pond-border 

Order 52 RUHIALKS 

209 Rubiacese (from the genus Rttbia, signifying 
red, fiom the color of the roots of some sp< cies) M \D- 
DEH F\MIL\ Fig 55 Tiee^s, shiubs or he-rbs leaves 
opposite or whoiled, simple, usually entire flowers bi- 
sexual, larely unisexual, regular, larely slightly irregular, 
calv x 2-6-eieft, e>r 0, e'orolla gamopetalous, 4-G-lobeel, 
mostly valvate, stamens 4-G,cpipetalous, ovary inferior, 
1 to man}-, commonly 2-, celleel, ovule's 1 te> many 
in each cell, stjlc I, stigma 1, capitate or scveral- 
brane'hed fruit a capsule, beiiy, or drupe 

RubiaeeH 1 is a family erf 343 genera and about 1,500 
spe'cies-, mainly tiopienl, about 34 specie's reach the 
noitheastern 1'mted States The family is closely 
related to the Capiifoliaceve, but usually has stipule's or 
whorle-d leaves, it is also related to the Cornaee'ie, 
Valemnee.r, Composite, and the like 

A numbei of tropical Rubuceve are 1 myrmecophile)us, 
i e , provide a dwellmg-plae'e for ])rotective ants r l he 
whorle-d leaves of some species have probably been 
developed from stipules 

This is an important economic family. Coffici 
atdbtcd (Ab>ssima cofTe-e) is generally cultivated in the 
tropus and used elsewhere as a beverage Cinchona 
Ltnlfldiana and (' \urcuiibra of the Aneles furnish 
quinine 1 ('uujoga (Caphslit*) Ipfracuanha of Brazil is 
the source of the e'metic ipee-ac Ccphalanthusejf Ne>rth 
America, and several species of (Jahurn have be>en 
use>el in medume Rubin linctona (Mediterranean) 
fuinishe'S the red dye, madder Roots of Asperula and 
home speeies of Cahum yield ml eije-s Monnda 
citnfoha (tre)pics) yielels a yellow dye, mormdin 
Oiuonpana Garnbir (Malay) yields the d>e known as 
cutccu, gambir, or terra japomca The foliage e>f 
Abpanda odorata has the fragrance of sweet grass, anel 
is usenl for a similar purpose, and for flavoring wines 
Gahum tnflorum has a similar odor. Gahum verum, the 
yelle>w bedstraw (Europe) contains a milk-cureihng 
fcrmemt, hence the name, "gahum," also formerly given 
to women to increase lactation Berne's of Mitchella 
contain a sapomn-hke substance The fruits of Van- 
guaria edulib and seve'ral other specie's of Rubiacese are 
eehble The we>oel of many species is valuable 

Forty to 50 genera anel a great many species are 1 in 
cultivation in N America, mostly in the gieenhouse and 
in tropical horticulture Among these arc Indian Mul- 
berry (Monnda), Cape Jasmine (Gaidema), Bluets 
(Hemstoma) ; Manettia Vine (Manettia), Madder 
(Ruhia); But tonbush (Cephalanthus, hardy), Bedstraw 
or Cleavers (Gahum), Coffee (CofiVa), Cinchona (Cin- 
chona), and Partridge Berry (Mitchella) 

210 Caprifohaceae ^from the old genus Capnfohum, 
meaning a goat-leaf, possibly in reference to the climb- 
ing habit) HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY. Fig 55 Shrubs, 
very rarely herbs leaves opposite, simple or pinnate: 
flowers bisexual, regular or irregular, calyx 4-5-toothed, 


or 4-5-fid, corolla gamopetalous, 4-5-lobed, tubular or 
rotate; stamens of the same number as the corolla- 
lobes and alternate with them, epipetalous, euai\ in- 
ferior, 1-5-celled, each cell 1 to many-ovuled , st>le- 1 
or obsolete, stigmas !-"> fnnt a beiry or capsule 

The 11 geneia anel about 350 specie's are' distributed 
principally in the- imrth temperate zeme' r lhe tropical 
species are mostly eonhncei te> the mountains \ fc'w 
species of Sambucus and Viburnum occur in thesouthein 
hemisphere 1 he family is veiy closely related to the 
Rubiace^e but the leaves arc exstipulate; alo to the 
Comacea) and Valerianaeeaj Sejme fossil species ha\o 
been found 

Many species of Honeysuckle exhale a sweet odor 
after sunset The berries of Lomccra Caprtfolium are 
paid to be diuretic, those- e>f L Xylobtmm are laxative 
The bellies of the European elde>r (Xambucub ntyra), 
and of tho American elder (S c(infidtti^i^) are cooked 
anel e>aten and aie also maele into wine Thcelneel flowers 
e>f elder were fenme'ih useel in c-asesof fe\er The roots 
of the North Ameiican Trw&teuin prrfolwtnm furnish a 
kmel of ij)ee-ac Othei species are locally used in meeh- 
cine- Man} are 1 ornamental 

Eight e>r 10 geMie-ra are in cultivation in N America 
Viburnum (She'< pbeiry, Hobble-bush, VVa\ faimg Tree, 
Arrow we>ejd, High Cranberry, Snowball Hush), Sam- 
bucus (Eldei), Tnoste-um (Fevmvort, Horse Gentian, 
V\ ild Ipeeae'), S>mphoiicarpos (Snowbe'rry, Coral 
Berry), Abelia, Drenilla (\V e'ige>la, Hush Hone-\ sue kle), 
Linna-a (Twin-flowe'i ), Lomcera (Hush and Climbing 
HonevMuklcs, \Voodbmc, Trumpet Honeysuckle) 

211 Valenanaceae (from the ge-nus YahmttKt, a worel 
of uncertain eingm) V ALHU\N FAMIIA Lig 55 An- 
nual or perennial he-ibs, oftem strongh scented leave's 
basal anel cauhne, the latter opposite 1 , simj)le or pinnate' 
fle)we i rs bisexual e>i unisexual, regular or niegulu, 
e-pig>nous, e-al} \ of 1-3 minute', but often {ice-rescent , 
sepals, corolla 5-, r.ueh 3-1-, leibenl, gamopetalons, 
often producexl mte)aspui at the base-, lobe's imnneati d, 
stamens 1 1, Kireh 5, epipetalous, e'xseite'd, o\aiv 
inferior, 3-celleMl, only 1 eell maturing, se'exl 1, bt\le 1, 
stigmas 3 fruit dry, mdehiscent, l-se i eele'el 

Eight geru'ia and about 2SO spee'ies are known, mostly 
in the north tempe>rate re gie)iis of the Old World, espei i- 
allv m the region just north e)f the Mediterranean, and 
in South Ame^ie-a, where the genus Valenana is nuMh 
elistributenl The family is related to the Dipsticae e e 
anel the Caprifohace'a', and more remotely to the Cemi- 
positjp The epiguious, gameipetalous flower, separate 
stamens, 3 carpels anel 1-sc'edeel fnnt are distmctne 

\<ildi<nui <>l/it ninlis is a powerful ne-ne sedatne 
with a peculiar exleir Main other Valeiianacea 1 aie 
use'd as loe-al renuHlic's for the same purpose ihe 
foliage of \anous species of Valenanella (lamb's 
lettuce, corn salad) is eaten as a salael, less commonly 
as a pot-herb 

In this count t y few genera are m cultivat ion Pat rmia 
as a pot-herb, Ccntranthus (Heel Valerian, Jupiter's 
Beard) anel Valenana (Valerian) as ornamental plants, 
and Valenanella (Corn Salael, Fetticus) for food. 

212 Dipsacaceae (from the genus Dipsftcnt, demed 
fre)in the (licek /o////rs/, in allusion to the water-holding 
leaf -bases) TE\SLU \MII,Y Fig 5t> Annual or per- 
ennial he'ibs le\i\e'h oppe)sitr, roreh whoiled floweis 
small, bisexual, mostly niegulai, epigMious, in elense 
nnolucrate he:ids, each flower also hiirroundeel by a 
cujvshape'd, me>re' or less scanous, involucre, which is a 
metamorphosed bracteole, calvx e>f setaceous segments 
or crown-like, or plumose, or various, corolla l-5-le>beel, 
gamojietalous, usually irregular, le>bes imbricated, 
stamens 1, rarefy 2-3, mostly epipetalous, ovary 
inferior, 1-celled, 1-ovulcd; style 1, stigmas 2 fruit an 

The family has 10 genera and about 150 species, all 
natives of warm-temperate regions of the Old \V oriel, 
and me>stly e>f the eastern Mediterranean region The 

family is related to the Valenanacea 1 , and more dis- 
tantly to the Composite The gamopetalous corolla, 
2 carpels, mvolucratc heads anel mvoluciate flowers are 

Dip^afus and Scal)iosa have been used m medicine 
The spiny hooked braets of Diftsacus ferox (fuller's 
teasel of southwe>stern Asia) have been use-d to full 
cloth, whence the common name; and the plant was 
once cultivateel extensively for this puipose The 
cejnnate leaf-bases erf Dtpsacus .s?//reA/r?s hold several 
ounces of ram-water unt il e-\ aporated This contrivance 

56 DiFBACACt* 1 Dipsacus, a, flower, b, fruiting head 2 
N iUo-,,1, fruit Crctnnir ti- t i Cuurl>ita <t, male flower, 

p'iunili, flower 5 ' Lobch i, <, flower, 6, floral diagram 

may be of benefit in presenting the ascent of harmful 

Four genera are m cultivation in North America 
CYphalarm, Morma, and Scabiosa a,s e>rnamental plants, 
7Jips<7f(/s /<?oj- (1) julloniim), locally cultivated m 
New York state fe>r fulling cloth. 


213 Cucurbitaceae (from the genus Cucurbita, the 
classical name for the gourd) GOURD FAMILY Fig 
f>lj Herbs, rarely shiubs, climbing, usually w r ith 
branched tendrils leaves alternate, more or less 
remneled, ve v ms palmate flowers usualh unisexual, 
)>engvnous, regulai , stamens 5, rarely separate, usually 
cemnate in 2 pairs and 1 fiee stamen (thus appar- 
e-nth, stamens 3), or monaelelphous, insert eel at the 
summit ejf the ovary, anthers ^-ce^lleul, the e*ells e)ften 
(pieeilv curved and contorted, caipels usually 3, 
larelv more or fewer, ovarv inferior, inohtly .J-celled, 
many-ovuled fnnt a elry berry \\ith thick rind and 
spongy center (Pepo), or juicy with hard rind, very 
exceptionally elehisccnt 

There are 87 geneiu and about 650 species, widely 
distributed over the earth but most abundant in the 
tropics, thev aie wanting in the cold ic^giems Several 
are wild in the east em United State's The famih is 
related te>the Campanulacea', possibly also to the Paasi- 



floracese. The tendrils are usually borne singly at the 
nodes and are thought to be modified axillary branches 
The fruits are exceedingly diverse and odd Some are 
the largest fruits of the vegetable kingdom, otheis are 
very tiny The gourds are very diverge m shape and 
color, club-shaped, globular, or flattened from above, 
or curiously curved 

The family is of considerable economic importance 
The fruits of many are edible; e g , Cucurbita Pepo 
(pumpkin, bummer crookneck squash), C ma tuna. 
(squash), C moschnta (winter crookneck squash), 
Cucumib Mdo (muskmelon and other melons), C 
saliva (cucumber), Citrullm* t'ulganx (\\aterinclon). 
The gourds are cultivated as curiosities and for the 
fruit to boused as household utensils, e g , hot tie-gourds 
and calabash (Lagenana) The leaves, stems, or loots 
of very many species contain bitter, subresmous sub- 
stances which render them drastic purgatives The 
roots of Bryouia. alba (bryony) of Europe are highly 
purgative The fruits of colocmth (('ilrullus Colo- 
cynthis) of the orient and North Africa furnish a purga- 
tive known to the ancients. The fruit of Luffa of India 
and Arabia is purgative \\hen ripe but edible when 
green The outer portion of the fruit of LufTa is very 
fibrous and reticulated, and, when cleaned, .serves as a 
sponge or dish-cloth in the Antilles (lufla-sponge or 
Egyptian bath-sponge) The small gourd of Benin- 
rasa fntpida (wax gourd or Chinese watermelon) of 
tropical Asia is considered an emblem of fertihtv m 
India and is presented to new ly married couples Vean- 
thosicyos of the South African deseit is remarkably 
eiect and spiny, but the small fruit is considered a 
delicacy Elatermm is a drug obtained from the juice 
ot Ecbalhum Elattnum 

The most remarkable fruit is the squirting cucumber 
(Ecballium Elattriurn) of the Mediterranean region 
The prickly fruit, about 2 inches long, becomes. \ cry 
turgid and finally explodes with a considerable report 
The basal end is blown out like a cork from a bottle, 
and the pulpy interior, containing the seeds, is pro- 
jected to a considerable distance 

Twenty to 30 genera are in cultivation in N America 
Among these are the vanous melons, squashes, gourds, 
and the like, mentioned above, also Brjony, Wax 
Gourd, Balsam Pear or Balsam Apple (Momordica), 
Dish-cloth Gourd, Squirting Cucumber, Curuba 
(Sicana), arid Snake Gourd (Tnchosanthes) 

214 Campanulaceae (fiom the genus Campanula, a 
diminutive of rampana, a little bell) BELLFLOWER 
FAMILY Fig 56 Herbs, shrubs, or trees, mostly with 
milky juice leaves usually alternate, exstipulate, rarely 
lobed or divided floweis bisexual, rarely unisexual, 
regular or irregular, often bilabiate and split dovui the 
back, usually epigynous, calyx of usually 5, separate, 
valvate sepals, corolla usually 5-lobed, gamopetalous, 
very rarely polype talous, stamens as many as the lobes 
of the corolla, often slightly epipetalous, sepaiate or 
united; ovary usually inferior, 2-5-celled or (V-10- 
celled, rarely 1-celled, ovules many, style 1, stigmas 
1 to several fruit a capsule, rarely a berry 

Campanulaceae has 59 genera and about 1,500 
species, occurring in all parts of the world but mostly in 
the temperate regions A large part are alpine. Arbo- 
rescent forms occur in the Hawaiian Islands The family 
is rather distantly related to the Compositjr, Dipsaca- 
cese, Capnfoliaceae Formerly the Lobeliaceae were sepa- 
rated as a distinct family, but the only differences 
are m the irregular flowers and syngenesious or mona- 
dclphous stamens, both of whieh show abundant tran- 
sitions When united, the family constitutes a very 
distinct group The gamopetalous epigynous flower, 
the many ovules and the frequently united stamens 
are distinctive The stamens are sometimes united by 
their filaments with the anthers free (monadelphous), or 
by the anthers with the filaments free (syngenesious), 
or by both filaments and anthers. 

Ijobdia inflata (lobelia, Indian tobacco > of North 
Amenta is poisonous The foliage fui rushes the 
medicinal lobelia L. t>yphditica was used for syphilis 
by the Indians, but is of no value The roots of this 
latter plant and of the cardinal flower (L cardinalis) 
are more or less poisonous The berries and fleshy 
roots of some Campanulacecc have been used as food. 

In cultivation in N America aie some 20 genera 
Among these are Shepherd's Scabious, or Sheep's-bit 
(Jasione); Chinese or Japanese Bellflower or Balloon 
Flower (Platycodon), Venus's Looking-glass (Spccu- 
laria), Horned Hampion (Phyteuma); Giant Bellflower 
(Ostnnvskia), Lobelia and the Cardinal Flower (Lo- 
belia) , and the Bellflowers or Bluebells (Campanula) . 


57 COMPOSITE 1 Vernonia, fruit. 2 Euputonum, hood 3. 
Erigeron, disk flower. 4. Ambrosia, fruiting involucre 5 Xun- 
thium, fruiting involucre. 6 Coreopsis, head. 7 Dahlia, ray 
flower 8 Bidens, fruit 9 Cosmos, disk flower, corolla removed 
10 Helenmm, disk flower, vertical section 11 Mutism, head 12. 
Srncojo, floial digarnm 13 Cichonum, a, head, 6, fruit 14. 
Lnctuca, fruit 15 Ilicracium, ray flower. 

215 Composite (name having reference to the 
aggregation of the flowers into heads or false flowers, i e., 
composite flowers) COMPOSITE FAMILY Fjg 57. Herbs, 
shrubs, or rarely trees, sometimes twining, often with 
milky juice leaves alternate, opposite or whorled. 
very diverse m shape, size and texture flow ers bisexual 
or unisexual, regular or irregular, epigynous, subtended 
by a bract called chaff, aggregated into 1- to many- 
flowered involucrate heads; calyx (pappus) reduced to 
haus, scales, awns, or a border, or wanting; corolla 
gamopetalous, normally regular, 4-5-lobed. the lobes 
valvate, in one tribe bilabiate, often enlarged and 
split down one side, and flattened out (ligulate or ray 
flowers), stamens usually 4-5, epipetalous, syngc- 
nesious, alternating with the corolla lobes, carpels 2; 
ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled, inferior, style 1- stigmas 2, 
rarely 1 fruit an achene, often crowned by the persistent 
pappus, seed exalbummous. 



This is the largest family of flowering plants, consist- 
ing of more than 800 genera and 10,000 to 12,(KM) species, 
distributed over all parts of the earth, each tribe usually 
having a definite center of distribution. The largest 
genera are. Senecio, 1,200 species, Centaurea, 470, 
Vernoma, 450, Ilieracium, 400, llehchrysum, 300, 
Bacchans, 275, Cousmia, 210, Aitemisia, 200, Cre- 
pis, 170; Erigeron, 150, Chrysanthemum, 140, Saus- 
surea, 125, Gnaphahum, 120, Circmm, 120, Scoizori- 
era, 100, Anthemis, 100 The Composite, taken in 
the broad sense, is a well-defined family not closely 
related to any other large families Its affinities aie 
with the Campanulaeea', Dipsaeaeea?, and Valen- 
anacea' In general, the mvolucrate heads, epigy- 
nous gamopctalous flowers, syngcnesious stamens, 
1 -seeded diy flints and exalbummous seeds are dis- 
tinctive In some genera the heads have no ray 
flowers (discoid), in others they have a marginal 
row, and in still others all the flowers are hgulate 
Except in the last case, the ray flowers are without 
stamens, and frequently without a pistil (neutral) 
The style-branches are very diveise, and are im- 
portant in the characterization of tribes They are 
often provided with sweeping hairs which push the 
pollen from the mtrorse antheis up out of the 
anther tube as the style elongates The anthers are 
caudate in two tribes, and in some genera the fila- 
ments contiact abiuptly when stimulated by touch 
In Ambiosia and Xanthium, the anthers are sepa- 
rate, and the bracts of the 1-2-flowered pistillate 
involucre are fused, woody, mdehiseent, and covered 
with .spines or hooks 

The family is divided by Hoffman into 13 tribes, 
several of which are by some authors considered sepa- 
rate families. 

Sub-family I. Disk flowers not hgulate, no milky 
sap Consists of twelve tubes, separated on a basis of 
st> le-branchcJ, anther-tails, < haff on the receptacle, 
and so on, as follows Ironweed Tube, Boneset T. 
Aster T, Elecampane T, Sunflower T , Sneezeweed 
T , Chamomile T , Senecio T , Pot Marigold T , 
Arctotis T , Thistle T , Mutisia T 

Sub-family II All floweis hgulate, juice milky 
One tube, the Dandelion or Lettuce Tribe 

Medic mal Plant s r l he Cornposita' are i ich in ethereal 
oils, fatty oils, resins and bitter principle's, and therefore 
man v species are used in medic me Among otheis of 
less importance, the following may be noted Ait< nu^ia 
Absinthium (wormwood), tonic, febrifuge, anthelmmtic, 
A, Cina which furnishes santomca from which santonin 
is extracted, anthelmmtic, stimulant, i vulgari^ (mug- 
wort) has been used as an emmenagogue and for epi- 
lepsy, Antftcwj 1 * nobilin (Roman chamomile), tonic, nei- 
vme, emmenagogue, Matncana Charnomilla (German 
chamomile), with similar properties, Tanacctum vulgare 
(tansy), tome, anthelmmtic, emmenagogue. diuretic, 
Arnica montana (arnica, leopard's bane), skin stimu- 
lant, diuretic; Irtula Hchnium (elecampane), skin 
stimulant, Eupatonum pcrfohatum (boneset, thorough- 
woit), tome, diaphoretic, laxative, many Eupatoriums 
of the tropics, famed remedies for snake-bites, Tu^i- 
lago Farjara (coltsfoot), sedative; At ilium Lappa and 
A minus (burdock), diaphoretic, alterative, used for 
rheumatism, Calendula officinalit* (marigold), diapho- 
retic, alterative, Lactuca saliva (lettuce), the thickened 
mice a narcotic, a substitute for opium, L virot>a (wild 
lettuce), furnishing lactucanum or lettuce opium, a 
poisonous anodyne, hypnotic, and sedative, Taiaiacum 
officinale (dandelion), tonic, but injurious to digestion, 
species of Grmdeha, tome, sedative, used for asthma 
and rheumatism, Enqtron canadtnsc (fleabane), used 
for diarrhea and uterine hemorrhage; Anacyclus Py- 
rLthiim (pellitory), skin irritant, Achillca Millefohum 
(yarrow), an old remedy, styptic, tonic, sudorific, 
antispasmodic Braunena (Echmacea), Prenanthes, 
Xanthium, Helcmum, Spilanthes, Bacchans, and 

Chrysanthemum Leucanlhcmum have been used locally 
to some extent The pollen of ragweed (Ambrosia 
artemikifolid), less commonly of species of Sohdago and 
other Composite, is said to be the cause of autumnal 

The following are used for food, as salads or cooked 
in various ways Young foliage of Circmrn (thistles), 
Cynara CurdumiduA (cardoon), Taraxacum officinale 
(dandelion), Cicfiorium Inlijbws (chicory), Lactuia saliva 
(lettuce), Cichoninn Eiuhna (endive, succory), Paiou- 
rin<i edulii, and ,S'to/y?/nis hivpamcus, (Spanish oyster 
plant), young flower heads oi Cunara Kiolymus (globe 
artichoke), roots of Trayonoqon pornfohut (vegetable 
oyster, salsify), ticorzontra hi^panua (Seor/onera, black 
salsify), lldianlhu^ <u6cro,sus (Jerusalem artichoke) 
Roots of chicory, roasted, are a substitute for coffee 

The following yield d\es Carthamus tinclortus, 
(safflower) yields the red dye, cartharnme, Serralula 
tindoria (dyer's savory) vields a yellow dye 

The powdered heads of species of Chrysanthemum 
furnish insect powder An oil is obtained from the 
seeds of Guizolia aby^imca (niger seeds) of India and 
Abyssinia, used for food, painting, and burning Seeds 
of Madia saliva fuimsh an oil similar to olive oil, 
edible, illuminating, and lubricating The seeds of 
Ht'haniftuv annuus also furnish a commercial oil. 

Many Composite are ornamental The species oi 
Helithrjsum, Anaphahs, and related genera, have 
paper} involucres, and furnish w ell-known everlastings 
More than one hundred and fifty genera 3^9 m cu lti- 
\ ation in N America, or are impoitant weeds Many of 
our most important and most showy ornamental plants 
belong to the Composite Among these genera are 
Achillea (Milfoil, Yarrow, Sneezewort), Ageratum, Ana- 
phahs (Everlasting, Moonshine); Antennaiia (Everlast- 
ing, Cat's-car, Pussy's Iocs, Ladies' Tobacco), An- 
themis (Chamomile, Mavweed, Golden Marguerite); 
Arctium (Burdock), Arnica (Mouatam Tobacco, 
Mountain Snuff), Artemisia (\\oimwood, Tarragon, 
Estragon, Southernwood, Roman Wormwood, Old Man 
and Old Woman, Sage Brush); Aster (Aster. Starwort, 
Mieha'lmas Daisy), Bidens (Bur Mangold, Beggar's 
Ticks, Pitchfork * Bur) , Boltoma (Fake Chamomile); 
Brachvcome (Swan River Daisv), Bnckelha (Tassel 
Flow er) , Buphthalmum, Calendula (Marigold) , Calhste- 
phus (China Aster), Cmeus or Carbema (Blessed 
Thistle), Carthamus (Safflower, False Saffron), Cen- 
taurea (Centaury, Dusty Miller, Bachelor's Button. 
Cornflower, Knapweed, Bluebottle, Bluet, Raggea 
Sailor, Sweet Sultan, Basket Flower, Hardheads), 
Chipnactis, Chrysanthemum (Feverfew , Golden Feather, 
Turfing Daisy, Marguerite, Pans Daisy, Costmary, 
Mint Geranium, Giant Daisy, Ox-eje Daisy, White- 
weed); Ciehonum (Chicory, Succory), Cineraria, Cir- 
cium or Cmcus (Common Thistles), Coreopsis (Tick- 
seed, Golden Wave); Cosmos, Cynara (\rtichoke, Car- 
doon) , Dahlia, Doromcum (Leopard's-Bane) , Echmacea 
or Braunena (Purple Coneflovver), Echmops (Globe 
Thistle), Emilia (Tassel Flower), Erigeron (Flea- 
bane, Poor Robin's Plantain), Kupatonum (Boneset, 
Joe-Pye Weed, Thoroughwort, White Snakeroot), 
Felicia (Blue Daisy, Blue Marguerite); Gaillardia, 
Gazania (Peacock Gazama), Grmdeha (Gum Plant), 
CJynura (Velvet Plant), Helemum (Sneezeweed), He- 
hanthus (Sunflower, Indian Potato, Jerusalem Arti- 
choke), Hehchrysum, Hehopsis; Helipterum, Hidalgoa 
(Treasure Vine); Hieracium (Hawkweed, Rattlesnake 
Weed, Devil's Paint-brush) , Inula (Elecampane) , Krigia 
(Dwarf Dandelion), Lactuca (Lettuce), Leontopodium 
(Edelweiss); Leptosyne; Liatris (Blazing Star, Button 

Snakeroot), Ixmas (African Daisy); Madia (Tarweed) 
Matriearia, Mikama (Climbing Hempweed, Climbing 
Boneset), Onopordon (Scotch Thustle), Parthemum 

(American Feverfew, Prairie Dock), Pcntacha?ta; Peta- 
sites (Winter Heliotrope, Sweet Coltsfoot), P'queria; 
Podolepis, Polymnia (Leaf-cup), Prenanthes (Rattle 



snake Root): Rudbeckia (Black-eyed Susan, Yellow 
Daisy, Conenower, Golden Glow) , Santohna (Lavender 
Cotton); Scolymus (Golden Thistle, Spanish Oyster 
Plant) ; Scorzonera (Black Salsify) ; Senecio (Groundsel, 
Canada Plant, Ragwort, German Ivy, Leopard Plant, 
Dusty Miller) , Silphmm (Rosin-Weed, Compass Plant, 
Prairie Dock, Cup Plant), Sohdago (Goldenrod); Spil- 

anthes (Para Cress); Stokesia (Stoke's Aster); Tagetea 
(French Marigold, African Marigold); Tanacetum 
(Tansy) ; Taraxacum (Dandelion) , Thelysperma; Town- 
sendia, Tragopogon (Salsify, Goat's Beard, Vegetable 
Oyster, Oyster Plant); Trihsa (Vanilla Plant); Tussi- 
lago (Coltsfoot); Verbesina (Crownbeard) ; Vernonia 
(Ironweed), Zinnia (Zinnia, Youth-and-Old-Age). 


Acanthacese, 73. 

Cunomacpap, 39 

Loiantharea), 27 

Polypodiaceoe, 8. 

Aceracpse, 49. 

Cyatheacea), 8 

Lycopodiacpjc, 10. 

Pontederiacese, 18. 

Aizoacese, 30 

Cycadaeeae, 11 

LythraccoD, 59 

PortulacaccsB, 30. 

Ahsmaceae, 13. 

Cy< lanthaceae, 17. 

Magnohaceoe, 33 

Primulacaj, 64 

Amarantacpffi, 29. 

Cypcraoea;, 15 

Malpighiaceoe, 45. 

ProtPacpaj, 27. 

Amaryllidaceaj, 20. 

Cyrillacea?, 48 

Malvaceaj, 52 

Punirarea 1 , 59 

Anacardiacea}, 48 

Diaporusiucece, 64 

Marantaopffi, 22. 

Pyrolacp, 63 

Andreales, 7. 

Dillpmacea), 53 

Murattiacpae, 7 

Ranunrulacpffi, 32. 

Annonaceffi, 34 

Diosconacpa?, 20. 

Mart hantiales, 6 

Rosi-daceae, 37. 

Anthoccrotales, 6. 

Dipsacacpaa, 75 

MursileaceaB, 9 

RhamnacesB, 51 

Apocynaceae, 67 

Dr-jspracece, 38 

Martyniacese, 72 

Rhizophorarete, 59. 

Aponogetonacese, 13. 

Ebenacea?, 65 

Melastomaceae, 60. 

Riccialps, 6 

Aquifoliac*ese, 48. 

Elieaj^nacpse, 59 

Mphacpjc, 45 

Rosafpa*, 40 

Araceae, 17 

Elicocarpacese, 51 

Mehantharete, 50 

Rubiaopop, 74 

Araliacece, 62 

Empetracese, 47 

Menispennacpoe, 33. 

Rutacece, 44 

AristolochiaopB, 28. 

Eparndacoiu, 64 

Motuiniaceu', 35 

Salictueos, 24 

Asolepiadaceae, 67 

Equis>Ptacpa>, 10 

Monotropaopse, 63 

Sah iniucpoe, 10. 

Balsaminacese, 50. 

Ericacp8?, 64 

Moracej?, 2b 

Santalaceffi, 27. 

Basellareae, 30 

Erythroxylacece, 44. 

Moimgaeete, 37. 

Sapindaceaj, 50. 

Begomaceae, 57. 

Euphorbuiceae, 46 

Musacpcr, 21 

Sapotacea), 65 

BerbpndaceE, 33. 

Fagac-rae, 25 

M>oporacpa3, 74 

Sarracenmcpa;, 37. 

Betulacea?, 25 

Flacourtiacpa 1 , 56 

M>ncacetD, 24 

Saururacere, 23 

Bignomacece, 71 

FoxuiuieriacpfE, 55 

MynstK 'i( ete, 35 

SaxifraKiicpsB, 39 

BixaceaJ, 55 

Fumarmcpsp, 36 

M\ rsinac ese, 04 

Srhizaiti^ete, 9 

Bombacaceee, 53. 

Gcntianacpae, 67. 

Myrtatoj?, 00 

Srrophul'inacpse, 71. 

Boragmacoie, 69 

GernnmcPJB, 42 

Naiadacouo, 13 

SplaRinplluepse, 10. 

Bromehaceae, 18 

Gesnenacece, 72 

Nepenthacpaj, 38. 

Sirnarubaooce, 44 

Bmniaccoi, 39. 

Ginkpoarpac, 11 

Nolanacpse, 70 

Solanaffse, 70 

Bryalcb, 7 

Gleiehpmaf ca\ 9 

Nycta^inaopcp, 29 

Sphannalpb, 6 

Burseracese, 45 

Globulanac ea?, 73 

Nvmplueacecp, 31. 

Stachyuiaopac, 56 

Butomacete, 14 

Gnotac-pto, 12 

Ochnaoeae, 53 

Sta( khousiacete, 49. 

Buxacese, 47 

Granunrse, 14 

Ola( acece, 27. 

Staploleacoie, 49 

Cactacea;, 57 

GuttifVrjp, 5i 

Qlpacpaj, 66 

Stercuhaccae, 53 

Cal> canthaceuc, 34. 

Haloragidaceaj, 61 

OnaKrarpse, 61 

StyraoaceiE, 06 

Campanulacea;, 76 

Hainaiuriid.ircie, 40 

()orn\ cetes, 5 

Syinploracpu 1 , 66 

Cammtese, 22 

Hippooa^tanacca 1 , 50 

OphiojilossacpjB, 7. 

Taccuopjp, 20 

Capparidacene, 36 

Hydrocaryaoeie, 61 

Orrhidaceae, 22. 

Tainanoacea}, 55. 

Caprifohacefp, 74 

Hydroohantac ca 1 , 1 4 

Osmund icese, 9 

Taxacpn-, 11 

Caricaceie, 57 

HydrophyllaoeiK, 6H 

Oxahilacete, 43 

Ternstrtt-imaceffl, 54. 

Caryophyllaces?, 31. 

Hymonophyllacpsp, 8 

Palmacpse, 16 

Thpafece, 54 

OafeuarinaceaJ, 23 

Hypcricaceui, 54 

Pandanacpa*, 13 

Thyniplu-af eaj, 58 

Celastracesp, 40 

IruiacetP, 21 

PapaverifPte, 35 

Tiliareuj, 52 

Cephalotarue, 38 

Juglandarea 1 , 25 

Passiflorarpa;, 56. 

Trtmandracese, 46. 

Ceratoptpndacece, 8. 

Juncacp.T, 19 

Ppdaluicpae, 72 

Troehodendraceae, 32. 

Chenopodiarra;, 29 

JunReimanmales, 6 

Phase ales, 7 

Tropceolaoea;, 43. 

C'hloranthacea?, 24 

Labmtie, 70 

Phrymacece, 74 

Typhacese, 13 

CistacpiE, 55 

Larch zabalaopae, 33. 

Phvtolacract^ce, 30. 

Ulmacecp, 25 

Clethracece, 63 

Laurac-ece, 35 

Pinacuaj, 12 

Uml)ellif. ra>, 62. 

rornbretacese, 60 

Lecythidacese, 59. 

Pipcraceae, 23. 

Urticaceae, 26 

Commelmacpa 1 , 18. 

Leguminosas, 41. 

Pittosporacea3, 39 

Valenanaceae, 75. 

Composites, 76 

Lpmnaceae, 18 

Plantagmaceae, 74. 

Verbenaceje, 69. 

Convolvulaceaj, 68. 

Lentibulanaceae, 73. 

Plata nac-eaj, 40 

Violac-ese, 56. 

Coriariaceo 1 , 47. 

Lihacpse, 19 

Plumbaginaopffi, 65. 

Vitaccse, 51. 

Cornacpffi, 63 

Limnanthacpse, 48. 

Polemomaceaa, 68. 

Zmgiberaceffi, 21. 

Crassulaeeie, 38. 

Linaceee, 43 

PolyKalacese, 46 

Zygomycetes, 5. 

Cruciferse, 36. 

Loasacese, 57. 

Polygonaceae, 28. 

ZygophyllacecB, 44. 

Cucurbitace, 75. 

Logamacese, 67. 




In one of the editions of the Cyclopedia of American Horticulture, a key to the families and genera 
contained therein was placed in the introductory part to Vol. I This key is now modified and adapted to the 
present work. The original key was prepared oy Wilhelm Miller, Associate Editor of that Cyclopedia The 
main part of Dr. Millers introduction to that key is here reprinted, with adaptations, as explaining the purpose 
of a key and the way in which it is constituted. 

The key has now been extensively revised, but the original form and method are still retained. 

The purposes of the key. 

The following key attempts to supply what is proba- 
bly the greatest deficiency in cyclopedic works on 

(1) It helps the gardener to determine the name of 
any plant cultivated in America, including the wild 
flowers and other plants native to the United States 
and Canada that are commonly or even frequently 
offered for sale. 

(2) It helps the student towards a scientific knowl- 
edge of the plant world, since it gives a condensed 
and orderly catalogue of that part of the vegetable 
kingdom which is of interest to gardeners, farmers 
and foresters 

No merely alphabetical work can accomplish either 
of these results For example, suppose the person has 
a flower that is known to be an Ins, but of what species 
of Ins is not clear to him; and that he wishes to find 
the name If he were to consult the best works in w hich 
the species of Ins are arranged alphabetically, it might 
require hours to read the pages of description, com- 
paring the items with the specimen, and the chances 
are that in the end he would not be sure of a determi- 
nation, since related species are not compared and 

It was to provide a short-cut to such information 
that every large genus or group of plants described 
in the Cyclopedia of American Horticulture was 
classified according to shape, color, size, season, 
height or other characters of interest to the gardener 
These short-cuts, or "keys," have long been in common 
use with students of botany, and are a feature of all 
floras, but they have not been sufficiently employed in 
writings on horticultural subjects 

No valid objection can be made to keys, synopses 
or other classified arrangements, since they do three 
things more clearly and briefly than any other device: 
(1) They hslp one to find out the name of a plant ^2) 
They show the difference between the given species 
and other sp)ecies of the same genus (3) They show 
the relation of each species to every other, i. e., some 
of the points of likeness and unhkeness. 

But classified schemes alone have one serious limi- 
tation They are not so convenient for ready reference 
if one knows one's plant and merely wishes to find out 
the native country or how to spell the name. The 
Cyclopedia of American Horticulture met this need by 
numbering the species and providing an alphabetical 
list or index m each large genus. It therefore met 
the needs by presenting both systems the classified 
and the alphabetical one for taxonomic study, the 
other for convenience. 

All this supposes that one knows the genus to which 
the plant belongs, whether it is an Ins, Psoonia or 
Rhododendron. But he may not know the genus: the 
key will aid him to determine it. The key leads to the 
family and the genus; having the genus, he can run 
down the species in the Cyclopedia itself, for the 
genera are to be found in alphabetical order. This 
key, therefore, deals only with families and genera, 

since the species are described and distinguished else- 
where It ties the whole work together and makes it 
an organism, instead of a series of detached articles 
on Iris, Rosa, Solanum, and other genera. In other 
words, the key is not merely supplementary: it if* 
structural and even fundamental. 

The preparation of the key. 

It must be confessed, however, that the preparation 
of the key was undertaken with serious misgivings. 
During the preparation of the Cyclopedia of American 
Horticulture, the Editor was often importuned for 
something of the kind, by btudents, botanists, and 
others who made increasing use of the volumes as 
issued In response to these urgent appeals, it was 
necessary to point out three objections. (1) Such a 
key would necessarily be highly technical (2) It 
would have to use a scheme of arrangement that may 
pass with another generation (3) The labor and ex- 
pense would be great. 

In response to this demand the following key has 
been prepared It is based on the system of Bentham 
and Hooker as set forth m their "Genera Plantarum," 
a work published in parts from 1862 to 1883 The 
system of Bentham and Hooker is not now the lat- 
ent, but it is the only one that was ^in general use 
at the time the firbt Cyclopedia was begun. The 
system of Englcr and Prantl m "Die Naturlichen 
Pflanzenfamilicn" is now well known; this no doubt 

E resents the best system for the present generation, 
ut in its turn it is likely to be superseded In Engler 
and Prantl's system the plants are arranged, as far 
as possible, in the order in which the various fam- 
ilies probably have made their appearance on the 
earth s surface, or at all events in accordance with 
the evolution from simple to complex Perhaps the 
new system is better adapted for showing relation- 
bhip or likeness, while the old system is well adapted 
for bringing out differences. This furnishes an 
additional reason for the use of the older system on 
the present occasion, as most of those who use this 
part of the Cyclopedia will probably be m search of 

In the present revision, the Bentham and Hooker 
key-plan has been retained The authors of the 
main groups in the new Cyclopedia have made 
revisions and adaptations to meet the changes and 
requirements of their own work. New conceptions 
of the limitations of families and genera have naturally 
found expression m the revision It is not designed to 
insert in the key all the genera that are mentioned 
in a minor or incidental way, for to include them all 
would unnecessarily encumber and complicate the 
lists and tend to make them unworkable; but it is 
intended to include all the genexa that afford species 
prominently m the trade in the United States and 
Canada. When it has seemed to be desirable to omit 
genera from the key, the relatively unimportant 
native groups have often been left out, for they may 
be readily traced in the current botanies. 




The way to use a key is explained in the prefatory 
part to this volume (page xu). 

The general plan. 

The key is divided into two mam parts' a key to the 
families (page 80), and a key to the genera (page 86) 
When the student has determined the family to Tfhich 
the plant belongs, the further tracing of it is to be made 
m the key to the genera, when the genus has been 
found, he turns to its alphabetic place in one of the 
volumes and there runs down the plant to its species. 

The families are arranged in accordance with the 
following framework (for another and fuller outline of 
the vegetable kingdom, see pages 21). 


Division 1 Flowering Plants or Phanerogams . . . 1-209 

Subdivision 1 Dicotyledons or Exogens . . 1-181 

Claws 1 Angiosperms 1-176 

Subclass 1 PolypetaliP 1-101 

Series 1 Thalanuflone 1- 39 

Cohort 1 Ranales 1- 12 

Cohort 2 Panetules . 13-22 

Cohort 3 Polygalales 23- 25 

Cohort 4 Caryophyllales 26- 29 

Cohort 5 Guttiferales 30- 34 

Cohort 6 Malvales . . 35-39 

Series 2 Disoiflone 40- (.9 

Cohort 1 Geramales 40- 53 

Cohort 2 Olacalcs 54- 56 

Cohort 3 Cclastrales 57- 60 

Cohort 4 Sapindales 61- 69 

Series 3 Calyufiora 70-101 

Cohort 1 lloaalos 70- 79 

Cohort 2 Myrtalcs 80- 88 

Cohort 3 Passiflomles 89- 93 

Cohort 4 ticoirlales 94-95 

Cohort 5 Umbellate* 96-101 

Subclass 2 Gamopetalffi 102-144 

Series 1 Infer* 102-107 

Cohort 1 Rubiales 102 -103 

Cohort 2 Asterales 104-106 

Cohort 3 Campanales 107 

Series 2 Hetcromena 108-120 

Cohort 1 Encates NH-113 

Cohort 2 Primulales 114-116 

Cohort 3 Ebenales 117-120 

Series 3 Bicarpellatse 121-144 

Cohort 1 Gentianales 121-125 

Cohort 2 Polemoniales 126-131 

Cohort3 Personales 132-138 

Cohort 4 Lamiales 139-144 

Subclass 3 ApetahB or Monochlamydese 14.5-176 

Series 1 Curvembiyese 145-149 

Series 2 Multiovulatse Terrestres 150-151 

Series 3 Micrembrye* I "52-1 56 

Series 4 Daphnes 157-100 

Series 5 Achlamydosporese 161-162 

Series 6 Umsexuales 164-174 

Scries 7 Anomalous Families 175-176 

Class 2 Gymnosperms 177-181 

Subdivision 2 Monocotyledons or Endogens 182-209 

Senei 1 Mlorospermss 182-183 

Se-iM2 Epigynse 184-193 

Series 3 Coronanew 194-196 

Series 4 Calycime 197-198 

Series 5 Nudiflors) 199-203 

Series 6 Apocarpa- 204-207 

Series? Glumace 208-209 

Division 2 Ptendophyta 210-223 


(See page 86 for Part II ) 

auTOPHYTEB. those producing real flowers and seeds (pages 80 
to 86) 

Subdivision 1. DICOTYLEDONS Sts formed of bark, wood 
and pith, the wood forming a zone between the other two, and 
increasing when the st continues from year to year by the annual 
addition of a new layer to the outmde next to the bark Ivs usually 
netted^vemed embryo with a pair of opposite cotyledons, or, in 
Subdivision 2, often 3 or more in a whorl parts of the fl. mostly 
in 4's or 5's (pages 80-84) 

Class 1. ANGIOSPERMS Pistil consisting of a closed ovary, 
which contains the ovules cotyledons 2 

Subclass 1. POLY PET A L Calyx and corolla both present, 
the latter of separate petals (See exceptions 1 sted under Sub- 
class 2, Qamopetalte, page 82 ) 

Series 1. THALAMIFLOB^E Calyx mostly inserted Under the 
ovary, petals often in 2 or more series, sometimes 1 series; stamen* 

oo or definite, inserted on the often small or raised or stipitate 
receptacle, which is not developed into a glandular disk, ovary 
very generally free 

Cohort 1 RANALES Stamens , or if definite then the perianth 
in 3-oo series, carpels 1 or more, usually distinct, rarely united. 
(See exceptions in Saxifragaceee, also hypogynous Leguuunosse.) 

A. Sepals 5, or fewer, or 0, petals in about 

1 series. 
B Seeds not arillate sepals deciduous, 

usually colored herbs or shrubs 1. RAN 

BB Seeds not anllate calyx and corolla 
wanting, ovary of 2 carpels but 
1-cclled 7 EocoMMiACHua. 

BBB Seeds arillntn sepals persistent, her- 
baceous shrubs or trees 2 DiLLBNrACBai. 
AA Sepals or petals in 2- series, rarely 

B. Plants not aquatic 

c Perianth wanting, stamens nu- 
merous, OH polygamous, dius- 
cious, or perfect 
D Lvs pmnately veined, alternate 5. THOCHODBNDRA- 


DD Lvs palmately veined, opposite 6. CKRCIDIPHYL- 
cc Perianth present [LACIUI. 

D. Petals and stamens mostly <: 

ovules l-oo 

B Torus tubular, inclosing car- 
pels endosperm Ivs op- 
posite shrubs 3. CALYCANTHACBm 
EE Torus short or long, bearing 
carpels outside endosperm 
copious Ivs alternate 
woody 4 MAQNOLiACBJh 
DD. Petals o stamens 10 carpels 
5 10 ovule solitary IVH op- 
posite (See No 68, Cori- 
anaccn> ) 

ODD. Petals and stamens mostly mul- 
tiples of 3 or 2 

B. Stamens and carpels usually 
numerous ovules 1-. 
sepals 3, petals t>, fls bisex- 
ual shrubsortrs 8 ANNONACBA 
EE. Stamens usually (, ovule 
solitary carpels 3, sepals 
and petals usually h fls 
dioecious mostly woody or 

herbaceous vines 9 MENI8PERMACH2* 

BEG. Stamens 4, 6, or 9, anthers 
opening by 2 lids rarely 
bmmo'sc <arpel 1 ovules 
2-00 rh bi-rxual herbs 
or shruku 10 BKRBXRIDACEJD. 

EEEE. Stamens usually 6, anthers 
binmose carpels mostly 3 
o/ules many fls unisexual 

vines or erect, woody 11 LARDIZABALACBJB. 

BB. Plants aquatic 12 NYMPH^ACE.B 

Cohort 2. PARIETALES Stamens definite or < ovary 1-celled, 
or several-celled by spurious partitions, carpels several, placenta 
parietal (See Acttea in Ranunculacese, alo Berberidaceas ) 

A Embryo minute, near the base of the 

flonhy endosperm 

B Pitcher plants 13 SARRACENIACBJK. 

BB Not pitcher plants 

c Petals all alike, or nearly so 14 PAPAVERACB*. 

cc Petals in 2 series, the inner unlike 

the outer 15 FUMARIACK* 

AA. Embryo cuived, endosperm 

B Stamens 6, tetradyriamous, rarely 4 16 CRUCIFKH^C 
BB Stamens oo iO r, if few, not tetradyna- 

mous 17 CAPPARIUACK*. 

BBB Stamens usually <, not covered in 
aestivation by the small petals 
ovary often open above 18 RESEDACBJB. 

AAA Embryo not curved, rather large, 

endosperm fleshy 
B Radicle remote from lulum ovule 

generally orthotropous 19 CISTACBJB. 

BB Radicle very near hnum ovule ana- 

tropous, or amphitropous 
C. Anthers dehisce mtrorsely mostly 

herb* 20 ViOLACBJB. 

CO. Anthers dehisce extrorsely or at 
apex insectivorous plants with 
capitate glandular tentacles on 
Ivs (See No 76, Droseracese ) 
COO. Anthers demsee by apical cracks or 

pores woody 
D. Shme-cells present, receptacle 

not enlarged 21. BIXACBJD. 

DD. Shme-tiella absent, receptacle 

enlarged 22. FLACOUBTIAOBA. 

occc. Anthers versatile, dehiscing by 
longitudinal fissures woody. 
(See No. 34, Staohynracee.) 


Cohort 3. POLYOALALBS, Stamens as many or twice as many 
as petals carpels usually 2 ovary usually perfectly or imperfectly 
2-colled, usually compressed. 

A Fls regular or slightly obhquo 
B Stamens 5, as many as sepals or 

petals woody 23 PITTOBPORACEJB. 

BB Stamens twice as many &n sepals or 
petals, which arc usually 4 or 6, 
rarely 3 woody 24 TREMANDRACB. 

AA Fls irregular herbaceous or woody 25 POLYOALACE* 

Cohort 4 CARYOPHYI LAI.KH Stamens definite, rarely 
ovary 1-ceIIc-d or imperfectly septate, placenta central, rarely 
parietal embryo curved, or coileef, rarely straight 

,centa 1, 




A Sepals of same number ai 

placenta 1, < mitral herbs 
AA Sepals fewer than petals pi; 

central herbs 
AAA Sepals of same number as petals 

placenta: several mostly woody 
B Corolla polypetalous, stamens with- 
out scale, glabrous, fls spicate or 

BB. Corolla gamopetalous, stamens with 
scale, hairy, flu. thyrsoid-panicu- 

Cohort S GUTTIFERALEH Stamens usually co. sepals imbri- 
cated ovary septate, placenta? on the inner angles of the cells, i e , 
axile (See also, as exceptions with disk absent, the Linaoese, 
Erythroxylaeea 1 , Mulpighiacea 1 , Geraniaoeffi, Tropasolaceee, Lim- 
nanthacese. Oxahdaeesn, Balsaminacea", Ochnacato. Rutacen, Ana- 
cardiace-ds and Sapmclacca', all belonging to the Diaciflor (See 
also Nigella of the Rauuuculaeese ) 

A. LVH opposite or whorled, herbaceous 

fls eymose or paraded, bisexual 30 HYPERICACE*. 

AA Lvs opposite or whorled, coriaceous 

fls eymose or panic ltd 
B Receptacle not enlarged, fls um- 

BB Ku-fptdcle enlarged, barre 1-shaju d 
t>< tween pistil and corolla, b< aring 
thestame rm, fls bixrxini 32 EUCHYPHIACE/E 

AAA Lvs alternate, coriaceous fls mostly 

Cells of ovary 2-10 

Cellsof ovary 1 xtam 

Cohort 6 MAiviLf.,8 Stamens usually 
vahatc ovary septate, placentae axile 


A. Anthers l-ce>ll<d, pollen 

or woody 
AA. Anthers 1- to sov 




FF. Disk well developed, rogu- 

lar petals regular ovary 

closed woody plants . 50. SlMAKVBACBjC. 

m. Dwk indistinct, otherwise 

as in the last herbaceous 

Q. Ovule solitary stamens 


H. Fr dehiscent stamens 
connate at base, fls 
regular or irregular 44. GERANIACE.S. 
HH Fr mdehuscent sta- 
mens free, fls irregu- 
lar ovule pendulous 45. TKOPJEOLACBJE. 
HHH Fr mdehiseent sta- 
mens free fls regu- 
lar ovule asu ndmg 46 LIMNANTHACBJB, 
GCJ. Ovules several fr dehis- 

H Stamens 10 fls. regu- 

lar 47. OXAUDACBJB. 

HH Stamona 5 fls irregu- 


AA Ovary entire 

B Stamens monadelphous, at least 

below woody plants 
c Stamen-tube stipitate, disk vari- 

ous . 53 MBLIACBA. 

cc Stamen-tube sessile, disk 

D Petals not appcndaged fr cap- 

sular 40 LINAGE*. 

DD Petals appendaged fr drupace- 


BB Stamens free 

c Ovules several or many 

D Mostly herbaceous plants (See 

No 17, Cappanelace* ) 
DD Woody plants (See No. 22, 

Flacourtiacese ) 
cc Ovules 1-2 . 52 

Cohort 2 OIATAIES Dink cup-shaped or ring-shaped, free, or 
bearing the stamens and petals on its edge ovary 1-co-celled, 
entire, o\ ule solitary, pendulous, raphe away from axis. 

A Petils or corolla-lobes usually valvate 

woody 54 OLACACE^E. 

AA Petals or corolla-lobes imbricate or 

B IT elrupaeeous, slightly fleshy, 3-18- 
stoned, stones l-sec',ded fls 

racemose w oody 


BB. Fr crustaceous or spon>jy, 2-4- 
-seeded fls racemose 


Igh herbs 

35 MAI VAC + x. 

. . _ . _ ral-celled, pollen 

>th woody plants 36 BOMBACACE-B 

AAA. Anthers 2-celleel fls with staimnodia 
and queer stamen-tube woody 
plants 37 STEHCULIACE.*. 

AAAA Anthers 2-celled, stamens nearly free, 
no starrnnodia ovule often pendulous 
with ruphe toward axis 

B Petals ordinary herbs or woody 38 TIUACE.E 

BB Petals firm, often hairy or incised 

woody plants 39 EL^OCARPACEJS. 

Anomalous Group Stamens >, sepals 
valvat* tarpe! 1 ovary 1 -celled fls reg- 
ular Ivs compound herbs or woody 

(Mimocsse, mcl in JyCguminowe ) 

Series 2 J):SCJFLOKE Calyx usually inserted under the ovary, 
petals in 1 series stamens usually de finite, inserted within or upon 
or around the receptacle, which is usually expanded as a disk within 
the calyx o\ary usually free, or imbedded in the disk (See Fla- 
courtiaceas and Trapacete ) 

Cohort 1 G&RIMALKS Disk usually a nng between stamens, 
or adnato to staminal tube, or reduced to glands alternating with 
the petals, rarely o\aiy commemly lobed, rarely entire or sub- 
apocarpous, ovules 1-2 in each cell, pendulous, rapho toward axis 
(Seo Stackhousiaceic ) 

A Ovary more or less lobed or grooved 
B. Anthers elongated, disk enlarged in 

fr 51. OCHNACEA. 

BB. Anthers normal 

c Calyx-lobes 5, all or mostly with 2 

glands outside woody 42 MALPIQHIACEJB. 

CC, Calyx-lobes not biglandular 

D. Foliage glandular-dotted car- 
pels sometimes separate 49 RuTACB^B 
DD. Foliage not glandular-dotted 
B. Lvs usually opposite, com- 
EE Lvs. alternate 

F DisK well developed, irregu- 
lar, petals often irregular, 
ovary usually open above, 
herbs, rarely shrubs. 
(See No. 18, Resedacete.) 

celled, 1-1-seede 


Cohort 3 CkiiSTKVLES Disk tumid or adnate to the calyx 
or covering its base stamens inserted around the dibk or affixed to 
its margin ovary usually entire, ovules usually 2 in each cell, erect, 
raphe turned tow ard axis Ivb simple or rarely compound 

A Calyx valvate, petals small, concave, 

stamens opposite the petals woody 59 RHAMNACE/E 
AA Calyx imbricate 

B Stamens alternate with the petals, 

tlie latter imbricate 
c Petals spreading calyx small 

woody 67 CELASTRACE*: 

cc Pctnls ere<t, often connate calyx- 
tube hemisphciicul lu rbs 58 STACKHOCSIACEE 
BB Stamens opposite the p tals, the lat- 
ter valvate, dropping off early 
woody, rirely herb-ire ous 60 VITACE 

(IncL Leeacee ) 

Cohort 4 SAPiNDMhs Disk vinous, stamens variously 
m-crtexl on the disk ov 'ir> intirc, or more often lobed, or auba- 
pocarpus, ovules commonl> 1 2 in each tell, ascending, with raph; 
toward avis, or rev ersed, or suht-iry and pendulous from an ascend- 
ing fumele, rare>ly : an( \ hon/ontul Ivs pinnate, rarely simple 
(No 6J),or(No h5) diBitate 

A Carpels 2 fr a samara 62 ACERACBJB. 

AA Cr{>el2-3 fr a drupe, I -seeded 61 SABIACE.K. 

AAA Carpels 3-5 fr rarely samaroid in 

B Bark containing resin disk intra- 

btammal 67. ANACABDIACBJB. 

BB Bark not remous, or, if so, disk 

C. Endosperm abundant, embryo 


D Disk intrastammal, carpels 3 63 STAPHYLBAC**. 
DD Disk extrastammal, carpels 4-5 64 MELIANTHACBJB. 
CC. Endosperm sparse or wanting, 
embryo curved disk extra- 
stauunal (See Sapindacea?, 
No 66) 
D. Lvs opposite, palmately oom- 

pound . 65 EiPPOCASTA- 

DD. Lvs alternate, variously com- (NACBA 

pound, or simple .... . 66. SAJPINDACBAI. 



Anomalous Families Disk sepals and 
petals 5 stamens 10, carpels 5-10, distinct 
ovule solitary, pendulous, raphe away 
from axis Approaches Thalanunone. 68 CORIARIACE.A). 

Disk investing calyx-tube stamens 10, 
of which 5 have no anthers ovary 1-oelled, 
with J-panetal placentae, ovules oo. Ap- 
proaches Calyciflorsc 69 MORINQACE-B. 

Series 3 CALYCIFLORE Petals in 1 series stamens o or 
definite, inserted with the petals ana sepals on the edge of the cup- 
ehaped receptacle (hypanthium), or on a disk lining the latter: 
ovary ofton adnato to this receptacle, and therefore inferior (See 
also Calycanthacese ) 

Cohort 1 ROSALES. Carpels superior solitary or free or united 
only at base, sometimes to the apex and then rarely inferior styles 
distinct, rarely united in a column and easily separated (styles 
connate in some Brumacete and Saxifragacese) (See also Tropa>o- 
laceffi and Capparidaceaj. ) 

A. Endosperm rare 

B. Fr a legume, when rarely otherwise 
the corolla is either papilionaceous 
or the stamens are vtry numerous 
and oxserted Ivs usually com- 
pound with pulvim 70 LEQUMINOSE/EB. 
BB Fr not a legume, either a follicle, 
drupe*, pome, achene or aggregate 
Ivs simple or compound without 
pulvim 71 ROSACEJB. 
AA. Endosperm moderate or copious 
B Plants insectivorous 

c Lva bearing many tentacles tipped 
with capitate viscid glanda 
herbs 70 DROSERACE*: 

cc Lvs bearing pitchers 74 CKPHALOTACE^B. 

BB Plants not insectivorous 

c. Carpels 5, rarely 3 or more, sepa- 
rate, with a scale at the base of 
each, superior ovules many 
of ten fleshy plants herbs 75 CRASSULACE^E. 

cc Carpels 2 to several, rarely sepa- 
rate, no scale at the base plants 
not conspicuously fleshy 
D. Ovary usually 2-celleu, usually 
superior, o\ ules oo, usuilly 
axile fr a caps or berry or 

E Lvs opposite, stipulate 73 CUISONH.CEJS 

EE Lvs alternate, or opposite and 

exstipulate 72 HAXIJRAOACE^; 

DD. Ovary 2-celled, inferior or 
rarely superior, ovules l-oo, 
pendulous or axilc fr A woody 
2-valved caps, with a sepa- 
rating inner layer of different 

texture 77 HAMAMELIDACE^K. 

ODD. Ovary 1-4-eelled, usually infe- 
rior, ovules 1 to several, pendu- 
lous fr .ndohisoent or corn 
irregularly and tardily dehis- 
E. Plants heath-like stamens 

and petals 5 78 BRUNIACE/K. 

BE Plants ordinary stamens 

often many 79 HAI/)RAGIDACE<E 

Cohort 2 MYHTALES Ovary syncarpous, inferior or inclosed 
in a cup-shaped receptacle, usually divided into cells, stylo undi- 
vided, ovules 2- in the colls. 

A. Ovules pendulous from apex of cells 


B Ovary 2-6-celled . 80 RmzopHORArE.*: 

BB Ovary 1-celled 81 COMBRETACE^E 

AA Ovules affixed to the inner angles of the 
cells or to basilar placenta-, ascending, 
homontal or pendulous 
B. Stamens co, rarely definite woody 
c Oil-glands in foliage, sieve-tubes 

m pith-rays 82 MYRTACEJB. 

cc. Oil-glands absent, no sieve-tubes 

in pith-rays 83 LECYTHIDACK^HJ. 

BB. Stamens definite, rarely o 

C. Calyx-lobes usually imbricate or 
open, anthers curved, usually 
opening by pores at the apex, 
connective usually appendaged 
or thickened 84. MELASTOMACB^I. 

CC. Calvx-lobos usually valvate, 
anthers normal, not appendaged, 
opening longitudinally 
n Ovary superior, petals corru- 
gated 85 LTTHHACE*. 
DD. Ovary inferior or half-inferior 
B. Carpels in stories, superim- 
posed petals corrugated 86 PUNICACCJB. 
BE. Carpels in 1 whorl petals 

convolute 87 ONAORACE^D. 

BBX. Carpels in 1 whorl petals 
imbricate, a dentate or 
wavy cup-shaped disk under 
ovary water-plants 88. THAPACBJB. 

Cohort 3 PASSIFLORALES Ovary syncarpous, inferior, semi- 
inferior, or inclosed in the hollow receptacle, rarely exserted, 1- 
celled with parietal placentation.or divided into cells; ovules !-" 
styles united or distinct from the base. 

A Crown inserted on calyx-tube or within 

petals, single, double or multiple 90. PASBIFIX>RACB). 

AA Crown 

B. Fls bisexual (see Cancaccae), petals 
unlike the sepals foliago-hairs 
stinging or rigid or qucerly con- 
structed 89 LOABACEJB. 

BB Fls unisexual 

c Stamens 5 or 10 perianth of tho 

2 sexes unlike 91 CAKICACE^K 

cc. Stamens usually 3 perianth of 

both sexes similar 92 COCUHBITACEJS. 

ccc Stamens perianth of tho 2 sexes 

often unlike .... 93. BI/UONIACE^B 

vary syncarpous, inferior or superior, 
basilar plarontution, or rarely 1-rclled 

. - - ...... . . . 

divided into colls with sub-b , _ 

with parietal plie I'litas, entiles l-oo, styles distinct or united to 
near apex, embryo curved or exeentnc 

A. Calyx-lobes, petals and stamens usually 

oo ovary 1-celled 94 CACTACK/K. 

AA Calyx-lobes usually 1-5 ovary 2-- 

celled 95 AIZO\CE,. 

Cohort 5 UMHhLivU'S Ovary syncarpous, inferior, crowned 
by the ehsk, divulevl into colls, or l-e-arpclled, styles distinct or 
united part way, ovules solitary and pendulous in the cells. 

A Fr separating into 2 dry indrhiseont 

carpols 96 UMBELLIFER^B. 

AA Fr usually drupaceous, tho stones dis- 
tinct but not sonar iting naturally 
B Lvs c ennpoumf, or simple, ami pal- 

rmitoly veined 97 ARALIACSJB 

BB Lvs simple, pmnately veined 

C Ovules 2 in each oc 11 ovary 1- 
< oiled raphe tew, ml axis tts in 
catkins Ivs oppe>site . 98 GARRYACE.*. 

CC Ovule 1 in each tell 

D Raphe toward axis ovary 1- 
oelle-d fls in heads Ivs 

DD Raphe lattral ov ary 1 -2-cellcel, 

fls in cymes Ivs alternate 100 ALANQIA< E.*: 
ODD Raphe exterior ovary 1-5- 
colled fl" in heaels or cymes 
l\s opposite or alternate 101. COKNACK^ 

Subclass 2 GAMeiptTAi Calyx and corolla both present, 
the petals usually moio or less united stipules present only in the 
Rubiaeeie and Logamaoeas, rarely in tho Oapnfe>liacea> corolla 
polype talous in some Ericar eas, m Monotropae ote, Pyrolioojp, C loth- 
raeeffi, some Myraea-ce-je and Olcacea>, also in (lulax, Matire, 
Lysirnae hid., corolla g.urwpetalous in some FoiKjuienaoc.r, Stack- 
he)usiaeeu>, LoKummosir, Fumanaeo^, Pe>lygalaeeir, and Oxah- 

Series 1 IVJRR*, Ovary inferior (see Kricacose) stamens as 
many aa lobes ot the corolla, rarely fewer 

Cohort 1 RtrnrAiK.8 Stamens affixed to the corolla' ovary 
2- oo -celled, cells l-oo-ovulexl Ivs. opposite or whorled 

A Fls regular or irregular stipules 

usually absent 102 CAPRIFOIIACEJB. 

AA Fls regular stipules present, \ntor- 
or mtrapetiolar, various in form, 
sometimes like the Ivs aiiel ehsposeel 
m the same whorl with them . . 103 RUBIACE^. 

Cohort 2 ASTER \LEH Stamens affixed to corolla ovary of the 
2-merous pist il 1-celled, 1-ovuleel 

A Anthers free Ivs opposite or whorled 

B Endosperm 104 VALERIANACE^I 

BB Endosperm present 105 DIPSACACE* 

AA. Anthers united m a ring around the 
style except in a few genera. Ivs. 
alternate or opposite . . 106 COMPOSITE 

Cohort J. CAMPANALES Stamens usually free from the corolla: 
ovary 2-6-celled, the cells usually oo -ovuled Ivs usually alternate. 


