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Full text of "Memoirs of the life of Vice-Admiral Lord Viscount Nelson"

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UNIVERSITY OP 
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PUBLISHED BY T. & W. BOONE, 

29, NEW BOND STREET. 



MAJOR-GENERAI. IV. F. F. NAFIER'S 

HISTORY OF THE WAR IN THE PENINSULA 
AND THE SOUTH OF FRANCE. 

NOW COMPLETE, IN 

6 vols. 8vo. containing 4104 pages, and 55 Plans, price £6. 

The Volumes sold separately, price 20s. each. 

*' THE FAITHFUXi, IMPARTIAI.; AND ELOQUENT HISTORIAN." 

Sir Robert Peel's Speech. 

" The great work of General Napier does undoubtedly record it, (national 
tribute to (hose engaged in the Peninsular War) and will continue to do so as 
long as the English language shall last." — ^Times. 



ALSO, BY MAJOR-GENERAL NAPIER. 

A REPLY TO LORD STRANGFORD'S " OBSERVATIONS" on some passages 
in Colonel Napier's History of the War in the Peninsula. Second Edition, 8vo. 
price Is. 

A REPLY TO VARIOUS OPPONENTS, particularly to " Strictures on Colonel 
Napier's History of the War in the Peniusula," together with Observations 
illustrating Sir John Moore's Campaign. 8vo. price 2s. 



MAJOR-GENERAL NAPIER'S JUSTIFICATION OF HIS THIRD VOLUME, 
forming a Sequel to his Reply to various Opponents, and containing some new 
and curious facts relative to the Battle of Albuera. 8vo. price 1^.6^. 



A LETTER TO GENERAL LORD VISCOUNT BERESFORD, being an Answer 
to his Lordship's assumed Refutation of Colonel Napier's Justification oi' his 
Third Volume. 8vo. price Is. 6d. 



COUNTER-REMARKS TO MR. DUDLEY MONTAGU PERCEVAL'S RE- 
MARKS upon some Passages in Colonel Napier's Fourth Volume of his His- 
tory of the Peninsular War. In 8vo. price Is. 6(/. 



The above Pamphlets are required to complete the early Editions. 
Second Edition, complete in 1 vol. 8vo. with Plans, 

THE CONQUEST OF SCINDE, 

WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE MILITARY TRANSACTIONS AND BATTLES OP 
Major-General Sir Charles J. Napier in that Country. 

BY MAJOR-GENERAL W. F. P. NAPIER, 

Author of" History oj' the War in the Peninsula.'' 
" As a commentary upon some remarkable political events, and daring military 
achievements, this volume vrill rapidly find a place in every soldier's library." — Atlas. 

"The Author is the historian of the Peninsular War, whose connection by blood 
with the gallant conqueror of Scinde affords a security for the authenticity of his 
fcources of information — some of which are the letters of Sir Charles himself — and 
whose higli character, as an author, as well as a soldier, is a guarantee for his fidelity 
in the use of his ample materials. We may add to the Author's other quahfications, 
an unflinching intrepid honesty, which makes him speak out, and utter the plain 
truth without considering whether it he unpalatable," — A$iatic Journal. 



2 Published by T. & W. Boone, 29, New Bond Street. 

Royal Quarto, on Indian Paper, price \s.Qd. 

PORTRAIT OF 

MAJOR-GENERAL SIR CHARLES JAMES NAPIER, 

CONQUEROR OF SCINDE. 

FROM A SKETCH BY MAJOR-GENERAL AV. F. P. NAPIER. 

" I must say tliat, after giving tlie fullest consideration to those operations, that I 
have never known an instance of a general officer who has shewn to a higher degree 
than he has done all the requisite qualifications to enable him to conduct great opera- 
tions. He has manifested the utmost discretion and prudence in the formation of his 
plans, the utmost activity in perfecting his preparations to ensure success; and finally 
tire utmost zeal, gallantry, and science, in carrying those plans and preparations into 
execution. I must say that the march of General Napier against Emaum Ghur was 
one of the most extraordinary marches I ever read of; and it was, I must say, most 
completely successful. He marched the army through the desert, with all the heavy 
guns, transporting all his materiel as well, and by this extraordinary march he 
deprived the enemy of all means of retreat." — Speech of the Duke of Wellington. 

" The taking of the fort of Emaum Ghur, was one of the most brilliant affairs ever 
undertaken and executed." — Speech of the Earl of Ripon. 

" To the example which he set the troops — inspiring an unparalleled confidence in 
their commander. — we must mainly attribute the success of the actions of Meeanee 
and Hyderabad." — Sjjeech of Sir Robert Peel. 



In one volume 8vo. price 7s. boards, 

REMARKS ON IVIII.ITARir I.AVr 

AND THE PUNISHMENT OF FLOGGING. 

BY MAJOR-GENERAL SIR CHARLES JAMES NAPIER, KC.B. 

" This work, we have several times taken occasion to remark, is far less known than 
it deserves to be, especially among the profession. It abounds in lessons of profound 
wisdom, delivered in tiie clearest langua.j;e, and it is as modestly as it is ably written ; 

.nor have we often met with a more amusing book. There are to be found in it many 
interesting and characteristic anecdotes, and there is a vein of quiet humour that is 
very diverting, but which interferes not at all with the serious purpose of the 
author, who has left upon every page traces of a benevolent heart and sound iu- 

-tellect." — Naval and Military Gazette. 



In a Box, price 10s. Gd. 

MZI.ITAR7 FIGURES 

FOR THE 

PRACTICE AND EXPLANATION 

OF THE 

"EXERCISE AND EVOLUTIONS OF THE ARMY," 

Accordinr) to Her Majesfi/'s Regulations ; 
.'\rranged for the Company, Battalion, and Light Infantry, I 

EY MAJOR HOSKINS, K.H, 

" Major Hopkins, of the old 43rd, in which corps he served with distinction, has 
invented a set of Military Figures, arranged for the illustration and practice of the evolu- 
tions of the Infantry, according to Her Majesty's regulations, and exceedingly well 
calculated to effpct their object. Being adapted to the movements either of the Battalion, 
Cojnpany, or Light Infantry, these Figures, which are accompanied by an Explanatory 
f arapldet, and are very properly dedicated to Lord Fitzroy Somerset, will be vcrv useful 
to young officers of the Infantry.''^ — United Service Journal, 

a 



Published by T. & W. Boone, 29, New Bond Street. 3 

The Third Edition, in one vol. post 8vo. price 10s. 6rf. bds. of 
ABVSNTURSS 1^ THB RIFIiB BRIGADE, 

IN THE 

PENINSULA, FRANCE, AND THE NETtlERLANDS, 

FROM THE YEAR 1809 TO 1815, 
BY CAPTAIN JOHN KINCAID, First Battalion. 

" An admirable little book." — Quarterly Bevieio. 

" To those who are unacquainted with Joliii Kincaid of the Rifles, — and few, we 
trow, of the old Peninsula bands are in this ijrnorant predicament, and to those who 
know him, we equally recommend the perusal of his book : it isa fac-simile of the man 
— a perfect reflection of his image, veluti in specula. A capital Soldier, a pithy and 
graphic narrator, and a fellow of infinite jest. Captain Kincaid hiis given us, in this 
mddest volume, the impress of liis qualities, the beau ideal of a thorough-going Soldier 
of Service, and the faithful and witty liistory of some six years' honest and triumphant 
fighting. 

" There is nothing extant in a Soldier's Journal, whieh, with so little pretension, 
paints with such truth and raciness tlie 'domestic economy' of campaigning, and the 
down-right business of handling the enemy. 

" But we cannot follow further ;— recommending every one of our readers to pursue 
the Author himself to his crowning scene of Waterloo, where they will find him as 
quaint and original as at his debut. We assure them, it is not possible, by isolated 
extracts, to give a suitable impression of the spirit and originality which never flag from 
beginning to end of Captain Kincaid's volume; in every page of which he throws out 
flashes of native humour, a tithe of which would make the fortune of a Grub-street 
Bookmaker." — United Service Journal. 

" His book has one fault, the rarest fault in books, it is too short." 

Moytthly Magazine, April. 



Also, by the same A uihor, Second Edition, in one vol. post 8vo. price 10s. Cul. 

RANDOM SKOTS TTLOWL A. H.ZF£.i:MiLN. 

" It is one of the most pithy, v/itty, soldier-like, and pleasant books in existence." 

United Service Journal. 

" The present volume is to the full as pleasant, and what is still more strange, as 
original as the last. Criticism would become a sinecure if many such volumes were 
written : all left for us is to admire and recommend." — Neio Monthly Magazine. 

" The present volume is likely to add to his reputation. It is a useful Appendix 
to the larger works of Napier and other military commentators. It is never dull, 
tedious, technical, or intricate." — Times. 

" Those who have read Captain Kincaid's Adventures in the Rifle Brigade will seize 
this volume with avidity, and having dashed through it, will lay it down with only one 
feeling of regret — that it is not longer." — Neies. 



Elegantly bound in the Uniform of the Regiment, 1 sol. post 8vo. price 10s. Qd. 

THE 

ADVENTURES OF CAPTAIN JOHN PATTERSON, 

With Notices of the Officers, Sfc. of the 50th, or Queen's Own Regiment, 
FROxM 180 TO 1821. 

DEDICATED BY PERMISSION TO QUEEN ADELAIDE. 

" This volume contains a well-written, yet unvarnished narrative, of the adventures 
of the 50th foot, (better known as the ' Dirty Half-hundred,' from their black facings), 
durjn,' the Peninsular war. It argues well for the bravery, as well as modesty, of Cap- 
tain Patterson, that throughout his work we have but little of himself, and much of his 
brother officers." — Bell's Messenger. 

" Captain Patterson's Adventures are the record of a brave soldier — of a dashing, 
bigh-minded British officer, who never fears a rival, and never knew what it was to 
have an enemy, or to hate any man. His descriptions are remarkable for their vivid- 
ness and accuracy, aud his anecdotes will bear repetition once a week for life." — Sun. 

" Captain Patterson is one of the pleasantest of the numerous tribe of gallant officers 
who has done so much credit to the British name, by fighting md Triting with cquitl 
sph'it." —Constitutional. 



4 Published by T. & W. Boone, 29, New Bond Street. 

In 2 vols. 8vo. cloth, price 24». 

HISTORICAL RECORD 

OF THE 

IIOVAI. MARINE FORCES, 

From their Formatioyi to the Present Time, 

lUCLuniNG 

AN ACCOUNT OF THEIR SERVICES IN CHINA, 
BY P. H. NICOLAS, 

LIEUT. ROYAL MARINES. 

" Mr. Nicolas has had a wide and fertile field to work upon, and excellently has lie 
turned Lis materials to account. Impelled by a sincere attachment for his old com- 
rades, by an ardent desire for their welfare, by the very natural wish for a more minute 
and connected narrative of their daring career than has hitherto been given to the 
world, he has produced a himinou» and comprehensive work, than which none Cfin be 
better of its class, and which reflects equal credit upon bis feelings as an officer, and 
his talents as a writer." — United Service Gazette. 

" These volumes cannot fail to prove eminently acceptable to the members of the 
gallant corps, whose honours they record, and generally indeed to the military service 
of both arms." — Naval and Militari^ Gazette. 

" It is historical, and must interest all historical readers; it is proudly national, 
and speaks to the heart of every Englishman ; while to the sailor, the soldier, and 
especially the marine, whose services it chronicles, it will prove a valuable record. 
It is a work, which for historical information, and clearness of arrangement, may 
fairly compete with any cf its class." — Literary Gazette. 



In Two Volumes, post 8vo. price 21*. 
COMMODORE SIR CHARLES NAPIER'S 

ACCOUNT OF THE WAR IN FORTUGAX.. 

BETWEEN DON PEDRO AND DON MIGUEL; 

WITH PLANS OP HIS ACTION OFF CAPE ST. VINCKNT. 

" If we read the account of that naval action in which, with a force wholly unequal, 
had it not been directed by the utmost skill and valour, to compete with the enemy — 
if we read the account of that action in which, in the space of five minutes, a signal 
victory was achieved, by which the glory of St. Vincent was revived — I say, if we read 
the records of such an action, we shall find that the commander bore the name of Na- 
pier." — Speechof Sir Robert Peel. 

" An excellent and spirit-stiiring book — plain, honest, and straight-forward — the 
very stuff of which the web of history alone should be composed. This is indeed an 
honest, fair, and impartial history." — Morning Chronicle. 

'' 111 spirit and in keeping, from beginning to end. Admiral Napier's ' War in Por- 
tugal,' is the happiest picture we could conceive of the battle off Cape St. Vincent — 
its especial excellence consisting in a regardless bluntness of manner and language 
that is quite admirable and delightful." — Monthly Review. 

" It is Csefar's Commentaries in the first person." — Spectator. 

" Candid to a degree, and sincere as a sailor's will. This is the very stuff of which 
history should be composed." — Bell's Messenger. 

" If Admiral Napier be not distinguished by the common-place facilities of author- 
ship, he possesses the higher qualities of truth, discretion, and clear-sightedness, in no 
slight degree." — Atlas. 

" In speaking of himself and his deeds, he has hit the just and difficult medium — 
shewing his real feelings, yet steering clear of affected modesty on the one hand, and of 
over-weening modesty on the other." — Tail's Magazine. 

" This is a very graphic account of the aflFairs in which the gallant author figured so 
Ijobly, p.nd added fresh lustre to the name of Napier," — Netos. 



Published by T. & W. Boone, 29, New Bond Street. 5 

THE HISTORY OF THE GERMAN LEGION, 

FROM THE PERIOD OF ITS ORGANIZATION IN 1803, TO THAT OF ITS 

DISSOLUTION IN 1816. 

Compiled from Manuscript Documents, 

Bt N. LUDLOW BEAMISH, Esq. F.R.S., late Major unattacukd. 

Two vols. 8vo. complete, with Plans and Coloured Plates of Costumes, price £1. lOs. 

The second volume sold separately, price 10s. 

*' The work is not like others we could name — a mere compilation from newspapers 
and magazines. Major Beamish has left no source of information unexplored; and 
the access he obtained to manuscript journals has enabled him to intersperse his general 
narrative with interesting personal anecdotes, that render this volume as delightful for 
those who read for amusement, as those who read for profit." — Athenceum. 

" We are altogether much pleased with the volume, and heartily recommend it to 
the British public." — Literary Gazette. 

In 2 vols. 8vo. with numerous plates, some coloured, price 36s. 

EXCURSIONS, ADVENTURES, AND FIELD SPORTS 

IN 

CZSVImON; 

Its Commercial and Military Importance, and numerous advantages 
to the British Emigrant. 

BY LIEUT.-COLONEL JAMES CAMPBELL, 

Late of the 45th and 50th Regiments, and for many years Commandant of the 
Districts of Gallc, and the Seven Korles, and Judicial Agent of Government. 

" These two volumes are full of interesting matter." — Morning Herald. 

'' We never wish to take up a pleasanter, more fresh spirited production tl]an this 
of Colonel Campbell's." — Naval and Military Gazette. 

" The book is to be heartily commended to lovers of lively anecdote and good natural 
description." — Examiner. 

" We have to thank the Colonel for a very entertaining book on Ceylon. The work 
possesses the invaluable character both of a long residence in it on the part of the 
writer, and the very best means of observation attainable by a British resident." 

Foreign and Colonial Review. 

In Two Volumes, 8vo.— Price Twenty-four Shillings. 

SFAIN ANB THE SFANIARDS IDT 1843. 

"WITH ACCOUNTS OF DISTRICTS VERY SELDOM VISITED: 

NATURAL HISTORY, GEOLOGY, MINES, ANTIQUITIES, FINE ARTS, 
THE CHURCH, PRONUNCIAMENTOS, FALL OF THE REGENCY, etc. 

By captain S. E. WIDDRINGTON, R.N., F.R.S. 

Author of " Sketches of Spain in 1829, 30, 31, & 32." 



" This is a solid well-informed book, written by a man of great experience, of 
unusual attainments, and thoroughly acquainted with Spain." — Examiner. 

" These volumes contain the plain and unaffected narrative of a well-informed and 
experienced man, with much interesting and general information with respect to 
Spain, and some judicious observations on recent transactions in that country. As 
an authentic account, therefore, of the present social and physical condition of the 
Spaniards, we have read the work with interest, and recommend it to the perusal of 
our readers." — Morning Herald. 



Published by T. & W. Boone, 29, New Bond Street. 



In 18mo. cloth, gilt leaves, price 2s. 6d. ; or, postage free, 3s., which may be sent in 

postage stamps, 

HINTS TO SUBALTERNS of the BRITISH ARMY. 

By henry HARDBARGAIiV, Late Regt. 

Dedicated to William Higginson Duff, Esq., &c. &c. &c. 
" Scribimus indocti doctique." 

Containing— Sketches of Commnnding Officerb—The Art of getting Leave of 
Absence — Military Miseries — Glossary, §-c. 

" I have also added, for the information of those non-military readers who may deign 
to peruse tliis small volume, a Glossary of those exclusively military terms, they might 
otherwise beat a loss to comprehend; and which, the profound ignorance that great 
part of the world are in with respect to military matters, renders it most necessary to 
explain : — for instance, I assure my readers, that the other night when I was dining 
out, an old gentleman asked me whether the officers who were on guard in London, on 
the day of the Derby, did not receive a compensatory pension from government; nay, 
so firmly convinced was he that such was the case, that I had some difficnlty in per- 
suading him that his impression on the subject was erroneous." — Preface. 

in post 8vo. price 5s. 

Itx:COZ.Z.SCTIONS AKB II£:FI.£CTI0NS 

RELATIVE TO THE 

Duties of Troops composing the Advanced Corps of an Army, 

By LIEUT.-COLONEL L LEACH, C.B., late OF the Rifle Brigade, 
Author of" Rongh Sketches of the Life of an Old Soldier." 

A Iso, by the same Author, 

A SKETCH OF THE 

SERVICES OF THS B.IFI.E BRIGADXS, 

From its Formation to the Battle of W^aterloo. 

In 8vo. price 2s. 6d. boards. 

AN ESSAY ON THE PRINCIPLES AND CONSTRUCTION OF 

IVIIi:.ITAB,ir BRIBGSS, 

And the Passage of Rivers in Military Operations, 

By general SIR HOWARD DOUGLAS, Bart. K.S.C. &c. &c. 

The Second Edition, containing much additional Matter and Plates. 

8vo. price 20s. boards. 

" Of this valuable work we expressed a very high opinion when it was first pub- 
lished ; and now that the able author has added much important new matter to it, we 
need only say that it is worthy of his own high reputation as a tactician and Military 
Engineer; and that no soldier in Europe can know his business thoroughly without 
consulting it." — Literary Gazette. 

NAVAI. EVOZ.UTiorrs ; 

A MEMOIR. 

By MAJOR-GENERAL SIR HOWARD DOUGLAS, Bart. K.S.C. &c. &c. 

Containing a Review and Refutation of the principal Essays and Arguments advocating 
Mr. Clerk's Claims, in relation to the Manoeuvre of the 12th of April, 1782; and vin- 
dicating, by tactical Demonstration, and numerous authentic Documents, the pro- 
fessional skill of the Biitish Officers chiefly concerned on that memorable occasion. 

With plates, 1 vol. 8vo. price 10s. cloth boards. 



Published by T. & W. Boone, 29, New Bond Street. 



NSW KZSTORXCAIi WORK BV G. P. R. JASIBS, ESQ. 



Just published, in 3 vols. 8vo. cloth, 
THE 

LIFE OF HENEY THE FOURTH, 

KING OF FRANCE AND NAVARRE. 
By G. p. R. JAMES, Esq. 

AUTHOR OF "the LIFE AND TIMES OF LOOIS THE FOURTEENTH." 



"Never was historian more scrupulously correct, more rigorously 
veracious than Mr. James ; he even deteriorates occasionally from the 
interest of his narrative, rather than allow his imagination to colour 
the picture, and contents himself in general with an animated detail of 
external events, appearing convinced that the duties of the historian 
and historical novelist are almost diametrically opposed to one another. 
In the ' Life of Henry the Fourth ' he has produced a highly valuable 
work, which will retain its standard worth for ever." 

New Quarterly Review. 
" There are few writers better known or more deservedly popular 
than Mr. James : for few have written so many books, and so many 
of these charming, instructive, and interesting. He has rendered 
fiction as spirit-moving as if it were fact, because he has invested it 
with all the vraisemblance of truth ; and in the work before us he has, 
by stepping into the wide domain of history, fortunately selected a 
hero whose life is full of adventure, and an epoch deeply tinged with 
the hori'ors, and in some instances brightly illuminated with the purest 
chivalry of the wildest romance. To write the Life and the Times of 
Henry IV. of France, required on the part of the author little of 
imagination, and nothing of fancy in illustration of its events. The 
events have but to be arranged ; they only demand a due research into 
contemporary documents, and then, under the pen of a practised 
writer, they grow into a narrative of thrilling interest. Such is the 
work before us. It is a carefully composed history of that transition 
in France in which popular feeling became for the first time an essential 
element in polity— in which kings and oligarchies were convinced of 
the necessity that it should be baffled, coerced, deluded, cajoled, or 
trampled out of the soil of France, as if it were a noxious weed. It 
is impossible to read this work without being pleased, and it is equally 
impossible to read it without being instructed ; for Mr. James has, by 
the abundant use of that valuable series of publications, for which 
France is indebted to Louis Philippe, thrown a great deal of light upon 
many transactions, which before were either misapprehended or im- 
perfectly understood. Finally, we declare that there seldom has been 
a more valuable contribution to history than these three volumes of 
' The Life of Henry the Fourth of France and Navarre.' " 

Morning Herald. 



8 Published by T. & W. Boone, 29, New Bond Street. 

Foarth Edition, 18mo. cloth, gilt leaves, price 2s. 6d. 

SHORT 'WHIST, 

BY F. P. WATSON, ESQ. 

To which is added, 

I.ONG WHIST, 

WITH INSTRUCTIONS FOR YOUNG PLAYERS, 

BY ADMIRAL JAMES BURNEY. 
REVISED BY F. P. WATSON, ESQ. 

Second Edition, 18mo. cloth, gilt leaves, price 3s. 

HAND-BOOK to the GAME OF BII.I.IARDS, 

ADDRESSED TO THE NOVICE AND THE PROFICIENT, 
'With the Iiaws and 44 Diagrams, 

To which is added, 

p o ex., 

BY COLONEL b * * * * *. 

*' This is a very useful little book, and ought to be in the hands of all beginners." 

Bell's Life in London. 

" All that the Billiard player can acquire from instruction, he may gaia from this 
hand-book ; and having well studied it, it will be his own fault if, by practice, he do not 
become a proficient in this most deliglitful pastime." — Argus. 

" Every Billiard player, be he novice or proficient, will find this a manual adapted 
exactly to his wishes." — Court Journal. 

Sixth Edition, 18rao. sewed, price \s. 
HINTS TO THE CHARITABZ.E, 

BEING 

PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE PROPER REGULATION OF 
PRIVATE CHARITY : 

CONTAINING LETTERS ON 



THE COAL FUND, 
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THE BENEFIT SOCIETY, 



THE LOAN FUND, 
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SOCIETY, 

&c. &c. &c. 



BY THE HON. AND REV. S. G. OSBORNE, 

Author of " Old Rainy Day," 8vo. price 3d. ; " Hand-bill for the Cottage Wall," &c. 
Also by the same Author, Third Edition, 18mo. price Is. 

HINTS 

FOR THE AMELIORATION OF THE MORAL CONDITION OF 

A VILLAGE POPULATION. 



CONTENTS. 



THE SQUIRE, 
THE FARMER, 
THE TRADESMAN, 



KEEPERS OF PUBLIC HOUSES, 
THE LABOURER, 
FEMALE SERVICE, 



EDUCATION, &c. &c. 




iL:i:''miS) vHg^sowMir MisiDS®Er,KoB 



as Co 



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FROM THE ORIGIlsrjM, SiiETCH IN THE POSSESSION OF 



ADMIRAL IHE HON'i:' SIR T. BLADEN CAPEL.KLC.P. 



, paq,,-!, c.3>tT »'".«?" Bootj f 1849 



MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE 



OF 



VICE-ADMIRAL 

LORD VISCOUNT NELSON, K.B. 

DUKE OF BROIVTE, ETC. ETC. ETC. 



THOMAS JOSEPH PETTIGEEW, F.R.S., F.S.A, 

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY OF THE UNIVETtSITV OF GOTTINOEN ; 
ETC. ETC. 7iTC. 



Bespleudet gloria Martis. 
Ai'mati refer am vires ? 

Claudian de Laud, Stil. 

" A spirit equal to all undertaking-s, and resoui'ces fitted to all occasions." 

Lord Colliiujwood. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. II. 



SECOND EDITION. 



LONDON : 
T. AND y^, BOONE, 29, NEW BOND STREET. 

MDCCCXLIX. 



I 



LIFE OF LORD NELSON. 



CHAPTER I, 

1801. 



The attack made by the British upon a Danish 40-gun 
frigate, the Freja, to enforce the right of searching neutral 
ships for contraband of war, led to animosity between 
England and Denmark. The taking of Malta by the British, 
incensed Paul, the Emperor of all the Russias, and induced 
him to lay an embargo upon British shipping in his ports, 
amounting to not less than 200 sail. A convention being 
entered into between Russia and Sweden, agreeing to an 
armed neutrality on the part of these powers, Denmark joined 
the confederacy. This brought matters to a crisis. The three 
Northern Powers, under the influence of France, thus directed 
against the naval supremacy of England, rendered no incon- 
siderable effort necessary; and Sir Hyde Parker, with a com- 
petent force was dispatched to the Baltic with Lord Nelson, 
as second in command. Negotiations, presently to be noticed, 
failing to effect a reconciUation, an attack upon Copenhagen 
was made. 

Few battles recorded in the naval annals of Great Britain 
have more redounded to the credit of those engaged, than the 
Battle of Copenhagen. It was wisely planned, bravely fought, 
and success was followed by the exhibition of distinguished 
humanity. In Clarke and McArthur's Life of Lord Nelson, 
the secret orders issued by the Admiralty to Sir Hyde Parker, 

VOL. II. B 



2 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. I. 

the Commander-in-chief, have been printed. Properly to 
estimate the following letters^ it is necessary to repeat this 
statement : — 

"The Right Honourable Henry Dundas, one of his Ma- 
jesty's principal Secretaries of State, having, in his letter of 
yesterday's date, signified to us his Majesty's pleasure, that 
whether the discussion, supposed to be now pending with the 
Court of Denmark, should be terminated by an amicable 
arrangement, or by actual hostilities, the Officer commanding 
the fleet in the Baltic should, in either case (as soon as the 
fleet can be withdrawn from before Copenhagen consistently 
with the attainment of one or the other of the objects for 
which he is now instructed to take that station), proceed to 
Revel ; and if he should find the division of the Russian 
navy, usually stationed at that port, still there, to make an 
immediate and vigorous attack upon it, provided the measure 
should appear to him practicable, and such as in his judgment 
would afford a reasonable prospect of success in destroying 
the arsenals, or in capturing or destroying the ships, without 
exposing to too great a risk the fleet under his command. 

"And Mr. Dundas having further signified to us his Ma- 
jesty's pleasure, that, consistently with this precaution, the 
said Officer should be authorized, and directed to proceed 
successively, and as the season and other operations will 
permit, against Cronstadt, and in general, by every means in 
his power to attack, and endeavour to capture or destroy any 
ships of war, or others, belonging to Russia, wherever he can 
meet with them, and to annoy that Power as far as his means 
will admit in every manner not incompatible with the fair 
and acknowledged usages of war. And that with respect to 
Sweden, should the Court of Stockholm persist in her hostile 
engagements with that of Petersburg!! against this country, 
the same general line of conduct, as hath been stated with 
respect to the ships and ports of the latter should govern the 
said Officer commanding the fleet in his proceedings against 
those of Sweden ; but that, in the contrary supposition (con- 
ceived not to be impossible) of this power relinquishing her 
present hostile plans against the rights and interests of this 
country, and of her renewing, either singly or in concert with 



ISOl.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 3 

Denmark, her ancient engagements with his Majesty, it will 
in such case be the duty of the said Officer to afford to 
Sweden every protection in his power against the resentment 
and attacks of Russia ; and Mr. Dundas having also signified 
that his Majesty, being no less desirous of bringing the existing 
dispute with Sweden to this latter issue, than he has shewn him- 
self so disposed with respect to Denmark, and upon the same 
principles, it will therefore be requisite that the said Officer 
commanding in the Baltic should make such a disposition of his 
force as may appear best adapted to facilitate and give weight to 
the arrangement in question, provided it should be concluded 
with the Court of Denmark, within the forty-eight hours 
allowed for this purpose, and the proposal of acceding to it, 
which will be made to that of Sweden, should be entertained 
by the latter. You are, in pursuance of his Majesty's plea- 
sure, signified as above mentioned, hereby required and 
directed to proceed, without a moment's loss of time, into the 
Baltic, and to govern yourself under the different circum- 
stances before stated to the best of your judgment and dis- 
cretion in the manner therein pointed out, transmitting from 
time to time to our Secretary, for our information, an account 
of your proceedings, and such information as you may con- 
ceive to be proper for our knowledge. Given under our hands 
and seals, the 15th of March, 1801. 

*' St. Vincent. 

" T. Troubridge. 

"J. Markham."» 

Sir Hyde Parker consulted with Lord Nelson on the opera- 
tions intended to be pursued ; and the following letter, in 
consequence of this consultation, is printed from Nelson's own 
autograph draft, which differs somewhat, though in no essen- 
tial particulars, from that which has been given in the work 
above referred to : — 

" St. George, March 25, 1801. 

" My dear Sir Hyde, 
" The conversation we had 5^esterday, has naturally, from 
its importance, been the subject of my thoughts ; and the 

' Clarke and McArthur, Vol ii. p. 2.'i9. 
B 2 



4 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. I. 

raore I have reflected, the more confirmed I am in opinion, 
that not a moment should be lost in attacking the enemy. 
They will every day and hour be stronger ; we never shall be 
so good a match for them as at this moment — the only con- 
sideration in my mind is, how to get at them with the least 
risk to our ships. 

" By Mr. Vansittart's account, the Danes have taken every 
means in their power to prevent our getting to attack Copen- 
hagen by the passage of the Sound. Cronenburg has been 
strengthened, the Crown Islands fortified (on the outermost 
20 guns pointing mostly downwards) , only 800 yards from 
very formidable batteries placed under the citadel, supported 
by 5 sail of the line, 7 floating batteries of 50 guns each, be- 
sides small craft, gun-boats, &c. &c. ; also, that the Revel 
squadron of 12 or 14 sail of the line are soon expected, as also 

5 sail of Swedes. It would appear by what you have told 
me of your instructions that Government took for granted 
that you would find no difficulty in getting off Copenhagen, 
and that in the event of the failure of a negotiation, that you 
might instantly attack, and that there would be scarcely a 
doubt but that the Danish fleet would be destroyed, and the 
capital made so hot that Denmark would listen to reason and 
its true interest. By Mr. Vansittart's account, their state of 
preparation far exceeds what he conceives our Government 
thought possible, and that the Danish Government is hostile to 
us in the greatest possible degree ; therefore, here you are, with 
almost the safety, certainly the honour of England, more en- 
trusted to you than ever yet fell to the lot of any British officer. 
On your decision depends, whether our country shall be degra- 
ded in the eyes of Europe, or whether she shall rear her head 
higher than ever. Again do I repeat, never did our country 
depend so much on the success or defeat of any fleet as on 
this. How best to honour our country and abate the pride 
of her enemies by defeating their schemes, must be the sub- 
ject of your deepest consideration, as Commander-in-chief, 
and if what I have to offer can be the least useful in formins: 
your decision, you are most heartily welcome. 

" I shall begin with supposing that you are determined to 
enter by the passage of the Sound, as there are those that 
think if you leave that passage open that the Danish fleet 



1801.] LOTID VISCOUNT NELSON. 5 

may leave Copenhagen and join the Dutch or French. I own 
I have no fears on that subject, for it is not Ukely that whilst 
the capital is menaced with an attack, that 9000 of her best 
men would be sent out of the kingdom. I will suppose that 
some damage may arise amongst our masts and yards, but 
perhaps not one but can be made serviceable again. You are 
now about Cronenburg, if the wind is fair, and you determine 
to attack the ships and Crown Islands, you must expect the 
natural issue of such a battle — ships crippled — perhaps one 
or two lost, for the wind which carries you in will most proba- 
bly not bring out a crippled ship. This mode I call taking the 
bull by the horns. This will not prevent the Revel ships or 
Swedes from coming down and forming a junction with the 
Danes. To prevent this from taking effect, in my humble 
opinion, a measure absolutely necessary, and still to attack 
Copenhagen, two modes are in my view — one to pass Cronen- 
burg, taking the risk of damage, and to pass up the Channel, 
the deepest and the straitest above the middle grounds, and to 
come down the Gaspar, or King's Channel, to attack their 
floating batteries, &c. &c. as we find it convenient. It must 
have the effect of preventing a junction between the Russians, 
Swedes, and Danes, and may give us an opportunity of bom- 
barding Copenhagen. A passage also, I am pretty certain, 
could be found for all our ships to the north of Southolm, 
perhaps it might be necessary to warp a small distance in the 
very narrow part. Supposing this mode of attack ineligible, 
the passage of the Belt, I have no doubt, would be accom- 
plished in four or five days, then the attack by Draco could be 
carried into effect, the junction of the Russians prevented, 
and every probability of success on the Danish floating bat- 
teries. What effect a bombardment might have I am not 
called upon to give an opinion, but I think the way would be 
cleared for the trial. Supposing us through the Belt, with 
the wind fresh westerly, would it not be feasible to either go 
with the fleet (or detach ten ships of two or three decks, with 
one bomb — two fire-ships, if they could be spared), to Revel, 
to destroy the Russian squadron at that place? I do not see 
the great risk of such a detachment, with the remainder to 
attempt the business of Copenhagen. The measure may be 
thought bold, but I am of opinion the boldest measures are 



6 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. I. 

the safest, and our country demands a most vigorous exertion 
of her forces directed with judgment. In supporting you 
through the arduous and important task you have undertaken, 
no exertion of head and heart shall be wanting, my dear Sir 
Hyde, from your most obedient and faithful servant, 

" Nelson and Bronte." 

Colonel Stewart, in the NaiTative before alluded to, says, 
that when Lord Nelson arrived at Yarmouth, his " plan would 
have been to have proceeded with the utmost dispatch, and 
with such ships as were in readiness, to the mouth of Copen- 
hagen harbour; then and there to have insisted on amity or war, 
and have brought the objects of Messrs. Drummond and Van- 
sittart's negotiation to a speedy decision. He would have left 
orders for the remainder of the fleet to have followed in suc- 
cession, as they were ready, and by the rapidity of his pro- 
ceedings have anticipated the formidable prepai'ations for 
defence which the Danes had scarcely thought of at that early 
season. The delay in Yarmouth Roads did not accord with 
his views." The fleet sailed on the 12th of March, and after 
encountering a heavy gale of wind, which in some measure 
scattered the vessels, it did not reach Elsinore until the 24th. 
On the 29th,i he changed his flag from the St. George to the 
Elephant, a lighter ship, and on the following day proceeded 
through the Sound, anchoring at noon between Huen and 
Copenhagen. 

On the 1st of April, an anchorage only two miles from 
Copenhagen was effected, the division of ships under the 
command of Nelson weighed, and in the evening was off" 
Draco. The following day (April 2nd), the battle was fought, 
and on the succeeding day he re-hoisted his flag on board the 
St. George. 

In a letter^ to the Dean of Norwich, Lord Bexley, formerly 
IVfr. Vansittart, says, that upon the reported resignation of 
Mr. Pitt, and Mr. Addington being appointed Prime Minister 
in January 7, 1801, he, Mr. Vansittart, was selected by the 
Premier, and recommended to Lord Hawkesbury, Secretary 

' See preceding Letter, March 30th. Vol, i. p. 452. 