(Iiicl Lobelmceae ) 

Series 2. HI,TEROMEH Ovary usually superior- stamens free 
from the corolla, or opposite the lobes or twice as many, or <, or, 
if borne on the corollan, the alternate with its lobes and equal m 
number to them, carpels more than 2 



Cohort 1. ERICALES Staraenn twice as many as the corolla- 
lobes, or as many and opposite them ov try 2--celle-d, ovules 
numerous (except in Epacndacese) fr fleshy or berry-like 

A Anthers dehisce by an apical crack or 
pore, often produced into a tube, sta- 
mens usually 8 or 10 (5 in some 

8 Chlorophylless plants polypetalous 108 MoNOTRejpACL^B 
BB Chlorophyll-bearing plants 

c Anthers inverted, at least at first, 


D Ovary {-celled shrubs 109 CrFrnHACE 

DD Ovary 5-celled low or acaules- 

cent plants 110 PYHOLAC;] A. 

cc Anthers erect, rarely polypetalous 

(Lodum) 111 LKICACI.*- 

AA Anthers dehisce by longitudinal fis- 
sures (see also Epigaea), stamens 5 

B Plants shrubs or trees carpels 4-5 112 F,PAr RJDAC r * 
BB Plants low or acaulescent carpels 3 113 DIAPENHIACF K 

Cohort 2 PiuMurArm Stamens OH many as the coroll i-lobes 
and opposite them, ovary 1-celled, placentae free-central or banal 

A Ovary 1-ovuled 114 PivrviBAGiVArE B 
AA Ovary 2 to many-ovuled 

B Fr capsular herbs 115 PRIMTII AC i v 

BB IT indchisoeut tree-s or shrubs 110 MYHHINAC-I-.E 

Cohort 3 KuhvvLEw Stamens as many as lobes of the corolla 
and opposite the m or twice us many, or o , ovary 2-o-colied, seeds 
usually few and rather large woody 

A Fls usually bisexual, stamens usually 

borne on the corolla 
B Stamens 15- ovary inferior, 2-5- 

celle-d 117 SYMPLOCACEK 

BB Stamens V-10 ovary superior 

e- Ovary 1-oelled at top US SxYRvrvcEE 

re entry i-co-cellcd ll'J SvpejrvcEE 

AA Fls dici cious, stamens usually free 

from corolla 120 EBEXACEE 

Series 3 Hie VHPFLI vi e O\ary usu il'y ^UJM 
or rarely Tor l / r ** Jt "' aS mMiy ^ iem or 

:arp< Is 2, 

Cohort 1 GE\TIV> 
with corolla-lobe- md 
usually alternate with 

FS Corolla regular stamens alternate 
ual to them m number, or, if fewer, 
>cls Us usually opposite 

Stam< us 2, altorn ite with the carpels. 



rarely 4, stigmi terminal, en iry 
2-cillcd, ovules affixed to upturn 


rarely he rb iceous 121 Oit-ACEB 

AA Stamens md eorolla-lobes usually ~>, 

som limes 4, Mr. ly oo 
B Ovary usually with 2 or 3 

(rarely 4 or ;> ) cell, or pheenfr 
c Caps mostly 2-cdlcd hs eon- 

ules 122 LeiOAMACE^; 

cc Caps mostly 1 -colled, with parie- 
tal pi tffiit.c Ivs not connected 
asabove 12i C.i-jsrivNAe FE 

BB (Ovaries 2, usually becoming follu le s 
C Anthers pe rmanently attached to a 
large stigmatic body, polkn 
mostly in waxy mosses 124 ASCLEPIADVCI- 

cc Anthers distinct or merely con- 

mvent, pollen ordinary 125 APOCINVCEE 

Cohort 2 PoihMONiviFs Coroll i regular stamens as ma 
as lobes of corolla Ivs. usually alternate ovary 1 co-en uled 

A Pistil 3-merous, corolla-lobes con- 
volute 126 POLEMONIACF 

AA Pistil not 3-merous 

B Corolla-lobes imbricated or rarely 


C Style usually deeply 2-cut, or even 
split into 2 distinct styles caps 
1-celled, 2-valved, with 2 parie- 
tal or mtroflexed placenta-, or 
sometimes 2-eelled 127 HYDBOPHYIL- 

CC. Style usually entire or shortly 2- [ACE. 

cut, rarely otherwise, ovary 4- 
ovuled, usually 4-lobed and 
maturing as 4 separate or 
separable nutlets, or not lobed, 
3-4-celled, and separating when 
ripe into 2 or 1 nutlets 128 BORAOINACEJB 

BB. Corolla-limb more or less ohcate or 

C. Ovary 2-eelled (sometimes 3- or 

EDUsly 4 -relied, becoming R 
lar 4 -G-seeded caps seeds 

CC Ovary 2-celIed (rarely 3-5-celled), 
with numerous ovules on ex- 
panded axillary placentae, be- 
coming a pod or berry 130 SOLANACEJC 
CCC Ovary o iO-celled, 5-30-lobed, 
often transversely as well as 
longitudinally so 131 NOLANACE-B 

Cohort 3 PERSON VLLH Corolla usually irregular or oblique, 
posterior stamen chffc ring from the others, abortive or even absent 
carpeU co-ovulcd, or with 2 ovules, one above the other 

A Seeds usually with endosperm ovary- 
pi rfectly 2-cellod, place tH.e central 132 SCHOPUULAHIA- 
AA Se eds without endosperm (CEK 

u Plants insectivorous, often aquatic 
ovary 1-celled, globose , with a free- 
central or basal plac nta 133 LENTIBULAHIA- 
BH Plants not insectiv orou-., not aepiatrc [CEX 
c Seeds wingenl ov ary 2-, rarely 1-, 

celled trees or climbing shrubs 134 BIQNONIACE.B 
cc Seeds not winged 

D Ovary 1-celled or falsely 2-4- 


t Fr straight or spiral 135 GESNEHIACKJE 

Et Fr falcate-rostrate 136 MAKTYNIACE^B 

DD Ovary 2-4-crlled 

B Plant very i^ucilagmous no 
hooks among si cds fr often 
hooked or spiny 137 PEDALIACE 

eilagmous hooks jri caps 

aiding in nced-rlisscmination 138 ACANTHACE/E. 

Cohort 4 LAMIU FS Corolla usually irregular or oblique pos- 
terior stamen smaller thuri the others, usually abortive or quite 
dchcicn' carpels with 2 ov ule 1 placed side by sule, 01 elae 1-ovuled 

A Fr not divided into 4 nutlets ovary 

not 4-lobod 
B Ovary 1 -celled. 1-ovuled 

c Ms in heads plant often heath- 

cc Fls in slender interrupted spikes 110 PHRYMACE^B. 
BB Ov iry 2 -K>-cclleel 

c Cells with 2-10 ovules trees or 

shrubs 141 MYOPORACE-B 

cc Cells w ith 1 ovule herbs or shrubs 142 VERBENACE^K 
\v Fr divided into 4 nutlets ovary 4- 

lobcd 143 LABIATE 

Anomalous Family Remarkable for 
its scinous 4-lobed corolla stamens few, 
ovary l-4-<elled fr a urcumscissile caps , . 
or rarely indehiscent , seeds peltate 144 PLANTAGINACE 

Subclass 3. APH-M * em MONOCHI VMYDLE Ce>rolla wanting 
or uintilT( rentnted from the calyx (except in some Kuphorbiaceae 
and one genus of Phytolaccaceu;), and sometimes also the calyx 
wanting, perianth simple, the lobes or segrns in 1 or 2 srnes, 
similar among themselves and usually calyx-like, sometimes 
minute or wanting (See aKo Ilanunculacese, Macourtiaccir, 
Memspermae ejp, 7 rochodendrie ep, Kovacea 1 , I ythraceas Om- 
gricpp, Hamamelidaceuf, J?utacea, Aceracea-, Rhamnacca?, Lueom- 
miace.p, C'ornacece, and Caryophyllacuje with corolla sometimes 
absent ) 

Series 1 CLRVI-IBRIKE Embryo curved, excentnc, lateral or 
peripheral, rarely straightisa, subeentral and narrow (Polygon- 
aceii-i, ovule solitary in the ov iry or in each carpel or in the Ama- 
rantace.e more then 2 ovules erect in the center of the cell fls 
bisexual or, in a few genera, unisexual or polygamous, petals very 
rarely present, stamens as many as the penanth-segms or fewer, 
rarely more 

A Fr the hardened or membranous 
closed base of the coiolla-hke peri- 
anth with a utricle inclosed 145 NYCTAQINACE . 
AA Fr a utricle, ovule not orthotropous, 
embryo annul ir or spiral perianth 
rncjstly persistent, sm ill 4 5-lobed, 
or parted, or 

B Perianth herbaceous, or scarious at 
the margin, persistent, stamens 
pengynous, style branched or 
styles 2-3 st ipules scanous 

(IllecebraceJB, mcl m Caryophyllaceae). 
BB Penar*,h dry, chaff-like, not herba- 
ce-ous, subtended by a bract arid 2 
bractlets, stamens hypogynous or 

pengynous, lilarnonts connate at 
base, style simple or 2-3-tV 
stipules ( 

mple or 2-3-fid 

BBB Perianth-lobes or -^egrns membtan- 
ous or herbaceous, stamens hypogy- 
nous or perigynous, nearly always 
free, style simple or 2-3-lobed, or 
,'ylea 2-5 stipules iione 147 CHENOPODIACBJB. 



AAA. Fr. composed of 1 to several carpels, 

which are crowded or connate in a 

nng, each with a style, baccate, cori- 

aceous or samaroid , ovule Dot ortho- 

tropous, embryo coiled stamens 

hypogynous, perianth herbaceous or 

coriaceous, rarely membranous 148 PHTTOLACCACBA. 

IAAA Fr an achene, triangular or lens- 

ahaped, style branched or styles 2-3, 

ovule orthotropous, embryo straight. 

perianth herbaceous, membranous or 

colored, rarely adherent to base of 
vary usually a stipular sheath at 

each If -node 


Series 2 MULTIOVULATJB TERRESTRES Terrestnal herbs or 
shrubs, often climbers ovary ayncarpous; ovulea in each cell or on 
each placenta numerous 

A. Fls dioecious, ovary superior Ivs. 


beanng tendrils and pitchers 
AA. Fls bisexual, ovary inferior Iv 
out tendrils and pitchers 






Series 3. MICREMBRYE* Ovary syncarpous, monocarpous or 
apocarpous, ovules solitary for each carpel, rarely 2 or few, endos- 
perm copious, fleshy or mealy, embryo minute 

A. Penanth 

B Lvs alternate carpels 3-4 ovules 2 

to several stamens 3-6 
BB Lvs alternate, rarely opposite 

whorled carpel 1 ovule 1, basal 
stamens 2-8 153 PIPERACE< 

BBB Lvs opposite carpel 1 ovule 1, 

pendent stamens 1-3 154 CHLORANTHACE 

AA Penanth calyx-like 

B Carpel solitary perianth of 3 parts, 

connate 155 MYRISTICACE^S 

BB Carpels several, together with the 
stamens scattered over the face of 
the cup-shaped receptacle 156 MONIMIACE/B 

Series 4 DAPHNE* Ovary monocarpous, 1-celled, rarely syn- 
carpous with 2-4 cells, ovules solitary, or twin and side by side m 
the ovary or in each cell, rarely a few pairs superposed. 

A. Radicle superior, ovule solitary, pendu- 


B Anthers dehiscing by uplifting 
valves, rarely laterally dehiscent 
perianth-tube short, lobes 6 or 4, 
in 2 series, usually imbricated' 
ovary 1-celled woody 157 LAURACEA). 

BB Anthers normal penanth-tube long, 
lobes 4-5, imbricated: ovary 1-2- 
celled woody 158 THTMELAACE^:. 

AA. Radicle inferior 

B Penanth-tube cyhndraceous, lobes 
4, valvate, stamens as many and 
opposite them ovule erect or pen- 
dulous, or geminate, rarely 159 PROTEACE^B 
BB. Penanth-tube medium, constricted 
above the ovary, persistent at base, 
deciduous above, lobes 2 or 4, sta- 
mens twice as many as the lobes 
lvery-caly plants woody 160 EI-JCAONACE/B 

Series 5. ACHLAMYDOSPOREJE. Ovary 1-cclled, cells 1-3-ovuled, 
cells and ovules often inconspicuous before anthesis, endosperm of 
seed without a coat, either free in the pericarp or attached to its 
walls plants often parasitic. 

A Ovule 1, not easily distinguishable 

from ovary 161 LORANTHACE.B 

AA. Ovules 1-3, pendulous from summit of 

free-central placenta . . . 162. SANTALACE^S 

Series 6. UNISEXUALES Fla unisexual: ovary ayncarpous or 
monocarpous, ovule solitary or in pairs side by side in the ovary or 
m each cell, trees or shrubs, rarely herbs. 

A. Ovary 1-celled 

B. Ovule solitary, stamens 2 to many. 
c. Fls of both aexes in globose long- 
peduncled pendent heads, 
crowded very densely on a cen- 
tral receptacle radicle inferior 
woody 163 PLATANACBJB. 

cc Fls not as above radicle superior 
D Male perianth free from the 
bract, stamens as many as its 
lobes and opposite them, or by 
abortion fewer, rarely numer- 

B. Stamens uncoiling elastically 
v Ovule suspended, anatro- 

pous 164. MORACXJB 

IT. Ovule basal, orthotropous 165 URTICACBJL 

BE. Stamens not elastic ovule 

suspended, anatropous 166 ULMAOBJi. 
DD. Male perianth wanting, some- 
times grown to the bract in 
Juglandacete; stamens Q0 , 
often 2 in Myricacese. 
B Lvs pinnate male fls in 

catkins woody 167. JUOLANDACBA 

BB. Lvs simple male mfl spicate, 

subamentaceous woody 
F. Carpel 1, placenta parietal 

ovule amphitropous 168 LCITNERIACEA. 

FF. Carpels 2, placenta basal 

ovule orthotropous 169 MYRICACE 

BB. Ovules 2, stamen 1 equisetum-hke 

plants, woody 170 CABTTARINACBAI. 

AA Ovary 2-3-celled, rarely more-relied 
B Endosperm usually copious fr 
usually separating into 2-valved 
berries, sometimes fleshy and inde- 
hiscent, or various mfl various 
c Hypogynous disk present micro- 
pyle externally directed, juice 
often milky 171 EUPHORBIACEA. 

cc Hypogynous disk absent nncro- 

pyle toward axis, no milky juice 172 BUXACEA 
BB Endosperm fr a nut male mfl 

usually m c atkins woody 
C Carpels 2 pistillate fls usually in 

spikes 173 BETCLACE*!. 

cc Carpels 3 pistillate fls not in 

spikes 174 FAOACE.S 

Series 7 Anomalous Families Somewhat related to the Uni- 

Fls in catkin 

aps 2-4-valved: 

Fla axillary, or rarely in a terminal 
head drupe 2- -stoned, stones 
1-seedod low shrubs 



Class 2 GYMNCHPERM^ Ovules naked upon a scale, bract or 
disk cotyledons 2 or more fls unisexual. 

A Lvs undivided 

B The Ivs fan-shaped fls in pairs 177. GINKOOACEJC 

BB The Ivs not fan-shaped 

c Ponanth present no resin-tubes, 

but true vessels in wood 178 GNETACEJK. 

cc Perianth wanting no true vessels, 

but ream-tubes present 

D Ovule solitary, arillate 179 TAXACE^J 

DD O\ ulos in conos, not arillate 180 PINACE^I 

AA Lvs pmnatiscct, ample, crowded at 
apex of the woody st fls of both 
sexes in cones 181. CYCADACEJE 

Subdivision 2 MONOCOTYLEDONS St without central pith 
or annular layers, but ha\mg the woody bundles distributed irregu- 
larly through it (a transverse section showing the bundles as dots 
scattered through tho cellular tissue) embryo with a single cotyle- 
don early Ivt always alt* rnatc parts of tho fl usually in 3's, 
never in o's l\s mostly parallel-veined 

Series 1 MICROSPFRME Perianth corolla-like, at least inside: 
ov try inferior, 1-celled with 3 parietal placentas, or rarely 3-celled 
with axile placentro seeds very small and numerous, without 

A Fls regular, usually unisexual, sta- 

mens usually 2, 0, or 9 aquatic herbs 182 HYDROCHARI- 
AA Fls usually very irregular, stamens and [TMVV 

stylos connate into a column, anther 
1, rarely 2 terrestrial or epiphytic 
herbs, rarely climbers 183 ORCHIDACEJR. 

Series 2 EPIOYN^B Penanth corolla-like, at least within, ovary 
generally inferior endosperm copious. 

A Fls normally unisexual, stamens 6, or 
those opposite the inner perianth- 
lobes imperfect or deficient, ovary 
3-celled seeds 2 . 1 

AA. Fls normally bisexual, sometimes 

184. DiOBCOHEAcaan. 


polygamous or otherwise 
. Stamens 

regular, perianth regular 
nearly so embryo small, in- 
cluded in the endosperm 
c. Ovary 1-celled, endosperm solid; 
embryo minute, stamens 6, 
hooded . . . 185. TACCACBJB. 

CC. Ovary usually 3-celled. 

D. Stamens 3, opposite the outer 

lobes endosperm horny 186 IRIDACE.A 

DD Stamens 6, rarely 3 and opposite 
the inner lobes, rarely : 
endosperm fleshy. 
B. Placentae scarcely intruding.. 187 AMARTLUDACEA 



BE. Placentse intruding lamella- 
like, and peltate 188. VELLOBIACEJS. 
BB. Stamens 1 or 5 perfect, the other 5 
or 1, variously changed into 
antherless Htairunodia, fin. irregu- 
lar embryo in a central canal of 
endoHperm, straight, incurved, or 

C Fertile Htamens 5 189. MUSACE.SJ. 

cc Fertile stamen 1 

D. Staminodmm 1, often traces of 
more, a hgule at top of 
petiole, anther 2-cellcd 190. ZINGIBERACEAS 

DD Stammodia 5, no hgule, anther 

E Ovary-cells 1 -seeded a joint 

at Hurnrmt of petiole 191 MARANTACt^s 

EE Ovary-cells -seeded nojoint 192 CANNACEJK. 
BBB. Stamens regular or nearly HO peri- 
anth regular embryo in a Hmall 
marginal cavo or pit of endosperm, 
rarely much intruded, never 
wholly included 

C. Endosperm mealy perianth calyx- 
like outside, Htamens 0. Ivs. 
rigid . 193. BROUELIACEJK. 

CC. Endosperm fleshy perianth 
corolla-like or woolly outside, 
Btamens sometimes and equal, 
sometimes 1-3 and slightly dis- 
similar, or 3 opposite the inner 
(Hsemodoracese, mostly mcl in Lihacese and Amaryllidacese ) 

Series 3 COKONARIB* Perianth corolla-like, at least inside 
ovary free, rarely shortly adnate at the base endosperm copious 

A Embryo minute or more or leas elon- 
gated, included in fleshy or horny 
endosperm perianth regular sta- 
mens b ovary usually 3-celled 194 LiLlACE^C 
AA. Embryo Htraight, in a central canal of 
mealy endosperm perianth regular or 
irregular, from a spathe, stamens 3 

or ovary 1- or 3-celled 195 PONTEDERIACE*. 

AAA Embryo marginal, lying in mealy en- 
dosperm and under a little callosity 
of the seed-coat perianth regular or 
slightly irregular, of 3 herbaceous 
sepals and 3 deliquescent colored 
petals some stamens usually sterile 
and altered, stamen-hairs conspicu- 

Series 4 CALYCINB-B Perianth calyx-like, small, somewhat 
rigid or glumaceouB, or rarely herbaceous ovary free, endosperm 

A Fr a 3-valved, many-seeded cans , 
embryo included in more or less 
fleshy endosperm plant graas-hke 1<J7 JUNCACE-K 
AA Fr berry- or drupe-like, 1-seeded. 
rarely 2-3-seeded, embryo immersed 
in a small pit near the periphery of 
the endosperm palm-like plants 198 PALMACE* 

Series S NUDIFLOR^S Perianth 0, or reduced to scales or bris- 
tles, ovary superior, carpels sohtaryor, if more, syncarpous, l-oo- 
ovuled seeds usually with endosperm 

A. Plants minute, thalloid, 1-3 hnes wide, 
aquatic fls solitary or in pairs from 
marginal fissures 199 LEMNACEJR. 

AA Plants larger fls on spadices 

B Fls dioecious, perianth 0, carpels 
usually confluent m clusters, 
spadues clustered or pameled 
stiff plants 200 PANDANACE^I. 

BB. Fls dujecious, or monoecious in differ- 
ent spadices, perianth 0, or the 
short segms distinct or connate, 
spadices solitary stiff plants 201 CYCLANTHACEJC. 

BBB. Fls. monoscious m different spiuhces 
rarely dioacious, perianth reduced 
to membranous scales or thread- 
like chaff, spadices rarely solitary 
reed-like marsh plants 202 TTPHACKJB. 

BBBB. Fls bisexual, or monoecious in same 
spachx, rarely dioecious, perianth 0, 
or of 4 membranous or fleshy im- 
bricate scales, spadices solitary 
herbaceous or fleshy plants 203 ARACE^J 

Series 6 APOCARP^S Perianth in 1-2 series, or 0' ovary supe- 
rior; carpels solitary, or, if more, distinct seeds without endosperm. 

A. Embryo complicate or horseshoe- 
shaped pcrianth-Hcgins 6, in 2 series, 
the inner petaloid 
B. Ovules 1, rarely 2-5, basal 204. ALISUACDA. 

BB. Ovules numerous, borne between the 

margins and midrib of the carpel... 205 BUTOMACEJB. 
AA. Embryo curved perianth of 4 her- 
baceous segms , or ovule solitary 206 NAIADACEJB. 
AAA. Embryo straight perianth of several 

petaloid parts ovules 2-6 207. APONOQETONA- 


Series 7 GLUMACE. Fls disposed in spikes or spikelets which 
are variously arranged, bracts of the spikelet scale-like (glumes), 
usually imbricate, penanth-segrns small, scale-like, bristle-like, 
or 0, ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled seeds with endosperm 

A Fr an achene, seed free from the pen- 
carp, palets and lodicules 208. CYPERACE^B. 
AA. Fr a caryopsis, seed usually adherent 
to pericarp, palets and lodicules 
present . 209 GRAMINE^I. 

Other families, of which plants are more or less in cultivation 
and described in this Cyclopedia, are Adoxacese (Adoxa), Basel- 

laceie (Anredera), Candolleacea* (Candollea), Caryo<arace 
(Caryo<ar.), Datiscaceie (Datisci), Frankemaceff (1< rank* ma), 
joodeniaopir (Cioodema, Sc^vola), Ineacinaeese (Pyrenacantha), 

Orobam hau ' (Aphyllon), Restiacoa* (Restio), Turn 
a;, V ochysiacese (Vochysia) 

Division 2. PTERIDOPHYTA Beanng spores instead of seeds, 
ut with a usuall 
sexual organs Fer 



but with a usually separate more insignificant stage which beam 
Ferns, lycopods, horsetails and the like 

A Plants like large moss-plants, 

scale- or needle-like Ivs 

n Spore sail alike .minute 210 LYCOPODIACK*. 

BB Spores of two kinds, larger (mega- 

spores) and smaller (mu rospores) 211 SELAQINELLACE.* 
AA Plants consisting mainly of slender- 
jointed herbaceous sts witli whorls 
of Hcalc-hkf appressed IVH at the 
joints 212 EQUISETACEA. 

AAA Plants true ferns, with usually ex- 
panded Ivs (Azolla, a moss-like 
water-plant is exceptional ) (Fih- 
eales ) 

B Ferns epiphytic or terrestrial (one 
Ci ratoptens partly aquatic). 

c Sporangia with thick walls, aris- 
ing from tissues beneath the 
The sporangia in spike 

The spora 

DD The sporangia in round or oval 
son on under nurface of ordi- 
nary If 214- MARATTIACE^I. 

CC Sporangia walls only 1 cell thick, 

derived from epidermis 
D. Small membranous ferns spor- 
angia borne on thread-like pro- 
jections along margin of Ivs 215 HYMENOPHYLL- 
DD. Usually larger, thitker-lvd ferns [ACEJB. 

sporangia not on thread-like 
E Plants terrestrial 

F Ring of sporangia obsolete, 

sporangia in panicles 216 OSMUNDACEJD 
FP Ring of sporangia apical, 

sporangia ovate, sessile 217 SCHIZ.SACEB. 
FFF Ring of sporangia vertical 
G. The sporangia mostly 
long-stalked h s pin- 
nate or palmate 218 POLYPODIACEJB. 

GO. The sporangia mostly >-es- 
sile or very short- 

H. Sporangia in son of 
2-8, radiating in a 
single plane, If - 
branching often di- 
chotomous growth 

indeterminate 219 GLEICRENIACBJU 

HH Sporangia numerous 
in the globose son 
mostly arborescent 220 CYATHEACEJB. 
BB. Plants aquatic, with floating 
sterile Ivs and pod-like 
sporophylls sporangia ses- 
sile w ith broad nnjj or 221 CERATOPTERI- 
BB. Ferns, aquatic, unfern-like in appear- [DACBJB. 

ance, spores of 2 sorts, large 
macrospores and nunute micro- 

c Plants floating Ivs simple, folded 
microspores and macrospores in 
separate sporocarps 222 SALVINIACEJE. 

CC Plants rooting in mud h s quadri- 
foliate, cloverhke microspores 
and macrospores in the same 
gporocarp . 223 MARBIUEACE.JB. 




A Sepals usually valvate Ivs opposite . . 1. Clematis 

AA. Sepals imbricate 

B Carpels 1-ovuled fr an indehiscent ccheno. 
c Ovule pendulous, ruphe dorsal 

u Petals conspicuous 2 Adonis 

DD Petals 0, or very small 

E Fls not subtended by involucres .1 Thahctrum 
EE Fls subtended by m\ olucres remote 

from the calyx or dose under it 
F Involucre remote from calyx 4 Anemone 

FF Involucre of J wimple, sessile Ivs 

closer under the fl 5 Ilepatica 

FFF Involucre of 3 compound sessile 

Ivs 6 Syrulesmon 

CC Ovules ascending 

D Petals wanting 7 Trautvet- 


DD Petals 3 to many 8 Ranuncitlut 

BB Carpels several- or many-ovuled fr usually 

dehiscent at maturity, rarely berry-like 
c. Petals large and showy 9 Pyorna 

CC. Petals medium small, deformed, or 
D Fls' irregular 

E Posterior sepal forms a spur 10 Delphinium 

EE Posterior aepal forma a hood 11 Acumtum. 

DD Fls regular 

E Iiifl racemose 

F Stamens 5 or 10 shrubs 12 Xanthorrh- 

FF Stamens numerous herbs [via 

a Fr a berry 13 Actaa 

QQ Fr consisting of follicles, dehis- 
cent 14 Cimicifuga 
EE. Infl paniculate, or fls solitary 

F Lvs palmately veined or cut, not 

o Petals wanting 

H Ovules many, in 2 series 

along the ventral suture 15 Caltha 
HH Ovules only 2 10 Hydiastis 

GG. Petals small or narrow, mostly 


H Sepals commonly deciduous, 
petals not 2-hpped, nor 
scale-bearing 17 Trolhus 

HH Sepals persistent , broad petals 

2-hpped or bearing a scale 18 Ilclleborus 
HHH Sepals deciduous, narrow, 

petals bearing a scale 19 Erantfus 

FF. Lvs ternately or subpmnatcly de- 
O Sepals 0-6 

H Pf tals spurred 20 Aquilegia 

an Petals not spurred, often 

small or 
i The carpels connate at the 

base or higher 21 Nigella 

n The carpels free 

j Carpels stalked 22 f'opha 

JJ Carpels not stalked 2.1 Itopyrum 

QO Sepals and petals numerous 21 Antmonop- 

The genus Calhanthemum is also in cultivation 


A Anthers adnatc. linear carpels 5-20, partly 

connate upright trees or hhrubs 1 Dillemn 

AA Anthers oblong or rarely orbicular, the tells 

parallel and contiguous 2 Hibbertia 

AAA Anthers versatile, emarginato at the base, 
carpels completely connate fr a berry 
twining shrubs. 

B Stamens and carpels oo winter-buds in- 
closed m the swollen base of the petiole . 3 Actinidia 
BB Stamens 10 carpels 5. winter-buds free . 4 Clemato- 



A. Stamens 10- co all sepals brownish red. . 1. Calycanthus. 
AA Stamens 5 outer sepals white, inner purple 2 Meratia. 


A. Stamens <. perianth-segms 6-. 
B Fls bisexual upright trees or shrubs, 
o. Stipules 


cc Stipules present, inclosing young Ivs. in 

tne bud 

D. Anther- face out . . . . 2. Lirtoden- 

DD Authors face in [dron. 

E Structure bearing the carpels stalked 3 Mirheha. 
EE Structure bearing the carpels sessile 

F Dehiscence of carpel circumscissle 4 Tnlauma. 
JK Dehiscence 2-vahed 5 Magnolia. 

BB Fls unisexual twining shrubs 

c Carpels after anthosis tpicale 6 Schizandra, 

cc Caipels after anthesis globose-capitate 7 Kadsura 
AA. Stamens 4 penanth-segms 4, fls in slender 

spikes, small Ivs palmmerved tree 8 Tetracen- 

Members of the genus Drimys are sometimes cultivated 


A Carpels 5-8, sessile, with many seeds fls per- 
fect evergreen tree 1 Trochoden- 
AA Carpels , stipitate, developing into winged [dron. 
nutlets with 1 or few seeds fls polygamous 
deciduous tree 2 Euptelea 


The only genus Cerndiphyllum. 


The only genus Eucomm\a. 


A. Fr an aggregation of many carpels closely 
crowcleel into a spheroid or ovoid mass, 
ovules solitary 

B Carpels fused together with the> receptacle 
(tot us) into a fleshy (often edible) syn- 

C Corolla gamopetale>us, ,Mobed or 3- 
spurred, almost dosed, with c>nly a mi- 
nute opening above the stamens and 
pistils 1 Rollinia 

CC Corolla polypctalotis, petals u in 2 series, 
inner series sometimes minute or even 
wanting, outer petals valv ate 2 Annona. 

BB Carpels distinct, rigid, polygonal, becoming 
detached from the iceepticle when 
mature, corolla polypetalous, the petals 
imbricate or ove? lapping 3 Duguetia 

AA FT a eluster of distinct carpels, usually stip- 
itate, never crowded so closely as to be- 
come polygonal e>r prism-shaped, ovules 
geminate or many in 1 or 2 seru s 
B Ovules geminate, vertical, paralle 1 
BB Ovules horizontal or in 2 vertical rows 

c Petals narrow , long, strap-shaped 
cc Petals suborbieular to obovaU -oblong 
D Inner pe tils with their margins invo- 
lute, ear-shaped or boat-shape el fifCymbopet- 

DD Itmer petals with margins not involute 7 Asimina 

Fussea, Unona, Uvana, and Xylopia arc also slightly in cul- 


A. Filaments coalesced into a column which is 

subpeltate at apex 
B Sepals fi, petals 1 Anamirta 

(See article Cocculus.) 
BB Sepals 4, petals grown together, making a 

small cup 2 Cissampelos. 

AA Filaments free, either at base or apex 
B Stamens 9-20 

c Sepals and petals 6, in whorls, stamens 

9-12 3 Sinomen- 

cc. Sepals and petals irregularly arranged, [turn. 

sepals 4-10, petals 6-9, stamens 12-24 4 Memsper- 
BB Stamens 6. [mum. 

c. Petals 6, shorter than sepals, stamens 

high-monadelphous 5 Cocculus. 

cc Petals 0, unless the 3 inner and larger se- 
pals are regarded as petals, outer sta- 
mens free 6. Abuta. 

Calyocarpum and Jatrorrhua are sometimes cultivated. 




A. Venation or lobmg pinnate, Ivs penmnerved, 
mnatise nne 2-3-ern - 

AA Stigmas confluent Ivs alternate, ternately de- 
compound sepals 2, petals 4 placentae 
remain attached to the margin of the valves 
B Sepals coherent and covering fl like a can- 

pmnatisect, pinnately 2-3-ternate or decom- 
B Ovules few, erect from the base 
c Plants are shrubs 
D Fohage-lvs simple, often fascicled 
branches usually bearing reduced 
spine-lvs 1 Berberit 
DD Fohage-lvs pinnate evergreen branches 
K Lfts serrate, Ivs simply pinnate 2 Mahonta. 
KB Lfts entire, Ivs 2-3-pmnate 3 Nandina. 
cc Plants are herbs 
D Petals 0, reduced to small nectaries 4 Leontice 
DD Petals 0, scarce ly smaller thun sepals 
and flat 5 LeorUtce, 
BB Ovules placed ventrally in 2 series hr rbs [Bongardra. 
c Sepals 12-15, petals 0, reduced to nec- 
taries 6 Vancouterta 
cc Sepals 8, petals 4, reduced to nectaries 7 Epimedium 
ccc Sepals 7-8, petals i, a little smaller flat 8 Aceranthus 
AA Venation or lobing palmate, Ivs palmmerved, 
palmilobed, or 2-parte.el 
B Sepals 6, petals (j ovules in 2 series Q Diphyllna 
HB Sepals 6, petals to 9 ovules m many st nes 10 Podophyl- 

BBB Sepals 4, petals 8 11 Jeffersoma 
BBBB Sepals and petals 12 Acfilyg 

die-extinguisher 4 Eschscholtz- 
BB Sepals separate [to. 
c Lobes of stigma 2, erect 5 Dendrome- 
cc Lobes of stigma 4, spreading 6 Hunne- 
AAA Stigmas confluent Us alte mate or mainly so Imannia. 
fls rarely 3-m< rous caps dehiscing by pores 
or valves, the placenta? re uuunmg as a frame 
alternate with and free from the valves 
B Caps dehiscent by pores neir the top 7. Papaver. 
BB Caps shortly dehiscing by valves 
C Stigmatic lobes radiating on the de- 
pressed summit of a v e ry short style 8 Arjemone. 
cc Stigmatic lobes radiating em the club- 
shaped top of a distinct style 9 Meconopnt. 
BBS Caps dehiscing by valves to the base or 
nearly so 
c The caps long arid linear 
D Seeds pitted 10 Glaucium 
DD Seeds crested 11 Chchdon- 
cc The caps ovoid, oblong or cylindrical [turn. 
D Petals 4 
t Style distinct, but short 12 Stylo ph- 
| or urn. 
EE Style long 13 Komecon 
DD Petals 8-12 14 t>ari(jum- 

The species of Caulophyllum may be expected in wild gardens 


A Lvs pinnate upright shrub 1 Decaisnea. 
AA Lvs digitate twining hrubs 
B Carpels 3, many-seeded 
c Stamens monadelphous 
D Sepals b, petals 6, much smaller 2 Lardizabala. 
DD Sepals 6, petals 3 Mauritania 
cc Stamens free 
D Sepals to, petals 
E Peeln e Is elongated , sepals acuminate, 

Hypecoum is in the trade 


A Corolla 2-spurreel or bigibbous, the 2 outer and 
larger (lateral) petals bimil tr 
B Seeds ere st less petals permanently united 
into a Hubtordate persistent corolla which 
me loses the ri{>e caps 1 Adlumwi, 
BB Seeds mostly crested petals less or -hghtly 
united into a 2-spurrcel or bigibbous 
corolla 2 Dicentra. 

connective produced above the 
anthers 4 HoUmttvi. 
EE Pedicels short, sepals rounded, con- 
nective not produced, race mes very 
long 5 Smofranch- 
DD Sepals 3, petals 6 Akebia 
BB Carpels , 1-seeded, stamens free Ivs 
deciduous . 7 Sargento- 


A. Fls small ( <^-l in ) 
B Stamens 3 6 submerged Ivs dissected 1 Cabomba. 
BB Stamens 12-25 Ivs all peltate 2 Brasenta. 
AA Flu large and showy (Hi- 12 m ), sepals 
4-5, petals and stamens o 

or gibbous by te>rsion becoming posterior a 
nectariferous spur from the base of the fila- 
m< nts proje cts into the petal-spur 
B Style mostly persistent 3 Corydalit. 
BB Style deciduous fl emaller 4 Fumaria. 


A The sihque trans\ crsely 2-jomted 
B Lower joint indehiscent pe>dicel-shaped, the 
larger joint globose, 1-lociiled. 1-seeded 1 Crambe. 
BB Lower joint dehiscent, 2-valved, many 

AA 1 he silique n it 2-jomteel, melehisceut 
B Sihque s in pairs J Senebiera. 
BB Nhques not in pairs 
e IVxture horny or bony 4 laatis 

BB Carpels forming a distinct many-seeded 

c Plants prickly 
D Stamens, inner once, sterile 4 Victoria. 
DD Stamens ill fertile 5 Euryale. 
cc. Plants not prickly 

D Shipe straight 5 Raphanus 

DDU Shape orbicuhr 7 Pcltaria 
AAA The sihque dehiscent for its whole length 
(except that w>me lirassiea-s are not dehis- 
cent it the apex) 

D Ovary <v holly free and superior 6 Nuphar. 
DD Ovary with stamens and inner petals 
inserted on it . 7. Nymphsea 


A. Style umbrella-shaped 1 Sarracenva. 
AA. Style 5-cut at apex 2 Darhna- 
Hehamphora may be expected in choice botanical collections. 


A. Stigmas distinct Ivs mainly opposite or 
wnorled sepals usually 3. petals usually 6, 
in 2 series placentas never separate from the 
B Lvs lobed 1. Romneya. 
BB Lvs entire 
c Filaments dilated stigmas , linear, 
fr not oapsular 2. Platystemon. 
cc Filaments slightly dilated, stigmas 3, 
broader, fr. capsular .... . . .3. Pbtiyt\gma. 

trary to the septum, which is often very 

c Cotvledons accumbent. 
D Sts leafy 8 Ibens 
DD St s s( apes 9 Hutchinsia. 
cc Cotyledons incumbent 
D 'I he v ilvc & usually wingless 
E Fls rosy 01 violet 10 lonopeid- 
FK Fls white 11 Lepidium. 
DD The valves wmgeel 12 &thionema. 
BB Valves (transversely septiferous in Anastat- 
ica), flat or concave, not compressed con- 
traryto the septum (Smeleiwskia and cer- 
tain Vesicanas are laterally compressed) 
septum as wide as the valves, sihque long 
or short 
c Cotyledons longitudinally conduphcate 
D Seeds in 1 seues 13 Bratnca. 
DD Seeds in 2 series 14 Eruca. 
CC Cotyledons nccumbent (sometimes incum- 
bent or convolute in Cheiranthus) 
D Seeds in 1 series (except certain species 
of Radicula and Arabis sihquos 
long and narrow (except in Anastatioa 
and sometimes Radicula and 



B. Valves appendaged 15 Anaatatica. 

(See article Reaurrectiou Plants ) 
BE. Valves not appendaged 

p. Stiginatio lobes erect, connate or 

deturrent along the style 
G. Plants are herbs or branched 

sub-shrubs woolly 16 Matthiola. 

GO Plants are tufted, scape-bearing 

herbs 17 Parrya. 

FF. Stigma undivided or shortly 

a Valves elastic seeds in 1 or 2 

series, silique long and linear 18 Arabia. 
QG Valves not elastic 

H Sepals unequal, the lateral 

ones sac rate at the base 19 Cheiranthus. 
HH Sepals equal 

I Seeds in 2 series . . 20 Radicula 

II. Seeds in 1 series 

jr Fls yellow 21 Barbarea. 

jj Fls w hite or purple 
K. Khizomo not scaly 
valves drheately net- 
ted-m>rvcd 22 Cardamtne. 

KK Rhizome scaly valves 
with very delicate 
midrib 23 Dentana. 

DD. Seeds in 2 series and sihquei short and 
broad (except in some species of 
Dnha and Corhleana) 

B. Sihqucs 

seeds much 


mgtd or 

F Lvs entire or dtntute. sihques 

long-stalked, v< ry broad 24 Lunaria. 

FF Lvs pmnatisoct sihques sessile 25 tielenia. 
EE. Sihques 1-2-loc ult d, 2- to many- 
seeded, seeds ran ly \vingod, vahes 
often turgid 
F Sepals often unequal, the lateral 

saccate at the base 
G Fls purple sihques oblong 

lateral sepals nau ate 20 Aubnetia. 

GO Fls generally yellow sihquos 
mostly oblong sepals equal or 
unequal 27 Vesicaria. 

FF Sepals equal 

G Stamens often appendaged 28 Alysfum. 

GG Stamens not appendaged. 

H Plants tomentose 29 Draba 

HH Plants glabrous 30 Cochlearia. 

(See also Kernera ) 
CCC. Cotyledons incumbent, straight, con- 

volute or transversely plicate 

D. The cotyledons trans\ ersely biphcate 31 Hehophila. 
DD. The cotyledons not transversely biph- 


E Petals pmnatifid 32 Schizopet- 

EE Petals not pinuatifid [alon 

F Stigmas erect, free or connate into 
a cone, sepals long and straight 
a The stigmas bilamellate, la- 

mella) erect 33 Hesperis. 

GO The stigmas bilamellate, la- 
mollse conmvent or connate 
into a cone 34 Malcomia. 

FF. Stigma simple, capitate, emargi- 
nate or shortly 2-lobed cotyle- 
dons straight 
G Sihque stipitate ........... 35. Stanleya. 

GO Silique sessile 

H Sepals equal ......... 36 Smelowakia. 

HH Sepals unequal ........ 37. Erysimum. 

The additional genera are also treated. Braya, Physana, and 


A. Fr. capsular, 1-loculed herbs. 
B. Torus short, often produced into a posterior 

appendage ... 1. Cleome. 

BB. Torus long, produced into a gynophore 
which is elongated at the middle and bears 
the pistil to which the filaments are 
united 2 Gynandrop- 

JLA. Fr berry-like or drupe-like [m. 

B Lvs simple 3 Capparit. 

BB. LVB. with 3 Ifts 4. Cratxva. 

Polanisia is also to be expected m cultivation. 


A. Placenta* with many seeds Ivs opposite at 

least below, flat. 

B Valves 5, rarely 3, embryo circmate or 
spiral fls solitary or cymose, rarely 
racemose 1. Cistus. 

BB Valves 3, embryo biphcate, runcmato or 

circumflex fls commonly racemohe 2 Hehanthe- 

AA Plaoentse with 2 seed* hs alternate, scale-like [mum. 

or awl-shaped heath-like shrubs ... 3 Hudtonia. 


A. Sepals subequal, produced or spurred at base, 

lower petal spurred or saccate herbs . 1. Viola. 
AA Sepals not produced at base 

B Lower petal spurred or enlarged 

c With a vi- ry large spur seeds complanate 

woody i limber 2 Corynos- 

cc With lower petal merely gibbous seeds [tyh$. 

obovoid-subglobosc herbs 3 Solea 

BB Lower petal not greatly unlike the others 

shrubs or trees 4 Hymenan- 


21. BIXACE^E. 


A. Caps 2-valvod, seeds straight and 

Ivs entire 1 B\xa 

AA Caps 3-vul\ed seeds spiral, hairy or woolly 

Ivs digitate or palm itely lobed 2 Maximih- 



A. Sepals ind petils alike, 9-15, spirally ar- 
ranged, red, stamens 7-10 twining shrub 1. Berberidop- 
AA. Sepals 3-6, whorled, stamens usually numer- [sit. 

ous (ex< ept m No 1 ) upright trees or shrubs 
B Petals 1-10, Mpils 3-5 2 Oncoba. 

BB. Petals wanting 

C Infl axillary Ivs penmnerved, leathery 

fr a btrry or drupe 
D Style Mmple, sometimes lobed at apex, 

ovary 1-cclled 

E The sepals imbricate, stylo short . 3 Xylosma. 
EE The sipals vilvatc, stylo elongated, 

stiuneny sonif turn s .- or 10 4. Atara. 

DD Styles se\eral, ovary irregularly 

E. Fls perfect or polygamous, in axillary 

racemes or panicles fr a drupe 5 Flacouriia. 

EE Fls duJtuout, the pistillate solitary 

or few fr a berry Aberia 

cc. Infl terminal Ivs hand-nerved or 3- (or Doryahs. ) 

nerved at base, long-stalked, deciduous 
D Fr a berry, styles usually r >, sepals 

imbricate 7. Idesta. 

DD. Fr a caps 

E. Styles 3, 2-parted at apex, sepals 

valvate 8. Pol\othyra\t. 

BE. Styles 3-4, 3-parted at apex, sepals 

reduplicate, large 9. Camerea. 


A. Fr indehiscent 

B Filaments longer than anthers, petals more 
or less conmvent from the base to beyond 
the middle 1. Billardiera. 

BB Filaments shorter than anthers, petals 

spreading from the base . 2 Sollya. 

AA. Fr a caps which is locuhcidally dehiscent 
B Caps thick-coriaceous, seeds numerous 
c Seeds not winged, thick or sligntly com- 
pressed 3 Pittogporum. 
CC Seeds winged, flat, compressed, horizontal 4 Hymenoa- 
BB. Caps thinly coriaceous seeds 1-2 in each (porum 
locule, compressed, not winged, vertical 5. Bur tana 


A. Anthers 2-celled, or 4-eelled m 2 planes 1 Tetratheca. 

AA. Anthers 4-celled m 1 plane 2. Platytheca. 

la cultivation Rtteda. 

In cultivation Polygala. 



A. Ovary 1-ovuled: corolla absent 
B. Segms of involucrate perianth hooded near 

apex and mucronate on back 1. Poronychw. 

BB. Segms of hardly involucrate perianth not 

hooded, and blunt 2. Herniana. 

AA. Ovary several-ovuled petals usually present 
B. Sepals coalesced into a toothed or lobed 
calyx, petals and stamens hypogynous, 
being raised with the ovary on a gyn- 
ophore, rarely sessile, petals with or with- 
out a scale at the apex of the claw. 
c. Hilum facial, embryo straight 

D Calyx tubular, multistnate 3. Dvinthut. 

DD Calyx top-shaped or long-tubular, 6- or 

15-nbbed plants and flu smaller 4. Tunica. 

OC. Hilum lateral, embryo peripheral. 

D. Calyx 10-nerved, rarely with many 

parallel nerves 
E Styles commonly 3 caps shortly 

i- or b-valved 5 Silent. 

EE Style* commonly 5 or 4 caps 

shortly 5-10- or 4-8-vaived . 6. Lychnu. 

DD Calyx obscurely veined 7 Saponaria. 

ODD Calyx broadly or obscurely 5-nerved 8 Qypsophila, 
BB Sepals free or only coalesced at the very 
base, petals and stamens hypogynous 
on a short torus or usually very shortly 

c Stipules small, scarious 9 Spergula. 

cc Stipules 

D Valves (or rather teeth) of the caps 

twice as many as the styles, . 10 Cerattium. 

DD Valves of the caps as many as the 


E Petals 2-fid, styles commonly 3 11 Stellana 

EE Petals entire, styles commonly 3 12 Arenaria. 
KKK Petals entire or 0, styles as naany as 

the sepals . . 13 Sat/ina 

Alsine is also cultivated 


.. Ovary cohering below with the calyx-tube 1 Portulaca. 

. Ovary free from the calyx 

B. Embryo arched , endosperm scant 2 Anacamp- 

BB Embryo more inouned or annular, mclud- [seros. 

ing the endosperm 

c. Sepals usually deciduous 3 Tahnum. 

cc Sepals persistent, at least usually in Cal- 


D Number of sepals 5-8 4 Levnsia 

DD. Number of sepals 2 

E Shape of sepals roundish heart- 
shaped, scarious 5 Spraguea. 
EE Shape of sepals o% ate, herbaceous 

F Stamens 3, rarely 5 6 Montia 

FF. Stamens definitely 5 7 Claytonw. 

FFF Stamens indefinitely 5 to many 8 Calandnnia. 


A. Stamens 4-5, free 1 Tamartx 

M.. Stamens 10, connate below 2 Af yricorw. 


The only genus Fouqu\er\a. 


The only genus 



A. Fls. 4-meroua 
AA. Fls. 6-meroua 

1 Ac]/rum. 
. 2. Hypencum. 

31. GUTTIFER-fi. 

A. Style very short or ovules solitary in each 

locule of the ovary. 

B Sepals 4 1. Garcinta. 

BB. Sepals 2 . . . 2. Rhtedia. 

AA. Style elongated* ovules solitary or 2 

B Ovary 1-loculed, 1-ovuled . 3 Calophyl- 

BB. Ovary 2-4-loculed, 4-ovuled . 4. Ma\ 

The genera Ochrocarpus and Platonia are also treated. 


A. Anthers baaifixed. 
B. Calyx of 5 sepals, sub-connate at the base, at 

length fleshy and adhering to the ovary 1 Yitnea. 
BB. Calyx inferior, sepals free 

c. Fls rather large, petals coalesced at base, 
anthers glabrous ovules 2-4 in each 
locule, pendulous from the apex ... 2. Ttrnttrctm\&. 
cc. Fls medium-sized, petals free or hardly 
coalesced, anthers pilose ovules in 
the middle of the locule 3 Clever a. 

COO. Fls. small, dicecious, petals coalesced at 
base , anthers glabrous ovules o in the 
middle of the locule . . 4. Eurya. 

A A. Anthers versatile 
B. Radicles inferior 

c Ovules ascending, seeds lens-shaped, 

embryo straight 5 Sttutrt\a. 

CC. Ovules laterally affixed, seeds flat, winged 
on back, cotyledons flat and radicle 
mflexed . 6 Schima. 

BB. Radicles superior. 

c Ovules , seeds winged above 7 Gordon\a. 

cc. Ovules few in each locule, seeds not 


D Fls sessile, sepala deciduous . 8 Camellia. 

DD Fls. pedicellea, sepals persistent 9. Thea 


The only genus 



A. Fr a caps , locuhcidally dehiscent (in Adau- 

sonia mdehiscent, and woody) 
B. Seeds usually kidney-shaped etigmas or 

style-branohos finally spreading 
C Bractlets 5 to many, rarely 0, or reduced 
to teeth style-branches finally spr*ead- 
mg 1 H\bi$cut. 

CC Bractlets or 3 stigmas distinct, free, 

radiating 2. Layunaria. 

BB. Seeds obovoid or angled style club-shaped 
at apex, undivided or with short erect 

C. Bractlets 3-5, small . 3 Theipetia. 

cc Bractlets 3, large, cordate 4 Gosiypwm. 

AA. Fr composed of carpels which separate at 


B Stammal column anther-bearing outside, 
truncate or 5-toothed at the apex, atyle- 
branches 10 
C Bractlets 5-8, herbaceous or setiform, 

carpels with or without 1-3 awns 5. Pavonta. 

cc Bractlets , herbaceous or setiform , car- 
pels fleshy outside, connate into a berry, 
later separating . 6 Afalvavucui. 

ccc Bractlets 4-6, large and colored, carpels 

naked, muticous . 7 Oaelhea. 

BB. Stammal column bearing anthers at or near 

the apex 
c. Carpels cx> , crowded into a mass without 


D Bractlets 3 ... .8 Malope. 

DD. Bractlets 9. Palata. 

CC. Carpels m a single whorl 
D. Ovules 2 or more 

E Bractlets 4-6 10 Kydva 

EE Bractlets 11 A bullion. 

EEE Bractlets 3 12 Sphxralcea. 

DD Ovule solitary 

E The ovule ascending 

r. Styles longitudinally stigmatose 

o. Fls dioecious 13. Naptea. 

QQ Fls. bisexual. (See article Sida.) 

H Stammal column double, the 

outer of 5 clusters 14 Sidalcea. 

HH Stammal column single 

I. Bractlets 3-9, connate at 

j. Axis of fr. not surpassing 

carpels . 15. AVuta. 

jj. Axis of fr surpassing 

carpels 16 Lavatcra. 
XL Bractleta 0-3. distinct. 
j. Carpels with transverse 
appendages inside un- 
der the beak 17. < 



Jj Carpels not appendaged 18 Malva. 
n. Style-branches tipped with small 

capitate or club-shaped stigmas 19 Mahastrum. 
XX). The ovules pendulous 

F. Style-branches longitudinally stig- 

rnatose inside 20. Plagianthus. 

TV. Style-branches truncate at apex or 

with small capitate stigmas. . 21. Stda. 

Other genera described are Hohena, Ingenhousia, Kitaibelia, 
and Koateletakya. 


A. Fr a fleshy 3-stoned drupe , . 1 Malpighia. 

AA. Fr a caps composed of 3 dehiscent berries 

2 Galphimta. 

. 3. Stigmaphyl- 

Other genera described are Byrsomma, Janusia, Sphedamno- 
carpus and Tristellatem. 

fls in terminal racemes 
AAA. Fr. consists of 1-3 samaras, 
corymbs . . 


L. Lvs digitate: cotyledons conduphcate or 

B. Stanunal column separated above into 

numerous filaments 

c Caps 5-valved, densely woolly within . 1. Bombax. 
cc Caps woody, not woolly within. 

D Calyx 5-cut . . 2 Adansonia. 

DD Calyx truncate 3 Pachira. 

BB Stanunal column 5-cut or 5-toothed, the 

branches bearing 2-3 anthers 
c. Column outside below the middle annu- 

lately 5-10-lobed 4 Chonsta. 

cc Column not annulate 5 Ceiba. 

k. Lvs simple, feather-veined, entire cotyledons 

plane, leafy or fleshy 6 Duno. 


A. Petals concave or hooded at the base 

B Anthers solitary between the stammodes 1. Ruhngia 

BB Anthers 2 or more between the stammodes 

c Fr a membranous caps 2 Abroma 

cc Fr a woody caps. 3 Guozuma 

ccc Fr drupaceous . . 4 Theobroma. 

AA. Petals flat 

B. The petals deciduous 

c. Anthers sessile, calyx club-shaped or bell- 

shaped 5 Reewsia. 

cc Anthers stipitate, sepals at length free. 6 Pterosper- 



BB. The petals persistent or marcescent. 
c. Anthers 10 or 15, rarely 20 
D Ovules 2 in each locule . 
DD Ovules 
cc Anthers 5 
AAA. Petals 0. 

B Fls bisexual 
BB Fls unisexual or polygamous 

c Anthers crowded without order seeds 

without endosperm 11 Stercuha 

cc Anthers in a single ring seeds with en- 

dosperm 12 Cola 

Brachychiton, Chiranthodendron, and Hentiera are also treated 

7 Dombeya 

8 Pentapqtet 

9 Mahernta. 

10 Fremontia. 


A. Ovary sessile Ivs with 2 Ifts , rarely 1 1ft 1 Zygophyl- 

AA. Ovary stalked Ivs abruptly pinnate '2 GuaMcum 


A. Fla. irregular, the posterior sepal spurred; 

spur adnate to the pedicel 1 Pelargonium, 

AA Fls regular or neai ly so 

B. Stamens 10, usually all fertile tails of car- 

SB 81 

pels usually not bearded inside 
itamens, 5 fertile and 5 reduced to s 

2 Geranium. 

tails of carpels usually bearded inside 3 Erodium. 

BBB Stamens 15, anther-bearing, in groups of 5 4 Monioma. 


The only genus Tropaeolum. 


In cultivation Limnanthet. 


A. Fr a locuhcidal caps 

B Valves of caps separating to the middle 1 OxoZie. 

MB Valves of caps separating to the base 2 Bwphytum. 

AA. Fr an mdehiscent berry 3 Averrhoa. 


In cultivation . 



A. Calyx bell-shaped, 3-5-cut 1 Berna. 

AA Calyx composed of distinct sepals 

B Petals pitted at the base, inserted around 
the base of a more or less elevated toru? 
c Fr unarmed, glabrous, or tomcntose 2 Greuna 

cc Fr echmate or setose 3 Tnumfetta 

BB Petals not pitted, inserted immediately 

around the stamens 

c Fr mdehiscent globose, usually 1 -seeded . 4 Tilia 
cc Fr a caps 

D Caps locuhcidally dehiscent 
E The stamens all bear anthers 

F The caps globose, echmate 5 Entelea 

rr The caps pod-hke, usually naked 6 Corchorus. 
BB The outer stamens have no anthers 7 Sparmannu 
DO Capa dehiscing at the apex 8 Luehea 


A. Fr. a berry 
AA. Fr a drupe 
LAA. Fr a dehiscent locuhcidal c 

1 Anslotelia. 

2 Elseocarpu*. 
... 3. Tricuapid- 



A. Styles 5 Ivs entire, glands equal 1. Linum. 

AA. Styles 3-4 Ivs usually serrate- glands usually 

unequal or absent. . . 2. Rnnvxirdtta. 

In cultivation Brythroxvlon. 


A Ovary entire or slightly 2-5-lobed, style ter- 
minal, entire at base fr drupc-hkc or berry- 
like, but leathery, usxially mdehiscent 
B Fls hermaphrodite, petals and stamens 
free or connate, ovules 1, 2 or many fr 
usually with u cortex outside and pulpy 
within, seeds ex-albuminous (Subfamily 
c Cotyledons thin and twisted in seed frs 

dry 1 Aficromclum. 

CC. Cotyledons thick and fleshy, plano-con- 
vex frs. more or less fleshy or pvilpy 
D Thorns absent Ivs pinnate, Ifts alter- 
nate on rachis frs fleshy berries 
E Styles very short and thick, persis- 
tent, fls small, ureeolate young 
growth denwely covered with brown 
velvety pubescence 2 Glycosmii. 

EE. Styles long or, if short, dehiscent 
F Fls small ovanal cells with scat- 
tered hairs frs with thick fleshy 
dissepiments 3 Claucena, 

FF. Fls large ovarial cells with tufted 
conducting hairs frs fleshy but 
with thin dissepiments 4. Chalccu. 

DD. Thorns usually present Ivs simple or, 
if compound, with the lateral Ifts 
exactly opposite (Tribe Citretp ) 
B. Frs largo, hard-shelled, cells filled 
with mucilage (Subtnbe ^Eghnse ) 
F. Lvs pinnate ovary 5-celled but 
by confluence becoming 1-celled. 
o. Seeds woolly, exocarp woody, 

continuous 5 Feron\a. 

oa. Seeds smooth, exocarp prismatic. 6 FeronmUa. 
n. Lvo trifoliate or simple: ovary 


O. The Ivs always simple fr with 
thin dissepiments, G-celled, 
seeds nmoot h 7. /Eglopsia. 

00. The Ivs trifoliate fr 8-15-celled. 
H Seeds woolly 

I The frs hard-shelled, 10-15- 

celled 8 &glc. 

ii The frw long-oval, leathery, 

8-10-celled 9. Chxlosper- 

HH Seeds smooth fr tmbglobose, [mum. 

very hard-Mhelled 10 Balsamo- 

EE Fr not hard-shtlled (Subtnbe [ntrus 

LavangmsL' ) 

F The frs smdll, fleshy or with rnu- 
cilago in cells, without pulp- 
a Petioles very long, Ivs trifoliate 

climbing shrubs 11 Lavanga. 

CK> Petioles short, often winged 

H The hs pinnate, rachis 
broadly winged frs J^in 
diam 12 Hespere- 

HH. The Ivs trifoliate or simple [thusa. 

I. Lvs tnfohat* or bifoliate 
J Petiol.s of medium length, 
narrowly \unged fr 1 
m diam 13 Pleioaper- 

jj Petiole^ very short, wing- [m\um. 

I tin diam 14 Trip/wiato 

II. LVH simple or umfoliate 
l Frn angl d, seeds very 

long, flattened 16 Merope 

33 Frs not ariKl' d 

K Plant a climbing shrub 

petioles long 16 Paramignya 

KK Plant a shrub or tree 

petioles short 
L. Diam of frs J^n 
Ivs \enose crlls 
not filled with 
mucilage 17 Seven iia 

LL Diam of frs 1 in 
cells filled with 
mudlage Ivs 
smooth 18 Pamburus 

TT The frs hespendri, the cells filled 
with stalked pulp-\esicles con- 
taining juice (Subtnbe Citnnse ) 
o L-vs puinite, rachis broadly 

winged ovules 1 m fach cdl .19 Citropsis. 

usually 2 or n.ore in each cell 
u The Us tnfoh'tte, dtculuous 20. Poncirus 
HH The Ivs simple, p<rsi-,t<nt 
I Stamens S or 10, twice as 

many as the petals 21. Atalanha 

n Stamens 10-40. 4 or more 
times as many as petals 
j. Lvs isof'icial, gray-green, 
with stomites and hairs 
on both faces frs small, 
3-4-cellcd 22. Eremocitrus 

33 Lvs not nofacial, without 
stornates on upiier sur- 
K. Ovary 3-5-celled hs 

pale below , punctate 23 Fortuntlla 
XK Ovary t>- 1 5-ct lle-d 

L. The stamens poly- 

adelplious 24 Citrus 

LU Stamens fiee 

M Cotyledons aenal 



first foliage h: 
opposite fr 
small, 10-12- 
celled 25 Papeda 

MM. Cotyledons hypog- 
eous, fin,t foli- 
age -Ivs alter- 
nate cataphylls 
fr 5- orb-celled 26 Microctinu. 
BB. Fla. usually polygamo-fluBcious, petals and 
stamens free, ovules 2, except in the first 
2 genera seeds usually albuminous 
c Ovules solitary 

D. Petals 4-5,valvate, stamens 4-5. drupe 

2-4-stoned 27. Skimmia. 

DD. Petals 5, valvate, stamens 5, ovary 5- 

lobed, stigma sessile . 28 Casimiroa. 

cc Ovules twin 

D Petals 2-5, valvate or imbricate, sta- 
mens 2-5 fr 4-7-loculed 29. Toddaha. 
DD Petals 5-8, valvate, stamens 5-S fr. a 

5-stoncd drupe 30 Phettoden- 

DDD. Petals 4-5, imbricate, stamens 4-5. [dron 

fr a 2-3-loculed samara 31. Ptelta 

IUL.. Ovary deeply 2-5-lobed , styles basilar or 
ventral, or the stigmas connate* fr capsular 
or 3-6-berried. 

B Ovules 3 or more in each locule 

c Petals 4-5, equal, stamens 8-10, straight 32 
cc Petals 5. unequal, stamens 10, decimate 33 
BB Ovules 2 in each locule 

c Fls irregular 34 

CC Fls regular 

D The fin unisexual or polygamous. 
E Lvs alternate 

K Foliage pinnate fls polygamous 35 
FF Foliage simple fls unisexual 36 

BE Lvs opposite fls unisexual 37 

DD The fls hcrmaphrodit 



> The fin hermaphrodite 
E Albumen fl( shy (uiiknow nmChoisya) 
v, Petal-i en c t, long, connate or cou- 
mverit, forming a cylindrical 

FF. Petals free, spreading 
o The petals imbricate 

H Stamens S, pe tals 4 Ivs oppo- 
site 39. 
HH Stamens 8-10, petals 4-5 Ivs 

alternate 40 

HHH Stamens 10, petals 5 Ivs 

opposite 4 1 

GO The petals vah ate 42 

EE Albumen 

F Theeaps 5-kxuled 43 

FF The o% ary-lobes l- r >, free 

o StammodrsO 44 

or. Stannnodcs ') 

a Style short , stigma capitate, 

fls terminal 45 

HH Style long, stigma simple, fl<? 

axillary 46 

The following genera arc also described Amyns, 
Diplolaena, Limonia, and Sputheka 

Onxa [lum. 

38 Correa, 







A Stamens 10, twice as many as petals. 

u Petals united into a tube 
BB Petal spreading 
IA Stamens 4-5, as many as petals 

1 Quasta 

2 Ailanthus 

3 P icraama. 


A Ovary 3-10-loculed locules 1-ovuled, i 

without endosperm 
B Stamens many, parade lateral 
BB Stamens 10, panicle terimnil 
AA Ovary 2-5-loculed, many-ovuled, with ( 


A Calyx-tube broadly urn-nhaped, covered by 

the torus 
AA Calyx small, 4-0-parted 

1 Ochna 

2 Ouratec 

1 Caruga 
2. Burstra. 


A Stamens free 

B Ovary 4-5-eelled, cells 8-12-ovulod . 1 Cedrela 

BB Ovary 2-celled, cells l-o\ulcd 2 Ptjroxylon. 

AA Stamens coalesced into a tube, at least at 


B I ocules of the ov ary many-ovuled 3 Swetenia. 

BB Locules of the ovary 1-2-ovuled 

c L\s simple 4 Turned. 

cc, Lvs 3-foholatc or 1-3-pmnate. 

D Anthers 5 . .5 Aglaia. 

DD. Anthers b-12 

*. Disk cup-hke . 6 Meha 

KK Disk ring-like 7. Tnchiha. 


A Stamens twice as many aa the petals, all fertile 1 Xtmenia. 
AA Stamens anther-bearing, 3-5, staminodia 6 or 

less. 2 Olax 


A. Petals connate at base, ovary 4-5-loculed 1 Ilex. 
AA Petals free, linear, ovary 3-5-loculed 2 Nemopanth- 

56. CYRILLACE-ffi. 

A Racemes terminal , stamens 10 caps winged - 

AA. Racemes lateral, stamen* 5. caps, not winged. 2. Cyr*Ua. 




A. FT. indehtsoent . 1. Elseode*- 

AA. Fr. a dehiscent caps. [dron. 

m. Lvs. opposite. 

c Ovules 1-2, in the axis of the locule 2 Bvonymut. 

cc Ovules 2, in the loculea, erect . 3. Pachystima. 

BB. Lvs. alternate. 

C. Ovary confluent with the disk. 

D. Loculea generally 1-ovuled plants un- 
armed fls aohtary, clustered or 
cymose 4 Maytenus. 

DD. Locules 2-ovuled. plants often armed 

fls cymose . . 5. Gymnos- 


OC. Ovary free 6 Celattrut. 

Other genera treated are Cassine, Catha, and Tnpterygium. 



59. RHAMNACE^ffi. 

A. Calyx-lobes persistent, the often star-shaped 
disk joining its tube to the entire surface of 
the ovary fr dry, 3-wmged . 1 Gouania. 

AA. Calyx-lobes deciduous 

B. Disk lining the shallow calyx-tube nearly or 
quite free from the ovary, fr drupaceous, 
mostly fleshy and often edible, with a 
single 1-4-celled stone inclosing as many 
seeds, or 1 -seeded by abortion, seed-coats 

c Petals endosperm copious, ruminate 2 Reynoaia 
cc. Petals 5 

D. Fr winged, dry, leathery plants 

pnckly Ivs 3-nerved 3 Pahurus. 

DD. Fr. a fleshy drupe plants pnckly Ivs 

3-nerved 4 Zizyphus 

DDD. Fr a drupe with leathery sarcocarp 

plants unarmed Ivs penmnerved 5 Berchemia 
BB. Disk lining the calyx-tube, or both adherent 
to ovary fr drupaceous or becoming dry, 
c Lvs very small or wanting, the spines If - 

like 6 Colletia 

cc. Lvs ordinary 

D Fr a fleshy drupe free from calyx, con- 
taining 2-4 separate nut-like stones 7 Rhamnus 
DD. Fr becoming nearly or quite dry, 
partly inferior, separating into 3 
nutlets ovary adnate to disk at its 
base 8 Ceanothut 

DDD. Fr a caps with membranous covering, 
mfenor, separating into 3 cocci, 
which are dehiscent inside 9 Pomaderr\t. 

DDDD. Fr indehiscent, pea-shaped, 3-celled, 

3-seeded ovary free 10. Hovenia. 

The genus Rhamnella is sometimes cultivated 

60. VITACE-fi. 

A. Stamens free climbing shrubs or herbs 
B. Petals expanding, fls in cymes bark close; 

pith white 

c. Plants climbing, mostly by adhesion of 
dilated and disk-shaped tips of the 

tendril-branches no distinct disk or 
free nectariferous glands, but a nec- 
tariferous and wholly confluent thick- 
ening of the base of the ovary, or even 
this obsolete Ivs never pinnate 1. Partheno- 

CC. Plants climbing by the prehension and [cisrua. 

coiling of naked-tipped tendrils, nec- 
tariferous disk or glands surrounding 
the ovary or its base, and at least partly 
free from it 
D. Fls. 5-merous: woody plants, mostly 

hardy . 2. Ampeloprit. 
DD. Fls 4-merous more or less fleshy, 
woody or herbaceous, mostly tropi- 
cal or subtropical ... .3. Ctsnu. 
BB. Petals cast off from the base while cohering 
by their tips, hypogynous disk or o 
nectariferous glands alternate with the 
stamens, fls in panicles: berries usually 
edible Ivs. rarely compound, never pin- 
nate ^ .. 4. Vths. 

AA. Stamens with connate filaments: ivs. 1-3-pm- 

nat. upright trees or shrubs 5. Leea. 

Tetrastigma is also briefly treated. 




A. Nutlets winged all around. Ivs pinnate, with 

9-15 Ifts. 1. Dipteronia, 

AA. Nutlets with an elongated wing on one side: 

Ivs. simple or compound . ... 2. Acer. 


A. Lvs opposite several seeds in each cell 
B. Ovary 2-3-parted at base. 

c Caps vesiculose 1 Staphylea. 

cc Follicles coriaceous 2 Euvcaph\f. 

BB Ovary 3-lobed fr fleshy or leathery 3 Turpima. 

AA. Lvs alternate 1 seed in each cell fr berry- 

hke 4 Tapiscm. 


A. Calyx subsaccate, the segms narrow, very 

unequal at base ovules in the locules 2-4 1. Mel\anthut. 
AA. Calyx of 5 free, roundish sepals ovules 

numerous m 2 series on the placentas 2. Greyw. 



A. Fls irregular 
B O-vules solitary in the locules (rarely 2 in 

Paulhma) plant climbing 

c Fr a winged samara 1 Serjama 

cc Fr bladdery, membranous, loculacidal. 2 Cardiosper- 


ccc Fr a pear-shaped, septindal caps 3 Paullinia 

BB Ovules 2 or more in the loruJcs plant erect 

c Sepals valvate, petals 3-4 4 Kaslreuteria. 

cc Sepals imbricate, petals 4-5 . 5 Ungnadia. 

AA Fls regular, or nearly so 

B. Stamens inserted at the base of the ovary 

inside the disk, often umlatf ral 
c Fr dehiscent, ovules 2 or more in cells 
D Disk produced into 5 horns, fls in 

racemes before the 1\ s , showy 6 Xanthocerai. 

DD Disk annular or cup-shaped, fls. 

usually in panicles 
E Lvs ternate sepals glabrous; disk 

cupular 7 Delavaya 

EE. Lvs pinnate 

F Petals 5, sepals imbricate, pubes- 
cent 8 Bltghia 
FF. Petals 0, sepals valvate 9 Stadmannia. 
cc. Fr indehiscent 

D Anl present, fr edible 

E Calyx deeply 5-parted, imbricate, 

petals present 10 Euphoria. 

EE. Calyx with small valvate lobes or 

obsoletely toothed, petals 11 Litchi. 

DD. Anl wanting 

E. Fr deeply lobed or divided into 3 
(-1) cocci sepals 5 Ifts usually 
many 12 Sapindus. 

EE. Fr not deeply lobcd sepals 4 Ifts 

2-4 13 Mehcocca. 

BB. Stamens inserted outside the disk or dik 
wanting, petals caps winged, papery 
or leathery Ivs simple or pinnate 14 Dodonxa 

Additional genera are somewhat cultivated, as Alectryon, Ber- 
samo, and Diploglottis. 


A. Lvs simple 

B. Stamens 5, styles 3 
BB. Stamens 8-10 (all or some fertile), style 

eccentric, stigma a mere dot 
BBB. Stamens 1-5, style lateral, stigma simple. 
IA. Lvs. pinnate or composed of 3 Ifts 
B Ovary 1-celled 

c. Ovules suspended at or near the apex. 
D. Styles m the pistillate fls short, in 
the stammate fls. 4-5 . 

DD Styles 3 
cc Ovules suspended by a basiiar funloulus. 

1. Stmecarpum. 

2. Anacardium. 

3. Afcnfftftra. 

4. Tapina. 

5. Cyrtocarpa. 
0. 8ch\nu. 



D. Petals 4-6 or more. 

B Stamens in a single whorl 

r Tho petals valvate 8. Sorindeia. 

rr. The. petals imbricate 

o Stylo lateral m fr , pedicels be- 
coming plumose Ivs simple 9. Cot\nus. 
GO. Style terminal in f r , pedicels not 
plumose in fr. ivs compound, 
rarely simple . 10. Rhu. 

KB. Stamens in 2 whorU, tho outer alter- 
nate with tho petals, petala val- 
vate . . 11. Lithrxa. 
BB Ovary 2-5-celled 

c Via polygamous; stamens 8-10, petals 

subvalvatc 12. Spondiaa. 

cc Fls dia-uous, stamens 8-9, petals im- 
bricate 13 Harpehyl- 

The genera Coryxocarpus and Bmodtngiura are also described in 

p. The pod jointed, rarely 1-jomted , 
1-seeded by abortion Other- 
wise like the Lotus, Galoga 
and Phaseolus Tribes An 
artificial division 8. HBDYSARUM 

D. The pod not jointed [TRIBB. 

B. Pod indehiscent, larger than 
calyx, membranous, leath- 
ery, wo<xjy or drupaceous 
Ifts 6 or more, rarely 3-1 
trees or tall shrubs or 
climber* 9 DALBERQIA 

EE. Pod dehiscent or if mdehu- [TiBE. 

cent usually of small size, 

generally 2-valvcd 
F. Fls in heads or umbels, 

The only genus 

The only genus 





I. Summary of Suborders and Tribes. 

Ignoring exceptions and six tribes of which no examples 
appear to be cult in \merica (Other genera of Logummosw 
may be met with now and then in cultivation, but they are so 
little grown and so m tny th-it the mtrexlur tion of them here would 
make the key unnecessarily complicated, some of these are men- 
tioned at the end of the Legumiriosse, p 05 ) 

Suborder I MIMOSE4E. 

A. Fls regular, small, (alyx garnosepaloua 
or vahately parted, petals valvate, 
often connate, below the middle 
B Stamens numerous, 

c. The stamens free 1 ACACIA TRIBE 

cc The stamens monadelphou-? 2 INOA TRIBE 

BB. Stamens fewer, d finite 

c Anthers usually appendage d with a 
stalked gland, stamen-, twice as 
many as the petals, rarely as 
many fls generally Vmerous 3 ADKNANTHERA 
CC Anthers not glandular ht.imens s [TRIBE. 

many a* the p< tals, r-irt ly twice 
as many fi-i 4-5-mcrous, nrely 
3- or h-merou 4 MIMOSA TBIBB. 

AA. Fls irregular ami truly papilionaceous, 
i e , like a swett pen, the standard 
outride of the other p< tuls and inclos- 
ing them in the bud, sepals more or 
less united abo\e the disk into a 
tube or cup. radicles in flexed, accum- 
bent or rarely % ery short and straight 
(Compare AAA ) 


B. Lvs simple, or else digitately com- 
pound (Exceptions A few mem- 
bers of the Trifohum Tribe are 
digitately compound and some of 
the Phaseolus Tribe are subdigi- 
tately compound Some Ivs that 
appear to be simple have been re- 
duced from several Ifts to 1, gener- 
ally leaving a gland, joint or other 
indication of the reduction ) 
C. Stamens 10, free shrubs, rarely 

herbs 5. PoDA.LYB.iA. TRIBE. 

CC. Stamens 10, monadelphotm, rarely 
diadelphous racemes terminal or 
opposite the Ivs or the fls soli- 
tary or subfase\cled at the axils 6. GENISTA. TRIBE. 
BB. Lvs. pinnate, rarely digitate in the 
Trifohum Tribe, or subdigitate m 
the Phaseolus Tribe or the Ivs. 
sometimes reduced to a single Ift. 
O. Stamens 10, free Ifts. 5 or more, 
sometimes reduced to 1 large 
1ft , rarely 3 7. SOPHOBA TBIBB. 


rarrly solitary Ifts 3 or 
more, entire alternate 
filaments usually dilated 
at the aptx herbs or sub- 
shrubs 10 LOTUS TBIBB. 

rr. Fls sohtaiy or racemose, 
sometimes panicled or 

O Plants typically climbing 
herbs, raising them- 
selves by means of 
tendrils at the tips of 
the petioles some- 
times there is a mere 
bristle Ifts often den- 
ticulate at apex 11. VICIA TBIBB. 

00 Plants twining or erect, 
not climbing by ten- 
H Lfts generally 3 

I Habit of plants most- 

ly twmmg 12 PHASEOLUB 

n Habit of plants [TniBE 

mostly erect 13 TRJFOLIUM TRIBE. 

HH Lfts mostly 3 or more 14 GALEOA TRIBE. 
AAA Fh more or less inegular, but not 
truly papilionaceous \\ hen they 
seem to be so, the petal answering 
to the standard will be found within 
the other petals instead of outside 
as in AA radicle straight, \ery rarely 
slightly oblique 

Suborder HI C-ESALPIN$JE. 

B Calyx gamosepalous beyond the disk 
or \ahat*]y parti d Us simple and 
entire or 2 lobed, or rartly cut into 
2 Ifts stipe of o\ ary free or adnate 
BB Calyx usually p-irted to the v 

disk and the sems imbricate 
c tftipf of o\ury idnate to the disk- 
bearing calyx-tube hs mostly 
abruptly pinnate 16 AMHERSTIA TRIBE 

cc Stipe of o\ ary free in the bottom of 

the calyx 
D Anthers versatile Ivs mostly 

bipmnate 17 C.BSALPINIA TRIBE. 

DD Anthers basihxed, erect but 
longitudinally dehiscent by 2 
pores or short cracks 18 CASSIA TRIBE. 

//. Key to the Tribes. 

1. Acacia Tnbe. 
The only genus . . 1 Acacia. 

2. Inga Tnbe. 

A. Lvs once pinnate 
AA Lvs. mostly twice pinnate 


. 2 Inga. 

Shape of poda circulate, arched or variously 

c. Pod usually 2-valved, needs generally 

surroxinded by a thin pulp 3 Pithecolob- 

cc Pod indehibcent, visually septate between (ut. 

the seeds 4 Enterolob- 

BB. Shape of pods straight, or at most slightly [mm. 

c. Vahes separating from the persistent 

sutures 5 Lynloma. 

CO, Valves elastically dehiscent and revolute 

from apex to base 6. Cattiandra. 

ccc. Valves not elastic pod often indehiscent . 7. AUn&na 

3. Adenanthera Tribe. 

A. Fls short-pediceled . 
AA, Fls. sessile 

B. The pod indehiscent (presumably so in 

....... 8. Adenanth- 


c Pod straight, thick-compressed, trans- 
versely septate inside between the 
seeds 9 Stryphno- 

cc. Pod straight, falcate or variously twisted, [dendron 

thick-compressed or subterete, usually 
septate inside between the seeds 10 Protopia. 

BB The pods 2-valved (See also BBB ) 

c Pod straight or arched, flat , valves entire, 

continuous within shrubs or trees 11 Piptodenia. 
cc Pod obliquely oblong, deflexed from the 
stipe herbs or diffuse sub-shrubs, pros- 
trate or floating 12 Neptuma. 
BBB The pod flat, with thickened persistent 
continuous sutures, the valves trans- 
versely jointed between the sutures, the 
joints 1 -seeded ... .13 Entadn 

4. Mimosa Tribe. 

A. Pods provided with a replurn, i e , a frame- 
like placenta, which remains after the 
valves have fallen away frc 

B Valves wider than replum 
BB Valves narrower than the replum or hardly 

Pods 2-valved 

i the ordinary fashion 
5. Podalyna Tnbe. 

15 Schrankia. 
Ib Leucsena. 

A. Keel-petals free or slightly connate foliage 


B Pod linear or oblong-inflated 17 Thermopsis. 

BP Pod globose or ovoid, turgid or inflated 18 Baphiia 

AA Keel-petals connate on the back foliage 

mostly leathery 
B Ovules 4 or more 

c Keel about as long us the wings . 19 Orylobium. 

cc Keel much shorter than wings 20 Chomema 

BB Ovules 2 

c Pod indehiscent calyx shortly 5-toothed 21 Viminaria. 
cc Pod 2-valved calyx 5-fid, or bilabiate 22 Pultensea. 

6. Genista Tribe. 

A Stamens coalesced into a sheath which is split 

above the middle 
B Seeds strophiolate 

c Lvs simple or reduced to mere scales 

23 Templf- 


24 GoodiA 

25 t'rotalana 

cc Lvs pinnate, Ifts 3 
PB Seeds not strophiolate 
AA Stamens coalesced into a closed tube. 
B Seeds not strophiolate 

c Calyx-lobes or lips much longer than the 

tube 26 Lupinus 

cc Calyx-lobes or -teeth shorter than the 

tube, rarely somewhat longer 
D Lfts 3 

B Pod stalked 27 Laburnum 

EE Pod sessile 

F Claws of petals adnate to stam- 

inal tube 28 Petteria 

FF Claws of petals free 

a Shrubs unarmed upper calyx- 
lobes distinct 29 Adenocar- 
oo Shrubs usually spmeacem calyx [pus 
short, truncate 30 Calycotome. 
DD Lfts usually all wanting, ran ly 3 or 1 
shrubs with *.piny or rush-like 

E Shrub with rush-like branches 31 Spartium 

EE Shrubs spiny or unarmed Ifts re- 
duced to 1 or 0, rarely 3 

F. Fls yellow , calyx not inflated 32 Genista 
FF Fls violet or bluish, calyx inflated 

spiny shrub 33. Ennacea 

BB Seeds strophiolate 

c Culyx colored, 2-parted, the upper segms 
2-toothed, lower J-toothed leafless 
shrubs, the branehlets and petioles 
transformed into npines 34. Ulex. 

CC. Calyx with the 2 upper lobes or teeth con- 
nate or free, the 3 lower connate into a 
lower hp . 35. Cytinv*. 

7. Sophora Tnbe. 

A. Fl with petals all nearly alike 36. Cadm. 

AA. Fl distinctly papilionaceous 

B. Pod 2-valved 37. Caatano- 

BB. Pod indehiscent or at most tardily dehiscent [spermum 

to a slight extent 

c The pod momliform 38. Sophora 

CC The pod not momliform, linear 

p Color of fls yellow in axillary racemes 39 Calpurnia. 
DD Color of fls white, pamcled 

K Winter-buds moloxod m the base of 
the enlarged petiole panicle loose, 
drooping 40 Cladrattig. 

BE Winter-buds free panicle dense, 

upright 41. Maackva. 

8. Hedysarum Tribe. 

A Stamens all free among themselves 42 

AA Stamens all connate m a closed tube 43 

AAA, Stamens nearest the standard free or connate 
with the others only at the base or at the 

B. Filaments all dilated above or only alter- 
nate ones 

c Keel obtuse ... 44 

cc Keel acute or beaked 45 

BB. Filaments normal 

C. Wings short or very short, rarely as long 
as the keel Ifts not provided with 
minute stipules 
D Pod flat or < ompreswed 

E Joints many, rniely 2 standard-sta- 
men free 46 
EE. Joints 2 standard-stamen connate 

with others at middle 47 

DD Pod thickish, subterete 48 

CC. Wings as long as or longer than the keel 
partial petioles of 11 ts bear mmuto 
stipules (except in Lespodeza 0) 
D Pod indehisctnt, nm ly opening at the 

lower suture, joints Hat 49 

DD Pod of about 1 small, distinct, 1-sceded, 
smooth, veined joints included in 
the calyx 50 

DDD Pod l-secded.mdohiscent, no joints 51 

9. Dalbergia Tnbe. 

A Fr drupaceous, globose, or o 1 Jid, indehiscent, 

the emlotarp woody 52 

AA Fr not drup ic ous 

B Lfts mostly .ilti rmitt 

C Anthers veisatile, the locules parallel, 

longitudinally dclns< ent 

cc Anthers small, crtct, didymous, the 
locules placed back to baek, generally 
dehiscent at apex by a short cratk i 

BB Lfts opposit 





c Pod longitudinally 1-wmged C 

CC Pod with a narrow wing along the upper 
suture or both sutures 

10. Lotus Tribe. 

5J Tipuana 

. Dalbergia 

> Dern* 

A Pod indehiscent or tardily 2-valved 57 Anlhylha. 

AA Pod 2-valved 

B Calyx-lobes usually longer than tube, keel 

rostrate 5S Lotus 

BB. Calyx-teeth shorter than tube, keel obtuse 59 Uosuckia. 

11. Vicia Tribe. 

A St woody mfl subtermmal, hlamens 9, the 

standard-st imon abxf nt GO Abrus 

AA Kt herbaceous fls hohtaiy or racemose in the 

axils, stamens 10 
B Wings adherent to the keel 01 Lfnt 

(See article Lentil. ) 
BB Wings frte or only slightly adherent 

C Sheath of stamens oblique at the mouth, 
style slendi i, b< udul or hairy only at 
the apex or all around thi_ upper part 02 Vicia 
cc Sheath of stamens equal it the mouth 
D Calyx-lobes Iraty, styl. rigid, diluted 
above and the. margins retl xed and 
joined together ^o that it becomes 
flattened laterally, bearded down the 
inner eelge 03 Pisum. 

DD Calyx-lobes not leafy, style flattened 
above on the back and front, bearded 
down one face 64 Lathyrua. 

12. Phaseolus Tribe. 

A Style longitudinally boarded above on the 
inner side or ran ly pilose only around the 
stigma, petals normal 01 the keel long- 
beaked or spiral mfl noelose-rac emose 
B Calyx-tub< not longer than lobe 

c Keel bpiral 05 Phaseolua. 

cc Keel obtuse or arc heel beaked 

D Stigma strongly oblKtue or mtrorse 00 Vigna 
DD Stigma subglobose on inner face, style 

flattened out at apex 67 Pachyrhinu 

DDD Stigma small, terminal, s>tyle filiform 

or subulate at apex 08 Dohchos. 

BB Calyx-tube cylindrical, longer than lobes fa9 Chtoria. 
AA. Style not bearded 

B. Standard-stamen free only at the very base. 
thence connate with the- rest into a closed 
tube, calyx mostly 4-lobed 
c Calyx bell-shaped 

D Pod broad, the upper suture thickened 

or 2-wmged. 70 Diodea. 

DD. Pod linear, narrow or flat . ... 71. Puerana, 



CO. Calyx bilabiate, the upper lip larger, 

entire or 2-lobed or 2-parted . 72. Canavoha. 

BB. Standard-stamen free or connate only at 

the base 

c. Calyx 4-lobed ... 73. Oalactia. 

00. Calyx not 4-lobed. 

D Infl UHually racemose, the rachia of the 

racorne jointed 
B. Standard much larger than the 

wings and keel . . . 74 Brythnna. 

BB. Standard smaller than the keel. 
F Pod 2-valved 

G Anthers of 2 kinds 75 Mucuna. 

QQ Anthers uniform 76 Apiot 

FF. Pod not dehiscent, except at the 

top 77 Butca. 

DD. Infl sometimes racemose but the 

rachis of the raceme not jointed 
B Lvs , especially beneath, with mi- 
nute resinous dots mil racemose 
or subumbellate or the flu solitary 
F Ovules 2 78 Fltmingvi. 

FF. Ovules 4 or more 

o Pod turgid, seeds strophiolate. 79 Fagelta. 
QQ Pod compressed, seeds not stro- 

phiolate 80 Cajanua. 

BE. Lvs without minute resinous dots 
fls clustered or racemose in the 
axils, solitary or twin along the 
ra< his 

F Fls showy, standard large, flat- 
tened out , bracts persistent 81 Centrosema. 
FF Fls medium-sized, standard, 
erect, complicate, sides often 
rcflexed brae ts persistent 82 Amphi- 
FFF. Us small (showy in Keunedya), [corpora 
standard spreading or rcflexed, 
bracts persistent or small and 

o Seeds not strophiolate 83 Glycine 

GO Seeds strophiolate 

H The fls small, keel usually 

much smaller than wings 81 Hardtn- 
HH The fls showy, keel usually [bergia 

equaling or surpassing the 
wings 85 Kennedya. 

13. Tnfohum Tnbe. 

A. Standard-stamen connate with the others 

into a closed tube, keel beaked 80 Ononia. 

AA. Standard-stamen free, keel obtuse or in Paro- 

chetus atutish 

B. Lfts digitate (rarely pinnate in Trifohum) 
c Pod 2-valved keel acutish, petals not 

ad n ate 87 Parochetua 

cc Pod usually indehiscent claws of all or 
the lower petals adnate to the stammal 
tube 88 Trifohum 

BB Lfts 3, pinnate 

C Pod straight, sic Kle-shape d or arched, 
sometimes thick and beaked, some- 
times linear, sometimes broad and il it, 
indehisrent or folliculately gaping or 
rarely 2-\ul\ed 89 Tngonella 

cc Pod spirally falcate, circinnate or 

cochleate 90 Medicago. 

OCC. Pod small, subglobose or ovoid, thick, in- 
dehiscent or tardily 2-valvcd 91. Melilotus. 

14. Galega Tnbe. 

A. Connective of the anthers anpenjaged with a 
small gland or niucro o\ ultM mostly o , 1-2 
m a few species, pod 2-\alved 92 Indigofera 

AA. Connective not appendaged 

B. Ovules 1-2, rarely .4-4 (See also BB ) 

C Number of ovules 1 93 Psoralea 

CC Number of ovules 2, rarely 3-4 

D Stamen* 10 94 Amorpha 

DD Stamens 5 95 Pctaloste- 

BB. Ovules oo (1-2 m a few species of Teph- (man. 


c. Infl terminal or opposite the Ivs , mostly 
racemose (in Galega both axillary and 
terminal, m some Tephrosias axillary) 
pod 2-valvc-d 

D. Style longitudinally boarded on the 
inner side, calyx long-tubular, petals 
very long-clawed 96 Barbiena. 

DD. Style glabrous (or merely pemcillate 

at the stigma in some tephrosias) 
B. Standard -at amen connate with the 

rest from the bane 97 GaUga 

X. Standard-stamen free or connate 
with the others from the middle. 

F. The pod narrow or short, with 

slender valves and nerviform or 

hardly thickened sutures 98 Tephrona. 

FF. The pod thick, leathery or woody 

O. Pod usually tardily dehiscent 

mfl mostly pamcled 99. Mittetia. 

QQ Pod easily dehiscent mfl race- 
mose 100. Wistana. 
CC Infl axillary, except where noted below 
D Pod flat, except where the seeds finally 

make it turgid 101 Rob\n\a. 

DD. Pod inflated, turgid or terete, longitudi- 
nally septate or undivided, rarely 
flat and when so always longitudi- 
nally septate 
B Styles variously bearded above 

y Petals acuminate 102 Clmnthut. 

FF Petals not acuminate 

a Standard erect 103 Suther- 

ou Standard spreading or re flexed. [landia. 

H Stigma small . 104 Swainsona. 

HH Stigma prominent 105. Colutea. 

ICE Style not bearded 

F. Lvs even-pinnate shrubs or trees 
Q The pod stipitate, obovoid or 

oblong 106 Halimoden- 


QQ The pod linear, usually acute 107 Caragana. 
FF. Lvs odd-pinnate or with a spiny 

petiole instead of an odd 1ft 

a Anther-cells confluent at apex 108 Glycj/rrh- 
oo Anthers uniform [iza. 

H Petals not all narrow, the 
standard obovate or orbicu- 
lar 109 Calophaca. 
HH Petals narrow 

I Keel blunt 110 Astragalus. 

Il Keel acute 111 Oxytropit. 

15. Bauhima Tnbe. 

> Petals erect or spreading, only slightly 

unequal 112 Bavhinia. 

AA. Petals falsely pea-like, the standard inmost . 113 Cercta. 

16. Amherstia Tnbe. 

A The petals absent, sepals 4 114. Saraca. 

AA The petals present 

B Bractlets persistent, inclosing the bud. 

c Petals 5, slightly unequal 115. Browned. 

cc Petals unequal, 1 very wide, 2 narrow, 

2 minute and rudimentary 116 Amherstia. 

BB Bractlets small or deciduous 

c Lfts 1 pair 117 Hymeruea. 

cc Lfts 2 or more pairs 

D Petals 5, 3 perfect, 2 rudimentary 118 Tamarin- 

DD Petals 5, slightly unequal 119 Schotia. 

17. Caesalpmia Tribe. 

A Calyx-lobes strongly imbricate, disk-bearing 

tube short seed not albuminous 
B Pod indehiscent stigma peltate . 120 Peltoph- 


BB Pod2-\alved stigma not peltate 121 Cxsalpmia. 

AA Calyx-tube long, or top-shaped or beli-shaped, 
segms short or narrow and open seeds, 

B Pod turgid or subterete 122 Oymnoc- 


BB Pod flattish 123 Gledilsia. 

AAA Calyx-segms valvate 

B Segms 4, the upper ones connate, highest 

petal widest, lowest narrow 124 Colvittea. 

BB Segms 5, petals roundish, abo it equal 125 Poinciana. 

AAAA Calyx-segms slightly imbricate or valvate 

B Ovary adnate to calyx-tube 126 Schizolob- 

BB Ovary free in bottom of calyx ... 127 Parkin- 


18. Cassia Tnbe. 

A Petals 5, fls hermaphrodite 
AA Petals 0, fls polygamous 

128 Cassia. 

129 Cerafonta. 

The following genera also are described as having more or less 
horticultural interest Afzelia, Amicia, Aotus, Baikieea, Baphia, 
Brachysema, Camdensia, Carmichteha, Cicer, Copaitera, Dalea, 
Desmanthus, Dichrostachys, Diphysa, Ebenus, Eutaxia, Galedupa. 
Ghricidia, Haematoxylon, Hippocrepis, Hoffmanseggia, Hovea, 
Jacksoma, Kerstingiella, Kramena, Lonchocarpus, Almkelersia, 
Piptanthus, Podalyria, Pterocarpus, Pterolobium, Rhynchosia. 
Scorpmrus, Sesbama, Toluifera, Vouapa. 



/. Summary of Tribes* 

A. Ovary inferior; carpels 2-5, more or 
lean connate and adnate to the cup- 
shaped receptacle, the whole develop- 
ing into a fleshy fr (pome): trees or 
shrubs with free stipules. . . 4. POMB TRIBI. 

AA. Ovary superior 

B. Carpels usually many, if 1 or 2, fr 

not drupaceous calyx persistent, 
c Fr folhcular, dehiscent 

D Seeds not winged fls small ... 1. SPIRMA TBIBB. 
DD. Seeds winged, flattened: fla. 

rather large . 2. QmuJJA TBIBB. 

CC. Fr not folhcular, indehiacent, or 

carpels growing into drupelets. 
D. Pistils borne on a Hat, hemi- 
spherical or convex receptacle, 
subtended by a cup-shaped 
portion of the receptacle (hy- 
panthium), usually many. 
B. The piatils 2-5. shrubs, with 

simple Iva 
r. Stipules wanting fls small, 

in large panicles 3 HOLODISCUS 

FF. Stipules present fls soli- THIBB. 

tary or m few-fld 
corymbs . 5. KERRIA TRIBE. 

BB. The pistils many (if few, Ivs. 
compound) herbs or shrubs. 
r. C a r p el s becoming dry 


0. Ovules 2, carpels 5-15 
calyx without bractlets 

GO. Ovules 1 carpels many, 
calyx usually with 
bractlets alternating 
with the lobes 6. POTENTILLA 

IT Carpels becoming drupelets [TBIBB. 

ovules 2, but seed solitary 7. RUBUS TBIBE. 
D. Pistils inclosed in the tubular- 
or urn-shaped receptacle (hy- 
E Number of pistila 1 or 4, 

petals sometimes wanting 
p. Hypanthium tubular or cam- 
panulate, the achenes 
loosely and usually only 
partly inclosing, pistils 
usually 1 shrubs 8 CEBCOCABPUS 

FF Hypanthium urceolate, com- [TBIBB. 

pletely inclosing the 1-4 
achenes, sepals usually 4 
herbs or shrubs 10 SANOUISORBA 

BE. Number of pistils many , calyx- [TRIBE. 

tube becoming fleshy , petals 
present shrubs with odd- 
pinnate Ivs 11. ROSE TRIBE. 
BB. Carpels 1, rarely 2 fr drupaceous: 

calyx usually deciduous 
C. Fls symmetrical, stylo subter- 
mmal ovules pendulous, radicles 
superior , . 12. PRUNUS TBIBB. 

CC. Fls often unsymmetncal, style 
basilar ovules ascending, 
radicles inferior . . 13. CRBTBOBALANTTS 


//. Key to the Tribes. 
1. Spiraea Tribe. 

A. PiBtila opposite to the petals or less than 5 

B. Lvs simple, often lobed, rarely pmnatifid: 

stamens inserted on the margin of the 

hypanthium shrubs, rarely undershrubs 

c. Stipules large, caducous stanunal disk 

wanting seeds shining, crustaceous 
D. Follicles dehiscent along both sutures, 
often inflated, 1-5 fls. in terminal 
corymbs 1. Physoearp- 

DD. Follicles dehiscent only along the ven- [vs. 

tral suture, 1-2, not inflated 
B Fls in terminal panicles, style ter- 
minal, pistils. 2, rarely 1. follicles 
usually 5-aeeded 2. Netttva. 

BB. Fla in small terminal corymbs, style 
lateral , pistil 1 follicles 1-or rarely 
2-seeded . . 3. StephaMn- 

CC. Stipules wanting, stanunal disk usually (oro. 

present' seeds dull. 

D. The Iva entire, serrate or lobed: sta- 
mens free. 
B. Carpels free. 

F. FIB In panicles, corymbs or umbel- 
like racemes, carpels dehiscent 
: the ventral suture; Ivs. 
r serrate or lobed 4. Spirua. 

FF. Fls. in racemes; arpeln dehiscent 
on both sutures' Ivs entire, 
evergreen cespitose undershrub 5 Pttrophu* 
BB. Carpels connate at the base, fls poly- [turn. 

gamo-diQBCious, in panicles lv. 
entire, deciduous upright shrub . 6 Sibtrma 
DD. The Ivs. twice trifid . stamens connate at 
the base fls. m racemes prostrate 
underahrub. . ... 7. Luetkea. 

BB. Lvs. 2-3-pinnate . fls. dioecious, in ample 
panicles composed of slender spikes, 
herbs ... . 8 Aruncui. 

AA. Pistils opposite to the sepals, 5. 

B. Petals roundish, imbricate in the bud, car- 
pels connate at the base Ivs pinnate or 
bipmnate* shrubs 

c. Lvs pinnate, If ts coarsely serrate 9 Sorbaria. 

cc Lvs bipmnate , segms minute, entire .10 Chammbat\- 

BB. Petals strap-shaped, convolute in the bud: [ana. 

carpels distinct Ivs ternate herbs . . . .11. G\Uen\a. 

2. Quillaja Tribe. 

A. Carpels free, spreading, star-like at maturity: 

evergreen tree*. 

B Stamens 10 . 12 Quillaja. 

BB Stamens 20 .13 Kagcneckia. 

AA. Carpels connate into a 5-celled caps : sta- 
mens 15-20 deciduous shrub ... 14 Exochorda. 

3. Holodiscus Tribe. 
Lvs. doubly serrate or slightly lobed 15. Holod\au. 

4. Pome Tnbe. 
A. Carpels bony at maturity fr hence with 1-5 

B. Pistils with 2 fertile ovules. Ivs. entire or 


c Lvs entire spineless shrubs styles 2-5 16 Cotoneaster. 
cc. Lvs. crenate, persistent usually spiny 

shrubs styles 5 17. Pyracantha. 

BB Pistils with only 1 fertile ovule Ivs usually 

doubly serrate or lobed 
C. Ovules 2, 1 fertile and 1 sterile 'vs sim- 

pie, often pmnately lobed 
D. Number of carpels *>. wholly connate 
and covered at the top by the flesh of 
the fr fls solitary, 2 m across Ivs 

along tb 
usually s 

entire or occasionally dentate 18 Metpilua. 

DD. Number of carpels 1-ft, more or less dis- 
tinct at the ventral suture and free at 
the top fls 1 in or less across, usually 
in corymbs Ivs often lobed 19 Cratxfftu. 

CC Ovule but 1, stones 5 Ivs pinnate (the 
simple-l\ d species belong to Hespeco- 
meles, which is not in cult ) 20 Otteomekt. 

AA. Carpels with leathery or papery walls at 
maturity fr hence 1-5-celled, each cell with 
1 or 2, rarely many seeds 
B Fls in compound corymbs 

c Styles 1-5, distinct or connate, carpels 

partly free 

D Fr solid and pointed at the top, walla 
of cells leathery Ivs deciduous, sim- 
ple or pinnate 

E. Sepals deciduous IYH always simple, 
eerrate with excurrent veins styles 
2-3 21 Mtcronulea. 

BB. Sepals persistent 

F. Number of styles usually 2, rarely 3 
or 5, free or connate Ivs pm- 
nate or simple and serrate or 
lobed with excurrent veins, 
deciduous 22 Sorbus. 

FT Number of styles 3-5 Ivs serrate 
to crenulate, with curving veins. 
O. Lvs deciduous, with glands on 
the midrib above stylos 5, 
connate below endoearpthm 23 Aroma. 
OO. Lvs evergreen, without glands 
on the midrib styles 3-5 
endocarp firm 24 Stranvmna. 

PD. Fr. hollow and rounded at the top, 
small, 1- or 2-seeded, walls usually pa- 
pery styles usually 2 Ivs simple, 
deciduous or evergreen with curving 
veins . 25 PAohma. 

cc. Styles 5, distinct, carpels wholly connate 
fr pear-shaped, rather large, yellow. 
Ivs. evergreen with excurrent veins.. 26 Enobotrya. 
BB. Fls in umbels, racemes or solitary 
C. The carpels 4- to many-seeded 

. Styles free Ivs entire . 27. Cydona. 

DD. Styles connate at the base Ivs. serrate 

or serrulate. 

B. Ovules many in each cell- calyx gla- 
brous outside . 28. Ctonomstec. 
BB. Ovules 4-6 in each cell, calyx densely 

tomentose outside 29. Doeynia. 

cc. The carpels 1-2-eeeded. 



D. Cells of the ovary as many as styles, 

each with 2 ovules. 

a. Orary 2-celled: fr 1-2-seeded, 
black fls in upright racemes, 
sometimes panieled Ivs. evergreen 30. Raphiolepia. 
BB. Ovary 3-6-celled. fls in umbeb Ivs 

deciduous 31. Pyrut. 

DD. Cells of the ovary twice as many as 

stylos, each with 1 ovule 
B. Styles usually 5, fla. in racemes Ivs 

serrate, or crenate at the apex 32. Amtlan- 

BB. Styles 2-3, fls in few-fid umbels, (c/uer. 

calyx-tube cylmdnc. Iva entire or 

denticulate, narrow 33. Peraphyl- 


5. Kerria Tribe. 

A. Petals wan tine; fls. in few-fld corymbs- 

achenes 2-5, drupaceous 34. Nenuaa. 
AA Petals present, fls solitary, large 

B. Lvs alternate fls 5-merous, yellow: 

achenes drupaceous, yellow 35 Kerria 

BB. LVH opposite fls 4-merous, white achenes 

dry, black 36 Rhodotyput 

6. Potentilla Tribe. 

A. Style deciduous 
B Receptacle m fr much enlarged, colored. 

c Fla white receptacle pulpy, juity 37 Fragana 

cc Fls yellow receptacle dry 38 Duchttnea 

BB. Receptacle not fleshy, even in fr. 
C Pistils only 1-12 

D Stamens 5, petals minute 39 Srtbatdia 

DD Stamens numerous, petal* conspicuous 40 WaLitleinia. 
CC Pistils very numerous 

D Petals white or yel'ow, obtuse or einar- 

gmate 41 Pottntilla 

DD Petals purple, abruptly acuminate, 

much smaller than t alyx 42 Comarum 

AA Style elongated after anthesis, often plumose 
B Fls 5-merous Ivs pinnate or pinnatifid 

c Sepals \alvate, hypanthium flat herbs 43 Geum 
cc Sepals imbricate, hypanthium concave 


D Calyx with bracts outside 44 FaUugia 

DD Calyx without bracts 45 Cowania 

BB. Flu 8-y-merous l\s undivided prostrate 

undershrub 46. Dryas 

7. Rubus Tnbe. 

A. Drupelets pulpy 47 Rubut 

AA. Drupelets nearly dry, inclosed by calyx . 48 Daltbarda. 

8. Cercocarpus Tnbe. 

A. Fls. apetalous, style elongated and phimose 

m fr ; hypanthium tubular 49 Cercocarpus. 

AA. Fls with petals 

B. Style with terminal stigma: Ivs. linear, 

needle-shapid .. 50. Adenostoma. 

BB Style with decurrent stigma 

c Lvs 3-fid at the apex nopal* imbricate 

fr inclosed about half 51 Purshia 

cc. Lvs bipmnate sepals valvate. fr in- 
closed 52. Chamtcbatta. 

9. Ulmana Tnbe. 

Herbs with large pinnate Ivs and lirge stipules 
and small white or pink fls. m large pauiclea . . .53. Fthpendula. 

10. Sanguisorba Tnbe. 

A. Calyx with 5-6 bractlets or 10-12-cut in 2 

series or in Agrimoma with a setose limb. 
B. Petals . . 54 Alchemilla 

BB PetaU 4 or 5 . 55 Agrimonta. 

AA Calyx without bractlets , petals Ivs pinnate. 

B Fls axillary, solitary 56 Margyn- 

BB. Fls, spicatc or capitate (corpus. 

C. The calyx valvate, stamens 1-10, short, 

carpels 1-2 . 67. Acxna. 

CC. The calyx imbricate 

D. Fr rarely rugose fls usually bisexual; 

carpel 1 , stamens 4-12 58. Sanguisorba. 

DD. Fr. often rugose fls polygamo-dace- 
cious, rarely bisexual; carpels 2, 
stamens oo . 59. Potenum. 

11. Rose Tribe. 
The only gentu 60. ROM. 

12. Prunus Tribe. 

A. Sepals usually 10, small, petals often wanting 
or small . carp*ls in the stanunate fl. 2, 1 in 

AA. Sepals 5 

B. Carpels solitary 

c. Style terminal: Ivs. usually serrate- pith 

of branches solid . 62 Pruntu. 

cc. Style lateral. Ivs entire, pith lamellate. 03. Printep%a. 
BB. Carpels 5 Ivs. entire . . 64 Oamaronia. 

13. Chrysobalanus Tribe. 

Anthers small, short, didymous, ovary 1-loculed, 
inserted in the base of the calyx-tube, stamens 

The genus Plagiospermum IB also cultivated. 


65. Chrvsobal- 

/. Summary of Tribes. 


or small . carp 
the fertile fl. . , 


\ Plants are trees or shrubs 

B Lvs opposite 
BB Lvs alternate 

c Stipules absent Ivs often coria- 
ceous or glandular-serrate sta- 
mens usually i^omerous with 


cc. Stipules absent or adrmte to petiole 
at base fls generally racemose, 
ovary 1-locular, 2-merous, seeds 
immersed m pulp 3 RIBES TBIBB. 

AA Plants are herbs 

B Fls 4-merous 4 FRANCOA TRIBE. 

BB Fls generally 5-merous 5. SAXIFRAGE TKIBB. 

//. Key to the Tribes. 
1. Hydrangea Tnbe. 

A Ovary superior 
B Number of petals 4, stamens 10, filaments 

2-lobed, styles 3 1 Fendltra. 

BB Number of petals 5 or G 

c Ovules solitary stamens 4-12, styles 3-5 2 Whipplea. 
cc Ovules 4 stamens l r >, carpeb 2, separate 3 Lyono- 
ccc Ovules numerous [thamnus. 

D Petals 5, convolute stamens 10, styles 

3-5 ' 4. /omemo. 

DD Petals 5 or 6, imbricate stamens nu- 
merous, style 1, with a 5-7-lobed 
stigma 5. Carpentena. 

AA Ovary inferior or semi-buperior 
B Stamens 8, 10 or 12 

c. Petal* mduplicate or imbricate' fr cap- 

sular . . G.Deutna. 

cc Petals valvate 
D Fr a caps 

E Styles 4 or 5, free or connate at the 

base, petals 4 or 3 7 Hydrangea. 

KE Style 1, with a 4-5-lobed stigma, 

petals 5 8. Sch\zo- 

DD Fr a berry petals 5 or 6 styles 35, [phragma. 

club-bhaped 9 Dvchroa. 

BB. Stamens o 

c Petals mduplicate, 7-10, style 1 10. Decumaria. 

cc Petals imbricate, styles 1-5 11 Philadel- 

ccc Petals valvate [phut. 

D Styles 2, petals 4 12 Platycrater. 

DD. Styles 3, petals 5 13. Cardiandra 

2. Escalloma Tribe. 

A. Petals imbricate, style 1, ovary 2- or 3- 

loculed 14. Escallon\a. 

AA Petals valvate, styles divisible into 2, ovary 

2-Ioculed 15. /tea. 

3. Ribes Tribe. 

The only genus . 16 Ribes. 

4. Francoa Tnbe. 

Sepals and petals equal 17. Francoa. 

5. Saxifrage Tribe. 

A. Ovary 1-loculed 

B Placentas basilar or nearly so 18 TiareUa. 

BB Placentas parietal, opposite the stigmas, 19. Parnaana. 
BBB. Placentae panetal, alternate with stigmas 

c Stamens 3 , petals 5, capillary . 20. Tolm\ea, 

cc Stamens 5-10 

D. Caps not beaked, superior petals 5, 

3-cut or pinnatifid . 21. SfUttta. 

DD Caps 2-beaked. 

E. Number of stamens 5; petals 5 or 0: 

eaps. inferior 22. Heuchera. 


BB. Number of stamens 8 or 10: caps. 


F. Petals 0, stamens 8 or 10; fls. soli- 
tary . . ,23. Ckryaoa- 
FF. Petals entire or lobed, stamens 10, \plen\um. 

fis racemose 24. TeUimv. 

AA. Ovary 2- cr 3-loculed, the placentse in the axis 
of the f r , rarely composed of distinct carpels. 
B Stamens 5 (See also BB ) 

c Carpels united at base, adnate to hypan- 

thium . 25 Suttivantia. 

cc Carpels united and wholly adnate to 

hypanthium . 26 Suksdorfia. 

ccc Carpels 2. united at base, free from but 

included in the inflated hypanthium 27. Bolandra. 
BB. Stamens 10, rarely 8 (sometimes 5 in Boy- 

c. Sepals valvate 

D Petals . .28 Rodgerna. 

DD Petals 5, deciduous, stamens 5 or 10 29 Boykima. 
cc Sepals imbricate 

D Styles erect, petals 5 or 0; stamens 8 

or 10 30 Aetilbe 

DD. Styles mostly recurved in fr , petals 5 31 Saxifraga. 

The following genera also are treated Abrophyllum, Anop- 
terus, Bauera, Demanthe, Leptarrhena, and Tauuktea. 

73. CUNONIACE-ffi. 

A Calyx valvate 

B Stamens hypogynous, very long 

BB Stamens pengynous 
AA. Calyx imbncate, the lobes very short 


1 Acrop) 

2 Cerato- 


3 Cunorua 

BB. Calyx-tube urn-shaped, much longer 
than ovary, sepals and stamens 
5, fls in long and slender racemes . 5. S\now\l- 
BB. Petals as many as calyx-lobes [sonia, 

c Fls borne in catkins, 5-merous. 

D Shape of petals broad, st mens with 

long-filament , disk present . 6. Corylopm. 

DD. Shape of petals subulate, as long as 

sepals , stamens nearly sessile , disk 0. . 7. Fortuneana, 
cc. Fls in clusters, 4-merous 

D Lvs deciduous, crennto anthers ob- 
tuse, the loonies opening with 1 valve. 8. Hamamd\a t 
DD Lva persistent, entire authors beaked, 

the locules opening w ith 2 valves. . 9. Loropeta- 
AA Ovary-locules 2- or moro-o\ uled [lum, 

B Fls unisexual . . .10. L%quidam- 

BB Fls bisexual [bar. 

C The fls 5, in a head, surrounded by an in- 
volucre of which the outer bracts are 
small, the inner gradually larger 11 Rhodofaa. 

cc. The fls 2 together with very short bracts 

at the base 12 Dwanthut. 


(See article Diosma. 1 , 


A Stamens 1-2, calyx 3-4-lobed, ovary 1-loeulod 1 Gunnrra 
AA Stamens 2-X, calyx truncate or 4-toothed, 

ovary deeply 2- or 4-grooved 2 Mynophi/l- 

AAA Stamen 1, calyx truncate, ovary 1-loculed . 3 fhppuris 


The only genua 



A. Stamens usually as many as the petals 
B Petals free or connate only at the base; 

floral parts in 5's 1 Crassula. 

BB Petals usually connate to the middle or 


c. Calyx bell-shaped, as long as the corolla- 
tube 2 Gramman- 
cc Calyx many times shorter than the co- [thea. 

rolla-tube 3. Rochea 

AA Stamens usually twice as many as the petals 
B Petals free or connate only at the very base 

c Fls usually 4-5-tnerous 4 Sedum 

cc Fls 0-merous or more 5 Semper- 

BB Petals usually connate to the middle or [vivum 

c Calyx large, inflated shortly 4-fid . 6 Bryophyl- 

cc Calyx 4-parted 
ccc Calyx 5-parted 


7 Kalanchot 

8 Cotyledun. 

The following are also described Altamiranoa, Dudlpya, 
Echeveria, Kitchmgia, Lenophyllum, Ohveranthus, Pachyphytum, 
Stylophyllum, Tillsoa, and Urbima. 


A. Stamens 4-8, styles 2-5, placentse panctal 1 Drotera. 

AA. Stamens about 15, style columnar, placenta 

basal . . 2 Dionsea. 

AAA. Stamens 10-20, styles 5, filiform . 3. Drosophyl- 



A. Ovary-locules 1-ovuled 
B. Petals 

C. Lvs evergreen 

D. Stamens 2-8, with long filaments, fla. in 

racemes 1. Diatylium. 

DD. Stamens W1 th short filaments, fls in 
heads, calyx-tube in the pistillate fl. 
tubular 2. Sycopna. 

CC. Lvs deciduous 

D Number of stamens about 24; fls. in 

dense spikes 3. FothergiUa. 

DD. Number of stamens 5-7 

x. Calyx-tube not urn-shaped, sepals 
' " - in ahort 

and stamens 5-7, fla. 
bead-like racemes 


A. Anthers 8, suhscssilo 
AA Anthers 15-30. on iilanu 

1 Jihizophora. 

2 C'asgi poiwca. 


A Petals 0, calyx-tube not produced beyond 

ovary 1 Terminals. 

AA Petals 5 (0 in a few upeues of Combretum) 
B Calyx-tube straight, constricted above 


c Cotyledons comolute 2 Ponrea. 

cc Cotyledons detply furrowed or twisted 

and plaited 3 Combrdum. 

BB Calyx-tube produced to a great length be- 
yond the o\ dry 4 Quinquaha 

82. MYRTACE^. 

A Ovary 1-loculed . 1 Thrypto- 

AA Oviiry 2- or more-lotuled [mene. 

B Fr a caps , which is lt>c\ilicidf\lly dehiscent 
at apex, rarely 1-2-seeded and tmb- 

c Anthers basifixed 2. Calotham- 

cc. Anthers versatile [ntw. 

D Individual fls pedicelled. 

E Stamens 5-adelphous 3. Tnstania. 

KE Stamens free 

F Fls in globose he ads 4 Syncarpvi. 

rv Fls in forking rymos . ... 5 Metrostd- 

DD. Individual fls not pedicelled. [eroa. 

B Fls solitary in the axils of the floral 

Ivs or brnrts 
F Stamens distinct, not longer than 

petals . 6 Leptoai 


. 4. Parrolta. 

FF Stamens distinct, long-exserted 7. Calhster 
FFF Stamens united in clusters, long- 
exserted . . 8 Melaleuca. 
BE Fls in cymose or umbellate heads 

F Petals distinct 9. Angophora. 

FF Petals wanting (or adnate to the 

calyx-hd) .10 Eucalyptui. 

BB Fr. a berry or rarely an indchiscent drupe: 

Ivs opposite, punctate 
c. Stamens straightmh in the bud. seeds 

with endosperm ... 11. Petjoa. 

cc Stamens in flexed or involute in the bud: 

seeds without endosperm 
D. Calyx-limb closed in bud, deeply 

divided m anthesis . . . 12 Pttdtum. 

DD. Calyx 4-5-lobed or -parted m the bud, 
not out deeper in an theses 



B. Ovules pendulous 13. Pimento. 

SB. Ovules not pendulous 

F Embryo thick and fleshy 14 Eugenia. 

VT. Embryo cui ved, circular or spiral 
a The ovary 2-3- rarely 4-loculed: 

ovules in each locule 15. Myrtus. 

ao The ovary several-loculed by 
false septa, each ultimate lo- 
cule 1-ovulcd 16. Rhodomyr- 


Other genera treated incidentally are Backhousia, Barnng- 
yx, and Kunzca. 

toma, Beaufortia, Blephai 


A. Fr woody calyx mostly imbru ate 
B The fr large and spheric al, not opening 
BB The fr opening by a hd. 
c Style elongated 
co Style short 
AA Fr fibrous calyx subvalvate or imbricate 
Petals b-S 
MB Petals 4 dartly 5) 
AAA IT fleshy ealyx mostly valvate or entire 
B Ovary 4-loeulcd 
BB O\ary 5-loculcd 

1 Couroupita. 

2 Brrtholletw 
3 Lfcythis 

4 Japarandiba 
I Gr^ 0nV1 ' 

/. Summary of Tribes. 

Excluding five tribes not represented in this work, and following 
Cogmaux in D C Monog Phaner vol 7 (1H91) 
A. Fr capsular (rupturing regularly in 
Melastoma) stamens usually un- 
D Caps and ovary .i-5-angleel 

aps and ovary .v-->-angleel or 
winded, much diluted ami hollowed 

4 2 

r Ovary-eells as many as petals 1 SONERIIA TRIBE. 

Cc Ovary Mooulfd petals r >, ran ly 

BB Caps, and ovary tente 

c Conncftive rarely produced belo\ 
the leicules. usually with poste 


the leicules. usually with ] 
nor spur or appi nelagt 
CC Conneetive usually elongated at 
th< base, product .1 beyond the 
insertion of the filament into an 
npp< nelagc or win* on the ante- 
rior side 

D beech shaped like a snail-she 11 
t Ovary generally partly or 
wholly inferior sep-ils 
usually alternating with 
long, stellate IMIIS 4 OBBECKIA TRIBE 

EE Ovary g<neially -ui>cnor, no 

stellate hairs 5 TIBOL THIN \TRIBE. 

DD Seeds oblong or ov oid t> MICROI ICIA THIBK. 

AA. Fr berry-like or leathery, rupturing 

irregularly stamens gem rally equal 
B Lvs not finely stnate between the 

primary nerves 
C Couruttue usually appendage. d or 

spurn d em the posterior side 7 DISSOCH.ETA 
cc Connective rarely produced at the [TRIBE. 

base, usually not appendaged X MICOMA TieiBh.. 
BB. Lvs finely stnate between primary 
nerves with very numerous trans- 
verse nervtlets 9 BLAKE v TRIBE. 

//. Key to the Tribes. 
1. Sonerila Tribe. 

A. Fla. 5-merous, stamens equal, connective with 

a posterior spur but ne> anterior appendage 
AA. Fls mostly .-J-merous, stamens une<ivial, those 

opposite petals smaller 

AAA. Flu. mostly 4-merous, stamens equal, con- 
nective not produceel 

2. Bertolonia Tribe. 

A. The connective not appendaged on the an- 
terior side. 
B. Connective tuberculate on the posterior 

side at the base . ... *> Bertolonw. 

BB. Connective with a short posterior spur and 

a long ascending appendage . . 5. Salpinga. 

AA. The connective with a spur on the anterior side 

and a tubercle on the posterior side 6. Monolena. 

3. Rhezia Tribe. 
Stamens equal or cubequal: ovary glabrous 7. Rhexia. 

1 Gravesia. 

2. Sanerila. 

3. Phyllag- 


4. Osbeckia Tribe. 

Stamens unequal, connective of the larger ones 
long-produced at base: fr. baccate fls. not 
involucrate 8. Melastoma. 

5. Tibouchma Tnbe. 

A. Stamens unequal ovary 2-4-celled, usually 
glabrous, petals neit acute, connective of 
larger stamens with a long, club-shaped, 
2-fid appendage 9 Heervi. 

AA. Stamens equal ovary setose at apex, connec- 
tive with 2 lobes or tubercles on the anterior 
side, and no pohte nor appendage 10 T\bouch\na. 

6. Microhcia Tnbe. 

Stamens unequal, anthers short, not beaked; 

calyx-lobes shorter than tube .... 11. Centradenia. 

7. Dissochaeta Tribe. 

Stamens equal or nearly so, fls mostly 4-5- 

merous . .12 MediniUa. 

8. Miconia Tnbe. 
A Infl terminal 

B Lvs provided with 2-lobed bladders at base 13. Tococa. 
BB Lvs not provided with bladders outer 

calyx-lobes ne>ne or inconspicuous 14 Tamonea. 

AA Infl lateral or axillary, petals obtuse, con- 
nective not produced at base 15 Chdemia. 

9. Blakea Tnbe. 

The plants described as Amaraboya are now 

refe-rred to the genus Blake a 10 Blakea. 

Calvoa, Dissotis, Kendnckia, and Osbeckia are also cultivated. 

85. LYTHRACE^:. 

A Hypanthmm tubular, curveel or gibbous at 

base ] 

LA Hypanth'um str 

B Cans and ovary au me luueu ... u .^v 

c Petals 5, rarely 4, stamens 8-10 

e c Petals 6, stamens mostly fi or 12 

BB Caps not all mcludeel in hypantmunc 

c The sepal* 4, petals 4. stamens 8 
cc The sepals b,j>etals b, stamens nur 

eluded in hypanthilim 


2 Decodon 

3 Lythrum 

4 Lawsoma. 

i 5 Lagerntrce- 

The only genus 



Ovary 1-4-celled, cells 1-ovuled, rarely 2-4- 

ovuled fr nut-like, 1-4-celled, 1-4-seeded. 
n Us 2-nurous, ovary 1-2-cellcd 1. Circva. 

IB Tls 3-4-merous, ovary 4 -celled, rarely 

,4-edled 2 Goura. 

Ovary 2 b-celled, cells many-ovniled. fr. a 

caps (m Fuchsia a berry) 

B Stamens 1 or 2 ... 3 Lopezia. 

IB Mamcns t-S, rarely 3 
c Seeds heardi d 

D Hypinthium broadened out above 

ovary into a lunml-shapcd tube 4 Zauschneria 

DD Hypatithium harelly procluccd beyond 

ovirv 5 Epilobium. 

CC Seeds not beardeel or winged 

D Hypatithium usually long-produced 
bejond ovary (except m some CLno- 

E Number e>f stamens 4 6 Eucharid- 

EE Number of stamens 8 [tunt 

F Fr a caps . . 7 (Enothera. 

rr Fr a berry 8 Fuchsia 

DD Hypanthmm not or hardly produced 

beyond ovary 

B Caps locuhcidal . . 9 Clarkia. 

KB Caps septicidal 

F Stamens 8-12 10 Juttieua. 

nr Stamens 3-6 . . II. Lvdvngva.. 


The only genus 





A. Petals hooded. 

B Caps. 3-5-valved at apex, rarely twisted 1. Loaaa, 
tat. Caps longitudinally 5-10-valved, usually 

twisted spirally 2 Blumen- 

BBB Caps narrow, straignt, longitudinally 5- \bachia. 

valved ... 3. Scyphanthus. 

AA. Petals not hooded. 

B Seeds very numerous, arranged in many 

series . 4. Eucnide. 

33. Seeds few or, if numerous, arranged in 2 

series & Mentteka. 


A. Hypanthmm long; petals and stamens 5 1 Taesorua. 

AA Hypanthium short, petals 4-5, rarely 0, 

stamens 4-5 2 Paisiflora. 

AAA Hypanthium medium or short; fls unisexual 3. Modecca 


In cultivation 

Hypanthium of male fls long, anthers 
coherent m an oblong head, usually 

I. Summary of Tribes. 

A Series 1 Ovules horizontal 1. CUCURBITA TRIBE 

AA. Series 2 Ovules erect or ascending, 

rarely horizontal 
B. Fr. ruptures elastically ... 2 CYCLANTHERA 


BB Pr. does not rupture elastically 3 ABOBRA TRIBE 

4 iA. Series 3. Ovules pendulous 4 SICYOS TRIBE 

//. Key to the Tribes. 
1. Cucurbit* Tribe. 

A. Anther-cells straight, rarely curved, not 

flexuous . 1. Melothna. 

AA. Anther-cells flexuous or conduplicate 

B. Corolla bell-shaped, 5-lobed to the middle 

or a little below 

c. Anthers free . 2 Sicana 

cc. Anthers coherent 

DD Filaments free 4 Cucurbita. 

BB Corolla rotate and 5-petaled or bell-shaped 

and 5-parted to the 
C Petals fimbnate or tendril-bearing 

D Seeds large, fibrous 5 Telfairea 

DD Seeds small, not fibrous : 6. Tnchosan- 

cc Petals entire [thes, 

D Hypanthium of male fls long, anthers 
E Pistillodes in male fls 1-3, subulate 

or sctiform 7. Gymnopeta- 

EE Pistillode absent or reduced to a [lum. 


F Anthers coherent 8 Pepoma 

FF Anthers free 9. Lafjenana. 

D Hypanthium of male fls short, anthtrs 
free or slightly coherent, usually ex- 
K Stamens inserted m the mouth of the 


V Scales in bottom of hypanthium 10 Thladiantha. 
FK Scales m bottom of hypanthium 

23 11. Momordica. 

EE. Stamens inserted m hypanthium 
F Male fls in racemes 
o Fr dry, fibrous, dehiscent by 

hd at top . . 12 Luffa. 

GO Fr fleshy, riot fibrous 

H Female fls solitary 13. Ecbalhum. 

HH Female fls racemose or clus- 

tered . . . 14. Brj/onwz. 

PP. Male fls solitary or fascicled. 

o Sepals somewhat leafy, ser- 

rate, reflexcd .15. Benmcasa. 

GO. Sepals awl-shaped, entire, erect 
H Pollen minutely muncato.pia- 

tiflode .10. Bryonopni. 

HH Pollen smooth, pistillode re- 

duced to a small gland 
I Tendrils not branched con- 
nective usually produced 
upward beyond loculo 17. Cueumu. 
II. Tendrils 2-3-fid connec- 

tive not produced. 18. Citrvttu* 

2. Cyclanthera Tribe, 

A Fr. oblique, gibbous, rupturing elastically 19. Cyclanthera. 
AA. Fr not gibbous, opening by 1 or 2 pores at the 

top or by irregular rupture 20 Echinocystit. 

(Incl Mogarrhiza ) 

3. Abobra Tribe. 

Anther-cells flexuous, stamens free 21. Abobra 

4. Sicyos Tribe. 

Fls. 5-merous, monoecious f r. fleshy 22 Sechium. 

The genera Actimwtemma, Qurania, Herpetospermum, Hodg* 
aonia and Sicyos are sometimes cultivated 


A. Ovary wholly inferior 

B Pftah all free .... 1 Begonia 

BB Petals of pistillate fl grown together 2 Symbcgonia. 

AA. O\ ary partly superior ... 3 thllebrandia. 


A Fl -tube wanting 

B Lvs largo and persistent 

C Seeds black and shining 1 Ptreskia 

CC Seeds white, dull and < o\ ered with hairs 2, Ptreskiup\s. 
BB Lvs wanting or minute and tiulucous 
C Plant epiphytic, spineless fls small 

D Flowering joints bottle-shaped 3 Hariofa 

DD Flowering joints not bottlt -shaped 4 Rh\pal\s 

CC. Plant not epiphytic, usually \try spiny 

fls large 
D. Petals spreading, filaments much 

shorter than the petals 5 OpuntM, 

DD. Petals erett and clowly surrounding 
the stamens, hlaments longer than 
the petals 6 Nopalea. 

AA Fl-tube present, often much elong-ited 

B Plants epiphytic or nearly so, either Hut or 
J-angled, usually spineless and always 
with spinel os fr 

c Sta 3-angled, bearing small spines at the 
areolts ovary and fr bearing large 
bracts 7 Hylocereus. 

CC Sts normally tl'it, spineless ovary and 

fr be.iring only minute hr-icts 
D The sts weak, divided into many short 


E Fla irregular 8 Zygocactus 

tt Fls regular 9 bchlum- 

DD. The sts stouter than the last, with [bergera. 

elongates! joints 

E Fl -tulx> vi ry short or nearly wanting 10 Disocactua 
BK Fl-tube Mry definite, often much 


F Fls small, diurnal 11 WMia 

F* Us large, mM'turnal 12 Epiphyllum. 

BB. Plants not epiphytic, never Hut, with several 

to many ribs 

c. St* globular or cylindrical, not jointed 
D. Plant-body co-vercd with more or less 

definite tubercles fr naked 

E The phnt terminated by a cephahumlS Cactiu. 
EE The plant without a terminal ceph- 


F Without spines except in the seed- 
o Plant tumid, without woody 

tubercles 14 Lophophora. 

aa Plant with dry prominent 

woody tubercles 15 Anocarpua. 

FF. With spines on the tubercles 

o Tubercles terete or angled, with 

vanoui kinds of spines 16 A/ammiMortu. 

GO. Tubercles flattened, with pec- 
tinate spines 17. Pelecuphora. 
DD. Plant-body covered with more or less 

definite ribs fr scaly 

E. Tubercles elongated, finger-like . 18 Leuchten- 
EE Tubercles, if present, always low [beryut. 

F Top of plant naked or nearry ao Id. Echtnocao 


FF. Top of plant very woolly 20. Malocooar- 

OO. Sta. often tall, cylindrical, more-or-lcsa [put, 

branched, erect or climbing, sometimes 
low and then always with spiny fr. 
D. Flowering plants taking on various 
forms like a cephahum, long hair or 
wool, peculiar bristles or spines from 
near the top. 

B Ribs of sts. 4-7 21. Lophoctrtut. 

mm. Ribe of te. many. 



F. Fla. diurnal; flowering areoles 

with acicular spines, but no wool 22. C<xrneg\ea. 
FF Fls. nocturnal, wool or hairs usu- 
al b r produced in abundance with 
the fo 

o. Ovary and fr nearly smooth, 
the fow minute bracts with no 
hairs in their axils 23. Ctpholo- 

oo Ovary and fr covered with [cereus. 

bracts with long hairs in their 
axils 24. Oreocereus 

DD. Flowering plants not different from the 

sterile plants 
B. Plants tall ere< t trees 

F. Fl , after withering, dropping from 

the ovary 25. Cereus. 

rr. Fl , after withering, persisting on 

the ovary 

O. Fr and fls minute, often several 
coming from each flowering 
areole 26. Myrtitto- 

OO. Fr and fls tried uim-m zed or [cactus. 

larger, only 1 coming from 
each flowe ring areole 
H Ovary and fr oov< red with 

tlun scales, but no fls 27. Eseontrwi. 

HH. Ovary and fr spiny bub not 
bearing large chartaceous 
Hcuh a 
I. The fr edible, juicy 28. Lemnirco- 


ii The fr dry 29 Pachvcereut. 

EB. Plants low, often vinos, or, if at first 
elongated and erect, finally becom- 
ing procumbent or clambering 
r. Fw. nocturnal 

o Fr smooth, yi How . 30 //arrma. 

oa Fr spiny, nd 

H Sts prtxluc-mg an abundance 

^ of a< mil roots 31 Sekmctreus. 