- Lil'e and Correspondence of Lord Viscount Sidmouth, Vol. i. p. 368. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 7 

of the Foreign Department, to be a confidential Minister to 
Denmark, the Government having received a secret commu- 
nication from Prince Charles of Hesse, intimating that the 
Danish Government might be detached from the Northern 
CoaKtion, formed under the Emperor Paul, if a confidential 
person, with full powers, and conciliatory instructions, were 
sent to it. Prince Charles being brother-in-law to the King 
of Denmark, rendered the Government anxious to attend to 
the suggestion as speedily and as secretly as possible. Mr. 
Yansittart went, accompanied with Dr. Beeke as his Secretary, 
and met Prince Charles at Sleswick, who immediately, how- 
ever, expressed his fears that the French influence, combined 
with the fear of the Emperor Paul at Copenhagen, would be 
too great to render the mission successful. 

The Danes refused to receive Mr. Vansittart as a Minister, 
unless he would undertake for the unconditional restitution 
of the Danish ships, detained under embargo in England, as 
a preliminary to all negotiation. * No intercourse, therefore, 
took place until the arrival of the Blanche frigate, Captain 
Drumraond, who announced the immediate approach of the 
British fleet under Sir Hyde Parker and Lord Nelson, and 
brought instructions to Mr. Vansittart from the British 
Court, authorising him, in case of non-compliance or delay, 
to demand his passport, and embark immediately on board 
the fleet. Sir William Drummond, the resident Minister, 
who had held no communication for some time with the 
Danes, was with Mr. Vansittart. They proceeded by land to 
Elsinore, and then by the Blanche with the British Consul 
and British subjects to the fleet. On board the Admiral 
(Sir Hyde Parker's) ship, Mr. Vansittart had a conference 
with the Admiral and with Lord Nelson, and what is described 
as " a very interesting conversation" with the latter in the 
stern gallery, whilst Sir Hyde Parker prepared his letters for 
England by the Kite which conveyed Mr. Vansittart home. 

On the 25th Mr. Vansittart and Mr. Drummond, the 
British Charge d' Affaires left for England. Lord Nelson was 
exceedingly impatient of the several delays which occurred 
prior to reaching Copenhagen, giving to the enemy so much 
time for preparation. This appears not to have been neglected, 
for Colonel Stewart writes : " We soon perceived that our 



8 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [chAp. I. 

delay had been of important advantage to the enemy, who 
had hned the northern edge of the shoals near the Crown 
batteries, and the front of the harbour and arsenal with a 
formidable flotilla. The Trekroner battery appeared, in par- 
ticular, to have been strengthened, and all the buoys of the 
Northern, and of the King's Channels had been removed." 
The line of defence of the Danes extended no less than four 
miles, estimating from one extreme point to the other. (See 
Plate.) On the afternoon of the 31st a Council of War was 
held, and the mode which might be advisable for the attack 
was considered, that from the eastward appearing to be pre- 
ferred. "Lord Nelson (Stewart says) offered his services, 
requiring ten line-of-battle ships, and the whole of the smaller 
craft. The Commander-in-chief, with sound discretion, and 
in a handsome manner, not only left every thing to Lord 
Nelson for this detached service, but gave two more line-of- 
battle ships than he demanded. During this Council of War, 
the energy of Lord Nelson's character was remarked : certain 
difficulties had been started by some of the members, relative 
to each of the three Powers, we should either have to engage, 
in succession, or united, in those seas. The number of the 
Russians was, in particular, represented as formidable. Lord 
Nelson kept pacing the cabin, mortified at every thing which 
savoiu'ed either of alarm or irresolution. When the above 
remark was applied to the Swedes, he sharply observed, ' The 
more numerous the better ;' and when to the Russians, he 
repeatedly said, ' So much the better, I wish they were twice 
as many, the easier the victory, depend on it.' He alluded, 
as he afterwards explained in private, to the total want of 
tactique among the Northern fleets ; and to his intention, when- 
ever he should bring either the Swedes or Russians to action, 
of attacking the head of their line, and confusing their move- 
ments as much as possible. He used to say, ^ Close with a 
Frenchman, but out-manoeuvre a Russian,' " 

Nelson having made his last observations on the morning 
of the 1st of April, on board the Amazon, returned to the 
Elephant and made the signal to weigh. The shout with 
which it was received throughout the division, it is said, was 
heard to a considerable distance ; the ships then weighed, 
and followed the Amazon in succession through the narrow 



3 




%^ %iLr '1^ 



!i 



^'^Jii*,^ ^'^UJ^ 'yml^ 



^.i4^ 



L 






r 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 9 

channel. The wind was light;, but favourable, and not one 
accident occurred. 

" On board the Elephant, the night of the 1st of April 
was an important one. As soon as the fleet was at anchor 
the gallant Nelson sat down to table with a large party of 
his comrades in arms. He was in the highest spirits, and 
drank to a leading wind, and to the success of the ensuing 
day. Captains Foley, Hardy, Fremantle, Riou, Inraan ;i his 
Lordship's second in command, Admiral Graves, and a few 
others to whom he was particularly attached, were of this 
interesting party ; from which every man separated with 
feelings of admiration for their great leader, and with anxious 
impatience to follow him to the approaching battle. The 
signal to prepare for action had been made early in the even- 
ing. All the Captains retired to their respective ships, Riou 
excepted, who, with Lord Nelson and Foley arranged the 
order of battle, and those instructions that were to be issued 
to each ship on the succeeding day. These three officers re- 
tired between nine and ten to the after-cabin, and drew up 

^ Captain Henry Inman was the son of a clergyman, and born near Bristol. 
He entered the navy in 1776, with Captain, afterwards Lord Hood. He was in 
the Lai-k frigate when D'Estaing's squadron appeared off Rhode Island, and his 
vessel being run on shore, and burnt, he was ordered on board the Pearl, Captain 
Linzee, and proceeded to the West Indies. Made Lieutenant, in the Santa 
Monica, he was wrecked off Tortola, and again lost his property. After Sir 
George Rodney's action of the 12th of April, 1782, he was in the Hector, and nar- 
rowly escaped with life from shipwreck, after being attacked by two French frigates. 
The Hector, although severely crippled by the battle, successfully resisted the attack, 
drove off the two frigates, L' Aigle and Le Lion, which were afterwards captured. In 
1790, Inman was appointed to the Latona, and then to the Pigmy cutter, fi-om which 
he was removed to the Victory, proceeding for Toulon. His exertions in this ser- 
vice procured for him the command of L'Am-ore, and he was made Post-Captain, 
October 9, 1794. In the Romney he came home with a convoy. After a variety 
of service, he was engaged on the blockade of Dunkirk, and in a most gallant 
attack, captiired La Desiree, to which he was afterwards appointed, and proceeded 
in her to the attack on Copenhagen, where his services were conspicuous, and 
called forth the praises of Nelson. Upon the renewal of the war in 1803, Cajj- 
tain Inman was appointed to the Utrecht, and then to the Triumph, of 74 guns, 
and joined the Channel fleet. He was ordered to the blockade of Rochfort, 
whence he was removed to support Sir Robert Caldcr, in his attack on the Brest 
fleet. He then cruised with Sir Richard Strachan off the Western Isles, when 
his health failed, and he was appointed to the Sea Fencibles at Lynn, and after- 
wards made Naval Commissioner at Madras, whence he sailed, February 22, 
1809. He reached Madras on the 4th of July, and on the 15th of the same 
month expired, at the early age of 47. 



10 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. I. 

those orders that have been generally published, and which 
ou"ht to be referred to as the best ijroof of the arduous 
nature of the enterprise in which the fleet was about to be 
engaged. From the previous fatigue of this day, and of the 
two preceding, Lord Nelson was so much exhausted while 
dictating his instructions, that it was recommended to him 
by us all, and, indeed, insisted upon by his old servant Allen, 
who assumed much command on these occasions, that he 
should go to his cot. It was placed on the floor, but from 
it he still continued to dictate. Captain Hardy returned 
about eleven, and reported the practicability of the channel, 
and the depth of water up to the ships of the enemy's line. 
Had we abided by this report in lieu of confiding in our 
masters and pilots, we should have acted better. The orders 
Avere completed about one o^clock, when half-a-dozen clerks 
in the foremost cabin proceeded to transcribe them. Lord 
Nelson's impatience again shewed itself; for instead of sleep- 
ing undisturbedly, as he might have done, he was every half 
hour calling from his cot to these clerks to hasten their 
work, for that the wind was becoming fair. He was con- 
stantly receiving a report of this during the night. Their 
work being finished about six in the morning, his Lordship, 
who was previously up and dressed, breakfasted, and about 
seven made the signal for all Captains. The instructions 
were delivered to each by eight o'clock ; and a special com- 
mand was given to Captain Riou to act as circumstances 
might require. The land forces and a body of 500 seamen 
were to have been united under the command of Captain 
Fremantle and the Honorable Colonel Stewart, and as soon 
as the fire of the Crown Battery should be silenced, they 
were to storm the work, and destroy it. The division under 
the Commander-in-chief was to menace the ships at the en- 
trance of the harbour, the intricacy of the channel would, 
however, have prevented their entering ; Captain Murray in 
the Edgar was to lead."^ 

At five minutes past ten the action commenced, and in 
about half an hour half the fleet was engaged. By half- past 
eleven the action was general, and so ardently was the contest 
carried on by both sides, that at one o'clock the chance of 

' Hon. Colonel Stewart's Narrative. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 11 

victory had not declared itself in favour of either country. 
At this time Colonel Stewart reports — 

"The London (Sir Hyde Parker's ship) now made signal 
for the action to cease. ^ Lord Nelson was, at this time, as 
he had been during the whole action, walking the starboard 
side of the quarter-deck ; sometimes much animated, and at 
others heroically fine in his observations. A shot through 
the mainmast knocked a few splinters about us. He ob- 
served to me with a smile, ' It is warm work, and this day 
may be the last to any of us at a moment ;' and then stop- 
ing short at the gangway he used an expression never to be 
erased from my memory, and said with emotion, ' but mark 
you, I would not be elsewhere for thousands.' When the 
signal, No. 39 (to discontinue the engagement) was made, 
the Signal Lieutenant reported it to him. He continued 
his walk, and did not appear to take notice of it. The Lieu- 
tenant meeting his Lordship at the next turn, asked, 
' whether he should repeat it ?' Lord Nelson answered, * No, 
acknowledge it.' On the officer returning to the poop, 
his Lordship called after him, ' Is No. 16 (for close action) 
still hoisted ?' the Lieutenant answering in the affirmative, 
Lord Nelson said, ^Mind you keep it so.' He now walked 
the deck considerably agitated, which was always known by 
his moving the stump of his right arm. After a turn or 
two, he said to me, in a quick manner, 'Do you know 
what's shewn on board of the Commander-in-chief, No. 39 ?' 
On asking him what that meant, he answered, ' Why to 
leave off action.' ' Leave off action,' he repeated, and then 
added with a shrug, ' Now damn me if I do.' He also ob- 
served, I believe to Captain Foley, ' You know, Foley, I have 
only one eye — I have a right to be blind sometimes ;' and 
then with an archness familiar to his charactei', putting the 
glass to his blind eye, he exclaimed, ' I really do not see the 
signal.' This remarkable signal was, therefore, only acknow- 
ledged on board the Elephant, not repeated."" 

' Sir Hyde Parker is conceived to have ordered this signal to be made, fearing 
that under the intensity of the firing the squadron would be defeated, and that 
from the state of the wind and cui-reut, he would be prevented bringing his divi- 
sion to their assistance. 

* Hon. Colonel Stewart's Narrative. 



12 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. I. 

M. Thiers calls this disregard of Sir Hyde Parker's signal 
a noble act of imprudence, followed, as it often happens to 
audacious boldness, by a successful result. ^' Ce fut la une 
noble imprudence, suivie, comme il arrive souvent a Tim- 
prudence audacieuse, d'un heureux succes.'^^ Dean Pellew, 
in his Life of Lord Sidmouth, has stated, in reference to the 
interview which took place between the Premier and Lord 
Nelson on his return from Copenhagen, that the conversation 
turning on the circumstance of Nelson having continued the 
action after the Admiral had made the signal of recall, Mr. 
Addington told him he was a bold man to disregard the 
orders of his superior : to which he replied, that any one 
may be depended upon under ordinary circumstances, but 
that the man of real value was he who would persevere at all 
risks, and under the heaviest responsibility ; but {he added) 
in the midst of it all, I depended upon you ; for I knew that, 
happen what might, if I did my duty you would stand by me." 
The Dean observes, that when relating this anecdote, Mr. 
Addington used to remark that he felt the confidence thus 
reposed in him, by such a man, on such an occasion, as one 
of the highest compliments he had ever received."* 

Another hour elapsed and the greater part of the Danish 
line had ceased to fire. The Dannebrog, with which the 
Elephant had been particularly engaged, was now drifting in 
flames before the wind, and spreading terror through the 
enemy's line. At half past three she blew up, but not before 
our men and boats were actively engaged in endeavouring to 
save her crew, who were seen throwing themselves from the 
port-holes. At half past two Lord Nelson sent a Flag of 
Truce on shore, which was confided to Captain Thesiger, who 
had a knowledge of Copenhagen and the Danish language. 

The firing from the Crown Battery, and from our leading 
ships did not cease until past three o'clock, when the Danish 
Adjutant-General Lindholm^ returning with a Flag of Truce, 
directed the fire of the battery to be suspended. The action 
closed after five hours' duration, four of which were warmly 
contested. 

' Hist, dii Consulat. de I'Empire, Tom, ii. Liv. Lx. p. 415. 
^ Life of Lord Sidmouth, Vol. i. p. 465. 
^ A Captain in the Danish Navy. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 13 

The message sent by Lord Nelson was thus addressed : — 
"to the brothers of englishmen, the Dx\NES. 

" Lord Nelson has directions to spare Denmark when no 
longer resisting ; but if the firing is continued on the part of 
Denmark, Lord Nelson will be obliged to set on fire all the 
floating batteries he has taken, without having the power of 
saving the brave Danes who have defended them. Dated on 
board his Britannic Majesty's ship Elephant, Copenhagen 
Roads, April 2, 1801. 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

" Vice-Admiralj under the command of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker." 

The Crown Prince of Denmark requested to know more 
minutely the intention of the message : 

" His Royal Highness the Prince Royal of Denmark has 
sent me, General-x\djutant Lindholm, on board to his 
Britannic Majesty's Vice-Admiral, the Right Honourable 
Lord Nelson, to ask the particular object of sending the Flag 
of Truce." 

The Prince received the following reply : — 

" to the government of DENMARK. 

" Lord Nelson's object in sending on shore a Flag of Truce 
is humanity ; therefore consents that hostilities shall cease till 
Lord Nelson can take his prisoners out of the prizes, and he 
consents to land all the wounded Danes, and to burn or 
remove Ins pi'izes. Lord Nelson, with humble duty to his 
Royal Highness, begs leave to say, that he will ever esteem 
it the greatest victory he ever gained if this Flag of Truce 
may be the happy forerunner of a lasting and happy union 
between his most Gracious Sovereign and his Majesty the 
Kino; of Denmark. 

"Nelson and Bronte.^ 

"Elephant, April 2, 1801." 

' This and the preceding messages are printed from the MS. in Lord Nelson's 
Papers, and the words in Italics were so marked by Lord Nelson. In connexion 
with the letter addressed to the Danes, Mr. Ferguson has told an anecdote which 
must not be omitted here, as it is so strongly characteristic of Nelson's coolness 



14 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. I. 

Lord Nelson also directed the Adjutant- General to the 
Commander-in-chief, then at anchor four miles off, for con- 
ference ; by which he gained time for our ships, much crippled, 
to clear off" the shoals. This was an important measure for 
several of the vessels, and among the rest the Elephant ran 
aground. Nelson went on board the London, and with the 
Commander-in-chief, and the Adjutant -General Lindholm 
was engaged in negotiation for an honourable peace. A 
suspension of hostilities for twenty-four hours was the result, 
and the wounded Danes were taken ashore. Nelson, after 
the conference on board the London, returned to the St. 
George. 

The Surgeon of the Elephant, Mr. Ferguson, has borne 
his excellent testimony to the conduct of Nelson on this 
occasion : '' At the Battle of Copenhagen (says Mr. Ferguson) 
I was amongst the companions of the hero. The attempt was 
arduous in the extreme, no common mind would have dared 
to conceive it ; but it was suited to the exalted entei'prise of 
Lord Nelson. As Ids was the invigorating spirit of the 
Council that planned the attack, so in the execution he only 
could have commanded success. During the interval that 
preceded the battle, I could only silently admire, when I saw 
the first man in all the world spend the hours of the day and 
night in boats, amidst floating ice, and in the severest weather ; 
and wonder when the light shewed me a path marked by 
buoys, which had been trackless the preceding evening." Sir 
Hyde Parker also, in his official dispatch to the Admiralty, 
says : " Was it possible for me to add any thing to the well- 
earned renown of Lord Nelson, it would be by asserting, that 
his exertions, great as they have heretofore been, never were 
carried to a higher pitch of zeal for his country's service." 

The Danish force consisted of six sail of the line, eleven 
floating batteries, mounting from twenty- six 24-pounders to 
eighteen 18-pounders, and one bomb-ship, besides schooner 
gun-vessels. These w^ere supported by the Crown islands, 
mounting eighty-eight cannon and four sail of the line, moored 
in the harbour's mouth, and some batteries on the island of 

and intrepidity. When the writing of it was concluded, a wafer was presented to 
hira to secure it, upon which he immediately remarked, " No ; bring me wax, and 
a match : this is no time to appear hurried and informal." 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 15 

Amak. Of these vessels, seventeen sail, that is, seven of the 
line, and ten floating batteries, were sunk, burnt, or taken. 
Our force consisted of twelve sail of the line, four frigates, 
four sloops, two fire-ships, and seven bombs. Three of the 
sail of the line were not in action, being on shore ; they were, 
however, exposed to the fire of the enemy. The killed and 
wounded on our side amounted to 943. Killed: officers, 
20 ; seamen, marines, and soldiers, 234. Total 254. Wounded: 
officers, 48 ; seamen, marines, and soldiers, 641. Total 689. 
Among the killed were Captain Mosse^ of the Monarch, and 
Captain Riou- of the Amazon. For his services in this action 
Nelson was raised to the dignity of a Viscount. He was also 

' Captain Mosse was the officer commanding the Sandwich at the Nore at the 
time of the mutiny in 1797. His name is honourably associated with that of 
Captain Riou on the monument in St. Paul's. 

^ Captain Edward Riou, the officer so highly esteemed by Lord Nelson, was 
made a Lieutenant, Oct. 28, 1780, and drew upon him deserved attention and 
regard for his conduct in the Guardian frigate of 44 guns, when conveying stores 
to the British Settlement at Botany Bay towards the close of the year 1789. This 
vessel was saved by the cool and intrepid behaviour of her Commander, when 
she had stmck on an island of ice, and was taken, after having been the sport 
of the wind and waves for three weeks, into the Cape of Good Hope. Several 
of those who were on board of her had quitted the vessel for the preservation of their 
lives. Being placed in False Bay for repairs, a hurricane came on, and the ill-fated 
vessel was destroyed. Lieutenant Riou, upon his retm-n to England, was promoted 
to the rank of Commander, and made Post Captain in 1791. In 1793, he com- 
manded the Rose, 28 guns, and afterwards distinguished himself in the Beaulieu 
frigate by his services in the West Lidies, whence he was compelled to return by 
the ill state of his health in August, 1795. His health restored, he was appointed 
to the Amazon of 38 guns in 1799, and served with Nelson in the attack on Co- 
penhagen. Here death put an end to his career, but his merits have been duly 
appreciated by his country, and recorded on his monument in St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral. Lord Nelson was very much pleased with the order and condition of Cap- 
tain Riou's frigate, and the very superior discipline and seamanship exhibited by 
her on the day of action. The Hon. Colonel Stewart tells us the Captain was 
killed by a raking shot when the Amazon shewed her stern to the Trekroner. 
" He was sitting on a gun, encouraging his men, and had then been wounded by 
a splinter. He had expressed himself grieved at being thus obliged to retreat, 
and nobly observed, ' What will Nelson think of us ?' His clerk was killed by 
his side ; and by another shot, several of the marines, while hauling on the main- 
brace, shared the same fate. Riou then exclaimed, ' Come then, my boys, let us 
die all together !' The words were scarcely uttered, when the fatal shot severed 
him in two. Thus, in an instant, was the British service deprived of one of its 
greatest ornaments, and society of a character of singular worth, resembling the 
heroes of romance." 



16 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. I. 

appointed, on the 21st of April, Commander-in-chief in the 
Baltic, and received the thanks of both Houses of Par- 
liament. 

Among the Nelson Papers 1 find the following certificate 
of the number of prisoners taken on this occasion : 

" These are to certify the principal Officers and Commis- 
sioners of his Britannic Majesty's Navy, that there w^ere on 
board of his Danish Majesty's ships, hulks, and praams, which 
were taken in the action of the 2nd of April with the British 
squadron, 3500 men. In witness hereof, signed by us, 

" Jacob Arenfeldt, 
" Hans Lemming, 
*' Niels West Andresen, 

" Captains in the service of His Danish Majesty. 
"Copenhagen, May 7th, 1801." 

On the evening of the battle Lord Nelson wrote a brief 
account of it to Lady Hamilton: — 

" St. George, April 2nd, 1801. 8 o'clock at Night. 
" My dearest Friend, that same Deity who has on many 
occasions protected Nelson, has once more crowned his en- 
deavours with complete success. The difficulty of getting at 
the Danes from sand-banks was our greatest enemy, for, from 
that event, it took us between four or five hours to take all their 
floating batteries — this made the battle severe. The Prince 
Royal of Denmark was a spectator, and nearly killed. When 
all the flower of the Danish marine was in the possession of 
your friend, I sent a flag of truce on shore, with a kind note, 
which instantly brought off the Adjutant-General of his 
Royal Highness with a civil message, only wishing to know 
the precise meaning of my flag of truce, to say that the fire 
of the State of Denmark was stopped, and that the officer 
sent would agree to any cessation of hostilities I pleased. 
This was not very inconvenient to me as the Elephant had 
run on shore alongside a 74 and two or three floating batteries. 
All our ships behaved well, and some of them have lost many 
men. Poor Captain Riou has lost his life. A better officer 
or better man never existed. In short, of 18 sail, large and 



Vv,^VW-} '^^'^'^^ "^ iv-^^VjU-A sCvcrvvX) C^Jt^-^^f^ (^c^i^t- 



k 






f a-Ctm. Croii J«J».i' 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 17 

small, some are taken, some sunk, some burnt, in the good 
old way, I do not know how soon Sir Hyde Parker may 
send to England, and I must write to several persons, and 
am not a little tired, for I have scarcely slept one moment 
from the 24th of last month. May the heavens bless you. 
Remember me kindly to Sir William, the Duke, Lord Wil- 
liam, and all our friends. Ever your affectionate and attached 
friend, 

"Nelson and Bronte.'^ 

Although greatly fatigued by his extraordinary exertions 
for several days preceding this hard fought engagement, his 
attachment to Lady Hamilton was exhibited in the following 
lines, which are printed from his own autograph, having 
alterations of words, and emendations made in the course of 
composition. 1 It has been doubted whether some lines 
formerly published, as having been written by Lord Nelson, 
were in reality emanations of his muse, no other effusions of 
the kind from his pen being known. The following lines, 
however, so peculiarly marked and attested as to the time at 
which they were written, place his efforts in this line beyond 
question : — 

"lord nelson to his guardian angel. 

" From my best cable tho' I'm forced to part, 
I leave my anchor in my Angel's heart : 
Love, like a pilot, shall the pledge defend. 
And for a prong his happiest quiver lend. 

"answer of lord nelson's guardian angel. 

" Go where you list, each thought of Angel's (Emma's) soul 
Shall follow you from Indus to the Pole : 
East, west, north, south, our minds shall never part, 
Your Angel's loadstone shall be Nelson's heart. 
Farewell, and o'er the wide, wide sea. 

Bright glory's course pursue, 
And adverse winds to love and me. 
Prove fair to fame and you. 

" And when the dreaded hour of battle's nigh. 
Your Angel's heart, which trembles at a sigh, 

' See Fac-simile. 
VOL. II. C 



18 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. I. 

By your mperior dangpr bolder grown 
Shall dauntless place itself before your own 
Happy, thrice happy, should her fond heart prove 
A shield to Valour, Constancy, and Love." 

"St. George, April 2nd, 1801, 9 o'clock at night; very tired after a hard 
fought battle." 

On the 3rd, Lord Nelson wrote an account of the battle 
formally to Sir Hyde Parker, which was printed in the 
London Gazette of April 15th, together with Sir H. Parker^s 
Dispatches, in which Nelson's services are properly noticed. 
To the Hon. Henry Addington^ Lord Nelson wrote a par- 
ticular detail, 2 in accordance with a wish which the Premier 
had expressed to his Lordship. It is a document displaying 
great sagacity and tact in diplomacy with the Crown Prince 
of Denmark ; but the principal points are alluded to in the 
subsequent private letters to Lady Hamilton : — 

"April 5th, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend, 
" I am really tired out. Would to God it was all over, 
and I safely landed in England. On the 3rd I was sent on 
shore to talk to the Prince Royal. I believe I told him such 
truths as seldom reach the ears of princes. The people re- 
ceived me as they always have done ; and even the stairs of 
the palace were crowded, huzzaing, and saying, God bless 
Lord Nelson. I rather believe these kind salutations were 
not very pleasing to the Royal ears, nor Count Bernstorff,^ 
to whom I gave a very broad hint that his proceedings were 
very foolish. However, he was very civil. The Prince, upon 
many points, seemed to quake ; for on his question, ' for what 
is the British fleet come into the Baltic ?' my answer was not 
to be misunderstood : — ' To crush the formidable armament, 
of which Denmark is to contribute her part, preparing against 
Great Britain.' However, it has brought forwai'd a negotia- 
tion ; and if they have not enough, we must try and get at 
their arsenal and city, that will sicken them if they have not 

' Afterwards Lord Sidmouth. 

^ This will be found in the Dispatches and Letters, Vol. iv. p. 332, printed from 
an autograph in the Sidmouth Papers. 
^ Danish Minister for Foreign AflFairs. 



ISOI.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 19 

had enough. The carnage was dreadful on board all their 
vessels. I saw on shore a Captain Biller, now a Commodore, 
who commanded a Danish frigate at Naples ; he inquired 
kindly after you and Sir William ; he had often been at your 
house ; aye, who had not that happiness ? for you ever was, 
and ever I am sure will be good. You must know you have 
been in the battle : for your two pictures, one done by Miss 
Knight, crowning the Rostral Column, the other done at 
Dresden (I call them my Guardian Angels ; and I believe 
there would be more virtue in the prayers of Santa Emma, 
than any saint in the whole Calendar of Rome), I carried on 
board the Elephant with me, and they are safe, and so am I, 
not a scratch. To-day I have been obliged to write a letter 
to Lord St. Vincent, which I hope will touch his heart. God 
knows it has mine ; it was recommending to his protecting 
hand the widows and orphans of those brave men who lost 
their lives for their King and country under my orders. It 
positively made my heart run out of my eyes — it brought 
fresh to my recollection, that only when I spoke to them all, 
and shook hands with every Captain, wishing them all with 
laurel crowns, alas ! too many are covered with cypress. 
The Commander-in-chief has just told me that the vessel 
goes to England this night if possible. May the heavens 
bless you, &c. &c. 

" Nelson and Bronte. 
'' My best regards to Sir William, the Duke, Lord William, 
and all my friends. Kindest regards to Mrs. Nelson, if she 
is with you, which T hope she is.'^ 

The statement herein made of the manner in which Lord 
Nelson was received by the Danish peojole, is completely at 
variance with what Colonel Stewart has written. He says, 
" On the 4th (the 3rd, however, was the day, as seen by Lord 
Nelson's letter on the 5th to Lady Hamilton) his Lordship 
left the ship, accompanied by Captains Hardy and Fre- 
mantle, and was received with all possible attention from 
the Prince. The populace shewed a mixture of admiration, 
curiosity, and displeasure. A strong guard secured his safety, 
and appeared necessary to keep off the mob, whose rage, 
although mixed with admiration at his thus trusting himself 

c 2 



20 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. I, 

among them, was necessarily to be expected. The events of 
the 2nd had plunged the whole town into a state of terror, 
astonishment, and mourning ; the oldest inhabitant had never 
seen a shot fired in anger at his native country. The battle 
of that day, and the subsequent return of the wounded to the 
care of their friends on the 3rd, were certainly not events that 
could induce the Danish nation to receive their conqueror, on 
this occasion, with much cordiality. It perhaps savoured of 
rashness in Lord Nelson thus early to risk himself amongst 
them ; but with him his country's cause was paramount to 
all personal consideration." But the Hon. Henry Addington, 
in moving the vote of thanks in the House of Commons, 
adverts particularly to the reception Lord Nelson received 
from the populace. He said, " Lord Nelson in consequence 
went on shore, and was received by a brave and generous 
people — for brave they had shewn themselves in their defence, 
and generous in the oblivion of their loss — with the loudest 
and most general acclamations." And Mr. Sheridan 
happily remarked : — *' On the subject more immediately 
befoi'e the House, only one sentiment could be entertained, 
that of admiration and gratitude, which words were inade- 
quate to express, particularly towards that noble Lord, who 
could gain the plaudits and acclamations of a vanquished 
enemy." 

TO LADY HAMILTON. 

" My dearest Friend, 

" I have just got hold of the verses wrote by Miss Knight ; 
they belong to you ; the latter part is a little applicable to my 
present situation. It is dreadfully cold. I am sure, from 
our communication with the shore yesterday, that it is only 
fear of Russia that prevents all our disputes being settled. 
These people must sooner or later submit, and I long to get 
to Revel befoi*e the Russian fleet can join that of Cronstadt ; 
but my dear friend, we are very lazy. We MediteiTanean 
people are not used to it. Some further propositions are to 
come off this day, but I fear it blows too hard. 

" Nelson and Bronte. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 21 

*' April 6th. 7 in the morning. I am obliged to stop, as I 
know not exactly the moment of the vessel's sailing. 

^'No. of our Lottery Tickets : —2951— 9308— 42002— 
50416. You can send and inquire our luck/^ 

The following is from Mr. Vansittart to Lord Nelson, who, 
as we have seen, preceded him to negotiate with Denmark, 
but was unsuccessful in his mission. At the time of his de- 
parture for England, it appears that the mode of attack and 
conduct of affairs had been discussed with the Commander- 
in-chief, Lord Nelson, and Mr. Vansittart : — 

" London, April 8th, 1801. 

" My dear Lord, 
*' The solicitude you expressed that I should undertake the 
explanation of the reasons which induced you to propose a 
deviation from the original plan of operation designed for the 
fleet, would have been a motive with me of the strongest 
kind to enter into as early and complete a vindication of 
them as possible, if I had been in no respect personally in- 
terested in the question. But as your wish at parting Math 
me, that I should meet with a foul wind, was completely 
gratified, it was not till last Wednesday that we were able to 
get ashore at Leith. I got to town on Saturday, and went 
immediately to the Admiralty, but not finding Lord St. Vin- 
cent in town 1 called on Mr. Addington, to whom I gave a 
full account of what had passed in Sir Hyde Parker's cabin 
on the 23rd ulto. I have the pleasure to assure you that he 
was fully satisfied with the propriety of your advice, and of 
Sir Hyde Parker's ultimate resolution, and that he considers 
your readiness to take on yourself the responsibility attach- 
ing on a deviation from your instructions, as not the least 
eminent among the services which you have rendered your 
country in so many years of glory. Mr. Addington has 
since communicated the whole affair to Lord St. Vincent, 
who equally acquiesces in the propriety of the determina- 
tion, so that whatever may be the event of the plan (which 
Providence must decide) you will have the satisfaction of 
meeting with the approbation of those who have the best 
right to judge of it ; and I need not say, may depend on the 
confidence of the public. 



22 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. I. 

" Had not our attention been necessarily turned to a sub- 
ject of more immediate iaiportance, I should have been 
happy in the opportunity of suggesting to your Lordship 
some ideas more directly connected with the business on 
which I was sent abroad : I mean the measures which it might 
be proper to adopt in case Denmark or either of the other 
Northern Courts should apply to the Commander-in-chief 
for an armistice^ or make any other overtures towards accom- 
modation, either in consequence of those successes which such 
a fleet under such leaders may be expected to obtain, or of 
any change of political sentiment. In case the Admiral has 
received no special instructions on this subject, it appears to 
me, that he could do no more than receive any proposition 
which may be made, and transmit them to England ; grant- 
ing at the same time, if he shall think it advisable, a cessa- 
tion of arms on such conditions as may enforce the observ- 
ance of good faith, and secure the conclusion of a treaty 
conformable to the interests of Great Britain. What pledge 
it might be proper in each instance to require, you will be 
best able to judge if the case should occur, but it seems to 
be essential that the fleet of the Power applying should 
either be directed to take its orders from the British Admiral, 
or disarmed and laid up in such a situation as to be nearly 
at your discretion. It might, for instance, be required that 
the Danish fleet should retire into the harbour at Copen- 
hagen, that the floating batteries and fortified islands at the 
entrance should be given up, and the battery on Amack Point, 
and that under the citadel on the beach, together with the 
guns of the citadel commanding the harbour, should be dis- 
mounted. Similar measures with respect to Carlscroon or 
Cronstadt might be pursued, but as the surrender of those 
fortresses would not be attended with the disgrace and irrita- 
tion necessarily consequent on the capitulation of the capital 
of a kingdom, there would be less objection to insisting on 
this being absolutely put into your hands. I am the more 
induced to submit these ideas to your Lordship's consideration, 
as I think it very probable that some overture may come, 
either from Denmark or Sweden in case you should be able to 
give such a blow to the Russian navy, and may deliver them 
from the fear of their powerful ally, and at the same time 



ISOl.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON, 23 

add to the terror of the British arms. With respect to an 
attempt on Cronstadt ( judging from such plans as I have), 
I cannot think the difficulties insuperable, especially if the 
means taken to choke up the Northern Channel are ineffec- 
tual, which, from its breadth, I think they must be. It is 
true that very shallow water is marked at the eastern end, 
but from the pains taken by the Russians to destroy the pas- 
sage, I apprehend they must in reality know it to be practi- 
cable for large ships. I w^as more confirmed in this opinion 
from finding that Etches, who seems the most active and 
intelligent adventurer I ever met with, and who served some 
time in the Russian fleet, thinks an attack there by no means 
difficult. Of that, however, you will before this time have 
better means of judging. 

" Of domestic affairs I have little to say. The King is 
getting well; we hope securely, but too slowly for the 
wishes of the nation. Mr. Addington, who has been very 
ill, is nearly recovered. Believe me, my Lord, with the sin- 
cerest wishes for your success and happy return, faithfully 

" Yours, 

*'N. Vansittart." 

The following " minute of conversation with his Royal High- 
ness the Prince Royal of Denmark^' corrected by Nelson 
himself cannot but be interesting here : — 

** Minute of a Conversation with his Royal Highness, the 
Prince Royal of Denmark. 

'^ His Royal Highness began the conversation by saying 
how happy he was to see me, and thanked me for my 
humanity to the wounded Danes. I then said, that it was to 
me, and would be the greatest affliction to every man in 
England, from the King to the lowest person, to think that 
Denmark had fired on the British flag, and become leagued 
with her enemies. His Royal Highness stopped me by 
saying that Admiral Parker had declaimed war against Den- 
mark. This I denied, and requested his Royal Highness to 
send for the papers, and he would find the direct contrary, 
and that it was the farthest from the thoughts of the British 



24 LIFE OP VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. I. 

Admiral. I then asked if his Royal Highness would permit 
me to speak my mind freely on the present situation of Den- 
mark ? to which he having acquiesced, I stated to him the 
sensation which was caused in England by such an unnatural 
alliance with, at the present moment, the furious enemy of 
England. His answer was, that when he made the alliance, 
it was for the protection of their trade, and that Denmark 
would never be the enemy of England, and that the Emperor 
of Russia was not the enemy of England when this treaty 
was formed — that he never would join Russia against Eng- 
land, and his declaration to that effect was the cause of the 
Emperor's (I think he said) sending away his Minister, — that 
Denmark was a trading nation, and had only to look to the 
protection of its lawful commerce. His Royal Highness then 
enlarged on the impossibility of Danish ships under convoy 
having on board any contraband trade ; but to be subjected 
to be stopped, even a Danish fleet, by a pitiful privateer, 
and that she should search all the ships and take out of the 
fleet any vessels she might please, was what Denmark could 
not permit. To this my answer was simply. What occasion 
for convoy to fair trade ? To which he answered, Did you find 
any thing in the convoy of the Freja? and that no Com- 
mander could tell what contraband goods might be in the 
convoy, &c. &c. and as to merchants, they would always sell 
what was most saleable ; and as to swearing to property, I 
could get any thing sworn to which I pleased. I then said. 
Suppose that England, which she never will, was to consent 
to this freedcm and nonsense of navigation, I will tell your 
Royal Highness what the result would be — ruination to 
Denmark ; for the present commerce of Denmark with the 
warring powers was half the neutral carrying trade, and any 
merchant in Copenhagen would tell you the same. If all 
this freedom was allowed, Denmark would not have more 
than the sixth part, for the State of Passenburgh was as good 
as the State of Denmark in that case ; and it would soon be 
said, we will not be stopped in the Sound, our flag is our 
protection, and Denmark would lose a great source of her 
present revenue ; and that the Baltic would soon change its 
name to the Russian Sea. He said, this was a delicate 
subject, to which I replied, That his Royal Highness had 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 25 

permitted me to speak out. He then said, Pray answer me 
a question. For what is the British fleet come into the 
Baltic? My answer, To crush a most formidable and 
unprovoked coalition against Great Britain. He then went 
on to say, that his uncle (George III.) had been deceived, 
that it was a misunderstanding, and that nothing should ever 
make him take a part against Great Britain, for that it could 
not be his interest to see us crushed, nor, he trusted, ours to 
see him ; to which I acquiesced. I then said, there could be 
no doubt of the hostility of Denmark, for if her fleet had 
been joined with Russia and Sweden, they would assuredly 
have gone into the North Sea, menaced the Court of England, 
and probably have joined the French if they had been able. 
His Royal Highness said his ships never should join any 
power against England, but it required not much argument 
to satisfy him he could not help it, by his treaty. In speak- 
ing of the pretended union of the Northern Powers, I could 
not help saying that his Royal Highness must be sensible that 
it was nonsense to talk of a mutual protection of trade with 
a Power who had none, and that he must be sensible that the 
Emperor of Russia would never have thought of offering to 
protect the trade of Denmark, if he had not had hostility 
against Great Britain. He said repeatedly, I have offered 
to-day, and do offer, my mediation between Great Britain 
and Russia. My answer was, A mediator must be at peace 
with both parties. You must settle your matter with Great 
Britain. At present you are leagued with our enemies, and 
are considered naturally as a part of the effective force to fight 
us. Talking much on this subject, his Royal Highness said, 
What must I do to make myself equal ? Answer, — Sign an 
alliance with Great Britain, and join your fleet to ours. His 
Royal Highness then said, Russia will go to war with us, and 
my desire as a commercial nation is to be at peace with all 
the world. I told him, he knew the offer of Great Britain, 
either to join us or disarm. And pray. Lord Nelson, what 
do you call disarming? My answer was, that I was not 
authorized to give an opinion on the subject ; but I con- 
sidered it as not having on foot any force beyond the cus- 
tomary establishment. Question : And do you consider the 
guard-ships in the Sound as beyond that common establish- 



26 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. I. 

ment ? Answer : I do not. Question : We have always had 
five sail of the line in the Cattegat and coast of Nonvay ? 
Answer : I am not authorized to define what is exactly dis- 
arming, but I do not think such a force will be allowed. His 
Royal Highness : When all Europe is in such a dreadful 
state of confusion, it is absolutely necessary that States 
should be on their guard. Answer : Your Royal Highness 
knows the offers of England to keep 20 sail of the line in the 
Baltic. He then said, I am sure my intentions are very 
much misunderstood. To which I replied, that Sir Hyde 
Parker had authorized me to say that upon certain conditions 
his Royal Highness might have an opportunity of explaining 
his sentiments at the Court of London. I am not authorized 
to say on what conditions exactly. Question : But what do 
you think ? Answer : First, a free entry of the British fleet 
into Copenhagen, and the free use of every thing we may 
want from it. Before I could get on, he replied quick. That 
you shall have with pleasure. The next is, whilst this expla- 
nation is going on, a total suspension of your treaties with 
Russia. These, I believe, are the foundation on which Sir 
Hyde Parker only can build other articles for his justification 
in suspending his orders, which are plain and positive. His 
Royal Highness then desired me to repeat what I had said, 
which having done, he thanked me for my open conversation ; 
and I having made an apology if I had said any thing which 
he might think too strong, his Royal Highness very hand- 
somely did the same, and we parted, he saying that he hoped 
we would cease from hostilities to-morrow, as on such an 
important occasion he must call a Council.'^ 

On the 9th an annistice was agreed upon, and the terms 
transmitted to the Admiralty by the Hon. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Stewart. They were printed in the London Gazette of April 
21st, and are in autograph in the Sidmouth Papers. The 
following was adressed by Lord Nelson to Lady Hamilton : 

" April 9th, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend, you will perceive that I am become a 
negotiator, a bad one no doubt, but perhaps as upright a one 
as any England could send. Count Bernstorff has taken to his 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 27 

bed, and was not able (willing) to make me a visit. Yesterday 
he had sent off some vague notes to Sir Hyde Parker, and I 
sent him a message that I was ashamed of his conduct. Did he 
take Sir Hyde Parker for a fool, to play off his ministerial 
duplicity, for it would not suit a British Admiral, who came 
to treat with their hearts in their hands ? My object is to 
make Denmark our friend by conciliation, now we have shewn 
we can beat them. In mercy spare. In my opinion, nations 
like individuals are to be won more by acts of kindness than 
cruelty. We could burn Copenhagen. Would that win an 
affection towards England ? The Armistice has tied up Den- 
mark, and let us loose against her Allies, for which I think 
Russia will go to war with her. If our Ministry do not 
approve of my humane conduct, I have begged they would 
allow me to retire, and under the shade of a chesnut-tree at 
BRONTE, where the din of war will not reach my ears, do I 
hope to solace myself, make my people happy and prosperous, 
and by giving my advice (if asked), enable his Sicilian 
Majesty, my bi nef actor, to be more than ever respected in the 
Mediterranean, and to have peace with all the Barbary States. 
This, my dear friend, you may write to the Queen, and tell 
Prince Castelcicala. I hope the King and Acton will take 
care of my estate. Yesterday I was shut up in a room in the 
palace half wet through — it was a hard task to make them, 
in plain terms, suspend the treaty of the famed confederacy 
against England. W^hat will Paul say to all this? 1 am 
worn out, no words can express the horror of my situation. 
The Prince has been very kind in expressions towards me, 
and said the world would think my humane conduct, on the 
late melancholy occasion, placed me higher than all my vic- 
tories, brilliant as they had been. I dined with the Prince, 
as did Colonel Stewart, Captains Foley and Fremantle." 

" 9 o'clock at night. 

" Having concluded the Treaty of Armistice with Denmark, 
I got on board between six and seven, and found to my inex- 
pi'essible satisfaction, all your truly kind and affectionate 
letters. Colonel Stewart is going home with the Armistice, 
and I have wrote to Mr. Addington, that if he does not 
approve of it, I beg to be superseded, and to be allowed to 



28 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. I. 

retire, for God knows I want rest, and a true fiiend to com- 
fort me. I have scarcely time to tm-n round ; all here hang 
on my shoulders ; but I am trying to finish, and hope to be 
home next month. My health will not allow me to remain 
here all the summer. I hope, I assure you, to retire. Why 
should I fag my life out ? I am not Commander-in-chief.^ 
None of my gallant Lieutenants are promoted, but I enjoy 
that reward, the approbation of such a friend as you and Sir 
William, which is all I require. I hope to get Sir Hyde to 
let me pass the Channel the moment the wind suits, for we 
are losing time, and I want to be home. With best regards 
to the Duke, Lord Wilham, &c. &c. 

"Nelson and Bronte." 

" Your friend was on shore to-day to receive the ratification 
of the treaty of armistice. I received, as a warrior, all the 
praises which could gratify the ambition of the vainest man, 
and the thanks of the nation from the King downwards for 
my humanity in saving the town from destruction. Nelson 
is a warrior, but will not be a butcher. I am sure, could you 
have seen the adoration and respect, you would have cried 
for joy." 

Lord Nelson also wrote to Lord Minto, and Sir Brooke 
Boothby, Bart. To the former he says : " Before you con- 
demn the Armistice, hear all the reasons : they are weighty 
and most important. Without it we should have gone no 
further this year, and with it not half so far as I wish." To 
the latter : '^ I but wish to finish Paul, and then retire for 
ever." Soon after this Lord Nelson heard of the death of 
the Emperor Paul, as on the 11th he wrote thus to Lady 
Hamilton : — 

" April 11th, 1801. 
" My dearest Friend, 

" I have answered the King of Naples's letter, and have 
told him that in six weeks after the peace, I hope to be at 
his feet, for that it is my intention to go to Bronte. I can 

' He was appointed only April 21st. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NEfcSON. 29 

assure you that I am fixed to live a country life, andto have 
many (I hope) years of comfort_, which God knows, I never 
yet had — only moments of happiness ; but the case shall be 
altered. I tell you, my dear good friend, all my little plans, 
for I know you did, and I hope always will, take a lively 
interest in my happiness. The death of Paul may prevent 
the shedding of more human blood in the north. The mo- 
ment that is clear I shall not remain one minute, and at all 
events I hope to be in England in May. We have reports 
that the Swedish fleet is above the Shallows, distant five or 
six leagues. All our fellows are longing to be at them, and 
so do I, as great a boy as any of them, for I consider this as 
being at school, and going to England as going home for the 
holidays, therefore I really long to finish my task. I am 
glad to hear that Sir William's pictures sold so well, but 
believe me, before I would have sold a picture of you, I would 
have starved. I wonder Sir William could do it. I cannot 
write politics, as my letter probably will be read, but I have 
to beg you will remember me most affectionately to our friends 
of all ages and sexes, therefore I cannot mention names. I 
will endeavour and know to-morrow if you may safely write 
to Copenhagen. 

" Ever yours affectionately.'^ 

Mr. Osborn, Secretary to the Commander-in-chief, was 
appointed to the agency of the prizes taken at the battle ; but 
difficulties arising, he declined the appointment. Lord 
Nelson's friend, and agent for the prizes at the Nile, Mr. 
Davison, was subsequently appointed sole agent, as appears 
from the following to Hely Addington, Esq. 

" St. James's Square, 8th May, 1801. 

" Sir, 
" Having been appointed sole agent for the Baltic Squadron 
under the command of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker, for the 
prizes taken from the Danes in the engagement of the 2nd 
April off Copenhagen, I beg the favour of you to inform the 
Lords Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury that I am 
prevented applying in the regular manner to the Navy 
Board for the usual allowance of head money, for want of 



30 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. I. 

the vouchers required, which could not be obtained by reason 
of the prisoners having been immediately set ashore at Copen- 
hagen, and that the only paper transmitted to me to ascertain 
the number of persons on board the ships and floating 
batteries at the commencement of the action is a letter from 
Lord Nelson, stating that for the reasons above-mentioned 
their number could not be actually ascertained, but from the 
best accounts they had been able to obtain, the number of 
men on board the eighteen ships and vessels which struck to 
his Majstey's squadron under his Lordship's orders, did not 
amount to less than six thousand men. 

*' As it does not appear possible that regular vouchers can 
now be procured, I beg to solicit on behalf of Admu-al Sir 
Hyde Parker, Vice-Admiral Lord Nelson, Rear- Admiral 
Graves, the several Commanders, Officers and ships' com- 
panies, that their Lordships will be pleased to dispense with 
the regular vouchers (as was done in the case of the victory 
of the Nile), and give directions to the Navy Board to pay 
the head money upon the authority of Lord Nelson's letter. 

" I have the honour to be, 

" Sir, 
" Your most obedient humble servant, 

"Alex. Davison, 

" Sole Agent. 
" Extract from Lord Nelson's letter : — 

'St. George, 22nd April, 1801. 
* The Danes being all landed without any declaration as to 
numbers, yet this can easily be got over by a dispensing 
order — not less than six thousand men can be allowed, and 
that is under the number. 

'Nelson and Bronte. 

' To Alex. Davison, Esq.' 
" Hely Addington, Esq. &c. &c. &c. Treasury." 

The correspondence with Lady Hamilton continues : — 

" AprQ 13th, Copenhagen. 

" My dearest Friend, 
" All your letters up to the 4th April I received with inex- 
pressible pleasure last night. By this occasion of the post 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 31 

I only acknowledge them. I wrote you yesterday, but as 
they go a round it may be a day later before you receive them. 
As soon as we are over the grounds in about two days, I shall 
write you fully. I love you for your attachment to your dear 
Queen/ and your resolution to live and die with her — she 
deserves it all, for her faithful affection to you is beyond all 
description. I expect to be in England in May, but let what 
will happen, for I do not believe we shall fire another shot in 
the Baltic, you will hear that I have been so careful not to 
increase the strength of our opponents, who certainly died 
hard, that I have only put down six sail of the line instead of 
seven, but a ship more or a ship less cannot add to my repu- 
tation, and it might injure a poor Danish officer, which I do 
not, thank God, want to do. I cannot write politics. Many 
thanks for the songs. John Bull has always had faith in me, 
and I am grateful. I shall write you more by the brig Cap- 
tain Fancourt" desires his regards, as I do mine, to Sir William, 
the Duke, Lord William, and all our real friends." 

" April 14th, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend, 

" I was in hopes that I should have got off some Copen- 
hagen china to have sent you by Captain Bhgh,^ who was 
one of my seconds on the 2nd. He is a steady seaman, and 
a good and brave man. If he calls, I hope you will admit him, 
I have half promised him that pleasure, and if he can get hold 
of the china he is to take charge of it. I have this day 
pressed on Lord St. Vincent my leave to retire, and told him 



' The Queen of Naples. 

^ Robert Devereux Fancourt, in the early part of his career, served in the East 
Indies, under Sir Richard Bickerton, Bart., and was made Post Captain in 1790. 
In the revolutionary war he was employed in protection of the trade in tlie West 
Indies and the Mediterranean, and in 1797, served witla Lord Duncan in the North 
Sea, after which he joined Vice-Admiral Dickson's squadron, and thence proceeded 
with Sir Hyde Parker in the Copenhagen expedition. His vessel, the Agamemnon, 
however, unfortunately struck upon a shoal, and he was thereby deprived the honour 
of being engaged on that memorable occasion. He was made Rear-Admiral, 
April 28, 1808, and a Vice-Admiral, August 12, 1812. He lived to the advanced 
age of 84 years, dying June ?th, 1826, an Admiral of the Blue. 

' Captain George Miller Bligh, died Oct. 14, 1834. 



32 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. I. 

I hoped it would be before April was out. If we have peace 
with Russia, nothing shall keep me a moment, and to prepare 
for it I have sent to the Prince to request that he will give a 
general order for my free passage through his dominions in 
case I land at Lubeck, which is only thirty-eight miles from 
Gluckstadt on the Elbe. 

^^ Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" I shall write by the brig Sir Hyde Parker is going to 
send home. Best regards to Sir William, the Duke, &c. &e. 
I have wrote by the post. Rev. Mr. Comyn^ has not joined. 
I hope he was not in the Invincible."- 

On this day. Sir Thomas Troubridge, then one of the 
Lords of the Admiralty, wrote to Lady Hamilton to acquaint 
her with the death of Paul,^ by which it appears that Nelson 
was aware of it prior to its reaching the English Govern- 
ment : — 

"April 14th, 1801. 

" My dear Lady Hamilton, 

" Your great and good friend, magnanimous Paul, is dead, 
and the private letters from Mecklenburg, via Hamburgh, 
say our fleet is near Lubeck, having destroyed the Danish 
squadron. I sincerely hope it is true. One letter asserts 
that Lord Nelson said it was warm work while it lasted. 

"The death of our inveterate enemy may give a turn to 
affairs ; it is reported our seamen are released from prison in 
Russia, and a messenger arrived from Russia last night, which 
looks well. I cannot say more — burn this. 

" Yours, most truly, 

«T. Troubridge." 

From the following letter, Nelson appears to have been 
very anxious to reach England : — 

' Lord Nelson's Chaplain on board the Vanguard at the Battle of the Nile. 
Nelson solicited of the Lord Chancellor, and obtained for him the Rectory of 
Bridgeham, in Norfolk. 

^ Rear-Aduiiral Totty's ship, wrecked going out of Yarmouth Roads. 

' He was murdered March 24, 1801. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. .3.3 

"St. George, April 15th, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend, 
"I can get nothing here worth your acceptance, but as 
I know you have a vahiable collection of china I send you 
some of the Copenhagen manufacture, it will bring to your 
recollection that here your attached friend Nelson fought 
and conquered. Captain Bligh has promised to take charge 
of it, and I hope it will reach you safe. Our guns are all out 
of the ship in order to get her over the shallow water. My 
Commander-in-chief has left me, but if there is any work to 
do, I dare say they will wait for me. Nelson will he -first. 
Who can stop him ? I have much to say, and before one 
month is over, I hope to tell you in person. You may get 
out by management from Troubridge whether ray leave is 
come out, if it is not, I will go without it, for here I will not 
stay. I have just got a passport from the Prince, which I 
shall use when occasion requires. 

" Ever yours, most faithfully, 

"Nelson and Bronte." 

Adjutant-General Lindholm sent to Lord Nelson the 
passport alluded to in the preceding letter : — 

"Copenhagen, April I5th, 1801. 

" Sir, 
^^ I have the honour to send your Lordship a German pass- 
port for your intended journey ; but I hope to see your Lord- 
ship on board the St. George before you set out. His Royal 
Highness has ordered me to present his compliments to your 
Lordship. 

"We hear to-day the interesting news from Hamburgh, 
that the Emperor of Russia has offered to give up the Eng- 
lish vessels, and the English goods detained in Russia, when 
England will give up the Russian, Danish, and Swedish 
vessels in her ports. I hope that the northern business will 
soon be settled. I am, with the greatest esteem, my Lord, 
" Your most obedient humble servant, 

" Lindholm. 

" Right Hon. Lord Nelson, 
" Vice-Adniiral." 
VOL. II. D 



34 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. I. 

On the same clay he wrote to his brother, Maurice 

Nelson : — 

"April 15th, Copenhagen Roads. 

*' My dear Brother, 
^' I am glad to find you are in possession of Mr. Hartwell's 
place ; but the neglect shewn me in not having placed you at 
the Navy Board, is what I cannot forget. We shall see 
whether the new Administration treats me as ill as the old. I 
think very likely. Lord St. Vincent will either take this late 
business up with a very high hand, or he will depress it ; but 
how they will manage about Sir Hyde I cannot guess. I am 
afraid much will be said about him in the public papers ; but 
not a word shall be drawn from me, for God knows they may 
make him Lord Copenhagen if they please, it will not offend 
me. I only want justice for myself, which I have never yet 
had, and leave to go home for the re-establishment of my 
health. What has been done with Peyton ?i His son is a 
fine lad, and behaves well ; say so if you see him. With my 
best regards to Mrs. Nelson, believe me ever, 

" Your affectionate brother, 

" Nelson and Bronte." 

He again removed to the Elephant. To Lady Hamilton he 
writes : — 

" Elephant, Baltic, April 17th, 1801< 

" My dearest friend, 
"Once more I am shifted to the Elephant, and Captain 
Foley is so good as to be plagued with me. St. George 
cannot yet be got over the shallows ; and as the Swedish fleet 
Avas at sea the 14th, Sir Hyde desired me to shift my flag. For 
my part, I do not expect to fire another gun ; the Swedes 
cannot be such fools as to wait for us. My mind is fixed to 
be in England the latter end of May ; I hope much sooner. 
Nothing shall keep me here. I cannot write politics, therefore 
can only assure you that I am ever yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte." 



' This officer died at Priesland, near Lymington, August 2, 1809, a Rear-Ad- 
miral of the Red. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 35 

" Elephant, April 20th, off Carlscrona. 

"Yesterday, my clearest Friend, we saw the Swedish squa- 
dron, not at sea, but shut up very snug in their harbour, inside 
of their batteries ; and what is worse for us, their numerous 
rocks. Thus all our hopes of getting alongside them is at 
an end ; they will not trust themselves out again this summer. 
We are, at least I am, anxiously waiting for news from Eng- 
land, and expect that we shall be ordered to abstain from hos- 
tihties against Russia. In that case, if a ship cannot be given 
me to go to England, I shall land at Lubeck, only one day's 
journey to Hamburgh, and take a packet to convey me over. 
Should the worst happen, and that we have no cessation with 
Russia, all must be finished by the middle of May, and then 
I will not stay half an hour. Why should I ? No real friend 
would advise me to it, and for what others say I care not a 
farthing. My health, and other circumstances, imperiously 
demand it. I have given up in reason every thing to my 
country, but the late Ministers have done less for me than 
any other man in my situation. The Commanders-in-chief 
made fortunes by their victories, for which Ministers gave 
them £1000. a year more than poor Nelson, higher title in 
the Peerage, and promoted their followers, whilst mine were 
all neglected, and now, what even the custom of the service 
and common justice gives me, is attempted to be withheld 
from me by force of money and influence. The 25 th of May 
is fixed for the day of trial,^ and it is seriously my interest 
to be in England on that day. I have this day wrote more 
pressingly, if possible, to Troubridge, about my leave of ab- 
sence for home. I will go, that is certain. 

" Kindest regards and affections administered to those of 
our friends and acquaintances as the case requires. 

" Yours, &c. &c.'' 

Mr. Brierly, the Master of the Bellona says, " Lord Nelson 
received advice, per letter, from Sir Hyde Parker, of a 
Swedish squadron being seen by one of our look-out frigates. 
The moment he received the account, he ordered a boat to be 
manned J and without even waiting for a boat cloak (though 

' The Question of Prize Money with Earl St. Vincent. 

D 2 



I 



36 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. I. 

you must suppose the weather pretty sharp here at this 
season of the year)^ and having to row about twenty-four miles 
with the wind and current against him, jumped into her, and 
ordered me to go with him, I having been on board that ship, 
to remain till she had got over the grounds. All I had ever 
seen or heard of him could not half so clearly prove to me the 
singular and unbounded zeal of this truly great man. His 
anxiety in the boat, for near six hours (lest the fleet should 
have sailed before he got on board one of them, and lest we 
should not catch the Swedish squadron) is beyond all con- 
ception. I will quote some expressions in his own words. 
It was extremely cold, and I wished him to put on a great 
coat of mine which was in the boat : — ' No, I am not cold ; 
my anxiety for my country will keep me warm. Do you not 
think the fleet has sailed ?^ ' I should suppose not, my Lord.^ 
' If they are, we shall follow them to Carlscrona in the boat, 
by God V I merely state this to shew how his thoughts 
must have been employed. The idea of going in a small boat, 
rowing six oars, without a single morsel of any thing to eat 
or drink, the distance of about fifty leagues, must convince 
the world, that every other earthly consideration than that of 
serving his country was totally banished from his thoughts. 
We reached our fleet by midnight, and went on board the 
Elephant, Captain Foley, where I left his Lordship in the 
morning, and returned to my ship. In our late action, 
nothing but his superior abilities, as well as bravery, could 
have given us so decided a victory, when four of our ships 
ran aground, and in the heat of battle."^ 

' Naval Chronicle, Vol. v. p. 452. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 3/ 

CHAPTER II. 

1801. 

Among many letters of congratulation addressed to Lord 
Nelson on his success at Copenhagen that from his Royal 
Highness the Duke of Clarence, was not the least accept- 
able : — 

"Bushy House, Monday Night, April 20th, 1801. 

" Dear Nelson, 
"I am to acknowledge yours of the 4th instant, which 
business and different engagements prevented me from an- 
swering by Captain Otway,^ and this evening I have received 

' This gallant ofEcer, a native of Tipperary, evinced strong predilection for the 
Naval service at an early age, rejected his father's offer to purchase for him a 
Cornetcy in the Dragoons, and entered the Navy in 1784, at the age of 13, on 
board the Elizabeth of 74 guns, commanded by Sir Richard Kingsmill, Bart. He 
served in the West Indies and on the coast of Guinea, and was in 1 794 a Lieu- 
tenant in the Impregnable in Lord Howe's memorable action, where he so dis- 
tinguished himself by his intrepidity that he was offered by his Commander, 
Rear- Admiral Caldwell, the position of First Lieutenant. This, however, he had 
the modesty and good sense to decline, as it might excite jealous feelings among 
his deserving messmates with whom he lived on good terms. Rear- Admiral Cald- 
well being moved into the Majestic, Lieutenant Robert Waller Otway accom- 
panied him. He soon after attained the rank of Commander, took La Belle 
Creole, a large French schooner, carrying a banditti to be employed against the 
inhabitants of St. Pierre, and for this capture the French Royalists of Martinique 
presented him with a sword of the value of 200 guineas. He made other prizes, 
performed important services, and received the thanks of the House of Assembly. 
These services are detailed in Marshall's Naval Biography (Vol. i. p. 694, etseq.). 
In 1798 he served in the Gulf of Mexico with Sir Hyde Parker, and was after- 
wards on the Jamaica station. Accompanying the expedition to the Baltic he wa3 
Captain of the Royal George, and afterwards of the London. He was active in 
the Copenhagen attack, took home the Dispatches, and afterwards commanded 
the Edgar of 74 guns, in the Channel fleet. He was employed upon the renewal 
of the war in 1803, distinguishing himself by his ardour in various ships until his 
health gave way, and was obliged for a time to retire from active service. In 
1813, however, he was in the Channel fleet commanding the Ajax, and em- 
ployed in covering the siege of St. Sebastian. He was made a Rear- Admiral, 
June 4, 1814, and succeeded Sir William Johnstone Hope as Commander-in- 
chief on the coast of Scotland in 1818. He received the Freedom of the City of 
Edinburgh. In 1830 he was made a Vice-Admiral, and an Admiral in 1841. Sir 
Robert Waller Otway was made a Baronet in 1831, and G.C.B. in 1845 ; one of 



i 



38 



LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL 



[chap. II. 



your letter of the 10th, and with your leave will answer them 
both. The first gave me the most heartfelt pleasure both for 
public reasons as well as private. I must ever rejoice at the 
success of my country, and am fully convinced that this is 
the most decisive and the most brilliant victory that the navy 
of Great Britain ever gained : believe me it is to me more 
acceptable because you my best and oldest friend was the hero 
that did the act. I cannot help laughing when I hear the 
d — d fools of our metropolis exclaiming, ' Why is Lord Nel- 
son so much attached to the Duke of Clarence ?' When the 
thanks were moved in the House of Lords, I endeavoured to im- 
press the public mind with the very great services you have so 
repeatedly rendered the King and Country. I am truly happy 
ray old shipmate Tom Foley was your Captain, and I rejoice 
to find my eleve Brisbane^ has merited your approbation. 

" In answer to your second letter, it is a matter of satis- 
faction to me to find we think alike upon the Northern 
Expedition. I was from the beginning convinced, beyond 
Copenhagen, without a truce, the fleet could not proceed to 
Revel. I think there will now be no necessity, as Paul, thank 
God, is no more. To the principle of searching neutrals I 
am a friend, but cannot help lamenting that the arrogance 
and ignorance of our former Ministers should have brought 
that matter to issue which ought to have been left at rest. 

" I am sorry you complain in both your letters of your 
health, and hope matters will permit your speedy return 
home, indeed I sincerely wish on every account for peace, 
but on no one more than that you may have time to recover, 
and be ready to head the fleets of this country in a future 
war. Adieu, and take care of yourself. God bless you, and 
ever believe me in every situation, my dear Nelson, 

" Your best and sincerest friend. 




the Grooms in Waiting to Her Majesty in 1837, and died suddenly, May 12, 1846, 
an Admiral of the White, aged 74 years. See Annual Register for 1846, p. 255. 
' Rear-Ailmiral Sir Charles Brisbane, K.C.B. who died in 1829. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSOX. 39 

The Premier also wrote to Lord Nelson on the same day. 

HON. HENRY ADDINGTON TO LORD NELSON. 

"Downing Street, April 20th, 1801, 

'^ My dear Lord, 
*' You will have heard from Lord St, Vincent how entirely 
the whole and every part of your Lordship's conduct is ap- 
proved of by the King, and you must have been informed 
from various quarters of the impression it has made upon 
Parliament and the public. It remains for me only to ex- 
press the sentiments of admiration and of complete satisfac- 
tion, with which I contemplate what has passed, under your 
Lordship's auspices, in the Baltic and at Copenhagen. The 
transactions in which you had so distinguished a share, and 
of which, indeed, you were the life and soul, joined to the 
late event at Petersburgh will, I trust, lead to an honourable 
accommodation with the Northern Powers ; but whilst we 
hope and expect the best, we must be prepared for the 
worst; and I am sure that the minds of the people of this 
country will be at ease whilst your Lordship continues in 
the Baltic. I must add, that you have gratified and obliged 
me by your private communications, which I beg you to 
repeat as frequently as may be consistent with your avoca- 
tions and convenience. My best wishes on all accounts ever 
attend you. Believe me to be, with true attachment, my 
dear Lord, you sincere friend and faithful servant, 

"Henry Addington."^ 

The King of Naples also wrote to congratulate Lord Nel- 
son on the victory he had obtained : — 

" My dear and much esteemed Lord Nelson, I received 
your welcome letter dated 10th of April, and I am your 
debtor from that date, owing to you a new and sincere com- 
pliment for that glorious day of the above mentioned month, 
the memorable 2nd, which also will give such advantage's to 
your brave nation and all Europe ; and it gives me confidence 
and hopes of a general and much desired peace. Therefore, 

' Life and Correspondence of Lord Viscount Sidmoutli, Vol. i. p. 379. 



40 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. II. 

again receive my cordial rejoicings, and be assured of the 
great pleasure I shall have to see you again in my kingdoms, 
where you will find gratitude, esteem, and affection. 1 beg 
you also to believe in my feelings, and the part I take in the 
well merited distinctions which your magnanimous Sovereign 
has shewn you, and the sensations it must have produced in 
his Royal and grateful soul for the important service which 
you have again rendered, and joined to so many others 
useful and beneficial to your grateful country. I feel the 
greatest happiness in expressing to you these deeply engraven 
sentiments which I hope soon by voice to repeat, and to as- 
sure you of the constant affection of your 

" Ferdinand. '^ 

Lieutenant-Colonel Stewart, the bearer of the armistice 
to England, wrote to Lady Hamilton on his return to Co- 
penhagen as follows : — 

" Nelson Arms, Yarmouth, April 23rd, 1801. 

" Dear Madam, 
" After your having expressed your intentions yesterday 
of forwarding under my care the picture to Lord Nelson, I 
feel quite distressed that it was out of my power to Mait 
longer for it than four o'clock yesterday afternoon, having been 
dismissed by Lord St. Vincent two hours even previous to 
that time. I feel alarmed at your Ladyship's not thinking 
me to be a very civil sort of a gentleman, to have thus left 
town without again calling on you for poor St. Cecilia,^ but 
the close manner in which I was kept occupied at the Admi- 
ralty, Downing Street, and War Office, after T had the honour 
of taking leave of Sir William and your Ladyship, really pre- 
vented me from so doing. The Favorite sloop of war is, 
however, now here, expecting to be dispatched with the 
duplicate of my dispatches to the fleet, and if your Ladyship 
will send the picture in question to the care of Mr. Stewart, 
Agent for the Baltic fleet in this town, with directions for 
its being forwarded by the Favorite, or first safe conveyance, 
that gentleman will do so with care and with pleasure, for I 
have been speaking to him on the subject. I am anxious 
that Lord Nelson should have in his cabin so pretty a cadeau, 

' Lady Hamilton's portrait painted by Geo. Roumey, R.A. 



1801.] LORD VISGOUNT NELSON. 41 

as I shall thereby frequently have it in my power also to 
admire this interesting fair one. I shall therefore give our 
noble friend to expect the receipt of poor Cecilia, and must 
beg that your Ladyship will forward it, for it will, I am con- 
fident, give our hero great pleasure, and if you do not, I shall 
feel convinced that you are angry with me for not having 
waited for it. You must excuse this scrawl, written during 
the hasty moment of embarkation, from an inn, and believe 
me with much truth, 

^' Your Ladyship's very faithful servant, 

"Wm. Stewart." 

The Colonel was also the bearer of the following letter 
to Lord Nelson from Alex. Davison, Esq. : — 

"St. James's Square, 22nd April, 1801. 
"■ My dear Friend, 

" Colonel Stewart's return to the Baltic affords me the 
happy opportunity of writing to you, and with the general 
voice of this nation to repeat again and again our joy on the 
most important victory at this particular period ever this 
country could have obtained. 1 will refer you to Colonel 
Stewart for our political news, who will communicate more 
in ten minutes than I could in ^ours writing. I am grieved 
to find, though however gratifying the cause, that you are 
not likely to obtain leave of absence so soon as you expected, 
or your friends here wished. It is said, the service absolutely 
requires your aid in the Baltic, and without you nothing 
would have been done, and that nothing will be eff'ected 
without you. Taking all this for granted, as I believe it to 
be true, yet I own I should have been much pleased to hear 
of your return immediately, as I see nothing now to be done, 
in which you as second can possibly claim that distinct 
pointed approbation you, in every act of your life, so justly 
^ merit. Fighting for the honour of another ought not to be 
your station, and as Sir Hyde is battling for a peerage, in 
God's name let him have it, and return quietly home, leaving 
you in the command, if it be determined that you are to 
remain. I hope it is not true, what I have heard, that it is 
the intention of the Government to offer you the dignity of 



42 LIFE OF VTCE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. II. 

Viscount. That you ought to have had long ago, and any- 
additional distinction short of an Earldom, in my humble 
opinion, would be degrading. Your last act of service 
deserves every acknowledgment which a grateful country 
(whatever Ministers may think) can bestow. The nation 
would be gratified to see the highest mark of honour con- 
ferred upon you. 

'• I am truly sorry, my dear friend, to tell you poor Mau- 
rice^ is extremely ill, though within these twenty-four hours 
appearances have taken a favourable turn. Nine days ago 
he was seized with violent pains in his head, which terminated 
in an inflammation in the brain. The instant I was informed 
of it, I dispatched my own physician. Sir John Hayes,^ to 
attend him, in whom I have the most perfect confidence as 
a professional character. Sir John this morning assures 
me he is out of danger, but that it will require time and great 
care to bring him about. I am vexed my own miserable 
situation deprives me the satisfaction of being with Maurice. 
I have Sir John Hayes's regular report twice a day, and it 
gives me pleasure to know your brother highly approved my 
sending my own physician. My own health is as good as I 
could wish it, but my limbs and ancles so extremely weakened 
that I am unable to walk. A very few days will put me to 
rights, and the fit (of gout) be productive of benefit to me. 

"Whilst fighting for your country's honour, I must not let 
you forget yourself, and as the trial in all probability will 
come before the court about the end of May, I must entreat 
you to give the different opinions annexed to the case some 
serious consideration, making such observations and remarks 
as you think will weigh in the minds of a jury, for though 
however confident we may in our own judgments be respect- 
ing the probable issue, yet too great precautions cannot 
possibly be taken, when we reflect with whom we are to take 
the field against. Your private observations cannot fail 
operating most forcibly on the minds of men of common 
sense, such as I hope will be on the jury. 

"■ If you are certain of being in England at the period, the 
less necessity for this precaution, but it would wound my 

' Lord Nelson's Brother. - Sir John Macnamara Hayes, Bart. M.D. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 43 

feelings were we to fall short of every possible means in our 
power to strengthen and arm one's counsel on this important 
occasion. It hurts me to write a word on business when 
your mind is so occupied with public duty, yet your own 
individual interest must not be neglected, and I trust you 
will excuse me. 

" Your plate at Rundell's is finished, and a complete case 
making to contain the whole. I conclude you now woidd 
like that it remain until you return. The inclosed letter will, 
I presume, tell you how matters stand in Piccadilly. Several 
epistles pass daily between us. I conclude Stewart will call 
there, and will be the bearer of other packets, as she wrote to 
me last night, telling me a note had been sent to him to give 
her a visit. 

" May every blessing attend you, and that you may soon 
return to us, is and always will be the sincere prayer of my 
dear friend's affectionate 

" Alex. Davison." 

On the 23rd Lord Nelson wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 

'• St George, April 23rd, 1801. 