HH Sts not producing an abund- 
ance of af nil roots 

I Ribs usually i 32 Acantho- 

ii Ribs 10 or more 33 \yaoccreus 

IT Fls diurnal 

O 'I he Ms irregular, narrow 

H Ms skndir, wrak 34 Aporocactus. 

HH Sis stout, at first rrect 

i Fr spmy, with red pulp 35 Rathbun\a 
H Fr not spiny, with white 

pulp 36 Cltvstocactus. 

OO The fls r< gular 

H H -tube much elongated, 
spim s on the ov ary re<luced 
to stiff bristle 37. Ech\nopns. 

HH H-tubi short, nt least never 

much elongated 
I Plants ptodueing a cluster 

of tubers 38 W\lcox\a. 

II Plants without tubers 

J Usually stout but low, 
MO m i tune s procumbent 
stigmas grren 39. Echinoce- 

JJ. \my, stigmas not green [reus. 

K Fls umall, yellow 40 Bergero- 

KK Fls large, red or [cactus. 

white . .41. HtKocereus. 

Epiphyllanthus and Pterocactus are described. 


A. Petals numerous' caps 5- or more valved 1. Mesembrv- 


AA. Petals drupe 3-8-stoncd 2. Tetrayonia. 

AAA. Petals 5-> . caps circumscissile 3. Seauvium. 


Key condensed from Coulter & Rose's "Monograph of North 
American Umbelhferse " Not arranged in sequence of relationship. 

A. Fls in dense heads 1. Erynoaan. 

AA. Fin. not in heads, evidently umbellate. 
B Fr. conspicuously bristly 

c The fr covered with spines or hooked 

bristles . 2. Samcula. 

cc The fr. with bristles only on the ribs .. .. 3. Daucus. 
BB. Fr not bristly (except Osmorhiza and 

C. Oil-tuboa obsolete or obscure. 

D The fr*. 

simple . 4. Hydroeotyle. 
DD The fr not strongly flattened. 
B. Seed-face concave. 
r. Stylopodium conical 
GL At base, fr. attenuate. 5. Ottnarhm. 

oo. At base, fr rounded. 

H Ribs slender . . 6. Scandtx, 

HH Ribs broad, 3-angled, or al- 
most w ing-hke . . 7. Jf yrrhts. 
FF. Stylopodium flat or wanting. 

a Lvs simple and perfoliate 8. Bupleurum. 

GO Lvs largo and decompound 9 Contum 

me. Seed-face plane 10. jgopod\um. 

OC. Oil-tubes distinct 

D. Dorsally the fr strongly flattened, with 
lateral ribs more or less prominently 
winged (see Mu>meon) 
B. The oil-tubes solitary in the intervals 

between the ribs, rarely 2 
F Stylopodium conical 

a Slender and glabrous plants 11 Oxypolis. 
GO. Stout and pubescent, at least 

in the umbel 12. Heracleum. 

FF. Stylopodium flat or wanting 

o Plants ( aulescent and branching 
H Color of fls white 

I Lvs pmnately dissected, 

dorsal ribs filiform plant 
Blonder 13. Antthum. 

ii Lv t( rnatcly or pmnately (See Dill ) 

decompound dorsal ribs 
prominent but slender, 
plant stout 14. Angelica. 

ill Lvs pmnately decom- 
pound, dorsal ribs winged, 
plant htout 15 Sehnum. 

HH Color of fls yellow 

i Dorsal ribs prominent 16 Levisticum. 

ii Dorsal ribs hliform 17 Paatinaca 

GO Plants acaulescent or nearly so 18 Lomatium. 
KE. The oil-tubes more than 1 in the inter- 
vals, usually several 
F. Plants caulescent or nearly so 

fls yellow or w hite 18 Lomatium. 

FF. Plants caulescent and branching 

o Fr winged fls white 19. Archangel- 

GO Fr not winged fls yellow 20 Ferula, [tea 

DD. Dorsally the fr not strongly flattened, 
usually more or lesa laterally flat- 

E The oil-tubes solitary in the inter- 
vals between the ribs 
F Btylopodium conical. Ifts. linear or 

o Involucre wanting 

H Fls white ... 21 Coriandrum. 

HH Fb yellow . 22 Famiculum. 

QQ Involuero prestnt 

H Ms rose-color fr bristly .23 Cumtmm. 
ii H Fls white fr smooth 24 (Jorum 

FF Stylopodium flat or wanting. 

o Us white 25 Ap\um 

GG Us jelkm, (Sec article Celery ) 

H Ribs equal, broad and corky 26 Petroseh- 
HH Ribs w inged or filiform [num. 

i The nba conspicuously 

wmgod 27 Thaspium. 

II The ribs filiform 28. Zina 
EE The oil-tubes more than 1 in the 


F Stylopodium conical 29 Layutticum. 

FF. Stylopodium flat or wanting 

a Seed-face silicate or decidedly 

conca\ e 

H Carpels flattened dorsally 30 Musineon. 
HH Carpels strongly flattened 

laterally 31. Engenva. 

GO Seed-faee plane or but slightly 


H Ribs all filiform Ifts entire 32. Txn\d\a. 
HH Ribs corky at least the lateral 
i Li"i simple and perfoliate. 
oil-tubes continuous 
about need-cavity 8. Buplturum. 

ii. Lvs. pinnate, usually ser- 
rate oil-tubes 1-3 in the 
intervals 33 Stum. 

The following genera are also treated Aoiphyila, Arracacia, 
Astrantia, Chterophyllum, Cnthtnum, Dorema, Hacquetia. Mtim. 
Molopospermum. Peuoedouum, Portenechlagia, and Seeeu. 


A. Petals more or leas imbricate, broadly affixed 

at base 
B. Lvs pinnate 

c. Lfts entire or indistinctly crenate- ovary 

2-celled glabrous evergreen shrubs. \.Delarbrea. 

oc. Lfts. serrate ovary 2-5-celled herbs or 

small deciduous trees 2. Aralta. 

BB. Lvs digitate, w honed. 6s. in simple ter- 
minal umbels, styles 2-3, distinct in the 
fertile fls.: herbs 3. Pan**. 



AA. Petals valvate 

B. Pedicels jointed or fls sessile evergreen 
tropical or subtropical trees or shrubs. 
o. Fls pedicelled 

D. Lvs 1-3-pmnate ovary 1-10-celled, 

styles usually distinct 4. Polyacvis 

DD. Lvs digitate or occasionally simple 

styles 5, distinct 5. Pteudo- 

OC. Fls. sessile, ovary usually 5-celled, rarely [panox. 

1-4- or 6-12-celled endosperm usually 
ruminate Ivs usually simple and lobea, 
rarely dictate 6. Oreopanox. 

BB Pedicels not jointed 
c. Lvs digitate 

D Anthers 4-celled. ovary 10-celled, styles 

distinct evergreen 7 Dizygotheca. 

DD Anthers 2-celled, styles usually con- 
E Stipules wanting Ivs deciduous 

ovary 2-5-cellod 8 Acantho- 

EE Stipules developed Ivs evergreen [panax. 

ovary 5- to many-celled 9 Schefflera. 

CC. Lvs simple, usually lobed 

D Fls 4- or 8-12-merous Ivs palmately 

lobed, large 
E Styles, connate into a column fls 

8-12-merous 10. Trevesia. 

BE Styles distinct, 2 fls 4-inerous Ivs 

deciduous 1 1 Tetrapanax. 

DD. Fls 5-merous, rarely 5-8-merous 
E. With distinct styles 

F Shrub, evergreen, unarmed stylos 

5 12 Fatua 

FF Shrub deciduous, prickly styles 2 13 Echino- 
EE. With connate styles [panax. 

F. Habit climbing endosperm rumi- 
nate Ivs simple, usually lobed, 
evergreen 14 Hedera. 

FF. Habit upright 

G Ovary 5-8-celled, calyx indis- 
tinctly toothed Ivs usually 
entire, occasionally 2-5-lobed, 
evergreen !=> Gihbertia. 

OO. Ovary 2-celled, calyx with 5 
short teeth Ivs palmately 
lobed or digitate, deciduous 8 Acantho- 

Meryta and Tupidantkus are also in cultivation 

The only genus 




A. Ovary l-cf>lled, calyx minute, petals usually 
5 pistillate and stammate fls in distinct 
heads with small deciduous bracts 1. Nysta. 

AA. Ovary 6-10-celled, perianth in stammate 
fls , heads consisting of 1 pistillate fl and 
numerous stanunate fls with 2 or 3 very 
large white bracts at the base 2. Dandia. 

The only genus 


101. CORNACE-B. 


A. Fls. bisexual, usually m cymes, petals short, 
valvate, ovary 2-celled Ivs. usually 
opposite . 1. Gamut. 

AA. Fls. unisexual 

B. Lvs opposite, evergreen fls in terminal 

panicles, ovary 1-celled 2 Aucuba. 

BB. Lvs. alternate 

c. Petals valvate, 4 fls. in few-fld cymes on 

the upper surface of the Ivs . . 3. Helunnyw- 

CO. Petals imbricate, 5 fls. in terminal 

racemes or panicles 4. Ontelmvt. 


A. Corolla rotate or nearly so; limb regular; 
style short, deeply 2-5-cut. 

B. Lvs. pmnately cut 1. Sambuctu. 

BB. Lvs simple . . 2. Viburnum. 

AA. Corolla tubular or bell-shaped, limb usually 
irregular, style long, usually with capitate 

B. Ovary 2-5-celled, all the cells 1-ovuled: 

herbs with rather small whorled fls 3. Tnosteum. 

BB. Ovary 3-i-celled, 1 or 2 cells 1-ovuled, the 

others with numerous ovules 
C. Fr a berry, usually 2-seeded corolla 
campanulate or tubular - funnelform, 
nearly regular 4 Sumphon- 

CC Fr a leathery achenc [carpoi. 

D. Achene inclosed between large peltate 
bracts corolla campanulati'-funnel- 
form, 2-hpped ovary 4-eelled 5 Dipella. 

DD. Achone not inclosed between bracts 
ovary 3-celled , corolla nearly or qmto 

E Ovary narrow , sepals 2-5, large, 
peisistent, corolla tubular or cam- 
panulato-funnelform 6 Abfha 

EE Ovary subglobost , M pals .5, lanceo- 
late deciduous, corolla carnpunu- 
late-funndform trailing undi r- 
shiub with tht fls m pairs on 
slender upright htalks 7 Linnxa. 

BBB Ovary 2 8-celled, the colls with many 

ovules or 1 cell empty 
C Fr an arhcno or caps 

D Stamens 4 tts in eoalescent pairs 

inserted at unequal height, ovary 

3-telled, often 1 cell empty fr an 

achene 8 Kolkwitzia. 

DD Stamens 5 fls in cymes fr a 2-celled 

dehiscent caps 9 Diervilla. 

cc Fr a berry 

D Cells of ovary 2-3, rarely 4-5 fla m 

pairs or whorls, calyx detuluous 10 Lomcera 

DD Cells of ovary 3-8 fld in whorls, calyx 

persistent 11. Leicester la. 

Alseuosmia is also briefly treated. 

7. Summary of Tribes. 

Ignoring exceptions and omitting eight tribes not within the 
scope of this work 

A Number of ovules in each locule oo 
B Fr dry, capsular or 2 "i-berned or 

c Fls compacted or confluent into a 

spherical head 1 NAUCLEA TRIBE. 

CC Fls not disposed in a spherical 

D Seeds winged or appendaged, 

withendospfrm caps 2-celled. 2. CINCHONA TRIBE. 
DD Seeds not winged 
E Corolla valvate 

i 'Ihe siods with endosperm: 

nips 2-i piled 3. CONDAMINKA 

KF The seeds minute fr mde- [TRIBE. 

hiscent, 2-berned or cap- 
sulur, 2 4-cell<-d 4. HEDYOTIS TRIBE 

EE Corolla imbricate or corno- 
lute caps 2-celled, seeds 
with endosperm 5 RONDELETIA 

BB Fr fit-shy, bursting irreKulurly or de- [TRIBE. 

hisctnt at apex, or a drupe with 2 
or more stone", the stones many- 
c Corolla valvatr setds numerous, 

minute, angled 6 MUSB^NDA TRIBE. 

cc CorolU imbricate or convolute 

angled ' ' 7. HAMEUA TRIBE. 

ccc. Corolla strictly convolute seeds 
numerous or few , large and com- 
pressed or smaller and angled 8. GARDENIA TRIBE. 
AA. Number of ovules in each locule 1 
B Radicles superior 

c Stamens inserted at base of corolla, 

corolla valvate or imbricate 9. CHIOCOCCA TRIBE. 

cc. Stamens ins rted at throat of 


D Corolla strictly eon volute 10 ALBERTA TRIBK. 

DD Corolla valvate 11. VANQUKRIA TRIUH. 

BB. Radicles inferior 

c Corolla strictly convolute 12. IXORA TRIBB. 

CC. Corolla valvate 

D. Ovules affixed to septum, rarely 
basilar, generally amphitro- 
pous trees and shrubs 13 MORINDA TRIBK. 

DD. Ovules affixed to septum, am- 
phitropous or anatropous- 
herbs 14. GALJQM TRIBE. 

ODD. Ovules basilar, erect, anatro- 

E. Stamens inserted on the 
throat of the corolla fr 
indehiscent' style entire 
or with short branches . 15. PSTCHOTHIA TKIBB. 

KB. Stamens inserted on the 
throat, rarely at base of 
corolla fr capsular or 2- 
berned style-branches fih- 

BED. Stamens inserted at base of 
corolla, rarely on throat fr. 
berry-like or mdehiscent. 
atyle entire or with long 
branches . 


12. Iiora Tribe. 





77. Key to the Tribes. 
1. Nauclea Tribe. 

Calyx-tubes confluent fr a globose, fleshy syn- 
carp ovary 2-celled, ovules solitary, pendu- 
lous . . 

2. Cinchona Tribe. 
A. Corolla valvate 
B Placentae ascending from the base of the 

septum, or erect 5 

BB Placentae adnate to the middle of the sep- 

c Caps septieidal 
cc Caps locuhcidal 
AA Corolla imbricate, stamens inserted in the 


B Sepals ne\er bract-like 

BB One of the sepals in some fls m each mfl 
developing into a large white persistent 

3. Condaminea Tribe. 

One calyx-lobe dilated into an ample colored 

. 1. Cephal- 


3 Cinchona 

4 Bouvardia. 

6 Emmenop- 

1. Pinckneya. 

4. Hedyotis Tnbe. 

A Calyx-lobes unequal caps locuhcidal . 8. Peniat, 

AA. Calyx-lobes equal caps loculicidal at the 

top . . .9. Houston*!. 

5. Rondeletia Tnbe. 

Corolla imbricate, lobes equal or nearly so 10. Ronddet\a. 

6. Mussaenda Tnbe. 

Infl terminal , corymbose , ovary 1 -2-celled , calyx- 
lobes 5, 1 dilated and colored. 11 Wus&xnda 

7. Hameha Tnbe. 

A Corolla 5-ribbed berry 5-celled 12 Hameha 

AA Corolla 4 5-lobed berry 2-.i-cclled 13. Hoffmannia 

8. Gardenia Tnbe. 

A. Infl usually terminal 

B Corolla-tube short . 14 BurcheUia. 

BB Corolla-tube long 

c Calyx 5-toothod 15 Poaoyuena. 

cc Calyx-lobes large and leafy . 1(> / rptnctina 

AA Infl usually axillary 

B Style has a spindle or club-shaped stigma, 

entire or 2-toothed 
c Seed-coat membranous 

D Calyx-limb various .ovary 2-celled . 17 Randta. 
DD Calyx-limb often tubular, ovary 1- 

cclled 18 Gardenia. 

CC. Seed-coat fibrous or subfibrous 

D Corolla-tube long and slender . 19. Oxyanthus. 

DD Corolla-tube short 

E Calyx S-parted . . . 20 Mitno- 


EE Calyx truncate or 5-toothed ... 21 Genipa. 
BB. Style-bran* hes 2, distinct (except some- 
times in Kraussia) 

c Throat of corolla bearded 22 Krauisia 

cc Throat of corolla glabrous . . 23. TncalysM. 

9. Chiococca Tribe. 

Corolla valvate mfl axillary, racemose, anthers 

dorsifixed, stigma club-shaped .. . 24. Chiococca. 

10. Alberta Tnbe. 

Infl. terminal; the 2-4 calyx-lobes dilated, 
anthers pilose on back . . 25. Alberta. 

11. Vangueria Tribe. 

A. Drupe 1-2-stoned . .26. PUctronia. 
AA. Drupe 3-6-atoned.. 27. Vanyuena. 

A. Fls. clustered m axils . . . 28. Coffea. 

AA. Fls. in 2-3-forking corymbs 

B. Style-branches 2, short, rarely connate Ivs. 

feathery 29 Izora. 

BB. Style very far exserted, the slender spindle- 
shaped stigma usually long Ivs. usually 
membranous ....... . .. 30. Pavetta 

13. Morinda Tribe. 

A. Fls confluent in heads, wluch are many-fld., 

solitary or umbellate 31 Monnda. 

AA. Fls free, calyx-limb 4-5-fid, corolla villous at 
throat, stigma club-shaped, 2-4-lobed 
drupe 1-4-stoned infl. axillary . 32. Damna- 

14. Galium Tnbe. 

A. Corolla funnel-shaped or somewhat tubular. 
B. Fls 4-ineroua, with or without bracts, but 

no brackets, style-branches subequal 33. Atperula. 
BB Fls 4-6-merous, bracted and with 2 

bractlet 1 *, style-branches unequal 34 Cructanella. 

AA Corolla rotate or rotate-campanulate 

B Fls 5-merous . 35 Rubia. 

BB Fls. 4-merous ...... 36 Galium. 

15. Psychotria Tnbe. 

Infl terminal, calyx usually 5-toothed, corolla 
5-lobed, rarely 4-lobed , tube usually short . 

16. Peederia Tnbe. 

2-celled, stigma 2, capillary, twisted 

all upright 

37. Psychotna 

. Ovary 2-celled, stigma 2, capil 

fr drupaceous twining plant 
. Ovary 5-celled fr a caps 

39 Leptodermis 

17. Anthosperma Tribe. 

A Stamens inserted in throat, style-branches 4 40 Mitchetta. 
AA. Stamens inserted at or near ba*e of corolla 

B Us bisexual, style whortly 2-cut shrub 41 Serissa. 
BB Fls unisexual or bin xual, style 2-parted 

to the base or near it 

c Plants are cteenmg herbs 42 Nertera 

cc Plants are shrubs or small trees 43 Coprotma 

Other genera incidentally described are Catesbsea, Cephaehs, 
Exostemma, Fernelia, G icttarda, Oldenlandia, Plocama, and 


A Stamens 4 ... 1. Patnnta. 

V.A Stamens 1, rarely 2 corolla-tube spurred, the 

limb spreading 2. Centranthua 

VA Stamens 2, corolla-tube spurred, the limb 

2-hppod . 3. Fedia 

IVA Stamens usually 3 

B Calyx -limb finally pappiform .... 4. Valenana 

BB Calyx -limb various but not pappiform... .. 5. Valerianella 


A Stigma terminal, straight' fls densely 
crowded m the axils of the floral Ivs , form- 
ing whorls after the manner of the mint 
family 1. Mortrw. 

AA Stigma oblique or lateral, rarely straightish 

fls in terminal heads 

B Bracts of involucre generally herbaceous, 
chaff of receptacle rigidly awl-shaped- 
acummato or spinescent , corolla 4-fid 2. Dipsacut. 

BB Bracts and chaff rigidly paleaceous, rarely 

sub-herbaceous, corolla 4-fid 3. Cephalaria 

BBB Bracts leafy, in about 2 series, chaff short, 
or very nairow or aborti\e, corolla 4-5- 
cut . . . .4. Sca&tosa. 


7. Summary of Tribes. 

Corollas tubular and regular in all 

Series 1 TtJ 

the bisexual fls. 

A. Heada composed entirely of disk-fls., 
which are all perfect and never truly 

B Style-branches awl-shaped, acute, 
nunutely hairy. Ivs. generally al- 
ternate anthers sagittate at base . 1 




BB. Style-branches sabterete. obtuse, 
covered with minute papillae Ivs. 
opposite or alternate, anthers sub- 
entire at base . 2. EtTPATOBim* 
AA. Heads with all perfect or some imper- fTRXBB. 
feet fio.. with or without ray a and 
often yellow 
B. Anthers tailed 

c. Style-branches linear: heads with 

or without rays ... 3. INULA TRIBB. 
CO. Style-branches united or short, 
heads without rays, typically 
with spiny or scanous appen- 
daged, many-bracted involucre 
and fleshy receptacle . 4. CTNARA TBIBB. 

BB. Anthers not conspicuously tailed 
c. Style-branches in dik-fls flattened 
out, and with a distinct though 
sometimes very short terminal 
appendage 5 ASTER TRIBE. 

cc Style-branches not flattened out. 

NOTB It M impossible to make a key to separate the follow- 
ing tribes from one another. Some of the important characters 
are italicized 

Receptacle chaffy or rarely naked under 
tha sterile disk-fls . style-branches 
truncate or appendaged or the style of 
the sterile fin undivided, pappus some- 
times absent but generally of 2-4 awns, 
which are slender or somewhat ohaffy 
and with or without intermediate 
scales which are free or connate at base 
Ins opposite, r.arely alternate , 6 HELIANTHUB 

Receptacle naked, style-branches truncate (TBIBB. 

or appendaged, pappus usually chaffy, 
rarely o/ awns or bristles, or absent 
Ivs opposite or alternate inrolucral 
bracts in 1 or g series, rarely 3-4, her- 
baceoue or membranous' herbage often 
resinous-dotted 7 HELENIUM TBIBB. 

Receptacle chaffy or naked, style- 
branches truncate, pappus when pres- 
ent crown-shaped, rarely of short chaff- 
Ivs mostly alternate involucral bracts 
in 2 or more series, dry or scanous at 

Receptacle usually naked, style-branches 
truncate or appendaged, pappus 
usually of bristles Ivs mostly alternate 
inner involucral bracts in 1 series, sub- 
equal, the outer ones small or wanting, or 
rarely all imbricate in numerous series 9 SENECIO TRIBB. 

Receptacle naked, sty le-b ranches trun- 
cate or the style of the sterile fls un- 
divided, pappus absent or wool-like 
tvs usually alternate or radical involu- 
cral bracts in 1-2 series, subequal, nar- 

Receptacle naked, chaffy or alveolate, 
style-branches rounded at apex, obtuse 
or rarely truncate or the style of the 
sterile fls. undivided , pappus absent, or 
chaffy or crown-shaped Ivs radical 
or alternate involucral bracts in an 
indefinite number of series, often scar- 
lous at apex or spmescent 11 ARCTOTIS TRIBB. 

Series 2 LABIATAFLORA Corollas of 
all or only of the bisexual fls. bilabiate 12. MUTISIA TRIBB. 

Series J. LIOULIFLOR* Corollas all 
hgulate and fls. bisexual juice milky ... 13. CICHOKIUM TRIBB. 

//. Artificial Key to the Composite Tribes. 

(Condensed from Engler <fc PrantL) 

A. Plants without milky juice- corolla of 
disk-fls not hgulate (except some of 
the Mutisia Tribe, recognized by the 
peculiar style and caudate anthers). 
B, Style below its point of branching 
neither thickened nor with a ring 
of long sweeping haira. 
c Anthers not caudate 

D. Style-branches awl-shaped, 
acute, minutely hairy outside 
and often on style below, stig- 
matose over the whole inner 

an. Stylo-branches subterete, ob- 
tuse, covered with nunuto 
papillffi, stigmatose in 2 lines 
near the bace EtrPATOBitn* 

ODD Style-branches flattened, with 
distinct though often short- 
terminal, usually short-hairy 
appendages, stigmatose in 2 
fines ... . ABTSB 

DDDD. Style-branches flattened, stig- 
matose in 2 lines, very diverse 
in form (i e., truncate or ap- 
pendiculate, but with a dis- 
tinct tendency toward a ring 
of long sweeping luuri some- 
where above the fork (transi- 
tions frequent to the above 3 

.Pappus not capillary, but 

composed of scales, plumose 

bristles, or strong awns, or 

crown-like or wanting 

|>. Involucral bracts without 

scanoua margins, rarely 

with narrow membranous 

margins (in some genera 

which may be separated 

by strongly developed 

scaly pappus from the 

Anthemis Tribe) 

a. Chaff present HKUANTDUB TBIBB, 

GO. Chaff absent HELENIUM TRUJB. 

FF. Involucral bracts scarious 
margined pappus or 
reduced, sometimes uni- 
laterally developed ANTHEMIS TBIBB. 

XB. Pappus capillary, simple SXNECIO TBIBE. 

DDDDD Stylo-branches of the bisexual 
fla (which are sterile) almost 
or quite wanting, rarely of 
normal size, not aUgmatose 
B. Plants more or less completely 

dioecious chaff 
r. Involucral bracts m 1 row, 
of equal length (often with 
tiny bracteolea at the 
bane) Petasttes. 

FF. Invomcral bracts in many 

rows Bacchant. 

EB. Plants not dioecious: heads 

r. Chaff 0. 

o. Achene of female fls. 
with pappus of coarse 
or fine bristles or hairs, 
sometimes plumose 
H. Involucral bracU in 
sevc ral row s 

Some members of ABTER TBIBB. 
HH Involucral braets in 1 
row, separate, with 
tiny bracteoles at 
base Tussilago. 

HHH Involurral bracts in 1 

row, connate at base Othonna and 
GO Achene of ff male lls with [Gamolepis. 

scaly pappus GvtierrttM 

ooo Achene of female fls. with 

no pappus 
H. Lvs opposite or 

radical Oitteospermum 

HH. Lvs alternate 

vSome members of CALEHDULA T*IBB. 
FT. Chaff present 

O Involucre not scarious, 
nor woolly (see Milam- 
podinese and Ambro- 
sieje of the Hehanthus 

GO. Involucre Hcarious mar- 
gined, inner bracts 
woolly . . Enoctphalu*. 

cc. Anthers caudate. 

o. Style-branches awl-shaped, 
acute, minutely hairy outside 
and often on style below, stig- 
matose on whole inner face 

DD. Style-branches otherwise. 

E. Limb of corolla of bisexual fls. 
5- (rarely 4-) toothed or 

-lobed, rarely, in the Inula 
Tribe, slightly 2-hpped. 

F. Plants diCBcioiM ........ Antennana. 

FF. Plants not dioecious. 

o. Heada with filiform fe- 
male marginal fls , or 

fls all alike Some members of INULA TRIBB 
GO. Heads with fls. of 2 sexes: 
corolla of female fls. 
(marginal) hgulate, 
rarely tubular, with 
broad regular or 2- 
linped limb. 
H. Pappus present 

Some members of INULA 



EE. Iamb of corolla of bisexual fia. 
regular and deeply 5-dwided 
or 2-hppeel MUTIBIA TRIBE. 

BB. Stylo with sweeping hairs beginning 
at or below the point of forking, 
forming u ring, or style there thirk- 
ened, or at least there different m 
color style-branches often co- 
C. Head with female or neutral hgu- 

latc ray-fls Ann OTIS TRIBE. 

cc. Head of all bisexual flH or with 
nonhgulato neutral fia or ran ly 
with female ray-fls C'YNAHA TRIBK 

LI. Plants with milky juice: fia. in head 

all ligulate CICHOHIUSI TBIBB. 

///. Regular Key to the Tribes. 
1. Vernonla Tnbe. 

A. Genus anomalous with enlarged palmately 

quaaihgulate outer eorollu-s , 1 Slokesia 

AA. Genus normal with tubular 5-lobed corollas 2 Vernonta. 

2. Eupatorium Tnbe. 

A. AntherH truncate at apex, not appendaged. 
achenes 5-angled, secondary ribs not 
prominent ... 3. Pvquerta. 

AA. Anthers appendaged 

B. Achencs 5-nbb< d, no secondary ribs visible 
C. Pappus wholly of capillary nnstle-s 

D fnvulucml bracts i 4 Mitania, 

DD Invejlucral brae ts more than 4 5 Eupatonum 

(Inel Cono.hruum ) 

CC. Pappus chaffy, awne>el, blunt or crown- 
shaped AyertUum 
BB. Aehene-H 10-nbbed (ran ly 7-S-nhhfl), 

secondary ribs eetnspie nous 
C. Involucral bracts not herbaceous, striato- 

ner\cd, conspicuously so when <lry 

D Heads few -fid . cor> rnbe,sc 7 itlenottules. 

DO Heads always paniculate J brickellia 

CC Involucral bracts aonuwhat htrha<tous 
or partly colored, inconspicuously Mri- 
ate if at all 

D 1 he outer bracts sue ct ssive ly shorter Liatria 
DD. The bracts nearly .ill e .jual in It nth 10 TriUsa 

3. Inula Tnbe. 

A. The fin containing both stamens and pistil all 
Htenle, only the unisexual Ms fertile, he .wb 

B.Pap\Tu8rnstV-s m Vsp!<nilly of futile fls , 

united at the b-se in a ring 
C Heads -truth/ <lia-< HHIS, e, 
rarely soUtaiy. M, n le pappus elub- 
nhipeel 11 Antcntiaria 

CC. Heads contHinmg 1 or both sr \r , inoner- 
fiovis e>r .liwnous crowd* d in ,t KMI ill 
elu-tcr or eyme b> i long 
coi.spu uous woolly mx oliif re 12 I cntop,>,l- 

BB Pappus bristle-* fr< m\olue r- rosette -hk , [mtn 

very white-papery H inaphnli^ 

AA. The fls (otitamiug both nfimens and Ptyle 

usually fertilt 
B Heads with disk-Hs only 

C. The heads compound, 1-lld head* tr<- 
pateel in m imolucrUw cluster, often 
with pefiloid appendages . 14 Myna- 

CC The ht ads simple [cfphalus 

D Puppus 15 Hum, a 

DD Pappus crown- or eup-haped . 10 Ammobium 

DDD Pappus bristly 

K Achenes not be akeel 

t Bristles often plumose at base 17. Helipterum. 
FF Bristles smooth, scanous, barked 

or plumose at apex . 18 llclichry- 


BE Achenes be aked . . 19. Waitzm 

BB. Heads composed o ( both ray- and disk-fLs. 
C. Receptacle not, chaffy 

D Stigmatic lines imt confluent at apex 20 Pwlokpn 

on Stigmatic lines fusing at apex 21 Inuli 

cc. Receptacle chaffy or bristly 22. liuphthal- 


4. Cynara Tribe. 

A. Beads 1-fld , aggregated into larger involu- 

crate heads .. . 23. Echinops. 

AA. Heads acveral-Hd. 
B. Fr with basal areole 

c. The fr woolly, not margined. 

D. Pappus scales pointed or terminated 

by a simple awn 24. Xeranthc- 


DD Pappus-scales plumose 25 Carhna. 

CC The fr glabrous, marginal at summit 
D. Receptacle bristly 

B Filaments glabrous involucre bracts 

hookeel 26. Arctium. 

BE Filaments warty, hairy, or poctmate- 

F The rece.-ptae-le not fleshy. 

G Pappus-brut lea not plumose.. 27. Carduu*. 
GO Pappus-bristles plumose . . . . 28 f'iraium. 

FF The re-ceptacle fleshy 29 Cynara 

DD. Receptacle not bmtly 30 Onopordon 

BB Fr with oblique late-ral ureole 
c. Heads not mvolucrate with Ivs 

D. Involue ral-bratts without appendages 31 Serro/ulo 
DD. Involucral-hraets with dry, bcanoua or 

thorny appendages 32 Centaurea. 

cc. Heaeln surrounded by an involucre of 

thorny 1\ -> 

D Pappus simple, of bristles, scales or 33 Carthamut. 
DD Pappus of 2 unequally long rows of 

bristles . 34. C'mctw. 

5. Aster Tribe. 

A. Heads dioecious and composed wholly of disk- 

fls 35. Bacchant. 

AA Heads not dio?tious 
B. Color of fls yellow 

c Rays absent 36 Bitfefcma. 

CC Rays present 

D. The pappus cenuposed of long palcffi, 
which are sometimes reduced to a 
cre>w'n . 37 Gutierrczia. 

DD The pappus not as in D 

E. Pappus-bristle < few (4-8) 

F luvolucral bracts in 8 series, 

leaf he ry e>r so mems at apex 38 Onndelta. 

FF In\olucril bracts in 2 3 series, 

hcanotis -it marpiin- 39 Pentachxta, 

EE Pappus-bristles copious, in 2-8 series, 

sometimes feu m ruy-fls 
F Hristles of 2 kinds, the inner 
series c.ipilUry, outer very short 
andsetu!o-,c or sejuamellate 40 Chrysopatt. 

FF Bnstle-s mostly alike 

a Rays UMmlly wanting 41. Ltnoyrt. 

GO KavK pre sent 

H The bristles broad at base, 

an-tate. 42 Xomthisma 

HH The bristles capillary 
i HnuNusiiilly many-fld 

j Aeheno-, numy-iur\ed 43 Aplopappus. 
jj Aeherie few-lit r\fd 44 Hazardia. 

H Heads usually few -He! 

j Bristles rudimentary, 

jhejrfer than acheiK' 45. Brachychteta 
jj Bristles longer than 

dihcne 46 Sohdago 

BB. Color of ray fls at le-ist not yellow 

c The pappus 0, e>r foiminy i me>re-or-levss 
consi>icuous ring of she>rt bristles or 
hairs uniform in all fls 

D Brne tsdry rsr ine>us at mirgin 47 Brachycome 

no Bracts herbaceous 48. BeUis. 

cc The pappus composed of numerous bris- 
tles in 1 or more series, uniform in all fls. 
D Involucre with outer bracts partly 
leaf>, inner br u ts membranous or 
scimous . 49 CaUwUphut 

DD Involucral bricti all nearly alike 
E Bracts in about 2 seines 

F Achenes usually small . . 50 Engeron. 

FF Achenes larger, longer, pappus 

more copious 51. Vtftadmia 

EE. Bracts usually in s>e\eral series, 
sometimes 2 series in Aster and 
F. Plants woody, resinous 

o Achenes cylindrical 52 Oleana 

GO Achenes compressed . . 53 Felicia. 

FF. Plant herbaceous 

o In\e>lucral bracts coriaceous 54. Sencocar- 
G Inxejlucral bracts membranous tpu. 

or herbaceous 55 Aster. 

ccc. The pappus anomalous or absent from the 


D Pappus-bristles shortly plumose , style- 
branches broad . 56 Chaneit. 
DD Pappus-britles in 1 series, unequal, 
rigid, thickened or dilated toward 
the base 57. Townsendia 
DDD Pappus of the ray composed of very 
short pale-to, disk-pappus of copious 
slender bristles in 1-2 series. 58 Heteropap- 
DDDD. Pappus-bristles very short, usually |pu 
accompanied by 2-4 awns not longer 
than the achene . 59 BoUon%a, 



6. Helianthus Tribe. 

Subtnbe 1. MELAMPODIE^E Hays pistillate, disk-fls. staminate: 
chenes usually with coriaceous or thicker pericarp, style mostly 
entire, receptacle chaffy throughout; pappus none. 

A. Involucre of the many-fld heads broad: 
inner bracts concave, embracing and half 
inclosing the thick, turgid, obovoid achenea 60. Polymnia, 
AA. Involucre broad, of plane or barely concave 
bracts, innermost subtending obcom- 
pressed achenes, but not inclosing nor em- 
bracing them 
B. Rays, or rather their ovaries and achenes, 

in more than 1 series. 61. Silphwm, 

Bfi. Rays and achenes in a single series 

c. Heads nearly discoid or rays short 62. Parthenium. 

CC. Heads conspicuously radiate, mostly of 

5 fertile and rather numerous sterile fls. 63. Chryaogo- 


Subtnbe 2. AMBROIBEJS. Pistillate fls. apetalous, or with 
corolla reduced to a tube or ring around base of 2-parted style; 
stammate fls with 4-5-lobed corolla, anthers slightly united or 
free, style abortive, hairy only at the somewhat enlarged and 
depressed summit 

A. Herbs: heads of 2 kinds, the fertile with a 

bur-like involucre 64. Ambrovm. 

AA. Shrubs heads all alike 65 Iva. 

Subtnbe 3 ZINNIE^E Rays pistillate, the tube absent or very 
short, persistent on achene and at length papery, disk-fls. 
bisexual, rarely sterile, subtended or embraced by chaffy bracts: 
Ivs. opposite. 

A. Receptacle flattish 66. Sanmtalia. 

AA. Receptacle conical, cylindrical or elongated. 

a. Achenes, at least inner ones, 1-3-awned 67 Zinnia 
BB. Achenes without pappus. . . 68. Hehopsis, 

Subtnbe 4 VBSBESINE* Rays pistillate, or neutral, becom- 
ing papery and persistent , disk-fls bisexual , anthers often blackish 
achenes various, but those of disk never obcompressed pappus 

A. Chaff of receptacle permanently investing 

achenes as an accessory covering 69 Sclerocarpua. 

AA. Chaff of receptacle concave or complicate, 
loosely embracing or subtending the disk- 
aohenes, mostly persistent 

B. Rays sometimes absent Certain species of .70 Spilanthea 
BB. Rays usually present 

c Receptacle high, from conical to colum- 
nar or subulate, at least in fr 

D The rays, if present, pistillate. 70. Spilanthea 

DD The rays sterile 

B. Color of rays rose or rose-purple 71 Echmacea. 
EE Color of rays yellow or partly brown- 
purple (sometimes wholly so) 

F. Achenes 4-angled, prismatic 72 R-udbeckta. 

FF Achenes short and broad, com- 
pressed 73 Lepachyt. 
CC. Receptacle low, flat to convex, rarely be- 
coming conical 

D. Achenes not winged nor very flat, when 
flattened not margined nor sharp- 

E Rays pistillate ... 74 Balaamor- 

EE Rays sterile [rhiza. 

F. Achenes pubescent . . . 75 Viguiera 

FF Achenes glabrous . . ?b. Hdwnthu*. 

DD. Achenes of the ray or margin often 
triquetrous, of the disk either flat- 
compressed and margined or thin- 
edged, or if turgid some of them 
B. Rays neutral. 

F. Pappus 0, or an awn or its 
rudiment answering to each 
margin of the wingless achene 77. Encelia. 
F. Pappus of delicate squameltae be- 
tween the 2 chaffy teeth or awns 
which aurmount the 2 acute 
margins of the achene 78. Hehanthella. 

WF. Pappus of 2 slender-subulate 
naked awns, at length divergent, 
sometimes with 2 or 3 inter- 
mediate awns . . 79. Actmoment. 
n. Rays pistillate, rarely neutral in 


F Pappus of oo distinct squamelh* . 80. Paacalia. 
W. Pappus of dilated awns or 2 awn- 
hke paleee on the angles of the 
achene, with 2 small intermediate 
squamellse on each side 81. Podachsen- 

ITF. Pappus of 2 awns, sometimes 1-3 (turn, 

or Q, and no intermediate squam- 
mella . 82. Verbenna. 

Subtnbe 5 COREOPSTDEJE Rays pistillate or neutral, disk- 
fls. fertile, receptacle chaffy, chaff flat or hardly concave acbenea 
more or toss dorsalry compressed, often 2-awned 

A. Involucral bracts distinct, the outer herbace- 
ous, inner somewhat like pale 83. Quttotia. 
AA. Involucre double, inner bracts membran- 
ous, subequal, connate at base or often 
higher, outer bracts few and small or 

B. Plants are all climbers with p.stillate rays, 
achenes much enlarging and sterile 
disk-fls with mdivided style . 84 Hidalgoa. 

BB. Plants not climbing rays usually sterile 
c Style-branches with long hairy appen- 
dages 85 Dahlia. 
cc Style-branches truncate, pemcillate or 

with short appendages 
D. Bracts of inner involucre united into a 

cup 86 Thelea- 

DD. Bracts of involucre di-tinct, or united [pertna. 

only at the common base 
E Acnene 1 

snes beaked, slender rays purple 
or rose, in 1 species yellow, white 
vars in cult awns mostly 
deciduous 87 Cosmo*. 

EE. Achenes not beaked rays yellow or 

F. Tube of disk-fl without ring at top 

o Lvs or divisions entire . . 88 Coreopaia. 
GO Lvs or divisions serrate 89 Bidena. 

FF. Tube of disk-fls with a ring near 

the top 90. Leptoayne. 

Subtnbe 6 GAUNSOQE^E Heads rayless and horaogamous 
(in Marshallia). Pappus of distinct paleffi 91 Marahallia. 

Subtnbe 7 M\DIE Rays pistillate, each subtended by an 
involucral bract which partly or completely incloses its achene, 
disk-fla with both stamens and styles, but some or all sterile 
glandular, viscid and heavy-scented herbs 

A. Achenes laterally compressed . 92 Afodio. 

AA. Achenes not laterally compressed . 93 Layia. 

7. Helenium Tribe. 

A. Involucral bracts united nearly throughout 

into an oblong cup or tube 94 Tagetea. 

(See also Lasthema. ) 
AA. Involucral bracts hardly at all imbricated, 

when broad, nearly equal or in 1 series 
B. Receptacle mostly high-conical, and acute, 
beset after the arhones have fallen by 
projecting points (as if pedicels on which 
they were inserted) 

C. The involucre a single series of bracts 
connate by their edges into a 5-15- 
toothed green cup 95 Laathema 

cc The involucre of loose, distinct bracts 96 Beeria 

(Also Actmolepia coronana ) 
BB. Receptacle flat or convex, rarely obtusely 
conical achenes from linear to obpyram- 
idal, rarely Wangled (See also BBB ) 
C. Herbage mostly uoolly involucral bracts 

erect, not membranous 97 Enophyl- 

CC. Herbage usually not \voolly \lurn 

D Disk-fls deeply 5-cIeft involucral 

bracts mostly appressed 98 Polypteria 

DD. Disk-fls with long and narrow throat 

and 5 short lobes or teeth 

E Heads solitary . . 99. Hulata. 

EE Heads paniculate or corymbose 

F Plants tomentose herbs, the Ivs. 


G Imolueral bracta free, narrow 100. Chxnactie. 
aa Involucral bracts connected at 

the base, broad and obtuse 101. Bat'ia 
FF Plants not tomentose, the Ivs. not 

dissected 102 Pencome 

BM. Receptacle from convex to oblong achenes 
short, obpyramidal or top-shaped, 5-10- 
nbbed or angled, mostly silky hairy, 
disk-fls all fertile 
C. The receptacle destitute of awn-like 

fimbrillffi among the fls 

D Involucre erect or nearly so 103 Actinella. 

DD Involucre spreading or soon reflexed. 104. Helenium. 
cc. The receptacle beset with bristle-like or 
awl-shaped or rarely dentiform fimbnlle 
vnong the fls 105. Gaillardia. 

8. Anthemis Tribe. 

A. Receptacle chaffy 
B. Heads usually discoid 

c. Shrubs with small, closely clustered Ivs.. 106. Enoceph- 
CC Herbs, or sometimes slightly shrubby [alu*, 

D. Corolla with a hood-like appendage at 

bau 107 Santohna. 

DD. Corolla without such appendage 108. Lonat. 



BB. Heads usually radiate 

C. Achcne compressed, with 2 narrow mar- 
gins . . 109. Achillea. 
OC. Achenes 4-5-cornerod or -ribbed 

D The heads pedunclcd at tips of branches 110. Anthemu. 
DD The heads sesmlo in forks, surroundejd 

by 5-0 disse-cted floral Ivs 111. Cladanthut 

AAi Receptacle naked or alveolate-fitnbrilhferous 
B Involucral bracts in many series 

C. Rays present . . 112. Ckrysnn- 


(Consult also Pyrethrum ) 

CC Rays absent 113 Tanacetum 

BB Involucral bracts in 1 or 2 or few se ncs 

C Rays present 114 Matncaria 

CC. Rays absent or inconspicuous. 

D Involucre top-shaped 115 Cenia 

DD. Involucre ovoid or broadly bell-shaped 116. Artemisia 

9. Senecio Tribe. 

A Involucral bracts in 1 series and connate at the 
base or beyond the middle in a cup, no 
outer bracts, style-branches of the fertile 
bisexual fls truncate at apex, usually pcm- 

B Style- undivided, disk-fls sti rile 117 Othonna 

BB Style bifid, disk-fls all or some fertile 118 Gamolepis. 

AA Involucral bracts in 1 or 2 sene*, not connate 

in a cup but free, at leant finally 
B. Style-branches of hermaphrodite fertile fls 
roundish obtuse or at 1< ast not truncate 
and wholly withenit appenelage or hain- 

C Heads composed e ntire ly of bisexual and 

fertile fls , homogamous, disc oid 119 Cacahop- 

CC He 'ids submomie IOMS or subdieroous, the [M. 

fln containing both st urn ns and pistils. 

D The heads radiate, ye Mow 120 Tusnlago. 

DD The heads discoid, purplish or white 
E S'tvle of hermaphrodite fls undi- 
vided, heads sev< ral 121 Petasites 
EE Style branched, heads 2 122 Homogyne. 
BB. Style-brnm lie s (of he imaphrodite fls ) cither 
trunc ate or c apite 11 jte it summit, w Inch is 
either peme illate, hairy or naked ami not 
rarely b<ars n short tomcal or flattened 
appe adage 
C Bracts of mv olucrc herbaceous, acuminate 

n Receptacle flat 123 Arnica 

nn FUcept icle hemispherical 124 Doronicum. 

CC Bracts of involuc>re narrow, strict, usu- 
ally ribbed or k< elect 
D Apex of style- usually truncate and 

perm ill ite 
i. Involucral bracts numerous 

t- \chcnessubterete 125Senecw 

F Achenes dorsally compressed 126 Cineraria 

bt Involurral bra.ts few, 4-5, heads 

homogamou* 127 Tetrady- 

DD Apex of style with long, Mibulate hairy \m\a. 

appendages heads homogamems 128 Gynura. 
ODD Apex of style with appendages short 
and e>btue, or long and acutish, 
heads homogamous 129 Emilia. 

10. Calendula Tribe. 

A. Achenes ot the rays thick, hard and bony, 

those of the disk usually all empty 130 Osteot- 

AA. Achenes M night, those of the rays usually [permum. 

triquetrous, disk-ac hencs often flattish or 
. 2-winged 131 Dimorph- 

AAA. Achenes incurved, hcteromorphous . 132. Calendula. 

11. Arctotis Tribe. 

A- Involucral bracts free, the inner ones broadly 

various, at le-ast at the apex 
B Herbs glabrous or pubescent, receptacle 

chaffy 133 t/ratnw, 

BB Herbs tomentose receptacle naked or 


c Achenes usually villous, crowned by 
hyaline palea) which arc often con- 
volute 134 Arctotis 
CC Achenes glabrous, with or without a 

crown of minute palcolse 135 Venidium 

AA. Involucral bracts grown together at the base 

Iva not spmescent: alveoh short . . 136. Gazania. 

12. Mutisia Tribe. 

A Rays in 1-2 series, 2-hpped 137 Gerbera 

AA Rays in 2-3 series, the outer always strap- 

ahmp*d ... . 188. CAoptolto. 

13. Cichorium Tribe. 

A Pappus 0, or of 2-3 long bristles, which soon 

fall away U ( > Scolymut. 

AA Pappus paleaceous or partly so, or anstiform, 

B Involucre of equal bracts and no short caly- 

culate ones at base 
c. Achenes long-beaked . .... 140. Tragopo- 


or Achoncs truncate 141 Krigia. 

BB. Involucre either calyculate or imbricate, 
1 e , pnneipal brae Us equal and some 
short ones at base, or less uneejual bracts 
in 2 or more series 
c Achenes (at least inner ones) tapering into 

a beak 
D Receptacle wit h membranous chaff 142 Hypo- 


DD Receptacle naked 143 Leontodon. 

CC Achcnts usually short, with summit trun- 
cate or only a trifle contracted below 

D Rcceptac le chaffy 144 Catanan- 

DD Receptacle not ch iffy [che. 

k Fls normally blue 145 Cichorium. 

Et Fls yellow 140 Scorzoncri 

AAA Pappus of < apillary bustle s th t are scabrous, 
rarely barbe llulate , nrvc r plumose nor palea- 
ceous-ehlated receptacle inked (except in 1 
species of Troximon) 
B Achenes flattened pappus of copious fine 

soft capillary bristles 

c The achenos distinctly beaked 117 Lactuca. 

cc Theachene-s bcakless 148 Sonchut. 

BB. Ache nes not flatt< ntd pappus persistent or 
brihtli-s tardily falling (except 1 or 2 spe- 
cies of Crepis) 
C. Beak distinct and slender (except in 1 or 2 

species of 1 roximon > 
D The achene^s 10-nbbed or 10-nerved, 

not muncate 149 Troximon. 

DD Theachenes4 3-nbbe d or angled, mur- 

ic'ite 150. Taraxa- 

cc. Beak 0, or achcne merely narrow at apex [cum. 

D Fls whitish or trcam-colur to violet or 

rose-mi 151. Prenanthei. 

DD Pis rnostlj yi How, some times orange- 
d or white 

red o 

E Pippus of rather rigid, scabrous, fra- 
gile bristles winch are usually 
rathe r dirty or neutral-colored ., 152 Hieraciu 
it Pappus of eejnoui wlnte and usu- 

153 Crepis 

Pappus of eejnoui wlnte 
ally soft capillary brihtle 

The following gcners 'and others) also are briefly treated 
Amellus, Astcrhnosj ns, B< Ilium, f \icaha, Cahmens, Cehmaia, 
Chamjpmelum, C'otul i. Crypt ostemma, Erlangea, Luryops, 
Clymnolomia, Haploc-irpha. Kulmia, Leptoearpha, Montanoa, 
Oldenburgia, P< rtya, Psilostrophe, Pteroma, Saussurea, Tithoma, 
Tolpis, Tncholepis, Wedeha and Zaluzaaia. 


A. Fls irregular, rarely nearly regular, anthers 


B Corolla open down to the base on one side.. 1. Lobelia. 
BB Corolla with a closed tube 

c Stamens in a tube free from the corolla . 2. Doumingut 
CC Stamens more or le ss adnate to the corolla 
un to near the throat, then monadel- 
phous and free or farther adnate on one 
side only 3. Palmeretta. 

ccc Stamens affixed at top of corolla-tube or 
abo\e the middle caps 2-valved at 
apex . 4. Isotoma. 

cccc Stamens aflaxe d at base of corolla-tube. 

D Fr an indthisrent berry . . 5 Centropoguit 

DD Fr a caps , 2-\ 'il\ ed at apex 6. Siphocam- 

AA Fla regular or nearly so, anthers usually [pylui 

B Fr an indehiscent, fle-shy berry 

r (K ary inferior 7 ("Vmurinei 

cc Ov ary superior as to calyx but not corolla 8 Campan- 
BB Fr a caps [urn* a 

c. Caps dehu-cmg locuhcidally by apical 

\ alves 

D 9 Jetstone 

DD Corolla broadly bell- b haped, 5-lobed 10 Flatycodon 
ODD Corolla narrow ly (or not broadly) bell- 

ahaned or tubular 

E Calyx-tube adnate, hemispherical 11. Codonopsis. 
EE Calyx-txibc free, long-c ampanulate or 

inflated 12 Cyananthu* 

cc Caps closeel at apex, dehiscing laterally 
between the ribs by small hds or small 
solitary vah PS 
D Corolla 5-rut-lobed, or -parted. 

K. Ovary linear or narrow ly oblong . . .13. Specularia. 



fflB. Ovary hemispherical or top-shaped. 

F Anthers connate in a tube . 14. Symphyan- 
vr. Anthers not connate in a tube [dro. 

o. Style girt at base by an epigyn- 
ous fleshy disk, which is cup- 
shaped or tubular 15. Adenophora. 

GO. Style without such disk 

H. Corolla 5-parted to the base, 
lobes narrow, either long- 
cohering above or rotate- 
spreading 16. Phyteuma'. 

HH Corolla 5-cut shortly or to the 
middle, rarely farther, bell- 
shaped, tubular, funnel- 
shaped or sub rot ate 17. Campanula. 

DD. Corolla narrowly tubular, shortly 

3-cut at apex 18. Trachehum. 

ODD. Corolla usually 7-10-cut, rarely 5-cut 
x. Number of lobes 5-9, usually 7, fls. 

boll-shaped 19. Ostrowskia. 

EE. Number of lobes 8-10, lobes narrow 

and spreading . 20 Michauxia 

Githopsis, Leptocodon and LightfGotia are also mentioned in the 


The only genus 


110. PYROLACE.(E. 

A Style very short, obcomcal sts leafy 1 Chimaphila. 

AA. Style mostly elongated, scape naked or leafy 
only at base 

B. Fls solitary 2 Monesea 

BB Fls racemose . . 3 Pyrola 

111. ERICACEAE (Inc. Vaccimacete). 

Subfamily 1. VACCINIEJE. Ovary inferior fr a berry or 

Subfamily 2. ERICINEjB. Ovary superior fr a caps , except 
n Tribe 1 of Subfamily 2 

Fr fleshy, a berry or drupe 1 AKBUTUB TuiBt, 

IT a lo(uhcidal caps, chiefly 5-oelled 

corolla deciduous 2 ANDROMEDA TIUBE 

Fr a caps , with locuhcidnl or sometimes 

septieulal dehiscent and 4 or 5 cells 

corolla marcescent penitent 3 ERIC A THIB> 

Fr a septiudal caps corolla deciduous 4 RHODODENDRON 


Subfamily 1. VACCINIE-B 

A Corolla tubular or cylmdne, filaments coii- 

n,ite or free 

B. Filaments connate or cohering, anthers pro- 
duced into a single long beak 

c Stamens shorter than corolla 1 Aforitama 

cr Stamens eejuahng or exceeding the corolla 2 Thiltaudva. 
BB Filaments distinct, anthers ending in 2 long 

beaks 3 Agapetes 

AA. Corolla campanulate, urccolate or rotate, 

filamtnts \isually free 
B The ovary wholly inferior 

c Ovary 10-celled, 10-ovulcd 4. Gaylussacia. 

CC Ovary 4-5-celled, or by false partitions 
from the back of these cells, 8-10-ceIled, 
ovules numerous 5 Vaccimum. 

BB. The ovary at nrst a third to half superior . 6. Chiogenea. 

Subfamily 2. 
1. Arbutus Tribe. 

A. The anthers have a pair of awns on the back. 

B Ovary-cell many-ovuled . . 7. Arbutus, 

BB. Ovary-cells 1-ovuled 

C. Nutlets coalescent Ivs persistent, entire . 8. Arctoa- 

cc Nutlets distinct Ivs deciduous, serrate . . 9. Arctoua 
AA. The anthers awnless on back , . . 10. Pernettyo. 

2. Andromeda Tribe. 

A. Anther-cells opening through their whole 
length, not appcndaged, stigma 5-lobed, the 
lobes adnate to a surrounding ring or cup ... 11. Epigxa. 

AA Anthers opening only at the top , stigma usu- 
ally entire 
B. Calyx becoming fleshy in fr , forming a 

berry and inclosing the small caps 12. Gaulthena. 

BB Calyx unchanged and dry under the caps 
c Sepals or calyx-lobes valvate or open m 

the bud, never overlapping 
D. The anthers destitute of appendages 

or awns 13. Lyonta. 

DD The anthers awried 

E. The antheis short and obtuse, with 2 
pores topped by sic rider, ascending 
awns, corolla urn-shaped 14. Andromeda. 

KK. Anthers lanceolate, produced into 2 
small tube*,, each surmounted by a 
pair of sknder, ascending awns, 
corolla Ix Il-shaped 15 Zenobw. 

EEK. Anthers with 2 spreading or deflexed 
awns or teeth, on the back of the 
filament or at UK junction with the 
anthei 10. Plena, 

cc Sepals or calyv-lobes imbricated, at least 

in the early bud 

D. Lvs heath-like, small, thick or noedle- 
uke, mostly o\erlappuiK anther 
fixed near apex 17. Caanope. 

DD. Lvs not heath-like, usually larger, flat, 

broad and leathery 
E, Corolla cylindraceous to conical- 

urceolate, anthers fixed near base 
F Seeds imbncated in 2 rows 18 Chamae- 

FF Seeds pendulous or in all direc- [daphne. 

tioris 10 LeucothoH. 

FFF Seeds all ascending or erect . 20 (Jxyden- 

EE. Corolla bell-shaped or urn-shaped 21 Enkianthus 

3. Erica Tribe. 

A Anthers 2-aw ned on back -it 22. Cattuna. 

AA. Anthers 2-parted, blunt or awned, usually 

cristate or lamellate at base 23 Erica 

AAA. Anthers blunt on back, riot cristate .24. Brucken- 


4. Rhododendron Tribe. 

A Corolla polypetalous or nearly so 

B Fls in elongated racemes or panicles hs. 

c Petals 4, st -imens X 25 Elhnttta 

cc Petals i, stamens 26 Tripetaleia 

BB Fls solitary, p< taN 5, stamens 10. Ivs 

deciduous 27 Cladotluim- 

BBB Fls mum))l-hk( race mcs, petals 5, stamens {MIS. 

V10 hs ewrgnen 
c l.\s tomentosc below caps 5-celled, 

seeds w m K cel 2H Ltdum 

cr Lvs Rlabrous caps li^-celled, seeds 

angular 2 ( ) Umphyllum. 

AA Corolla garnop' talous 

B Seeds compressed, wmgtd corolla slightly 

irregular, sfuiic-ris r > 10 

C Stamens usually ixstrted, anthers e>pen- 
mg by a roiiml 1. nninul pore , corolla 
rotate, eumpanulate e>r funne Iforrn {() Rhndodtn- 

cc Stamens included, ant he rs opening by an (dron. 

oblique port corolla urceolate Ivs 
deciduous ,U Afcnztcsta 

BB Seeds suhgloho^e or trigemous, not wingeel 

coiolla regular 
C. Stamens 10 

D The corolla cup-shape'd with 10 pouches 
receding tho anthers, fls in corymbs 
or solitary 32 Kalmia 

DD The corolla rotate, fls terminal, 1-3 

Ivs oblong-elliptic, cihirc 33 Rhwlo-. 

ODD The corolla urwolate or campanulate, [thamnua, 

fls terminal, solitary or in umbels 
hs heath-like 34 PhyUodoce 

CC Stamens or N 

D Fls 5-rmrous, m umbels, 2 5, corolla 
broadly funnelform Iva elliptic, op- 
posite, smooth 3. 1 ) Lenseieuno 
DD Fls 4-merous Ivs alternate 

B Corolla rotate. 4-parteel, fls 2-10. m 

loose racemes Ivs heath-like 3(5 Bryanthut 

EE. Corolla campanula! e-uree-olate, with 
short 4-toothwl hmb, fls m loose 
racemes Iv s tomcntose below 37. Dabcecia. 

'Ihe jjenus Pentapterygmin is included in the work 


Style inserted in the intruded vertex of the ovary; 
stamens pipetalous, anthers 1 -celled, corolla- 
lobes qumcunciately imbncate, bracts numer- 
ous, passing into sepals . ... Epacnt. 

The recent genus Rupicola is also mentioned in the work. 




L. Corolla persistent; starainodes 0. 
B Fls sessile 

BB Fls pedunculate 
AA Corolla deciduous, stammodes 5 

B Stammodes small, scale-like, separate; 

corolla-lobes cronate . 3. Shortia. 

BB Stammodes long, linear, separate; corolla- 
lobes hmbriate 4 Schizocodon. 
BBB Stammodes spatulatp, connate with sta- 
mens, corolla-begms entire 5 (ialax. 


A. Calyx-limb usually spreading, acarious and 

B Lvs usually needle-like styles distinct at 

arighs of ovary, htigrnas Mib-capitate . 1 Acantholv- 
BB. Lvs flat styles as above, stigmas capitate, jmon. 

oblong or linear, mfl cymoho or dense or 
scape 1-tofew-fld 2 Stahce. 

BBB Lvs flat or linear-subulate styles shortly 
Hubconnate at \erttx of ovary, stigmas 
linear, stape 1-licaded 3 Armeria 

AA. Calyx-lobes or teeth erect with merely seanous 

B Stamens free, calyx glandular 4 Plumbago. 

BB Stamens adnate to middle of corolla, calyx 

not glandular 5 Cerato- 



A. Corolla-lobes imbricated m quincunx faHluon 
B Plants aquatic ovules anatrophous, um- 

bilu us basal 1 Uotionia 

umbilicus ven"ral 

c Caps dehisces by a, lid at top . 2 Soldanella. 

CC Caps dehisces by valves 

D The corolla-lobes be nt back . 3 Dodecathcon. 

DD The corolla-lobes spreading or ascend- 

E htamens affix< d to bae of corolla, 

ant htrs long-acuminate 4 Cortusa 

EB Stamens affix* d to coiolU-tube, an- 
thers obtUM- 
V Corolla-tube usually longer than 


o Caps>-s<eded 5 Primula 

GO Caps 1 2-se< ded G Dvuylasw 

T Coroll i-tub is long as calyx or 

seeded 7 Androsace. 

AA. Corolla-lobes convolute in tho buci ovules 

Bemi-anatropoiis, umbilicus ventral 

B Caps cmumscisMi* 8 Anagallis. 

BB Caps lotigitudin illy d< hise< nt by \ ah es 

c Lobes of corolla bent ba k Cyclamen 

CC Lobes of corolla not bent ba^k 

D Corolla-lobes .*>-(j UMa of seed with a 


E Mammodes 10 Lyaimachia 

KK Stanunodes .5, each corolla -lobe 

eurved around it- stamen 11 Steironema. 

EKE Starnriodos r >, tooth-like, corolla- 
lobes not entire ling stamens 12 Naumbergia 
DD. Corolla-lobes usually 7 testa of seed 

with a lax epidermis 13 Tnentahs 

The genus Glaux may be met with occasionally m cultivation. 


A. Stammodes 5, corolla gamopetalous. 
B. Corolla cylindrical, shortly 5-lobed: fr. many- 

seeded 1. Thtophrasta. 

BB Corolla subrotate, deeply 5-parted fr. 1- 

to many-seeded 2 Clavija. 

BBB. Corolla rotate-campanulate, deeply 5-cut 

fr few-seeded 3 Jacqumia. 

AA. Stammodes 0, corolla gamopetalous or poly- 

petalous fr 1-seeded 
B Corolla imbricated, fls fascicled, lateral or 

axillary 4. Afyrnne. 

BB. Corolla convolute, panicles terminal or 

terminal and axillary . 5. Ardvsva. 


A. Fr. superior, globular or ovoid, not ribbed nor 
1. Pvxidan- winged 1. Styrax. 

[thera. AA. Fr inferior, elongated ribbed, or winged 
2 Diapensia. B Infl pamcled, many-fid , drooping, sub- 
terminal . 2. Pterroatyraz. 
BB. Infl. of few-fld. fascicles, often lateral 3. Hatesia. 


A. Corolla-lobes, calyx-segms , stamens and 

fltammodes (when present) isomerous 
B. titaminodes seeds usually albuminous- 

fls 5-merous, rarf ly o-7-mr rous 1 Chrysophyl- 

BB. Stammodes small, usually ilfixed higher ((urn, 

than stamens, sometimes few or seeds 
not albuminous fib 4 S-mc rous 2 Lucuma. 

BBB Stanunodes alternate with stamens, rarely 

affixed higher, seeds albuminous 3 Sideroxylon. 

AA Corolla-lobes and calyx-egms isomerous. 

stamens twice as many or more 4. leonandra. 

AAA. Corolla-lobes usually 2 or 3 times as many as 


B. Calyx-segms 1 series ... . 5 Bumeha 

BB. Calyx-segms 2 series . 6 Mimuaops 

The genua Poutena is now described in this, family. 

The genus 

s also accounted for 

120. EBENACEjE. 

A. The fls usually hermaphrodite, stamens m 1 

AA. Thf fls diojcious 

B Us usually -5-merous, stamens 3- 

monly 9, ovary 3- or b-celled 
BB Fls usually 4-5-merous, stamens 4-8, usu- 
ally in 2 scries , o\ ary 4- or 8-celled 3 Dtospyrot. 

1 Royena. 

2 Maba. 

121. OLEACE-ffi. 

Fr didymous or septicidally diviHible into 

tvso corolla-lobes strongly imlincate 

ovules laterally affixed mar base, seeds 

erect, without endospeun, radicle 

inferior 1 JASMINE TRIBE. 

Fr terete or < ompresscd parallel to tho 

septum, loculicidally dehiscent, ovules 

pendulous from apex of cells, seeds 

winged, pendulous, radicle superior 2 LILAC TBIBB. 

Fr tntire, dry, ind< hisrent, winged, a 

samara, compressed contrary to the 

septum, ovules twin, pendulous from 

apex of coll, seeds pendulous with en- 
dosperm, radicle sup< nor 3 ASH TRIBE. 
Fr fleshy and indehisccnt, a drupe or 

rarely a berry, not lobed, o\ules twin, 

laterally affixed near the apex, seeds 

solitary, suspended or pendulous, with 

endosperm, radicle superior 4 OLIVE TRIBE 

1. Jasmine Tribe. 

Fr fleshy, indehiscent, didymous or by abortion 


2. Lilac Tnbe. 

The only genua . ... Symplocou. 

A Corolla-lobes imbricate 
B Ovules 3-4 in a cell Ivs pinnate and fls 

white corolla-lobes shorter than tube 2 Nathusia 

BB Ovules 4-10 m a cell Ivs entire or 3-foho- 
lute and fls yellow lobes many times 
longer than tube 3 Forsythia, 

A*. Corolla-lobes md upbeat o-vah ate, tube long 

or short ovules 2 m a cell , seeds albuminous 4 Synnga. 