" My dearest amiable Friend, this day we sailed from Pa- 
lermo on our tour to Malta. Ah ! those were happy times. 
How different, how forlorn ! alas, no wonder. I severely 
feel the difference, but as we are retiring to the anchorage 
near Copenhagen, I hope a very short time will place me in 
London. Yesterday Sir Hyde Parker wrote me word that 
the Russian Minister at Copenhagen had sent him a letter, 
saying the Emperor had ordered his fleet to abstain from all 
hostilities, therefore Sir Hyde Parker was determined to re- 
turn to the anchorage near Copenhagen. I am truly anxi- 
ously looking out for my leave of absence, or that the whole 
fleet may be ordered home ; stay I will not, if the Admiral 
would make me Lord High Admiral of the Baltic. Don't 
you think I am perfectly right ? If you were to think the 
contrary it would break my heart, for I have the very highest 
opinion of your judgment. 

" Read the inclosed, and send it if you approve. Who 



44 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. II. 

should I consult but my friends ?^ Remember me in the 
most affectionate manner where proper, and respects and com- 
pliments as the person deserves to whom you give them/' 

He wrote again on the 25th under the influence of her 
most powerful fascination : — 

" St. George, Kioge Bay, April 25th, 1801. 

*' My dearest Friend, 
" Sir Hyde has just sent me word that the Arrow sloop sails 
for England this day, therefore I have only time to say that 
I hope in a fortnight to be in London. I am in expectation 
every moment for the removal of the fleet from the Baltic : 
be that as it may, I will not remain, no, not if I was sure of 
being made a Duke with £50,000 a year. I wish for hap- 
piness to be my revjard, and not titles or money. To-morrow 
is the birthday of Santa Emma. She is my guardian angel. 
It is not in my power to do much honour to her in this place, 
but I have invited the Admirals and all the Captains who 
had the happiness of knowing you, and of course experiencing 
your kindness when in the Mediterranean. You may rely 
my saint is more adored in this fleet than all the saints in the 
Roman Calendar. I know you prayed for me both at the 
Nile and here, and if the prayers of the good, as we are taught 
to believe, are of avail at the Throne of Grace, why may 
not yours have saved my life? I own myself a BELIEVER 
IN GOD, and if I have any merit in not fearing death, it is 
because I feel that His power can shelter me when He pleases, 
and that I must fall whenever it is His good pleasure. May 
the God of heaven and earth, the Protector of those who 
truly worship Him, bless and preserve you, my dearest 
Friend, for the greatest happiness which you can wish for in 
this world, is the constant prayer of your real, sincere and 
affectionate friend till death, 

" Nelson and Bronte." 

" St. George, April 27th, 1801. 
'* All your letters, my dearest Friend, to the 1 /th, came safe 
on the eve of your natal day. You will readily conceive the 

' This probaUy alludes to the paper on the Armistice. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 45 

pleasure they must have given me to know that you still take 
an interest in my glory. I transfer it all to my guardian 
angel, Santa Emrna. Yesterday, I had twenty -four at dinner, 
and drank at dinner in a bumper of champagne, Santa 
Emma. 

" I hope, if the fleet is not ordered home, to go in the 
Blanche, for both my mind and body are required in England, 
therefore, unless you are sure that we are ordered to attack 
the Russian fleet, it is of no use writing more letters. I hope 
to be in London as soon as this letter, and I should like a 
good lodging in an airy situation. I have directed Hardy to 
take care of all my letters, and return them to England. I 
have so much to tell you that I cannot tell you where to 
begin. I think we shall have a general peace, and then 
nothing shall stop my going to Bronte. 

" Your affectionate and attached friend, 

"Nelson and Bronte." 

" St. George, April 28th, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend, 
" 1 had last night one of my dreadful attacks, and this day 
I have applied to Sir Hyde Parker, and he tells me the Blanche 
shall carry me to England. I have several letters ready wrote 
for you, but I do not send them, as it is more than probable 
this will never reach England. Write no more, I hope to be 
sailed within a week. Keep this to yourself. Ever your 
most attached and affectionate. 

" A small vessel sails with letters in two days." 

Sir Brooke Boothby, Bart.,i to whom he had written an 
account of the engagement, replied as follows : — 

"Hamburgh, May 1, 1801. 

" A thousand thanks, my dear Lord, for your very kind 

' Sir Brooke Boothby, Bart., a minor poet, formed one of the literary coterie 
of Lichfield, enriched by the society of Darwin, Seward, and Edgeworth, He 
published a letter to Mr. Burke, Observations on the Appeal from the New to the 
Old Whigs, and Paine's Rights of Man ; Sorrows sacred to the Memory of Pe- 
nelope ; Britannicus, from the French of Racine, a Tragedy ; Fables and Satires ; 
and a series of Elegiac Poems on his Daughter. He died March 17, 1824, and 
was succeeded in the title by his brother. 



46 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [ciIAP. II. 

note, written on the evening of your glorious victory. I pre- 
serve it as a precious relic. It found me just beginning to 
breathe after a painful illness of four months, and really re- 
vived me. 

" Of all your great actions, the last seems to be deservedly 
considered as that in which you have surmounted the most 
extraordinary difficulties, and rendered your country the most 
immediate and important service ; that of Aboukir not ex- 
cepted. From all 1 learn, I cannot help thinking you are the 
only man who could have performed what you have done. 

" The poor Danes have been the dupes of the madness of 
Paul, and the rascality of Buonaparte, who had promised 
them Hamburgh and Lubeck ; and their swindling seizure of 
this place well deserved the licking they have got, and more. 
You cannot conceive what extravagant rhodomontades ap- 
peared in the papers here, prophesying confidently, before the 
action, that all your glories were to be buried in Copenhagen 
roads ; and even afterwards, endeavouring to make out that 
the completely beaten had the better of it ; at least, they seem 
to content themselves with the honour of having contended 
with you, of which they have in truth some reason to be 
proud. If these ' fat and greasy citizens ' had been bold 
enough to shut their gates, you would probably have saved 
them from disgrace, and what I believe they value more, the 
loss of 40 or 50,000 marks. The Prince of Hesse had no 
preparations for a siege, and the town had provision for at 
least a month, and in the meantime the first gun fired against 
Hamburgh might have been the signal for the destruction of 
Altona. The BouTgeoisie were earnest for resistance, but the 
cowardly spirit of riches prevailed. You will find, inclosed, 
some remarks I made on the Prince of Hesse's profligate and 
foolish manifesto. He has received a very peremptory note 
from Berlin to evacuate Hamburgh, but continues to negotiate, 
probably for the sake of the 6000 marks a-day. 

" Your rapid proceeding, and the death of Paul, seem com- 
pletely to derange the impudent plan of his brother tyrant, 
whom God confound ! I remember when I saw you I thought 
less ill of this robber than you did, but you knew him best. 
God send the African expedition, which has commenced so 
well, may be finally successful, and then, I think, the century 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 47 

opens propitiously for poor Old England. Before the battle 
of Copenhagen Roads we were a little chop-fallen, but now 
the carmagnoles are down, and we hold our heads high : the 
reputation of a country is half its strength." 

" May 15. 

" Not knowing well how to direct, this letter, with the 
General's, 1 has lain by. I learn with the greatest anxiety that 
the state of your health obliges you to return. The good of 
mankind will neither admit of your being long ill, or of your 
retreat ; your services may indeed be soon wanted at home. 
The Corsican, whose situation is nothing less than pleasant, 
and who, it is said, has taken fright, must find employment 
for his troops, and the restless spirit of his new subjects, and 
will lead or drive them to the British coasts, to do mischief 
and to perish ; both for his purpose. 

" The General is almost the only person I see. He is 
planting his winter cabbages, and seems really to enjoy the 
content of a clear conscience. If it were nothing else, I think 
his understanding is of too high a sort for treachery. He 
was a good subject of the French (limited) monarchy, and 
has been cast out by their pretended democracy ; is he not at 
liberty to become a member of any country that might adopt 
him? 

" I rejoice that my friend, Lord St. Helens, goes to St. 
Petersburgh. He will do all that can be done. Will not what 
is passing in Italy, Portugal, &c. at last open the eyes of those 
blinded kings ? Nothing but uniting all their powers, on the 
determined, openly declared ground of putting a stop to 
those impudent invaders, can ultimately save Europe. These 
detestable people are, I think, made of rather worse stuff than 
those of other countries, but when collected and inflamed, 
they may be resembled to those fulminating powders, which, 
though composed of very ordinary materials, are formidable 
in their explosion. Saltpetre may be made from horse-dvmg, 
brimstone is used to cure the itch, and charcoal for the basest 
purposes, yet these combined are the gunpowder which de^ 
cides the fate of nations. 

" Adieu, my dear Lord, I began a long letter, thinking it 

' General Duniourier.. 



48 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IT. 

would find you aboard, and might fill up a leisure moment. 
Believe me, ever yours, with the sincerest attachment, 

" Brooke Boothby. 

" P.S. Amongst other reports equally true, the papers here 
gave a circumstantial account of the death of Sir Edward 
Berry, fighting by your side. I inclose you an epitaph I made 
for a magnificent monument in Westminster Abbey, which 
will have the effect, not very flattering, for a serious epitaph 
to make you smile. I am, I believe, not accurate in the places, 
but that is now, thank God, of no consequence. Pray when 
you have read it send it to your charming Poet Laureate/ 
who, by the bye, I much wish to hear of. Do have the good- 
ness to tell her so. I am leaving Hamburgh, but anything 
directed under cover to Sir James Crawfurd will find me." 

The following is the letter from General Dumouriez/ re- 
ferred to in the preceding : — 

• Miss Knight. 

^ Claude Francois Duperier Dumouriez, a French General, was born at Cam- 
brai, Jan. 25, 1739. He served in Germany in the seven years war, and at the 
age of twenty-two years had attained the rank of Captain, was a Knight of St. 
Louis, and had received twenty-two wounds. Having travelled in Italy, Belgium, 
Spain, and Portugal, and acquired considerable knowledge of languages and the 
manners and customs of different nations, he was appointed Aide-Marechal General 
to the French expedition for the invasion of Corsica in 1768-9. He rose to the 
rank of Colonel, and afterwards served in a campaign to Russia. The Due de 
Choiseul appointed him Minister to the Confederates of Poland, and Louis XV. 
sent him on a confidential mission to Sweden, but the Ministers becoming jealous 
of him from his having received instructions immediately from the King, and 
unknown to the Foreign Minister, the Due d'Aguillon, he was arrested at Ham- 
burgh, taken back to Paris, and imprisoned in the Bastille, where, after six months 
confinement, he was banished to the Castle of Caen for three months, and thence 
liberated by Louis XVI. on his accession to the throne. He was then intrusted with 
the command of the country from Nantes to Bordeaux, whilst the rehgious war 
raged in La Vendee, and was successful in calming the minds of thepeople. He fur- 
nished to the French Government plans for the conquest of Jersey, Guernsey, and the 
Isle of Wight, and was at the commencement of the Revolution connected with 
the Girondists. He was appointed Foreign Minister, and prevailed on the King 
to declare war against Austria in 1792. The violence of the revolutionary move- 
ment alarmed him, and he became an object of hatred to the Jacobins, in conse- 
quence of which, he withdrew from politics, and went to serve under General 
Luchner on the northern frontiers. He replaced La Fayette in the army opposed 
to the Duke of Brunswick, and successfully checked the advance of the Prus- 
sians. 

Dumouriez distinguished himself also at the battle of Jemappes, and succeeded 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 49 

" Ottensen par Altona, No. 43, 
le 20 Avril, 1801. 

" My dear and glorious Nelson, 
" Victoiy is for ever bounded to your name, as my friend- 
ship to your character. I hope the peace with the Northern 
Powers will give another turn to your constant successes more 
profitable for the public cause. Paul's foolish brain destroyed 
our hopes, they revive with the successor. If you have the 
charge of the Mediterranean sea, we can together deliver 
Italy and France of the democratic tyranny. I desire nothing 
else. After that take your leave, and spend the remnant of 
your life in the calmness, shadowed with the laurels you for 
yourself implanted. Farewell, dear Nelson, and be constant 
in friendship as you are in triumphing of internal foes and 
external ennemys. 

" Your for ever affectionate friend, 



In the month of May, his correspondence with Lady 
Hamilton was frequent, and he was restless to return to Eng- 
land, as the following letters will shew : — 

in taking Liege, Antwerp, and Flanders. The trial of Louis XVI. took him to 
Paris, and after the execution of the Sovereign he became an ardent advocate of 
Constitutional Monarchy. Entering into negotiations with Prince Cobourg, he was 
enabled to withdraw his army from Holland, and retired to Tournay, evacuated 
Belgium, and established his head-quarters at St. Amand, in 1793. Accused of 
treason, the Convention of Paris summoned him to their bar, but he refused to 
obey the mandate, and imprisoned those sent to arrest him as hostages for the 
safety of the Royal Family. His ti'oops, however, refusing to march upon Paris, 
he took refuge in the Austrian head-quarters, and afterwards sought an asylum in 
Switzerland, then wandered about, hated as a Constitutionalist, and, under the fear 
of being taken prisoner, a reward of 300,000 francs having been offered by the 
National Convention of Paris for his apprehension, he fled to England ; afterwards 
took up his abode at Hamburgh, and is known as the writer of numerous political 
works, as well as Memoirs of his own life, which appeared at Hamburgh in 2 vols. 
8vo. 1794, and were translated into English, and published in London in 3 vols. 
8vo. 1796. He rendered some services to the British Government, and was re- 
warded with a pension. He enjoyed intimacy with, and was highly esteemed by, 
His Royal Highness the Duke of Kent. From 1804, he resided in England, and 
died at the age of eighty-four years at Turville Park, near Henley-upon-Thames, 
March 14, 1823. 

VOL. II. E 



50 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. II. 

"St. George, May 2nd, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend, 
'' I am waiting for the sailing of the Blanche frigate, which 
is destined to carry the answers of the next vessel to England, 
and the vessel we have been expecting every day for this 
week. I have been so very indifferent, and am still so weak, 
that I cannot take the journey to Hamburgh by land, or 
I should have been off long ago. I shall get on shore the 
first land we make in England, but as it is likely to be Yar- 
mouth, I should rejoice to find a line of your friendly hand 
at the Wrestlers. I dare not say much, as most probably all 
my letters are read. 

" Ever your faithful and affectionate." 

" 2 o'clock. 

" My dearest Friend, from all I now see, it is not possible 
that this fleet can be much longer kept here, and I find that 
although from others, there may be much self, yet Mr. Ad- 
dington v^ishes me to have the sweets of seeing this business 
finished : it must soon happen. We must cheer up for the 
moment, at present we are in the hands of others. We shall 
be masters one day or other. 

" Blanche just going." 

" My dearest Friend, again and again I thank you for all 
your goodness. I cannot say anything, my heart is full and 
big. Hardy and Parker are at work sealing up. I hope this 
will be the last packet I send off — the next shall be myself. 
In the meantime I send you six bottles of Old Hock, 200 
years of age, if you believe it — so says the Prince of Den- 
mark's Aide-de-camp ; only ten bottles came, so they stole two. 
I send you the Danish line of defence,^ correct in the minutest 
degree. Have a good glass and frame to put to it. I shall 
repay you the expense when we meet — 'tis to add to the Nel- 
son Room. There is a print coming out something similar. 
I have wrote Mr. Beckford, pray give him the letter. You 
may shew the line of defence to Troubridge — it is perfect to 
one gun and shape of vessel. Ever yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte." 

Receiving, however, on the 5th, intelligence of his having 
' See Plate, ante. 



1801.] L,ORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 51 

been appointed Commander-in-chief in the Baltic, he was 
necessitated to remain : — 

" St. George, May 5th, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend, 
*^A11 ray things were on board the Blanche, and Sir Hyde 
was to have dismissed me this day, but alas, in the night 
arrived Colonel Stewart, which has overturned all my plans. 
Sir Hyde has worked his leave of absence, he is ordered 
home, and I am appointed Commander-in-chief. To paint 
or describe my grief is impossible. I have this day wrote to 
the Admiralty that my health is in such a state that they 
must send out some person who has strength enough to get 
on with the business. Sir Hyde sets off in the Blanche. I 
will write fully by way of Hamburgh to-morrow. 

"Nelson and Bronte." 

He wrote on the same day to Mr. Davison and says : " A 
Command never was, I believe, more unwelcomely received by 
any person than by myself. It may be at the expense of my life ; 
and therefore, for God's sake, at least for mine, try if I cannot 
be relieved. The time was, a few months ago, that I should 
have felt the honour, and I really believe that I should have 
seen more of the Baltic, the consequence of which I can guess. 
But nothing, I believe, but change of climate can cure me, 
and having my mind tranquil, "^ To the Earl of St. Vincent he 
likewise wrote : " I am, in truth, unable to hold the very honour- 
able station you have conferred upon me." Yet the extraor- 
dinary activity of his mind is apparent in the following lines 
immediately succeeding the above : " If Sir Hyde were gone, 
I would now be under sail, leave six sail of the line off Born- 
holm to watch the Swedes, and to cover our communication, 
and go to Revel, where I should at least, if not too late, 
prevent the junction of the two squadrons : that I shall never 
suiFer. I will have all the English shipping and property 
restored ; but I will do nothing violently ; neither commit 
my country, nor suffer Russia to mix the affairs of Denmark 
or Sweden with the detention of our ships. Should I meet 
the Revel squadron, I shall make them stay with me until all 

' Dispatches and Letters, Vol. iv. p. 353. 
E 2 



52 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. II. 

our English ships join ; for we must not joke. As the busi- 
ness will be settled in a fortuiglit, I must entreat that some 
person may come out to take this command."^ 

The Armistice, which he had been the chief instrument in 
making, was approved of at home under all considerations, and 
he wrote to the Hon. Henry Addington : " I am sorry that the 
Armistice is only approved under all considerations. Now 
I own myself of opinion that every part of the all was to the 
advantage of our King and country. I stated many of my 
reasons for thinking it advantageous. We knew not of the 
death of Paul, or a change of sentiments in the Court of 
Russia, if her sentiments are changed. My object was to 
get at Revel before the frost broke up at Cronstadt, that the 
twelve sail of the line might be destroyed. I shall now go 
there as a friend, but the two fleets shall not form a junction, 
if not already accomplished, unless my orders permit it. My 
health is gone, and although I should be happy to try and 
hold out a month or six weeks longer, yet death is no respecter 
of persons. I own, at present, I should not wish to die a 
natural death."- And again on the 8th : " Forgive me for 
one moment, but so much having been said, both by friends 
and enemies, why I sent on shore a Flag of Truce on the 2nd 
of April, and but few seemed pleased with the Armistice, I 
take the liberty of sending the reasons why I sent the Flag 
of Truce, and also my reasons why I think the Armistice was 
a proper measure. If you and some other friends approve, 
I care not. I have dispersed the reasons to several hands, 
for I feel hurt."^ 

One of the papers alluded to was forwarded, together with 
the following correspondence, to Lady Hamilton : — 

" May 8th, 1801. 
" My dearest Friend, 

" As both my friends and enemies seem not to know why 
I sent on shore a Flag of Truce, the former, many of them, 
thought it was a ruse de gmrre^ and not quite justifiable ; the 
latter, I believe, attributed it to a desire to have no more 
fighting, and few, very few, to the cause that I felt, and 

' Clarke and McArthur, Vol. ii. p. 285. 

^ From an Autograph in the Sidmouth Papers. 

' Ibid. 



ISOl.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 53 

which, I trust in God, I shall retain to the last moment, 
humanity. I know it must to the world be proved, and 
therefore I will suppose you all the world to me. 

" First, no ship was on shore near the Crown batteries, or 
any where else within reach of any shore when my Flag of 
Truce went on shore; the Crown batteries, and the batteries 
on Amack, and in the Dockyard were firing at us, one half 
their shot necessarily striking the ships who had surrendered, 
and our fire did the same, and worse, for the surrendered 
ships had four of them got close together, and it was a mas- 
sacre, this caused my note. It was a sight which no real 
man could have enjoyed. I felt when the Danes became 
my prisoners, I became their protector, and if that had not 
been a sufficient reason, the moment of a complete victory 
was surely the proper time to make an opening with the 
nation we had been fighting with. When the Truce was 
settled and full possession taken of our prizes, the ships 
were ordered, except two, to proceed and join Sir Hyde 
Parker, and in performing this service, the Elephant and 
Defiance grounded on the middle ground. I give you ver- 
batim an answer to a part of a letter from a person high 
in rank about the Prince Royal, which will bear testimony 
to the truth of my assertions, viz, ' As to your Lord- 
ship's motives for sending a Flag of Truce to our Govern- 
ment it never can be misconstrued, and your subsequent 
conduct has sufficiently shewn that humanity is always 
the companion of true valour. You have done more, 
you have shewn yourself a friend of the re-establishment of 
peace and good harmony between this country and Great 
Britain.' 

^' If, after this, either pretended friends or open enemies say 
any thing upon the subject, tell them THEY BE DAMNED. 
Get Mr. Este, or some other able man, to put these truths 
before the public. Envious men and enemies wish to hurt 
me, but truth will stand its ground, and I feel as firm as a 
rock. I have wrote strongly to Mr. Nepean to come home. 
Why should I stay ? 

" Your true and faithful, 

"Nelson and Bronte." 



54 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. II. 

ON THE ARMISTICE. 

" Much having been said relative to the bad terms of the 
Armistice made with Denmark, I wish to observe, first, that 
the Annistice was only intended a military one, and that all 
political subjects were left for the discussion of the Ministers 
of the two powers. 

" Peace, Denmark could not, in the moment, make with 
you, as the moment she made it with you, she would lose all 
her possessions except the island of Zealand, and that also 
the moment the frost set in, therefore there was no damage 
we could do her equal to the loss of every thing ; our destruc- 
tion would have been Copenhagen and her fleet, then we had 
done our worst, and not much nearer being friends. By the 
Armistice we tied the arms of Denmark for four months 
from assisting our enemies and her Allies, whilst we had 
every part of Denmark and its provinces open to give us 
every thing we wanted. Great Britain was left the power 
of taking Danish possessions and ships in all parts of the 
world, whilst we had locked up the Danish Navy, and put the 
key in our pocket. Time was afforded the two countries to 
arrange matters on an amicable footing ; besides, to say the 
truth, I look upon the Northern league to be like a tree, of 
which Paul was the trvnk, and Sweden and Denmark the 
branches. If I can get at the truyik and hew it down, the 
branches fall of course, but I may lop the branches, and 
yet not be able to fell the tree, and my power must be weaker 
when its greatest strength is required. If we could have cut 
up the Russian fleet, that was my object. Denmark and 
Sweden deserved whipping, but Paul deserved punishment. 
I own I consider it as a wise measure, and I wish my repu- 
tation to stand upon its merits. 

[" Duplicate originals sent by way of Rostock this day. 
Heavens bless you, save our friends ; a letter goes this day 
also by the Danish post, and also by Rostock."] 

" May 8th, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend, 
" I hope you have received my numerous letters sent by 
the post since April 10th, say six or seven or more, but 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 55 

perhaps they never will arrive. The Post Office in Denmark 
may stop them, although an English merchant^ Mr. Balfour, 
said he would take care and send them under cover to his 
merchant. The Cruizer arrived yesterday, and Sir Thomas 
Troubridge had the nonsense to say, now I was a Comman- 
der-in-chief I must be pleased. Does he take me for a 
greater fool than I am, for if I had ever such good health, 
that I must soon be a complete beggar if I staid, I will 
explain to you. Sir Hyde Parker, when he had the com- 
mand in the Baltic given to him, had the chance of great 
honours and great riches from the prizes to be taken ; but 
that was not enough for such a great officer ; he had the 
emolument of the whole North Sea command given to him, 
and taken from Dickson, and of course I had then the honour 
of sharing one-fifth part as much as Sir Hyde Parker, Dick- 
son, Totty,' &c. will share for the Danish battle, and Sir 
Hyde, I dare say, will get near £5000. Now, what is done 
for me ? Orders not to make prizes in the Baltic. My com- 
mission as Commander-in-chief does not extend to the North 
Sea, therefore I can make no prize-money here, and am 
excluded from sharing with Dickson what may be taken in 
the North Seas. He shares for my fighting ; but if the 
Dutch come out, and he fights, I am not to have one 
farthing. I have now all the expenses of a Commander-in- 
chief, and am stripped even of the little chance of prize-money, 
which I might have had by being in a subordinate situation. 
This is the honour, this is my reward — a prison for deht. I 
see no other prospect. I have wrote very strongly by the 
Arrow, which left us your birth-day. I wrote by Sir Hyde, 
desiring they would send out another Commander-in-chief, 
and I have wrote it again this day. Why should I die to do 
what pleases those who care not a damn about me ? I will try 
and bear up and return ; but it breaks my poor heart. My 
conduct is surely different, or I know not myself. 
" Your truly affectionate, 

" Nelson and Bronte." 



' This officer commanded the Invincible, which was lost, going out of Yar- 
mouth Roads to join the Baltic fleet. He died of an attack of yellow fever in the 
West Indies, June 2, 1802, a Rear- Admiral. 



56 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. II. 

" St. George, May 8th, 1801. Baltic. 

<^ My dearest Friend, 
" Under your kind care I might recover, and I trust in 
God I shall be supported till that time arrives. You under- 
stand every thing in what I have said, for this letter will be 
read ten times at least before you get it. I trust another 
Admiral is on his way to supersede me, for it is downright 
murder to keep me here. If I could fight a battle, the smell 
of powder and exertion might cheer one for the moment. Had 
the command been given me in February, many lives would 
have been saved, and we should have been in a very different 
situation ; but the wise heads at home know every thing. 
I have wrote this day a packet for you with all my public 
letters, by way of Rostock and Hamburgh ; therefore if you 
see Troubridge, say I have wrote to him, Nepean, and the 
Earl, that way. I have wrote you more letters by the 
Danish post, but I have not heard of one getting to you, 
therefore I must not say a word. How are all our friends ? 
They may depend I am firm as a rock — ^tis not a Dukedom 
and £50,000. a year could shake me. Whilst I live my 
honour is sacred. 

*' Yours truly. 

" Damn our enemies — bless our friends. 

" Amen — Amen — Amen. 

*^ I am not such a hypocrite as to bless them that hate us, 
or if a man strike me on the cheek to turn the other — No, 
knock him down, by God. 

'^Some cruel remarks have been made in some of the 
papers relative to the first Flag of Truce and the Armistice. 
All false, for I feel all honourable for me. I have answered 
them by way of Rostock, and you must get some able friend 
to fit them out for the public eye, for I will not sit down 
quietly and have my public character pulled to pieces. 
Colonel Stewart is now my guest ; Hardy, &c. are all well. 
Thank Lady Malmesbury for her congratulations. George 
Elliot is very well, but cannot be expected to write. May 
the heavens bless you." 

Sir Hyde Parker had received several letters acquainting 
him that many vessels with corn for England, from the 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 57 

Baltic, had been ai-rested in the ports of Norway ; Lord 
Nelson^ therefore, wrote through Adjutant-General Lindholm 
to Count BernstorfF, to require their freedom of passage. To 
this application the following replies were given : — 

" Copenhagen, May 6th, 1801. 
7 o'clock in the afternoon. 

« My Lord ! 

" I have had the honour to receive your Lordship's letter 
of this date. I have delivered the letter to Count BernstorfF, 
who will inform himself about the corn affair in Norway, and 
he will have the honour to send your Lordship his answer as 
soon as possible. Count BernstorfF presents his respects to 
your Lordship. 

" I remember that some Swedish ships laden with corn, 
and bound to England, were seized in Norway, but they were 
not seized because they were bound to England, but the 
reason was, that the people in that part of Norway were in 
such a want of bread, that the King's officers were obliged 
to buy it, and paid the cargo to the master of the vessels. 

*' The Prince Regent presents his compliments to your 
Lordship, and his Royal Highness is very sensible of the 
attention and kindness which your Lordship has expressed 
in the letter which I have had the honour to receive this day. 
I beg you to receive the assurance of the great esteem with 
which I have the honour to subscribe myself, my Lord, 
" Your Lordship's most obedient, 

'^ and humble servant, 

" H. Lindholm. 

" Right Hon. Lord Nelson, Duke of Bronte, 
Vice- Admiral of the Blue, and Knight of 
the most Honourable Order of the Bath." 

"Copenhagen, May 12th, 1801. 

" My Lord, 

" I have the honour to congratulate your Lordship as Com- 
mander-in-chief of the Baltic fleet, and I wish very sincerely 
that your Lordship may enjoy a perfect health. 

'^'I hear with great satisfaction that Lord St, Helens is 
appointed Ambassador to the Court of Petersburgh, and that 



58 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. II. 

we can soon expect him in our Roads, passing in his way to 
that capital. I hope that the differences between Great 
Britain and the Northern Powers will be settled in a short 
period, and that peace and friendship will be established on a 
fii*m basis. The English Ministers have shewn their inclina- 
tion to settle things in a satisfactory manner to all trading 
nations, by making a change with the Courts of Vice-Admi- 
ralty in the West Indies, whose conduct in many instances 
has been highly iniquitous. 

" I have the honour to send your Lordship a letter from 
Count Bernstorff, and I am assured that he has given a satis- 
factory information about the corn ships in Norway. 

"The Certificate/ signed by three officers, of the number of 
men who were on board the ships on the 2nd of April, is here 
inclosed, and some letters found on the coast near Kioge. 

'' I have the honour to remain with the greatest esteem, 
« My Lord, 
^' Your Lordship's most obedient 

" and humble servant, 

'^H. LiNDHOLM. 

" Right Hon. Lord Nelson." 

The state of things consequent upon the arrangements 
with Denmark on the accession of the new Czar, and his 
expressed desire for conciliatory measures and conduct, 
rendered an extraordinary mission to Petersburgh essential. 
Lord St. Helens was appointed to this important embassy ; 
and his Majesty George IIL, in a note to Mr. Addington, 
dated from Kew, May 12, 1801, states: — "As the King 
relies on every thing being settled to the mutual advantage of 
both countries, he shall feel much personally gratified in re- 
warding Lord St. Helens on the completion of the business, 
by placing him in the British House of Peers."^ The 
embassy was entirely successful ; a treaty was signed on the 
17th of June, 1801, and the right of searching vessels 
belonging to the subjects of either of the contracting parties 
when accompanied by one of their own ships of war, was 
placed on its proper basis. 

* See page 15, ante. * Life of Lord Sidmouth, Vol. i. p. 386. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 59 

COUNT BERNSTORFF TO LORD NELSON. 

(Received May 18th, at sea.) 

*' My Lord, 

" I received the day before yesterday the two letters with 
which your Excellency has honoured me, and learn with 
much pleasure that his Britannic Majesty has approved of 
the Armistice concluded here the 9th of last month. My 
Court will carefully fulfil its stipulations. It is true the in- 
habitants of Holstein were at first uneasy, their province not 
being comprised in it. But it appears to me, that the basis 
of the arrangement for the re-establishment of a good under- 
standing between the two powers is so solidly laid, that the 
effect of it will speedily be felt in all parts of the dominions 
of the King, my master. My Court has not delayed to make 
known its disposition and wishes in that respect to the Court 
of London, and anticipates a prompt and satisfactory result. 

" With respect to the alleged detention of different vessels 
laden with corn for England in the Norwegian ports, I am 
ignorant of the fact, unless it applies to some Swedish ships 
detained in Norway, in consequence of measures taken by 
their own Government to break off her communication with 
England ; I shall, however, take care to procure some exact 
explanations on the subject ; and I beg your Excellency to 
beheve that my Government values too highly the facilities 
which Admu'al Parker has given to the provisioning of 
Norway, to feel any wish on her part to present obstacles 
to the same object for England. If it should be necessary 
that further or more precise orders should be given to that 
effect, I pledge myself, my Lord, that those orders shall be 
given immediately. 

'* Accept, I beg, the assurance of the high consideration 
with which I have the honour to be, my Lord, 

" Your Excellency's very humble, 

" and very obedient servant, 

" C. Bernstorff. 

" Copenhagen, May 8, 1801." 

The first part of this letter refers to a communication made 
by Lord Nelson when conveying to Count Bernstorff the 



60 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. II. 

approval of the Armistice, expressing his hope that informa- 
tion would be given in Holstcin to assure the inhabitants 
that the Armistice extended to that province^ which it appears 
some had suspected not to be the case. 

On the 11th, in a letter to Lady Hamilton, an evidence 
of his superstition creeps out : — 

"May nth, 1801. 

'' My dearest Friend, 
" If I had stayed in Kioge Bay I should have been dead 
before this time, for what with ill health and the terrible dis- 
appointment of not going home, it would have overpowered 
me ; but I trust that long before this time you will know that 
somebody is coming out to supersede me. I have wrote so 
strongly that they cannot avoid it. I have as much right to 
have my health taken care of as any other person in the fleet, 
and if they would make me Lord High Admiral of the 
Baltic I would not stay ; but my dear Friend, you know 
enough of my attention to my duty that whilst I do hold the 
command every thing which is active shall go on, but being 
stopped fighting. I am sure that any other man can as well 
look about him as Nelson. I am now far on my way to 
Russia, where I shall be able to form a pretty decisive 
opinion as to the views and plans of the new Emperor. I 
have, my dear Friend, taken it into my head that within these 
few days your picture has turned much paler than it used to 
be ; it has made me quite uneasy, I hope to God you have 
not been unwell, or any thing happened which could make 
you look differently on me. If it has, I care not how soon 
I leave this world of folly and nonsense ; but why should I 
think so — innocent myself, I feel I deserve, and shall have 
a just return. Without friendship this life is but misery, and 
it is so difficult to find a true friend, that the search is almost 
needless ; but if ever you do it ought to be cherished as an 
exotic plant. You will not forget to remember me most 
kindly to Sir William and the Duke. Apropos, Mr. Comyn 
has not yet joined, I suppose he is with Sir Edward Berry. 
He has several letters for me from you," 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 61 

" May 12th, Gtilph of Finland, off Pakerot 
Lighthouse, 6 o'clock. 

'^ My dearest Friend, here I am very near the latitude of 
60'^ degrees North, the air hke a fine January day ; but my 
heart as warm towards you as the sincerest friendship can 
make it, and as if I were upon the Equator. You deserve every 
mark of kindness from me, and by the Uving God, you shall 
ahvays experience it whilst I draw breath, which, notwith- 
standing the unkindness of some folks, 1 hope will be yet 
some years. I did not^ my dear friend, come to the Baltic 
with a design of dying a NATURAL death. Who wdll thank 
me ? those who care not one farthing for me. Our friend 
Troubridge has felt so little for my health that I have wrote 
him word I should never mention it again to him. By the 
12th of June, or before, I hope to be in London, where I 
am fixed as to the plan of life I mean to pursue. It is to 
take a small neat house from six to ten miles from London, 
and there to remain till I can fix for ever or get to Bronte. 
I have never known happiness beyond moments, and I am 
fixed as fate to try if I cannot attain it after so many years 
of labour and anxiety. Forgive me tormenting you with my 
affairs, but I know you take a lively interest in all my aflfairs, 
and so do I every day pray for your complete felicity. 

'^May 13th. Here I am at Revel, as much to the surprise 
of the Russians as to most in the squadron. Expresses are 
gone to Petersburgh, and I have wrote to Count Pahlen the 
Prime Minister, and I dare say we shall be ordered a very 
friendly reception. I have ordered very fine beef and soft 
bread for our ships, but there is not a sign of vegetation. 
The Russian fleet sailed from hence on the 2nd to join 
the Cronstadt fleet at Caskna Gorku, where they are 
moored, forty-three sail of the line, but with twenty-five, if 
we were at war, I should not hesitate trying what stuff" they 
were made of. In about a week I shall return from hence, 
and by the time I get down I hope a new Admiral will be 
arrived, when I shall proceed direct for England. To the 
Duke, Lord William, &c. say every thing. Troubridge has 
not been kind, but never mind. I have sent Galuchi, the 
child on board Foley, a present in your name. He is a fine 
boy but a pickle. Remember me most affectionately to all 



62 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. II» 

our friends, and to those I love most, say you what is proper. 
I will soon be in England." 

Lieutenant- Colonel Stewart in his Narrative, states that 
Lord Nelson arrived in the Revel Roads on the 12th of May, 
and that he was disappointed in not finding the Russian fleet 
there, the breaking up of the ice having admitted of their 
departure for Cronstadt three days before. After some delay 
a salute was given and returned. Lord Nelson visited the 
Governor- General Sacken, on shore, and was received with 
military honours, and a welcome from the inhabitants. 
The Governor returned the AdmiraFs visit on the next day, 
accompanied by Count Pahlen's son, and many other officers, 
and Colonel Stewart observed that the Cossack officers gave 
infinitely more attention to what they saw than the Russians. 
These circumstances are confirmed by the details in the 
subjoined letter to Lady Hamilton : — 

"St. George, May 15th, 1801. Revel Bay. 

" My dearest Friend, 

" After seventeen days not out of my cabin, I was forced 
to row seven miles, to make the formal visit to the Governor- 
General, and head of the Admiralty here. It cost me about 
three hours ; they wanted me to dine on shore ; but if I had 
been ever so well I would not. It is a horrid nasty place, 
and nothing less than the arrival of the Emperor shall get 
me ashore again. As usual, I received all the compliments 
to which I have been used, and which have spoiled me. 
The crowd was, of course, all the town. This morning the 
Governor and Admiral will be on board the St. George, and 
to-morrow morning I shall get answers to my letters from 
Petersburgh. I have wrote a line, my dear Friend, by the 
post; but as the post is a month going, and my letter will 
assuredly be read, it is only a date to say where I am. I 
have wrote to Lord St. Vincent to say, I expect to find ano- 
ther Admiral when I return, or probahly he will never see 
me again. I cannot, I will not stay here, that you may rely 
upon. Why should I, when my health and happiness can I 
hope be perfect by going to England ? 

" May 16th. Yesterday I had all the world on board, not 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 63 

less than thirty officers and nobles of rank. Except to you, 
my own Friend, I should not mention it, 'tis so much like 
vanity; but hundreds come to look at Nelson, that is him, 
that is him, in short, 'tis the same as in Italy and Germany, 
and I now feel that a good name is better than riches, not 
amongst our great folks in England ; but it has its fine feel- 
ings to an honest heart. All the Russians have taken it into 
their heads that I am like Suwaroff, Le jeune Suwaroff. 
This evening I expect the return of the courier from Peters- 
burgh. I have increased my cough very much by going 
round the ship with the Russian officers and my trip on 
shore. I only hope the first land I next set my foot upon 
will be Old England, and the first house will assuredly be 
yours. As you will know when an Admiral is coming out to 
supersede me, or that permission is coming out for my re- 
turn home, I hope to find you in London, for I have much 
to say to you.'' 

The following relates also to this period and situation : — 

J. WOLLSTONECRAFT TO LORD NELSON. 

" London, May 12th, 1801. 

'' My Lord, 

" As your illness, when Sir Hyde Parker sailed, prevented 
my having the honour of seeing you, and being now fearfiil 
of intruding on your Lordship's time, T take the liberty of 
informing you that I passed a winter at Revel some years 
ago, and also of sending you what local knowledge of that 
place I was thereby enabled to acquire. 

" The breadth of the Bay and the situation of the mole 
will admit of bomb vessels being placed sufficiently near to 
bombard the ships in the mole, and yet be themselves out of 
the I'each of point hlanh shot from all the batteries, viz. those 
to the westward of the mole, those on the two small islands 
to the north north-west of it, and from any that may lately 
have been made (there were none some years ago) on the op- 
posite side of the Bay and at the head of it. 

" The mole is near a mile from the town, and is formed 
by a single wharf, which runs straight out towards the oppo- 
site side of the bay ; this wharf is mounted with guns, and 



64 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. II. 

there is deep water on both sides close to it. The rest of 
the mole is perfectly open, and presents no obstacles or dif- 
ficulties to prevent fire-ships sailing right in among the 
ships, which are ranged abreast of each other with their 
bowsprits over the wharf. Fire-ships attempting this service 
would be but Uttle exposed, as the width of the bay will 
allow their keeping well to the eastward of the wharf until 
they are above it ; the batteries, supposing any to exist, at 
the head of the bay and on the eastern side of it, the only 
ones which would then be able to fire at them, being at a 
great distance, could not prevent them, and the guns on the 
ramparts of the town could not be pointed at them when in 
the mole, and previous to their getting there they were too 
far off, without firing into their own ships, which from the 
manner they are placed in order to be in the deepest water, 
could only fire stern chases at fire-ships approaching them 
from the head of the bay. 

" Supposing your Lordship might wish to cut the ships 
out of the mole, permit me to say, it appears to me that if the 
guns on the wharf were silenced, which might be facilitated 
by ships flanking them from the eastward and southward, in 
which situation they would only be exposed to the distant 
fire of the batteries at the head of the bay, and on the 
eastern side of it, men might be landed on the wharf and from 
thence board the ships and burn them, or get them out if 
the wind was favourable; for the guns which could be 
brought to bear on them from the town are but few, and at 
a considerable distance, and the batteries in the different 
parts of the bay are still farther off, and a ship placed close 
to that j)art of the icharf ichich joins the shore might prevent 
any fresh troops from coming on the wharf, to oppose the 
landing or to assist the enemy^s ships. Should your Lord- 
ship be already acquainted with the above particulars, I beg 
you will have the goodness to excuse my troubling you with 
them, which I have only done because I have heard different 
opinions given to Sir Hyde Parker respecting the practica- 
bility of attacking, with success, ships at Revel. 

" I have the honour to be your Lordship's 

" Most obedient humble servant, 

" J. WOLLSTOXECRAFT." 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 65 

Upon his arrival in the Bay of Revel, he made application 
for pilots to come on board, and give the British ships a 
safe anchorage, and he immediately received the following 
reply : — 

ADMIRAL SPIRIDOW TO LORD NELSON. 

.. Revel, ?^^' 1801. 
' 12 May, 

" Sir, 
" Agreeably to your Excellency's wish, I send two pilots 
who will point out a good place for anchorage in the Bay of 
Revel. I have the honour to be, with great consideration, your 
very humble and very obedient servant, 

'^Spiridow. 

" Right Hon. Lord Viscount Nelson, &c. &c." 

He also applied to obtain fresh meat and vegetables, which 
was thus responded to : — 

GOVERNOR OF REVEl's DISPATCH TO LORD NELSON. 

" May 12th. (Received 13th do. off Revel.) 
« Sir, 
" In reply to the letter with which your Excellency has 
honoured me, I have the honour to inform you that an 
unarmed sloop may come to Revel for the purchasing of pro- 
visions when you think proper ; but that his Britannic Ma- 
jesty's squadron, commanded by you, must not approach our 
shores within range of cannon shot, until orders have been 
received respecting it by General the Baron d'Often Sacken. 
" Your Excellency's dispatches were forwarded immediately 
to St. Petersburgh. 

" I have the honour to be, with the greatest consideration 
and profound respect, 

" Your Excellency's very humble, 

" And very obedient servant, 

"A. Balaschoff, 

" Military Governor of Revel. 
" Right Hon, Lord Nelson." 

On the 9th of May, Lord Nelson acquainted Rear- Admiral 
Totty that he was desirous of keeping his squadron strong 
enough to master the Swedes, should they put to sea, and 

VOL. II. F 



66 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. II. 

gave him directions to that effect as well as to the obtain- 
ing of provisions. The following is from Rear-Admiral 
Totty :— 

"Zealous, off Bornliolm, the 15th May, 1801. 

" My Lord, 

'* I have the honour to acquaint your Lordship, that I 
passed over the Grounds with the squadron under my orders, 
on the evening of the 13th instant, and I joined Captain 
Murray upon his rendezvous off the north-east end of Born- 
holm last night ; and agreeably to your Lordship's directions 
I have given orders to Captain Murray to take the ships and 
vessels named in the margin under his orders, and proceed 
with all possible dispatch towards the Gulf of Finland, and 
endeavour to join your Lordship, agreeably to the best infor- 
mation he can obtain respecting your situation. 

" I have sent some of the small fast sailing vessels with 
Captain Murray, as I think they may be useful to your Lord- 
ship . I have received a copy of the orders which your Lord- 
ship gave to Captain Murray for the government of the 
squadron stationed off Bornholm, and your Lordship may 
rest assured that I shall strictly regulate my conduct 
thereby. 

" So soon as the Dart returns from Dantzick, and I receive 
any information of the terms upon which fresh beef can be 
supplied for the use of the squadron, if the price does not 
exceed the sum your Lordship has stipulated, I shall send the 
Alkmaar thither for a cargo of bullocks ; and as I find many 
of the squadron are short of bread, I shall therefore give 
directions to the ships which came with me to go to two- 
thirds allowance of that article, as I find Captain Murray 
gave similar directions to the squadron left under his orders. 
As it was necessary to keep the ships as light as possible, in 
order to pass over the Grounds, they could not take any 
supply of water in Copenhagen Road, but I understand they 
may readily be watered at Bornholm. 

" The Zealous and Powerful have each of them eight guns in 
their holds, with a proportion of ammunition for the use of 
the gun-vessels under your Lordship's command. Fourteen 
of the guns are eighteen pounders, the other two twenty- 
fom-'s. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 67 

** Having so lately transmitted to your Lordship the state 
and condition of the ships and vessels under my orders, and 
as Captain Murray will deliver those of the ships and vessels 
that were stationed off Bornholm, I do not trouble your 
Lordship at present upon that head. 

" I have the honour to be, with the highest respect, 
" My Lord, 
" Your Lordship's most obedient and humble servant, 

"■ Thomas Totty. 
"P.S. — Since writing the above, the Alecto fire-ship, Cap- 
tain O'Brien/ has joined me from Leith. He brings no intel- 
ligence. Captain Inman has also just been with me, and he 
gives a sad account of the wants of the gun vessels, &c. under 
his orders ; many of them are in want of fuel, and cannot 
purchase any, as their bills are not negotiable. 

Lord Nelson remained in Revel Roads until the l7th. 
On the 16th he received the following from Admiral 
Spiridow : — 

" Revel, May 16, 1801. 
«' My Lord, 
**Your Excellency's letter to Count Pahlen shall be for- 
warded immediately, and the lugger Skylark shall receive from 
me all the assistance and attention in my power, whilst she 
remains in the port of Revel. 

" Accept, my Lord, our best wishes for the accomplishment 
of your objects, to the real merits of which we can render 
justice, as they are not opposed to Russia. You carry with 
you our regrets that circumstances prevent our further culti- 
vation of your acquaintance. I write in the name of the 
civil and military Governors as well as my own. I fail in 
expressing the sentiments of esteem with which you have 
inspired me. 

" I have the honour to be, with great consideration, 
" Your Excellency's very humble, 

*' And very obedient servant, 

" Spiridow." 

' Captain Edward O'Brien attained the rank of Rear-Adiniral, and died in 
December, 1808. 

F 2 



68 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. II. 

On the 15th and l7th Lord Nelson wrote to Lady 
Hamilton : — 

" St. George, Revel Bay, May 15th, 1801. 

'" My dearest Friend, 
" The Harpy brig sails to-morrow for England. You will 
not receive this line for a fortnight after her arrival. I cannot 
say a word on politics. I expect to find a new Admiral on 
my return, which will be in a very few days. 

"Yours, &c. 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

" Most probably you will never receive this letter. I have 
three wrote for you now lying by me. Finish of eight lines to 
Lord St. Vincent : — « I expect to find a new Admiral when I 
return off Bornholm, or most probably you will never see 
again 

'* ' Your affectionate, 

*' ' N. & B.' " 

" St. George, May 17th, 1801. 7 o'clock in the Evening. 
Last letter. 

" My dearest Friend, 

^^I sailed from Revel this morning, and feel I am now 
steering for England for the recovery of my health. I expect 
to be there a few days after this letter ; for if the Admiralty 
have any bowels of compassion, an Admiral must have long 
since sailed to supersede me. I have wrote a very strong 
letter to the Board in case none is sailed. I shall keep by 
Rostock and Lubeck in case I am to go by land ; it is only 
one day's journey to Hamburgh. This day I reckon, if Sir 
Hyde Parker had not been ordered home, I should have 
arrived perhaps in London. What a thought! but the time 
shall soon come in spite of all the world, and all my enemies, 
damn them. 1 cannot obey the Scriptures and bless them. 

" I am rather inclined to believe that the Emperor of 
Russia had some fears for his fleet of forty-three sail of the line, 
for he seemed very anxious to get rid of my small squadron. 
I have much to tell you — the boat is waiting — night coming 
on. Adieu. 

" Yoiu-s, &c. 

*' Nelson and Bronte." 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 69 

He quitted Revel in consequence of a letter he received 
from Count Pahlen, who, on the part of the Emperor, 
expressed his surprise that he should, professing pacific 
dispositions, have brought his fleet into Revel Bay. Colonel 
Stewart says, Lord Nelson received this letter about 3 p.m. 
on the 16th of May, and that it was accompanied by a letter 
from General Sacken, expressing a wish that the British fleet 
should retire from the anchorage of Revel. Lord Nelson 
received it a few minutes before dinner time ; he appeared 
to be a good deal agitated by it, but said little, and did not 
return an immediate reply. During dinner, however, he 
quitted the table, and in less than a quarter of an hour sent 
for his Secretary to peruse a letter which, in that short 
absence, he had composed. The signal for preparing to 
weigh was immediately made ; the answer was sent on shore, 
and although contracts had been entered into for fresh pro- 
visions, &c. for the fleet, his Lordship would not admit of 
the least delay, but caused it to weigh, and to stand as far to 
sea as was safe for that evening. In his reply to Count 
Pahlen, Lord Nelson says, that his intention was to pay a 
very particular respect to his Imperial Majesty, and that he 
had submitted it to his pleasure which port he would wish 
him to come to. Revel or Cronstadt, and he added : '' Your 
Excellency will have the goodness to observe to the Emperor, 
that I did not even enter the outer Bay of Revel, without 
the consent of their Excellencies the Governor and Admiral. 
My conduct, I feel, is so entirely different to what your 
Excellency has expressed in your letter, that I have only to 
regret, that my desire to pay a mark of attention to his 
Imperial Majesty has been so entirely misunderstood. 
That being the case, I shall sail immediately into the Baltic."^ 
Nelson repeatedly affirmed, that had the Russian fleet been 
at Revel, he should not have received such a reply. The 
officers there received him with great kindness, and were 
equally surprised with himself at the nature of the communi- 
cation he had received. The fleet in the Baltic at this time 
consisted of twenty-two sail of the hue and forty-six frigates, 
bombs, fireships and gun-vessels. In the whole fleet there 

' Letter Book. Dispatches and Letters, Vol. iv, p. 373. 



70 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. II. 

was not a man in the hospital ship, and to use Nelson's own 
words, " A finer fleet never graced the ocean." Sir Hyde 
Parker had previously to Nelson's taking the chief command 
in the Baltic, dispatched Captain Fremantle upon a mission 
to Petersburgh. Count Panin wrote to Lord Nelson by 
Admiral Tchitchagoff, and expressed the desire of the 
Emperor of Russia to return to amicable relations with 
England. He also addressed the following to Admiral Sir 
Hyde Parker : — 

COUNT PANIN TO ADMIRAL SIR HYDE PARKER. 

"Charged by the Emperor my master to receive your 
Excellency's communications, I am also authorised to reply 
to the letter addressed on the 26th current to Count Pahlen, 
and I feel greatly honoured by a commission so flattering to 
me, of being made the medium of the first conciliatory pro- 
posals which may lead to a reconciliation so desirable in all 
respects, and so needful to the general welfare. The Empe- 
ror has already made his intentions known to the Court of 
London, upon the different points which may become claims 
on him, such as the release of British subjects and the raising 
the embargo on British ships, but as your Excellency could 
not yet be informed from your Court of the explanations 
given to it in those respects by Count WoronzofF, his Imperial 
Majesty has permitted me to communicate to you, Sir, that 
he is ready to satisfy every just demand of your Court, as 
soon as he shall learn, by the reply which he expects from 
London, that his Britannic Majesty shares in his sincere 
wish for the re-establishment of peace, and that the com- 
pliance of his Imperial Majesty shall meet with a just return 
both towards him and towards his Allies, which he has the 
more reason to anticipate, as one of the first acts of his reign 
has been to put a stop to the detention of English sailors, and 
to suspend the sale of the confiscated property of British 
merchants. The spirit of justice and moderation which your 
Excellency has exhibited unequivocally in causing hostilities 
against the flag of the three Courts to be suspended, con- 
vinces me that you will perceive the fidelity of my august 
master's intentions by this declaration, and likcM'ise an 
additional reason to continue the suspension of arms in the 



ISOl.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 7l 

waters of the Baltic Sea, and so to give the Cabinets of St. 
Petersburgh and of London the opportunity of terminating by 
negotiation the unfortunate differences which have troubled 
the peace of the North of Europe. His Imperial Majesty 
wishes to receive a positive assurance of the prolongation of 
this armistice, and expects, Sir, to find it in your reply to 
this letter. I send it, as requested by your Excellency, by 
Captain Fremantle, and I introduce to him at the same time 
Vice- Admiral Tchitchagoff, who is charged by the Emperor 
to receive the ultimate explanations you may judge proper to 
transmit to me. With sentiments of the highest consideration 
I have the honour to be. Sir, 

" Your Excellency's 
'• Very humble and very obedient servant, 

''Panin. 

" St. Petersburgh, 29 April, o. s. 1801. 

'^ P.S. At the moment of sending this despatch to Captain 
Fremantle, a British Cabinet courier has brought us a letter 
from Lord Hawkesbury, of which a copy is subjoined. Its 
contents announce a disposition on the part of your august 
Master perfectly in accordance with that which animates 
his Imperial Majesty, for the prompt re-establishment of 
good harmony. The explanations entered into might now, 
in some degree, be considered superfluous ; but the Emperor, 
wishing to give your Excellency a proof of his confidence, 
has ordered me to forward this dispatch, notwithstanding 
the subsequent communications, which besides can only con- 
firm you. Sir, in your pacific intentions. 

'* Ut in litteris. 

"St. Petersburgh, 29 April, o. s. 1801." 

LORD HAWKESBURY TO COUNT PAHLEN, APRIL 17tH, 1801. 

" Monsieur le Comte, 
" I received the letter your Excellency did me the honour 
to address to me by the hands of M. Srairnove, in which you 
announce the melancholy news of the death of the Emperor 
Paul I. and the happy accession of his august son to the 
Imperial throne. I am sensible in the highest degree of your 
Excellency's attention, and have hastened to place before the 
King my Master, the letter of his Imperial Majesty the 



72 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. II. 

Emperor Alexander. I congratulate you. Count, on the 
accession of a Prince whose virtues and great qualities are 
so well known, and feel the value of an event so important, 
not merely to his own subjects, but to all Europe. I am 
commanded by the King to acquaint you that his Majesty 
has dispatched orders to the Commander of his fleet to sus- 
pend all hostile operations against Russia, and at the same 
time to hiform you that his Majesty will send immediately a 
Minister to the Court of St. Petersburgh, who will be charged 
to express to his Imperial Majesty the warm interest he takes 
in his succession to the Empire, and who will be furnished 
with full powers to discuss and arrange the unfortunate dif- 
ferences which have arisen between the two Crowns, in order 
to re-establish the ancient and intimate connexion which 
subsisted between them, the suspension of which has caused 
the King great sorrow. I seize this occasion to express to 
you. Count, the great satisfaction I experience in witnessing 
the renewal of accustomed communications between England 
and Russia, and to offer you the respect and high considera- 
tion with which I have the honour to be, &c. &c." 

The following declaration relates to this negotiation : — 

Declaration of Vice-Admiral Tchitchagoff to Lord Nelson^ 
Dnlie of ]3rovte, Commander-in-chief of his Britannic 
Majesty-s Naval forces in the Baltic. 

" Charged by the Emperor, my august Master, to enter 
into explanations with the Commander-in-chief of his Britannic 
Majesty's Naval forces upon some points relative to the 
reconciliation of the two Powers, I declare, that his Imperial 
Majesty being chiefly animated by the principles of honour, 
moderation, and disintei'cstedness, desires to yield to, and 
even to facilitate every measure that may tend to terminate 
the unfortunate differences which have arisen between the 
Powers of the North of Europe and England, and that his 
wish is for the re-establishment of the ancient friendship 
existing between Russia and England. 

" Given on board the St. George, 
" His Britannic Majesty's ship, 
"the ^°^;_ May, 1801. 

" Paul de Tchitchagoff." 



1801.] LOUD VISCOUNT NELSON. 'J 3 

Lord Nelson transmitted his dispatches to the Admiralty 
through Sir James Crawfurd, as appears from the following : 

SIR JAMES CRAWFURD TO LORD NELSON. 

"Hamburgh, 19th May, 1801. 

" My Lord, 
" I had the honour to receive, by the last post from Copen- 
hagen, your Lordship's letter of the 8th instant, accompanying 
your dispatches to Mr. Nepean, and various private letters 
which I forwarded to England by the first post. Though 
it is perhaps rather out of time, I cannot but seize this oppor- 
tunity, the first which I have had, of congratulating your 
Lordship on the great and glorious event of the second of 
April. It is my most sincere prayer that you may long 
continue to adorn that country whose name, already the first 
in the world, you have so greatly exalted. I desire nothing 
so much as to have an opportunity of paying you my court 
in person, an honour which I hope you will allow me when- 
ever an opportunity may present itself. In the mean time 
I beg leave to assure your Lordship of the great respect with 
which I am, my Lord, your most obedient and very humble 
servant, 

"James Crawfurd." 



From the Secretary of the Admiralty Lord Nelson received 
the following : — 

" Admu-alty Office, May 31st, 1801. 

" My Lord, 
" I received by the Hamburgh mail, through Sir James 
Crawfurd, your Lordship's letter of the 7th instant, acquaint- 
ing me, for the information of my Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty, of the communication you had had with the 
Swedish Admiral, and with the determination you had formed 
of shewing yourself with a part of the fleet under your com- 
mand in the Gulf of Finland, leaving Captain Murray with 
the remainder off the island of Bornholm. I also received 
on the 29th instant by the Harpy your Lordship's three letters 
of the 17th, one inclosing a copy of the correspondence which 
had passed with his Excellency Count Pahlen and the Russian 
Governor and Admiral at Revel, the other giving information 
of your having left the bay of Revel, in order to rejoin the 
squadron off Bornholm, and of the quantity of bread remaining 



74 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. II. 

on board the fleet ; I lost no time in laying those letters 
before their Lordships, and I have received their commands 
to acquaint you that they cannot but feel some regret that 
your endeavours to mark your respect for his Imperial 
Majesty should not have been attended with success, and to 
desire you will transmit to me a copy of your letter to the 
Swedish Admiral, to which you have referred in your first 
mentioned letter. I have their Lordships' further commands 
to acquaint your Lordship that vessels are now loaded, and 
will proceed into the Baltic immediately with a supply of ten 
weeks provisions for the fleet, in order that your Lordship 
may send such instructions to the Officer who may be entrusted 
Avith the protection of these vessels as may be necessary for 
his guidance in respect to his junction with you. I have the 
honour to be, my Lord, 

" Your Lordship's most obedient humble servant, 

" Evan Nepean." 

On the 20th of May Lord Nelson fell in with Lord St, 
Helens in the Latona on his way to Russia, having been 
appointed Ambassador to the Court of St. Petersburgh. He 
had three hours convei'sation with him. On the preceding 
day Lord St. Helens had left copies of his dispatches for 
Lord Nelson, as appears from the following letter : — 

" Latona, ofif Bornliolm, May 19, 1801. 

" My Lord, 
" Though I most sincerely hope and trust that I shall have 
the satisfaction of meeting your Lordship before I reach St. 
Petersburgh, I think it advisable to leave with Admiral Totty 
the inclosed duplicates of the dispatches which I am to deliver 
to your Lordship from the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty. 

^'Admiral Totty has obligingly consented to allow the 
Courier cutter to accompany me to Cronstadt ; and I shall 
not fail to dispatch her to your Lordship as soon as I shall 
be enabled to furnish you with any interesting intelligence. 
" I have the honour to be, with great truth and respect, 

" My Lord, 
" Your Lordship's most faithful and obedient servant, 

'• St. Helens. 

*' Right Honourable Lord Nelson, 
bic. Sic. &c." 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 'j 5 

" Latona, at sea, 21st May, 1801. 

'^ My dear Lord, 
" I return your Lordship, with my very sincerest thanks, 
the different papers that you have had the goodness to con- 
fide to me. I have taken copies of most of them, but have 
not sent any to the Secretary of State, presuming that your 
Lordship will forward the whole to the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty with your next dispatches. Those, which I 
now inclose to you for Lord Hawkesbury, contain nothing of 
a very pressing nature ; but I could wish that they may be 
sent as soon as convenient, as his Majesty^s Ministers will 
naturally be well pleased to hear that I am advanced so far on 
my voyage to St. Petersburgh. 

'^ I hope to re-dispatch the Courier cutter to your Lordship 
very soon with some satisfactory intelligence. In the mean 
time, pray believe me ever with the sincerest attachment and 
respect, and most cordial wishes for your speedy recovery, 

" My dear Lord, 
" Your most faithful and obedient servant, 

"St. Helens." 

The following letters were addressed by his Royal High- 
ness the Duke of Clarence to Lord Nelson : — 

"Bushy House, May 27th, 1801. 

" Dear Nelson, 

^' I am to acknowledge yours of the 2 7th of April, and shall 
say nothing at present upon the recall of Sir Hyde Parker, 
but shall defer that and many other points till we meet. 
Knowing, as you do, my attachment to you, it cannot but be 
to me a matter of satisfaction that you succeed to the com- 
mand of the fleet. I hope you will give them enough to do, 
and keep them in good discipline. 

*' I rejoice you feel satisfied with what I said in the House 
of Lords ; it was, believe me, but your due, and I shall be 
happy to be able to say very shortly a great deal more in 
honour of the Hero of the Nile and of Copenhagen. Assure 
Sir Thomas Graves it afforded me great pleasure to inform 
the country of his services, and I am happy he is pleased 
with me. 



76 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. II. 

*^ My best wishes attend you publicly and privately, and 
ever believe me to be, 

" Dear Nelson, 

"Yours sincerely, 

"William H." 

"Bushy House, May 31st, 1801. 

" Dear Nelson, 

^' I am to acknowledge yours of the 10th and l7th instant, 
and most cordially agree with you at the improper recall of 
Sir Hyde Parker. I really know nothing, and have not yet 
even seen him ; but this I am certain of, that a certain person 
is not Jit for where he now is. I believe the Armistice with 
Denmark, and the correspondence with Russia and Sweden, 
has given offence to our Ministry, in my opinion without any 
reason. I always considered the fleet being sent to the 
Baltic, in the situation this country was at that time, a very 
dangerous measure, and might have been veiy fatal. Your 
representation of the North is as I have considered it : and 
really, after eight years of expensive war, it seems strange 
for Government to wish to increase our enemies. I see no 
chance of peace with France, and am therefore the more 
anxious to have tranquillity restored where you are. I take 
the contrary sentiments in Ministers here to have recalled Sir 
Hyde Parker. 

" I am truly concerned you complain of your health, and 
sincerely hope to see you very shortly in this country, 
not to drink asses milk, but to enjoy the company of your 
friends, amongst whom I hope you number him who was, is, 
and ever will be, 

" Dear Nelson, 

" Yours sincerely, 

"William H.^' 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 77 



CHAPTER III. 

1801. 

Whilst in the Baltic Lord Nelson heard of the death of 
his elder brother, Maurice Nelson, Esq., of the Navy Office, 
who died on the 24th of April, after a few days illness of a 
brain fever, leaving Lord Nelson his executor, who, upon 
receiving intelligence of his death, immediately wrote to Mr. 
Davison to do " every thing which is right for his poor blind 
wife.'^ He was ignorant of his brother's circumstances, or 
as to the manner in which he had provided for her, for she 
was not his wife. Her name was Ford ; she had lived with 
him during many years, lost her sight, and become a cripple. 
Nelson felt that she was truly an object of compassion, and 
that was enough to direct him to take every care of her. He 
desires Mr. Davison to see that she has a proper and ample 
subsistence, and declares his willingness, if it be required, to 
make it up. Alluding to his deceased brother, he says, " It 
is the only true regard I can pay to his memory. He was 
always good and kind to me." The will printed below^ is a 

■ " As the term of this life is at all times uncertain, and being at this time of 
sound mind and memory, and judging it unnecessary to employ an Attorney to make 
this my last Will and Testament, which I shall sign at the bottom of every page, 
should I have occasion to verite more than one. Item, I give and bequeath the 
interest of all moneys whatever that I have now in the Funds or may hereafter 
have, together with all monies that may be due to me at the time of my decease 
from any person or persons, to Mrs. Susannah Ford (alias Nelson), with whom I 
have lived in the habits of the utmost friendship for many years, for the term of her 
natural life, which she is to enjoy without molestation from any one ; and when it 
shall please God she shall depart this life, then my will is, that the sum of five 
hundred pounds, five per cents., be given to my brother Horatio Nelson, a Captain 
in the Royal Navy, as also the sum of five hundred pounds each to my two nieces, 
Susannah and Catharine Bolton, daughters of my sister, Susannah Bolton ; but, 
if it should so happen that the aforesaid Mrs. Susannah Ford, alias Nelson, should 
die before my said nieces should arrive at the age of twenty-one years, then and in 
that case, I do request of my brother, Horatio Nelson, Esq. to take the said sums of 



78 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. III. 

proof of the great afFection Maurice Nelson entertained for his 
brother Horatio. William Nelson, it will be observed, is not 
mentioned in it. 

On the 23rd of May Lord Nelson wrote to the widow 
thus : — 

"St. George, May 23, 1801. 

" My dear Mrs. Nelson, 
"You are, and ever shall be, considered by me as the 
honoured widow of my dear brother ; and before I knew in 
what circumstances he had left you I had desired our good 
friend, Mr. Davison, to take care of you in every manner 
w^hich could make you comfortable ; and I can assure you 
that I consider myself as only a faithful steward, and that if 
any more income is wanted than the interest of my brother^s 
little fortune, that I shall have great pleasure in supplying it, 
for he was too generous to be rich. 
"And ever believe me, 

*' Your truly affectionate brother, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 
" Our excellent friend. Lady Hamilton, will be the inter- 
preter of my sentiments, for she is as good as an angel." 

He wrote also to Lady Hamilton : — 

" St. George, oflF Rostock, May 24th, 1801. 
" My dearest Friend, 
*' Yesterday, I joined Admiral Totty, where I found little 
Parker with your dear, kind, friendly letters. How can I 

five hundred pounds above given to my nieces, Susannah and Catharine Bolton, 
in trust for them until they shall attain the age of twenty-one years, or until they 
are married, which I request may be left at his discretion : but if both, or either 
of my said nieces should die before they attain the age of twenty-one years, then 
and in that case I request of my brother, Horatio Nelson, to accept of the said 
legacies I have left them, as well as all other moneys I may die possessed of, for 
his sole use and benefit : and I likewise request that my said brother will have 
the goodness to see the intention of this my last Will and Testament fulfilled. 
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand, as well to this as to the foregoing 
page, this sixteenth day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven 
hundred and ninety. five. 

"Maurice Nelson." 
" Witness the above being interlined, 

" Robert Davies. 

" C. N. Forbes." 



J801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 'J9 

sufficiently thank you for all your goodness and kindness to 
me, a forlorn outcast, except in your generous soul. My 
health I have represented to the Admiralty in such terms that 
I have no doubt but an Admiral has sailed to take my place. 
The Harpy has carried a stronger letter than any of the for- 
mer. This vessel states that I do not know that I shall go to 
sea again, as my health requires the shore, and gentle exercise, 
and so it does, and really if the Admiralty had allowed me 
to go home, and in the event of hostilities being renewed in 
the Baltic, I might perhaps, in that case, have been able to 
command the fleet, but the Baltic folks will never fight me 
if it is to be avoided. In my humble opinion, we shall have 
peace with the Northern Powers, if we are just in our desires. 
Will you have the goodness to carry the inclosed after you 
have sealed it to Mrs. Maurice Nelson, and your own dear 
generous heart wdll say every kind thing for me. She shall 
be fixed where she pleases, and with every comfort in this 
world, and ever be considered as my honoured sister-in-law. 
I feel my dear brother's confidence, and she shall feel he has 
not mistaken me. Tell Mrs. William Nelson how much I 
esteem her for all her kindness, and that I shall never forget 
her complying with my request and staying with you, al- 
though I hope it has been truly pleasant to herself. 
" Ever yours truly, 

" Nelson and Bronte." 

He gave to his brother's widow an annuity of £100. per 
annum, which she received until his death, and she was after- 
wards assisted by Lady Hamilton. She died about 1810 or 
1811. 

To the Earl of St. Vincent on the 24th he wrote, " The 
death of my dear brother, which I received only yesterday, has 
naturally affected me a good deal ; and if I do not get some 
repose very soon, another will go — six sons are gone out of 
eight ; but 1 hope yet to see you, and to cheer up once 
more.''^ 

On the twenty -fourth he reached Rostock, and remained 
there until June 1st. Colonel Stewart draws a picture of 
Nelson's mode of life, whilst with his fleet. After alluding 
' Clarke and McArthur, Vol. ii. p. 286. 



80 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. III. 

to his manner of keeping it alert, of supplying it with proper 
provisions, preserving the health of all, economising its re- 
sources, &c. he says, " His hour of rising was four or five 
o'clock, and of going to rest about ten ; breakfast was never 
later than six, and generally nearer to five o'clock. A Mid- 
shipman or two were always of the party ; and I have known 
him send during the middle watch, to invite the little fellows 
to breakfast with him, when relieved. At table with them 
he would enter into their boyish jokes, and be the most youth- 
ful of the party. At dinner he invariably had every officer 
of his ship, in their turn, and was both a polite and hospi- 
table host. The whole ordinary business of the fleet was 
invariably dispatched, as it had been by the Earl of St. Vincent, 
before eight o'clock. The great command of time which 
Lord Nelson thus gave himself, and the alertness which this 
example imparted throughout the fleet, can only be under- 
stood by those who witnessed it, or who know the value of 
early hours." 

Lord Nelson despatched the Speedwell on the morning of 
the 25th. The following letter must therefore have been 
written on the 26th : — 

" St. George, Bay of Rostock. 

"My dearest Friend, 
" Although I wrote you late last night by the Speedwell all 
my proceedings to that time, I yet should think myself a 
great beast if I was to omit an opportunity of writing to you 
a line by way of Hamburgh, where I am sending off an 
express to Sir James Crawfurd. I wrote to the Admiralty 
yesterday that I did not think I should be able to write any 
more letters to them, for the stooping so many hours hurts 
me very much. I trust yet to being in London before June 
12th. If the new Admiral would arrive, I should certainly 
sail in two hours. I have directed the London to be the 
show ship, for I will have no visitors here that I can help. It 
is said that the Duke or Prince of Mecklenburg intends to 
come here to see the fleet, but nothing, you may rely, shall 
force me to go on shore. The hock I ordered to be sent by 
the Avaggon. The Harpy will arrive, I ho[)e, to-morrow. The 
Speedwell will have a good passage. I have ten millions of 



\ 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 81 

things to say to you, and I long so to let all out. If Minis- 
ters had really thought highly of me they should have given 
me the command in February, not in May, when I can do no 
good. I am sure you will comfort poor blind Mrs. Nelson. 
Whatever you do, I will confirm ; and there is an old black 
servant, James Price, as good a man as ever lived, he shall be 
taken care of, and have a corner in my house as long as he 
lives. My uncle left him £20. a-year. 

" Ever yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" This day comes on my great cause against the Earl. May 
the just gain it. I am glad to hear of your determination 
not to leave London 'till my arrival." 

I have previously alluded to the misconception of the 
Emperor of Russia as to the visit of Nelson in the Revel 
Roads. On the 26th a Russian kigger brought a reply to 
the letter of Nelson to Count Pahlen upon his departure. 
It apologized for the mistake, and expressed an anxious 
desire for the restoration of peace, and gave an invitation to 
Nelson to Petersburgh in any way most agreeable to himself. 
In his reply to this invitation he says, " His Imperial 
Majesty's justice has filled the idea I had formed of his excel- 
lent heart and head ; and I am sure the handsome manner in 
which the embargo has been taken off the British shipping 
will give the greatest pleasure to my good and gracious 
Sovereign." He added, " I am truly sensible of the great 
honour done me by the invitation of his Imperial Majesty, 
and at a future time I hope to have the pleasure of present- 
ing my humble duty. I have now only to pray, that a per- 
manent (which must be honourable) peace may be estab- 
lished between our gracious Sovereigns, and that our august 
Masters reigns may be blessed with every happiness which 
this world can afford."^ When the lugger departed with the 
reply she fired a salute, upon which Colonel Stewart says 
Lord Nelson observed to his Secretary, upon his return from 
the shore, " Did you hear that little fellow salute ? Well, 

' Letter Book. Dispatches and Letters, Vol. iv. p. 393. 
VOL. IL G 



82 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. III. 

now there is peace with Russia, depend upon it : our jaunt 
to Revel was not so bad after all." 