3. Ash Tnbe. 

A. Lvs usually pinnate fr elongate, with a 
terminal wing, generally 1-seeded by abor- 
tion 5 Fraxinua, 
AA. Lvs undivided fr ovate or orbiculate, sur- 
rounded by a wmg, usually 2-celled and 2- 
seeded . . ..... 6 Fontaneata. 

4. Olive Tribe. 

A. Corolla of nearly distinct petals which are long 

and linear . . 7 Chionan- 

AA. Corolla-lobes imbricate, broad and sb*uae. {thus, 

B Endocarp of drupe thinly cruataceous 8 Phvttyrea 

BB Endocarp of drupe hard and somewhat 

woody 9. Oimanthut, 

AAA. Corolla-lobea mduphcate-valvate.; 



B. FT. a drupe; endoearp hard, thick or thin: 

infl. axillary, rarely terminal . . 10. Olea. 

BB. FT. a berry, hardly drupaceous, endocarp 
membranous or thinly coriaceous: pam- 
oles terminal ... .11. 


A. Style 2-fid, branches linear, 2-fid . . 

AA. Style simple 

B Corolla-lobes valvato 

c Fr a circumscissilo caps 
cc Fr an mdehiscent drupe or berry 
BB Corolla-lobes imbncato 

c Anthers oxserted 
cc Anthers included , 

2 Spigelia 

3 Strychnos* 

4 Chihanthua. 

5 Biutdleia 

The genus Logama may afford cultivated plants now and then. 



A. Lvs. alternate or radical. 

B Fr mdehiscent 

BB Fr dehiscent 

c Caps usually 4-valved at apex 2 

cc Caps irregularly sub-2-valvod at apex 3 
JLA. Lvs opposite 

B Ovary perfectly 2-celled, placentas solitary 
in each cell, often thick, adnate to septum, 
liberated by de hiscence of caps 4 

BB. Ovary 1 -celled, placentiterous margins of 
carpels more or less intruded within or 
even touching but not connate in the 
die of the cell, spuriously 2-wlled 
C Style often deciduous, anthers i 


D. Anthers spirally twisted finally 5 

DD Anthers finally recurved at apex 

CC Style usually persistent, anthers versa- 
tile, finally recurved 7 
BBB. Ovary 1 -celled, margins of carpels rarely 
intruded, ovules and soods affixed at 
each side of the suture m 1 series or more 
or less extended over the parietal surface, 
placenta* adnate, very thin 
C. Corolla has 1-2 pits at base of each lobe 

D Style short or scarcely any 8 

DD Style subulate 9 

cc. Corolla has no such pits 10 

The genus Chiroma may also be expected in cultn 

1. Nymphoidea 




2. Cynanchum Tribe. 

A. The outer or single crown either simple and 
composed of 5 scales or ring-shaped, adnate 
to the corolla and not the stainmal tube, or 
rarely adherent to both 

B. Stigma depressed 5 Macroscepw 

BB. Stigma umbonate or 2-bcaked at apex 
corona-scales attached at middle (or 
below) of corolla-tube 6 Phyaianthut, 

BBB Stigma plane or umbonate, corona annular, 

adnate to corolla 7 Ph\hbert\a. 

AA. The crown of 5 scales affixed to base of 
corolla and staminal tube, oaudicles of pol- 
hnia appendaged with an erect fuscous 
tooth 8 Oivpetalum. 

AAA The crown of 5 scales which are distinct, 
affixed or adnate to the staminal tube or 
the back of the anthers 
B Scales concave or hooded with an acute 

hgula inside 9 Asclep\as\ 

BB Scales fleshy, narrow, adnate to stamen- 
tube, but free and re< urv i d at base 10 Calotrop^a. 
BBB Scales (5 outer ones) cannate-complicate 
at base of starmnal tube, the 5 scales at 
the apex of tho long staminal tube, short, 
obtuse, spreading, alternate with anthers 11 Podoatigma. 
AAAA The outer or single crown afhxed to tho 
staminal tube, ring- or cup-shaped, entire, 
lobed or parted 

B Corona villous inside 12 Morrema 

BB Corona with 5 scales or hgulse inside 13 Cynanchum. 

BBB Corona naked inside 11 Vincetoxi- 

BBBB. Corona of 5 short processed opposite anthers (cum 

and 10 lignite alternate with anthtrs in 
pairs 15 Rothrock\a. 

3. Marsdema Tribe. 

A Corolla-lobes strictly vah ate 10 //oyo. 

AA Corolla-lobes usually overlapping dextrorsoly 
B Fh not pure white, urn- or s>alver-shuped, 

small or mcdium-Bmd 17 Mandema 

BB. Fls. white, saher- or tunnel-shaped, large IS titephanotis. 


Subfamily 1. PERTPLOCE^E Pollen granular, loosely aggre- 
gated in 2 masses in each anther-cell 

Character of subfamily 1 PERIPLOCA TRIBE 

Subfamily 2. EUASCLEPIADEJE. Pollen waxy, the masses 
solitary m each anther-cell 

Anthers tipped by a membrane, which is 

mflcxrd or sometimes eiect, and usually 

hyaline, rarely opaque or petal-like, 

pollen-masses suspended, attached m 

paira (1 in each adjacent cell of different 

anthers) to the corpuscle or gland 2 CTNANCHUM TRIBE 

Anthers usually tipped by an inflexed or 

suberect membrane, which is hyaline, 

rarely opaque, pollima solitary in each 

cell, erect or very small 3. MARSDENIA 

Anthers at apex, not appendaged [TRIBE. 

or rarely the connective produced, pol- 

hma solitary in the cells, erect 4. CEROPEOIA TRIBE. 

Anthers like those of the Ceropegiese or 

more memnbent above the top of the 

stigma or subimmersed -bts thiek and 

fleshy, leafless or \v ith a few Iv s at top 5 STAPELIA TRIBE 
Anthers broad at the top, without ap- 
pendages or more or less membranace- 

ous on the margins, the cells somewhat 

transversely dehiscent, attached 

nearly or quite on the margin of tho 

stigma-disk, polluua horizontal or 

essentially so ... G. GONOLOB us TRIBE. 

1. Periploca Tribe. 

A. Scales of corona distant from starmnal tube. 
B. Corolla-tube short, scales linear or club- 
shaped . 1. Cryptolepw. 
BB. Corofla large, funnel-shaped, scales acumi- 
nate or 2-fid 2. CryptosteoW' 

AA. Scales of corona close to stamens. 

a. Corolla-lobes valvate . . . 3. Chlorocodon. 
BB. Corolla-lobes imbricate 4. Ptrvplaoa. 

4. Ceropegia Tribe. 

Corona double, affixed to slanunal tube 

19 Ceropegia. 

5. Stapeha Tribe. 

;r spreading, inner of 5 scales 20 Stapeha 

6. Gonolobus Tribe. 

Crown cup-ahaped or annular, entire or lobed 21 Gonolobut 

Additional genera described m Asclepuulacese are Caralluma, 
Duvalia, Kchidnopsis, CJomphocarpus, Hoodia, Huerma, Micho- 
htzia, Pectmaria, riaranthus, liaphionacme, Sphaerocodou and 


A. Anther-cells not appcndaged at base 

B. Ovary entire (Carissa Tnbf), ns "j-merous 

c Fr a 2-valved caps ovary 1-celled 1. AUamanda, 

cc Fr a berry, mdehistent ovary 2-celled, 

cells 1-4-ovuled 

D Ovules laterly affixed tymes ter- 
minal, few-fid spines axillary 2 Cantaa 
DD Ovules erect from base cymes axillary, 

dense spinrsO 3 A cokanthera. 

BB. Ovaries 2 to several, style 1 CPlumena Tribe) 
c. Calyx with several glands inside or a ring 

D Carpels 2-ovulcd 4 Theietia 

DD Carpels many-ovuled 5 Tabrrnf- 

cc Calyx without glands inside [montana 

D Carpels 2-ovuled 

E Disk2-scalfd 6 Kopma 

BBS Disk cup-shaped or annular 7 Kauwulfia 

DD Carpels 6- to many-ovuled 
E Ovules in 2 serifs 
F DiskO 

o. Seeds truncate . 8 Amsonia 

oo Seeds winged 9 (lonioma. 

FF Disk of 2 sc ales 10 Vinca 

BE Ovules m many series 

v Stamens near base of tube 11 Plumeria. 

FF Stamens above middle of tube 12 Alton\a. 

AA. Anther-cells produced at bano (Echites 

Tribe ) 
B. The cone of anthera more or less exserted 

at apex. 

c Throat of corolla with 6 scales . 13 Prestonia. 

cc Throat without scales ... 14 Valiant. 

BB. The anthers included 

C, Lvs, usually in whorls of 3 1&. Ntnum. 



OO. Lvs. opposite 

0, Corolla bell-shaped, with 5 squamelto 

alternating with stamens . 16. Apocvnum. 

DD. Corolla salver-shaped or funnel-shaped, 

the throat without scales 

a. Dink of 2 scales . 17. D\ptadenta. 

BE. Disk many-toothed or crenulate 18 Odontadn*a. 
BEE. Disk of 5 lobe or scales, often trun- 
cate iri Traehelospormum 
V. 11s salvttr-ahapod. 

a Infl lax corymbose tymcs . 19. Tracheloa* 

aa Infl raociaOhC, rarely shortly [permum, 

dichotamous . 20 Echttea. 

FF. Fla fuum 1-shaped 

o In cymes . ... 21. Beaumontw. 

GO In racemes . . 22 Mandentta. 

Other genera treated are Huntena, Landolphm, Pachypodium. 
Pursonsm, Ploiorarpa an<l Strophanthus 


A. Caps deeply locuhcidal herbs or bub-shrubs 
B. Stamens unequally affixed to corolla-tube, 

not decimate 

c Lvs mostly opposite, entire 1 Phlox 

cc Lvs mostly alternate, usually incised or 

pinnatifid 2 Coltomva 

BB Stamens equally affixed to tube or throat 

c The stamens not decimate 3 Gilia. 

CC. Ihc stain* ns decimate 

D Filaments pilose-appendaged at base 4 Polemo- 

DD Filaments not appcndaged 5 Lccselia 

AA. Caps shortly loeuhcidal at apex, needs 

broadly winged trees or &hruba 6 Canlua. 

AAA. Caps deeply septicidal tall climbers 7 Cobaa 


A. Styles 2, distinct from base, corolla-lobes im- 
bricate 1 Wtgandia. 
AA Styles 2-cut, rare ly undivided 
B Corolla-lobes usually convolute 

c Stamens c xserted 2 Hydrophyl- 


cc Stamens included 3 Nemophila. 

BB Corolla-lobes nnbrio-ifed 

C Us marcescent, bell-shaped 4 Emmenan- 

cc FLs deciduous [the. 

D The peduncles 1-fld 5 Ilespero- 

DD The fls cymose or in 1 -bided racemes 6 Phacclia. 


A. Ovary undivided (or only laterally 4- 
lobed) and surmounted by the style 
B Style t^ice bifid, stigmas not an- 
iiular, cotyledons plaited or cor- 
rugated 1 CORDIA TKIBB. 

BB Style once bifid or 2-parted (the 
divisions sometimes coalescent to 
the top) , stigmas more or loss capi- 
tate, cotyledons plane 2 EHRETIA TRIBE. 

BBS Style entire, sometimes TV anting, 
stigma uliield- or ling-shaped, 
forming a complete ring sur- 
mounted usu-illy by a tip or ap- 
pendage which is ( ntire or 2-lobed 
and vanes from hemispherical to 
subulate 3. HELIOTROPE 

A A Ovary 4-parted (rarely 2-parted) from [TRIBE. 

above into 1 -celled, 1-ovuled divisions 
surrounding the base of the undiv ided 
(rarely 2-lobed) style, stigma not 
annular . . . . . .4. BORAQB TRIBE. 

1. Cordia Tribe. 

Calyx tubular or bell-shaped, merely toothed or 

lobed ........... 1. Cordw. 

2. Ehretia Tribe. 

Calyx 5-parted, style 2-6d ............. 2. Ehretia. 

3. Heliotrope Tribe. 

A. Plants sarmentose or twining ......... 3. Tourne- 

AA. Plants are herbs or sub-shruba ............ 4. Uehotro- 


4. fiorag* Trib. 

A. Gynobase elevated 
B. Apex of nutlets not projecting much beyond 


C. Nutlets divergent or divaricate (either 
radiately or in pair-), extended out- 
ward or backward much beyond the 
insertion (which is by a roundish or 
oblong near), gynobase little elevated 
or broadly conical. 
D. Stamens included 

E Nutlets covered with small cups or 

cavities .... 5. Omphalodtt. 

EE Nutlets covered with small warte or 

barbd bristles .6. Cynogloa- 

DD. Stamens exserted ^ [sum. 

E Corolla-tube longer than spreading 

lobes . 7. Ltndelofia. 

BE Corolla tubular, lobes short, erect or 

somewhat spreading 8. Solenanthut. 

cc. Nutlets adnate by the inner face or keel 

gynobase, forming a more or less glo- 
bose or pyramidal fruit 9. Myototid- 
BB. Apex of nutlets projecting conspicuously [turn. 

beyond scar 
C. Pediu-ls persistent 

D Nutlets ket led toward apex . . . 10 Plaiffiabotrya. 
DD Nutlets not keeled ... 11 Oreocarya. 

cc Pedicels deciduous 12. Cryptanthe. 

AA. Gynobase flat or nearly so 

B Scar excavated or ofton girt by a ring 
c 1 hroat of corolla has 5 scales inside. 

D Filaments appendaged with a scale. . 13. Borago. 
DD. Filaments not appendaged 

L. Corolla-lobes very short and sub- 
erect . 14. Symphytum. 
EE Corolla-lobes spreading . . 13. Anchwta. 
cc Throat naked or pilose IS. Ptdmonana 
BB Scar flat, either small at the inner angle or 

c Racemes without bracts (rarely a few 

bracts at base) , anthers obtut>e at apex. 
D Throat of corolla scaly 17. Myosoha. 

DD Throat almost naked . 18. Mertenaia. 

cc Racemes bracted 

D Anthers obtuse at apex or hardly 


E Lobes of corolla erect . 19. Onoamo- 

KE Lobes of corolla spreading [chum. 

F Corolla-tube cylindrical; throat 
naked or 5-gibbous and sub- 
quamnte 20 Lvthosper- 

FF Corolla-tube slender, throat [mum. 

naked 21. Amebia. 

FFF Corolla tubular or salver-form; 
throat naked, lobes usually un- 
equal . 222?cAtum. 
DD Anthers linear, often acuminate, arrow- 
shaped at base 

E Nutlets distinct . . . 23 Onosma. 

EE. Nutlets connate in pairs 24. Cennthe. 


A. Corolla-lobes small, imbricate' plants para- 

bitic, leafless sts thread-like, not green ... 1. Cutcuta. 
AA Corolla large, plicate or mduphcate in sestiva- 

B Fr berry-like or harder, mdehiscent. style 

c The ovary 4-celled, 4-ovuled 2. Argyreia. 

cc The ov ary 2-celled, 4-ovuled ... . 3. Lettsomia. 
BB Fr a 2-4-valved caps with a thin or hard 
pericarp, or mdehiscent with a thin peri- 
carp styles 2 and distinct or the style 
entire or divided. 
c. Stigma capitate, style entire or 2-parted; 

ovary 2-celled, 4-ovuled 4. Parana, 

cc Stigma thick, globose, often twin; ovary 

2-4-oelled, 4-ovuled 
D Stamens and style included within the 

corolla-tube 5. Ipomoea. 

DD Stamens and style exserted. 

E Plant a night-bloomer: corolla con- 
torted in bud . . 6. Caloni/dion. 
BB. Plant a day-bloomer' corolla not 

contorted . 7. Quamoclit. 

CCC Stigma capitate, ovary 2-celled ... 8 Breweria. 

cccc. Stigmas 2, linear, filiform or thickish . 9 Convolvulus. 

(Except Calystegia section. 

.^e also Rnodorhiza ) 

ooccc. Stigmas 3, flat, ovate or ODIOQ* 10. Jacue**>n- 

(Also Calystegia section of Convolvulus.) 




i. Stamens didynamous, the fifth (and some- 
times also one of the pairs) smaller, abor- 
tive or missing 
B. Number of perfect stamens usually 5 

c. The stamens affixed at middle of tube or 

lower 1. Petunia. 

CC. The stamens affixed at apex of tube 2. Nierem- 

BB. Number of perleU stamens usually 4 or 2 [bergta. 

c. Corolla-tube cylindrical, limb oblique, 

perfect stamens 2 3 Schizanthus. 

CC. Corolla obliquely funnel-shaped, perfect 

stamens 4, didyriamous 4 Salpiglossis. 

CCC. Corolla-tube cylindrical, straight, anthers 
of the 2 short stamens dimidiate, of the 
longer ones 2-cellcd 5. Browallia. 

cccc. Corolla-tube twisted, anthers asm Browal- 
lia 6. Streptosolen. 
OCCCC Corolla-tube long, not twisted, slightly 
widoncd at apex, 4 perfect anthers witn 
confluent cells 7 Brunfelsia. 
AA. Stamens all perfect not didynamous, nor- 
mally 5. 
B. Seeds little, if at all, flattened. 

c. Fr a few-seeded berry ... 8. Cestrum. 

cc. Fr a many-seeded cups 

D. Corolla with a narrow tube and short 

spreading lobes 9. Fabiana. 

DD Corolla funnel- or salver-shaped , limb 

equal or oblique 10 Nicotiana. 

BB. Seeds flattened. 
c. Fr a caps. 

D Corolla-lobes plicate 

E. Caps 4-celled, and 4-valved (some- 
times mdehiscent) 11 Datura 
EE Caps circumscissile above the middle 12 Scopolta 
DD Corolla-lobes imbricate 13 Hyvscya- 
CC. Fr beny-hke, or at least mdehiscent. [mus. 
D. Limb of corolla subequally plicate or 
divided into valvate or induphcate 

B. Anthers longer than filament, con- 

nivent connate in a cylinder or 

cone, acuminate at apex or dehij- 

cent by 2 apical pores 

F. Connective variously thickened on 

back 14 Cyphoman- 

FF Connective slender or obsolete [dra. 

Q The anthers acuminate, hollow 
at tip, dehiscing by a longi- 
tudinal crack 15 Lycoperai- 
GG The anthers opening by an ' [cum. 
apical pore which is sometimes 
continued into a longitudinal 
crack 16 Solarium 
EB. Anthers free, with parallel cells, and 
dehiscing by a longitudinal crack 
K Stamens affixed above middle of 

tube 17 Satyichroa 

FF Stamens affixed near the base of 

G Corolla nearly rotate or broadly 


H Fruiting calyx hardly en- 
larged 18 Capsicum 
HH Fruiting calyx inflated or 


I. Calyx cut shortly or to mid- 
dle 10 Physahs 
II Calyx parted to base 20 Nicandra. 
GO Corolla tubular or narrowly fun- 
nel-shaped 21 lochroma. 
DD. Limb of corolla more or less imbricate, 
flat and distinct or connected by 
induphcate sinuses 
B. The lobes imbricated from the base, 

not plicate 
F. Plants woody 

Q Berry with i stones, each 1-2- 

seeded 22. Grabowskia 

GO Berry with 2 cells, each 1-co- 

seeded 23 Lycium 

FF Plants herbaceous . 24. Atropa. 

EE. The sinuses of the corolla induphcate 
between the lobes 

F Calyx long and tubular 25. Solandra. 

FF. Calyx leafy, 5-fid, increasing in fr. 26. Mandragora. 

131. NOLANACE-ffi. 

A. Corolla-tube short, somewhat bell- 
shaped American species 1. LBTTCOPHTLLUM 

AA. Corolla subrotate : Old World species . . 2. VERB ASCUM TRIBB, 

Series 2. ANTIRRHINIDE^E Lvs prevailingly opposite, at least 
the lower infl simple or compound, partially centrifugal, i e , the 
peduncle cymosely few- to several-fld. , posterior hp or lobes of 
corolla generally external in the bud. 

A Corolla bilabiate, lips inflated, concave 3. CALCEOLARIA 
AA. Corolla bilabiate or nearly regular; [TRIBB. 

lips nearly plane 
B Corolla saccate or spurred 

c Tube wanting 4 HEMIMERIS TRIBB. 

cc Tube present . . 5. ANTIRRHINUM 

BB. Corolla-tube not saccate nor spurred [TRIBB 

c. Infl centrifugal, cymose, usually 

compound, rarely sub-simple ... 6 CHELONE TRIBE 
cc Infl centripetal 

D Anthers 1-celled 7 MANULBA TRIBE 

DD Anthers 2-celled 8 GRATIOLA TRIBB. 

Series 3 RHINANTHIDK/B Lvs various infl simple or com- 
pound, corolla-lobes variously imbricated, the anterior or lateral 
ones usually exterior. 

A. Anther-cells contiguous at apex and 

usually confluent plants not parasitic 9. DIGITALIS TRIBB. 
AA. Anther-cells everywhere distinct plants 

often root-parasitic 

B. Corolla-lobes all flat, usually spread- 
BB. Corolla with posterior lip erect, con- 
cave or galeate, anterior lip often 
spreading . 11. EUPHRASIA TRIBB. 

1. Leucophyllum Tribe. 

Corolla-lobes 5, subequal, spreading 1. Leucophyl- 

2. Verbascum Tnbe. 

2. Verlxucum. 

Single genus. . 


Series I. PSETJDOSOLANE^D Lvs. all alternate: infl. simple, 
antripetal, corolla hardly if at all bilabiate, the 2 posterior lobes 
xternal in the bud. 

A Stamens 5 
AA. Stamens 4 

3. Calceolaria Tribe. 

The only genus . . ... 4 Colceolana. 

4. Hemimeris Tnbe. 

A Corolla more or less rotate, resupmate, the 

grooves inconspicuous or obsolete 5 Alonsoa 

AA Corolla spread out flat, swollen or saccate 

under anterior hp 6 Angelonia. 

AAA Corolla flat or concave, with 2 basal spurs or 

pouches 7. Diascia 

AAAA Corolla-tube short with 1 spur or sac on the 

anterior side 8. Nemeeta. 

5. Antirrhinum Tribe. 

A Throat has a prominent palate 

B Corolla spurred 9 7/tnarta 

BB Corolla saccate or gibbous at base . 10 Antir- 

AA Throat has no palate [rhmum 

B Caps opens by 2 apical pores which are 

sometimes confluent 11. Anar- 

BB Caps opens by transverse holes or irregu- [rhinum. 


c Calyx ample, membranous 12 Rhodorhiton 

cc Calyx smaller, herbaceous . 13 Maurandia. 

6. Chelone Tribe. 

A. Stammode often elongated 

B Caps locuhcidally dehiscent . 14. Tetranema. 

BB Caps septicidally dehiscent 
c. Fls bilabiate 

D. Anterior hp with middle lobe folded 

upon itself and inclosing the stamens 15. Collinsia. 
DD Anterior lip of 3 flat spreading lobes 

E Seeds winged . 16 Chelone 

EE Seed not winged 17. Pentstemon. 

cc. Fls with all the lobes flat, spreading and 

subequal 18. Ruaaeha. 

AA. Stammode usually in the form of a scale at 

apex of corolla-tube 19. Scrophu- 

AAA Stammode small, minute or 0. [larta. 

B. Stamens usually exserted. 

c Calyx 5-parted caps tardily dehiscent . 20. Phygehus. 
cc Calyx cup-shaped berry mdehiscent. 21. Hatteria. 
BB. Stamens included , calyx 5-cut. 

c. Fr an mdehiscent berry 22. Teedia. 

cc. Fr a loculicidal caps . . . 23. Paulownm. 

7. Manulea Tribe. 

A. Calyx bilabiate or 2-parted 24. Zaluewn- 

AA. Calyx 5-parted 25. Chsenoatoma. 



8. Gratiola Tribe. 

A. Perfect stamen* 2 .26. Gratiola. 

AA. Perfect stamens 4. 

B. Stamens all affixed inside corolla-tube 

c Calyx bell-shaped, 5-par ted 27 Mazus 

cc Calyx tubular, 5-toothed and -angled 28. Mimulus, 
BB. Stamens partly inside corolla-tube, partly 

in throat, 2 affixed in each place . 20 Torenia. 

9. Digitalis Tribe. 

A. Caps opens by locuhcidal valves. 

B. Herbs creeping . . . 30 Sibthorpui. 

BB Herbs upright 31 Rehmannm. 

BBB Herbs tmck-rhizomatous, the Ivs nearly or 

quite radical 32. Wulfenm. 

AA. Caps opens by septioidal valves. 
B. Lvs alternate 

0. Corolla decimate, tvibo swollen, or bell- 

Bhaped, posterior hp spreading 33 Digitalis 

cc Corolla-tube slender, spreading 34 Ennus 

BB. Lvs opposite 35 Ounsia 

AAA. Caps 4-valved or locuhcidally 2-valved 

B Lvs all alternate or radical 30. Rynthyns 

BB Lvs. (at least lower ones) opposite . . 37 Veronica 

10. Gerardia Tribe. 

Calyx-lobes shorter than tube 38. Gerardia 

11. Euphrasia Tribe. 

A. The anther-cells equal 39 Pediculans 

AA. The outer anther-coll hxod by the middle, 

inner one pendulous or de ficient 
B Calyx laterally compressed, split on ante- 
rior side or both 40 CastiUeia 
BB Calyx 4-cut 41 Orthocarpus 

Other genera to be looked for are' Bowkena, CrateroHtigma, 
Herpostis, Landenbergia, fecymena 


A. Posterior lip of corolla erect; calyx 2-partcd or 

deeply 2-lobed 1 Utncularui. 

AA. Posterior lip of corolla spreading, calyx 4-5- 

parted . . 2 Pinguicula. 


A. Ovary 2-celled cap-? dehiscent Ivs mostly 

B. Valves opening parallel with septum 

c. Lvs 2-3-foholatc shrubs, climbing with 


D Tendrils filiform, simple 
E Disk present 

F. Caps smooth or slightly warty, 
broadly linear calyx with black 
gland 1 Adeno- 

FF Caps rough, broad disk rrenate, [calymma. 
calyx Jiot glandular, with 5 
subuh.V teeth 2 Clytostoma. 

EE Disk waring, calyx with 5 short 

teeth or tiunrate taps linear 3 Cydista 

DD. Tendrils 3-parted, filiform, slender 
E. Corolla straight or slightly curved, 
membranous cans narrow , smooth 
F. Lobes of eorolla imbricate, sta- 
mens melted tendrils twice or 
thrice 3-parted 4 Anisoslichus 

(See under Bignoma ) 
FF. Lobes vahate, stamens exscrtcd 

tendrils simply 3-parted 5. Pyrostegia. 

BE. Corolla strongly curved, calyx 

leathery, tomentose 
F. Stamens inclosed, fls white 

O. Ovary warty caps broad, 
rough, not curved branches 
angular 6. Pithecoc- 

GQ. Ovary smooth caps oblong, \ten\um. 

curved, with a convex and a 
concave valve branches ter- 
eto 7. Disaciis. 

FF. Stamens exserted, fls. red, ovary 

tomentose . 8. Ph&dran- 

DDD. Tendrils 3-parted, the ramifications [thus. 

hooked, claw-like. 

E Calyx truncate or lobed, disk simple 9 Bignonia. 
EE. Calyx splitting on one side, disk 

double. . . 10. Macfady- 


cc. Lvs. 2-3-pirnate upright tree 11. Oroxylon. 

BB. Valves opening at right angles to septum, 
upright plants or climbing without tendrils. 


c. Habit climbing (upright in some forms of 

Campsis) Ivs pinnate 

D Stamens exserted Ifts serrate. 12 Tecomana. 

DD. Stamens inclosed 

B. Climbing by rootlets Ifts serrate 

corolla eampanulate-funnelform 13. Campns. 
EE. Climbing without rootlets. Ifts. 


F. Corolla club-shapod, straight, up- 
right, fls in racemes., . 14. Camptidwm 
FF. Corolla camnanulato-funnelform, 

fls in panicles . 16. Pandorea 

cc. Habit upright herbs, with alternate Ivs.: 

caps folliculatt ly de hisccnt. 
D. Seeds with membranous wing' Ivs. 

simple or compound . 16 Incarnllea 

DD Seeds with fringed hairs, IVB pinnate 17. Ampkicome. 
ccc Habit upright trees or shrubs with usu- 
ally opposite Ivs 
D Lvs Minnie or digitate 

E Seeds fringed with hairs Ivs. simple, 

F Fertile stamens 4 Ivs linear, alter- 
nate 18. Chilopns 
FF Fertile stamens 2 Ivs cordate, 

opposite 19. Catalpa. 

EE Seeds winged Ivs simple or digitate 20. Tabebuva. 
DD Lvs pinnate, rarely simple and serrate. 
E. Septum flat 

F. Calyx ( ampanulnte, truncate, 

toothed or lobe d 
G Stammode not elongated 

H Anthers with enlarged leafy 
connective, calyx regularly 
5 -toothed shrubs Ifts. 
serrate, Ivs rarely simple 21. Tecoma. 
HH Anthers w ithout enlarge d con- 
nect iv e-, calyx irregularly 
2-j-Iobed tree Ifts usually 
entire 22 Helero- 

GO Stammode much elongated and [phragma. 

enlarged at the apex calyx 
small, fin in large- terminal 
panicles Ivs 1-2-pinnatc with 
numerous 1ft* 23. Jacaranda. 

FF Calyx spathe-hke, splitting on one 
side, corolla broadly eampanu- 
lite 24 Spathodea. 

LE. Septum thick, spongy 

F Seeds in de-c p impressions of the 
septum cilyx truneate or in- 
distinctly toothed l%c usually 
bipinnutf 23 Rader- 

FF Seeds in shallow impre.sions of [nuuluni 

the septum calyx i- Globed 
hs pinnate 20 Stereosver- 

AA Ovary 1-ct lied [mum. 

B I-r a dehiscent caps corolla tubular, nar- 
rowed nt the mouth Ivs opposite, pinnate 
climbing with Umlnl- , 27 Eccrermi- 

BB Fr mdehiscent corolla cainpanulate or [carpus, 

eampanulate-funnelform trei s or shrubs, 
with alternate hs 
c Lvs simple or 3-foholate 

D Calyx spat he-like, splitting on one side, 

corolK regular, fls on the old wood 28 Parmentusra. 
DI> Calyx campuriulate, irregularly lobed, 
corolla v cry irregula. , fls at the end 

cc Lvs pinnate corolla irregular 30 Kigeha 

The genus Colea is also more or less in cultivation within our limits. 

135. GESNERIACE-ffl. 

A Ovary more or less inferior: fr. capsular. 

B DiskO 1. Niphxa. 

BB Disk annular 

c Fls smallish, pallid or white 2. Dicyrta. 

cc Fls largish, variously colored 

D Corolla-tube broadly swollen or bell- 
shaped, calyx-lobes usually membra- 
nous or leafy 3. Gloxinia. 

(Of botanists, not of florists ) 
DD Corolla-tube cylindrical or broad- 
ened above, calyx-lobes narrow or 
E The fls axillary . 4 Achimenes. 

(Consult also Scheena.) 
EK. The fls alternate in a terminal, leaf- 
less raceme 5. Nxgelia. 
BBB Disk of 5 distinct or but slightly united 

glands, these equal or unequal 
c Caps inferior to the middle or higher 

D Anther-cells confluent at apex . 6 SinmnyM 

(Gloxinia of florists.) 

DD Anther-cells distinct . . 7. Isoloma 

cc. Caps shortly immersed at base, almost 

superior .... 8. Getnen~ 


AA. Ovary wholly superior- fr capsular or baccate, 

unknown in Samtpauha 
B. Anther-cells distinct and parallel. 

o. Disk with a largo posterior gland, other- 
wise small or wanting 

D. Filaments free among themselves 9 Epiacta. 

DD. Filaments connate into a sheath which 

is split on the posterior side. 

E. Anthers separate 10 Alloplectus. 

KB Anthers connate cross-like ... 11 Columnea. 
cc. Disk annular, elevated, almost cup- 

D. Perfect stamens 2 , 12 Agabnyla. 

DD. Perfect stamens 4 13. Tnchos- 


OCC. Disk obsolete . 14 Mitrana. 

BB. Anther-colls divaricate or diverging, rarely 

c. Disk 

D Anthers free . . 15. Ramonda. 

DD. Anthers cohering in a tube extending 

beyond the cells . 10 Conandron. 

cc. Disk reduced to a posterior gland 17 Codonanthe. 

COO. Disk a ring (rarely dimidiate m Chirita) 
E Lvs cauhne, opposite 

p. Stamens 4 18 Bctlena. 

TV. Stamens 2 . 19 Chirita. 

EK Lvs. basal (rarely opposite in Strep- 


p. Stamens 4 .... .20 Haberl&a 
pp. Stamens 2 [pus. 

a. Corolla-tube long . .21 Streptocar- 

aa. Corolla-tube short . . 22 Samtpauha. 

Additional ttenera described are' Acanthonema, Boea, 
Corytholoma, Cyrtandra, Klugia, Lysionotus, Rhabdothamnus 
and Roettlera. 


.. Corolla-tubes swollen abov e tho short base 1 Martyma 

.. Corolla-tube very long, slender and cylindrical 

with a bell-shaped throat 2 Cramolaria 


.. Caps truncate at apex, the angles awned < 

.. Cape, obtuse or acuminate, unarmed . . 

oo. Tube long, slender, scarcely 

swollen at apex 14. Chanutr- 


DD Stamens 2- ovules in each cell 2 . . 15 Eranthe- 
cc. Corolla bilabiate or sub-equally 4-cut. [mum. 

D. Ovules in each cell 3 or more 16 Phlogacan- 

DD. Ovules in each cell 2 [thus 

E Fls with 2 or 4 bracts longer than 

calyx . ,17. Penstrophe. 

EE Fls without such bracts 

F Stamens 4, anthers all 1-cellod . 18. Aphelandra. 
FF Stamens 2, anthers 2-oolkd 

Q. Anther-cells unlike, one larger 
or afhxod higher (In Jaco- 
bima cells often subequal ) 
H The lower anther coll usually 

spurred 19. Justic%a. 

HH The anther-cells not spurred, 
sometimes equally mucron- 
ate at base 
I. The corolla with short tube 

and ample lips 20. Adhatoda. 

u The corolla-tube usually 

long and narrow 21. Jacob\nia. 

GG. Anther-cells equal 

H. Stammodfs at base of fila- 

i Corolla-tube swollen above, 
posterior lip incurved, 
anterior spreading, 3-cut 22. Graptophyl- 
II Corolla-tube elongated, limb [lum, 

sub-bilubiatc, 4-lobed 23 Thyrsacan- 
HH Stammodps [thut 

i Veins ot h s \\ lute or colored 24 F\Uonia. 
u \ cina of Ivs green 

j Calyx-segms linear or 

bmtle-hke 25 Schaueria 

jj Calyx small, lobes acute 

or acuminate 2t> Antaacan- 


The following gonora arc also treated Anisotes, Belopcrone, 
Diarithera, Dichntera, Duvc rnon, Dysrhoriste, Lcpidagathis, 
Micranthus, Pseuderanthcmuui, Kungia arid Warpuna 


A. Calyx 5-cut, the 2 posterior lobes of the corolla 

1 Ceralotheca 

2 Sesamum 

narrow or conna 
AA Calyx rut do\\n < 
coroUa 4. 

or define 
j side, pc 

1 Globv'ana. 

2 Heben- 



A. Corolla expanded into a single obovate lip 
B. Calyx of normal texture, posterior segms 

3-5-nerved 1 Blepharis. 

BB. Calyx usually cartilaginous, posterior segm 

3-5-nerved 2. Acanthus. 

AA. Corolla with subequal limb, or 2-hpped 
B. The corolla contorted 

C Ovary with 2 collateral ovules in each 

cell, or by abortion 1 3 Thunbergia. 

cc Ovary with 2 to many ovules in each cell, 
in 1 senes or alternately placed ono 
above another 
D, Filaments connate in pairs at the base. 

B. Caps subterete 4 Ruellia 

EE Caps compressed parallel to the 

septum 5 Dsedalacan- 

DD. Filaments equidistant or suboonnato [thus. 

at the base in pairs, calyx-lobes 
obtuse 6 Sanchezia. 

DDD. Filaments crowded or connate at the 
base on the posterior wall of the tube 
or 2 posterior filaments affixed a 
little higher 

E Calyx ample, membranous or colored. I.Wh-Ufieldia 
EE Calyx-segnw linear, not colored. 

F Ovules 2 m each cell 8 Strobi- 


*r Ovules 3 to many in each cell 9. Hemigra- 

BB. The corolla not contorted [phis 

c. Corolla of 6 flat lobes, not bilabiate. 
D Stamens 4 

E. The corolla-lobos variously imbri- 
cated, lateral one? usually outer 
p Anthers all 2-cellea .... 10. Barlena 

Tf Anthers all 1-colled . 11. Crossandra 

BB. The anterior corolla-lobe outside, 

posterior one inside 

p Anthers all 1 -celled . . . 12> Sienan- 

PP. Anthers all 2-celled (in Chamisran- [dnum. 

themum, the posterior anthers 
sometimes 1 -celled). 
Q. Tuba swollen into a long or 

broad throat 13. Avtana. 

The only gei 




Corolla more or less boll-shaped, rarely funnel- 
shaped, with a subregulnr limb, ovary 2- or 
more-celled, cells 1-ovulcd, rarely 2-cellod and 
2-ovuled Myoporum. 


L. Infl centripetal 
B Fls sessile in the spike 

c Nutlets 2, or by abortion 1, 1-secded. 

D Fr a juicy berry 
DJ> Fr drupaceous calyx 2-4-cut 
-toothed . . . 

DD Fr. dry calyx 5-toothed 
cc Nutlet* or cells of fr. 4, or by abortion 

fewer, 1-seeded 

BB Fls pedicellcd 
c Nutlets 1-sceded 

D Number of nutlets 4 

DD Number of nutlets 2 or 1 

cc. Nutlets 2-seeded, in pyrenes 2-6, 2-lo- 

cellate . . 

i Infl centrifugal. 

8. Fr. drupe-like, entire or 4-lobed, xocarp 
usually pulpy or fleshy, the endocaip en- 
tire or 4-celled, often separating into 4 
c Corolla regular, stamens as many as 


cc. Corolla-limb oblique, with anterior lob 
produced, or sub-bilabiate , stamens 4, 
didynamous or arched under posterior 
D. Drupe with one 4-oelled stone. 

B. Corolla-tube cylindrical, short. 

1. I^anlana 

2. Ltppia 

3 Stachytar- 

4. Verbena 

5. Amasoma. 
6 Petrva. 

8. Callicarpa. 



BB Corolla-tube strongly dilated above 10 Gmehna. 
D. Drupe 4-partod, with 4 stones, or by 

reduction 1 -stoned (this 1-celled) 
B Fertile stamens 2 11 Oxera 

BB Fertile stamens 4 12 Cleroden- 

BB. Fr dry, subcapsular, exocarp with 4 valves [dron. 

involute at the margin from the base up, 
which carry off the nutletH and leave no 
central column . . . 13. Caryopteris. 

Other genera m cultivation in North America are Avioenma, 
Citharexylum, Congea, Diostea, Faradaya, Premna. 

7. Summary of Tribes 

Ignonng exceptions. 

A. The nutlets fleshy or drupe-like, af- 
fixed to a small basal or oblong m- 
trorsely oblique areole ovary 4-lobcd 1 PRASIA TBIBB. 
AA. The nutlets dry or hard 

B. Ovary shortly, rarely deeply 4-lobed 
nutlets wrinkled or netted, affixed 
to an obliquely mtrorse or lateral, 
usually large, areole 
C. Seeds, when known, with endo- 
sperm corolla with an ample 
throat and broad lobes 2 PHOSTANTHEHA 

cc Seeds without endosperm corolla (TRIBE. 

various 3 AJUQA TRIBE. 

BB. O\ary 4-parted to the bane nutlets 
affixeel to a small basal or slightly 
oblique areole 

C. Stamens drcltnate, perfect ones 4, 
rarely 2, anthers 1-e clle>d by con- 
fluence 4 OCIMUM TRIBE. 
D Subtnhe 1 KIOMMI v \ree>Ie 
basal, stamens iisirilly e xser- 
ted, anterior rorolla-lobe 
usually unlike the others 
DD. Subtribe 2 L\\ \\DULEB Are- 
ole extrorsely oblique, sta- 
mens included, corolla-lobes 
equal or the anterior lobe 
with the lateral ones forming 
the anterior lip 

CC. Stamens ascending, or in the 
Stachys Tribe sometimes inclu- 
ded (Consult also e cc ) 
D. Perfect stamens 2, anther-cells 
linear, separate, solitary or 

confluent 5 MONARDA TRIBE. 

DD. Perfect stamens 4, rarely 2 m 

the Nepeta Tribe 
E Calyx usually 15-ner\ed, pos- 
terior stamens longer than 
the anterior 6 NEPETA TRIBE. 

EE Calyx 5- or 10-nerved, pos- 
terior stamens shorter than 
anterior, posterior hp of 
corolla erect, usually con- 
cave or fornicate, anterior 
spreading, 3-cut 7 STACHYS TRIBB. 

F Subtnbe 1 ScLrELL<uiEJZ 
Calyx bilabiate or at 
length 2-parted, t he mouth 
closed after anthcsi* 
FF Calyx not bilabiate 

G Suhtribe 2 MKMT- 
rtt. Corolla-tube 
long -exserted, calyx 
broad, of 5 short tetth 
or 3-4 broad lobes 
GO. Corolla-tube included or 
slight lyexsertod, rarely 
long -exserted, calyx 
tubular or bell-shaped, 
H. Subtnbe 3 MAR- 
Ruuiris Stamens 
HH Subtribe 4 LAMIEB 

Stamens exserted 

CCC. Stamens straight, diverging or 
ascending, perfect ones 4 or 2, 
calyx 5-, 10-, or 13-nerved, rarely 
15-nerved, corolla-lobes usually 

D Subtnbe 1 POGOSTEMONE./B. 
Anthers 1-cellod, subglobose; 
stamens distinct, straight 
DD Anthers 2-cellod, at least the 

younger ones 

E Subtribe 2. MENTHOID&JB. 
Calyx usually 5- or 1O- 
nerved, stamens distant 
or divaricate. 

BE. Subtribe 3 MELISSEA Calyx 
usually 13-nerved, stamens 
ascending, at least at the 

II. Key to the Tribes. 
I. Prasia Tribe. 

Not m cultivation. 

2. Prostanthera Tribe. 

A* Calyx bilabiate; lips entire or anterior emar- 

gmate . . 1. Prostan- 

AA. Calyx equal, 5-toothed 2. Westring\a. 

3. Ajuga Tribe. 

A. Corolla-tube slender, lobes 5, subequal, 

spreading 3 Tnchostema. 

AA. Corolla-tube, quasi 1 -lipped, the posterior 
lobes and small latoal om s drclmate at the 
con tract i d base of the very large anterior 
lobe, or rarely erect 4 Teucrium. 

AAA. Corolla-tube short or exserted, the posterior 
lip short, erect, 2-fut, anterior much longer 
and its middle lobe largest 5 Ajuga. 

4. Ocimum Tribe. 

A Subtribe 1 EuociMrr 

B Anterior lob< of corolla hardly longer than 
the others, often narrower, decimate, flat 
r slightly r 

c Fi 


7 Moschosma. 

8 Coleus 

9 Plectra*- 

10 Lavandula. 

.. . urging, often 

dec hnate 
BB Anterior lobe of corolla longer than other 

cone a\ e or boat-shaped 
c Filaments connate at the base in a tube 
cc Filaments free 

AA. Subtnbe 2 LAVANDULE^; Sole genus 

S. Monarda Tribe. 

A Calyx tubular .11. Monarda. 

AA Calyx bilabiate 

B Fertile anther-cells 2 upper hp of corolla 

4-lohofl 12 Perowskia. 

BB tortile anther-cells 1 upper hp of corolla 

entire or bifid 

c Connective continuous with fiHment and 
not indicated unlc&s by a slender 
reflexed tcx>th 13. Rosmannus. 

cc ComiLLtue 'irtuulattd to the filament 
but not produe ed or \try shortly ae umi- 
natc 14. Audibertia. 

CCC Connective rlongitid, ^ft^itile on the 

beyond the artit ulatmn and either dila- 
ted or bearing an abortne rudiment 
of the second anther-cell 15. Salma. 

6. Nepeta Tnbe. 

h the postcnoi 

A Calyx bilabiate o 

much wider than the- otners 
AA Calyx tubular, mouth straight 
B Stamens erect or dutrgin 
parallel or at length d; 


16 Dracoceph- 
obhque [alum. 

17 Lophanthus. 

BB Stamens ase_e tiding or straightish, anther- 
cells parallel 18 Cedronella. 
BBS Stamens ascending and parallel or in a few 
species rather lax and distant, anther- 

cclla divergent o 

. . 19. Afepeta. 

7. Stachys Tribe. 
Subtnbe 1. Scutellarlese. 

I A. The calyx-hp entire . 20. Scutettana. 

JLA. The posterior calyx-lip 3-toothed, antenor 

2-fid. . 21.BnuuUa. 

Subtribe 2. Melittese. 

A. Anther-eel 
AA. Anther-cells divergent, calyx 3-lobed 

parallel, calyx subequally 5- 

22. Physostegvi. 
.23. Mehttv,. 

Subtnbe 3. Marrubieae 

Calyx 5-10-toothed, corolla-tube included, 

anther-cells at length confluent 24. Mamibtum. 



Subtribe 4. Lamieee. 

A. The posterior hp of corolla often short or flat, 

glabrous or pubescent 25 Colguhoun\a. 

AA. The posterior lip concave or fornicate, rarely 

flattish, usually villous 
B. Teeth of calyx ti -13, rarely 5 

c Calyx very broad at apex . 26 Moluccella. 

cc Calyx long-tubular . 27 Leonolia. 

BB Teeth of calyx 5 

c. Stamens often cast to one side after 

anthesis 28 Stachys. 

cc Stamens often hairy on the back of the 

anthers 29 Lamium. 

ccc Stamens often have the posterior fila- 
ments appendaged at the base 30 Phlomia. 

8. Satureia Tribe. 
Subtribe 1. Pogostemoneae 

Calyx, 5-toothed, corolla 4-cut, anterior lobes 

usually wider spreading . 31. Pogoatemon. 

Subtribe 2. Menthoideae. 

A. Whorls spicate or racemose, not axillary 
B Calyx equal, erect, often elongated in fr , 

whorls many-fid 32 ElshoUzta. 

BB Calyx subequal in anthems, but decimate 

and bilabiate m fr , \vhorh 2-fld 

c Nutlets smooth 33 Colhnsonia 

or Nutlets netted-vemed 34 Perilla 

AA Whorls axillary (or, in a fe\v species of Mcn- 

tha, crowded in a dense terminal spike) 
B Perfect stamens 4 35 Mentha 

BB Perfect stamens 2 36 Cunila 

AAA. Whorh in dense heads surrounded by involu- 

cral bracts 
B Corolla sub-bilabiate, whorls densely mauy- 

c. Lobes of corolla ovate, heads often corym- 

bose-pamcled 37 Pycnantha* 

CC. Lobes of corolla oblong or linear, heads [mum. 

globose, solitary 38 MonardeUa. 

BB Corolla bilabiate, whorls 2-fld , rarely more, 
heads solitary, crowded or corymbose 
pamcled 39. Origanum. 

AAAA Whorls few-fld . axillary or the upper ones 
spicate , calyx-throat closed by villous hairs < 
AA Whorls axillary or the highest spicatc, calyx 

40. Thv 

open-bell-shapod, equal 
B Calyx 10-nerved, stamens ascending 41 Satureia. 

BB Calyx 15-nerved, stamens divergent . . 42 Hyssopus. 

Subtnbe 3. Melisseae. 

A. Posterior hp of corolla concave, sickle-shape 

or galeate 43 Acantho- 

AA. Posterior lip of corolla flattish or slightly con- [mintha. 

B. Calyx distinctly 2-hpped 

c Corolla-tube straight or slightly curved 44 Satureia 
cc Corolla-tube below the middle recurved- [Calamintha 

ascending 45 Melissa 

BB Calyx equal or sub-bilabiate 

c Perfect stamens 4 46 Mirromena. 

cc Perfect stamens 2 47 Hedeoma 

Other genera treated are Eremostachys, Galeopsis, Pycnos- 
tachys, Sidentis, Synandra and Tinnea 


One genus in cultivation Plantago. 


A Fls involucrate 
B Stigma with a small head, anthers didyna- 

mous . 1 Mirabiht. 

BB Stigma linear, anthers not didynamous . 2 Abronia. 
AA Fls not involucrate, but bractcd 

B Bracts large, colored 3 Bougain- 

BB Bracts very small . . 4. Piaonia. 


A Anthers 2-celled 
B Ovary 2-ovuled 

c Fr a utricle 

cc Fr berry-like 

BB. Ovary 1-ovuled. 

a Ovule erect, with a short fumculua. 

1 Celona. 

2 Deerinyia. 

D Segms of perianth stellate in fr : fls. in 

terminal racemes shrubs . 3. Botea, 

DD. Segms of perianth upright m fr.: fls. in 

clusters or panicles herbs 4 Amarantus. 

cc. Ovule suspended from the apex of an 

elongated fumculus 

D. Perianth-segms scanous at apex, con- 
nate at base . 5. Tnchinium. 
DD. Perianth-segms hyaline, membranous 

or somewhat papery, lanate . . . 
AA. Anthers 1-celled 

B Fls minute m glomerules or little-spiked 

along the sparse branches of the panicle . 7 Ireaine. 
BB. Fls in heads or spikes rarely pamcled 
C Stigmas 2 

D Perianth-segms free or connate at base 8 Gomphrena 
DD Perianth-tube 5-cut, cristate or winged 

m fr 9 Fraelichia. 

cc Stigrna simple 

D Starnmal tube short or long, with 5 an- 
ther-bearing awl-shaped lacmue and 
5 antherless lacunae interposed 10. Telanthera 

DD St animal tubes with no antherless 

lacimse interposed .11 P/affia. 


A Fls with 4 bractlets, 2 of which are adnate to 

the perianth at the base, or higher 

B Embryo spiral filaments straight in the bud 1 Basella. 
BB Embryo semi-annular filaments recurved at 

apex or lower in the bud 2 Boussin- 

AA Fls with bractlets not adnate to perianth [gaultui. 

B Embryo spiral endosperm scant or 3 Salsola. 

BB Embryo ring-shaped or horseshoe-shaped 
endosperm copious (Sahcorma has con- 
duplicate embryo nnd no endosperm ) 
c St and branches articulated fls im- 
mersed in ca\es m the superposed 
joints no foliage-lvs 4 Salicorn\a. 

cc St not articulated 

D Perianths heteiomorphous, stammate 
without bracts, 3-5-lobed or parted, 
pistillate usually fls with 2 bract- 
lets accrescent in fr free or connate 
into a sack, and no perianth 
E Pistillate fls without pt nanth, 3-4- 

toothed 5 Spinana. 

EE Pistillate fls with ample bracts which 

enlarge in fr , perianth 6 Atriplex 

DD Perianths hornomorphoux, i e , not of 

E Fls hermaphrodite nnd feminine, sol- 
itary or jjloinc rate seed horizontal, 
embryo annular, albumen sc ant 7 Kochta. 
EE Fls glorneraU , hermaphrodite or 
unisexual seed erect, inverse or 


F. Perianth-tube surrounded by a 
wing stamens 5 seed hon/ontal, 
bony 8 Cycloloma. 

TV. Perianth o-parted, usually un- 
seed erect or horizontal, bony or 
leathery 9. Chenopod- 

FFF Perianth 5-lobed, hardened at the [turn 

base in fr seed houzontal, 
leathery 10 Beta. 

The genus Ullucus, allied to Basella, is also described briefly. 


A. Ovary superior 

B Carpel 1 1 Rivina 

BB Carpels 2- <, united into a berry 2 Phytolacca 

BBB Carpels 1 or 2, united, the fr with scales at 

top 3 Petiveria 

AA. Ovary semi-infenor fr inferior 4 Agdestis. 


A. The fls fascicled in the axils or at the nodes of 
infl (In the first 3 genera sometimes along 
the rachis of mfl ) 
B. Endosperm 3-G-lobed with longitudinal 

grooves and usually ruminate 
c. Fruiting perianth fleshy or berry-hke at 
the base or everywhere, the nut in- 
cluded or exserted at the apex 1 Muehlen- 
cc. Fruiting perianth with fleshy or berry- [becfoa, 
bke tube, including the nut and often ad- 
nate to it, crowned by the unchanged 
connivent or marcescent hmb 2. Caccoloba. 



ccc. Fruiting perianth enlarged, membranous 

or scarious, colored, outer segms. 

larger and broadly cordate, inner ones 

oblong 3. Antigonon. 

cccc. Fruiting perianth developing wings on 

the 3 outer parts 4 Tnplant. 

BB. Endosperm equable, entire 

c. Perianth S-meroua, rarely 4-merous; 
styles usually filiform and stigmas 
usually capitate. 
D. Pistil 2-3-merouH, stamens usually 6-8 

shrubs, often spmescent 5. Atraphaxis. 

DD Pistil 3-merous stamens 8 or fewer 

herbaceous, rarely suffrutn owe 
E Nut entirely or nearly covered by 

the fruiting perianth 6 Polygonum. 

BE. Nut much longer than the fruiting 

perianth . 7. Faoopyrum. 

CC. Perianth 6-merous, rarely 4-merous 

D Stamens 9, rarely 0, fruiting perianth 

unchanged nut.J-wmged 8. Rheum. 

DD. Stamens 6, rarely Q, inner se K ms of 
" 'lilting perianth much enlarged, erect 


and including the J-angled nut 9. Rumex. 

AA. The fls in mfl dichotomously or umbellately 
branched, tho floral Ivs or bracts connate 
below the branches into one 3-cut bract, or 
free and 3-o m number . 10. Enogonum. 


BBB. The penanth-segms deciduous from base, 
fruiting tube flattened or disk-shaped and 
entire or truncate 4 Cinnamo- 

LAA. Anthers mtrorsely locellato, valves dehiscing [mum 8 

upward. [Camphora 

B. Fls in a short, lax raceme, accompanied by 

small and narrow bracts 5. Sassafras. 

BB. Fls umbellate, capitate or rarely solitary, 
umbels or heads before anthesis included 
in a 4-6-bracted involucre. 

C. Locell of anther 4 6. Umbettul- 

CC. Locellae 2 [aria. 

D Stamens usually 9 , fls dioecious 7. Benzoin. 

DD. Stamens usually 12-20, fls. polygamous 8 Laurus. 
The genus Litsea is sparingly in cultivation 


A Stamens fewer than the corolla-lobes. . . . 
AA. Stamens twice as many as corolla-lobes 
B. Disk or a very short ring 

c Perianth-tube cylindrical, limb spread - 

The only genus 


2. Daphne. 
cc. Perianth much swollen above, obliquely 

truncate, limb not spreading . 3 Dirca. 

BB. Disk more or less lobed or oblique 

c Fie .5-merous, disk cup-shaped .. .. 4. Dais 

CC Fls 4-merous 

D The disk annular, lobes very short 5 Edgeworthia. 

DD The disk 4-cut or 2-cut . . 6 Wikstramia 

The genera Gmdia, Lagetta, and Thyinelsea will also be found 
in the book 


A. Perianth persistent, 3-lobed above ovary, 
regular stamens 12 surrounding the style in 
2 series, anthers free 1 Asc 

AA. Perianth deciduous, irregular, polymorphous, 
anthers 0-, adnate in 1 series to a stylar 
column 2 4ri 


A. Stamens 3 
AA Stamens 5-8 

B Carpels connate 
BB. Carpels distinct 

2 Anemopsis 
. 6 Saururus 


A. Stamens 2-0, anther-cells usually distinct, 

stigmas 3-4, rarely 2 or 5 1 Piper 

AA. Stamens 2, anther-eells confluent into one 
2-valved anther, stigma terminal or lateral, 
pemtillate or undivided 2. Pepero 


In cultivation . Chloranthus. 


Series 1. Fr an indehisoent nut or drupe: fla. usually solitary 
with a bract under each one 

A. I 1 Is dioecious by abortion, regular 1. Leucaden- 

AA Fls. hermaphrodite, irregular 2. Protea. 

Series 2 Fr folhcular, capsular or rarely indehiscent and sub- 
drupaceous fls usually in pairs along the rachis with only 1 bract 
for each pair 

A Ovules 2, collateral 
B Fls racemose or fascicled, involucre none or 

inconspicuous, bracts deciduous 
c The ovules pendulous, orthotropous 
D Fr scarcely or tardily dehiscent, 
pericarp thick, fleshy or hard, seeds 
with thick, often unequal cotyledons 
E Perianth-limb recurved , 3 Guevina 

EE Perianth straight 4 Macadamia. 

DD Fr folhcular or obliquely 2-valyed, 

seeds compressed, margined or wing 5. Roupala. 
cc The ovules laterally affixed or ascending 

D Seeds with or w ithout a narrow wing 6 QreviUea. 
DD Seeds samara-hke, wing oblong, ter- 
minal 7 f/aHea 
BB Fls in dense bracted spikes or cones 8 Banksia 
AA Ovules 4 or more 

B Fls umbellate seeds winged below 9 Stenocarpus. 

BB Fls m dense racemes seeds samara-like, 

\vithanoblongternnnal\ung 10 Telopea. 

BBB Fls twin, in short or long racemes seeds 
samara-like with a terminal truncate 
wing . 11 Lomatia 


Sole genus 

.. Mynstica. 


A. Stamens numerous, anther-cells dehiscing in 

a 2-valved fashion by a longitudinal crack.. . 1. Peumus. 
AA. Stamens 6-12, anther-cells dehiscing above ... 2. Laurelia. 


A. Anthers 2-locellate, valves laterally dehiscent 

or quickly deciduous 1. Hemandta. 

AA. Anthers extrorsely loccllate, valves dehiscent 


B. The whole perianth persisting under the fr , 
appressed or slightly spreading, perianth 
sometimes deciduous from the base 2. Persea. 

BB. The pcrianth-segms at length transversely 

cut, leaving tho fruiting tube bell-shaped [mum. 

or expanded and 6-toothed .. . 3. Cinnamo- 


A LVB alternate stamens 4 

B Fls hermaphrodite 

BB Fls unisexual, usually dioscious 

AA Lvs opposite stamens 8 


A Perianth double 
AA Perianth single or simple 

Viscum is also of general interest. 


A. Plant herbaceous, low 
AA Plant woody, shrubs or trees. 

B Fls perfect .... 

BB Fls dioecious or polygamous 

c Lvs alternate 
cc. Lvs opposite 

1 Elxagnus 

2 Hippophal. 

3 Shepherds. 

1. iMranthus. 
2 Phoraden- 


, 1 Comandra. 
2. Santalum 
3 Pyndaria. 




8016 ** . . Platanu,. The only genus.. . . Lntnena. 

164. MORACE&. 

A. Anthers reversed on the bud with inflexed 


B. The male fls spicate, racemose or capitate, 
female globose, capitate. 

c. Female perianth dentate 1. Broussone- 


cc Female perianth deeply 4-fid . 2 Madura. 

BB The fls of either sex spicate, spikes short 

and dense or long and lax 3. Morut 

BBS. The fls crowded on fleshy receptacle 4. Doratema. 

AA. Anthers erect from the beginning 

B. Plants, trees or shrubs fls. usually on a 

fleshy receptacle 

c. The receptacle fleshy, globose or ovoid, 
clearly inclosing the numerous fls , but 
with a small mouth which is braoteato 
introrsely , the mouth is closed in fr 5. Ficut 

CC. The receptacle androgynous, male fls 
numerous, females solitary in the 
center of the receptacle 6. Brostmuwi. 

ccc. The receptacle unisexual, with an invo- 
lucre of numerous bracts overlapping in 
series 7. Antiana. 

CCCC. The fl -clusters unisexual, with or without 
3.-4 bracts at the base, in heads, spikes, 
rarely m racemes or the female 1-fld 
D. Stamens 4 8 Cudrania. 

DD Stamens 1 9. Artocarput. 

BB. Plants, herbs fls not on a fleshy receptacle 
C St chmbmg Ivs opposite, embryo 

spirally involute 10 Humulus. 

cc. St. not climbing Ivs alternate or the 

lowest opposite embryo curved . . 11 Cannabis. 

Couaaapoa is also briefly treated. 


A. Hairs stinging 

B Achene straight 1 Urtica. 

BB Achene oblique . ... 2. Urera. 

AA Hairs harmless 

B Perianth of the lemale fl , 3-5-parted 

c Lvs opposite stamens 4, rarely 2-3 . 3 Pilea. 
cc Lvs alternate, distichous, oblique at 

base stamens 5, rarely 4 4 Pelhonia. 

BB. Perianth of the female fl tubular, inclosing 
the athtne, not adnato Ivs opposite or 
alternate fls in clusters or panicles 5 Boehmeria. 

BBB Perianth of the female fl tubular adnate to 
the achcnc Ivs alternate, tomentose be- 
low fls in globular heads often forming 
cymes 6. Debregeasia. 

Helxine, Panetana, and Pipturus are described 

166. ULMACE-ffi. 

A. Fr dnipaceous fls on the young growth 
B Cotyledons very broad 

c Sepals connate, style exccntrio 1 Zelkova 

cc Sepals distinct or nearly so, style cen- 

n Fr globose, not winged 2 Celtia 

DD Fr winged . 3 Pleroceltis 

BB Cotyledons narrow 

c Fertile fls perfect, fls in cymes 4 Trema 

cc Fertile fls unisexual, solitary, stammate 

in cymes before the Ivs 5 Aphananthe. 

AA. Fr not drupaceous, winged or muricate 

fls on last year's branches 

B Fr. stalked, surrounded by a broad wing b Ulmus. 
BB Fr not winged, everywhere somewhat 

fleshy and muricate ... .7 Planera. 

167. JUGLANDACE-ffi. 

A. The fls. of either sex in erect spikes, imbncate- 

bractate 1. Platycarya. 

A A. The stammate fls in pendulous catkins, pis- 
tillate fls spicate or subsohtary 
B. In germinating, cotyledons are borne above 

ground and remain green 2. Pterocarya, 

BB. In germinating, cotyledons remain inside 

the nut 
C. Husk at length splitting into segms.; nut 

smooth or angled . . 3. Carya. 

00. Husk mdehiscent, nut wrinkled or 

sculptured 4. Junto**. 


A. Lvs. serrate or entire, not stipulate ovary 

subtended by 2-4 bractlets 1. Myrica. 

AA. Lvs pinnatifid, stipulate ovary subtended by 

8 linear, persistent bractlets 2 Comptonia 

Sole genus . 



A. Ovules 2 in each cell of ovary plant without 

milky juice (or red juice in Bischofia). 
B. Lvs alternate, simple (sometimes opposite 

in Poranthera) 
C. Calyx of stammate fls imbricate 

D Petals present, at least in stammate 


E. Plant a shrub with broad, glabrous 
or somewhat hairy Ivs ovary 
3-cellcd 1. Andrachnt. 

BS. Plant a tree, with scaly herbage 

ovary 1-cclled 2 JUztoxtcon. 

BEE. Plant a heath-like sub-shrub Ivs 

narrow, with recurved margin 3. Poranthera 

DD. Petala 

B. Fls single or in axillary clusters 
F Styles slender or only broadened 

at apex 

o Rudimentary pistil present in 
stammate fls , disk present 
Ivs entire 
H. Seed grooved on inner face 

disk of pistillate fl lobed 4. Plugged 
HH. Seed not grooved disk en- 
tiro 5 Secunnega, 
GO Rudimentary pistil absent 

H Disk present 6 Phyllanthua. 

HH Disk absent, at least from 

pistillate fls 

i Fr a caps . 7. Glochidion. 

n Fr more or lens fleshy 

j The styles 2-parted 8 Breynia 

jj The styles almost entire 9. Sauropus 
FF Styles broad, spreading 

a Stamens arising from a disk 
H Starmnato fls with rudi- 
mentary pistil 10 Drypetes 
HH Stammate fls without rudi- 
mentary pistil 11 Hemicycha. 
oa Stamens 2-4, without disk 12 Putranjua. 
KE. Fls. in elongated catkin-hke or 
branched mfl , dioecious Ivs large, 
broad and plane 

F. Ovary 1-cclled, stamens 2-5 13 Anhdesma 

FF Ovary 2-5-cclled 

a Stammate fla with rudimentary 

pistil 14 Baccaurea 

GO Stammate fls without rudimen- 
tary pistil 16. Daphmphyl- 
CC Calyx of stammate fls valvate, petals [lum. 
small 16 Lebidierop- 

BB Lvs alternate, compound 17 Bischofia 

BBB. Lvs opposite, compound 18 Oldfieldia 

BBBB Lvs whorled, simple 19 Hyxnanche. 

AA. Ovules 1 in each tell of the ovary 

B. Fls produced singly or in ordinary mfl 
C. Stamens incurved in the bud, pubescence 

stellate or scaly, JUICP not milky 20 Croton. 