The following was to Lady Hamilton : — 

" St. George, Rostock, May 27th, 1801. 
'* My dearest Friend, 
" A Russian lugger has this moment brought me a letter 
from the Russian Minister announcing that the Emperor, to 
mark the effect of my letter of the 16th of May, had instantly 
taken off the embargo from the English shipping in all the 
ports of Russia. This, my dear Friend, is such a strong proof 
of peace in the Baltic that this fleet must be home in a very 
short time ; but I trust that another Admiral is arrived, or 
nearly so, by this time, when I shall set off in two hours. 
All the world is come to Rostock to see me, and are much 
disappointed at the finding that I do not either go on shore, 
or permit them to come on board the St. George. No, never, 
I have said so, and would not break my word for all the 
world. The London is the show ship. The General of the 
troops sent off to desire to make me a visit; my answer was, 
that I had no right to expect that honour, as I was unable to 
return his visit. However, yesterday, the old General and 
three Aides-de-camp came, walked over the ship, such a one as 
they had never seen, and went on shore again. I have an- 
nounced to the Duke of Mecklenburgh the impossibility of 
my going on shore, therefore, he may come or not, as he 
pleases, for nothing shall make me go on shore unless to set 
off for England, if the Admiralty are unkind enough to refuse 
me a ship-of-war to can-y me home, as the late Board did — 
but never mind. 

" Yours ever, 

''Nelson and Bronte. 

" Best regards to Sir William, the Duke, Mr. Beckford, 
and all our friends. I have just had a deputation of the 
Senate to invite me on shore, but jVu." 

On the 1st of June Lord Nelson was visited by the Duke 
of Mecklenburgh Strelitz, the brother of Queen Charlotte. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 83 

To Lady Hamilton he writes : — 

"St. George, Rostock, June 1st, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend, 
" I was in hopes my successor would have been arrived long 
before this time, and why he is not I cannot imagine, unless 
it is wished to kill me ; for a pistol put to my head would be 
charity to keeping me here dying a lingering death. I feel 
the cruelty of the measure, for everybody knows my readiness 
to serve when I am able, and there is anything to be done, 
but in the Baltic there can be nothing, and in fourteen days 
I believe we shall not have a ship in the Baltic, for all will be 
peace. May God send me safe amongst my friends, who will 
nurse and cherish me. I am going to Kioge Bay, there to 
wait my successor's arrival, for he cannot be many hours. 
Two days ago I had sailed from this place for Kioge Bay, 
when, being obliged to anchor with a fine wind, I received a 
letter from his Highness the Duke of Mecklenburg Strelitz, 
brother to the Queen, saying that he was arrived at Rostock 
to see me, and desired I would appoint the time for his coming 
on board the St. George. I was therefore obliged to return 
to this anchorage, and wrote, expressing my sorrow that my 
ill health would not allow of the possibility of my going on 
shore to wait upon him. Yesterday was a bad day, to-day fine, 
and I hope the old gentleman will come off, sixty-one years of 
age, and the moment he is gone the anchor shall be at the 
bows. Not all the princes in Europe should make me go on 
shore. I have said it, and that is sufficient. My word is my 
bond. There is one comfort, my dearest friend, they cannot 
keep this fleet when it comes peace, which will take place in 
ten days at farthest. I do not write all I could, as my letter 
goes by way of Hamburgh, and will most probably be read. 

" Believe me ever yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" Best regards to Sir William, Hardy, Parker, Stewart, all 
desire their respects." 

" St. George, June 1st, 1801, 8 a.m. 
" My dearest Friend, 

" I have been annoyed to death for an hour this day. The 
Duke of Mecklenburgh, with his whole Court, men, women, 

G 2 



84 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP, III. 

and children, to the amount of one hundred, I am told, came 
on board at two o'clock, but I got rid of them before three. 
He is a respectable venerable man, made ten thousand apolo- 
gies for the liberty he had taken in bringing so many persons, 
for he knew that I had forbid it ; to which I could only reply 
that Ju: commanded ; and having given him two salutes of the 
whole fleet of twenty-one guns each, he went off quite happy. 
He admired your picture most exceedingly, but who does 
not ? At daylight I sail for Kioge to wait the arrival of the 
new Admiral. 

" Ever yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte/' 

On the 4th Lord Nelson arrived in Kioge Bay, and wrote 
to Captain Ball, the Commander of the Navy at Gibraltar, 
pitying the poor Maltese for losing one whose counsel they 
anxiously sought, and readily attended to. The apparent dis- 
order of Nelson's heart gave rise to a fear of consumption. He 
says : " As I know you have always been kind to me, I know 
you will be sorry to hear that I have been even at death's 
door, apparently in a consumption. I am now rallied a little, 
but the disorder is in itself so flattering, that 1 know not 
whether I am really better, and no one will tell me, but 
all in the fleet are so truly kind to me, that I should be a 
wretch not to cheer up. Foley has put me under a regimen 
of milk, at four in the morning ; Murray has given me 
lozenges, and all have proved their desire to keep my mind 
easy, for I hear of no complaints, or other wishes than to have 
me with them."^ 

On the 5th and 8th he wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 

"St. George, Kioge Baj', June 5th, 1801. 
^' My dearest Friend, 
"Little potatoe Harris has this moment given me your 
letter. I can only assure you that he brought the best 
recommendation in Europe, for if he had brought letters 
from all the Kings and Queens, &c. &c. in Europe, they 
would have all sunk as they ought before the orders of my 
guardian angel. When I consider how my saint Emma has 

' Letter Book. Dispatches and Letters, Vol. iv, p. 401. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 85 

protected me, I am always full of gratitude. However, my 
devotion ended, as the boy cannot live upon prayers, I have 
asked him to dinner, and Hardy has put him in a mess, and 
you may rely on my care of him whilst I remain, which I 
trust will not be many days. Hardy says our youngsters 
amount to thirty-five, and none of them can now be shot at in 
the Baltic, if Lord St. Helens manages well. Apropos, you 
know him, did you dine with him ? He seems a very mild, 
good man, but all our diplomatic men are so slow. His 
Lordship told me that he hoped in a month he should be able 
to tell me something decisive. Now, what can take two 
hours I cannot even guess, but Ministers must do something 
for their diamond boxes. I gained the unconditional release 
of our ships, which neither Ministers nor Sir Hyde Parker 
[could accomplish] , by showing my fleet. Then they became 
alarmed, begged I would go away, or it would be considered 
as warlike. On my complying, it pleased the Emperor and 
his Ministers so much, that the whole of the British shipping 
were given up in the following words : ' Je ne saurais donner 
a votre Excellence un temoignage plus eclatant de la con- 
fiance que I'Empereur mon maitre lui accorda qu'en lui 
annon9ant I'efFet qu'a produit sa lettre de 16 de ce mois. Sa 
Majeste Imperiale a ordonne sur le champ la lever de I'Em- 
bargo mis sur les Navires Anglais.' I must stop, for old 
Mr. Sheppard, Purser of the Vanguard, is just come on 
board to dine with me. I never forget our old friends, and 
Mr. S. is really a good old man, but who is obliged to go to 
sea from the extravagance of his children. Old Sheppard 
has made his bow to your picture : so I made Harris, and 
every one I make do the same, that has the pleasure of 
knowing Santa Emma. I am anxious in the extreme at not 
getting letters from England, nor any notice of the speedy 
arrival of an Admiral. 

" Ever yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" Best regards to Sir William, the Duke, Lord William, 
Mr. Beckford and all friends. Hardy and Parker desire their 
regards." 



86 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. HI. 

" St. George, June 8th, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend, 
" I may now tell you that I have been since April 1 5th 
rapidly in a decline, but am now, thank God, I firmly believe, 
past all danger. On the 15th of April I rowed five hours in 
a bitter cold night, in a boat, as I fancied Sir Hyde Parker 
was going after the Swedish fleet. A cold struck me to the 
heart. On the 27th I had one of my terrible spasms or 
heart-stroke, which had near carried me ofi", and the severe 
disappointment of being kept in a situation where there can 
be nothing to do before August, almost killed me. From 
that time to the end of May I brought up what every one 
thought was my lungs, and I was emaciated more than you 
can conceive ; but Parker came, and brought me all your 
truly aifectionate letters, in particular that of May 5th ; it 
roused me, made me reflect that I had still one dear friend 
who would not desert me although all the world might. It 
gave a turn to my disorder. 1 have been mending ever 
since, firmly relying on your goodness, and am perhaps as 
V. ell this day as ever I was in my life. I am in momentary 
expectation of the arrival of an Admiral, for I must not 
remain here. Probably I have lost my cause against Earl 
St. Vincent by it ; indeed, after the letters I have wrote, 
unless the Admiralty have a desire to see me dead, they can- 
not allow me to remain ; but God Almighty has protected 
me, in spite of all the little great men. It is this day thirty- 
four days since I have had a scrap of a pen from England, so 
little do the Admiralty think of us. Merchant ships from 
London bring papers of the 23rd of May, but the Admiralty 
not a line. Don't you recollect how I got scolded because I 
sent letters to them only three ways, and a fourth oflfered — 
it happened at Palermo,^ when I was slaving — and for which 
the present First Lord of the Admiralty is trying to rob me 
of my honourable right; but if I am poor by such unjust 
means, what 1 have will wear well, for it is honestly got at 
the expense of my blood; thei'efore, never mind them, my 
happiness, thank God, does not rest either on their smiles or 
frowns. I keep a fast-saihng brig ready to carry me off the 

' See Vol. i. page 298, ante. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 87 

moment my successor arrives. May the heavens bless and 
preserve you, my only true friend. I rejoice that Mrs. W. 
Nelson is still with you. I am sureof your goodness to poor 
blind Mrs. Nelson ; whatever you promise her I will most 
punctually perform. Best regards to all friends. 
'' Ever yours, 

•'Nelson and Bronte." 

Colonel Stewart had been dispatched to Copenhagen, and 
wrote to Lord Nelson as follows : — 

" Copenhagen, June 8th. 

" My dear Lord, 

" I came here yesterday by water from Kioge through the 
Amack Channel, which is of an infinitely more intricate descrip- 
tion than I had formed to myself an idea of. The greater part 
of the Strait, which begins across from Draco to the main, is so 
very shallow, as to admit of no vessels of any burden or draft of 
water above six feet in general, and the shallowest reef begins 
and seems to go right across at least four miles from this 
town. Yesterday being Sunday, no Ministers were in town, 
nor have I yet been able to find either Mr. Lizakowitz or 
Mr. WalterstorfF at home, being not returned from the coun- 
try. I had, however, occasion to have much explanation 
with the Governor, the Prince of Wurtemberg, relative to a 
very cavalier manner in which they sent on board the 
schooner again one or two of the sailors who had only landed 
with the St. George's officers' clothes, and to the circum- 
stance of every officer being obliged to be attended by a 
Danish serjeant, if walking the streets. The Prince put 
everything on the best intentioned footing which I believe he 
could, but I could not bring matters to much understanding 
about the unpleasant mode in which our officers were followed 
by what they call ' military attention,' until Lindholm went 
to the Prince about it this morning, who has, I find, given 
directions that every such symptom of jealousy should cease 
in future. 

" I have had fifty reports and informations about the hos- 
tility of the Danes towards us, the preparations for future 
offence, as well as defence, their breach of the armistice by 



88 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. III. 

repair and refit of their ships, &c. and have reason to think, 
from what could be gathered from a good deal of conversation 
with Lindholra this morning, that the sum total is, the whole 
nation is enraged at the loss of their colonies, and are cer- 
tainly carrying on every preparation in their power, as far as 
relates to land operations, w^hich Lindholm will, I think, 
explain to your Lordship as a measure of general preparation 
against the worst which may come on all sides. As he 
intends to be on board the St. George to-morrow, I need 
scarcely trouble you, my Lord, with the substance of our 
conversation this day, and will only observe, that he seems to 
feel equally confident of a peace as we do, but cannot help 
expressing the ill-humoured grace with which it will noio be 
received, since the loss (which they pretend to call vnex- 
pected) of their colonies. To that event, rather than to new 
instructions supposed to have been conveyed from Peters- 
burgh in the Russian brig, is, I believe, to be attributed the 
hostile feature which every thing has borne within these last 
ten days, I taxed Mr. L. pretty roundly with the circum- 
stance of the refit of their ships, which you will find he will 
positively deny : I think, however, I shall ascertain before I 
leave this. As to appearances, they are the same to my eye 
as when here before ; but I have scarcely had a view. I 
have been contending hard with the old lady of the hotel 
here to let me send by this conveyance the last three English 
papers, but she will not let them leave the club room. I 
however perceive no news in them, and no confirmation of 
the Guadaloupe surrender. Mr. Lindholm has informed me 
that by the Hamburgh mail, which is just amved, the French 
are retaking possession of Ehrenbreitstein, and marching 
50,000 men into Germany — that the King of Prussia is 
receding from Hanover — that 10,000 French have been 
shipped from Ancona into Turkey — and that we are in pos- 
session of Rosetta, the Grand Vizir's advance being within 
three days march of that place. 

" Mr. Balfour promises to send this safe ofiT, and also his 
newspapers the moment he receives them. I shall proceed to 
join you, my dear Lord, to-morrow night, if the Blancldsseuse 
be expeditious, if not at least on Wednesday morning, and 
shall do so with even more pleasure than I always must feel 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 89 

to join you, on this occasion, as the ill-natured and jealous 
eye, with which we English are now viewed here, is not very 
tempting to a longer residence among the Danes than is 
necessary. I have the honour to be, with the greatest respect 
and gratitude, 

" Your Lordship's most faithful servant, 

"Wm. Stewart. 

" My head is so annoying with the continuation of my cold, 
that I fear I have been penning sadly confused stuff." 

The following to Lady Hamilton relates to the feeling of 
the Danes in regard to their West India islands : — 

" St. George, June 10th, 1801, Kioge Bay. 

" My dearest Friend, 

"It is now thirty- six days since I received the scrap of a 
pen from England, although the wind has blown fair these 
four days. What it means is beyond my comprehension. We 
have newspapers to the 25th by which I see no movements 
of a new Admiral. / duly appreciate the kindness of the 
Admiralty, and nothing I believe but God's protection has 
saved my life, and thank God, but not them, I am perfectly 
recovered, and as far as relates to health, I don't think I ever 
was stronger or in better health. It is odd, but after severe 
illness I feel much better. I continue my warm milk every 
morning at four o'clock. In ten days the fleet must be 
ordered home, for no power in the Baltic will fight us this 
year. I shall not forget all these things. Yesterday I had 
the Prince Royal's Adjutant on board to dinner, with a civil 
message from the Prince. The Danes have a great confidence 
in my opinion, and we had much confidential conversation, 
therefore you may rely that Denmark fights no more against 
me, but I find the whole country is in a ferment at the un- 
usual and hard capitulation forced upon their West India 
islands, and so I think them, such as even the French under 
monarchy never imposed when they took our islands last 
war. 

"June nth. This day twenty- two years I was made a Post 
Captain by Sir Peter Parker,^ as good a man as ever lived. 

' See Vol. i. p. 7, note. 



90 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP, III. 

If you meet him again, say that I shall drink his health in a 
bumper this day, for I do not forget that I owe my present 
exalted rank to his partiaUty, although I feel, if I had even 
been in an humbler sphere, that Nelson would have been 
Nelson still. My eyes are almost stretched out looking at that 
point of land where ships come from England, but alas ! not 
a thing to be seen. I begin to be very uneasy. Little Harris 
has begged that he may have a full dress suit of uniform, 
which I have promised him when we get to England. If he is 
kept in order he will be a good young man, and with thirty- 
five there is no great danger of his being spoilt, but he is too 
much for his age. When will any thing arrive ? May she 
bring me as kind affectionate letters as the last, and I shall 
bear till our arrival, which cannot be many days." 

Captain Ball wrote to Lord Nelson to congratulate him on 
his victory : — 

" Alexander at sea, 10th June, 1801. 

^' My dear Lord, 

" Never did I feel a more joyful and happy moment, than 
when I heard of your Lordship's most glorious victory over 
the Danes. You may now claim the fairest title to Cccsar's 
motto, ' Veni, vidi,' &c. and this last brilliant occasion has 
proved to the world, that you possess the abilities of a states- 
man as well as the qualities of a great hero. May God 
preserve your Lordship's health to the end of a long life, that 
you may enjoy your great fame and well-earned laurels. 

" Mrs. Ball has sent me a copy of your Lordship's letter 
to her respecting me, for which I can only offer the senti- 
ments of the most grateful heart. It is truly flattering to me 
that your Lordship should be exerting every friendly effort 
to serve me at a time that yon must be so fully occupied. 
Your Lordship has endeavoured to get me established at 
Malta ; but I believe it would be much easier for you to gain 
another signal victory, than in this one instance, to conquer 
the jobbing system, although the Ministers are called to act 
patriotically by the unanimous voice of ninety thousand 
people, who have only asked this one favour of our Govern- 
ment, the refusal of which will not be forgiven ; as the Maltese 
perceive that they are treated as a conquered people. When 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 91 

Sir R. Abercromby paid a second visit to Malta, where he 
staid a month, it was his intention to have sent me on board 
of my ship, but the Bishop at the head of the clergy, and all 
the corporate bodies waited on him to express their gratitude 
to me, and solicit that I might not be removed, which Sir 
Ralph found was the effect of real attachment ; and as he 
risked losing the island by removing me, he requested me to 
remain some time longer. The Maltese were so oppressed 
by General Pigot's government, that they had planned an 
insurrection, which would have broken out but for the assu- 
rances I gave them that their grievances would soon be 
redressed. I inclose an extract of a letter from Mr. Paget to 
Lord Grenville, and an extract from Sir Ralph's letter to me.^ 

"General Pigot was second in command of the army under 
Sir R. Abercromby, and was landed at Malta to make way 
for General Hutchinson to be second, who was a great favorite. 
A General Officer told a friend of mine that he might perceive 
Sir Ralph's opinion of the improbability of Malta surren- 
dering by his giving the command to Pigot, who had orders 
to act only on the defensive, and it was agreed on between 
Lord Keith and Sir Ralph to withdraw our forces from 
Malta the first week in October, and it would have been done 
before, but from my sanguine report. Luckily for the credit 
of our country, it surrendered in September ; the blockade of 
Malta has certainly contributed to strengthen the high opinion 
foreigners entertain of our naval abilities and wonderful per- 
severance. I expect Hallowell at Malta soon by whom I 
shall write more fully. I am very happy to hear that the 
worthy Sir William and my dear sister Hamilton are well. I 
beg my best respects to them. 

" Troubridge has proved himself my warm friend, he has 
endeavoured to get me established at Malta, and has spoken 
in his strong language very fully his sentiments. Ministers 
may be sorry, when it is too late, at not having complied with 
the wishes of the Maltese. Adieu, my dear Lord, may God 
continue to protect you, and increase your prosperity, is the 
fervent prayer of 

" Your Lordship's obliged and devoted, 

"Alexander John Ball." 

' These are wanting. 



92 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. III. 

The following is from the Danish Adjutant-General, Lind- 
holm : — 



" His Britannic Majesty's brig the Kite, 
June the 10th, 1801, at nooii. 

"My Lord, 
"I have this moment received a letter from his Royal 
Highness the Crown Prince, who has given me orders to 
communicate to your Lordship that on the evening of the 
8th, some English officers were on shore at Copenhagen, from 
his Majesty's schooner the Eling, and that some dispute had 
arisen between them and the populace of that city, but for- 
tunately being near the guard, the officers thereof interfered 
immediately, and prevented any injury being done. The 
irritation of the people must be occasioned by the capture 
of our West India possessions, and from their idea that the 
capitulation is severer than they could have expected, con- 
sidering the nature of the dispute between the two countries, 
for until that news arrived Sir Thomas Williams, Captain 
Devonshire, and other officers were on shore, did me the 
honour to call on me, and walked about the city entirely un- 
molested, and as a proof that his Royal Highness has endea- 
voured to prevent any disrespect being paid to the British 
officers since that time he had ordered that a non-commis- 
sioned officer should attend them to interfere in case of need. 
It gives his Royal Highness pain that this circumstance 
should have happened, and he certainly will prevent any 
repetition thereof as much as lays in his power ; but his 
Royal Highness thinks the surest and most effectual manner 
of preventing it, in the present moment of the displeasure of 
the people, is, that the British officers should not go on 
shore at that city until the so much wished for happy re- 
conciliation is settled between the two Courts. I beg your 
Lordship will excuse my not stating to you personally what 
I have the honour of writing, for in attempting to land last 
night at Kioge, it was so dark we could not find the harbour, 
and after being three hours in the boat we returned very wet 
to the Kite. I am awaiting the abatement of the wind to go 
on shore to shift myself, and if the weather is moderate I 
will certainly wait on yQur Lordship to-morrow ; but if on 



1801.] LOUD VISCOUNT NELSON. 93 

the contrary it should be stormy, I pray your Lordship will 
have the kindness to send a small vessel as near the harbour 
of Kioge as is safe, in order to facilitate my wish of waiting 
on your Lordship as early as possible. 

" Your Lordship^s kind reception of me yesterday, and the 
great attention and civility I experienced while on board the 
St. George, made that day one of the pleasantest of my life ; 
but all the joy that arose in consequence thereof is damped 
by this very disagreeable and unpleasant communication 
which falls to my lot to be the conveyer of to your Lordship, 
as I assure your Lordship it is my private hope and I am 
sure it is also that of his Royal Highness, that this unplea- 
sant accident may not be the cause of any coolness or altera- 
tion in the harmony that has subsisted since the conclusion 
of the armistice. With sentiments of the most unfeigned 
regard, I have the honour to subscribe myself, my Lord, 
" Your Lordship's most obedient, and most 
" Humble servant, 

" H. LlNDHOLM. 

"The Right Honourable Lord Viscount Nelson, 
&c. &c. &c." 

Nelson, always alert, immediately wrote to express his hope 
that if any serious insult had been offered by any persons 
to British officers, they would be brought to punishment. 

Adjutant- General Lindholm writes : — 

" Kioge, June 11th, 1801. 

'' My Lord, 

" I beg your Lordship will excuse me for not having the 
honour to wait on you to-day, as I am very unwell, and wish 
to go to Copenhagen as soon as possible. I hear that a 
Midshipman from the Eling is the cause of a little trouble 
which was of no consequence. I was almost sure that our 
populace has not been the aggressor, but I will not accuse 
any man. I hope and I wish that no animosity will exist 
between two nations who have been friends in many cen- 
turies. 

'* Permit me, my Lord, to ask if one of our frigates who is 



94 LTFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL. [CIIAP. III. 

arrived in Norway from the Mediterranean can return to 
Copenhagen ? 

" I have the honour to remain, with the highest esteem, 
'^ My Lord, 

" Your Lordship's 
*' Most obedient and most humble servant, 

^'H. LiNDHOLM. 

" Right Honourable Lord Viscount Nelson, 
Commander-in-chief, &c. &c." 

"Kioge, June 11th, 1801. 

" My Lord, 

" I have this moment had the honour to receive your 
Lordship's letter, brought me by an officer of the Kite. I 
am very sorry that I cannot, so much I desired, wait on your 
Lordship, as I am sick, and am going to Copenhagen this 
evening. 

" Your Lordship may be assured that our Government 
certainly will punish any man who dared give the least insult 
to any British subject, and certainly that will never be the 
case ; but I am afraid that perhaps some young men will not 
always be so cautious as they should. 

" I beg once more that your Lordship will excuse me for 
not coming. I hope I shall soon have the honour to wait on 
your Lordship. I am, with sentiments of high esteem and 
respect, my Lord, 

' Your Lordship's most obedient, and 

"Most humble servant, 

" W. LiNDHOl.M, 

" Right Honourable Lord Viscount Nelson, 
&c. &c. &c." 

To this, Nelson replied, " Respecting my permitting a 
Danish frigate to pass from Norway to Copeidiagen, I beg 
leave to inform his Royal Highness, that I have no power 
whatever to grant such permission. On the contrary, the 
Government of Denmark having refused to allow of Norway 
being included in the armistice, I believe that there would be 
no impropriety in any English man-of-war attacking them in 
the ports of Norwav, much less if they put to sea, as Den- 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 95 

mark has refused the temporary neutrahty for that kingdom ; 
but I have no doubt the British Government will do every 
thing of that nature, which his Royal Highness may think 
proper to ask'' 

Lord Nelson directed Captain Sutton^ on the 11th to cruise 
between the Koll and Zealand to intercept Danish vessels 
laden with warlike stores, &c. I find a copy of this letter as 
follows : — 

" St. George, Kioge Bay, June 11th, 1801. 
« Sir, 

" Having received information that a ship is bound from 

Copenhagen to Norway, loaded with cannon, and also that 

some other vessels are about sailing from Copenhagen, loaded 

with naval stores, contrary to the terms and spirit of not 

only the armistice, but also to the kindness of Sir Hyde 

Parker and the Bi'itish Government, who allowed provisions 

to pass from Denmark into Norway ; I therefore desire that 

you will proceed through the Belt, and cruise between the 

Koll and the Island of Zealand, and endeavour to intercept 

the ship and vessels above described, as also all other vessels 

which may be bound from Copenhagen or other parts of the 

Danish dominions to Norway, Iceland, Faro, or Greenland, 

loaded with warlike stores or naval stores ; and you will send 

such ships as you may seize, of the above description, to 

England, and as there is a squadron of Danish ships of war 

' Sir John Sutton attained the rank of Post Captain in 1782, and in 1793 was 
appointed to the Romulus of 36 guns, in which he proceeded to the Mediterra- 
nean, and afterwards commanded the Egmont of 74 guns. He was in the action 
in Gourjean Bay in 1 795 with Sir Davidge Gould, and also off the Hieres islands 
under Vice- Admiral Hotham. In 1796 he headed a party of boats belonging to 
a squadron sent to Tunis by Vice-Admiral Waldegrave, made an attack on some 
French vessels, and captured the Nemesis of 28 guns, the Sardine of 22 guns, 
and two other armed vessels. He served with Nelson at the evacuation of 
Corsica, and assisted in transporting the valuable public stores and other property 
to Porto Fei-rajo. He was an able officer on the 14th of February 1797, off Cape 
St. Vincent, and received a gold medal on this occasion. He afterwards served 
in the Channel fleet, had the command of the Superb, of 74 guns, and in 1801 was 
made Captain of the Fleet, under the Honourable W. Cornwallis. In 1804 he 
was made a Rear-Admiral, and appointed to the harbour duty at Plymouth. In 
this he continued until 1809, when he was made a Vice- Admiral, and appointed 
Commander-in-chief on the Halifax station. He was made K.C.B. on January 2, 
1815, became a full Admiral in 1819, and died at Ramsgate, an Admu-al of the 
White, August 8, 1825, at the age of 67 years. 



9fi LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [chAp. HI. 

in Norway, who may wish to get to Copenhagen, it is my 
direction that you do your utmost in endeavouring to prevent 
their coming to Copenhagen ; but you are to acquaint the 
Commander of your orders, and if he consents to remain 
with you till you receive directions from me or any other, 
your superior officer, for your conduct ; in that case you are 
to allow him, or them, to keep their colours flying; but if 
they refuse your reasonable request, it is my direction, that 
you use your utmost endeavours to take possession of him 
or them, and acquaint me, or the Secretary of the Admiralty, 
as the case may require, of your proceedings. 

" I am, Sir, your most obedient servant, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" Samuel Sutton, Esq. 
Captain of H.M. Ship Amazon." 

Nelson was exceedingly dissatisfied with the conduct of 
the Danes. He considered the conditions of his armistice 
disregarded. " Ships (he says) have been masted, guns taken 
on board, floating batteries prepared ; in short every thing 
is doing, as my reporters say, in defiance of the treaty, except 
hauling out, and completing their rigging."^ And to Earl 

' To Evan Nepean, Esq. Dispatches and Letters, Vol. iv. p. 411. The evi- 
dence upon which Nelson makes these complaints, was afforded by the following 
report obtained by the Hon. Colonel Stewart, which I find among the Nelson 
Papers : — 

' ' Note of Ships of War noic in the Harbour of Copenhagen. 

"Ten sail of the line, two thereof new ships of eighty guns, viz. the Neptunas 
and Waldemar. These ships are in the same state as before the action of the 
2nd of April — having their guns on board, lower rigging set up, and topmasts 
ready to send up — are supposed to be the best ships in the navy, and have lately 
undergone a thorough repairing. 

" Two sloops of war of 20 to 24 guns, new ships, the same as above. 

" One new line of battle ship of 80 guns — took in her lower masts and bowsprit 
last week. 

" One ship of 80 guns fitting out with all expedition, may be ready to take in 
her masts in the course of a fortnight. 

" Three old ships of 60 to 70 guns, supposed to be fitting out for block ships, 
such as command the entrance of the Channel, or what is termed the Northern 
line of defence. 

" One line-of-battle ship at present in dock. 

" One frigate of 36 guns fitting out. 

" Three cut down frigates, supposed to be intended for block ships or floating 
batteries. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 97 

St. Vincent on the 14th he writes : '' I see every thing which 
is dirty and mean going on, and the Prince Royal at the head 
of it ; but your astonishment will cease when I assure you 
that a French Republican officer, in his uniform, feathers, &c. 
is always with his Royal Highness. The measure is so 
indelicate towards England, that you will not be surprised, 
if every thing, which is sacred amongst nations of honour, 
should be broken. The Armistice, except their ships being 
absolutely hauled out, has been totally disregarded."^ 

His health improved greatly, and he wrote to Rear- Admiral 
Totty, and to Mr. Davison of its re-establishment. To the 
latter he says, " That great and good Being, who has so often 
taken care of me, has still protected me, and I am recovered 
contrary, I am sure, to the expectation of myself, and every 
one in this fleet : and within these last four days, am got 
stronger and better than I almost ever felt myself.^' He 
adds : " All my friends in the fleet have been more than kind 
to me. If I had not been so ill, I should, perhaps, not have 
believed how much I am respected, I may almost say beloved, in 
the fleet. Even Admiral Totty, an entire stranger to me, writes 
me, — ' Your Lordship talks of going to England. I hope in 
God you will not stir from the Baltic until every thing is 
settled, and you take us all with you.' " Lord Nelson also 
alludes in this letter to '^ poor Mrs. Nelson :" " I am sure you 

" One floating battery of 24 guns, saved on the 2nd of April, 
" One polacre of 24 guns — formeriy the guard-ship. 

" All the gun-boats saved on the 2nd of April have their sails bent, and seem- 
ingly ready for sea. 

" Copenhagen, y« 8tk June, 1801. 

" Ships of War laying in the Inner Roads, 

"■ Two ships of the line completely rigged and sails bent. 

" One frigate do. 

" Three brig cutters. 

" Two line-of-battle block ships, and one 24-gun battery, a bomb, forming the 
Northern line of defence. 

" The new ship formerly mentioned has got in some of her lower-deck guns 
this forenoon, and has men on board to rig her out with all expedition. 

"Two of the cut down frigates have each twenty carpenters on board, and the 
other eighty-gun ship upwards of fifty, they work extra hours. 

" Wednesday, 2 o'clock." 

' Letters and Dispatches, Vol. iv. p. 412. 

VOL. II. H 



98 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. III. 

have done every thing which is proper and kind for poor Mrs. 
Nelson : be Uberal, and let her want for no comfort. I never 
wanted to make money of any one. The dead cannot do any 
more kindness than to repose a confidence in the living. 
Never shall poor Maurice, can he know what is going on, be 
sorry for his goodness to me," 

TO LADY HAMILTON. 

•' St. George, Kioge Bay, June 12th, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend, 
*' I am writing a last line as the Pylades is getting under 
sail, and in the moment a cutter is reported to be in sight. 
I am all now anxiety, therefore cannot get on, so you must 
excuse my short letter of this day, but since I wrote yesterday 
not a piece of news nor a boat has been on board. Let me 
have good, good news, it cannot be too good. Yes, then it 
would distract me with happiness — if bad from you it would 
so grieve me that I should become melancholy. Thirty-seven 
days, not a scrap of a pen. Bear me up. 

" Ever your faithful, 

" Nelson and Bronte." 

'^ My dearest Friend, 
" I am overjoyed. I shall be better and happier than ever, 
and be as soon in England as possible. I have sent off four 
letters this day, two by Troubridge, and two by Davison — 
this makes five. 

"• Ever yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte." 

"11 at night. 

'■^ June \2tJi. Have only read the Admiral's letter, and that 
Admiral Pole is coming. Will write to-morrow if I keep my 
senses." 

His anxiety to be relieved was now met by the appoint- 
ment of Admiral (afterwards Sir Charles Morice) Pole,^ an 

» Sir Charles Morice Pole, Bart, was descended from the Poles of Shute in 
Devonshire, and born January 18, 1757. He was educated at the Royal Naval 



1801.1 LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 99 

early friend of Nelson^s. He invested Rear-Admiral Graves' 
with the Order of the Bath agreeably to the commands of 

College at Portsmouth, sailed as a Midshipman with Captain Locker in the 
Thames frigate in 1772, and afterwards accompanied Su- Edward Hughes to the 
East Indies, where he was made Lieutenant of the Seahorse^ when he formed ac- 
quaintance with Nelson. On the surrender of Pondicherry in 1778 he was made 
a Commander, and on March 22, 1779, a Post Captain. He was in the following 
year appointed to the Hussar of 28 guns, which, by the unskilfulness of a pilot, 
was lost in North America. He conveyed Vice- Admiral Arbuthnot's dispatches to 
England, and was then appointed to the Success of 32 guns, in which, in 1782, he 
fought a severe action with, and took the Santa Catalina of 34 guns, the largest 
frigate at that time in the Spanish service. Upon the establishment of peace in 
1783 he was appointed to a guard-ship, and in 1790 to the Melampus, then to 
the Illustrious, and was made a Groom of the Bedchamber to his Royal Highness 
the Duke of Clarence. Upon the breaking out of the Revolutionary war. Sir 
Charles Pole was appointed to the Colossus, and accompanied Vice-Admiral 
Hotham to the Mediterranean. Upon his return to England in 1793 he was made 
a Rear-Admiral, served in the Channel Fleet, went to the West Indies under Sir 
Hugh Christian, displayed great activity and ability, and upon his return was 
made First Captain of the Grand Fleet, under the command of Lord Bridport. In 
1799 he was moved into the Royal George, joined Rear-Admiral Berkeley's 
squadron, and engaged five Spanish line-of-battle ships. He was afterwards named 
Commander-in-chief and Governor of Newfoundland, whither he proceeded in 
the Agincom-t of 64 guns, but was recalled to take Lord Nelson's place in the 
Baltic in 1801, having on the 1st of January of this year attained the rank of Vice- 
Admiral. Having seen an end to the Northern Confederacy, he was engaged off 
Cadiz, and was for his services raised to the dignity of a Baronet, September 12, 

1801. He represented the Borough of Newark-upon-Trent in Parliament in 

1802, took an active part in the discussion of Naval matters in the House of 
Commons, and was made Chaii'man of a Board to inquire into certain Naval 
abuses, after which, in 1806, he was made one of the Lords of the Admnalty, but 
retired upon a change of Administration in October of this year. At the general 
promotion after the Battle of Trafalgar, Sir Charles Pole was made a full Admiral 
and received the honour of G.C.B. He died an Admiral of the White at his 
seat, Wolverton Park, Hants, June 10, 1813. 

' Sir Thomas Graves was the son of a Clergyman, who settled in the north of 
Ireland, and nephew to Admiral Samuel Graves, through whose interest he was 
introduced into the navy, prior to the American war. He was selected by Lord 
M nigra ve to accompany the expedition to the North Pole. With Commodore 
Hotham he was engaged in many services of great peril and difficulty, and uniformly 
displayed the greatest gallantry. Upon the bi-eaking out of hostilities with France, 
he was sent to the West Indies, and aftei-wards appointed to the Bedford, 74 guns, 
and served in America under his relation, Rear-Admiral Thomas Graves, after- 
wards Lord Graves, who was Commander-in-chief in North America. He was sub- 
sequently engaged in the encounter with the Comte de Grasse, in 1782, and then in 
a desperate contest with La Sybille, French frigate. In 1801 he was raised to the 
rank of Rear-Admiral of the White, and proceeded to the Baltic with Sir Hyde 
Parker At the attack on Copenhagen he was second in command under Lord 

H 2 



100 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL. [CHAP. III. 