CO. Stamens erect in the bud 

D. Juice not milky (see also Codiseum and 
relatives) calyx valvate Ivs simple 
B. Stammate tts with petals herbs 21. Chrotophora. 
BE. Stammate fls apetalous 

F. Stamens much branched herbs 
with Ivs. palmately veined 
and peltate. . . . ..22. Rianu* 

n. Stamens not branched 

o. Lvs opposite styles free (see 

also Mallotua) 

H. The stamens as many as 50 23. Trtvna 
HH. The stamens 8-20 24. Mercunalit. 

aa. Lvs. alternate, or rarely oppo- 

H. Plant a thorny shrub: sta- 
mens 8-15 . ... 25.Ad*ha. 

MS. Plant with holly-like spiny 

margined Ivs. . stamens 3-8. 26. Alchonua. 



HHH. Plant unarmed or with sting- 
ing ha^rs. 

I. Styles free or united only at 

j. Anther-cells spherical to 


K Anthers 2-celled 27. MaUotu*. 

KK Anthera 3-4-celled Ivs. 

usually peltate 28 Macaranga. 

JJ. Anther-cells elongated, 

often vermiform 29. Acalypha. 

n. Styles united above the 

case st often climbing 
3. Infl without conspicuous 


K Number of stamens 
usually 3, styles free 
at apex 30. Tragia. 

KK. Number of stamens 
8-30, styles united 
to the apex into a 
swollen column 31. Plukenetia. 

JJ Infl subtended by a con- 
spicuous involucre 32 Dalecham- 

DD. Juice almost always more or less milky (pict. 

(chief exceptions in Cluytia and 
B. The fls with petals, at least the 

F. Calyx valvate 

G Lvs simple, palmate. . ... 33 Aleuntei 
GO Lvs compound . . 34. Joanneaia. 

FT. Calyx imbricate 

a Petals free from one another. 
H The stamens in 2 or more 


I. Number of stamens about 
10 Ivs usually palmately 
veined 35 Jatropha 

II. Number of stamens 15-30 

or more Ivs pinnately 
veined styles entire 30 CWueum 

HH The stamens in 1 whorl, 

usually about 3-5 37 Cluytia 

GO. Petals connate Ivs usually 

palmately veined 
H Some of the filaments united 

Ivs simple 35 Jatropha 

HH Filaments free .Ivs compound 38 Ricinoden- 
BB. The fls apctalous [dron 

r. Sepals valvate or slightly im- 

G Lvs trifoliate 39 Hevea 

GQ Lvs simple, pinnately veined 
H Number of stamens 3 Ivs 

spiny margined 40 Pachu- 

HH Number of stamens 1 Ivs not [stroma 

spiny 41 Op/i thai- 

TV. Sepals or lobes of calyx, if any, im- [moblapton. 

bricate Ivs simple 
o. Number of stamens usually 10 or 

more (5-50) 

H. Starnmato calyx with 5 sepals 
connate, at least at 
Ivs usually palmately 
veined st erect 

I Herbage with -.tinging hairs 35 Jatropha. 
n Herbage usually glabrous 42 Mamhot. 
HH. Stammate calyx 3 -5-lobed 
Ivs pinnately vnned st 
climbing or trailing 43Mabea 

HHH Stammate calyx ofl or 2 

sepals 44. Homalan- 

HHHH Stammate calyx cupulate, [thus. 

truncate or dentate Ivs. 
broad, hairy 45. Hura. 

GO. Number of stamens 1-5 

H Stammate calyx with 4-5 free 

sepals st climbing 46. Omphaha. 

HH. Stammate calyx with 2-3 
sepals, free or connate at 
I. Infl usually terminal 1 seed 

carunculate .47. Sebast\ana. 

n. Infl usually axillary: seed 

not carunculate . 48. Excoecana. 

BHH. Starnmato calyx with con- 
nate sepals, 1-3-lobed. 
I. The stamens 2-3. 
j. Stamens free 

K Base of caps persistent 

as a pointed piece. 49. Sopium. 
KK. Base of caps not per- 
sistent, only a 3- 
parted central 
column remaining 50. St\Uino*a> 
jj Stamens united 

K Pistil 4-celled 51. Maprounia. 

KK. Pistil 6-9-celled 52. Htppomant. 

n. The stamens 1 

J Inn. terminal 51. Maprouma. 

JJ Infl lateral or axillary 41. Ophthalr 
HHHH. Stammate calyx 0, or rarely [mobtapton. 

1-2 minute scales 53. Colhguaya. 

BB. Fls. in cyathia (see explanation under 

c. Cyathia regular or nearly so. 

D. Involucral glands free from one 
another, alternate with lobes of 
involucre . 54. Euphorb\a. 

DD. Involucral glands united into a ring 

around the lobes .... 55 Synadenvum. 

cc. Cyathia decidedly irregular 56. Ped\lanthut. 

172. BUXACE^. 

A. Cells of ovary with 2 ovules each; stamens 4. 
B. Lvs alternate 

c Evergreen shrubs Ivs entire 1. Sarcococca. 

cc. Evergreen herbs. Ivs dentate 2. PocAy- 


BB Lvs. opposite 3. Buxus. 

AA Cells of ovary with 1 ovule each; stamens 

numerous Ivs. opposite 4. Simmond- 



A. Starnmato fls with 4 perianth-segms. or by 

abortion fewer (Birch Tribe) 

B StameiiH 2 . 1. Betula. 

BB Stamens 4 2 Alnus. 

AA Stammate fls with no perianth (Hazel Tribe). 
B Nut large, inclosed by a leafy involucre 
stammate fls with 2 bractlets, pistillate 
fls 2-4, capitate 

BB Nut small, subtended by or inclosed in a 
large bractlet stammate fls with no 
bractlets, pistillate catkins spike-like 
c Fruiting bractlet flat, 3-clcft and incised 4. Carjnnu 
cc Fruiting bractlet bladder-like, closed, 

membranous . 5. Ostrya. 


A. Ovary of pistillate fls 6-< elled , spikes of either 
sex erect and strict fruiting involucre or bur 
densely covered with strong pickles 1. Coatana. 

AA Ovary of pistillate fls 3-celied, rarely 4- or 5- 

celled in some species of Quercus 
B Stammate fls 1-3 in a cluster Ivs usually 

small 2. NothnSagu* 

BB Stammate fls in loose, roundish pendulous 

heads Ivs generally large 3 Fagu*. 

BBB Stammate fls in pendulous catkins or the 

spikes of either sex erect and strict 
c. Involucre of numerous scales forming 

a cup m fr and subtending the acorn 4 Quercut. 
cc Imolucre in fr armed with clusters of 
prickles or tubercles, wholly including 
the fr , perfectly closed or at length 
split irregularly 


Lvs usually narrow disk composed of 1 or 2 
glands which are distinct or barely connate 
at base . . 1. Salix. 

.. Lvs usually broad disk cyathiform, often 

oblique or cup-shaped, entire or lobed . 2. Populut. 


L. Fls axillary, solitary, stamens 3, pistil 6-9- 

merous . 1. BmjHtrum* 

L. Fls axillary in 2's or 3's, stamens 2, pistil 

2-merous 2 Cerofeoio. 

L. Fls subcapitate, stamens usually 3, pistil 3- 

merous . . . . 3. Corona. 


Ovule-beanng blade, long^talked, shortly 2~ 
cut at apex, the lobas dilated into a ring or 
short eup adnate to the seed: anther-cells 2, 
pendulous. Ivs. fan-shaped Qinkgo. 



178. GNETACEJ&. 

Leafless shrubs with jointed branches and scales 

opposite the nodoa connate into a little sheath. Ephedra. 

The very curious genus Welwitschia may be found in botanical 


k. Anthers 2-celled tropical or subtropical trees 

and shrubs 

a. Scales of pistillate aments few, adnate to 
peduncle and with it usually fleshy Iva. 
linear to ovate, rarely scale-like 1. Podocarpua. 

BB Scales of pistillate aments short, broad and 
somewhat fleshy, imbricate Ivs minute 
and scale-like branchlets flattened and 
If -like 2 Phylloc- 

.. Anthers 3 -8-celled Ivs linear hardy or nearly [ladua. 

hardy trees and shrubs 

B Pistillate fls consisting of several decussate 
2-ovulod carpicles TVS with 2 glaucous 
lines below broader than the 3 green 
lines 3. Cephalo- 

BB Pistillate fls reduced to 1 ovule [toxua. 

c. Carpicles at maturity inclosing the seed 
and adnate to it anthers 4-celled, cells 
free Ivs with 2 glaucous lines below 
narrower than the green lines 4. Torreya. 

CC. Carpicles at maturity partly inclosing the 
seed, not adnate to it anthers b-8- 
cellod, cells connate Ivs pale green 
below . . .5. Taxua. 


A. LVB. spirally arranged 
B. Carpicles simple, ovule 1, reversed, 

cone-scales with 1 seed 1. ARAUCABIA TRIBE. 

BB. Carpicles divided into scale and 

bract, sometimes connate 
C. Ovules 2, reversed , scale and bract 
always distinct, cone-stales with 
2 usually winged seeds 2 ABIES TRIBE 

CC Ovules 2-8, axillary and upright or 
on the scale and at least finally 
reversed, cone-scales with 2-8 
seeds 3. T OCODIUM TRIBE. 


A. Lvs opposite or whorled, often 
like ovules upright 



1. Araucana Tribe. 

A. Seeds free from the scale, with 1 or 2 wings- 
Ivs broad, generally elliptic, more or less 
distichous and rather remote 1 Agath\a. 

AA. Seeds adnate to the winged or wingless scale 
Ivs large, scale-like or needle-shaped, 
spirally arranged, crowded . 2. Araucana 

2. Abies Tribe. 

A. Fohage deciduous, partly fascicled 
B Male fls solitary in a leafless scaly bud, con- 
nective not produced beyond anther-cells 
nor scarcely prominent cones reflexed, 
scales persistent 3. Lanx, 

BB. Male fls clustered, pendulous cone-scales 

deciduous . 4. Pseudolanx. 

AA. Foliage evergreen 

B. Connective of anthers usually produced into 

a scale-like appendage 

c. Male fls subspicate at base of new shoots: 
cone-scales persistent Ivs in clusters of 
2-5, rarely solitary . 5. Ptnus. 

cc. Male fls solitary in the cluster of Ivs. 
which terminate short branchlets cone- 
scales finally deciduous. Ivs partly fas- 
cicled as in the larch 6. Cedrua. 
CCC. Male fls solitary in the axils cones 
reflexed, scales persistent Ivs solitary, 
4-angled or flattened and glaucous 
above, green on the back 7. Picea. 
BB. Connective of anthers simply umbonate 
beyond the cells or hardly prominent, 
male fls solitary in axils Ivs solitary, 
usually flattened, glaucous or paler below 
c. Cones reflexed, scales persistent 

D Subtending bract conspicuous 8 Pseudoteuga. 

DD Subtending bract small 9. Tsuga. 

cc. Cones erect 

D Scales penstent, seeds about as long as 
scales, bracts much shorter than 
scales Ivs flattened, keeled above, 
pale below . . 10. Keteleena. 

DD Scales deciduous, seeds shorter than 
scales, bracts shorter or longer Ivs 
flattened and grooved above, usually 
glaucous below, rsrely 4-angled . . 11. Ab\ea. 

J. Taxodium Tribe. 

A. Lvs connate into paira, arranged in whorls: 
ovule-bearing blade finally much increased 
and hardened, making the greater part of the 

woody cone . . 12. Sciadopitys. 

AA. Lvs solitary, scattered 
B Scales of cone flat 

C. Carpicles entire at apex anther-cells 2-4: 
seeds surrounded by a narrow wing Ivs 
lanceolate flat, rather large, glaucous 
below 13 Cunning- 

cc Carpiclos toothed at the apex -anther-cells [hamta. 

4-5 seeds 2-3-angled Ivs. awl-shaped, 
curved . , 14 Cryptomena. 

BB Scales peltate 

c Seeds usually F>, narrowly winged Ivs 

scale-like or linear, persistent 15 Sequoia. 

cc Seeds 2, angular Ivs linear, deciduous 

with the branchlets . . 16. Taxodium. 

4. Cupressus Tribe. 
A Fr a cone 

B Cone-scales all fertile, 4-8, forming appar- 
ently 1 whorl Ivs usually scale-like, 
opposite or in whorls of 3 or 4, rarely 
alternate on sterile branches 17. Callitnt. 

BB Cone-scales fertile at middle of cone and 

sterile at top and base 18 Fitzroya. 

BBS Cone-scales partly fertile, partly empty, 
arranged in opposite pairs Ivs scale-like, 
opposite only on juv enile branches, some- 
times needle-shaped 
c Scales of cone imbricate. 

D Seeds 4-5, pairs of scales 3-4 (exclud- 
ing the upper connate pair) 19 Thujopsia 
DD Seeds 2 

E Pairs of scales 4, the upper pair fertile 20 Libocedrua 
l E Pairs of scales b-8, the 2 upper pairs 

fertile 21 Thuja 

CC Scales of c one peltate 

D Number of seeds 2, cones small 

h Wings of seeds very large, unequal 22 Fokiema 

EK V\ ings of seeds narrow, equal 23 Chamarcup- 

DD Number of seeds many, cones usually [aria. 

rather large and woody 24 Cupressus 

AA. Fr fleshy, indehiscent berry or drupe, with 
2-P> fertile stales Ivs stale-like, opposite 
or needle-shaped and usually in 3's . 26. Jumperus. 

Consult also the genus Athrotaxis, allied to Celphalotaxus and 


A. Lf-segms circmately involute in vernation- 
female cones proliferous after anthesis, 
scales elongate, the margins bearing 2 to 
many ovules 1. Cycaa. 

AA. Lf -segms straight in vernation female cones 

deciduous after anthesis, scales peltate 
B Cone-scales superposed in vertical series 
c Shield of the scales transversely 2-horned 

at apex 2 Ceratozamia, 

cc. Shield of the scales truncate, not horned 

at apex 3 Zamia 

BB. Cone-scales overlapping in alternating 


c The If -segms ribbed and nerved, nerves 
spreading on either side of midrib, very 
numerous, simple or f 01 ked 4 Stange>.a. 

cc. The If -segms with parallel, longitudinal 


D. Shield of cone-scales flat, erect, ovate- 
cordate 5 Dioon. 
DD. Shield thickened, ascending, usually 
prolonged into an erect, acuminate 
blade 6 Macrozamva. 
DDD. Shield thickened truncate, docurved at 

apex .... . 7. Encephal- 

The genera Bowenia and Microcycas are also included. 


A. St elongated, submerged, everywhere leafy. 
Ivs short spat lies small, sessile m axils 
placenta} little prominent in ovary 1. Ehdea. 

AA. St very short, sometimes emitting creeping 
or floating stolons Ivs crowded, immersed, 
sessile, elongated spathes pedunculate 
placenta hardly prominent . . 2 



AXi. St. very short: Ivs. crowded, some sessile and 
submerged, others (except in 8 1 ratio tea) 
long-stalked, with a floating blade, spathes 
peduncled placentae of 2 lamelhe, strongly 
intruded, dividing the ovary more or leas 
perfectly into 6 cells 

B. Styles 3, stamens 3-9 3. Limndbium. 

BB. Styles 0, 2-fid. 

c. Stamens with 6 2-fid filaments, of which 

3 have 2 anthers and 3 have 1 anther. . 4 Hydrochant. 
OO. Stamens 11-15 . 5 Straliotet. 

7. Summary of Tribes. 

A. Fertile stamens 2, with a broad shield- 
shaped sterile one (staminodium) 1. CYPHIPEDITJM 
AA. Fertile stamen 1, with no staminodium [TRIBE. 

B. Anther persistent , polhma with basal 

c. The anther erect 

D Stigma flat, unappendagcd . 2 SERAPIAS TRIBE 
DD Stigma with appendages 3 HABENARIA TRIBB. 

cc The anthers placed obliquely 4 SATTHIUM TBIBB. 

BB. Anther usually readily deciduous, 
polhma not appendagcd or with 
terminal ones 
C. Infl terminal 

D. Lf -buds convolute 

E. Lf -blade not jointed to stalk 

F The anther commonly 

much exceeding the beak 

of the column which is 

not distinctly cut 

o. Lip without hypochil, 

usually spurless 
H. St short, with only 

1 or 2 Ivs 5 POOONIA TRIBE. 

HH. St long, with many 


oo Lip with distinct hypo- 
chil, which is often 

FF. The [anther commonly [TRIBE. 

about as long as the beak 
of the column which 
usually bears a sharp cut 

lima waxy or pow- 
dery, not divided 
H Lip turned down 8 SPIRANTHES TRIBB. 
HH Lip turned up 9 CRANICHIS TRIBE. 
GO Polhma divided into dis- 
tinct masses 10 PHYSURUS TRIBE. 
BE Lf -blade distinctly jointed to 

the petiole 

F Polunia 8 st slender fls 

usually with spurs or 

chins 11 THUNIA TRIBE. 

FF Polhma 4 st a short pseu- 

dobulb fl without spurs 

or chins 12 COJLOQYNE TRIBE. 

DP. Lf -buds conduphcate 

K. Sepals and petals about 
equally developed, the hp 
usually very conspicuous 
F. Lvs usually not jointed 

column footless 13. LiPARiB TRIBE. 

FF. Lvs usually jointed 
o. Nerves of Ivs 1 

H Polhma 2-4, with very 

short stalks 14 POLYSTACHTA 

HH. Polhma 4-8, with dis- (TRIBB. 

tmct caudicles 

I. Column-foot forming 

a chin with the 

lateral sepals or a 

short sac with the 


ir Column footless . 16 CATTLEYA TRIBB. 
QQ Nerves of Ivs several 17. SOBRALIA TRIBE. 
EE Sepals much more developed 

than the petals and hp 18 PLEUBOTHALUS 

co. Infl lateral, or on separate shoot. [TRIBB. 

. Lf -buds convolute 
E. St. slender or gradually 
F. Polhma with caudiclos but 

without stalks 19. PHAJUS TRIBB. 

FF Polhma without caudicles 

but with stalks 
o Lip jointed to column- 
foot or forming a spur [TRIBB. 

with it 20. CTBTOPODIUM 

*For explanation of orchid flowers and of terms, see the 
article Orchidt 

oo. Lap not jointed, often 

with a distinct hypochil 21. CATASETUM TRIBB. 
KB. St. a short distinct pseudo- 

F. Lip jointed to the column- 

Callus-ridges lengthwise 22 LYCASTE TBIBB. 
GO. Callus-ridges transverse 23 ZYQOPETALUM 

FF. Lip continuous with col- [TRIBB. 

uran-foot . 24. GONQOBA TRIBB. 

DD. Lf.-buds conduphcate 

B. St terminating its growth in 

1 year 

F. Lip movably jointed to foot 

of column 

a. Lvs not strap-shaped: 
polhma unappendaged 
or with either caudicles 
or stipes, but not with 

H. Flowering st arising 
from near the apex 
of the slender st or 
from the pseudobulb 25. DBNDROBIUM 
EH. Flowering st arising [TBIBB. 

under the pseudo- 
bulb or at the base of 
the st 

I. Polhma without ap- 
pendages 26 BULBOPHYLLUM 
n. Polhma with distinct [TaiBi. 


j. Ps< udobulbs usu- 
ally present flow- 
ering st arising 
lower than new 
growth 27. MAXILLABIA 

jj. Paeudobulbs usu- [TRIBB. 

ally wanting 
flowering st 
arising higher 
than new 


OO Lvs strap-shaped pol- 
hma with broad cau- 
dicles and stipes 29. CYMBIDIUM TBIBB. 
FF. Lip immovably united to 

foot of column 

o Fls with spurs 30. loNOPSis TBIBB. 

GO Fls without spurs 

H The fls narrow, not 

open 31< ADA TBIBB. 

HH The fls wide, open 
I Lip enrolled around 

the column 32. TBICHOPILIA 

n Lip not enrolled [TRIBB. 

j The hp united to 
column to the 

middle 33. ASPABIA TRIBB. 

jj The hp united 
only to the base 

of the column 34 ODONTOQLOUSUM 
EB. St increasing in length from [TRIBB. 

year to year 35. AEBIDES TBIBB. 

77. Key to the Tribes. 
1. Cypripedium Tribe. 

A. Fl persistent, withering on the ovary: lf.- 

buds convolute 1 Cvpriped- 

AA. Fl. soon deciduous If -buds conduphcate. [\um 

B. Ovary 3-celled, the placentae central, 

mouth of hp w ith broad mturned margin 2. Phragmoped- 
BB. Ovary 1 -celled, the placentae parietal. [ilum. 

mouth of hp usually with no broad 
inturned margins . . 3. Paphw- 


2. Serapias Tribe. 

A. Lap spurred 

B Sepals free 4 Orchu 

BB Sepals united into an arching hood . 5. Galeorch\t. 
AA Lip spurless 

B Polhma glands in a single sac . 6 Serapias. 

BB Polhma glands separate, in 2 distinct sacs . . 7. Ophrys. 

3. Habenana Tribe. 

A. Lip adnate to column at base, stigma broad . . 8. Cynorch\t. 
AA. Lip free, stigma slender .... .9. Habenana. 

4. Satyrium Tribe 
Dorsal sepal helmet-ehaped 10. Dtta. 



5. Pogonia Tribe. 

A. Fls. on a scape with a terminal whorl of If. -like 

bracts 11. Isotrta. 

AA. Fla on a leafy st 

B. Lip crested 12 Pogonia. 

BB. Lp not crested 13. Tnphora. 

6. Vanilla Tribe. 

Sts. rooting at nodes . ... 14. Vanilla. 

7. Cephalanthera Tribe. 

A. Fls with a chin, lip long 
AA. Fls. chinless, lip round 

15 Cephalan- 

16. Epipaciis. 


8. Spiranthes Tribe. 

A. Dorsal sepal forming a hood with the petals 

B Infl 1 -sided, fls without a chin 17 Spiranthee. 

BB. Infl. not 1-sided, fls with a chin 18 Stenorrhyn- 

AA. Sepals and petals spreading 19 Listera. 

9. Cramchis Tribe. 

Lip and petals inserted upon the elongated 

column 20 Ponthieva. 

10. Physurus Tnbe. 

A Lip with a distinct spur 

B Lvs green lip concave above the spur 21 Physurus 

BB. Lvs. usually variegated lip with a long 

fimbriateclaw 22 Ancetto- 


AA. Lip spurless or nearly so 

B. Column straight, fls symmetric 

23 Goodyera 

24 Downia 

c The lip not clawed 
oc The lip clawed 
BB Column twisted, fls not symmetric 

c The column with 2 upright appendages in 

front 25 Macodes 

CC. The column without appendages 26 Hxmaria. 

11. Thunia Tnbe. 

A. Fls without chin 

B Sts without basal pseudobulbs 27 Thunia. 

BB Sts with basal pscudobulbs 28 Bletilla 

AA. Fls with a distinct chin, formed of lateral 

sepals and column-foot 29 Tnchosma. 

12. Coelogyne Tnbe. 

A. Base of hp with sac-hke hollow 

B Column short, winged above, sepals flat 30 Phohdota. 
BB Column slender, sepals sac-like, concave 31 Neogyne 
AA. Base of hp flat 

B Column slender, without horns 

C. Lvs and pseudobulbs perennial 32 Cnelogyne 

CC Lvs and pseudobulbs annual 3 i Plpione 

BB. Column short, with 2 horns 34 Platychnit. 

13. Lipans Tribe. 

A. Lvs green fls without chin. 

B Lip shoe-shaped 35 Calypso 
BB Lip not shoe-shaped 

c Column short , lip turned upward 36 Microstyha. 

cc Column slender, lip turned downward 37 Lipanii 

AA. Lvs wanting fls with chm 38. Corallor- 


14. Polystachya Tribe. 

A. Lip spurred 

B Plant tuberous spur slender 39 Tipulana 

BB Plant not tuberous spur funnel-shaped 40 Qaleandra. 
AA Lip not spurred 
B. The hp 3-lobed 

c. Column short, chin distinct 41 Polystachya. 

cc Column slender, curved, chin indistinct 42 Anaellia. 

BB The hp entire 43 Neoben- 


15. Ponera Tribe. 

A. Lip normal 

B St slender, leafy; no pseudobulbs polhnia 4 44 Isorhilua. 
BB St a pseudobulb polhnia 8 45. Ccelia. 

AA. Lip forming a beaker-like cavity, with the 

column, or the former hollow at base. 
B. Young shoots at the apex of the old 46 Hexisea. 

BB. Young shoots from base of old 

c. Fls in dense spikes , poluma 8 . 47 Arpophyl- 

co. Ffc. in short clusters, polhnia 4 48. Hartwtfia- 

16. Cattleya Tribe. 

A. Anther not toothed, nor in an excavation. 
B Pollmia 4 

c Lip adnato to the column, at least at its 


D Ovary produced into a hollow neck . 49 Brovghtoma. 
on Ovary not so produced 50 Epiden- 

cc Lip free [drum. 

D. The hp flat, with 2 elevations on upper 

side 51 Diacnum. 

DD. The hp enrolled about column, with 

no elevations 52 Cattleya 

BB Polhnia 5-7, some of them often abortive 53 Lxlio- 
BBB Pol lima 8 [cattleya. 

c. Stigma pitted upon the front of the 

column, anther inclined 
D. Base of hp gradually merging into 

E Lap distinctly surrounding the 
column, sepals and petals not 
wavy 54 Lalia. 

BE. Lip not as above, sepals and petals 

distinctly wavy 55 Schom- 

DD. Base of lip tightly encompassing col- [burgkia. 

umn, suddenly broadened into the 
broad blade 56 Braasavola. 

CC. Stinma running up on 2 extensions of tho 

column-apex, anther erect 57 Sophronitu 

AA. Anther 2-toothed below, m an excavation in 

the column . . 58. Leptotea. 

17. Sobraha Tribe. 

A. St many-lvd , not bulbous at base lip not 

bearded 59 Sobralia 

AA. St 1- or 2-lvd , bulbous at base hp bearded bO Calopogon 

18. Pleurothalhs Tribe. 

A. Lip turned upward, lateral sepals united 

into a boat-shaped hood . . . 61 Scapho- 

AA. Lip turned down [sepalum. 

B Sepals united 62 Masdevallia 

BB Sepals free, or the lateral on./ united 

c Dorsal sepal and petals attenuated into a 

club-shaped apex . 63 Rcvtrepia 

CC Dort>al sepal and petals not as above . 64 Pleurothallit 

19. Phajus Tribe. 

A Lvs not articulated to petiole 

B Lip free, encompassing the column 65 Phajua 

BB Lip adnate to column, the blade spreading 66 Calanthe 
AA Lvs articulated to petiole 
B Sepals and petals spreading 

c Lip with its base tightly inclosing the 

column, the blade spreading 67 Limatodea. 

D Fls with distinct chin 68 Chyaia. 

DD Ms without chin 
E Polhnia S 

F Middle lobe of hp not clawed 69 Bletia 

FF Middln lobe of hp clawed 70 Spatho- 


EE Pollima4 71 A plectrum 

BB Sepals and petals erect 72 Acnntho- 


20. Cyrtopodium Tribe. 

A Fls spurred or with sac-like base 

B Sepals narrower and less colored than petals. 73 Lnsochilus. 
BB Sepals and petals alike or nearly so .. 74 Eulophia 
AA. Fls not spurred nor saccate 

B Lip only inserted on column-foot . . 75 Cyrtopodium. 
BB Lip and lateral sepals inserted on column- 

c Chin distinct, rectangular . 76 Warrea 

cc. Chin indistinct, round . . 77 Eulophiella. 

21. Catasetum Tribe. 

A Fls perfect, column twnted 78. Mormodet. 

AA Fls of 2 or 3 forms, column not twisted 

B Column stout, straight, fa with antenna 79 Catasetum. 
BB Column slender, curved, fls without 

antenna ... 80. Cycnochea. 

22. Lycaste Tribe. 

.. Polhnia upon a single stalk 
Fls globose 

Is with spreading sepals and petals 
Stalk of polhnia long and narrow; fls. 

1 to few 

D. Infl of a single erect fl ; hp turned 
down t 

81. Anguloa. 



DD. Infl. of 2 to few drooping fl*,; lip 

turned upwards 83. Paphinia. 

cc. Stalk of polhma short; fls. many 84. Bateman- 

AA. Poluma upon 2 separate stalks 86. B\frenana. 

23. Zygopetalum Tribe. 

A. Lip clawed distinctly 86. Colax. 

AA Lip not distinctly clawed [lum. 

B. The hp with horseshoe-shaped callus 87. Zygopeta- 

BB. The hp with few longitudinal lamella 88. Enopa\t. 

24. Gongora Tribe. 
A. Lip turned downwards 
B Fls with sepals and petals erect or incurved, 
c. Hypochil separated from column by a 

strong stricture, no pleuridia 89. Lacsena. 

cc. Hypoohil united with column by a broad 

base pleuridia present 
D Epichil movably attached to hypochil, 

polhma with short stalk at most 90 Per\ter\a. 

DD Epichil immovably attached to hypo- 
chil, polhma with elongated stalk 91 Acineta. 
BB Fls with sepals and petals spreading or 


c. Lateral sepals much larger than the dor- 
sal sepal and petals . 92 Coryanthes. 
cc. Sepals and petals nearly alike 
D Hypochil concave, epiohil flat. 

E Polhma 2 93 Slanhopea. 

BE. Polhma 4 94 Ayamsm. 

DD Hypochil not concave 95 HouUetia. 

AA Lip turned upwards . 96 Gongora. 

25. Dendrobium Tribe. 

A. Sts many-jointed, rmzomo short 
B Lip without callus, or with lamellate or 

elevated lines 97 Dendro- 

BB Lip with basal callus joints of st long-fila- [bium. 

mentose 98 Inobulbon 

AA. Sts 1- or rarely 2-jomted, rhizome long- 
creeping 99. Sarcopod- 


26. Bulbophyllum Tnbe. 

A. Lateral sepals with their outer margins adher- (lum. 

ing, except at the free base 100 Cirrhopeta- 

AA Lateral sepals free 101 Bulbophyl- 

27. Maxillaria Tribe. 

A. Lip without claw, mov able Ivs normal 102 MaxiUana. 

AA Lip clawed, or adnate to column-base Ivs 

whip-shaped 103. Scuticana. 

28. Huntleya Tnbe. 

104 Promensea. 

105. Chondror- 


106. HurUleya. 

107 Bottea. 

A. Pseudobulbs distinct 
AA. Pseudobulbs wanting or rudimentary 

a Lip entire 
BB Lip lobed 

c Callus of hp fringed 
cc Callus not fringed 

D Column boat-shaped, concave 
DD Column slender, not concave 

E Claw very short callus free in front 

and resting upon the hp 108. Waracewic- 

EE Claw distinct callus not free in front 109. Peacatorea. 

29. Cymbidium Tribe. 

A Lvs many sts elongated . . . 110 Grammat- 

AA Lvs few sts short [ophyUum. 
B Sts concealed by the If -sheaths 

c Polhma pear-shaped, upon a quadrate 

stalk st not bulbous 111. Cyperor- 

cc Polhma round, upon a stalk much broader [cAw. 

' 112 Cymbid- 

, _. 

than high st bulbous 

BB. Sts naked IVB. only at its aper 113 Gram- 

30. lonopsis Tnbe. 

A. Sepals free 114 Trichocen- 

AA. Sepals, the lateral ones, united, at least below. [trum. 

B The hp spurred 115. Rodn- 

BB. The sepals spurred. [guena. 

c. Spur short 116 lonopna 

cc. Spur long and slender 117. Comparet- 


31. Ada Tribe. 
A. Lvs. flat 

B. Sepals free 118. Ado. 

BB. Lateral sepals united 119. Mesot- 

AA. Lvs. cylindnc 120. 

32. TrichopilU Tribe. 
Lip rolled around the column .............. 121. 

33. Aspasia Tribe. 

. Middle lobe of lip broad 
. Middle lobe of lip narrow 

122 Atpasw. 
123. Cochltoda. 

34. Odontoglossum Tribe. 

A. Lip surrounding column with 2 longitudinal 

calluses blade reflexed ......... 124. Gomeza. 

AA. Lip not as above 

B Base of lip parallel to column and some- 

times adnate to it . ...... 125. Odontogloa- 

BB. Lip spreading from base of column. [sum. 

c. Lateral sepals united entirely, hp like 

dorsal sepal . 126. Polum- 

cc. Lateral sepals free or only partly united, [6tno. 

hp unlike dorsal sepal 
D. Sepals and petals long and much 
attenuated, hp entire or fiddle- 
shaped 127. Broaava. 

DD. Sepals and petals not much attenuated 

E. The hp entire, flat, broad 128. MiUonut. 

BE The hp mostly 3-lobed, with warts 

or a cushion at base . ... 129. Oncviwm. 

35. Aendes Tribe. 

A Lip movably jointed to column 
B Middle lobe of spurless hp flat 

BB Middle lobe of spurreu lip compressed . . 
AA Lip immovably united with column. 
B Spurless 

c Column without a foot 

D Summit of hp laterally compressed 
DD Summit of lip not compressed 

. . 130. Renan- 

131. Arach- 


132 Vandopna. 

133 Luisia. 

cc. Column with a foot, the lateral sepals 

attached to it . . 134. Phalsenop- 

BB Spurred [w. 

c. Column without a foot 

D. Polhma upon a single stalk. 
E Spur appendagcd 

F With a longitudinal septum 135. SarconiAu*. 

FF With the mouth covered with a 

plate . . 136. Cleiaoa- 

EE Spur not appcndaged [tomo. 

r. Stalk of the polhma filiform. 

o Fls firm, hp turned downwards 137. Soccolo- 


oo Fls fragile, hp turned upwards 138 Acampe. 
FF Stalk of the polhma broadened 

upwards or throughout 

o Spur short and broad . 139 Vanda 

GO Spur long and slender ., 140. Anffrsecum. 
DD. Polhma on 2 separate stalks, or these 

united by the gland 
E Stalks membranous, the polhma 

attached to the face 

F Plants leafy hp entire . . . 141 Macroplec- 

[tj UOT . 

FF Plants without Ivs . hp 3-lobed . 142 Polyrrhiza. 
EE Stalks slender 

F. Column bent toward the dorsal 

sepal . . 143 Listro- 


FF Column straight 144. Myatan- 

cc. Column with a foot, the lateral sepals [dium. 

attached to it 

D. Spur curved upwards against the lip- 
blade . . 145. ASndea. 
DD. Spur straight or reflexed 

i.. Lip 3-lobed . . . 146 Camarotia. 

EE. Lip entire . 147. Rhyn- 


Other orchid genera entered are Acriopsis, Arethusa, Brom- 
headia, Collabium, Coryaanthes, Ciyptophoranthus, Cryptostyhs, 
Diuns, Eria, Enoctnlus, Geodorum, Govema, Holothrix, lone, 
Lepanthes, Lueddemanma, Megachmum, Monomena, Moorea, 
Neolauchea, Neottia, Ner\iha, Neuwiedia, Notyha, Oberoma, 
Ootomena, Ormthidium, Ormthoc ephalus, Ormthochilus, Pamsea, 
Physosiphon, Platylepis, Polycyoms, Pterohtyhs, Sarcochilus, 
Satyrium, Soaphyglottis, Schhmmia, Sievckingia, Sigmatostahx, 
Solemdium, Stauropsis, Stehs. Sterna, Taima, Thecostele, Thely- 
mitra, Tnchoglottis, Trigomdium, Xylobium, and many bi- and 
tn-geuenc hybnds. 


A Fr globose and berry-hke, indehisc 
AA Fr capsular, winged 

1. Tamua. 

B Caps 1-carpelled by abortion . 2. Rajania. 

BB. Caps. 3-carpelled or -lobed, winged above 3 Testudi- 
BBB. Caps. 3-carpelled or -lobed, winged below (narto. 

or all around, or rarely not at all 4. Dwacorea. 




In cultivation. 


. Fls. never more than 1 to a spathe, spicate, 

not fugitive 
B. Stylo-branches simple, not bifid. 

c Stamens equilateral, perianth regular 
D The style short branches long and 

E Rootstock not bulbous, roots in 

dense tufts, fibrous, some fleshy 1 Schizosatyhs. 
EE Rootstock bulbous 2 Hesperantha. 

DD. The stylo longer branches shorter and 

more or less broadened 
E The spathe-vahes oblong, grren or 

brownish upwards 3 Geissorhiza. 

EE The spathe-valves ^carious or hya- 
line, cut or .i-partcd at apex 4 D.erama. 
EEE The outer spathe-v alve short, emar- 

ginate, membranous or papery 5 Ixia 

CC Stamens unilateral and arched 

D Foliage very hairy and p Luted ... 6 Babiana 

DD Foliage not hairy and plaited 
E Perianth-limb in egular 

F Tube funnel-shaped, spathe-valves 

, lanceolate 7 Gladiolus. 

FF. Tube cylindrical in lower half, 
suddenly dilated at the middle, 
spathe-valves oblong-lanceolate 8 Antholyza. 
BE. Perianth-limb subregular 

F Fls small, no tube, segms very 

acuminate 9 Melns- 

FF. Fls larger, tube present, segms [phaerula. 

more or less oblong 
G Spathe valves large, green, 

GO Spathe-valves small, oblong 
H Caps inflated, globose 

10 Acidanthera 

r ... 11 Crncosmia 

HH Caps small, oblong 12 Tntonia 

OGQ Spathe-valves sea no us and 

deeply lacerated 13 Sparaxis 

BB Style-branches bifid, stamens unilateral 
c Tube broadly funnel-shaped, with sta- 
mens inserted below the throat 14 Freema 
CC Tube slender with stamens inserted at the 

throat 15 fapeywusta 

CCC. Tube broadly funnel-shaped above the 

middle where the stamens are inserted 16 Watsonva. 
1A. Fls usually more than 1 to a spathe, stalked, 
often fugitive and opening one after another 
B. Style-branches opposite stamens and outer 

C Stigmas transverse, style-branches have 

crests that overtop anthers 
D Inner penanth-scgms not convolute 
E Ovary 1 -celled, v\ith 3 parietal 

placentte rootstock digitate 17 Hermo- 

EE Ovary 3-celled [daclylua. 

i Perianth-tube usually present, 
filaments free rootstock usu- 
ally a rhi/ome, sometimes a bulb 18 Ins. 
FF Perianth without a tube, filaments 
monadclphous rootstock usu- 
ally a tumcated corm 19 Morsea. 
DD Inner perianth-segrns eonvol.ito 

E Style-crests petaloid Ivs m 2- 
ranked rosette, not plaited pedun- 
cle flattened rootstoc k not bulbous 20 Manca. 
EE Style-crests large, spur-like or flat- 
tened Ivs superposed, plaited 
st terete rootstotk bulbous 21 Cypetta. 

(See also Phalocalhs.) 
CC. Stigmas terminal, style-branches do not 

overtop anthers 

D. Perianth without any tube; inner 
segms small, not convolute, style- 
branches bifid at tip 22 Herbertia. 
DD. Penanth-segms connivent in a cup, 

without any spreading blade 23. Hydrotsmia. 

DDD Penanth-segms comuvent in a cup, 
then spreading, ot least the outer 
E. Style-branches with 2 petal-like 

stigmatose crests 24 Homena. 

EE. Style-branches bifid 

F. Ditto pemcillate, i e , shaped like 
an artist's brush, a dense tuft of 
hairs . 25. Ferrana. 

FF. Ditto not pemcillate 

Q. Inner segms very small, outer 

with a large, refloxnd blade 26. Rigidella. 
GO. Inner and outer segms dissimi- 
lar, various 27. T\gnd\a. 
BB. Style-branches alternate with anthers. 
O. Kootetock not a bulb or corm. 

D. Spathes essentially 1-fld. 

B. Peduncle short, hidden, perianth 
with a long tube and ascending 
segms 28. Crocu*. 

EE Peduncle long, perianth-degms much 

longer than the short tube 29 Romulea. 

DD. Spathes usually with more than 1 fl 30 Nejnastylit. 
CC Rootstock not a bulb or corm spathos 

usually more than 1-fld 
D. Perianth-segms unequal. 

E Inner segms shorter, connivent, 

upper stamen imperfect 31 Diplarrhena. 

BE. Inner segms obovate-cuneate, outer 
oblong, usually shorter, stamens 
all perfect 32 Libertia. 

DD Penanth-aegms subequal 

E. Style-branches flattened and emargi- 

nateatapox mfl a lax corymb 33 Belemcanda. 
EE Style-branches subulate 

F Pedicels short, clusters pamcled 34 Orthosan- 
FK Pedicels long, clusters terminal, [thus. 

single or fascicled 35 Siayrin- 

Other genera described are: Aristea, Cipura, Eleuthenne and 


A. Subterranean axis a bulb scapose' 
infl umbclloid and mvolucrate, or 
solitary 1. AMARYLLIS TRIBE. 

AA. Subterranean axis a rhizome st 

leafy, at least at base 
B Plants with large, thick, fleshy, 
rosettc-hko Ivs infl racemose or 
paniculate 2 AQAVB TRIBE. 

BB Plants with ordinary Ivs of small 

size mfl various 

c Lf -blades inverted, upper face 
downward mfl an mvolucrate 

CC Lf -blades normal, linear mfl not [TRIBE. 


D Plant hairy or glabrous, sca- 
pose infl spicite or race mo-* 4 HYPOXIS TRIBE 
DD Plant glabrous, with leafy sts 
infl loose, racemose or soli- 
tary, anther opening by 
apical pore 5 CONANTHERA_ 

DDD Plant densely woolly with 
leafy sts infl scorpioid. hs 
capitate ... 6 CONOSTYLIS TRIBE 

1. Amaryllis Tribe. 

Subtribe 1 CORONVT*: Fl furnished with a crown between 
the perianth and stamens, which is not to be confused with a 
stammal cup formed by the growing together of filaments 

Subtribe 2 AMARYLLEK GENUINE Corona 0, and filaments 
not united into a stammal cup 

A. Anthers erect, filaments inserted at or near the 

base of anthers 
B Stamens opigynous, filaments short 

C Tho ponanth-segms all alike 2 Leucojum. 

cc. Tho inner segms different, permanently 

BB. Stamens pengynous 

c Fls solitary . 4 Coopena 

cc Fls umbellate 5 Chhdanthui 

AA Anthers dorsifixed, versatile 

B Ovules many, superposed, testa black 

c Fls solitary, spat he tubular in the lower 

D. The fl gaping, horizontal, bright red, 

3 lower segms convolute 6 Sprekeha 

DD The fls regular, erect or suherect 

E Seeds globose fls yellow, peduncle 

short or long 7. Sternbergia. 

EE. Seeds flat peduncle long . 8. Zephyran- 

CC. Fls umbellate, spatho 2-4-valved, and [thet. 

pedicels subtended by filiform bracte- 
D Perianth-tube short or almost 0, rarely 

long in Hippeastrum 

E Peduncle solid seeds few in a cell . . 9. Lycorvt. 
EB. Peduncle hollow 

F. Fl often furnished with minute 
scales or a distinct neck at the 
throat seeds many in a cell . 10. H \ppeas~ 
FT. Fl with a sort of corolla, which is [trwn. 

funnel-shaped, and deeply cut, 
the divisions emargmate 11. Placta. 

DD. Perianth-tube long 

B Tube broadly funnel-shaped, pulvi- 

nate at throat . 12. VaUota. 

BB. Tube 2-3 times longer than segms , 

naked at throat 13. 




BB Ovules 2, basal, collateral, testa pale 14 Gnffinta 

BBB. Ovules 2 or few, collateral or fascicled from 

the center of the placenta. 
c. Fr. baccate 

D Bulb impc-rfpct ovules several . 1 5 f'hvia 

DD Bulb large, tumcated ovules 2 16 Hxmanthus. 

cc Fr capsular 17 Buphane. 

BBBB Ovules few or many, superposed, seeds few, 

turgid, testa green 
c. Fr mdehisoont or bursting irregularly. 

D Perianth-tube long ... 18 CVtnum. 

DD Perianth-tube short. 

B Begins broad 19 Amaryllis 

EE Segrns narrow. . ... 20 Ammoch- 

CC. Fr a 3-valved caps [arts. 

D Caps top-shaped, acutely angled. 21 Brunsvigia. 
DD Caps, globose, obtusely angled .. .22. Nenne 

Subtribe 3 PANCRATIFK Corona 0, but stamens appendaged 
toward base and often united into a distinct cup. 

A. Ovules superposed, many or few. 
B. Lvs broad, pe tioled 
C. Perianth white 
D Ovary globose 

E Filaments with a large tooth on each 

side of the anthers . 23 CaUiph- 


H.E Filaments united ma distinct cup 24 Euchans 
on Ovary 3-lobc-d hybrid 25. Urceoch- 

CC Perianth e olored [ana. 

D The perianth-tube cylindrical, sud- 
denly dilated 20 Urceohna 
DD The perianth subeylmdrieal, Begins 

long or short 27. Pfudrnn- 

BB 'c^enanrh coiored* I Ju"bcyhndncal, tube 
long filaments united in an i ntire or 
toothed cup 28 Stenomesson 

cc Perianth white, tube f uuuel-shapcel . 

staminal cup large 29 Pancratium. 

AA Ovules collateral, basal, 2-6 30 Hymtno- 

AAA Ovules medial, 2-3 [mllia. 

B Perianth funnr-1-shaped, scgms narrow 31 Vooana 


A. Perianth-tube more or lens extended beyond 


Penanthfunnr-l-shaped, scgms narrow 3. 
Perianth with a sunder tube and broad 
stgms 32 Eurychs 

the ovary 
AA. Perianth-tube pra 

2. Agave Tnbe. 

A Lvs thick, fleshy, UMially spiny at edge and 


B Perianth funnel-shnpeei, filaments normal 33 Agave 
BB Perianth reitate, filaments swollen on one 

side at base 34 Furcraa 

AA Lvs comparatively thin, not spiny at edge or 

B iSc grns short 

C Fls white, in a lax, simple spike-, tube 

long, rimed, subcylmdrual 33 Poliaiithts 

CC Fls greenish brown in a lax raceme, tube 

abruptly olmed and dilatr d at nueldle 3b Prwhnu- 
ccc Fls red e,r white, laxly K P K ate or rare- [anlhes 

mose, tube curved, sulxv hndrir il 37 Bravoa 

BB Segms long, tube scmelyanv 

c Fl-i gn.n^h led, in a -mipU or pamoled 

raetme,sp K nis oblanc eol-ite 38 Beschor- 

CC Fls bright red, in a cupituluni or thyrsoid \neria. 

panicle, scgms narrow, falcitc 39 Doryanthes. 

3. Alstrcemena Tnbe. 

A Rootatock bulbous penarith-segms subequal 40 Ixiohnon 
AA Rootstock 3 outr perianth-seguis different 

from 3 inner 

B Inner segms unequal st erect. . 41. Alstracmeria. 

BB Inner segrns eeiual ,st with runners or 

stolons 42 Bomarea 

4. Hyporis Tnbe. 

A. Ovary often produced into a long slender beak 
simulating a perianth-tube fr succulent, 
mdehiscent . 43 Curculigo. 

AA. Ovary not beaked: fr. a caps, usually circum- 

sciasile at apex 44. llypoxts. 

5. Conanthera Tnbe. 
Stamens, 3 only, fertile 45. Tecophilsea. 

6. Conostylis Tribe. 

Fls. irregular . 46. Anigozan- 


Also in cultivation: Anoiganthus, Calhpsyohe, Cummmgia, 
Cyanella, Gethyllis. 

.ally n 

1. Barbacenw. 

2. Veoza. 

189. MUSACE^E. 

A. Calyx tubular, later spht-spathaceoua ... 1. Muta. 
AA. Calyx of free sepals (lateral ones sometimes 

adnate to corolla in H< licoma) 
B Fr a caps locuhe ulally 3-\ ah ed. seeds <. 

C Petals 2, lateral connate 2 Strehtzta 

cc Petals separate 3 Ravenala. 

BB. Fr mdehisctnt or separating into berries, 

the cells 1-seeded 4 Hehconia. 


A. Ovary 1-celled, w ith 3 parietal plarentse 1. Globbb. 

AA. Ovary perfectly J~e filed, or at least 3-celled 

much above the nnddlo, plac entte axile 
B. Lateral stammo<]e s ample and petal-like 

C Connective' not appendaged at the base 

D Filament shejrt , bracts 1-fl 
DD Filament long, bracts 1 co-fld 
CC Connective appendagrd at the base 

D Spur 2-fid, lateral stanunodes nar- 

2 Kaempferia 

3 Hedychium 

Spi. __. 

row e el at base 4. Roscoea. 

DD Spurs 2, lateral htammodes connate 

with the petaloid filamf nt 5. Curcuma. 

BB Lateral stanunodes small, tooth-like or 0, 
rarrly longer, narrow and adnate to 

C. Hlarmnt short or very short. 
D. Infl cone-like 

t, Anther-cells divergent at apex, con- 

nective- either short or produced 

beyonel e ells into an entire or 3- 

lobe-el e rt -t 6 Amomum. 

EE Arither-<ells eontiguous, conneetive 

Croelueeel bnyonel the cells into a 
>ng, line- ir appe ndage 7. Zinyiber. 

DD Infl not cono-like 

E Connie live not produced beyond 

K Anther-eif IK Contiguous to apex . 8 Elettaria 
FF Vnther-ce IN r jmrate 9. Renealm*a. 

EE Connective produr.el boyond cells 
into a long hncoolate, concave 
appendage* 10 Burbidffea. 

cc Filammt elongated (in Costus petal- 

D Infl oonc-hke> 11 Costus 

DD Inn 1 not conr-hke 12 Alpmia 

Mso m cultivation Bamburinta, Brachychilus, Cautlea 


A Ovary l-cell<-d after a fashion, the other cells 

being minute and empt> 
B Bracts narrow, convolute, inclosing the 

rachis 1. Mwanta 

BB Bracts and bractlets usually colored, 

sproaehng, long pcrsiste nt 2 Stromantht 

BBB Bracts spreading, deciduous 3 Thalia 

AA Ovary usually 3-ccllrd and 3-ovuled. 

B Corolla-tube usually short 4. Phrynium 

BB Corolla-tube usually slender and longer. 5. Calathea- 

Ctenanthe is also briefly treated 


Sole genus 


(Following Mez in DC Monog Phaner. vol. 9.) 

A. Fr a berry, mdehiscent ovary inferior seeds 

not winged nor plumed 

B. Pollen-grains entire, not provided with 
pores or a longitudinal membranous fold. 
C Calyx without a tube or cup . . 1. Bromcha 

cc Calyx with a tube or cup . . 2 Cryptanthu 

BB Pollen-grams furnished with pores. 

c. Infl. immersed in a central bowl of IVB. 
and surrounded by an involucre 
formed from the reduced inmost Ivs. 
and usually colored 



D. Petals -without bgules, connate, at 
least toward base 

a. The infl simple 3. Areaelta. 

KB The infl compound . 4 JVtau&mum. 

DD Petals with hgulcs, free . . 5. Camttrum. 

cc Infl not surrounded by a distinct involu- 
cre st or scape tall 
D. Petals furnished with 2 ligules inside 
E Berries connate among themselves 

and also to the bracts and axis 6. Ananat. 

BE Berries free 

F. Sepals with long awns, or, if 

long tail 

is, the ovules with very 

ula ' 

(See also Echinostachys.) 

7 JEchmea 

FF Sepals without awns or only 

obscurely awned ovules obtuse 8 Quesnelia. 
DD. Petals not provided with ligules inside. 
a Fls very flat and crowded into dense 

cones 9 Hohenbergia. 

KB Fls more or less loosely spicato on 

the branches of the mfl 10 Streptocalyx. 

BBB Pollen-grain? furnished with a longitudinal 

membranous groove 11. Billbergia. 

AA. Fr a dehiscent caps ovary superior or nearly 

B Seeds winged, or appendaged pollen 


c Ovary semi-superior . 12 Pitcairma, 

CC Ovary superior 

D Fls of 2 forms and dioecious . 13 Hechtia. 

DD Fls all the same form 

E Petals free to the very base 14 Puya 

EE Petals coalesced toward the base 15 Dyckia. 
BB Seed with a long, plumose appendage ovary 

c Petals free 

D The petals hgulate inside 16 Vnesta 

DD The petals not hgulate inside 17 T\llandsia 

CC Petals connate or intimately conglutmate 18 Gurmania. 

(See also Massangea.) 
Catopsis and Neoglaziovia are also in cultivation 

194. LILIACE-ffi. 
/. Summary of Tribes. 

Ignoring many exceptions. 

Series 1 Anthers introrsely dehiscent fr usually berry-like: 
plant not bulbous, usually scaly at the base of the st and leafy 
above, sometimes with a scaly scape 
A. Stigma not broadly peltate 
B. Ovules orthotropous or hemianatro- 
pous "foliage" abnormal, in the 
Smilax Tribe 3-5-nerved but with 
netted vemlets, m the Asparagus 
Tribe If -shaped or needle-like 
"phylloclades are present 
c. Anthers abnormal, the inner valvo 
of each cell being so narrow that 
the open anther seems to bo 
1-celled st. sarmentose or scand- 

CC Anthers normally 2-celled, or cells 
confluent at apex st branched 

or scandent 2 ASPARAGUS TRIBE. 

BB. Ovules anatropotis, rarely htmiana- 

tropous in the Luzuriaga Tribe 
c. St shrubby and branched, or 

scandent 3 LUZURIAQA TKIBE. 

cc St herbaceous, unbranched or 

sparingly branched, leafy above 4 SOLOMON'S SEAL 
ccc Stemless herbs with Ivs clustered [TRIBE, 

on the rhizome and often 
mclospd (together with the 
lateral leafless scape) by sheath- 
ing scales at the base 5 LILY-OF-THE- 
AA. Stigma usually very broadly peltate (VALLEY TRIBE. ' 
Ivs on the rhizome few, ample scape 
very short and 1-fld or bearing a dense 
spike at apex 6. ASPIDISTRA TRTBE. 
Series 2 Anthers introrsely dehiscent fr locuhcidally dehis- 
cent, rarely indchiscent or berry-like Ivs on a rhizome, or densely 
crowded at the apex of a caudex, or forming a bulb at the base 
of the scape 

A. Anthers with a pit on the back into 

which the filament intrudes 
B. Lvs linear or membranous, crowded 
on a short rhizome perianth cylin- 
drical, funnel-shapod, or bell- 
ahaped 7. LEMON-LILT OR 

BB. Lvs usually thick, fleshy or rigid, [HsuEBOCALLia 

sometimes spiny rhizome hard, [TRIBE, 

often extended above ground into 
a woody caudex penanth-eegms. 
connivent or connate into a tube or 
sometimes with spreading tips . . 8. ALOB TRIBB. 

AA. Anthers not pitted (sometimes slightly 
pitted in the Asphodel Tribe) Ivs. 
not thick, and fleshy as in a century 

B. Kootstock, if any, rlnzomatous, rhi- 
Bomo usually short, often very 
short in Asphodel Tiibo, some- 
times produced into a woody cau- 
dex in Draoama Tribe (see also BB) 
C Seeds fleshy perianth marrescent. 9. OPHIOPOOON 
cc Seeds not fleshy [TRIBE. 

D Perianth tubular-bellshapod, 
connate, persistent , mfl race- 
mose . . . . 10. ALBTRIB TRIBE. 
DD Perianth shaped like a bell or 
cylinder, raroly a funnel, the 
segms usually distinct, decid- 
uous, mfl often pamcled . It DRACAENA TRIBE. 
ODD. Perianth-sogma usually dis- 
tinct and spreading, decidu- 
ous, mfl sparingly branched, 
if at all 12 ASPHODEL TRIBE. 
BB. Rootstock bulbous as a rule in the 
Onion Tribe sometimes a rorm and 
rarely a very short rhizome, bulb 
usually tuuicat-d, but in the Tuhp 
Tribe often scaly 

C. Stemless plants with the mfl ter- 
minal on a leafy scape 
D Infl an umbel with an involucre 

of at least 2 bracts 13 ONION TRIBE. 

DD Infl a raceme, or rarely a 

spike 14. SQUILL TRIBE. 

CC. St leafy, or at least with 1 If fls 

few or in a lax raceme . . 15. TULIP TRIBE. 

Serte* 3 Anthers usually introrsely affixed but extrorsely 
dehiscent (the whole Colchirum Tnoe exceptional) fr usually a 
septicidal caps , rarely locuhcidal or in the Medeoli Tribe an 
indehiscent berry Plants fibrous-rooted, rarely cormous or 

A. Fr. a berry plant not bulbous Ivs few, 

subradical or whorlrd on the st 16 MKDKOLA OR 

AA. Fr a caps rarely, in the Bellwort [CvcUMBER-Roor 
Tnbc, a borry [TRIBE. 

B. Anthers introrsely dehiscent The 
only tribe in Series 3 with a oorrn- 
ous rootstock 17 COLCHICUM OR 

BB Anthers extrorsely dehiscent, rarely [AUTUMN CROCUS 
otherwise in the Narthecium Tribe [TRIBE. 

plants not bulbous except some- 
times in False Hellebore Tribe 
C. St -Ivs smaller than the radical Ivs 
which are either crowded or 
petiolate), sometimes very small 
or caps nepticidal or loculi- 
cidal 18 NARTHECIUM 

CC St l^afy, herbaceous or high climb- [TRIBE. 

ing Ivs alternate, sessile or 
clasping, without shrath 19 BELLWORT OR 

ccc St usually tall, leafy or hardly so [UVULARIA TRIBE 
beyond the radical Ivs plants 
not bulbous or bulbous anthers 
with confluent cells, roundish- 
peltate after dehiscence 20 FALSE HELLEBORE 

II. Key to the Tribes. 
1. Smilax Tribe. 

A. Perianth 6-parted 1 SrmUix. 

AA. Perianth undivided, mouth minutely toothed . 2 Hetero- 


2. Asparagus Tribe. 

A. Filaments connate into a little urn, with the 

anthers sessile at the mouth of the urn 
B Anthers 3, fls clustered on the middle of the 

face of the phylloclade 3 Ruscua. 

BB Anthers 6, fls clustered on the margins, or 

rarely at the middle of the phylloclado 4 Semele, 
BBB Anthers 6, fls terminal in short racemes. 5 Danot. 
AA. Filaments free . . 6 Asparagus. 

3. Luzuriaga Tribe. 

A. Fls large or rather large, solitary or few, pen- 
anth-segms erect, ovary 1-cclled with 3 
parietal placente 
B. Lvs 3-5-nerved penanth-segms of about 

equal length 7 Lapagena. 

BB. Lvs. 1-nerved outer penanth-segms much 

smaller than inner 8 PhiUna. 

AA. Fls small; penanth-segms. spreading, ovary 

3-oelled: IVB. with alender nerves 

a. The fls. clustered in the axils Eustrep\ut. 

BB. The fls. mostly terminating the branches. ... 10 Qtttono- 



4. Solomon's Seal Tribe. 

A. Flfl 1-2 in the axils, rarely more, usually nod- 
B. Perianth-tube cylindrical, lobes short, htyle 

undivided, with a small stigma 11 Polygona- 

BB Perianth-tube 0, segms 


ninth-tube 0, segms spreading above 
from the buho, style shortly or more 
deeply 3-fid 12 Slreptopua 

AA. Fls in a terminal raceme or panicle 

B Floral parts in 3'n 13 Smilacmn 

B*. Floral parts in 2's 14 Mainthe- 


5. Lily-of-the-Valley Tribe. 

A. Fls racemose, nodding, perianth suhglobosc, 

lobes shorter than tube 15 Convallarvi 

AA. Fls spie ate, far apart , pe nanth-tubc cylindri- 
cal, lobes rocurve'd-Hprcaehng 16 Reineckva. 

6. Aspidistra Tribe. 

A. Fls 4-merous, htigma very large, roundish- 
peltate, undividt <I 17 Aspidistra. 
AA. Fls 3-inerous, stigma broaellypt Hate, 3-lobed 18 Rohdea 

7. Lemon-Lily, or Hemerocalhs Tribe. 

A. Fls erect , stamens affixed at apex of tube Ivs 

long and narrow 

B Perianth funnel-shaped, the cylindrical 
tube shorter than the lobes, panicles 
fow-flel 19 HemerocaUu. 

BB Perianth with hubme urved segmn lexwely 
comment above the top-shaped tube, 
panicles much branched 20 P/wrmtum. 

AA Fls pendulous 

B Stame ns affixed at mieldle of tube Ivs long 
and n irrow 1 pe riant h-tubo swollen above , 
lobes 21 Blandfordia. 

BB SUme ns ofte n hypogynous 

C Lvs petiole d, usually broad fls race- 
mose, perianth funnel-shaped, tube 
hhort or long 22 Funkia 

CC Lvs le>ng ami n irrow fls spu-ite, peri- 
anth a long narrow tube with short 
lobes 23 Kniphufia 

8. Aloe Tribe. 

A Pt riant h-segrns strongly cemn it e into a tube 
w Inch is sw olle n tt t he b i-i , st gms free at 
ape x, st une ns me hide d in tube 21 Gatteria 

AA Ppri'inth-sogms cohc ie nt e>r connive nt to the 
very a]>i \ in -i tube , or b irrly spie tdmg at 
the v oiy ' -uue ns usu illy e x-,. rte el 2 r > \loe 
AAA Prnanth-vRins , ,,h< re nt or e onnn e nt, stt 1- 
latt -spreielmg at iprx, staine. us a httlc 
shorter than pi ninth 2l> Apicra 

AAAA Perianth usu illy inrurvod, the segms 
cohering or ee>mn\ e>nt . U t ho -ipe x n e nrv e d 
anel spreading somewhat is if 2-lippe'd, 
statue ns not oxcee ding pe n nth 27 Haworthia 

AAAAA Perianth of \loe , but stamens a littlo 

shorter than thope riantli 2S Lomatophyl- 


9. Ophiopogon Tribe. 

A Perianth-tube long and slender, filaments 

normal 20 Sanitiiena 

AA Perianth more- or less e ro< t or spn admgabov e 
the ovary, filaments shorter than the linear 
anthers, stylo longish 30 Ophiopogon. 

AAA Perianth spreading from how of ovary, fila- 
ments about as lemg as the oblong anthors 31 Linope 

10. Aletns Tribe. 

One genus cultivated 32 Aletns 

11. Dracaena Tribe. 

A. Ovary 1 -celled, cells 3-ovuled 33 Datyhnon 

AA Ovary 3-cc-lled 

B Cells 1-ovuled 34 Dracaena. 

BB. Cells 2-ovuled 35 Nohna 

BBB Cells oo-ovuled 

c Fls racemose 36 Heapero- 

CC Fls panic led [cattia. 

D Anthers small, sessile on a club-shaped 
filament, perianth subglobose or 
bell-shaped, segms hardly connate at 
base 37. Yucca. 

CD. Anthers dorsifixod on normal or flat- 
tened filaments, perianth cylindrical 
or narrowly bell-shaped, with a short 
tube .. .38 Cordyltn*. 

45 CMoro- 


46 Hastinona. 

12. Asphodel Tribe. 
Summary of Subtnbes. 

A Anthers dorsifixed, versatile 

B Subtribe 1 EUAHI-HOUM E v Plant not 
bulbous Ivs crow dee! at base of st.; 
caulme Ivs. smaller, when present 
BB Subtribe 2 LOM\M>KE,E Plant not bulb- 
ous Ivs grass-like fls m spikes 
BBB Subtnbr 3 Plant bulbous: 

IVH few 

AA Anthors erect, affixed at or ne>ar the base. 
B Subtribe 4 BejwiHt. Lvs few, from a 
thick tuber or fleshy bulb, tjuickly van- 
ishing before or at anthesis 

BB Lvs numerous, crowded at base of st or 
some times in Subtribe 5 arranged along 
c Subtribe 5 ANTHEHICF-E Lv? not *J- 

cc. Subtribe DIA \KLLE*; Lvs 2-ranktxL 

Subtribe 1. Euasphodeleae. 

A. Ovules 2 m a cell 
B. St or HC ape leafless 

C Anthers pitted where the filament IB in- 
serted, fls yellow . 39 Aaphodclu*. 
cc Anthers not pitted 40 BulbineUa. 

(Consult Chrysobactron.i 
BB St more or less leafy fls usually white 41 Asphodtlint. 

B Anthers pittol, filaments glabrous 42 Parad\ea. 

BB Anthers not pitted, filaments long bearded 43 Bulbine 

Subtribe 2 Lomandreae. 

In cultivation 14 Xanthor- 

Subtribe 3 Chlorogalese 

A Penanth-sogms {-nerved 
AA Penan th-segms 1-norved 

Subtnbe 4 Bowieae 

Lvs linear, vanishing before anthesis bulb tuber- 
like 47. Bovnea. 

Subtribe 5 Anthencese 

A. Infl clustered down among the radical Ivs on 

a very short st 48 Leuco- 

AA Infl on a scape, simple or with few branches, [annum. 

B Stamens finally as long as the perianth or 

longer, raceme long, simple and dense 49 Eremurua. 

c Caps w^h hardly prominent angles 50 Anthericum. 

cc Caps 3-corncred or 3-w inged 51 Chlorophy- 


Subtribe 6 Dianelleat. 
Filaments fleshy or tluckened at apex or middle 52 Dvinetta. 

13. Onion Tribe. 

A Roots! ock a short rhizome, with clusters of 

root-fibers 53 Agapanthut. 

AA Rootstock a tumcated bulb or corm 
B Perianth salver-shaped or urn-shaped 
c Stamen-, b, peiianth-tubc cylindrical 
D Tube often crowned at throat with 
3-{> scales, stamens included inside 
the tube in 2 series 54 Tristagma. 

DD Tube const net eel at the mouth by a 
scarcely notice ible ring, stamens 
exserted at mouth of tube, filaments 
voryshe>rt 55 MiUa. 

CC Stamens i, affixed at throat 

D Perianth-tube subglobose, constricted 
at mouth, stamens alternate with a 
like number of stammodes 56. Strophol*- 

DD Perianth-tube broadly cylindrical, (rton. 

shortly (5-saccate at base, stamens 
with a like number of stammodes 
connate into a spunous corona behind 
the anthers 57 Brevoort\a. 

BB Perianth funnel-shaped or bell-shaped , lobes 

as long as the tube or longer 
c Filaments connate into a tube, stamens 6, 

affixed to throat 
D Tube about as long as lobes 58 Andrtt- 


DD Tube much shorter than lobes . . 59. Betsera. 
cc. Filaments free, normal or very short, per- 
fect stamens 6 or 3, affixed to throat or 
D. Pedicels articulated at apex 60. SroduM. 



DD. Pedicels not articulated at apex . 61. Tnteleta. 
BBB. Penanth wheel-shaped or bell-shaped, 
Begms at the base into a ring or 

C. Rootstock a fibrous-tumcated corm. 
D Filaments dilated at base into truncate 

scales surrounding ovary 62 Bloomena. 

DD. Filaments slightly dilated below the 

middle 63 MuvUa. 

CC. Rootatock a tumcated bulb 

D. Alliaceous odor absent, perianth-segms 

connate at base or to the middle 64 Nothoscor- 
DD. Alliaceous odor nearly if not quite [dum. 

always present , perianth-segms dis- 
tinct or barely united at base in a 
ring 65. AUium. 

14. Squill Tribe. 

A. Penanth-segms distinct, or united only at 

the very base 

B Seeds strongly compressed, ovules numer- 

C. The outer segms of the persistent peri- 
anth spreading, the inner a little 
shorter, erect, connivent at apex and 
variously crested 66 Albuca 

CC. The segms of the deciduous perianth sub- 
equal, connivert into a bell, or spread- 
ing 67. Urginea. 
BB. Seeds obovoid or globose, not flattened or 

angled, ovules 2-oo ma cell 
C. Infl a long dense raceme, bearded at the 
apex by empty bracts, which may bo 
herbaceous or colored 68 Eucomis 

cc. Infl not as in c 

D Nerves of penanth-segms 1 69 Sc ilia 

DD Nerves of penanth-segms 3-c 70 Camassia 

ODD Nerves of perianth segms obscure 71 Ormthog- 

IA. Penanth-segms united into a tube or bell. [alum, 

B Ovules oo, usually numerous 

c Seeds strongly compressed or angled 
D The outer lobes spreading, inner ones 

erect and shorter 72 Dipradi 

DD The lobes all spreading and subequal, 

or the inner ones a little wider 7? (.altoma 

cc Seeds obovoid or globose 74 Lachenalia 

BB. Ovules 2-6 in a cell, rarely more, seeds not 

flattened or angled 
C Lobes very short, tooth-like, much shorter 

than tube 

D Perianth cylindrical 7* Veltkeimia 

DD Perianth urn-shaped, constricted at 

throat 76 Muscan 

CC Lohes considerably longer than the bell- 
shaped tube fls few, in a lax raceme 
D. Filaments erect, not connate, all or only 

alternate ones dilated and petal-like 77. Chionodoxa. 
DD Filaments connate into a sort of cup 
which is produced beyond the anthers 
into a cone 78 Puschkima. 

CCC. Lobes shorter than the tube or about as 
long, sometimes a trifle longer, filaments 
normal or dilated at base 79 Hyacinthus 

17. Colchicum, or Autumn-Crocus Tribe. 

A. Perianth-tube entire, styles 3, distinct from 

the base . 89. Colchicum. 

AA. Penanth-segnia with distinct claws, oonnivent 

into a tube 

B Styles 3, distinct from base . 
BB Style entire inside the tube, 3-fid at apex 

90. Merendera. 

91. Bulboco- 


18. Narthecium Tribe. 

A. Caps loruhcidally dehiscent. 

B Style undivided . . 92 Narthecium. 

BB Styles 3 93 Zerophvl- 

AA. Caps septicidally dehiscent or parted. [lum. 

B Fls few at apex of scape, style undivided . 04. Helomopns. 

BB. Fls in a dense raceme, styles 3, very short . 95. flelonias. 

19. Bellwort, or Uvularia Tnbe. 

A Fr an mdehiscent berry 96 Disporum. 

AA Fr a septicidal caps 97 Tricyrtu. 

AAA Fr (when known) a locuhcidal caps. 
B Fls terminal, pendulous. 

c Lvs perfoliate seeds covered by a thin 

white aril 98 Uvularia. 

cc Lvs sessile seeds have a swollen, spongy, 

brown ridge 99 Oakena. 

BB Fls axillary, or long-pedicellcd in the axils 
c Plants are climbers 

D Perianth-segms spreading, usually 

wavy or crisped 100 (,'iorioso. 

DD Penan th-segrns distinct, suberect, more 

or less connivrnt and bell-shaped 101 Littonia. 

CC Plants not climbers periath urn-shaped, 

lobes very short 102 Sander- 


20. False Hellebore or Veratrum Tnbe. 

A. Seeds membranous-winged nearly all the way 

around sts leafy 
B Lvs narrow or long-stalked perianth-segms 

distinctly clawed 103 At elan- 

BB Lvs usually broad, plaited, veiny, con- [thium. 

tracted into a sheath, not distinctly 
stalked perianth-segms a trifle con- * 

tracted at the base 104 Veratrum. 

AA Seeds narrow, angled, hardly winged hs 
radical or crowded at base of at . linear or 
rarely sublanceolatc 
B Stamens much shorter than perianth, per- 

ianth more or less bell-shaped 105 Stenan- 

BB Stamens a little shorter than perianth, per- [thium. 

mnth flattened out 106 Zyoadenut 

Other genera described are Acrospira, Mectorurus, Andro- 
cymbmm, Arthropodium, Astelia, Chama-lirium, DipidaA, 
Drimia, Leucocoryne, Massonm, Oligobotrya, Pehobanthes, 
Thysanotus, Toneldia, Tupistra, and Tulbagluu 

15. Tulip Tribe. 

A. Caps septicidally dehiscent or 3-partcd fls. 
erect or pendulous, outer periunth-segms 
usually narrower or smaller, inner ones 
pitted 80 Calorhortua. 

(Consult also Cyclobothra ) 
AA. Caps locuhcidally dehiscent 

B Anthers dorsihxed, versatile, fls nodding or 

pendulous, rarely erect, claw of segms 

usually furnished with a nectariferous 

groove 81. Lihum. 

BB. Anthers basifixed, erect, filament usually 


C. Fla usually erect, perianth bell-shaped or 
somewhat funnel-shaped, segms often 
spotted near the base, not pitted 82 Tuhpa. 

CC. Fls nodding or pendulou* 

D Penanth bell-shaped, segms usually 
furnished with a pit or nectar-bearing 
spot above the base 83 Fntillana. 

DD. Perianth-segms narrow, recurved or 
reflected from the middle or almost 
from the base . 84. Erylhro- 


16. Medeola, or Cucumber-Root Tribe. 

A. Foliage at base of st , Ivs few, stalked or con- 
tracted into a sheath fls in a long-peduncled 
umbel, rarely solitary 85 Clintoma. 

AA. Foliage whorled at top of st 

B. Lvs 3' fl solitary, 3-merous 86 Tnlhum. 

BB Lvs 4-0 fla solitary^ 4- oo-meroua 87. Pans 

IAA. Foliage whorled at middle of st with 3 smaller 

Ivs. at the top surrounding the umbel . . 88. Mtdeola. 


L Penanth funnel-shaped 

B Ovary by abortion 1-celled, 1-ovulcd 1 Pontedena 

BB Ovary .3-ccl led, muny-ovuled 2 Eirhhornia 

k. Penan tn salver-shaped 3 Ilettranthem. 


A Fr mdehiscent 

B Pericarp hard and brittle 1 

BB Pencarp succulent or fleshy 2 

AA Frs locuhcidally dehiscent 

B Fls with 3 perfect stamens, and 3 or fewer 


c Anther-cells parallel and contiguous 
D Ovary 3-celled, 2 anterior cells 1-2- 
ovuled, posterior l-o\ uled, empty or 
wanting 3 

DD Ovary 2-3-celled, cells usually 2-t. 

ovuled 4 

cc. Anthers, with variously petaloid connec- 
tive cells spirally twisted into numer- 
ous gyres 5. 

BB. Fls with 6 stamens, rarely 5, all perfect, no 


c. Anther-cells dehiscing by a terminal pore 6 
cc Anthers otherwise dehiscent 

D Connective transversely or divaricately 

2-lobed 7. 

DD. Connective not 2-lobed aa in D. 
B. Ovary-cells 2-5-ovuled. 









F. Cymes fascicle-formed, with the 
very short rachis contracted 
into a receptacle, sessile inside 
the base of the complicate floral 
Ivs or variously paniculate 8. Tradea- 

FF. Cyme terminal, pedunculate with [cantia. 

2-3 longish branches secund-fld 
from base .... 9. Tinantia. 
ED. Ovary cells 1-ovuled 10. Rhceo. 


A. Ovary l-celled, or more or less perfectly 3- 

celled, placentee or cells oo-ovulea 1. Juncus 

AA. Ovary 3-celled , cells 2- or few-ovuled 2. Pnonn 


A.Lf->gms infolded m \ernation: 

spadices interfohaceous. 
B. Fls dicecious 

C. LVJ pmnatisect, segras acumi- 
nate spathe solitary, ovary of 3 
distinct carpels, only 1 maturing 
seed deeply grooved ventrally 
umbiheate, embryo dorsal 1 PHCTNIX TRIBE. 

CO Lvs plaited in a fan-shaped fash- 
ion, roundish, semi-orbicular or 
wedge-shaped, split spathes 
numerous, ovary entire or 3- 
lobed, 3-celled, with c rect ov ules 
seeds with a mere dot of a hilum 

raphe ventral 2 CoRyPHA TRIBE 

BB. Fls usually hermaphrodite Ivs 

much like those of Corypha Tribe 

spathes numerous, ovary entire, 

3-lobed, with ascending ovules 

seeds with diffused hilum 3 BORASBUS TRIBE. 

AA, Lf -segms folded back in vernation 
B. Seeds adherent to the endocarp, 
hilum diffused, embryo opposite 

usually monoecious in the same 

rdix, the lower ones in 3's with 
middle one pistillate 4 Cocos TRIBE. 

BB Seed umbiheate 

C. Raphe dorsal, embryo ventral 
spadices terminal or axillary, 
tfa polygamo-monoecious 5 LEPIDOCARYA 

CC. Raphe ventral, embryo dorsal G ARS.CA TRIBE 

1. Phoenix Tribe. 

The only genus ... . 1 Phoenix. 

2. Corypha Tnbe. 

A. Style or stigma basilar in fr : endosperm 

B. The style short , embryo terminal. Palms 

fruit once and die 2 Corypha. 

BB. The style elongated 

c. Embryo dorsal 3. 

cc Embryo sub-basilar 
AA. Style or stigma terminal in fruit. 
B. Perianth of imbricate petals 


C. Fls polygamo-dicBcious , stigmas sessile, 

distinct, embryo dorsal 

D Endosperm ruminate . ... 5 

DD Endosperm equable 6 

CC Fls hermaphrodite, styles long, distinct 
D Filaments free 7 






DD Filaments connate into a tube 
BB. Perianth of valvate petals or corolla-lobes 

(see also BBB) 
c. Fls dioecious, corolla 3-toothed, anthers 

extrorsely dehiscent 9. Rhapis. 

CC. Fls polygamo-monoecious , carpels dis- 
tinct, stigmas distinct, sessile endo- 
sperm equable, ventrally groo\ed, 
embryo dorsal . 10 Trachy- 

OCC. Fla hermaphr<xlite (carpus. 

D. Embryo dorsal . S endosperm equable: 
carpels slightly cohering or in 
Lmstona sometimes dihtmct 
E Spadix-bram lies not sheathed stylo 

single, short, 3-cornered 11. Brahea. 

EX. Spadix rachis sheathed, carpeh 3- 

cornered , style single, thread-like 12. Licvala. 
BEE. Spadix-branches naked or lower ones 
bracted, carpels globose, styles 
short, distinct or cohering 13 Ltmtona. 

DD. Embryo, sub-basilur. rachis of apadix 

i. Endosperm ruminate carpels 3, dis- 
tinct at base, style single, short, 


EE. Endosperm equable 

F. Corolla-tube 

.14. Copernicia. 

Corolla-tube persistent, segms. 
deciduous, o\ary 3-cornered or 
3 lobed, narrowed into a style 15 Pntchardut. 
FF. Corolla otheiwise 

O. Carpels free at base; style sin- 
gle, slender, elongated . 10 Serensea. 
OO. Carpel 1 * slightly cohering, style 

single, short, 3-groovod... . 17 Erythea 

BBB. Perianth minute 6-fid or obsolete 18 Thnnax (and 


3. Borassus Tribe. 
A. Stamens 6 

B. Fls mime rous in the cavities of the spadix... 19. Borassua. 

BB Fls solitary in the cavities 20 Hyphxne. 

AA. Stamens numerous 

B Fls numerous in cavities 21 Lodotcea. 

BB. Fls. solitary in cavities 22. Latanut. 

4. Cocos Tribe. 

A. Palms armed with prickles fr 1-seeded; 

cndocarp 3-porous at or above the middle 
B. Pistillate fla with petals united for a con- 
siderable distance, stammate fls smaller: 
endocarp bony 
c. btaminate fls not imnitrsed in spadix. If - 

segms acuminate 23 Bactm. 

CC StamiiMte fls inuiK rsed in cavities of 

- 24 Astro- 

Ay at [caryum. 

spadix If -segms prcmorsc- 
BB Pistillate fls with petals connate onl 

C Stammate fls in 

inserted If -s* RI 

cc Stammate fls u 

me lucled If - 

^cd, anthers large, 
tuirnnate 25 \crocom\a. 

immers<>d, anthers 
s wedge-shaped, 

preniorsc- 26 Marhneeia. 

IA Palms unarmed 

B Endocirp 3-porous above middle' fr 

l-3-seeled 27. Elan*. 

BB Endocarp bony and, except in Jubsea, 3-6- 

porous to\\ ard base fr l-oo -seeded 

c Spadix himple . 28. Diplothe- 

cc Spadix simply brurichc d [mtum. 

I) Nuinbi r <>f stamtns h fr 1-seeded (in 

Sthcoloi somt times 2-3-^eded) 
E Petals minute, much smaller than 

exerted stamens of stamuidteflb 29 Maxi- 


EE Petals lanr ( olate stamens included 30 Coco* 
EKL Petals shiped like a long club, or 

cylindncil, stamens shorter 31 Scheelea. 

DD Number of stamens 10-24 or more, 
petals of Htammate fis lanceolate, 
stamens included, anther-cell^ con- 

E Fr 2-6-seede<l 32. Attalea. 

EE IT 1-seeded, the endocarp 3-porous 

at the middle or a httk lower 33. Jubaea. 

5. Lepidocarya Tribe. 

A Lva fan-shaped ovary perfectly 3-celle<l 34. Maunt\a. 
AA Lvs equally pmnatisect ovary imperfectly 

3-celled Bpaoices axillary 

B Palms fruit once and die 35 PUctocomia. 

BB Palms fruit more th'in once, usually 

c Spathes solitary, deciduous If -segms 

rhombic, nerv es fan-shap< d 36 Ceratolobut. 

CC Spathes numerous, perMhtent If -scgms 

acuminate, nerves parallel 
D Spadices contracted, spathes cymbi- 
form, beaked, long-persistent, the 2 

the others 37 Dsemono- 

DD Spadices diffused, or, if contracted, the [rop* 

spathes arc flat and persistent only 
during anthesis 

. . .38. Cotomu*. 

6. Areca Tribe. 
Key to Subtnbes; 

A. Petals of the pistillate fls valvate 
throughout nearly their whole length, 
spadices interfohaceous, spathes 2 or 
more, ovary entire, 3-celled 1. CABTOTTDXA 

AA. Petals of the pistillate fls overlapping 
or valvate only at apex, very rarely 
valvate throughout 
B. Spadices infrafohaceous. 

c. Stigmas terminal in fr ; ovary 

entire, l-celled 

D. Stammate fls unsymmetncal; 
sepals usually small and not 
imbricate 2. EUARBCBA, 



DD. Staminate fls symmetrical; . 
sepals usually roundish and 
widely overlapping 3. PTTCHOSPBRUEA. 

CO. Stigmas usually excentnc or lateral 
on ovary, entire or 3-lobed. lf.- 
segms acuminate 

Spathes 2, ovary entire . 4. ONCOSPERME.B. 

DD. Spathes numerous. If -segms. 


X. Ovary entire, younger spa- 
dices horn-shaped 5. IRIARTEBJB. 
XX. Ovary deeply 3-lobed, with 
large stigmas, spadicea 
club-shaped 6. WETTINIBJB. 
BB. Spadices nearly always interfoha- 

O. Stigmas terminal on f r , rarely 


j. Ovary 1-cellcd, spadix simple, 
with monoecious fin immersed 
in cavities 7. LINOSPADICBA 

DD. Ovary 3-celled, imperfectly so in 

Subtribe 8 

E. Fr globose spadix panicu- 
lately branched, the Hs 
dioecious and pedicelled 8 CEROXYLEJB. 
EB. Fr elongated spadix subdigi- 
tately branched, the fls. 
monoecious and not im- 
mersed 9 MALORTIE.*!. 
CC. Stigmas lateral or basal on fr , 

rarely terminal, ovary entire 
D. Fls not immersed in cavities 
B Spathes 2, all the fls or the 
lower ones in 3's, ovary 
1-3-celled 10 IQUANURB.SI. 

EB. Spathes numerous, ovary 3- 
celled, spadices inter- and 
infrafobacous, fls usually 
dioecious, without bracts or 
bractleta, perianth rather 
fleshy or leathery 11 CHAMJCDOREJB. 

DD. Fls immersed in cavities, monoe- 
cious or dioecious, compressed, 
perianth glumaceous; stylo 
often elongated, terminal or 
lateral .... 12 GEONOMBJO. 

Subtribe 1. Caryotideae. 

A. Lvs bipmnatisect endosperm rximmate stam- 

inatefla with 3 sepals and stamens 30 Caryota. 

AA. Lvs pmnatisect endosperm equable 

B. Stamens 6, calyx of stammate fls tubular, 

truncate 40 Walhchia. 

BB. Stamens co 

c. Calyx of stammate fls cup-shaped, 3- 

lobed 41 Didymoi- 

CC. Calyx of stammate fls of 3 sepals 42 Arenga. 

Subtribe 2. Euareceae. 

A. Ovule basal, erect 
B. Endosperm ruminate 

c. Stamens 3 or 6, stammate fls minute, 
numerous, solitary or in pairs, on 
branches of spadix, pistillate fls much 
larger, solitary toward base of bram lies 43 Areca. 
CC. Stamens numerous, fls in 3's, the middle 
one pistillate, arranged in 2, 4 or 6 
ranks 44 Pinanga. 

BB. Endosperm equable stamensG.fls m 3's, the 

middle one pistillate, at ranged in 4 ranks 45 Kentia 
AA. Ovule parietal, more or less pendulous 

B Fls arranged in 4 ranks on branches of 

spadix 46 Hydnastele. 

BB. Fls arranged spirally on branches of spadix 
(All "sepals" mentioned under HB refer to 
sepals of stammate fls except when 
otherwise stated ) 
C. Pistillate fls much larger than stammate, 

sepals papery, connate at base 47 Veitchia. 

CC. Pistillate fls not laiger than stammate 
D Length of sepals far surpassing petals, 

sepals narrow 48 Nenga. 

DD Length of sepals not exceeding petals 
E The sepals overlapping 

V Sepals triangular-orbicular, sta- 
mens numerous , filaments short 49. Kentiopsia. 
TT. Sepals small, keeled, stamens 9-24, 

filaments mflexed at apex 50 Archonto- 

EB. The sepals not overlapping [phanix. 

p. Filaments inflexed at apex 

o. Sepals awl-shaped or lanceolate, 
stamens 6-12, pistillate fls 
with short petals valvate at [atyha. 

apex 51. Rhopolo- 

O. Sepals small, acute, stamens 6; 

pistillate fls with petals a lit- [spermo. 

tie longer than the sepals. . . .02. Dictyo- 

FP. Filaments normal, sepals narrowly 
lanceolate, stamens 912, pis- 
tillate fls with petals like the 
sepals 53 Hedyacepe. 

Subtribe 3. Ptychosperme. 

A. Endosperm ruminate 

B Stamens 20-30 ...... 54 Ptycho- 

BB Stamens 6 . ..... 55 Rhopalo- 

AA. Endosperm equable [blaste. 

B Lf -sogms obliquely premorso stamens 

numerous 56 Drymo- 

BB. Lf -H6gms narrowed at apex, or in Cyrto- [phlceus, 

stachys entire or sometimes obliquely 2- 
C. Stamens 6-1 "5, pericarp slightly fibrous, 

smooth inside 57 Cyrtoslachyt. 

CC. Stamens it, pericarp thick, granular, 

hbrous inside 58 Cypho- 


Subtribe 4 Oncospermeae. 

A. Stammate fls symmetrical, sepals broad and 
much o\erlappmg, stigmas on fr exoentrio 
or lateral, or in Cyphospt rma subtt nmnal 
B. Perianth of pistillate fls enlarged after 


c Pericarp grumose and fibrous 59 Chnoshgma. 

cc Pericarp thin, leathery or bony 60 Cypho- 


BB Perianth not (hanged after anthesis 61 Af icroktntia. 

AA. Stammate fls unsyinmetriiHl, sepals ^mall or 
narrow, not imbruate or only slightly so, 
stigmis lateial on fr or basal 
B. Petals of pistillate fls eonnute at base, val- 

c. Calyx of stamin ite fls u 

nitcdat base 

62 Oreodora 

(Inol Roystonea ) 

CC Calyx with 3 distinct se 


0} icnsta 

BB Petals free 

r Anthers trert 

01 Oncosperma. 

CC Anthers versatile 

o Kr globose palms un 


65 Euterpe 

DD Fr minute palms spi 


06 Acantho- 


Subtribe 5 


Stamens 9-15 stigmas term in 

al or nearly s< 

o in 

fr If -segms turned HI ev ery 


67 IrviTtea.* 

Subtribe 6 Wettmieje 

No representatives known to be cultivated in America. 

Subtribe 7. Lmospadicese. 

A. Anthers basifixed, ereet 

B Stamens 6, 10, or U, pistillate fls have oo 

stanunodes If -seprns prc 
BB Stamen* v<_ry nuin 

no stammodLs If -segm 

AA. Anthers dorsifixtd, versitil 

pistillate fls 0-9 If -segms 

, pistillate fls ha\c 

68 Bacularia. 

69 Howca 


Subtribe 8 Ceroxylese 

Stamens 9-15 fr with basal stigmas 71 Ceroxylon. 

SubtnbeQ. Malortieas. 
Not cultivated in America 

Subtribe 10. Iguanurese 

A. Stigmas excentnc or lateral on f r 72 Heterospathe. 

AA Stigmas basal or nearly so on fr 

B Stamens 15-20, ovary 1-celled palm 


BB Stamens 6, with didymous anthers 
c Ovary 1-celled palm armed 

OC. Ovary 3-celled palm unarmed 

Subtribe 11 Chamaedoreae. 

A. Fls. dioecious or monoecious in different 

spadices, spirally arranged 76. Chamx- 

AA. Fls monoecious in the same spadix [dorea. 

B. The fls arranged in elongated heaps or 


c Infl from among the Ivs . 77 Gaussia. 

cc Infl from below the Ivs . . 78. Hyophorbe. 

BB. The fls. sparse, solitary or in pairs 79. Roscheria, 

73 Stevenioma. 

74 Verachaf- 

75. Dypsit. 



Sobtribe 12. Geoannea. 

A. Base of the ovary included in the disk 
B Anthers arrow-shaped . 80. Calypiro- 

BB Anthers with lone separate pendulous cells 81 Geonoma 
AA Disk many-stemmed palms of India 82 Benhnckw. 

Imperfectly Known Genera of Palms. 

83 Balaka, is a member of the Areca Tribe and probably belongs 
between Ptychoaperma and Drymophloeus, differing from those 
genera as indicated in the article Baluka 

84 Bismarckia is a member of the Borassus Tribe 

85 Chrymlidocarpua is a well-known member of the Areca 
Tribe of doubtful affinity 

8b Exorrhiza is a member of the Areca Tribe, Subtnbe Euare- 

87 Nipa is a member of the Areca Tribe but of uncertain 
affinity Its nearest horticultural relative is Phoenix 

88 PhyttUphas LS a well-known member of the Areca Tribe 
but of doubtful affinity 

89 Psfudophaemx is a member of the Areca Tribe which proba- 
bly belongs in the Subtnbe Chamedorep, near Hyophorbe 

90 Plychuraphis is a member of the Areca Tribe which probably 
comes after Ptychosprma 

91 Ranevea m known only in the juvenile state and is con- 
jectured to he near to Hyophorbe 

The following genera are also treated Acoelorraphe, Cypho- 
kentia, Desmoncus, Eremospatha, Hyospathe, Mauicaria, Met- 
roxylon, Microphoenix, Neonicholsoma, (Enocarpus, Pigafetta, 


s, Kyn 


Floating plants with roots fls inserted on mar- 
ginal cracks of the frond, stamens 1-2, anthers 
2-celled Lemna. 


A Ovules solitary in carpels 
AA Ovules many in the loeules 


A Plants with watery juice 
AA Plants with uulkyjuire 

The only genus 


203. ARACE-fi. 

1 Pandanus 

2 Freyanetia 

1 Carludonca. 

2 Cyclanthus 


A. Penanth (except female fls of Peltandra) 
B Fls montrcious (in Aristema sometimes 


C Spadix appendaged (except in Pistea) 
D The male ana female mfl contiguous 
with no neutral organs between 
ovules anatropous or semi-anatropous 
DD The upper fls males, lower ones 
females ovules orthotropous 

s from the spathe or 

1 Amorpho- 

B. The spadix fi 

adnate at the base 
F. Male fls sparse Ivs and fls appear 


O Tube of spathe with connate 
margins, male fls with 1 sta- 
men, anthers horseshoe- 
shaped 2 Arisarum 
GO. Tube of spathe convolute, fls 
usually dioicious, males with 
2-5 stamens 3 Ansxma 
1. Male fls denso Ivs often appear 

before fls 
Q. Tube of spathe with connate 


H Ovule solitary Ivs entire 4 Biarum 

HH Ovules 2-4 Ivs pedatisect 5 Sauroma- 

OO. Tube of spathe convolute [turn, 

H Ovules oo, parietal, in 2 series 6 Arum. 
HH Ovules few, inserted at base 

and apex of cell 
I. Male and female fls remote, 

appendix of spadix hairy 7 Helicodic- 
II. Male and female fls con- [erot. 

tiguoua 8. Dracunculus. 

BB. The spadix not appendaged, adnate 

to Bpatbe OD back . aquatic plant . 9. Plttoa. 

BBB. The tube of spath* closed at 
mouth by dilation of apadix or else 
divided into 2 cells 

F Tube closed at throat . 10 PiruUia. 

FF Tube 2-celled 11. Arobroatnta. 

CC. Spadix not appeudaged (rarely with a 
naked appendage or endowed with 
neutral organs) , upper fls. males, lower 
ones females 

D. Stamens connate in a prismatic or pel- 
tate body 
B. Plants are climbing shrubs 

F Ovaries distinct, 2- 10-celled .. 12. Philoden- 


rr Ovaries coherent, 1-2-celled 13 Syngon\um, 
BE. Plants are herbs, not climbing 

F. The ovules orthotropous or nearly 

so, micropyle superior 
G. Ovules numerous m 2 senes on 

3-5 parietal placentae 14 Colocana. 

GQ Ovules few, basal 15 Alocasia. 

OGQ. Ovules 1 or few, subpane- 
taf distinguished by ovary 

bryo not albuminous 16 Peltandra, 

FF. The ovules anatropous or serai- 

anatropous, micropyle inferior 
G Ovaries distinct or slightly 

coherent 17 Caladwm. 

GO. Ovaries distmit below, above 
thick, dilated and grown 
together 18 Xanthosoma. 

GGG Ovary 2-5-celled 19 Dieffcn- 

DD. Stamens distinct [bach\a. 

B. Fr not included by tube of spathe 
the whole spathe deciduous, mar- 
F. Ovule affixed to intruded placentae 

Ivs ovate 20 Aglaonema. 

FF Ovule affixed near top of cell 

Ivs broadly arrow-shaped 21 Nephthytit. 

EE. Fr included by acen scent tube of 
spathe blade of spathe marces- 
cent, deciduous 22 Zantedes- 

EEB. Fr included by spat he, blade of [chia. 

which ib persistent 23 Homalo- 

EEEE Fr girt by the top-shaped tube of [mena. 

spathe, which has a circumscisbile, 
deciduous blade 24 Xchiimato- 

BB Fls hermaphrodite [glottM. 

c Plants marsh herbs 25 Calla 

cc Plants are scdndent shrubs 

D Ovules 2 in a cell, affixed to base of 

septum 26 Monstera 

' Ovules solitary, basal 27 ticindapsus. 

ODD Ovules numerous 

28 Khaphid- 


29 Stenosper- 
all her- (nvihnm 

DDDD OvxUes 3 or 4 in a cell 
AA Penanth of 4-8 distinct seguv 

B, Spadix flowering downward, spathe long, 

often twisted, long-persistent 30 Cyrlosperma. 

BB. Spadix flowering upward 

c. Spathe sheathing tho \ ery long poduncuh- 
form stipe of the spadix, with blade in- 
complete or 
D Ovary 1-cclled, ovules solitary, t-emi- 

anatropous U Orontium 

DD. Ovary 2-celled, ovules 1-2 m a cell, 

orthotropous 32 Lysichitum. 

ODD. Ovary 1-2-celled, ovule 1 in each cell, 

suspended 33 Symplo- 

DDDD Ovary imperfectly 1-2-celled, ovule [carpus. 

solitary, affixed to interior angle of 
cell 34 Dracontium. 

cc Spathe provided with scale-like appen- 
dages in tho tube, lonR-pem^tent 
ovules semi-anatropoua or carnpylo- 
tropous 35 Spathyema. 

ccc Spathe leafy, accrescent, persi&tent, quite 

flattened out ovules anatropous 36 Spathiphyl- 

rccc Spathe open, recurved or reflexed, accres- [lum. 

cent, persistent ovules various 37 Anthunum. 

ccccc Spathe accrescent, persistent or obsolete 

ovules anatropous 38 Pothos 

cccccc Spathe obsolete or obscure ovules ortho- 
tropous 39 Acorut 

Additional Key to the Araceae. 

The Araceae are hkely to be so difficult for the gardener that an 
additional key, based on other contrasts, is here inserted for his 

A Plants free-swimming, aquatic Piatia. 

A A Plants not free-swimming aquatics, terres- 
trial or marsh plant* 
B Lvs parallel-veined (see also Call a and 


c Plant shrub-like or climbing* at more or 
less aerial stamens of staminate fl. 



D. Blade of spathe deciduous, spathe 
constricted in middle, leaving a long 
tube when blade falls Schiamato- 

DD. Blade of spathe persistent, at least \glott\t. 

until ripening of spadix. 

E Seeds anatropous Homalomena. 

EE Seeds orthotropous . . . Philodendron. 

CO. Plant with st upright, aerial: stamens 

united into a synandrium 
D. Pistillate fls crowded, without 
stammodia, staminate fls. with only 
2-3 separate stamens Aglaonema. 

DD. Pistillate fls with stammodia inter- 
spersed, stammatc fls with 4-4 
united stamens Dieffenbachin. 

CCC. Plant with st subterranean 

D. Seeds orthotropous or nearly i~o (he 
connate stammodia of the pistillate 
fl forming an involucre around the 
gyntetium Peltandra 

DD Seeas anatropous stanunodia of pis- 
tillate Ms separate Zantedeschta. 
BB. Lvs. netted-vemed (i e veins of 2nd, 3rd, 

and 4th order netted) 
C. Milk-tubes absent 

D llaphidcs absent (raphides are acicu- 
lar crystals found in bundles m the 
E Lvs differentiated into petiole and 

blade seeds anatropous 

F Seeds without endosperm Pathos 

FF Seeds with endosperm Anthunum. 

EE. Lvs without distinction into petiole 

and blade seeds orthotropous Acorus 

DD. Raphides present in ground tissue of 

st and Ivs 

E Fls without perianth, spathe decidu- 
ous before ripening of spadix 
plants mostly climbing 
F. Seeds with endosperm and axial 

Q Foliage-lvs many on each 

shoot Stenosper- 

QQ Foliige-lvs 1 on each shoot in [mation. 

addition to several bracts KapJt idophora, 

FF Seeds without endosperm 

a Ovary 2-cellctl , Monttcra 

OG Ovary 1-cclled Scindapsus 

EE. Fls with perianth, spathe not 

deciduous sub-shrubs SpathiphyUum. 

CC. Milk-tubes present in hbro- vascular 


D. The milk-tubes branched , veins of 2nd 
grade fusing into a collective vein 
between veins of 1st grade 
E. Seeds with endosperm, st. not 


p. Ovary with basal placenta Alocasia 

FF. Ovary with parietal placenta? Coloiasia. 

FFF. Ovary with broad, nearly central 


o Style small Caladium 

GO Style disk-like, projecting 

beyond ovary Xanthosoma 

VE Seeds without endosperm st climb- 
ing Syngonium 
DD. The milk-tubes simple, straight, veins 

not as above 

E. Perianth present, fls bisexual 
F. Lvs not arrow-shaped 

O Ovary 2-celled, 2 ovules in each 
cell, suspended from middle of 
partition Lysichitum. 

OG. Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled 

H Ovule from apex of cell 
spadix short, nearly globu- 
lar Symplocarpua. 
HH Ovule basal: spadix cylindri- 
cal Orontium. 
PF. Lvs arrow-shaped 

G Plants are shrubs with climb- 
ing or creeping sts petioles 
and sts usually pnckly or 
warty . . . Cyrtosperma. 

GQ Plants tuberous Drac&ntium 

EE Perianth absent, fls unisexual (bisex- 
ual in Calla) 

F. Fls bisexual Ivs not arrow-shaped. CaUa. 
FF. Fls unisexual Ivs various. 

a. Spadix with a stenle terminal 
appendage, or with sterile 
wings sta various 

H. Seeds without endosperm Amorphophal- 
HH Seeds with endosperm [lu*. 

I. Appendage of spadix pro- 
jecting much beyond the 
spathe, or included and 

j. Spadix with rudimentary 
fls between the fer- 
tile stammate and fer- 
tile pistillate fls , or 
stammate mfl border- 
ing immediately on the 
pistillate mfl 

K. Placenta parietal Ivs. 
arrow-shaped or 
lanceolate Arum. 

KK. Placentae apical and 
basal Ivs. pedately 

L. Fertile sta in mate 
mfl bordering im- 
mediately on the 
pistillate mfl Dracuncului. 

VL. Fertile stammate 
mfl separated 
from pistillate mfl 
by many rudi- 
mentary fls Hehcodicerot. 
KKK. Placenta basal 

L. Lvs pedately 
divided seeds 2 
or more Sauromatum. 

LL. Lvs ovate, lanceo- 
late or linear 
seeds mostly 1 Biarum. 

33. Spadvx without rudimen- 
tary fls , but a space 
between the stammate 
and pistillate fls , or 

K. Ovary with many 

L. Stammate fls of 1 
stamen IVB ovate 
or arrow -shaped 
spadix bisexual Anaarwn. 
LU Stammate fls of 2-5 
stamens Ivs 3- 
or many-parted 
spadix unisexual Ansxma. 
KK Ovary 1-ovuled stam- 
mate and pistillate 
portions of upadix 
separated by a par- 
tition which reaches 
out from wall of 
spathe Pmettta. 

II. Appendages of the spadix 
wing-like on the 2 sides, 
thus dividing the bila- 
biate spathe into 2 
chambers, the anterior of 
which contains a stam- 
mate fl , the posteiior a 
pistillate fl Ambrosmia. 

GO. Spadix without such appendage 

creeping Aephthytit 

Other genera described are Callopsis, Crypto<oryne, Fpipreni- 
num, Gamogyno, Gymnostachys, btaurostigma, Typhomurn and 

A. Carpels inserted in a whorl on a small recep- 

tacle ... 1. Ahsma. 

AA. Carpels densely crowded in many series on a 

large oblong or globose receptacle . . 2 Sagittarta 


A. Petals marcescent , stamens 9 , carpels 6 . 1 . Butomut. 
AA. Petals deciduous, stamens numerous, car- 

pels 15-20 ........ .2 Limnoch- 



A. Fls. hermaphrodite, spicate; perianth 4- 

divided, stamens 2 or 4 1 Potamogeton. 

AA. Fls. unisexual, axillary , perianth 0, stamens 1 2 Zanmchellw 

The only genus ............................. Aponogeton. 




A. Fls. strictly unisexual, female inclosed in a 
flask-shaped or bag-shaped scale or glume 
(pengynium) 1. Carex. 

AA. Fls bisexual, rarely unisexual, not inclosed as 

B. With several (2 to many) of the lower 

scales empty 
C. Spikelets lew-fid (usually 1-2-, rarely, 

3-0-fld ) . 2 Rhyncho- 

cc. Spikelcts many-fld [upora. 

D St 1* afy 3 Hiipolytrum. 

DD St not leafy or only at base 4 Mapania 

BB With only 1 or 2 of the lower scales empty 
c Sc ales 2-ranked 

D Perianth 5 Cyprruis 

DD Perianth of 8 setae Duhchium. 

CC Sealers many-ranke d, overlapping 
D Pe nanth of 3-8, ran ly 0, -cta> 

E Style persistent, thickened and bulb- 
like at base 7 Eleocharw. 
EK Style not or hardly thickened at base 8 Scirpus 
DD. Perianth of many seta>, very long- 
cxcrcsccnt after anthesis, becoming 
wavy or cottony , ... 9. Eriophorum. 

209. GRAMINEjE. 
I. Summary of the Tribes. 


Spikelcts 1-, rarely 2-fld , the terminal fl perfect, the lower 
stammate or neuter, rachilla articulated below the glumes, tho 
more or less dorsally compressed spikelets falling from the 
pedicels entire, singly, m groups, or together with joints of an 
articulate raehis 

A Spikelets unisexual, the male and 
female spikelets in different mfl on 
the same plant or in diffe n nt parts 
of the same mfl , awnle s 1 INDIAN CORN 

AA. Spikelets perfect, sometimes with [TuiuF, OR 

B. L* nrma and pale a hyaline, the 
glunms more or less indurated, 
spikelets in 2's or 3's on the usu- 
ally articulate axis of a spike-like 

ally awne-d, the other pcdiceled 
and perfect, stammate or rudi- 
BB. Lemma and pale-a more or less in- ANDKOPOC.ONEE 
durated, hnner m te xture than the 
glumes, spikelets all pel feet, first 

glume sometimes obsoh te 3 Mn i r 1 KIHF , OK 


Subfamily H. POACOIDE.E 

Spikelets 1- to many-fld , the imperf* c t or rudimentary floret, 
if any, usually upp<, r.u hill i usually abo\i> the 
glurms which are perM-tent on the pediti I or raehis after the fall 
of the florets, when 2- to many-fld , a m tmfet internode of the 
rachilla separating the florets, and articulated below them, 
epikelets more or le-ss laterally compn s^ed 

A. Culms not woody and perennial 

B. Infl paniculate, the spike ie ts pe di- 
celed, not sessile on opposite sides 
of a jointed flattened axis, form- 
ing spikes, nor sessile along one side 
of a slender continuous axis 
C. Spikelets 1-fld , the raehilla some- 
times continued as a mmuto 
bristle behind tho palea (or m 
Phalaride-ie a pair of rudimen- 
tary or male florets below the 
perfect one) 
D. Spikelets falling entire, glumes 

usually obsolete or nearly so 4 RICE TRIBE, OR 
DD. Spikelets persistent, glumes [ORYZfc-B. 


E. Floret with 2 minute scales 
(rudimentary lemmas) or 
2 small male florets at- 
tached at the base and fall- 
ing with it 5. CANARY-GRABS 
EK. Floret with no scales attached [TRIBE, OR 
below, glumes usually sub- [PHALARIDE.B. 
equal, lemma awned or 

awnless 6. RED-TOP TRIBE, OR 

OC. Spikelets 2- to many-fld (AoROSTiDEJB. 

D. Glumes longer than the first 
floret, spikelets 2- to several- 
fld , 1 or more of the florets 
usually awued from the back 

or from between tho teeth of a [AVENEJS. 

bifid apex 7. OAT TRIBE, OB 

DD. Glumes shorter than the first 
floret, spikelets 2- to many- 
fid, awns when present ter- 
minal or nearly so . 8. FESOTJE TRIBE, OR 
BB. Infl spicate [FESTCCEJB. 
C. Spikelets s< ssilr or Hubwwile in 
1-sided spikfs, 1- to few-fld , 
spikes solitary, or digitately or 

racernosely arranged 9. CHLORIS TRIBE, OR 

CC. Spikclets sessile on opposite sides [CHI/>RIDE*1 

of a /igzag jointed channeled 
axis forming a spike, 1- to 

several-fid 10 BARLEY TRIBK, OR 

AA. Culms woody, tree-like If -blades (HORDE,*) 

articulated with the sheaths 11. BAMBOO TRIBE, OR 

//. Key to the Tribes. 

1. Indian Corn Tnbe, or Maydeae. 

A* Male spikelets in a terminal panicle, female 
spikefets in spikes or cars in the axils of the 
B. Female spikele'ts sunken in cavities of a 

jointed readily disartic ulating axis 1 Euchltma. 

BB Female spikelets crowded in rows on a 

thickened continuous axis (the cob) 2 Zea. 

AA. Male and female pik< lets in the same mfl , 

the male at the end of the spike s 
B. Spikes digitite, the axis of the female por- 
tion bony indurated, disarticulating with 
spikelets attached 3 Tnpaacum. 

BB. Spikes paniculate, the female spike lets 
inclosed in ovoid pf aily or grayish bead- 
like bodies, the mile portion protruding 
from a small orifice of the bead 4 Co\x. 

2. Sorghum Tribe, or Andropogoneae. 

A. Spikelets all alike, perfect 

B. Axis of racemes continuous, the spikelets 

deciduous, panic 1* fan-shaped 5 Miscanthut. 

BB Axis of r iconic s jointed, readily disarticula- 
ting with the spjki lets attached 

c The spikelets awnless 6 Saccharum. 

cc The spikelets aw nul 7 Enanthu*. 

AA fepikelets not all dike the sessile pe-rfect, the 

pedicelod male e>r neuter 

B Lower 1 or 2 pairs of !-pikrlcts unlike the 
upper pair-, racemes m pairs from boat- 
shaped sheaths on the ultimate branches 
of an elongated mfl , 8 Cymbopogon. 

Bit Lower pairs of spikelets like the upper 

c Infl consisting of I to many racemes, 
these, digitate or racemose along a 
short axis 9 Andropoyon. 

CC Infl compound, paniculate 

D Racemes jivn>-fld, linear, naked at 
base, numerous, arranged in whorls 
on an elongated axis 10 Vet\ver\a. 

DD Racemes reduced to 2 or 3 ^pikelets, 

arranged in a compound panicle 1 1 Holcus. 

3. Millet Tribe, or Pamceae. 

A. Axis broad and corky, the spikelets sunken m 

its ca\ities 12 Steno- 

AA. Axis not broad and corky, spikelets not sunken (topArum. 

B. Spikelets not subtended or surrounded by 


C. Glumes and lemmas awnless, the apex of 
the palea inclosed in the enfolding 
lemma 13 Pamcum. 

CC. Glumes or lemmas, or both, awned or 


D. Second glume and sterile lemma taper- 
ing into an awn or point, coarsely 
hispid, palea free at the summit, 
spikelets crowded 14 Echmochloa. 

DD. Second glume and sterile lemma awned 

from a 2-lobed apex 
E Infl of 1 -sided racemes along a com- 
mon axis, smkelcts pubescent but 
not silky, palea inclosed at summit 15 Ophtmenut. 
EE Infl paniculate, spikelets co\ered 

with long silky hairs 1G Tncholxna. 

BB. Spikelets subtended or surrounded by 

c. Bristles persistent, not falling with the 

spikclcts at maturity 17 Setana. 

CC. Bristles falling attached to the apikelet 18 J'enniaetum, 

4. Rice Tribe, or Oryzeae. 

A. Spikelets unisexual, the female awned, erect 
at the summit of the panicle, the male awn- 
less, nodding on the lower branches 19 Zizama. 
AA. Spikeletfl perfect, strongly flattened . . 20 Oryta. 



5. Canary-Grass Tribe, or Phalaride. 

A. Glumes strongly compressed, stenle lemmas 

rudimentary . 21, Phalant. 

AA. Glumes not strongly compressed, sterile 

lemmas not rudimentary 
B. Sterile lemmas awned, glumes very unequal.22. Anthox- 

BB. Sterile lemmas awnless, glumes nearly equal23. H\erochlo&. 

6. Red-Top Tribe, or Agrostideae. 

A. Lemma indurated, or at least firmer than the 


B. Panicle spike-like, spikelets flattened, awn- 
less 24 Ammophvla. 
BB. Panicle not spike-like, spikelets not flat- 
tened, awned 

c Floret oblong and with a sharp callus at 
base, awn stout, gemculatc, twisted, 
persistent 25. Stipa. 

cc Floret ovate, the callus blunt, awn slen- 
der, more or less deciduous 26 Orytvpnt. 
AA. Lemma of about the same texture as the 

glumes or more delicate 

B Spikelets crowded in dense spike-like pani- 
cles or heads 

c Heads oval, very woolly 27. Locum*, 

cc Heads cylindrical, not woolly 28 PMeum. 

BB Spikelets not crowded m dense heads or 


c. Lemma and palea much more delicate 
and shorter than the glumes, the palea 
shorter than the lemma, often wanting 29 Agrot\. 
CC. Lemma and palea of about the same 
texture as the glumes and as long or 

D. Racmlla not continued beyond the base 
of the floret, lemma awned from the 
tap or awnlesa 

K The lemma awned or sharp-pointed, 
longer than the body of the awned 
or awnless glumes 30 Muehlen- 

KE. The lemma not awned or sharp- [btrgia. 


F Nerves of lemma 1 31 Sporobolus 

vr Nerves of lemma 3-5 32 Calamonlfa. 

VD. Rachilla prolonged beyond the floret as 
a plumose bristle, lemmas awned on 
the back and silky hairy at base 33 Calama- 


7. Oat Tribe, or Aveneae. 

A. Plants low, delicate, spikelets minute 34. Aira 

AA. Plants 1 ft or more high 

B Articulation below the glumes, the spikelets 

falling entire from the pedicels 
C Glumes much exceeding the 2 florets, the 

upper floret with a hook-like awn 35. Notholcus 

cc Glumes exceeded by the upper floret, both 

florets awnless 36 Sphenoph- 

BB Articulation above the glumes, these per- \olit. 

sistent after the fall of the florets 
c Spikelets 1 in or more long, nodding, in 

an open panicle , florets all alike 37 Avena 

cc Spikelets about Vm long, erect in a nar- 
row panicle, lower floret stammate 38. Arrhenath- 


8. Fescue Tribe, or Festuceee. 

A. Rachilla or lemma bearing long hairs as long 

as the lemma tall reeds 
B. Spikelets unisexual, male and female 

spikelets on separate plants 
c. Lemmas much shorter than the glumes 1 

sts leafy throughout 39 Gynenum. 

cc Lemmas with elongated delicate tips 

Ivs crowded at the baie 40 Corladeria. 

BB Spikelets perfect 

c Lemmas hairy raehtHa nakod 41 Arundo 

cc Lemmas naked , rachilla hairy 42 Phragmites 

AA. Rachilla or lemma glabrous or hairy, but the 

hairs shorter than the lemmas 
B. Spikelets of 2 kinds, perfect and stenle, m 

the same panicle 
c. Fertile spikelets awnless, the stenle 

awned , panicle spike-like 43. Cynosunu. 

cc. Fertile spikelets awned, the ntenle awn- 
less, panicle 1 -sided, the fascicled 
spikelets nodding 44. Lamcrcfcto, 

BB. Spikelets all alike in the same mfl 
O. Lemmas 1-3-nerved 

D The spikelets subterete, loosely 2-4- 

fld 45 Mohnia. 

DD. The spikelets compressed, densely, 

usually many-fld 
B. Florets membranaceous; npikelets in 

open panicles 46 Era0rot\$. 

MS. Floret* coriaceous; spikeleta in ngtd 

spike-like panicles . . 47. 1 

cc. Lemmas 5- to many-nerved. 

D. The spikelets with several sterile 
lemmas at the base, strongly flat- 
tened, in a large drooping panicle 48. Unwla. 
DD. The spikelets without sterile lemmas 

at the base 
E. Florets crowded, nearly horizontal, 

spikelets broad, cordate 49. Brua. 

BB. Florets not crowded, spikelets not 

broad and cordate 

. Spikelets flattened, nearly sessile in 
dense clusters at the ends of the 
few panicle branches 50. Dactylit. 

ST. Spikelets not flattened 

a. Lemmas keeled, often bearing 
white cobwebby hairs at 
base 51. Poa. 

QQ. Lemmas convex or keeled at the 
summit only, not hairy at base. 
H. Nerves of lemma prominent, 
parallel , lemmas scanous at 
the summit 52 Glyceria. 

HH. Nerves ot lemma not promi- 
nent, approaching each 
other at the apex, lemmas 
I. The lemmas entire, often 

awn-tipped 53. Festuca, 

n. The lemmas 2-toothed, usu- 
ally awned just below the 
apex 54, Bromus. 

9. Chloris Tribe, or Chloride*. 

A. Spikes racemose along a common axis, 

aptkeiets falling entire 55 Spar Una. 
AA Spikoa digitate at the summit of the culm. 
B Spikelets awnlesa 

c The spikes slender, snikelet* 1-fld 56 Cunodon. 

cc The spikes stout, spikoletssevenil-fld 57 Eleusin*. 
BB Spikelets awned 

c Fertile lemma 1-awnod 58 Chlons 

CC Fertile lemma 3-awned 59. Tnchloris. 

10. Barley Tribe, or Hordes;. 

A Spikelets solitary at each joint of the axis 
B Glume 1, except in terminal spikelet, 

spikelets placed with 1 edge to tho axis 60 Lolium. 
BB Glumes 2, spikeleta placed with side to the 


C Palea adherent to the grain, rachilla dis- 
articulating, the florets separating 61. Agropyron. 
CC. Palea free from the grain, rachilla not dis- 

D Shape of glumes v< ry narrow, 1-nerved 62 Secale. 
DD Shape of glume* ovate, 3- to many- 
nerved 63 Tnticum. 
AA. Spikelets in clusters of 2 or 3 at each joint of 

the axi* 

B. Lateral pair of each cluster pediceled, \isu- 
ally aborted, appearing like a cluster of 
awns 64 Hardeum. 

BB. Lateral spikelots sessile, usually but 2 

spikelets at a joint 65 Elymus. 

11. Bamboo Tribe, or Bambuseae. 

A. Stamens 3 fr a true caryopsis 
B Spikelets 2- to many-fld 

c. Infl fasciculate 6f> Oxytenan- 

cc. Infl racemose or paniculate, not leafy. (thera. 

sts cylindrical sheathspersistent 67 Arundi- 

CCC Infl spicate, leafy stH flattened on one (naria. 

side sheaths early deciduous 68 PhyUo- 


BB Spikelets 1-fld 69 Chuaqucu 

AA Stamens 6 

B. Pericarp thin, adnate to the seed, the fr 

a true caryopsifl 70 Bamfeusa. 

B. Pencarp, crustaceoun, separable from the 

seed, the fr nut-like .71. Dendro- 


Other genera mentioned are Cenchrua, Cephalostachyum.Cmna, 
Dactyloctemum, Deschampsea, Diandrolyra, Distichhs, Imperata, 
Leptochloa, Mehca, Melims, Paspalum, Rottboclha and Tnsetum. 


One grros in cultivation . . . . Lycopod\um. 

a oaly SelayineUa. 



212. EQUlSETACE-ffi. 

One genus only Equiaeium. 

ccc. Indusia inferior, attached under 
the sorus and opening laterally 
or by splitting radially into lobes. 8. WOODBIA TantB. 


A. Sporangia coherent, in 2 ranks, forming 

spikes veins anastomosing 1. Ophiogloa- 

AA. Sporangia free in compound spikes or pam- [sum. 

oles veins free IVH. mostly < ompound . 2. Botrychium. 


A. Son in double lines along the veins, not 

united 1. Angiopteriit. 

AA. Son united in synangia 

B Synarigia oval, opening by a fissure 2 Marattui. 

BB Synangia elongate, ( ach compartment open- 
ing by a terminal poic 3 Dansra 

1 Hymeno- 


2 Tnchom- 


A. InvoliK re 2-valved 
AA. Involucre tubukr or funnel-shaped 


A. Sporangia borne m panicles formed either 

from certain pmme or from whole Ivs 1 O&munda 

AA Sporangia borne on the under surface of foli- 
age Ivs 

B Ferns coarse with broad segms 2 Tod en 

BB. Ferns fim ly cut, m< mbranous J Leptoptem 

217. SCHIZiEACE^. 

A. Sporangia borne on under side of normal or 

altered Ivs 
B Lvs twining, Ifts palmate or pinnate 

uporangi i borm singly under s> ilr 
BB Lvs not twining 

c Sporin K ia in son cm the 2 Molina 

co Sporangia in 1 rinks foi ming spikes 3 Schizxa 

AA. Sporangia borne in eicet panicles formed on 

the elongate lower most pmnu 4 Anemia 

1 Lygodium. 

7. Summary of Tribes. 


AA Sporangia covering 
B Lvs. simple 

II. Key to the Tribes. 

1. Acrostichum Tnbe. 

lized on definite areas of the I 
orphous, the sterile basal ones shield- 

A. Sporangia localized on definite areas of the Ivs : 
Ivs dimor * 

A. Induwum wanting or rudimentary 

(rarely develop] in Mi.nogr 1111111.1) 
B. Sporangium scattered in a stratum 
over the und r snrf"ue of Hie Us 

coarse ferns 1 ArnosTiCHCM 

BB Sporangium eoll< < ted in round or [TRIBE. 

c IAS not jointed to ihe root 'took 
sporangia in long hm s following 

the veins 2 V ITTARIA TRIBE 

re L\s not jointed to the loi.tstock 
son round (Nee Phepoptr ris in 
Dryoptf ris Tribe ) 
ccc Lvs jointed to the rootstock son 

mostly roundish 3 POIVPODIUM 

AA. InduNium prt st nt '< \( < ptionnlly w -uit- [TniBB. 

ing in Phegoptens, Mrmsruim, 
NotholfiPiia and (Vroptens) 
B Son oblong or hneir, at lea<*t twice 

a-s long as broad 

C. The son marginal, coven d with an 
indu-ium formed of the refiexed 
edge of the If (naked in Notho- 
la>na, or naked and distributed 
alongthe veins in CeropU-ns) 4 PTERIS TRIBE. 
CC The son dorsal, covered with a 

flap-like indusmm 5 ABPLENIUM TRIBE. 

BB. Son roundish or at least less than 

twice as long as broad 
c. Indusio. superior, attached by a 
central stalk or by a sinus (son 
naked in Phegoptens and Mcms- 
Mum), normally dorsal Ivs not 
iomted to the rootstock 6 DHTOPTERIS 

CC. Indusia extrorse or cup-shaped, ITRIBB. 

normally marginal Ivs jointed 
to the rootstock in most genera 7. DAVALUA TRIBE. 

1 Platycenum. 
Ivs or entire pinnse. 

2 Elapho- 


BB LVH pinnate ... 3 Acrostichum. 

BBS Lvs. (sterile) , dichotomously forked . . 4. Rhiptdop- 


2. Vittaria Tnbe. 

A Son forming 1 or 2 continuous lines parallel 

to the midrib 
B Sorus 1 or 2 lines 5 Mono- 


BB Sorus alw tys 2 lines 6 Ftorto. 

AA Son on lateral veins forming more or less 

interrupted lines * 7. Antroph- 

3. Polypodium Tnbe. 

A. Lvs distinctly dimorphous, compound, the 

*tf rile basil om soak-like plants large 8 DrynoriO. 

AA LVN dimorphous, wmple plants very small 9. Drymo- 
AAA I vs uniform [glossum. 

i) foliage covered underneath with htellate 

hairs 10 Cyclophorut. 

BB Foliage smooth or scaly, not htellate hairy. 

c Veins free 11. Potypodiutn. 

cc Veins anastomosing 

D Corresponding \emlets from principal 
veins uniting and bearing a sorus at 
the end 12 GoniophU- 

DD Areole bearing 2 or more free \emlets [bium. 

extending outward, which bear a free 
sorus 13 Phlebodium. 

DDO. Arooles containing free vemlets irregu- 
larly directed 14 Phymatodea. 

4. Ptens Tnbe. 

A Son dorsal, extending along all the veins, 

c Lvs large, pinnate . 15 Conto- 


rr Lvs smaller, palmate ... 16 Hemionitvt. 

BB Veins free or only casually uniting 

c Lvs naked . . 17 Anofframma. 

cc Lvs hairy 18 Ceroptena. 

Son marginal, nominally covered with edge 

unconnected at 

of If 
B The son at the ends of 

their apices 
c Lvs dimorphous 

D Son at the ends of \eins only 

19 Crypto- 

DD Son scattered the length of the veins 20 Oni/chium. 
cc Lvs uniform, smooth, on dark-colored 


D Veins free K s pinnate 21 Pettsea 

DD Veins usually anastomosing Ive 

palmate 22 Doryoptent. 

ccc Lvs uniform, hairy, scaly or powdery 

D Margins scarcely recurved 23 Notholxna. 

DD Margins recuivcd to form a distinct 

E Indusia more or less continuous 

around the segm 

F Thelvs pmnately divided 24 Cheilanthes. 

FF The Us palmately divided 25 Adiantopeia. 

EE Indusia m the form of more or less 

distant marginal lobes 26 Hypolepis, 

BB The son inserted beneath the marginal 

mdusium stalks black or blackish 27 Adiantum. 

BBB The son rising in a continuous line-like 
receptacle which joins the ends of the 

c With an inner membranous mdusium 28 Ptendium. 
cc With no inner indusmm present 

D Lvs small, radiate-dichotomoua 29 Adinopterw. 

DD Lvs small, palmate stalk black 30 Castebeera. 

ODD. Lvs larger, pinnate . .31 Plena 

5. Asplemum Tribe. 

A Son parallel to the midrib 
B. Stenle Ivs. with free veins aon continuous 32. Blechnum. 



BB. Sterile Ivs. with anastomosing veins: son 


c. The son sunken m the Ivs. . 33 Woodward\a. 

cc The son superficial in 1 or more rows 34. Doodvi. 

AA. Son partly parallel and partly oblique to the 

midrib veins anastomosing 35.Camptosoru. 

AAA. Son oblique to the midrib 

B. Veins free, united at the margins. 

C. The son double, extending along both 

sides of tho vein 36 ZhpZanum. 

CO The son single on the veins 

D Indusia opening toward each other, in 

pairs 37. Phyllitts. 

DD Induaia all opening toward the end of 

pinnso or segms 38 Asplenium. 

BB. Veins of lower (inner) series uniting mdu- 

sium extending both sides of v ems 39. Cattiptem. 

6. Dryopteris Tribe. 

A. Indusium present 
B. Veins free, or with a single row of areoles 

along the mid-veins 
c. Indusia on the ends of veins which project 

beyond the margin of the If 40. Depana. 

OC Indusia dorsal 

D The mdusium cordate or rcniform, 
attached by the smus, sometimes 
wanting 41 Dryoptens. 

DD The mdusium orbicular, peltate, at- 
tached by a central stalk 42 Polystichum. 
ODD. Tho mdusium oval, fixed to a central 

elongate receptacle 43 Didymo- 

BB. Veins anastomosing [chlxna. 

c The mdusium cordate or remform, 

attached by the sinus 44 Tectana. 

cc. The mdusium peltate, attached by a 
central stalk veins forming small 
areoles 45. Cyrtomwm. 

AA. Indusium wanting 

B. Veins free . . 46 Phcgopteris. 

BB, Veins anastomosing 

c The mam veins joined by arches which 

bear the curved son 47 Gymnoptens. 

CC The son round, attached dorsally 

D Son distinct at maturity 48 Meniscium. 

DD. Son confluent at maturity . 49. Leptoch^lu3. 

7. Davalha Tnbe. 

A. Indusium attached at base only 

B Pmme jointed to tho rachis, Ivs simply 

pinnate mdusium circular or remform 50 Nephrolepis. 
BB. Pinna 1 not jointed to tho rachis, Ivs jointed 

to the rootstock 

c The mdusium thick, coriaceous 51 Humata 

cc The mdusium membranous 52 Leucoateg\a. 

AA Indusium attached at both base and sides 
B Lvs jointed to the scaly rootstocks 

c Shape of mdusium tubular 53 , 

cc Shape of mdusium broader than long, 
forming a boat-shaped cavity on the 

8. Woodsia Tribe. 


forming a boat-shi 
edge of the segm 
BB. Lvs not jointed to the rootstocks 

c Indusia near the end of unmodified If - 


D Sorus formed on receptacles contain- 
ing vascular tissues 55 Microlepia. 
DD Sorus not formed on a special receptacle 56 Odontosaria. 
CC, Indusium united with the modified If - 

lobe to form a complete cup 67. Denrwtsedtia, 

A. Lvs uniform, plane, veins free. 
B Indusium beneath the sorun, breaking up 

into linear lobes . 58. Woodtia. 

BB. Indusium extrorse, opening laterally with a 

hood-like lobe. . 59. Cystoplcnt, 

AA. Lvs. dimorphous, the sporophylls closely 

rolled together 

B. Veins free Ivs in crowns . 60 Matteucna. 

BB. Veins anastomosing Ivs scattered 61 Oioclea. 

Brainea, Comptons, and Lonchitis are bnefly described. 


Single genus m cultivation . . ... Gleichenia. 


A. Sori borne on the apex of the veins 
mdusium extrorse, formed of a more 
or less modified marginal tooth and 

an mnei hd-like scale 1 DICKSONIA TRIBE. 

AA. Son borne dorsully on the veins or at 
the fork mdusium inferior, or 
wholly wanting 2 CYATHEA TRIBE. 

1. Dicksonia Tribe. 

A. Tooth of spore-bearing segm >-carc ely modi- 
fied, about the size of the inner s( ale 1 Dickaonia. 
AA Tooth of the spore-bearing segm strongly 
modified, coriaceous like tho inner scale and 
usually larger . 2 C\bot\um. 

2. Cyathea Tnbe. 

A. Indusium present, inferior 

B The mdumum at first inclosing the globular 
sorus, remaining cup-shaped or irregu- 
laily splitting at maturity 3 Cyathea 

BB. Thr mdusium membranous, semi-circular, 

more fully inclosing the sorus 4 Hermteha, 

AA. Indusium wanting 5 Ahophila. 

Thyrsoptens, of another 
and is briefly accounted for 

tube, 11 
n this v 

iy be expected in cultivation 


Habit aquatic- single genus . ... Ceratoptcru. 


A. Lvs minute, numerous, closely imbricated 
sporocarps of 2 kinds, the larger globose, the 
smaller ovoid 1 Azotta. 

AA. Lvs larger, fewer, distinct, sporocarps uni- 
form, globose . 2 SalvinM. 



Abelia, 102. 

^chmea, 126 

Ammobium, 105. 

Apicra, 127. 

Abena, 88 

^Egle, 91 

Ammocharm, 125 

Apios, 05 

Abies, 120 

^Eglopsih, 91 

Ammophila, 134. 

Apium, 101 

Abobra, 100 

^Cgopodmm, 101. 

Amcjmum, 125 

Aplectrum, 122 

Abroma, 90. 

Aerides, 123 

Amorpha, 95 

Ajjlopdppus, 105 

Abronia, 116. 

^Erva, 116. 

Amorphophallus, 131. 

APCJC \NAC KJF, 83, 110. 

Abrophyllum, 98. 

.^sculus, 02 

Ampelopsis, 92 

Apot \rnim, 111 

Abrus, 94 

yEthionema, 87. 

Amphicarpaja, 95 

Aponogeton, 132 

Abuta, 86 

yEtoxicon, 118. 

Amphitome, 113 

Ai'ONOofcicjNAr^vB, 85, 


Abutilon, 89. 

Afzeha, 95 

Amsonia, 110. 

Aporocactus, 101 

Acacia, 93 

Agalmyla, 114. 

Amelia, 91 

AguiFOLiAC'K^, 81, 91. 

Araena, 97 

Agamsia, 123 

Anac arnpseros, 89 

Aquil< gia, 86 

Acalypha, 119. 

Agapanthus, 127. 

AN\C'AUDIAC'K., 81, 92 

Arabis, 88 

Acampe, 123 

Agapetcs, 108 

Ancardium, 92 

AUACE^:, 85, 131 

ArANTHAC'K/E 83 114 

Agathis, 120. 

Anagalhs, 109 

Arachis, 94 

Aearithoeereus, 101. 

Agave, 125 

Anamirta, 86. 

Arachnanthe, 123. 

Aednthohmon, 109 

Agdehtis, 116 

Ananas, 126 

Aralia, 101 

Acanthommtha, 116. 

Ageratum, 105. 