George III. as a mark of distinction for his conduct at Co- 
penhagen, and according to Colonel Stewart this ceremony 
was performed in a very distinguished manner. Nelson laid the 
sword across the Admiral's shoulder, in the name of his Sove- 
reign, and addressed him in a dignified and animated speech : 
" Never (says Colonel Stewart) was Knight more honourably 
invested." The same excellent authority also acquaints us 
that Nelson's departure from the fleet was matter of deep 
regret to all, and that there was a complete depression of 
spirits on the occasion. 

Nelson was much gratified by the manner in which his 
return to England was granted, as the letter from Mr. Nepean 
communicating the same was accompanied with the following 
expressions : " I have their Lordships' further commands to 
acquaint your Lordship, that your services in the Baltic have 
met their entire approbation, and to assure you that they 
feel the greatest concern that the state of your health should 
render it necessary you should quit the command, by which 
your country must be deprived (though it is hoped only for 
a short time) of the advantage of your Lordship's talents and 
experience, which have been so conspicuous on all occasions." 

Lord Nelson alludes to the investiture and the levee in the 
following letter to Lady Hamilton : — 

"June 13th, 1801. 
" My dearest Friend, 
" I was so overcome yesterday with the good and happy 
news that came about my going home, that I believe I was in 
truth scarcely myself. The thoughts of going do me good, yet 
all night I was so restless that I could not sleep. It is nearly 
calm, therefore Admiral Pole cannot get on. I wish I had a 
rope fast to him, I believe I should pull myself to pieces, but 
I will have a little more patience ; but my nails are so long, 

Nelson, who has spoken nobly of the services of his friend. The Order of the 
Bath was bestowed on him, and Nelson deputed to invest him with it, as will be 
seen by Nelson's letters on this occasion. He was made Rear- Admiral of the 
Red in 1804, and afterwards commanded in the Home or Channel fleet. In 1805 
he was made Vice-Admiral, and obliged to return home from ill health. He 
attained the rank of Vice-Admiral of the Blue, and died at his seat, Woodbine 
Cottage, near Honiton, March 29, 1814. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 101 

not cut since February, that I am afraid of their breaking, 
but I should have thought it treason to have cut them, as 
long as there was a possibility of my returning for my old 
dear friend to do the job for me. How is Sir William — 
better ? I shall do as you please about going into the country, 
but in the party to Wales there will be Mr. Greville, who 
I am sure will be a stop to many of our conversations, for 
we are used to speak our minds freely of Kings and beggars, 
and not fear being betrayed. Do you think of all this against 
my arrival. 

"June \4:t?i. Looking out very sharp for Admiral Pole. If 
he was not to come I believe it would kill me. I am ready 
to start the moment I have talked with him one hour. This 
day I am going to invest Sir Thomas Graves with the ensigns 
of the Order of the Bath. He will be knighted with the 
sword given me by the Captains of the Nile. Your green 
chair is to represent the throne, placed under a canopy, made 
of the Royal standard, and elevated. Your blue satin pillow 
is to carry the ribbon, star, and commission, and Hardy has 
trimmed out the quarter-deck in his usual style of elegance. 

" Sunday evening, June 14M, 9 o'clock. Our parade is over, 
I have acted as King as well as I could. I have letters from 
Tyson of April 12th, he seems, poor fellow, very unhappy 
about his wife. The wind is fair for Admiral Pole, he must 
be here to-morrow, and I shall sail next day. 

" Ever yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte/^ 

'^ June \5th. The wind is fair for Admiral Pole ; he must 
arrive in the course of the day. How slow he moves — at 
least in my idea. I shall move faster homewards. Best 
regards to all our friends. My brother scolds me because I 
do not write to him. If he knew as you do what I have 
[to do] for near 80 sail of pendants he would not think so, 
but he has no patience, and now thinks that what would have 
satisfied him before, and which he has neither got, or is likely 
to get, is not worth his acceptance. Best regards to Mrs. 
Nelson." 

Captain Parker also wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 



102 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. III. 

" H, M. Ship, St. George, Kioge Bay, 
June 14, 1801. 

" My Lady, 

" You are so very kind in every instance to me, and have 
been so continually my friend, that I should be most un- 
grateful was I not to acknowledge so many and repeated 
favours and attentions. I feel most particularly gratified at 
the receipt of your friendly epistle inclosed to my most 
valuable friend for me, and am happy beyond measure to tell 
you he has most perfectly recovered his late indisposition, 
which I assure you was such as to excite no little alarm in 
my breast, when I first saw him ; but, thank God, the change 
of scene, added to the hopes he had of constantly receiving 
orders to go home from his own request, buoyed him up 
against the indisposition he laboured under, and the fresh 
and certain intelligence of another Admiral quitting England 
to take this command has altered him to every thing we can 
wish. He can, thank God, now eat and drink, laugh and 
joke, and in short, I never before saw him in such spirits. 
He purposes allowing me the honour of going home with 
him, and you can, I am sure, knowing the affectionate esteem 
I have for him, well conceive how peculiarly happy such 
attentions from him must make me. 

<' I got your letter by the Phcenix last night; she left 
England on the 5th, at which time Admiral Pole was at Yar- 
mouth waiting for the ^Eolus^s arrival to bring him out, and 
as the winds have been fair since that time, we are in hourly 
expectation of seeing him. The great and good Lord Nelson 
is anxious for the moment, and has so judiciously arranged 
all his papers that I do not think he will be six hours in 
preparing to quit the St. George. The great regret all the 
officers feel at losing their noble patron is distressing to 
witness. Hardy, who begs me not to forget him to you, 
remains with Admiral Pole, and I feel not a little interested, 
and indeed enthusiastic at accompanying the hero of Aboukir 
and Copenhagen to England. I hope my sister feels as 
much obliged to you as I do, and that she has not forgotten 
to acknowledge with respect and gratitude your mark of 
kindness. I have given her a strict order to wear it and 
reverence the man whose conduct claims such general admi- 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 103 

ration. I am glad to hear the beautiful Horatia is so well, 
and shall not easily forget your proposal, which I leave you 
to make to the Admiral. This day we have had grand doings 
on board — Lord Nelson, by the command of the King, has 
invested Sir Thomas Graves with the Knighthood of the 
Bath, and in the most handsome style, all the Captains of the 
fleet, full-dressed, present, under the Royal Standard, a grand 
guard, and a salute of twenty-one guns. I had the honour 
to carry the sword of the Nile with which Sir Thomas was 
knighted. At the close of this august ceremony Lord Nelson, 
with his usual goodness and ability, made one of the most 
appropriate and elegant speeches I ever heard ; it pleased and 
awed everybody, and expressed how amply rewarded all 
glorious actions were by our Sovereign and our country. My 
best respects to Sir William, and Mrs. Nelson, nor do I 
forget Horatia, and with great esteem I remain, your Lady- 
ship's most grateful servant, 

"E. T. Parker. 

" You will soon see Lord Nelson in London. He says he 
will not let much grass grow under his feet after he lands 
until he sees you." 

Another of Nelson's favourite Captains, who had heard 
that Sir William Hamilton was to be the Governor of Malta, 
wrote to congratulate her Ladyship : — 

" Minotaur, off Alexandria, 
June 15th, 1801. 

"Dear Lady Hamilton, 

'* Although a considerable time has passed since I had the 
honour of taking my leave at Leghorn, believe me, I have 
not been backward in my inquiries after your health and Sir 
William's, and I have very often thought of writing ; but this 
country has been so dull since you left it, that nothing but 
misfortunes and scenes of misery have taken place, and the 
many comforts we used to enjoy at the different places, are 
now vanished, and I am sorry to say, the French, with all 
their villainy, have taken possession. 

" I shall ever acknowledge the many kind attentions 



104 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. Ill' 

shewn me by you and Sir William, and I often, very often, 
regret the change that has taken place, and most sincerely 
hope the new appointment of Sir WiUiam Hamilton will 
answer his expectation, and which I most sincerely congra- 
tulate you both upon. The Governorship of Malta, which 
we are informed for certain is given to Sir William, may he 
live many years to enjoy it, and you to partake of every 
comfort. No doubt by the time he comes out, we shall have 
peace, and with a little of your good management, things 
may be brought round in this country, to make it pleasant 
once more. 

" Our valuable friend. Lord Nelson, has been adding new 
laurels ; may he live long to enjoy them. I have to lament 
my not going home, when I might have stood a chance to 
have been one of his party : I like no better company, I 
assure you. I hope if this country is to fall, that it will be 
soon, then no doubt it will be Minotaur's turn to go to Old 
England, when I shall have the pleasure and satisfaction of 
paying my respects to you and all my friends. I beg my 
kind remembrance to Sir William and Lord Nelson, when 
you see him. Miss Knight I had a line from some time 
since. My best wishes to her and Mrs. Cadogan. If I can 
be of any service to you or Sir William, in this part of the 
world, you have only to command me, and believe me with 
great truth, and every sincere wish, your much obliged and 
obedient humble servant, 

"Thomas Louis. 

'* P. S. Part of our army with Turks, &c. are near Cairo. 
/ wish they were in it." 

Lord Nelson quitted the Baltic on the 19th, and sailed in 
the Kite brig for England, being unwilling to deprive the fleet 
of a large vessel. He was at this time in correspondence 
with the Prince Castelcicala relative to the affairs of Naples, 
and received the following from his Highness : — 

" My noble and respected Friend, 
" I received your obliging and very interesting letter yes- 
terday. Accept, my dear Lord, my earnest thanks for the 



ISOl.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSOX. 105 

interest you shew for the welfare of the Two SiciKes, in this 
important event, a peace ; an interest worthy of you who saved 
those kingdoms. We are under great obhgations to Eng- 
land. My sentiments, my dear friend, towards the cursed 
French, remain unaUered, and I shall ever hate them, but in 
my opinion, the state of things in Europe cannot remain very 
long as it is ; time will shew, but the prospect is not cheering. 
I wrote yesterday to our good King and Queen. Nothing 
can possibly more gratify my patrons than the affectionate 
expressions of your Excellency's sentiments towards them in 
your letter to me, to which they are so greatly indebted, and 
of which I am also so gratefully sensible. I have written again 
to Sir John Acton what you wrote to me for him. I ardently 
wish for your return to London, my dear friend, that I may 
have the pleasure of seeing you and talking with you ; the 
moment I learn you have returned I shall hasten to you. 
My wife presents her kind regards and compliments to you, 
as well as all my little family. Ever faithful in my attach- 
ment and admiration of your incomparable virtues, my Lord, 
until my last breath I shall respect, and with the greatest 
gratitude, veneration, and esteem, remain, 

" Your Excellency's obliged, faithful, 

^^ and affectionate friend, 

" Castelcicala. 

" To liis Excellency the Duke of Bronte, 
Lord Viscount Nelson." 

The Queen of Naples directed the following to Lady 
Hamilton : — 

"Vienna, February 11, 1801. 

" My dear Lady, 
" I received your letter of the month of November by the 
courier sent by the good Prince de Castelcicala. I much wish 
to have further news from you, and to know how the Cheva- 
lier is, and if he thinks of returning to the genial climate of 
Italy, and tell me how you also find yourself situated, whether 
you are comfortable, for I am interested in everything that 
concerns such friends as you are, and I trust, ever will be. 
1 say nothing of our troubles, the public papers have made 



106 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. III. 

you acquainted with them. The state of this monarchy is so 
reduced that the natives and their famihes are shocked by it. 
The general quarters of the army is at Schonbrun, and the 
insurrectionary Hungarians are one half in Luxembourg, the 
other still in Hungary. We were on the point of starting at 
Christmas, my people and baggage were already at Brun. Now 
I tremble for Italy, for the scoundrel Le Brun will not agree 
to an armistice, and I apprehend if he does he will not in- 
clude us in it. The King, the Prince, and Princess, are all 
well, their two children have had the small-pox naturally, and 
very favourably, and are already quite recovered. All was 
quiet in our two kingdoms. I live very retired here. Har- 
mony is in some degree established in our family. I shall 
hold the Empress's child at the baptismal font, and she 
will hold Louisa's. I do not go out at all now, for I have 
a violent cold, which torments me very much. St. Marco 
Corigliano is here. Luchesi also arrived last night. In the 
general alarm and departure at Christmas I sent poor 
D° Carolina and her family to Trieste. Adieu, my dear 
Lady, send me word how you feel, if you are happy, what 
your prospects are ; all that concerns you interests me. Bel- 
mont has left Russia in very bad health ; he could not stop 
there, all their proceedings were insupportable to him. He 
travels slowly by way of Germany, and will perhaps be at the 
marriage of his brother with the Princess of Courland, which 
takes place this month in Saxony. Adieu, my compliments 
to the Chevalier, and to the valorous and dear Lord Nelson, 
the hero of the Nile. How often I think of him. Adieu, my 
dear Lady, I hope some day to see you again, and rely on my 
constant friendship, which will cease only with the life of 
your tender and sincere friend, 

"Charlotte. 

" All my dear children make their compliments to you ; they 
are all well, thank God, but our misfortunes leave me no hope 
of establishing them. Adieu, again adieu." 

" March 31, 1801. 

" My dear Lady, 
** Your letter has quite distressed me, for I see you are neither 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 107 

SO happy nor as satisfied as my sincere and grateful heart, 
and true friendship for you, would desire you to be, but 
these are bad times, and there is nothing but suffering. I 
have been ill again, I cannot quite recover, but, thank God, 
I am able to move about. My dear daughters are quite well, 
thank Heaven, and form my only consolation, though mingled 
with sorrow too, seeing, as I do, that there is no establish- 
ment for them, and thinking, if I die, what they may be 
subjected to ; this often makes me regret escaping the tempest 
of the 23rd of December, when, engulphed in the waters, 
none with me, I should never have known so many horrors 
and such ingratitude ; the entry of the French into the king- 
dom, and the horrible peace forced upon us, which brought 
me to the brink of death, and now, though I am partially 
restored to health, I fear it will not be durable, with my spirits 
so tired. Leopold has been very ill, and has been obliged to 
lose blood for the first time. I hope to go into the country 
soon, that will give me great pleasure, for plants and trees are 
not ungrateful. Adieu, my dear Lady, I hope we shall meet 
again. Rely on my constant friendship and gratitude ; make 
my compliments to the Chevalier, let me often hear from you, 
and believe me ever your sincere 

"Carolina." 

Soon after his arrival in London, Lord Nelson wrote to 
the Hon. Henry Addington (July 8th), in which he says : 
" Prince Castelcicala has been so pressing that I should bear 
my testimony to you of the fidelity of the King of the Two 
Sicilies, and his fear that the loss of the island of Sicily may 
be the consequence of the want of assistance from this 
counti-y ; that it has struck me forcibly that the former plan 
of the French is still likely to be carried into effect, either by 
treaty or by force. I dare say that plan is much better 
known to you than to me, although having for a length of 
time seen the correspondence both public and private, from 
all the Neapolitan Ministers to their Government, and to the 
Queen of Naples, I am perfectly acquainted with the views 
of the several Powers. The plan of the French Directory 
was, not to have an army of French in Italy on a peace, but 
to make all the Powers of Italy dependent upon them ; in 



108 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. III. 

order to do this, Corsica was to be taken from us, Elba, 
Sardinia, Sicily, if possible, Malta, Corfu, and those could be 
easily kept, and would awe their enemies in Italy (if any 
turned against them), and support their friends, and cut our 
trade both with Italy and Turkey to pieces ; indeed, we 
could have none. From Castelcicala's conversation, I think 
that either by a forced treaty with the King of Naples, or by 
force of arms, these people will attempt, and even are 
attempting, the getting Sicily, which will be a very severe 
stroke upon us."^ 

It was on the 1st of July that Lord Nelson landed at 
Yarmouth, and the first act he performed was to visit the 
wounded at Copenhagen in hospital at this place ; after 
which he departed for London, being escorted by the Volun- 
teer Cavalry as far as Lowestoffe, a distance of eleven miles. 
Another act of kindness signalized his arrival ; the following 
was directed to Mrs. Maurice Nelson : — 

^' My dear Mrs. Nelson, 
" I beg that you will stay at Laleham, with horse, wiskey, 
and keep every convenience there to make your stay com- 
fortable, and by Michaelmas you can determine as to the 
mode and manner of your future residence. Nothing, be 
assured, shall be wanting on my part to make your life as 
comfortable and cheerful as possible, for believe me, with 
every respect and regard, your atfectionate friend, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" I send a hundred pounds, which you will accept from 
me. 

"July 2nd, 1801." 

Sir John Orde now courted communication with Lord 
Nelson, but failing to meet with him at his hotel, wrote the 
following letters : — 

" Gloucester Place, 
July 6th, 1801. 

" My dear Lord, 
" I yesterday called ineflfectually at Lothians, to offer you 

' From an Autograph in the Sidmouth Papers. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 109 

personally my sincere congratulations on the many recent 
marks of distinction which your eminent services have ob- 
tained. An act of attention due from me as a member of the 
community you have so much benefited ; as an officer in 
that service you have contributed so highly to distinguish ; 
and one greatly interested in your welfare. I felt true satis- 
faction in acquitting myself of it, by the first opportunity that 
presented since our meeting at Gibraltar. 

*' I wished also to offer for your perusal a copy of the 
Correspondence which passed between me, the Board of 
Admiralty, Lord Spencer, and Lord St. Vincent, on a subject 
where your name is implicated, and to add my verbal assur- 
ances to its ample testimony, that though I complained, as I 
must still do, of the preference given your Lordship over 
me, yet that I did so, merely in consequence of my senioriti/, 
and some peculiarities in my situation, and without the 
slightest intention of derogating from your great sufficiency, 
which I shall ever feel true satisfaction in acknowledging. 

" This Correspondence also indisputably shews the ground 
of my subsequent difference with Lord St. Vincent, and the 
cause of my return to England, were totally unconnected 
with your Lordship's nomination above alluded to, as in it 
Lord St. Vincent assures Sir William Parker and myself he 
had no concern in your Lordship's nomination, which he 
styles a hard measure, calling for remonstrance on our part. 
But there seems a propriety in thus expressly assuring your 
Lordship I was not so influenced by it, as I am aware most 
uncommon and malicious efforts have been employed to cir- 
culate and establish a contrary opinion. 

" My fear of occasioning some difference of sentiment in the 
Mediterranean fleet whilst Lord St. Vincent was with it, 
prevented my sending your Lordship a copy of this Corres- 
pondence when first prepared, as I otherwise should have 
done, to obviate every appearance of concealment ; which I 
hope was in some measure effected by my having the honour 
of presenting one to Lady Nelson and your Father for 
perusal, who might communicate to your Lordship any part 
of its contents they thought expedient. 

'* As I shall leave town on Thursday morning. I fear I shall 



110 LIFE OP VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. III. 

not have the pleasure of seeing you before my return ; I will 
therefore now mention my regret at your having found it 
needful to put the agency of the Flag share of the Nile Prize 
Money in other hands than those of our approved and very 
worthy agent, Mr. Purvis, as the change has already occa- 
sioned some difficulties to the parties, and may eventually, 
from some mistakes, be a means of preventing his getting a 
Commission on it, unless your Lordship interferes in his 
behalf; though his doing so is, I believe, desired by a great 
majority, perhaps the whole of the flag-officers with whom, 
I conceive, the appointment of an agent rests. 

" I have the honour to be, with great condescension and 
regard, 

'' My dear Lord, 
" T our most obedient humble servant, 

"J. Ordk. 

" The Right Honourable 
Viscount Nelson, K.B." 

" Hackwood, July 13th, 1801. 
" My dear Lord, 

'' As I found some difficulty in reading your letter sent by 
Captain Parker, not being accustomed to your writing, I 
would not detain him for my answer, and since perusing its 
contents, I have thought it prudent before making my reply, 
to allow you time to satisfy yourself from the correspondence 
put into your hands, as I reasonably thought you might have 
done from my letter of the 6th instant, that I have been 
very far from saying anything in it against you. 

"Ambition is a sentiment natural to the breast of every 
good officer, and equally ui'ges him to push by every honour- 
able means, at opportunities for distinction, and to complain 
when such occasions appear unfairly withheld from him — 
liberties, the exercise of which, ought not to be repined at 
by the fortunate candidate, nor to be readily given up by the 
unsuccessful. We all perhaps have aimed at chief command, 
and might, without blame, have employed our friends to 
assist in obtaining it. That I have some who are both able 
and willing to second my views, I am proud to say, but I 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. Ill 

could protest to you, I never solicited their interference with 
the Admiralty on my behalf since promoted to the rank of 
an Admiral. 

*' No idle apprehensions of exposing to the knowledge of 
oui' enemies the defects in our naval discipline, and in the 
character of some of our highest sea officers (circumstances 
of great public notoriety), would have prevented my publish- 
ing the correspondence in question immediately on my being 
refused the Court-Martial I demanded. Considerations of 
a very different nature have hitherto restrained my exercise 
of this necessary act of justice to myself, and the service, 
such as I trust, however, will now soon be removed, and 
leave me at liberty to adopt such measures as in my judg- 
ment events shall make needful. 

" I did not mention Pujvis to your Lordship in view to 
discuss his general claim to your favour, or the propriety of 
his conduct in any transactions between you. I did so in 
justice to his character as a very honest honourable agent, 
and in support of the consistency and propriety of my own 
conduct in not abandoning such a man, who your Lordship 
will recollect, was in possession of this appointment, when I 
conceive my right to continue him in it is equal to your 
power of taking it from him. I should not wonder if subor- 
dinate officers detached from a fleet when so fortunate as to 
make some prizes might wish to appoint a sole agent to dis- 
pose of them, although I never remember hearing of any 
such instance; and I am ready to allow they might on 
solicitiny expect an acquiescence with their views from all 
parties concerned when perfectly disengaged; but I must own 
I feel distressed and astonished to find your Lordship ex- 
pecting such a sacrifice on the part of your brother Admirals 
interested in the Nile prize-money, in favour of a man un- 
known to most of them, and little acquainted with the 
nature of the employment, when it was not solicited on your 
part, nor to be effected but at the expense of a man who 
had every claim to the continuance of their support and con- 
fidence : much more still am I astonished to find your Lord- 
ship not only expecting from them such an abandonment of 
a faithful servant, but seemingly dissatisfied with your 
brother Admirals for starting any objections to your perse- 



112 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. III. 

vering in the appointment of a man as their agent whom 
they are uninterested about. 

" I am, my dear Lord, 
*' Your most obedient and humble servant, 

"J. Orde. 

"Right Honourable Viscount Nelson, K.B. 
&c. &c. &c." 

LORD NELSON TO SIR JOHN ORDE. 

"My dear Sir John, 
" I return your pamphlet, with many thanks for the 
perusal. I cannot but see clearly the cause of Lord St. 
Vincent's differences latterly with you — they evidently took 
their rise from my being sent up the Mediterranean. The 
order you gave out at Gibraltar in contradiction to the 
Commander-in-chief, from the slow approach of the Princess 
Royal, which hurt your feelings, and from the entirely very 
wrong conduct of Captain Draper and Colonel Desborough 
relative to the marine. I can now assure you on my word of 
honour, that neither Earl St. Vincent nor Lord Spencer were 
the original cause of my being sent to the Mediterranean. 
The arrangement was made in April I797j a year before I 
was sent. It is plain that neither the First Lord of the Ad- 
miralty, nor the Commander-in-chief, thought it right to tell 
you the causes which naturally sent me in particular into the 
Mediterranean ; and I verily believe, that if Admirals, with 
flags of the main, had been in the same situation as yourself, 
that 1. should have been equally employed in the Mediterra- 
nean. I own myself sorry that the pamphlet was ever 
printed, and am glad that you saw the propriety of calling 
them in ; for if answers had appeared by anonymous writers, 
you would have had to contend with a shadow. Excuse my 
observations on your book, and believe me, 

" &c. &c. &c., 

"Nelson and Bronte." 

SIR JOHN orde to LORD NELSON. 

" Hackwood Park, July 16th, 1801. 

" My dear Lord, 
"I did not receive your letter of the 11th until I had 
despatched mine of the 13th instant. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 113 

" Although, I confess, I cannot help expressing concern at 
some of your Lordship's remarks on the correspondence sent 
for your perusal, which differs so very materially from all I 
had hitherto received from other quarters, yet as they appear 
in the shape of a statement, of what you consider to be the 
causes of the difference between Lord St. Vincent and 
myself; and as they are, in fact, most of them new and ex- 
traordinary, I feel some degree of satisfaction from your com- 
munication of them : because I trust you will allow me to 
indulge a hope of such further explanations as may perhaps 
lead to the unravelling a mystery I have hitherto found inex- 
plicable. I must own, that from those I am induced to 
suspect that some representations, very opposite from facts, 
have been circulated, and reached your Lordship, making an 
impression on your mind, which I should be very anxiovis to 
remove. And for this purpose I must beg to trouble you 
with such observations as occur to me, from your ideas, as 
they appear at present from your letter, which I wish you to 
consider as a sort of inquiry, whether I am right in regard to 
the points I suppose you allude to, and as a request for your 
fuller information where you may find me wrong in my con- 
jectures, and my consequent explanations. But before I 
begin, I must state my surprise at your Lordship omitting to 
notice some of the reasons assigned in my correspondence, as 
causes of our difference, which I cannot conceive as an officer 
possessing a high sense of honour, you could deem too insig- 
nificant to be urged by me. 

" Among the reasons supposed by your Lordship to have 
occasioned the difference in question, you mention, ' The 
order I gave out at Gibraltar in contradiction to the Com- 
mander-in-chief.' What order this alludes to I have no con- 
ception ; for until I received your letter I never understood 
such a fact had been imputed to me. When about to leave 
Lord St. Vincent for Gibraltar, I waited on him, and in the 
most respectful manner, as I am certain his Lordship will 
bear me witness, requested his verbal explanations on the 
instructions he had sent for my future gu dance, in order 
that I might be more certain (on this my intended first sepa- 
ration from his Lordship to be in port) fully to act in all 
things up to his plans and regulations, telling his Lordship 

VOL. II. I 



114 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAI. [CHAP. III. 

that none of my own should interfere with his, aware, as I 
was, of the mischiefs that had accrued in the fleet from such 
imprudent variance. His Lordship very readily complied 
with my wish. I Avent to Gibraltar ; and whilst there, I 
solemnly declare it was my first and only study how best 
to obey his orders, and faithfully second his views in every 
instance. On my rejoining his Lordship oft' Cadiz, I waited 
upon him with copies of my journal, and of every order and 
memorandum I had issued, whilst absent from his flag, and 
most pressingly requested him to peruse them ; saying, that 
though I conceived I had most strictly conformed to his 
instructions as explained by himself to me, yet it was possible 
I might have erred unintentionally, and in such case I should 
desire to be set right. His Lordship declined looking at 
them, and with great politeness assured me, in the most une- 
quivocal terms, he was fully satisfied with my conduct at 
Gibraltar, as he had been on every other occasion. 

" As a third reason you mention, ' the slow approach of the 
Princess Royal which hurt my feelings.' What I am to un- 
derstand from this I am at a loss to judge. The Princess 
Royal approaching the fleet oft" Cadiz, had every sail set, 
which I judged useful to accelerate her junction with it. On 
a signal being discovered, and, after some time clearly made 
out from the Ville de Paris to the Princess Royal to make 
more sail, and reported to me, I directed Captain Draper to 
obey it instantly in the fullest extent, which I have no doubt 
he did in an ofticer-like manner. 

" The next reason you mention, ' The certainly very wrong 
conduct of Captain Draper and Colonel Desborough about 
the marine.' How far the conduct of Captain Draper and 
Colonel Desborough about the marine, which your Lordship 
decides to be wrong (from what evidence I know not), was 
really so, I will not presume to say, the matter never having 
been submitted to my judgment. But, admitting they were 
to blame, what is that to me ? My memorandum, ordering 
the discharge of a marine from several ships, into Captain 
Hardy's brig, will shew I complied most strictly with Lord 
St. Vincent's orders on that head ; and as Captain Hardy 
made no representation to me afterwards on the business, 
how was I to know it had not been fully observed ? Besides, 



I 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 115 

had Lord St. Vincent thought my conduct exceptionable in 
any of these instances, would he have approved of it as he 
had done ? or would he have omitted mentioning his objec- 
tions to me, had any occurred to make the impression on his 
mind you seem to suggest? To judge the contrary, would in 
my opinion be a reflection on Lord St. Vincent, both as an 
officer and as a gentleman. 

'* Lord St. Vincent indeed wrote to me a very extraordinary 
letter on the business of the marine, but that he afterwards 
declared, with apologies, to have been in mistake for Colonel 
Desborough ; but not, as you will have seen, until he had 
had my answer to this letter two or three days in his posses- 
sion without opening it. His Lordship afterwards refused 
to allow this answer, still unopened, to be entered in his letter 
book, telling me, incorrectly as I have since found, that Mr. 
Purvis has assured him his letter to me had not been so 
entered : a conduct, if not calculated to disgust every officer 
of common feeling, certainly not conciliatory, or like to prevent 
a difference. 

" With respect to the point of your being sent up the Medi- 
terranean, which I observe you place as the first cause of 
difference, I really think it more than unnecessary to trouble 
you with a repetition of that representation upon it, which 
you will have already read in my correspondence ; but I 
cannot help expressing my disappointment and mortification 
at finding my assurances of its not being a ground of my 
subsequent differences with Lord St. Vincent (although I 
allow it hurt my feelings), still fail to produce the eflfects on 
your Lordship's mind, I had reasonably looked for. After 
Lord St. Vincent's positive denial to Sir William Parker and 
myself, of having any concern in your Lordship's nomination, 
and his expressing his disapprobation of it, saying it was a 
hard measure calling for remonstrance on our parts, T must 
have had a worse opinion of his Lordship than I had to have 
doubted his veracity; and have been more unreasonable than 
I trust I have hitherto approved myself to differ with him on 
such a business. 

" Your Lordship is good enough to ' give me your word of 
honour, that neither Lord Spencer, nor Lord St Vincent, 
were the original cause of your being sent into the Mediter- 

I 2 



116 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. III. 

ranean ; that the arrangement was made in 1797? a year 
before you were sent/ Strange circumstance certainly (Lord 
Spencer being at that time at the head of the Admiralty, and 
Lord St. Vincent of the Mediterranean fleet), as the French 
had not begun their preparations for the invasion of Egypt, 
and such as I could have little idea of. For your Lordship 
must recollect the conversation we had together on the 
subject at Gibraltar, when you told me, Loi'd St. Vincent had 
mentioned to you, that I wished to be sent on detached 
service ; and when you gave it me as your opinion, that I 
should be sent after you up the Mediterranean, by Lord St. 
Vincent, should he find it expedient to augment your small 
squadron to ten or twelve ships of the line. Besides, the last 
conversation I held with Lord Spencer previous to my leaving 
England, and those I had had with Lord St. Vincent on my 
first joining him, both events subsequent to the month of 
April, 1797} were calculated to convey to me a very different 
idea of the importance of the service I was destined to be 
employed on. 

" But, to take the matter as your Lordship puts it, why 
the laboured concealment of such a fact on the part of Lord 
Spencer, and Lord St. Vincent, which you notice on the part 
of Sir William Parker and myself? Why endeavour to 
deceive us, when the simple communication of such particular 
motives, as you allude to, might have served to assuage our 
wounded feelings, and to satisfy us we ought, on such ex- 
traordinary grounds, to be reconciled to the measure ? Surely, 
my dear Lord, I must have mistaken your character, or you 
do not think such communication would have been too great 
a sacrifice to the reputation, or even the prejudices of old 
officers ! Surely some little attention to officers, placed in so 
unfortunate a predicament, was not too much to expect from 
the liberality, or even the justice of their country ! But after 
all, in this case, as in every other arising out of my corres- 
pondence, I am far from wishing to bias the opinion of any 
sea officer, however low in rank, much less that of your 
Lordship ; every officer of liberality will judge for himself, 
without condemning his neighbour, who maj^ happen to 
diifer from^ him in point of sentiment. 

" My last letter would have conveyed to you my senti- 



ISOl.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. Il7 

ments and resolutions respecting the publication of my cor- 
respondence. Be assured I have not recalled a copy of those 
I gave out, but in view to increase the circulation of them. 
I am not so undecided in my measures as to be deterred from 
the execution of any plan I deem necessary to the support of 
my own character, or the good of the corps to which I belong, 
by silly apprehension of the malicious workings of anonymous 
writers, whose impudent efforts I should ever disregard. 
" I am, my dear Loi'd, 

" Your most obedient humble servant, 

'^ J. Orde. 

" To the Right Hon. Viscount Nelson, &c. &c." 

" Warwick, August 1st. 

" My dear Lord, 

^' I had purposely avoided every appearance of soliciting 
the opinion upon my pamphlet of any naval officer to whom 
I addressed it. But I felt much gratified by the voluntary 
offer of your Lordship, with your supposed reasons of the 
cause of my difference with Lord St. Vincent (although the 
former was not exactly conformable to what I might have 
expected), as they afforded me some prospect of discovering 
the grounds of that inexplicable business, and of counter- 
acting the effects of any misrepresentation from whatever 
quarter or misconception concerning it made on your Lord- 
ship's mind. 

'^ The information your Lordship has been pleased to 
convey to me, by your explanations on these heads, gives me 
perfect satisfaction, except in as far as I have cause to lament 
some appearance of a difference in judgment between you and 
I in points of discipline, which I consider material. 

" Admitting for an instant, in its fullest extent, the only 
pretext your Lordship seems to urge as a ground for Lord 
St. Vincent's extraordinary treatment of me, that I had issued 
an order at Gibraltar on the trifling subject of round hats, 
in contradiction to the one given by the Commander-in- 
chief, as it is not pretended I did so, knowing it to be 
the case, or with any view of opposing his regulations, 
which it was notorious I ever promoted, it would not, 
I conceive, be deemed by the strictest officer, a ground 
for the persecution I have met with ; or for any other step than 



118 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. III. 

a fuller communication from the Commander-in-chief, of 
his wishes on that subject, which I had ever sohcited upon 
all, but which, from his Lordship's silence, after general 
declaration of satisfaction, he should not be supposed to have 
judged more needful upon this than any other occasion. 
But the simple fact is, that I know of no instructions given by 
Lord St. Vincent on the subject ; and finding that the officers 
under my orders suffered extremely in their sight, from the 
excessive glare and reflected heat of the Rock, insomuch that 
they were generally compelled to wear round hats ; and as 
General O'Hara had, by order, permitted the officers of the 
garrison to do, I judged it better, and more conformable 
with the general system of discipline adopted by Lord St. 
Vincent, gen£rally to authorise the practice in a military 
form by a public order, than to be a daily witness of officers 
wearing an uniform differing from that established, and 
thereby forfeiting, in some sort, their just pretensions to mili- 
tary compliments from the guards and sentinels of the garrison. 
" With respect to the effect which Captain Hardy's state- 
ment seemed strongly to have produced on your Lordship's 
mind, I think it impossible to apprehend any fnrther bad 
impressions of that nature, after the full explanations I have 
now given upon the subject of the marine. With respect to 
the command of the Mediterranean, I certainly ever thought 
that Sir William Parker was best entitled to command the 
squadron sent upon that service in May, 1798: and I only 
adverted to myself, as your Lordship had mentioned me, and 
to remind you of the conversation that passed between us on 
the subject. I cannot, however, cease to think that the injus- 
tice done to Sir William Parker, under whom I should have 
been zealous to serve upon that occasion, did not put me out 
of the fair line of next immediate preference, and should not 
now make me reconciled to the secondary injury done to 
myself, and of which I assuredly complain, without an idea 
of thereby detracting from your acknowledged sufficiency. 
" I have the honour to be, 

" With great consideration and regard, 
" My dear Lord, 
" Your most faithful humble servant, 

"J. Orde. 

" To the Right Hon. Viscount Nelson, K.B. &.c. &c. &c." 