Andphdhs, 105 

ARALIACE^S, 82, 101. 

Acanthonema, 114 

Aglaid, 91 

Anurrhmum, 112 

Araucaria, 120 

Acanthopariax, 102. 

Aglaonciiid, 131. 

Auastatica, 88 

Arbutus, 108 

Acanthophippium, 122. 

Agrimoma, 97. 

Anchusa, 111 

Archarigelica, 101 

Acanthophoemx, 130. 

Agropyron, 134. 

Aridira, 94 

Arehontophcenix, 130. 

Acanthorhiza, 129. 

Agrostis, 134 

Andrachne, 118 

Arctnnn, 105 

Acanthus, 114. 

Ailanthus, 91. 

And roc \mbium, 128 

Arc tostaphylos, 108. 

Acer, 02 

Aira, 134 

Andromeda, 108 

Arctotis, 107 

ACERACEE, 81, 92. 

AlZOAC EJE, 82, 101 

Andropogon, 133 

Arctous, 108. 

Aceranthus, 87. 

Ajuga, 115 

Anrlrusace, 109 

Ardisia, 109. 

Achillea, 107 

Akebia, 87 

Androstephium, 127. 

Areca, 130 

Achimenes, 113. 

ALANUI\C,E;E, 82, 102. 

Aneilem.i, 128 

Aregelia, 126 

Achly.s, 87 

Alangium, 102 

Anemia, 135 

Arenana, 89 

Acidanthera, 124. 

Albert.i, 103 

Anemone, 86. 

Arenga, 130 

Acmeta, 123 

Albizzia, 93 

Ariemonopsis, 86. 

Arethusd, U3 

Aciphvlla, 101 

Albupj., 128 

Anemopsis, 117. 

Argemone, 87 

Ac oelorraphe, 131. 

Alchemilla, 97. 

Ancthum, 101. 

Arg\reia, 111 

Aeokanthera, 110. 

Alchoniea, 118 

Ang.^lica, 101 

Ariocarpus, 100 

Acomtum, 86 

Aleetorurus, 128. 

Angeloma, 112. 

Arisamia, 131 

Acorns, 131 

Alectnon, 92 

Angiopteris, 135. 

Ansarum, Ul 

AcnopsiH, 123. 

Aletris, 127 

Angoi)hor.i, 08 

Aiistea, 124 

Acnsta, 1 30 

Aleurites, 119 

Angnenmi, 123. 

Anstnlophia, 117 

Acrocomia, 129 

Alhagi, 04 

Angulod, 122 



Acroph\llum, 08. 

Ahsma, H2 

Amgozanthos, 125. 

Aristoleha, 00 

Acrospira, 128 

AijsM^-k *, 85, 132. 

Anisic inthus, 114. 

Armeiia, 100 

A( rostichum, 135. 

AlldinatMlci, 110 

Anisostuhus, 113 

Arnebia, 111 

A( tied, 80 

Allmm, 128 

Anisotps, 111 

Arnud, 107 

Actmelld, 106. 

Allopleetus, 114. 

Annona, 86 

Vronia, 06 

Actimdia, 8b 

Alnus, 119 

ANNON\CE, SO, 86. 

Arpophjllum, 122 

Actmolepis,, 106. 

Aloe asm, 131. 

AnM toe hilus, 122 

Arraracm, 101 

Aetmomerib. 106 

Aloe, 127 

Anogramma, 135 

Arrhenatherum, 134 

Actinopteria, 135. 

Alonsoa, 112. 

Anoiganthus, 125. 

Artatxjtrys, 80 

Actmostemma, 100. 

Alpmia, 125 

Anopterus, 98. 

Artemisia, 107 

Ada, 123 

Alsine, 80 

Anredera, 85. 

Artocarpus, 118 

Adanioma, 00. 

Alsophila, 136. 

Ansclha, 122 

Arthropodium, 128 

Adelia, 118 

Alstoma, 110 

Antennaria, 105. 

Arum, 131 

Adenandra, 91. 

Alslrcx-meria, 125. 

Anthemis, 107 

Aruncus, 96 

Adenanthera, 93. 

Altamiranoa, 98. 

Anthencum, 127. 

Anmduiaria, 134 

Adcnocalymma, 113. 

Althaea, 89 

Antholyza, 124. 

Arundo, 134 

Adenoearpua, 94 

Alyssum, 88 

Anthoxanthiim, 134. 

Asaruni, 117 

Adcnophora, 108. 

AMAUANTAC'E^E, 83, 116. 

Aiithuruim, 131. 

AsCLh.PI AD \CEiE, 83, 110. 

Adcnostoma, 97. 

Amarantus, 116 

Aiith\ Ihs, 94. 

Asclepias, 110 

Adenostylp", 105. 

AMARYLLIUACE^:, 84, 124 

Antiaiis, 118 

Ascyrum, 89 

Adesmia, 94 

Amaryllis, 125. 

Antidesma, 118. 

Asimina, 86 

Adhatoda, 114. 

Amascmia, 114. 

Antigonon, 117 

Asparagus, 126 

Adiantopsis, 135. 

Ambrosia, 106 

Antirrhinum, 112. 

Aspasia, 123 

Adiantum, 135. 

Ambrosima, 131. 

Antrophyum, 135. 

Asperula, 103 

Adlumia, 87. 

Amelanchier, 97. 

Aotus, 95 

Asphotlehne, 127 

Adonis, 86. 

Amellus, 107 

Aphananthe, 118. 

Asphodelus, 127. 

Adoxa, 85 

Amherstia, 95. 

Aphelandra, 114. 

Aspidistra, 127 

ADOXACB^, 85. 

Anncia, 95. 

Aphyllon, 85 

Asplemum, 136. 




Astelia, 128 

Beta, 116 

Brownea, 95. 

Calycanthus, 86. 

Aster, 105 

Betula, 119. 

Bruckenthaha, 108. 

Calycotome, 94. 

Asterhnosyns, 107 

BETULACE.E, 84, 119. 

Brunella, 115. 

Calyocarpum, 86. 

Astilbe, 98 

Biarum, 131. 

Brunfelsm, 112. 

Calypso, 122 

Astragalus, 95 

Bidens, 106 

BRUNIACEJE, 82, 98. 

Calyptrogyric, 131. 

Astrantia, 101 

Bifrenaria, 123. 

Brunsvigia, 125 

Camaiotis, 123 

Astrocaryum, 129. 

Bigelovia, 105 

Bryanthus, 108 

Camassui, 128. 

Asystasid, 114 

Biguoma, 113. 

Bryoma, 100 

Camellia, 89. 

Atalantia, 91 

BIONONIACE^J, 83, 113. 

Bryonopsis, 100 

Camcjcndia, 95 

Athrotaxis, 120 

Billardiera, 88. 

Bryophyllum, 98 

Campanula, 108 

Atraphaxia, 117 

Billbprgia, 126 

Buckley a, 117 

CAMPANULACEA:, 82, 107, 

Atriplex, 116 

Biophytum, 90. 

Buddleia, 110 

Campanumipa, 107 

Atropa, 112 

Bischofm, 118 

Bulbmc, 127 

Carnphord, 1 17. 

Attalea, 129 

Bismarckia, 131. 

Bulbmella, 127 

Campsidium, 113. 

Aubrietia, 88 

Bixa, 88 

Bulbocodium, 128 

Campsis, 113 

Aucuba, 102 

BIXACE^:, 80, 88. 

Bulbophyllum, 123 

Camptosoriih, 136. 

Audibertia, 115. 

Blakea, 99 

Bumeha, 100 

Canangium, 86 

A.udomma, 98. 

Blandfordia, 127. 

Buphane, 125 

Canaund, 107 

Avena, 134. 

Blechnum, 135 

Buphthalmum, 105. 

Canavdhd, 05 

Averrhoa, 90. 

Blcpharis, 114. 

Buplcurum, 101 

Candollea, H5 

Avicenma, 115. 

Blepharocalyx, 99. 

Burbidgca, 125 


Azara, 88. 

Bletia, 122 

Burchelhd, 103 

Cdtiistrum, 120 

Azolla, 136. 

Bletilla, 122 

Bursaria, 88 

Canna, 125 

Bhghia, 92 

Bursera, 91 

Cannabis, 118 

Babiana, 124. 

Bloorneria, 128 

Buiist.B\CE t 81, 91 

CANNArw-E, 85, 125. 

Baccaurea, 118. 

Blumcnbachia, 100. 

Butca, 95 

Cantua, lit 

Bacchans, 105. 

Boccoma, 87 

BUTOMVCEH, 85, 132. 

C \PP\KIDACEA,, 80, 88 

Backhousia, 99. 

Boca, 114 

Butomus, 132 

Cappans, SS 

Bactns, 129. 

Boehmcna, 118. 

BUXA< i.., 84, 119 

CApRiruLi\c *,*:, 82, 102. 

Baculana, 130. 

Bolandra, 98 

Buxus, 119 

Capsicum, 112 

Bseria, 106. 

Bollca, 123 

Byrsomma, 90 

Carugana, 95 

Bahia, 106 

Boltoma, 105. 

Caralluma, 1 10 

Baikuea, 95. 

Bomarea, 125 

Cabomba, 87. 

Can lam me, Hh 

Balaka, 131 

BOMBACACE*;, 81, 90. 

Cacaha, 107 

Carduiidra, 97 


Bombax, 90 

Cacahop&ib, 107 

Cardiosppnnum, 92. 

Balsamocitrus, 91. 

Bongardia, 87 

CACI A.CEJK, 82, 100. 

Caidims, 105 

Balsamorrhiza, 106. 

BORAGINACE.B, 83, 111 

Cactus, 100 

Carex, Hi 

Bamburanta, 125. 

Borago, 111 

Cadia, 04 

Cane a, 100 

Bambusa, 134. 

Borassus, 129 

Ciesalpmia, 95. 

CARIC \< t K, 82, 100. 

Banksia, 117. 

Boroma, 91. 

Cajanus, 95 

Canssci, 110 

Baphia, 95 

Boscd, 116 

Caladium, 131 

Curium, 10.') 

Baptism, 94. 

Botrychmm, 135 

Calamagrostis, 134. 

Carludovica, HI. 

Barbacema, 125. 

Bougamvillca, 116 

Cularnmtha, 116 

Carmu hu'ha, 95 

Barbarea, 88 

Boussmgaultia, 116. 

Calamo\ ilf.i, 134. 

Carnegiea, 101 

Barbiena, 95 

Bouvardia, 103 

Oalamm, 120 

Carpentcna, 97 

Barleria, 114. 

Bowema, 120 

Calanrhima, 89. 

Cdrpinus, 119. 

Barosma, 91. 

Bowiea, 127 

Calanthc, 122 

Carncri.i, 88 

Barrmgtonia, 99. 

Bowkerm, 113 

Calathca, 125 

Carthamus, 105 

Basella, 116 

Boykmia, 98 

Calceolaria, 112 

Carum, 101 


Brachychieta, 105. 

Calendula, 107 

Can a, 118 

Batemanma, 123. 

Brach> chillis, 125. 

Cahmerus, 107., 85 

Bauera, 98 

Brae hythi ton, 90. 

Callo-, 131 

C AR\ OCAU U h K, 85. 

Bauhmia, 95 

Brachycome, 105. 

Calhandra, 93. 

C \R\OPH\LL\CEA, 81, 89 

Beaufortia, 99 

Brachysema, 95. 

Calhanthemum, 86. 

Cdrycjptens, 115 

Beaumontia, 111. 

Brahca, 129. 

Calhrarpa, 114 

Caryota, I.JO 

Begonia, 100. 

Brainca, 136. 

Calhphruna, 125. 

Casimiioa, 91 

BEOONIACE-E, 82, 100. 

Brasema, 87 

Calhpsyche, 125. 

Cdhspbecra, 135 

Belemcanda, 124. 

Brassavola, 122. 

Calhptcns, 136. 

Cassia, 95 

Belhs, 105 

Brasma, 123 

Calhrhoe, 89 

Caasmc, 92 

Bellmm, 107 

Brassica, 87. 

Cdlhstemon , 98 

Cassiopc, 10S 

Beloperone, 114. 

Bravoa, 125. 

Cdlhbtcphus, 105. 

CassipoiirPd, 08 

Benmcasa, 100. 

Braya, 88 

Calhtris, 120 

Castatiea, 119 

Bentmckia, 131. 

Brevoortia, 127. 

CallopHis, 132. 

('astdiiopsih, 119 

Benzoin, 117. 

Breweria, 111. 

Calluna, 108 

C^astunohpermum, 94. 


Breyrna, 118 

Calochortus, 128 

Castillcm, 113 

Berberidopsis, 88. 

Bnckcllia, 105. 

Calodcndrum, 91. 

Cdsuanna, 11<S 

Berberis, 87. 

Bnza, 134 

Calonyction, 111. 

CAHUAltlN\f E^, 84, 118. 

Berchemia, 92. 

Brodisea, 127. 

Calophaca, 95 

Catalpa, 113 

Bergerocactus, 101. 

Bromeha, 125 

Calophyllum, 89. 

(^atananche, 107. 

Berna, 90. 

BROMELIACE^:, 85, 125. 

Calopogon, 122 

Cataseturn, 122. 

Bersama, 92. 

Bromheadia, 123. 

Calothamnus, 98 

Cdtesbzea, 103. 

Bertholletia, 99. 

Bromus, 134 

Calotropis, 110 

Catha, 92 

Bertoloma, 99 

Brosimum, 118 

Calpurma, 94 

Catopsis, 126 

Beschornena, 125. 

Broughtonia, 122. 

Caltha, 86 

Cattleya, 122. 

Beslena, 114. 

Broussonetia, 118. 

Calvoa, 99 

Caulophyllum, 87. 

Bessera, 127. 

Browalha, 112. 


Cautlea, 125. 



Ceanothua, 92. 

Chiogenes, 108. 

Coccinea, 100. 

Corytholoma, 114. 

Cedrela, 91. 

Chionanthus, 109. 

Cocroloba, 116. 

Cosmos, 106. 

Ccdronella, 115. 

Chionodoxa, 128. 

C-occothnnax, 129. 

Costua, 125. 

Cedrus, 120. 

Chiranthodendron, 90. 

CorcMilus, 86 

Cotirms, 93. 

Ceiba, 90. 

Chmta, 114. 

Cochlcana, 88. 

Cotoneaster, 96. 


Chiroma, 110. 

Cochhoda, 123 

Cotula, 107. 

Celastrus, 92. 

Chlularithus, 124. 

CJochhoatema, 128. 

Cotyledon, 98. 

Colmisia, 107. 


Cocos, 129 

Couroupita, 99. 

Celosia, 116. 

Chloranthus, 117. 

Codiseum, 119. 

Coussapoa, 118. 

Cclsia, 112. 

Chlons, 134 

Codonanthe, 114. 

Cowama, 97. 

Celtis, 118 

Chloroeodon, 110. 

C'odonopbib, 107. 

Oarnbe, 87. 

Cenrhrus, 134. 

Chlorogalum, 127. 

Cttha, 122 

(,'ramolana, 114. 

Cema, 107. 

Chlorophytum, 127. 

Cd-logyne, 122. 

Crassula, 98 

Contaurea, 105 

Chloroxylon, 91. 

Coffea, 103. 

CRAH^ULACE^:, 82, 98. 

Centradenia, 99. 

Choisya, 91 

Coix, 133 

Cratspguh, 96 

Centranthus, 103. 

Chondrorvncha, 123. 

C'ola, 90 

Ciatjjva, 88. 

Ontropogon, 107. 

Chonsia, 90 

Colax, 12'i 

Craterostigma, 113. 

Centrosema, 95 

Chon/ema, 94 

Colchimm, 128. 

C'repis, 107 

Cephaehs, 103 

Chrozophora, 118. 

Colea, 113 

Cr.scontia, 113. 

Ceph.ilanthera. 122. 

Chrywihdocarpus, 131. 

Colons, 115 

Cnnuni, 125 

Cephalanthus, 103 

Chrysanthemum, 107 

Collabmm, 123. 

Crithmum, 101. 

Cephalana, 103 

Chrybobaetron, 127 

( 'olletia, 92 

C'rorosmia, 124. 

( 'ephalocereus, 101 

Chiy>obalamiB, 97 

Colhgnaya, 119. 

Crocus, 124 

Cephalostach>um, 134. 

Chryfeogonura, 106 

ColhnMa, 112 

f'rossandia, 111. 


Chrysophyllum, 109. 

Collinsorna, 116. 

Crotalana, 94 

Cephalotaxus, 120 

ChrysopMs, 105 

( olloima, 111 

Croton, IIS 

Cephalotus, 98 

Chrj sosplenium, 98 

Colorasia, 131 

CiucianolU, 103 

Cerastium, 89 

Chusquea, 134. 

Colquhouma, 116 

CRUCIFERE, 80, 87. 

Ceratiola, 119 

Ch>sis, 122 

C'olumnea, 114. 

Cryptanthe, 111 

Ceratulobus, 129 

Cibotium, 136 

Colutea, 95 

C'rjlJtanthus 125 

Ceratoma, 95 

Cicer, 95. 

Colvilloa, 93. 

Cr>ptoroi\no, 132 

Ceratopptalum, 98 

Cithonum, 107. 

Comandra, 117 

Crvptogi imnia, 1.35. 


Cimicifuga, 86 

C'omarum, 97 

Crjutolepis. 110 


Cinchona, 103. 

Cc)MBUbT\CK.-K, 82, 9S 

Cr> ptomena, 120 

Coratoptcns, 136 

Cineraria, 107. 

Coin brc turn, 98 

Cm>toiihoranthu8, 123. 

Ceiatostigma, 109. 

Cmna, 1 i4 

Comniflina, 12S 

Cryptostc gia, 110 

Ccratothc<a, 111. 

Cinnanionniin, 117 

Co\iMrLiN\f F, 85, 12S 

Cnptostirnma, 107 

Ceratozamia, 120 

( ipura, 124 

ComparcUi.i, 1J.J 

CnptostUi-, 12,3. 


CirraM, 99 

CoMPO.siTi , 82, 10.3 

Ctdiaritho, 125 

Cert idiphyllum, 86 

Cirrhopetalum, 123 

Comptonia, 118 

Cucmnis, 400 

Corns 95 

Cirbium, 105 

Conandion, 114 

(^ucurlnta, 100 

Cercocarpus, 97. 

Cissampelos, 86 

Congea, 1 15 

Ct rrKBirACKC, 82, 100. 

Cercus, 101. 

CiSbUb, 92 

Comogramma, 135 

Cudrama, 118 

Cennthc, 111. 

CISTACE/E, 80, 88. 

Comum, 101 

Cunnnnm, 101. 

Ceropogia, 110. 

Cistus, 88 

Conochnnini, 105 

C^ummingm, 125. 

Ceroptoris, 135. 

Citharexjlum, 115. 

Couvallarid, 127 

Cunila, lib 

Ceroxylon, 130. 

Citropsis, 91 

CON\OIALLACEK, 8.3, 111 

Cunuinghamia, 120. 

Cespodosia, 91. 

Citnillus 100 

Comolvulus, 111 

Cunoma, 9S 

Ccstrum, 112 

C'ltrus, 91 

C'oopcrui, 124 

CnNONivrE/E, 82, 98. 

Cruenactis, 106. 

Cladanthus, 107. 

C'opaifcra, 05 

C'uphea, 99 

Chcenomeles, 96. 

C'ladothamnus, 108. 

Copunir-a, 1J9. 

C'upressus, 120. 

Cha-nostoma, 112 

Cladrastis, 94 

("opiosma, 103. 

Curcxihgo, 125-. 

Chaerophjllum, 101. 

Clarkm, 99 

Coptis, 80 

C"urtuma, 125 

Cha?tosp)ermum, 91. 

Claucena, 90 

Corillorhiza, 122. 

Cuscuta, 111 

Chalcas, 90 

Clavija, 109 

Corchorus, 90. 

Cjananthus, 107. 

Chama?batia, 97. 

Claytonia, 89 

Cordia, 111 

Cjanella, 125 

Charnapbatiana, 96. 

Cleisobtoma, 123. 

Cordvlme, 127 

Cyathea, 136 

Chama?cyparis, 120. 

Clei^tocaotus, 101. 

Corema, 110 

CYAIHE\(I:, 85, 136. 

Chamaedaphne, 108. 

Clematis, 86 

Coreopsis, 106 

C\C \DACEE, 84, 120. 

( hama?dorea, 130 

Clomato-clcthra, 86. 

Conandrum, 101. 

Cjcis, 120 

< hainnehrmm, 128. 

Cleomr, 88 

Coruuia, 03 

CJcIampn, 109 

( hamspmelum, 107. 

Clerodendron, 115. 

CORI \niACK., 82, 93 

C\( LANTUAtE^;, 85, 131. 

Chamffiranthemuni, 114. 

Clethra, 108 

("OHNAf K.K, 82, 102 

CVlanthiTi, 100 

Chamrerops, 129. 

CLETHRACE.E, 83, 108. 

Corniih, 102 

Cyclanthus, 1.31 

Chaptaha, 107. 

Cle>era, 89 

Corornlla, 94 

C\c-lolK)thra, 128 

Charieis, 105 

Chanthus, 95. 

Correa, 91 

Cycloloma, 110. 

Cheilanthes, 135. 

Chdemia, 99. 

Cortadena, 134. 

Cyclophorus, 135. 

Cheiranthus, 88. 

Cliftoma, 91. 

Cortusa, 109 

Cycnoches, 122. 

Chehdomum, 87. 

Chnostigma, 130. 

Corjanthes, 123. 

Cydwta, 113 

Chelone, 112. 

Clmtoma, 128. 

Corj-dahh, 87 

Cydonui, 96 


Chtona, 94. 

Corjlopsis, 98. 

Cymbuhum, 123 

Chenopodmm, 116. 

Chvia, 125. 

Corylus, 119. 

CVnbopetalurn, 86. 

Chilian thus, 110. 

Cluytia, 119. 

Corynocarpus, 93. 

Cymbopogon, 133. 

Chilopsis, 113. 

Clytostoma, 113. 

Corynostyhs, 88. 

Cynanchum, 110. 

Chunaphila, 108. 

Cmous, 105. 

Corypha, 129 

Cynara, 105. 

Chiococca, 103. 

CobBa, 111. 

Corysanthea, 123. 

Cynodon, 134. 



Oynoglossum, 111. 

DIAPENSIACE^, 83, 109 

DKOSERACE^I, 82, 98. 

Epiphyllanthus, 101. 

Cynorchis, 121 

Diascia, 112. 

Drosophyllum, 98. 

Epiphyllum, 100. 

Cynosurus, 134. 

Dicentra, 87 

Dryas. 97 

Epipremnum, 132. 

Cypella, 124 

Dichonsandra, 128 

Drymoglossum, 135. 

Episfia, 114 

CYPERACK/E, 85, 133. 

Dichroa, 97 

Drymophlums, 130. 

EQUI8ETACE^, 85, 136. 

Cyperorchis, 123. 

Dichrostachys, 95 

Drynarm, 135. 

Equisetum, 135. 

Cyperus, 133 

Dick.sonm, 136. 

Dryoptens, 136. 

Eragroitia, 134. 

Cyphomandra, 112. 

Dichptora, 114 

Drypetes, 118 

Eranthoinum, 114. 

Oyphokentia, 131. 

Dictamnus, 91 

Duohesnea, 97. 

Eranthis, 86 

Cyphophcemx, 130. 

Dictyosperma, 130 

Dudleya, 98 

Eremot itrus, 91 

Cyphosperma, 130. 

Dicyrta, 113 

Dugurtia, 86. 

Errmospatha, 131. 

Cypnpcdium, 121. 

Didymochlsena, 136 

Duhchmm, 133. 

Eremostac hys, 116. 

Cyrilla, 91 

Didymosperma, 130. 

Duranta, 114. 

Errnmrus, 127. 

CYKILLACE.E, 81, 91. 

Dieffenbachia, 131. 

Duno, 90 

Ena, 123. 

Cyrtandra, 114. 

Dieranm, 124 

Duvaha, 110 

Enauthus, 133. 

Cyrtaiithus, 124 

Diervilla, 102 

Duvernoia, 114 

Erica, 108 

Cyrtocarpa, 92. 

Digitalis, 113. 

Dyckia, 126. 

ERICACK^:, 83, 108. 

Cyrtomium, 136 

Dillema, 86 

Dypsis, 130 

Erigcnia, 101. 

Cyrtopodmm, 122. 

DILLENIACEA;, 80, 86. 

Dyschonste, 114. 

Engcron, 105. 

Cyrtobpenna, 131 

Dimorphotheca, 107. 

Ennacoa, 94. 

Cyrtostachys, 130. 

Dioclea, 04 

EBENACE^B, 83, 109. 

Emms, 113 

Cystoptens, 136 

Dionaea, 98. 

Ebenus, 95 

Enobotrya, 96 

Cytisus, 94. 

Dioon, 120 

Ecbalhum, 100 

Enocophahis, 106. 

Diosscorea, 123. 

Eccreniocarpus, 1 13. 

Eriochilua, 123 

Daboecia, 108. 

DlOSCOKEACEA], 84, 123. 

EC he vena, 98 

Eriogoninn, 117. 

Dactyhs, 134. 

Diosma, 91 

Echidnopbis, 110. 

Enophorum, 133. 

Dartyloctcmum, 134. 

Diosp>ros, 109 

Eehinaoeo,, 106 

Enophvllum, 106. 

Dspdalacaiithus, 114. 

Diostea, 115 

Echmoraotus, 100 

Enopsis, 123 

Dsemonorops, 129. 

Dipcadi, 128. 

Echmocereus, 101 

Enostomon, 91. 

Dalilui, 106 

Dipelta, 102 

Ethiuoc-hloa, 133 

Erlangea, 107. 

Dais, 117 

Diphyllcia, 87. 

Echinocy^tis, 100 

Erodiuiii, 90. 

Dalbergia, 94. 

Diphysa, 95 

Echinopanax, 102. 

Kruca, 87 

Dalca, 95 

Dipidax, 128 

Echmops, 105 

Eryiigium, 101. 

Dalechampia, 119. 

Dipladoma, 111 

Erhmopsis, 101 

Erysimiim, 88. 

Dahbarda, 97. 

Diplurrhena, 124 

Erhmostachj s, 126 

Erythoa, 129 

Dtimiuicanthus, 103. 

Diplazuim, 136 

Echitob, 111 

Er\thra>a, 110. 

Danae, 126 

Diploitlottis, 92. 

Eohium, 111 

Erythnnii, 95 

Daniea, 135 

Diploljpna, 91 

Edgeworthia, 117 

Erythfonmm, 128 

Daphne, 117 

Diplothemmm, 129. 

Ehretia, 111 

ER\THROXYLAC K/K, 81, 90. 

Daphmphyllum, 118. 

DIPS \C\CE A, 82, 1()3. 

Eichhornia, 128 

Erythroxylou, 90 

Darlingtonia, 87. 

Dip-ucus, 103 

ELfCAONACEe, 84, 117. 

Es< allonia, 97 

Dasjlinon, 127. 

Dipterorna, 92 

Elieagmis, 117 

Eschst holtzia, 87. 

Datisca, 85 

Dirra, 117 

Elffiis, 129 

Es(ontna, 101 

DAUSCA< &, 85. 

DISH, 121 

ELOC\KP\CK/E, 81, *)0 

EIK alyptiih, l )8 

Datura, 112 

Disunthus, 98 

ElteoOcirpus, 90 

Eiulmndium, 99 

D.uu'iib, 101 

Di-,o(artus, 100. 

Ela>odendron, 92, 125 

D<i\:ilha, 130. 

Disporum, 128 

ElaphogloihUin, 135 

Euchl,Tii!i, 1'33 

Davidid, 102 

Dibsotvs, 99 

Eloorhans 133 

Eucnidc, 100 

Debregeasia, 118 

Distichhs, 134 

Elettana, 125 

Euconiis, 12S 

Doraisneti, H7. 

Dibtiftm, 113 

Elousino, 1.34 

Euconmn i, H<> 

Decodon, 99 

Distyhum, 98. 

Eleuthcnne, 124. 

EUCOMMI\( h * , SO, 86 

Decumana, 97. 

Dnms, 123 

Elhotti.i, 108 

Emryphw, 89 

Deenngia, 116. 

DizyKothooa, 102. 

Elodea, 120 

EUCKYPHIA( E, 81, 89. 

Demanthe, 98 

Docynia, 96 

Elsholtzi-i, 116. 

Eugenia, ')') 

Delarbroa, 101 

Doderatheon, 109. 

Elymua, 131 

Eulophia, 122 

Delavaya, 92 

Dodomea, 92 

Emilia, 107 

Eulophiella, 122 

Delphinium, 86. 

Dohchos, 94 

Einmeruiuthp, 111 

Eupatonum, 105 

Dendrobium, 123. 

Dombeya, 90. 

Emmonoptoiys, 103 

Euphorbia, 119 

Deridrocalaruus, 134. 

Doodia, 136 

P^VIPETRACE E, 84, 119. 

EUPHORDIACE^;, 84, 118. 

Dendiomeeori, 87. 

Dorema, 101 

Empetrum, 119 

Euphoria, 92 

Dennstiedtia, 136. 

Doromeum, 107. 

Encclia, 106 

Euptelea, 86. 

Deutaria, 88 

Dorstema, 118. 

Encephalartos, 120. 

Eurya, 89 

Depana, 136. 

Doryahs, 88 

Enkianthus, 108 

Euryalo, 87. 

Dems, 94. 

Doryanthes, 125 

Fmnealophus, 124. 

Euryrlea, 125 

Dcschampsia, 134. 

Dory op tens, 135. 

Entada, 94 

Euiyops, 107 

Desmanthus, 'K> 

Dossinia, 122 

Entuha, 90 

Euscaphis, 92 

Desma/erm, 1.34. 

Douglasia, 109 

Enterolobiura, 93. 

Eustrephus, 126. 

Desmodium, 94 

Downingia, 107. 

Eomecon, 87 

flutaxia, 95 

Desmoncus, 131. 

Draba, 88 

EpArmnACBAs, 83, 108. 

Euterpe, 130. 

Deutzia, 97 

Dracama, 127. 

Epacris, 108 

Evodia, 91. 

Diacnurn, 122 

Draeorephalum, 115. 

Ephedra, 120 

Evonvmus, 92. 

Diandrolyra, 134. 

Dracontium, 131. 

Epidendnim, 122. 

Exacuin, 110. 

Dianella, 127 

Dracunculus, 131. 

Epiga-a, 10S 

Excu-cana, 119. 

Dianthera, 114. 

Dmnia, 128 

Epilohnmi, 99 

Exochorda, 96. 

Dianthus, 89. 

Drmiys, 86 

Epuiieditnn, 87. 

Exorrhiza, 131 

Diapeiisia, 109. 

Drosera, 98. 

Epipactis, 122. 

Exostenima, 103. 



Fabiana, 112. 

Gaylussacia, 108. 

Guaiacum, 90. 

Hepatica, 86. 

FAOAf'EJB, 84, 119. 

Gazariia, 107. 

Guazuma, 90. 

Heracleum, 101. 

Fagelia, 95. 

Geissorhiza, 124. 

Gucttarda, 103. 

Herbertia, 124. 

Fagopyrum, 117. 

Geitonoplesium, 126. 

GUP vina, 117. 

Hentiera, 90 

Fagus, 119. 

Gelsemium, 110 

Guizotia, 106. 

Hermodaetylus, 124. 

Fallugia, 97. 

Genipa, 103 

Gunnera, 98. 

Hernandia, 1 17 

Faradaya, 115. 

Genista, 94 

Gurarua, 100. 

Herniana, 89 

Fatsia, 102 

Gentiana, 110. 

Gutierrezia, 105. 

Herpestib, 113. 

Fedia, 103. 


GUTTIFER.B, 81, 89. 

Herpetospernmm, 100. 

Feijoa, 98 

Geodorum, 123. 

Guzmama, 126. 

Hesperantha, 124. 

Felicia, 105 

Geonoma, 131 

CJymnooladus, 95. 

Hesperethusa, 91 

Fcndlcra, 97. 

GERANIACE^:, 81, 90. 

Gymnolomia, 107. 

Hespens, 88 

Ferncha, 103. 

Geranium, 90 

Gymnopetalum, 100. 

Hessperocalhs, 127. 

Feronia, 90 

Gerardia, 113. 

GymnoptcTis, 136. 

Husporoehiron, 111. 

Feromella, 90. 

Gcrbeia, 107 

Gymnospona, 92 

Heterarithcra, 128. 

Ferraria, 124. 

GcsiiiTia, 113 

Gymno.starhys, 132. 

Hcteropappus, 105. 

Ferula, 101. 

GEWNERIACE*:, 83, 113. 

Gynandropsis, 88. 

Heteroi)hragma, 113. 

Festuea, 134. 

Gethyllw, 125 

Gynermm, 134. 

Heterosmilax, 126. 

Fieus, 118 

Geum, 97 

Gynura, 107. 

Heterospathe, 130 

Filipendula, 97. 

fJilia, 111 

(Jvpsophila, 89. 

Heuchera, 97. 

Fittoiua, 111 

Gilibeitia. 102 

Hevea, 119 

Fitzioya, 120 

Gillenia, 90 

Habenaria, 121. 

Hexisea, 122. 

Flacourtia, 88 

Gmkgo, 119 

Haberlaea, 114. 

Hibbertia, 86. 

FLArouiniACE, 80, 88. 

GlNKGOArEJE, 84, 119. 

Haequetia, 101. 

Hibisrms, 89. 

Flennngia, 95 

GithopsH, 108 


Hidalgf)a, 106. 

Fluggea 118 

Hieramim, 107. 

Fa-nuulum, 101 

Glatumni, 87 

Haemaria, 122. 

Hieroehloe, 134. 

Fokierna, 120 

Glaux, 109 

Hasmatoxylon, 95. 

Hillebrandia, 100 

Fontanesia, 109 

Gleditsia, 95 

Hakea, 117. 

Hipppastnim, 124 

Forsythia, 109 

Gleiehema, 1 30 

Haleiia, 109. 


Fortunearia, 98 

GU-K HfcNM(Et, f 85, 130 

Hahrnod^ndron, 95 

Hippocrppis, 95 

Fortunella, 91 

Glincidia, 9 r > 

Hallena, 112 

Hippomane, 119 

Fothergilla, 98 

Glohha, 125 


HippophatS 117 

Fouquipna, 89 

Globulana, 1H 

H VM AMELTDACE^B, 82, 98. 

Hippuris, 98 

FoiQL ILK! \CE.E, 81, 89 


Hatnamelis, 98 

Hodgsoma, 100 

Fragana, 97 

Gloundion, 118 

Hameha, 103. 

HorTmaimia, 103 

I 1 rancoa, 97 

Glonosa, 128 

Haplocarpha, 107. 

Hoffmanseggia, 95. 

t rankema, 85 

Gloxinia, 113 

Hardenbcrgia, 95. 

Hohenbergia, 126. 


Gbtena, 134. 

Hariota, 100 

Hohena, 90 

Fraiera, 110 

Gl\< m<>, 95 

Harppphyllum, 93. 

Holbcplha; 87. 

Fraximis, 109 

GlvoMins, 90 

Harnma, 101 

Holcus, 133 

Freesm, 124 

GhrM-ihi/a, 95 

Hartwegia, 122 

Holodiseus, 96. 

Fremontia, 90 

Ginehna, 115 

Histmgsia, 127. 

Holothnx. 123 

Frevnnetia, 1 Jl 

GNKTAJFI:, 84, 120 

Ha\\orthia, 127. 

Homalanthus, 119. 

Fntillana, 128 

Gmdia, 117 

Huzirdia, 105 

Homalomena, 131. 

Fruhchia, 116. 

Gu'thra, S9 

Hebenstreitia, 114 

Homena, 124 

Fuchsia, 99 

Gomeza, 123 

Heditia, 126 

Homogyne, 107. 

Funmria, 87. 

Gomphc rarpus, 110 

Hedeoma, 116. 

Hoodia, 110 

FUM \RIACKJB, 80, 87. 

Gomphrena, 1 1(>. 

Hedera, 102. 

Hordeum, 134. 

lunkui, 127 

Gongoru, 123 

Hedychmm, 125. 

Hosaekia, 94 

Furrrteu, 125 

Gomoma, 110 

Hedj^anim, 94. 

Hottoma, 109. 

Fussea, 86 

Goniophlebumi, 135 

Hedvscepe, 130 

Houlletia, 123. 

Goiiolohu*. 110 

Heena, 99 

Houstorna, 103. 

Gaillardia, 106. 

Goodema, 85 

Helennnn, 106. 

Houttuyma, 117. 

Galattia, 95. 


Heliamphora, 87. 

Hovea, 95. 

Galanthus, 124. 

Good) a, 91 

Hehanthella, 106. 

Hovenia, 92. 

Gal ax, 109. 

Goodvera, 122 

Helianthemum, 88 

Howca, 130. 

Galeandra, 122. 

Gordonia, 89 

Hehanthua, 106 

Hoya, 110. 

Gnledupa, 95. 

Gossypium, 89. 

Hehrhry'Mim, 105 

Hudsoma, 88. 

Galega, 95 

Gouania, 92 

Helicodieeros, 131. 

Huernia, 110. 

Galeopsis, 116. 

Govenia, 123. 

Hehcoma, 125 

Hulsea, 106. 

Galeorchis, 121. 

Grahowskia, 112. 

Hehocereus, 101. 

Humata, 136. 

Gaiiuin, 103 

GRAMINE.E, 85, 133. 

Hehophila, 88. 

Humea, 105. 

(5 ilplumia, 90 

Grarnmangis, 123. 

HehopMs, 106. 

Humulua, 118. 

Galtonrt, 128 

Grarnmanthes, 98 

Ilehotropmm, 111. 

Hunnenianma, 87. 

Gamogyne, 132 

Gratnniatophyllum, 123. 

Helipterum, 105. 

Huntena, 111 

Gamolepis, 107. 

Graptophyllum, 114. 

Helleborus, 86. 

Huntleya, 123. 

Garcmia, 89. 

Gratiola, 113. 

Heloiuas, 128. 

Hura, 119. 

Gardenia, 103. 

Gravesia, 99. 

Helomopsis, 128. 

Hutchmsia, 87. 

Garrya, 102. 

Grevillea, 117. 

Helwmgia, 102 

Hyacmthus, 128. 

GARRYACEJB, 82, 102. 

Grewia, 90. 

Helxmo, 118. 

Hysenanehe, 118. 

Garuga, 91. 

Greyia, 92. 

Hcmerocallis, 127. 

Hydrangea, 97. 

Gastena. 127. 

Gnas, 99. 

Hemieyclia, 118. 

Hydrautis, 86. 

Gaulthena, 108. 

Gnffinia, 125. 

Henngraphis, 114. 

Hydriastele, 130. 

Gaura, 99 

Gnndelia, 105. 

Hemiomtis, 135. 

H YD HOC H YKI'1 WEJE, 84,120 

GausRia, 130 

Griselmia, 102 

Hemiteha, 136. 

Hydrodians 121 



Hydrocotyle, 101. 

JUGLANDAOE.E, 84, 118. 

LEGUMINOS*;, 82, 93. 

Litchi, 92 


Juglans, 118. 

Leiophvllurn, 108 

Lithospermum, 111. 

Hydrophyllum, 111. 

JUNCAC'EJE, 85, 129. 

Leitnena, 118 

Lithra^a, 93 

HydrotuMiia, 124. 

Juncus, 129. 

LMINFUB \Cf -F, S4, 118. 

Litsea, 117 

Hylocereu.s, 100. 

Jumperus, 120. 

Lemaireoferrus, 101 

Littoma, 128 

Hymcncea, 95. 

Jussieua, 99. 

Ldima, 1 il 

Livistona, 129. 

Hymenanthcra, 88. 

Justicia, 114. 

LEMNAC!' K, S5, 131 

Loasa, 100. 

Hymeuooalhs, 125 

Lpnoph\lluin, 98 

LOASACE^E, 82, 100. 


Kadsura, 86. 

Lobelia, 107. 

Hymenophyllum, 135. 

Ksempferia, 125. 
Kageneckia, 96. 

LENIII.ULVRM E,I, 83, 113. 


Lodoicea, 129. 

Hymenosporum, 88. 

Kalanchoe, 98, 

Leonotib, 11C 

Lccselm, 111 

Hyophorbe, 130. 

Kalnua, 108. 

001 ' 

Logania, 110 

Hyoseyarnuf, 112. 
Hyospathp, 131. 

Kendnekia, 99. 
Kermedya, 95 

Leontodon, 107 
Leontopodnim, 105. 

LOGANIAC'E^J, 83, 110. 

Loiseleuria, 108 

Hypecoum, 87 

Kentia, 130 

Lepach\ s, 100 

Lohum, 134 

HYPERICACE^E, 81, 89. 

Kpiitiopsib, 130 

Lepanthes, 123 

Lomatia, 117 

Hypencum, 89 

Kernera, SS 

Lepulagathis, 114. 

Lornatium, 101 

Hyphtene, 129 

Kerria, 97 

Lepidium, 87 

Lomatophyllum, 127. 

Hypochujrih, 107. 

Keihtmgiella, 95. 

Lt-ptactma, 103. 

Lonas, 106 

Hypolepis, 135. 

Keteleena, 120 

Leptairhena, 98 

Lonchitis, 136. 

Hypolytruin, 133. 

Kigeh.i, 113 

Leptocarpha, 107. 

Lour hocarpus, 95 

Hypoxis, 125 

Kitaibeha, 90 

Leptothilus, 136. 

Lome era, 102 

Hyssopusi 116. 

Kitclimgia, 98. 

Leptochloa, 134 

Lopezia, 99 

Klugia, 114 

Leptocodon, 108 

Lophantlms, 115 

Iberis, 87 

Kniphofia, 127. 

Leptodermia, 103. 

Lophorereus, 100 

Ic^ClNArE^, 85. 

Kochia, 116 

Lep top tens, 135 

Lophophora, 100 

Idebia, 88 

Koelreutena, 92. 

Leptospermum, 98. 

LORANTHACE^:, 84, 117. 

Ilex, 91 

Kolkwitzia, 102. 

LeptohMie, 106 

Lorarithus, 117 


Kopsia, 110 

Lep totes, 122 

Loropetalum, 98 

Ilhcmm, 86 

Kostelelzkva, 90. 

Lespedeza, 94 

Lotius, 94 

Impatiens, 90. 

Kramena, 95 

Lettsoima, 111 

Loxoscaphe, 136. 

Imperata, 134 

Kraussia, 103. 

Leucadeudron, 117 

Lucuha, 103 

Inoarvillea, 113. 

Kngia, 107. 

Leucacna, 94 

LiKtirna, 109 

Indigofera, 95. 

Kuhma, 107. 

Leuchtenbei gia, 100 

Ludwigia, 99 

Inga, 93 

Kunzea, 99. 

Leucoeoiyne, 128 

Lueddemanma, 123. 

Ingenhausia, 90. 

Kydia, 89. 

Leuco<rmurn, 127 

LuphiM, 90 

Inobulbon, 123. 

Leucojum, 124 

Luetkea, 96 

Inula, 105 

LABIV, 83, 115. 

Leucophyllum, 112 

Luff a, 100 

lochroma, 112 

Laburnum, 94 

Leucobtegia, 136 

Luisia, 123 

lone, 123 

Laoama, 123 

Leucothoe, 108 

Lunaria, 88 

lonopsidium, 87. 

Lachrnaha, 128 

LevistieuTn, 101. 

Lupinus, 94 

lonopsis, 123. 

Lactuca, 107 

Lewisia, 89 

Lyeaste, 122 

Ipomtra, 111. 

Ltelia, 122 

Leycesteria, 102 

Lychnis, 89 

Iresinp, 116. 

Liehooattleya, 122. 

Liatns, 105 

L>um, 112 

Inartea, 130. 

Lagenaria, 100 

Libertia, 124 

Lycopersicum, 112. 

IRIDACE^S, 81, 124. 

Lagerstroemia, 99. 

Libocedrus, 120. 


Ins, 124 

Lagetta, 117 

Lituala, 129 

Lyeopodnmi, 134 

Isatis, 87 

Lagunaria, 89. 

Lightfootia, 108. 

Lycoris, 124 

Isoohilus, 122. 

Lagurus, 134 

Ligustiriim, 101. 

Lygodmm, 135 

Isoloma, 113 

Laman kia, 134 

Ligustiuin, 110. 

Lyoina, 10H 

Ibonandia, 109 

Lamium, 116 

LILIACE^E, 85, 126. 

Ljonothanmus, 97. 

I so py rum, 86 

Landolphia, 111 

Lihum, 128 

Lysichitum, 131. 

Isotoma, 107. 

Lantana, 114 

Lmmtodea, 122 

Lysiloma, 93 

Isotna, 122. 

Lapageria, 126 

LlMNANTHACE^E, 81, 90. 

Lysimachia, 109. 

Itea, 97. 

Lapeyrousia, 124. 

Limnanthes, 90 

L>sionotus, 114. 

Iva, 106. 

Larchzabala, 87 

Lmmobium, 121 

LYTH RACEME, 82, 99. 

Ixia, 124 


Limnochans, 132. 

L> thrum, 99. 

Ixiolinon, 125. 

Larix, 120 

Limonia, 91 

liora, 103 

Lasthema, 106 

LTNACKVE, 81, 90. 

Maaekia, 94 

Latania, 129. 

Lmaria, 112. 

Maba, 109 

Jacaranda, 113. 

Lathyrus, 94 

Lmdclofia, 111 

Mabra, 119 

Jacksoma, 95 

LAURACE^, 84, 117. 

Lmdenbergia, 113. 

Maeadamia, 117. 

Jacobima, 114. 

Laurcha, 117 

Lmnspa, 102. 

Macaranga, 119 

Jaequemontia, 111. 

Laurus, 117. 

Linospadix, 130. 

Macfadyema, 113. 

Jaequmia, 109 

Lavandula, 115. 

Lmosyris, 105. 

Marleama, 108 

Jampsm, 97 

Lavanga, 91. 

Lmum, 90. 

Madura, 118 

Janusia, 90 

Lavatera, 89 

Lipans, 122. 

Maeodes, 122 

Japarandiba, 99. 

Lawsoma, 99. 

Lippia, 114. 

Macroplpctrum, 123. 

Jasione, 107. 

Layia, 106 

Liquidambar, 98. 

Macroscepis, 110 

Jasmmum, 109. 

Lebidieropsis, 118 

Lmodendron, 86. 

Maciozamia, 120. 

Jatropha, 119 


Linopo, 127. 

M iJdc ma, 97. 

Jatrorrhiza, 86. 

Lccythia, 99. 

Lisianthus, 110. 

Madia, 106. 

..'pffersonia, 87. 

Ledum, 108. 

Lissochilus, 122. 

Mojsa, 109 

Joannesia, 119 

Leea, 92 

Listera, 122 

Magnolia, 86. 

Jubtea, 129. 


Listrostachya. 123 

MAONOLIACE^J, 80, 86. 



Maherma, 90. 

Mentha, 116 

Muehlenbcrgia, 134. 

Notyha, 123. 

Mahonia, 87 

Mcnt/eha, 100 

Muilla, 128 

Nuphar, 87. 

Maianthemum 127. 

Mcnyanthfc-* 110 

Musa, 125 


Malacocarpus, 100. 

Menzieaia, 108. 

MUHACE.-E, 85, 125. 

Nyctocereua, 101. 

Malcoima, 88. 

Meratia, 86 

Musoan, 128 

Nymphaea, 87 

MalloUib, 119. 

Mercunahs, 118. 

Musmeon, 101. 

NYMPH^ACE^:, 80, 87 

Malope, 89 

Merendera, 128. 

Mussienda, 103. 

Nymphoides, 110. 

Malpighia, 90 

Merope, 91 

MYOPOBACE.E, 83, 114. 

Nysaa, 102 


Mertensid, 111. 

Myoporum, 114. 

NYS8ACE.E, 82, 102. 

Malva, 90 

Mertya, 102. 

Myosotidnim, 111. 

MALVACEAE, 81, 89. 

Mesembryanthemum, 101. 

Myosotis, 111 

Oakesia, 128 

Malvastrum, 90. 

Mesospimdium, 123 

Mynoa, 118 

Oberoma, 123. 

Malvavisc us, 89 

Mespilus, 96 

MYRTCACE>E, 84, 118. 

Ochna, 91 

Mdinmea, 89 

Metrosideros, 98 

Mynoana, 89 

OCHNACE^J, 81, 91. 

Mamnulldna, 100. 

Mctroxylou, 131. 

Mynocephalus, 105. 

Oohrocarpus, 89. 

Mandevilla, 111 

Meuni, 101 

Mjnophyllum, 98 

Ocimum, 115 

Mandragora, 112 

Miohauxid, 108. 

Mynstitd, 117 

Octomcna, 123. 

Mancttia, 103 

Mieholm, 86 

MYRISTICACK*:, 84, 117. 

Odontuduixia, 111. 

Mangife ra, 92. 

Michohtzia, 110. 

Myrrhis, 101 

Odontoglossum, 123. 

Mamcana, 131. 

Mioranthus, 114. 

MYUSINACKJB, 83, 109. 

Odontosona, 136. 

Mamhot, 119 

Microcitrus, 91. 

Myrhino, 109 

(Enocarpus, 131. 

Mapania, 133 

Mitroty<as, 120. 

MYHTACE^;, 82, 98 

CEnothora, 99 

Maprounia, 119 

Mirroktntid. 130. 

Myrtillooaotus, 101. 

OLACACE^B, 81, 91. 

Mdrdiitd, 125 

Mieiolcpia, 136 

Myrtus, 99 

Olax, 91 

MARANT\CKt, 85, 125 

Muiomeles, 96. 

Mystaddium, 123. 

Oldenburgia, 107. 

Marattia, 135 

Mi< roinelurn, 90 

Oldenlandia, 103. 

Najgeha, 113 

Oldfieldia, 118. 

Mu rophonix, 131. 

NVIADA.CE^:, 85, 132. 

Olea, 110 

Mane a, 124 

Miorostyhs, 122. 

Nandma, 87. 

OLEAOEE, 83, 109. 

Marruhium, 115 

Mikama, 105. 

Napaea, 89 

Olearia, 105. 

MarMlema, 110. 

Milla, 127 

Napoloona, 99. 

Ohgobotrja, 128. 

Marshalha, 100 

Milkttid, 95. 

Narcissus, 124 

Ohveranthua, 98. 

Marsilea, 130 

Miltonid, 123. 

Narthenum, 128. 

Omphaha, 119 

M\11MLEAEE, 85, 136 

Mimosa, 91 

Nathubia, 109 

Omphalodes, 111 

Martmezia, 129 

MlMOSEE, 81. 

Nauml)ergia, 109. 

ONAGRACE.E, 82, 99. 

Martvuia, 111 

Mimulus, 113. 

Neilha, 9(> 

Onoidmm, 123 

MARIYM\< KK, 8J, 114 

Mimusops, 109. 

Nclumbo, 87 

Onooba, 88 

Masde\alha, 122 

Mmkfltrsia, 95. 

Ncmast>hs, 124. 

Onoosperma, 130. 

Mat>sjingoa 12(5 

Mirabilis, 11G 

Nemesia, 112 

Onohryohis, 94. 

Mavwmd,' 128 

Mihcanthus 133. 

Nemopanthus, 91. 

Onoclea, 186. 

Matrirana, 107 

Mitoholla, 103. 

Nemophila, 111. 

Ononis, 95 

MatteiKoia, 136 

MiMla, 97 

Nenga, 130 

Onopordon, 105. 

Matthiold, 88 

Mitrana, 1H. 

Neobenthamia, 122. 

Onosma, 111 

Maurandia, 112 

Mitnostigma, 103 

Neoglaziovia, 126. 

Onosmodium, J.11. 

Mauntia, 129 

Modecca, 100. 

Noog>aie, 122 

Onychmm, 135 

Maxillana, 123 

Mohria, 135. 

Neolauohea, 123 


Maxiiinluina, 129 

Molima, 134 

Neomoholsoma, 131. 

Ophioglossum, 135. 

Maxinuhancd, 8K 

Molopospermum, 101 

Neottia, 123 

Ophiopogon, 127 
Ophr>s, 121 

Mazus, 113 

Mnmordica, 100 

Nepenthes, 117 

Ophthalmoblapton, 119 

MoconopMS, 87. 

Mon.irda, 115 

Nepetd, 115 

Oplismenus, 133 

Medeola, 128 

Monardella, 116 

Ncphrolcpis, 136 

Opuntia, 100. 

Modioago, 95 

Monoses, 108 

Nephth>tis, 131. 

ORCHIDACEJE, 84, 121. 

Modmilla, 99. 

MONIMIACEE, 84, 117. 

Neptuma, 44 

Orchis, 121. 

Megaelmmm, 123. 

Monogramma, 135 

Norino, 1D5 

Oroocarya, 111 

Megarrhiza, 100. 

MonoU nd, 99 

Nonuni, 110 

Troocereus, 101. 

Melalouea, 98 

Monomcria, 123 

Nertera, 103 

Oreodoxa, 130. 

Melanthmm, 128 

MoNOlKOPAOE.E, 83, 108. 

Nor\iha, 123 

Orcopanax, 102. 

Melasphforula, 124. 

Monsoma, 90 

Nom\iodid, 123 

Origanum, 116 

Melastoma, 99 

Munstera, 131 
Montanoa, 107. 


Orixa, 91 
Ormthidium, 123. 

Melia, 91 

Montia, 89 

Nirandra, 112 

Onuthocephalus, 123. 

MELIACE^C, 81, 91 
Mohanthus, 92 

Moorea, 123. 
MORACEE, 84, 118. 
Mortra, 124 

Nicotiana, 112 
Nidularunn, 126 
Nieronil)ergia, 112. 

Onuthochilus, 123 
Ormthogalum, 128. 
Ormthopus, 94. 

Mehoa, 134. 

Morma, 103. 

Nigella, 80 


Mehrocra-, 92 

Moniidd, 103. 

Nipa, 131 

Orontium, 131 

Mohlotus, 95. 

Monnga, 93 

Niphfp.% 113 

Oroxylon, 113 

Mohnis, 134. 

MORINCJACE*:, 82, 93 

Nolana, 112 

Orthocarpus, 113. 

Mehosma, 92. 

Monsia, 87 

NOLANACK.E, 83, 112. 

Orthosanthua, 124. 

Melissa, 116 

Morniodrs, 122. 

Nolma, 127 

Oryza, 133. 

Melittis, 115. 

Morrenia, 110. 

Nopalea, 100 

Oryzopsis, 134. 

Melothna, 100. 

Moru-,, 118 

Nothofagus, 119. 

Osbeokia, 99 

Memscium, 136 

Mosrhosma, 115 

Notholuena, 135 

Osmanthus, 109. 


Muouna, 95 

Notholtus, 134 

Osmaronia, 97. 

Memspornium, 86. 

Muehlenbeckin. 116. 

Nothoiscordum, 128. 

Osmorhiza, 101. 



Osmunda, 135. 

Pedilanthus, 119. 

Phyllodooo, 108 

Plumerm, 110. 

OSMUNDACE^E, 85, 135. 

Pelargonium, 90. 

Phyllostachys, 134. 

Poa, 134 

Ostcomeles, 96. 

Pelecyphora, 100. 

Phyniatodes, 135. 

Podachajmum, 106. 

Osteospermum, 107. 

Pehosanthes, 128. 

Physalis, 112. 

Podalyna, 95 

Ostrowskm 108. 

Pelliea, 135 

Physarm, 88 

Podoourpus, 120. 

Ostrya, 119. 

Pelhonia, 118. 

Physianthus, 110. 

Podolepis, 105. 

Othonna, 107. 

Peltandra, 131. 

Physocarpus, 96. 

Podophyllum, 87. 

Ouratea, 91. 

Pol tana, 87. 

Physoptychis, 88. 

Podostigma, 110. 

Ourisia, 113 

Peltophorum, 95. 

Phy so siphon, 123. 

Pogoma, 122. 

OXALIDACE.E, 81, 90. 

Penmsetum, 133. 

Physostegia, 115. 

Pogostomon, 110. 

Oxahs, 90 

Pentaohceta, 105. 

Physurus, 122 

Pomeiana, 95 

Oxera, 115 

Pentapetes, 90. 

Phytelephas, 131 

Poivrea, 98 

Oxyanthus, 103. 

Pentapterygiurn, 108. 

Phyteuma, 108 

Polamsia, 88 

Oxydendrum, 108. 

Pcntas, 103 

Phytolacca, 116 

POLEMONIACE^;, 83, 111. 

Oxylobmm, 94. 

Pentstemon, 112. 

PllYTOLACCArB^!, 84, 116. 

Polemomum, 111. 

Oxypetalum, 110. 

Peperumia, 117. 

Piaranthm, 110. 

Pohanthea. 125 

Oxypolis, 101. 

Peponia, 100 

Pieea, 120 

Pohothyrsis, 88. 

Oxvtenanthera, 134. 

Peraphyllum, 97. 

Picrasma, 91. 

Polha, 128 

Oxytropis, 95. 

Pereskia, 100 

Pions, 108 

Polycycms, 123. 

Perobkiopsis, 100. 

Pigafetta, 131. 

Polygala, 88. 

Paclura, 90 

Peril -onie, 106 

Pilea, 118 

POLYOALACE^, 81, 88 

Pachyeereus, 101. 

Peril la, 116 

Pilorarpus, 91. 

POLYOONACE^E, 84, 116 

Pachyphytum, 98. 

Penploea, 110 

Prmelea, 117. 

Polygoiiatum, 127. 

Pachy podium, 111. 

Penstena, 123 

Pinu'iita, 99. 

Polygonum, 117 

Pachyrhizus, 94 

Penstrophe, 114. 

PIN \CE.i3, 84, 120. 

Polyinnm, 106 

Pachysandra, 119 

Pernettya, 108 

Pmanga, 130 

POLYPODIACE*:, 85, 135 

Pachystima, 92 

Perowskia, 115 

Pmcknoya, 103. 

Polypodmm, 135 

Pachystrorna, 119. 

Persea, 117. 

Pmelha, 131. 

Polypteris, 106 

Psedena, 103 

Pcrtva, 107. 

Pinguicula, 113. 

Polyrrhiza, 123 

Pseonia, 80 

Pesratorea, 123 

Pmus, 120 

Poly soi as, 102 

Polava, 89. 

Petalostemon, 95. 

Piper, 117 

Polystarhya, 122 

PalHota, 128. 

Potasites, 107 

PlPERACt^, 84, 117 

Pobbtithum, 136 

Palmrus, 92 

Petiveua, 116. 

Piptadonia, 9t 

Pomaderns, 92 

PALMVCE.E, 85, 129. 

Petroja, 114 

Piptanthus, 95 

Poncirus, 91 

Palmcruia, 107. 

Petrophytum, 96. 

Pipturus, 118 

Pontedena, 128 

Palumbma, 123. 

Petrosclmum, 101. 

Piqueria, 105 


Pamburua, 91. 

Pcttena, 94 

Piscidia, ( )4 

Ponthieva, 122 

Panax, 101 

Petunia, 112. 

Pisoma, 116 

Populus, 119 

Pancratium, 125 

Peucedanum, 101. . 

Pistacia, 92. 

Porana, 111 

P\ND4.NACE.E, 85, 131. 

Peumus, 117. 

Pistia, 131 

Poranthera, 118 

Pandanus, 131. 

Pfaffia, 11(3 

Pi^um, 94. 

Portenschlagia, 101. 

Pandorea, 113. 

Phaculm, 111. 

Pitcairnia, 126. 

Portulara, 89 

Panicurn, 1 i3 

Phaxlranassa, 125. 

Pithecoc tenium ,113 

PoitTULACACE^S, 81, 89. 

Pamsea, 123 

PhsedranthvH, 113. 

Pitherolobium, 93 

Posoqueria, 103. 

Papavei, 87. 

Phajus, 122 


Potamogeton, 132 

P\PAVERACE^E, 80, 87. 

Phakcuopsib, 123. 

Pittosporurn, 88 

Potentilla, 97. 

Papcxia, 91 

Phalans, 134 

Plaoea, 124 

Potenum, 97 

Paplutua, 123 

Phulocalhs, 124. 

Plagiauthus, 90 

Pothos, 131 

Paphiopodilum, 121. 

Phasoolus, 91 

Plagiobothrys, 111. 

Poiitoriji, 109 

Paradisea, 127. 

Phegopteris, 136 

Plagiospfimuni, 97 

Premna, 115. 

Paramignya, 91. 

Phcllodondron. 91 

PLuiera, 118 

Prcnanthes, 107. 

Parietana, 118. 

Philadelphus, 97 

PLANTA(JIN\rE^E, 83, 116 

Prestoma, 110. 

Paris, 12H 

Philesia, 126 

Plantago, lib 

Primula, 109 

Parkmsoma, 95 

Phihbertia, 110 

PLATAN ACE^:, 84, 118 


Pannenticra, 113. 

Phillyrea, 109 

Platanus, 118 

Prinsepia, 97 

Parnassia, 97 

Philodcndron, 131. 

Platonia, 89. 

Priomum, 129. 

Parochetus, 95 

Phlel)odmm, 135 

Platycarya, 118 

Pritchardia, 129. 

Paronyehia, 89. 

Phleum, 134 

Platy cerium, 135. 

Prochnyanthes, 125. 

Parrotia, 98. 

Phlogacanthua, 114. 

Platyclmia, 122 

Promensea, 123. 

Parrya, 88. 

Phlomis, 116 

Platycodon, 107. 

Pro80pi8, 94. 

Taisonsia, 111. 

Phlox, 111 

Platycrater, 97 

Prostanthera, 115. 

Parthcnium, 106 

Phcemx, 129 

Platylepis, 123 

Protea, 117. 

Parthenoeissus, 92. 

Pholidota, 122. 

Platystemon, 87 

PROTEACE^:, 84, 117. 

Pascaha, 106. 

Phoradendroii, 117. 

Platystigma, 87. 

Prunus, 97. 

Paspalum, 134 

Phormium, 127. 

Platytheca, 88 

Pseuderanthemum, 114. 

Passiflora, 100 

Photmia, 96. 

Plectocomia, 129. 

Pseudolarix, 120 


Phragmites, 134. 

Plcctranthus, 115 

Pseudopanax, 102 

Pastmaca, 101. 

Phragmopedilum, 121. 

Plectroma, 103. 

Pseudophoenix, 131. 

Patrmia, 103. 

Phryma, 114. 

Pleione, 122. 

Pseudotsuga, 120. 

Paulhnia. 92 

PHRYMACEJE, 83, 114. 

Pleiocarpa, 111. 

Psidmm, 98. 

Paulo wnia, 112. 

Phrynium, 125 

Pleiospermum, 91. 

Psilostrophe, 107. 

Pavctta, 103. 

Phygehus, 112 

Pleurothalbs, 122 

Psoralea, 95. 

Pavonia, H9. 

Phyllagathis, 99. 

Plocama, 103 

Psychotria, 103. 

Pectinaria, 110. 

Phyllanthus, 118. 

Plukenetia, 119 

Ptieroxylon, 91. 

PEDALIACE^E, 83, 114. 

Phylhtis, 136. 

PLUMBAGINACE^}, 83, 109 

Ptelea, 91. 

Pediculans, 113 

Phyllocladus, 120. 

Plumbago, 109 

Ptendmm, 135. 



Pteris, 135. 

Rheedia, 89. 

Salvia, 115 

Scutellaria, 116. 

Pteroeactus, 101 

Rheum, 117. 

Salvinia, 136 

Srutieana, 123 

Pterocarpus, 95. 

Rhexia, 99. 

SALVINIACE^C, 85, 136 

Scyphanthus, 100 

Pterocarya, IIP. 

Rhipidoptens, 136 

Sambucus, 102. 

Sebastiana, 119 

Pteroeeltis, 118. 

Rhipsahs, 100 

Sanchczm, 114 

Sec ale, 134 

Pterolobmm, 95. 

Rhizophora, 98. 

Sanderboma, 128. 

Seehmm, 100. 

Pteroma, 107 


Sanguinaria, 87. 

Secunnega, 118. 

Pterospermum, 90. 

Rhodochiton, 112. 

Sanguisorba, 97. 

Sedum, 98 

Pterostyhs, 123 

Rhododendron, 108 

Samcula, 101 


Ptcrostyrax, 109 

Rhodoleia, 98 

Sansevieria, 127 

Selagmella, 134 

Pty choccof us, 131. 
Ptychoraphis, 131 

Rhodomyrtus, 99. 
Rhodorhiza, 111 

SANTALACEAJ, 84, 1 17. 
Santalum, 117 

Selenia, 88. 

Ptyrhosperma, 130. 

Ilhodotharnus, 108 

Santohna, 106 

Selenirereus, 101. 

Puerana, 94. 

Rhodotypus, 97. 

Sanvitaliu, 106 

Selmum, 101. 

Pulmoriuria, 111 

Rhoeo, 129 

SAPINDACE^:, 81, 92. 

Semet arj>us, 92. 

Pultencea, 94 

Rhopaloblahte, 130 

Sapindus, 92. 

Sernele, 126. 

Puima, 99 

RhopaloHt>l, 130. 

Sapiuni, 119 

Seinpervivuni, 98. 

PUNICACE.G, 82, 99. 

Rhus, 93 

Sapouaria, 89. 

Senebiera. 87. 

Pufshia, 97 

Rh^nohanthus, 125. 

SAPOTACKA:, 83, 109. 

Seneoo, 107. 

Pusehkima, 128 

Rhynehosia, 95. 

Saraoa, 9.3 

Sequoia, 120.