1801] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 119 

In London Nelson took up his residence at Sir William 
Hamilton's in Piccadilly, where a party, consisting of the Rev. 
Dr. and Mrs. Nelson, with their son and daughter, were as- 
sembled to meet him, and they, together with Captain Parker, 
went to Box Hill for a change of air for a few days, and 
then to Bush Inn at Staines, where Sir WiUiam Hamilton 
could indulge his taste for angling. The following lines were 
addressed to Lady Hamilton by Lord William Gordon at this 
time. Her Ladyship has prefaced the original by the fol- 
lowing observations : — 

" When our glorious Nelson came home ill, and worn out 
with fatigue, after the glorious 2nd of April, we thought it 
right to let him change the air and often. We therefore went 
for three or four days at a time to different places, one of 
which was to the Bush at Staines, a delightful place, well 
situated, and a good garden on the Thames. Sir William was 
fond of fishing, and Lady Hamilton wrote to the Duke of 
Glueensberry and to Lord William Gordon an account of 
their occupations, which brought the following verses from 
Lord William. The company at Staines consisted of Sir 
William and Lady Hamilton, the gallant Nelson, Rev. Dr. 
and Mrs. Nelson, Miss Nelson, and the brave little Parker who 
afterwards lost his life in that bold, excellent, and vigorous 
attack at Boulogne, where such unexampled bravery was 
shewn by our brave Nelson's followers.^' 

" So kind a letter, from fair Emma's hands, 
Our deep regret, and warmest thanks, commands. 
Ah ! Lady, could we both, with happier you, 
Now form a part of gallant Nelson's crew, 
Six sable, foaming coursers, long ere night. 
Had brought us, willing, to — the Bush — Tom White, 
There to have witnessed Father Thames's pride. 
While Anthony, by Cleopatra's side — 
While you, I mean, and Henry,' — in a wherry. 
Are, cheek by jole, afloat there, making merry ; 
But sickness, and old age, resist the will, 
And keep us bound in Piccadilly still. 
Yet since, nor sickness, nor old age, can bind 
The frequent — friendly wishes of the mind. 
We send them, fresh and fresh, by every wind. 

Though, to say truth, I should not, vastly, like, 
To trust my dinner to an uncaught pike, 



' Lord Viscount Nelson. 



120 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. III. 

At five, at Staines, I gladly would take post, 

Close to the Cavallero, — and a roast, 

And should he, talking, better like, than eating, 

Lend him an ear, while mouth was stowing meat in ; 

And, on his water pranks, while he was dwelling. 

Of bites confirm'd and doubtful nibbles telling, 

I still would listen, (though I thought it dull) 

Till he was out of breath, and I chokefidl. 

Or, if it were his fancy, to regale 

My ears, with some long, subterraneous tale. 

Still would I listen, at the same time, picking, 

A little morsel of Staines ham and chicken. 

But should he boast of Herculaneum jugs, 

Damme ! I'd beat him, with White's pewter mugs. 

The little, reverend Mistress Nelson' next. 
Shall be our Muse's very welcome text ; 
And, should the verse of praise be longer far, 
Than any of her husband's- sermons are, 
It will be better listen'd to, I'm sure. 
And, what is more, — believed, by all his cirre. 

Next to her baby^ — with her cheeks of rose. 
Her teeth of ivory — and eyes of sloes ! 
Ah ! henceforth, never, may she unmov'd look 
On the poor worm, — that writhes upon the hook ! 
Nor seek, with cruel guile, and barbed steel 
The gixileless victims of a miirderous meal ! 
But, recollecting still, the tortur'd fish, 
Heave a young sigh, and shun the proffer'd dish. 
With glistening eyes, confess the morning's guilt. 
And shed atonement, for the blood she spilt. 

Not so — the Parson ! on it let him fall, 

And, like a famish'd otter, swallow all. 

Nor for the gudgeon's sufferings, care a groat. 

Unless some bone stick in his o^vn damn'd throat. 

Now, here, perhaps, it may not, (by the way). 

Be much amiss, a word or two, to say 

Of this same Pastor, who, to eveiy claim. 

Of individual merit, adds a name ; 

A name ! which shall remain, to latest time. 

In every nation, and in every clime, 

Rever'd and honour'd ! long as Nile shall flow. 

Long, as the changeful winds of Heaven shall blow. 



' Afterwards the Countess Nelson. 

^ Rev. WilUani, afterwards Eai-1 Nelson. 

'' Miss Charlotte Nelson, naw Lady Bridport. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 121 

Long, as our ships, to northern seas, shall steer, 
Or naval glory, be, to Britons, dear ! 
But, stop, my Muse ! avast ! there, if you please. 
Or damme ! you'll run longer than all these ! 
Though, when you've got brave Nelson on your back, 
You'd prove yourself a curs'd unworthy hack. 
If you should spurring want, or tire — or jade, 
'Ere, round the world, a journey you had made ; 
Though, for that job, he has a nag more steady, 
For Fame has carried him twice round already. 

But, to return to this same worthy Vicar, 

Who loves, you say, good eating and good liquor, 

Know, Lady, that it is our earnest wish. 

That we, ere long, may greet him — Lord Archbish : 

For this, no common pains, or I'm mistaken, 

Our best of friends, the Duke,' hath lately taken, 

And, if a mitre fall not on his head ! 

Justice and gratitude are gone to bed ! 

Of Norfolk Sally, you have nothing said, 

Though she be such a pretty, black-eyed maid ! 

But, Lady, lest the Rector go astray, 

Read the Commandments to him, thrice, each day ; 

Once, — after breakfast — and once, after dinner, 

Lest, after full meals, he become a sinner, 

Thirdly and lastly, ere he go to bed. 

Lest sinful thoughts or strange dreams fill his head. 

Nor, by our Muse, shall Allen- be forgot, 
Who, for himself, nor bullets fear'd, nor shot, 
But for the Guardian AngeP of his master. 
Knowing, full well, the Doctor had no plaster. 
He wisely, as a lady, and a stranger, 
Took her below, and plac'd her out of danger. 

Let not, poor Quasheebaw,'' fair Lady, think. 
Because her skin is blacker than this ink. 
That, from the Muse, no sable praise is due, 
To one so faithful, so attached, and true ! 
Though in her cheek, there bloom no blushing rose, 
Our Muse, nor colour, nor distinction knows. 
Save of the heart ! — and Quasheebaw's I know, 
Is pure, and spotless, as a one night's snow ! 



' Nelson, Duke of Bronte. 

' Tom Allen, Nelson's servant. 

' The portrait of Lady Hamilton, so called by Nelson, framed and glazed, and 
hung up in Nelson's cabin. It was taken down upon entering into battle, lest it 
should sustain injury. 

^ A black servant. 



122 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. III. 

For thee ! and Henry, silent are our lays ! 
Thy beauty, and his valour mock all praise. 
Yet haply, shall these verses serve to prove, 
How much, and oft, we think of those we love." 

Mrs. Maurice Nelson, the widow of Lord Nelson's brother, 
resided at Laleham, two miles distant from Staines. She was 
completely blind, and Nelson took the opportunity of visiting 
her, and condoling with her, while at the Bush, and made up 
the pittance bequeathed to her by his brother to the amount 
of a regular annuity of £200. per annum, besides providing 
for her immediate exigencies. Although Lord Nelson had 
made many attempts to get his brother promoted, he did not 
live to be even a principal clerk in the Navy Office more than 
four months. 

The following is from Major-General Count WalterstorfF, 
Chamberlain to his Danish Majesty : — 

" Copenhagen, July 13th, 1801. 

" My Lord, 

" I learn by the newspapers with great pleasure your Lord- 
ship's safe arrival in England, and that your health is so far 
re-established as to have permitted your Lordship to take 
again your seat in the House of Lords. We were in hopes 
that your Lordship would have favoured Copenhagen with a 
visit, previous to your sailing for England, and I anticipated 
the satisfaction of finding an opportunity to return my best 
and respectful thanks to your Lordship for your very kind 
letter to me of the 16th June, and for the distinguished 
favour you have conferred on my son, by sending him your 
picture in a very good print, a sketch of your life, and the 
medal stinick in memory of your Lordship's victory of the 
Nile. The advice to my son, which accompanied that pre- 
sent, from your Lordship's hand, is what my son will, I hope, 
when six or eight years older, put a still greater value on, 
and what will make a deep impression on his mind. 

'^ It must give every friend of England and Denmark 
equally pleasure to see peace and harmony restored between 
the former Power and those of the North, though, as a Dane, 
I confess I could wish that my country had been led back to 
its former connexion with Great Britain in a more gentle 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 123 

manner, and less by the sudden impulsion (if I may be per- 
mitted that expression) of another Power. It is, however, 
always a great consolation to know, that we shall enjoy 
peace, and that short and unfortunate as the war has been 
for Denmark, it has not shewn the character of the Danes in 
an unfavourable light. 

" I wish very much I could make a trip to England for 
the sake of my health, and spend next winter at Bath. It 
would naturally make me still more happy to go there in a 
diplomatic character, and I flatter myself my conduct would 
be such as to entitle me to the esteem and confidence of his 
Britannic Majesty's Ministers ; but I suppose that Count 
Wedel, who before the late unfortunate quarrel between our 
two Governments, was Envoy-extraordmary from our Court, 
will do his utmost endeavours to get re-appointed. I cannot, 
however, give up the hopes of paying my respects to your 
Lordship in England, and of renewing to your Lordship the 
assurance of the high regard 1 feel for your personal, as well 
as for your public character, and of the sincere and respectful 
attachment with which I have the honour to be, 
" My Lord, 

" Your Lordship's 
" Most obedient and most humble servant, 

"Ernest Frederick Walterstorff." 

In a previous letter of the 15th of June the Count re- 
marked, " Whoever may be the respective Ministers who 
shall sign the Peace, I shall always consider your Lordship 
as the Pacificator of the North, and I am sure that your 
heart will be as much flattered by that title as by any other 
which your grateful country has bestowed upon you."^ 

In July Lord Nelson made application to have the Barony 
of Nelson extended. The King graciously acquiesced, and to 
prevent the extinction of the Barony from failure of heirs 
male on his own part, on the 18th of August a new Barony, 
called Nelson of the Nile and of Hilborough in the county 
of Norfolk, was granted. This was limited in default of male 
issue of his Lady to his father, and the male issue of his 

' From an autograph in the possession of the Right Honourable John Wilson 
Croker, printed in the Dispatches and Letters, Vol. iv. p. 417. 



124 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. III. 

body, failing which, it was to extend to the heirs male of the 
bodies of his sisters Mrs. Bolton^ and Mrs. Matcham respec- 
tively. Agreeably to his wish, expressed in his application 
to the First Lord of the Treasury, his foreign orders, which 
he regarded as honourably obtained and approved by the 
King^s Sign Manual, were described in the Patent, which 
also declares that any successor to the Barony so created 
shall use the surname of Nelson only. The Rev. William 
Nelson alludes to this patent in a letter to Lady Hamilton : — 

" Hilborough, August 6th, 1801. 

" My dear Lady Hamilton, 
"You can easily conceive what joy your letter gave me 
this morning ; thank God, our great, glorious, and invincible 
friend is safe. I was at SwafFham when I received it, and 
read the Gazette honours to my father. He made but little 
obser\"ation upon it, only said he liked him as well plain 
Horace as with all these high-sounding titles ; that may be 
true, but still I could have wished him to have appeared 
pleased with the prospect of his family honours descending 
to his posterity, and I could not help remarking to him, that 
we ought not to be like the selfish man who is reported to 
have said, ' Why should I care for posterity, for posterity 
never cared for me.' Mrs. Bolton made no remarks, nor 
seemed in the least elated or pleased ; indeed, to say the 
truth, there appears a gloom about them all, for what reason 
I can't devise, unless they are uneasy. They did not deserve 
to have a chance, and I wish it had gone to Charlotte and 
her heirs male, but I hope to God it will be a long time 
before it leaves the true Nelson line, and that the young 
Baron- and Duke (who is now writing by my side) will raise 
up posterity, and cut all the others out. The clergy are all 
busy here caUing meetings of their parishes for the defence of 
the country and coast, and cannot stir from home at present, 
but I hope our great hero's doings will set us all at ease. 
When you write, give my love to him, and express all my 
gratitude to him for what he has already done for me and 
mine; I only now hope for a good Deanery for myself. 
BeUeve me your affectionate friend, 

"Wm. Nelson." 

' The present Earl Nelson is the grandson of this lady. 

' Afterwards Viscount Trafalgar. He died at the age of 19 years. 



1801. J LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 125 

The following letter I presume relates to the difference 
of opinion entertained upon the conduct of Sir Hyde 
Parker : — 

« Sir, 
" You must be sensible that I cannot continue to cor- 
respond with an anonymous correspondent. I am convinced 
that the partiality of my countrymen, with some very few 
exceptions, have far overrated my abilities, and I wish that 
placing my talents on its proper level may be useful to my 
late Commander-in-chief, but I do not believe that a wish to 
detract from me will be consonant to his wishes. I am such 
as I am, neither better nor worse, from either the partiality 
of my friends, or the envy of my enemies. 
" I am, Sir, &c. 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

"July 24th, 1801." 

In a letter to his friend Mr. Davison on the 15th of June, 
he writes : " Secret. — They are not Sir Hyde Parker's real 
friends who wish for an inquiry. His friends in the fleet 
wish every thing of this fleet to be forgot, for we all respect 
and love Sir Hyde ; but the dearer his friends, the more un- 
easy they have been at his idleness, for that is the truth — no 
criminalit3\ I believe Sir Hyde Parker to be as good a 
subject as his Majesty has."^ 

' Dispatches and Letters, Vol, iv. p. 416. 



126 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 



CHAPTER IV. 



1801. 



During the summer of 1801, reports of the intended inva- 
sion of England by France were very general. The conquests 
achieved from the Red Sea to the Baltic had not only 
humbled the pride of Buonaparte, but excited him to feelings 
of the bitterest animosity and revenge. Camps were formed 
opposite to the British coast : one at Ostend, a second 
between Gravelines and Dunkirk, and a third at Boulogne. 
Added to these martial demonstrations, great activity pre- 
vailed along the Dutch and Flemish shores, as well as on the 
part of France, whose naval force combined with that of 
Spain, now amounted to a fleet of no less than fifty-two ships 
of the line, lying in the harbour of Brest. 

The people of England generally entertained very little 
apprehension with regard to the accomplishment of the 
threatened invasion, yet those who were in power, and moving 
in the best informed circles, were certainly not at all indif- 
ferent to the matter. Lord Nelson and others high in the 
Naval service of the country, participated in this alarm, and 
from a letter addressed by Mr. Windham to Lord Eldon, and 
published in Mr. Twiss's Life^ of the Chancellor, he seems to 
have entertained serious apprehensions as to the possibility of 
its accomplishment, and under these impressions no precautions 
were omitted to be taken for the safety of the country. The 
spirit of patriotism combined with military ardoui', and the 
general heroism of the British nation displayed in so remark- 
able a manner on this occasion, served doubtless to repress 
any feelings of terror that might otherwise have prevailed, 
and a great and just confidence was placed in the national 
courage and resources of the country. Lord Pelham, then 
one of the Secretaries of State, issued a circular at the end 
of July to the Lord Lieutenants of counties, communicating 

' Vol. i. p 391. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 127 

to them, " that the naval and military preparations, carried 
on in the ports and on the coasts of France and Holland, 
had of late been pursued with increasing activity ; and sig- 
nifying his Majesty's earnest wish that the several corps of 
volunteer cavalry and infantry throughout the kingdom, 
might be kept in a state of immediate service." The extent 
of and alacrity with which this summons was obeyed, was a 
glorious exhibition of British patriotism. The whole country 
answered to the call, and constituted a body not only ade- 
quate to all the purposes of defence, but one capable of 
exhibiting and exercising the utmost defiance. The whole 
coast was effectually guarded, and a chain of vessels stretched 
across the extent of the Channel. The preparations at Bou- 
logne by the French were of a formidable description : a 
large army being there assembled, and a flotilla collected. To 
this point, therefore, attention was particularly directed ; and 
for the arrangements necessary to be made on this occasion. 
Lord Nelson was consulted, and appointed to the command 
of a force consisting of frigates, brigs, and other smaller 
vessels, between Orfordness and Beachy Head. Admiral 
Lutwidge had at this time the command in the Downs : but 
Nelson's was to be confined to the specific object of watching 
the enemy on different parts of the coast in the Channel, and 
of making defence against any attack that might be contem- 
plated. The following were the instructions received by 
Lord Nelson on this occasion : — 

" By the Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord 
High Admiral of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, &c. 

*' Whereas intelligence has been received that considerable 
preparations are making by the enemy on different parts of 
the coast between Dieppe and Ostend, and that a great num- 
ber of boats and other craft, calculated for the reception of 
troops, have been collected, particularly at Boulogne and 
Calais, for the purpose of making a descent on some part of 
this country ; and whereas by our Commission bearing date 
the 24th instant, we have appointed your Lordship Com- 



128 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

mander-in-chief of a squadron of his Majesty's ships to be 
employed on a particular service, intending to place under 
your orders the ships of war and craft described in the 
inclosed list, and such others as may hereafter be sent to you, 
to be employed in the defence of the mouths of the Thames 
and Medway, and all that part of the coasts of Sussex, Kent 
and Essex comprised between Beachy Head and Orfordness ; 
your Lordship is hereby required and directed to proceed 
without delay to the Nore, and hoisting your flag on board 
either of the said ships or vessels that you may find there, 
carry these our orders, and such farther orders and instruc- 
tions as we may judge it necessary to give you, into exe- 
cution. 

" On your arrival at the Nore, you will communicate with 
Vice-Admiral Graeme,^ and infoiin yourself from him of the 
an-angements he has already made, and the various orders 
and instinictions which have been given by him to the several 
Captains and Commanders of the ships and vessels appointed 
for this particular service, and having gained such informa- 
tion as you may be able, you are to lose no time in satisfying 
yourself how far the officers so employed are conducting 
themselves in obedience to those instructions, and whether 
the ships and vessels are in all respects fitted, stored, and 
manned for the performance of the service for which they are 
designed. 

" And whereas the Corporation of Trinity House has placed 
a proper number of vessels at the buoys and beacons in the 
Channels leading to the Thames and Medway for the purpose 
of sinking or destroying them, in the event of the approach of 
the enemy, and one of its officers to superintend and direct 
the proceedings of the persons employed on that service ; 
your Lordship is to arrange such a plan with the officer so 
employed as may in your opinion be most effectual for that 
purpose, and in the event of his finding it necessary to cut 
away and sink the beacons and buoys, to place such craft on 

' This officer distinguished himself when Captain of the Preston in Sir Hyde 
Parker's action with the Dutch squadron off the Dogger Bank, in 1781, on which 
occasion he lost an arm. He lived to attain the rank of Admiral of the Red, and 
died in 1818. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 129 

the shoals as may be requisite for securing to us the advan- 
tage of the navigation. 

" And whereas it is judged expedient that some of the ships 
and vessels under your Lordship's command should be placed 
in the different channels for the purpose of more effectually 
obstructing the passage of the enemy into the Thames or 
Medway, your Lordship is to consider of the stations the 
best adapted to that purpose, and so station any of the ships 
and vessels under your command that may be best calculated 
for that purpose in such channels, giving their Commander 
the necessary instructions for the regulation of their conduct 
under the different circumstances that may arise ; and in 
order the more fully to explain our ideas to your Lordship 
on this head, we annex a chart, shewing the disposition made 
of the force employed for the same purpose in the year 
1798, with copies of instructions given to the Commanders 
of some of the ships and vesssls so employed, and though we 
conceive the plan then settled generally to be well deserving 
your attentive consideration, we do not confine your Lord- 
ship to a similar disposition, intending, that you shall, after 
you have made yourself completely master of the subject at 
the spot, and taken the opinion of such persons as you may 
think it necessary to consult, adopt such plan as, upon a full 
consideration of all the circumstances, you may judge to be 
most advantageous for the public service. 

" When your Lordship shall have made your arrangements 
for defending the passages of the Thames and Medway, and 
also made a disposition as may appear necessary for the 
protection of those parts of the coast of Essex and Suffolk 
within the limits of your command, you will proceed to the 
Downs, and make such a disposition of the force intended to 
be actively employed as you may judge most advisable for 
blocking up or destroying, if practicable, the enemy's vessels 
and craft in the ports wherein they may be assembled, or if 
they should be able to put to sea, for destroying them : in 
the former case your Lordship will have the advantage of no 
less than seven bomb vessels, which will be prepared in all 
respects for service with all possible expedition, but which 
ought not to be brought into action until, after visiting the 

VOL. II. K 



130 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. IV. 

coast of France, your Lordship shall be satisfied that they 
can be employed with eflfect : in the latter case it must be 
obvious to your Lordship that by attempting to capture the 
numerous vessels and craft of the enemy, the object will be 
totally defeated, and therefore some expedient must be found 
if they cannot be destroyed, of effectually disabling them, 
and rendering them incapable, by depriving them of the 
means of pursuing any direction, they would be likely to take 
even for the purposes of reaching the nearest shore. 

^^We have ordered the Amazon to be prepared for the 
reception of your Lordship's flag the moment she shall arrive 
at the Nore, but before she can be ready for that purpose, or 
indeed at any time hereafter, your Lordship will feel yourself 
at full liberty to hoist it on board any other ship or vessel of 
your squadron, and proceed from time to time to those parts 
either of the coast or of this country within the limits of your 
station as you may judge most convenient to enable your 
Lordship to execute the important service entrusted to your 
care. 

" And whereas Admiral Dickson has ordered his Majesty's 
ship Ruby to be placed in Hosely Bay for the purpose of 
defending that part of the coast, your Lordship is at liberty 
to send any orders or instructions to her Commander that 
you may judge necessary, until we shall be able to make such 
an addition to your force as to enable you to station a proper 
ship in that bay in her stead. 

" When your Lordship shall have arranged the whole of 
your plan, you are to transmit a copy thereof to our Secre- 
tary for our information, and acquaint us, through him, from 
time to time of your proceedings, and of all occurrences which 
may take place that may be worthy of our knowledge. 

" Given under our hands the 26th July, 1801. 

" St. Vincent. 
'^T. Troubridge. 
''J. Markham. 

" To the Right Hon. Lord Viscount Nelson, K.B. 
Vice- Admiral of the Blue, &c. &c. &c. 

" By command of their Lordships. 

"Evan Nepean.'' 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 131 

Lord Nelson hoisted his flag aboard the frigate L'Unite at 
Sheerness on the 27th of July, and on that day wrote to 
Lady Hamilton : — 

" Sheerness, July 27th, 1801, 
" My dearest Emma, 

" My flag is flying on board the Unite frigate. She will 
probably go to the Nore to-morrow, as the wind is easterly. 
It is lucky I followed my plan of coming by land instead of 
water, for it would have taken me two days. If I have any 
ship fit to sail with me on Wednesday, certainly I shall go 
either for Margate or towards Hosely Bay. Coffin does not 
return till Wednesday, therefore Parker and myself are alone, 
and we have enough to do. To-day I dine with Admiral 
Graeme, who has also lost his right arm, and as the Com- 
mander of the Troops has lost his leg, I expect we shall be 
caricatured as the lame defenders of England. 

^' Remember me affectionately to my charge, to my father, 
brother, &c. Say all that is proper to them, and also to the 
good Duke, and Lord William, and ever believe me, 
"■ Yours affectionately, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

"A little tired." 

Many officers were anxious to be with Lord Nelson on 
this service. To Lady Hamilton he writes : — 

"July 28th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
'^ Ten thousand thanks for your affectionate letter. At 
this moment I could do nothing with volunteer Captains, 
having no post to give them. Should the enemy really 
approach;, the country must have their services, and I should 
be glad to have on that occasion our friend Bowen. I have 
many offers on that head, but Bowen may rely, if any come 
to me, that he shall. My time is so fully employed, that I 
am not able to get off my chair. I can only say, that I am 
as ever, 

" Yours, 

"■ Nelson and Bronte. 



132 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. IV. 

'^ I dine at the Admiral's, who seems a good man. It 
blows hard. If the Dutch mean to put to sea, this is their 
time. How vexed I am at the Spaniaids being able with 
impunity to come before Gibraltar, and to protect the French 
ships. Parker desires his compliments, and shall expect 
your letter to-morrow.^^ 

"July 29th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
*' Your letter of yesterday naturally called forth all those 
finer feelings of the sort which none but those who regard 
each other as you and I do can conceive, although I am not 
able to write so well, and so forcibly mark my feelings as you 
can. Not one moment I have to myself, and my business is 
endless. At noon I set off for Faversham to arrange the Sea 
Fencibles on that part of the coast ; at nine o'clock I expect 
to be at Deal to arrange with Admiral Lutwidge various 
matters ; and to-morrow evening, or next day morning, to sail 
for the coast of France, that I may judge from my own eye, 
and not from those of others. Be where I may, you are 
always present to my thoughts — not another thing, except 
the duty I owe to my country, ever interferes with you. 

" Yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

" In about five days I hope to be again upon some part of 
the English coast. You shall hear from me every day if 
possible. I have not rose from my chair since seven this 
morning. A post chaise is at the door. Best regai'ds to my 
father, brother, Mrs. Nelson, the Duke of Queensberry, Lord 
William Gordon, &c." 

" Deal, July 30th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" Having finished all my business at Sheerness yesterday 
at one o'clock, I set off" for Deal, calling on my way at Faver- 
sham, in order to examine into the state of our Sea Fencibles 
at that place, and on that part of the coast I found that 
reception which I have been so used to, and it seemed the 
general opinion, that if I was authorised to say to the seamen 
on that coast that it Mas necessary for them to embark on 



I 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 133 

board our floating batteries, that they would go on the assu- 
rance, that when the danger was passed, they should be landed 
at their homes again, for the expression was that they never 
believed the thing serious until I was appointed to this com- 
mand. However, unless the matter comes closer, I hope 
the Admiralty will not make me speechifyer ;^ but the fact is, 
the men are afraid of being tricked. At nine o'clock I got 
to Admiral Lutwidge, not having tasted a morsel since seven 
in the morning. At ten we supped. The Admiral and his wife, 
Parker, myself, and Captain Bazeley.- My flag was hoisted 
this morning in the Leyden, 64, which ship, if the surf will 
allow me, I shall be on board of to-morrow morning. I have no 
bed, but that does not matter, although I shall doubtless have 
much envy against me, yet I wish to shew good people that 
they have not mistaken their man. This service must soon be 
over, I have sent for the Medusa frigate, in which ship I mean 
to go over to the coast of France ; it is William Cathcart's^ 

> In his letter to Earl St. Vincent (July 30) he says, that he had desired a Mr. 
Salisbury to meet him, as he was a person of respectability, rich, (got it by fair 
trade) and of great influence amongst the seafaring men on that part of tlie coast, 
particularly about Whitstable. " I made him (says he) sensible of the necessity 
of our ships, which were to be stationed off the sand-heads being manned. He 
thought, if the Admiralty, through me, gave the men assurances that they should 
be returned to their homes, when the danger of the invasion was passed, that the 
sea folk would go ; but that they were always afraid of some trick ; this service, 
my dear Lord, above all others, would be terrible for me : to get up and hai-angue 
like a recruiting sergeant ! I do not think I could get through it ; but as I am 
come forth, I feel that I ought to do this disagreeable service as well as any other 
if judged necessary." — Clarke and MciVrthur, Vol. ii. p. 294. 

^ Captain John Bazeley was the son of Admiral John Bazeley, who had seen 
a great variety of service under Sir Edward Hughes, Sir Hugh Palliser, Admiral 
Keppel, Lord Rodney, Lord Howe, and Lord Hotham. His son, mentioned 
above, was in Lord Howe's action of the 1st of June, 1794, being at that time 
Third Lieutenant of the Royal George. He served in 1795 under Lord Bridport, 
and earned the flag of Rear-Admu-al Harvey in the action ofi" L' Orient as Cap- 
tain of the Prince of Wales, of 98 guns, and was afterwards appointed to the 
Hind, and stationed in the Channel. In 1797 he joined Admiral Peyton in the 
Overyssel of 64 guns, and was at the capture of the Dutch Fleet in the Texel in 
1799. He continued in this ship until the Peace of Amiens, and was appointed 
to the command of the Sea Fencibles from the mouth of the Humber to the river 
Ouse. He was made a Post Captain in 1 794, and superannuated as Rear- Admiral, 
July 18, 1814. He was placed on the Active List a Vice-Admiral of the Blue, 
July 5, 1827, and died March 21, 1828. 

^ The Hon. Captain William Cathcart, eldest son of Lord, afterwards General 
Earl Cathcart, died of the yellow fever at Jamaica, June 4th, 1804, when in 
command of the Clarinde, being then only twenty-two years of age. 



134 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

ship you know. Captain Gore^ of the Amazon, is not yet 
arrived in England. Reports are so vague, that it is difficult 
to say whence this host of thieves is to pour forth. Your 
letters are gone to Sheerness, and I shall be deprived of the 
pleasure of receiving them till to-morrow. 

" Yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

" When you write to Sir William" say every thing which 
is kind, also to my father, Mrs. Nelson, the Duke, Lord 
William Gordon, who I shall always esteem amongst my 
truest friends. Pray have you heard of any house from Mr. 
Christie? I am very anxious to have a home where my 
friends might be made welcome. Coffin charged me to say 
how sorry he should be to lose your good opinion, and that 
he never failed calling." 

Captain Parker describes to Lady Hamilton the manner in 



' Captain John Gore was the son of Major Gore, many years Governor of the 
Tower of London, and a brother of Brigadier- General Gore, who nobly fell at 
Bergen-op-Zoom in 1814. He was made Lieutenant in 1789 on board the Victory 
with Lord Hood, and was at the taking of Toulon in 1/93. He was also at the 
taking of Bastia. Engaged in a variety of services, but of no great importance, 
he was made a Post Captain in 1794, and was appointed to Le Censeur of 74 guns. 
In conveying a convoy home, he fell in with a French squadron vmder Admiral 
Richerry, of six ships of the line, besides frigates, and was compelled to surrender 
after sustaining a very severe fire. He regained his liberty in 1796, and was 
appointed to the Triton of 32 guns, in which he cruised against the French 
privateers. In October, 1799, he was at the capture of the Santa Brigida from 
Vera Cruz, bound to Old Spain, and received as his share of prize-money, on this 
occasion, upwards of ^^40,000. sterling. In 1801 -he was appointed to the 
Medusa, under the orders of Lord Nelson. In 1803 ne was again employed, 
and sent to the Mediterranean. On the 5th October, 1804, he shared in another 
capture of three Spanish frigates laden with specie and valuable merchandize, and 
in November took another vessel laden with quicksilver. He received the honour 
of Knighthood in February, 1805, and took the Marquis of Comwallis to India, 
and had the melancholy task of bringing home the remains of this nobleman 
in the Medusa, which made the extraordinary passage of 13,831 miles in 84 days. 
In 1806 he was appointed to the Revenge, of 74 guns, and subsequently com- 
manded the Tonnant of 80 guns, having been engaged in treating with the Spanish 
Commissioners at Cadiz in 1808. He was made a Rear- Admiral, December 4, 
1813, and sent to the Mediterranean. In 1815 he was made K.C.B. and appointed 
Commander-in-chief in the Medway. He died August 21, 1836, having attained 
the rank of Vice-Admiral of the Red. 

* Sir William was at this time on a tour. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 135 

which Lord Nelson was received, and the activity of his pro- 
ceedings upon his arrival, in the following letter : — 



"Deal, July 30, 1801. 

"My Lady, 

" I hope Lord Nelson has told you how busily I have been 
engaged ; if not, you must believe me when I say nothing 
could have prevented my acknowledging the receipt of your 
very kind and affectionate letter before. He is, thank God, 
extremely well, and in good health. We got down to Sheer- 
ness very quick and well, and were received by the accla- 
mations of the people, who looked with wild but most 
affectionate amazement at him, who was once more going to 
step forward in defence of his country. He is the cleverest 
and quickest man, and the most zealous in the world. In 
the short time we were at Sheerness, he regulated and gave 
orders for thirty of the ships under his command, made every 
one pleased, filled them with emulation, and set them all on 
the qui vive. How, what, I feel when I reflect how warmly 
I am attached to so great and noble a patron ; but I fear I 
am a little envied. 

" We arrived at Deal last night, and this morning the flag 
was hoisted on board the Ley den, but it is to be removed to 
the Medusa, and she is now in sight coming in. I believe 
we shall then take a peep at them on the coast of France, and 
see what can be done. 

"Not a word of little Horatia. You don't mean to 
mention her for sixteen years I suppose. 

" Pray send him cream cheese, and whatever you can get 
you think he likes, and / will cut it up.^ I hope you M'ill 
write to me often, as nothing can flatter or please me more, 
and beheve me, my Lady, your ever obliged and grateful 
servant, 

" E. T. Parker. 

" Remembrances to Mrs. Nelson and Charlotte." 



' Extract of a letter from Lord Nelson to Lady Hamilton : — "Parker sits nest 
me to cut my meat when I want it done." 



136 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

TO LADY HAMILTON. 

"Deal, July 31, 1801. 
" My dearest Emma, 
" My time is truly fully taken up, and my head aches 
before night comes. I got to bed, last night, at half- past nine ; 
but the hour was so unusual, that I heard the clock strike 
one. At this moment, I see no prospect of my getting to 
London; but, very soon, the business of my command will 
become so simple, that a child may direct it. What rascals 
your post-chaise-people must be ! They have been paid every 
thing. Captain Parker has one receipt for seven pounds odd, 
and I am sure that every thing is paid ; therefore do not pay 
a farthing. The cart- chaise I paid at Dartford. Give ten 
thousand kisses to my dear Horatia. I did not get your 
newspapers ; therefore, do not know what promise you allude 
to : but this I know, I have iione made to me. The extension 
of the patent of peerage is going on ; but the wording of 
my brother's note, they have wrote for a meaning to. The 
patent must be a new creation. First, to my father, if he 
outlives me ; then to William and his sons ; then to Mrs. 
Bolton, and her sons ; and Mrs. Matcham, and hers. Farther 
than that I care not ; it is far enough. 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" I have failed for poor Madame Brueys. Buonaparte's 
wife is one of Martinique, and some plan is supposed to be 
carried on."^ 

At this time Nelson received the following compliment from 
the Committee of Lloyds : — 

"Lloyd's, July 30th, 1801. 
" My Lord, 

" Fortunately I have had an opportunity of getting ac- 
quainted with the manner that your Lordship acquired your 
last very severe illness, the consequences of which might have 
been so fatal to the country in the loss of so very valuable a 
life as that of your Lordship. 1 informed the Committee for 
the sufferers of the glorious action at Copenhagen the par- 
ticulars, and they have directed me to inform you that they 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 43. 



1801.J LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 137 

have voted five hundred povmds to be laid out m plate, in 
such a manner as you will please to direct, as a small token 
of their gratitude for the extraordinary exertions of your 
Lordship in that ever-memorable victory. 
" I am, my Lord, 

" With the utmost respect, 
" Your most obedient humble servant, 

"John Julius Angerstein. 

" Lord Viscount Nelson, and 
Duke of Bronte, K.B. 
&c. &c. &c. 

" p. S. The Committee have voted £60 per annum Long 
Annuities to Mrs. Mosse^ and her children, and £500 to Sir 
T. B. Thompson.^2 

The 1st of August must, of necessity, as the Aimiversary 
of the Battle of the Nile, have been a day dear to Nelson's 
remembrance. He wrote to Lady Hamilton thus : — 

" Medusa at sea, between Calais and Boulogne, 
August 1, 1801. 

*'When I reflect, my dearest Emma, that for these last 
two years on this day we have been together, the thoughts, 
and so many things rush into my mind, that I am really this 
day very low indeed, even Parker could not help noticing it, 
by saying, * on this day you should be cheerful,' but who 
can tell what passes in my mind — yes, you can, for I believe 
you are feeling as I do. When I was in the bustle, perhaps 
I did not feel so strongly our separation, or whether being at 
sea makes it appear more terrible, for terrible it is. My heart 
is ready to flow out of my eyes ; but we must call fortitude 
to our aid. I did not intend to have sailed until this morning, 
but at ten last night we had intelligence that the enemy were 
come out of Boulogne. I put to sea of course, but as yet 
have not been able to get off Boulogne. I send you one 
receipt for money paid Mr. Dean, and although I have 
no receipts for the other journey, you may rely that by 
James, Captain Parker says, they were each paid before I ever 
took a chaise a second time. It only shews what rascality 
there is moving — always get a receipt, and every now and 

^ The widow of Captain Mosse, who fell in action on the 2nd of April. 
^ This oflScer lost a leg on the same occasion. 



138 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

then a receipt in full, or one day or other you will be ruined. 
Consider how you are at the mercy of all your servants. 

" August 2nd. I am going this morning to take a look at 
Boulogne, and shall then send over a cutter with this letter. 
Many of the officers here think that the enemy are afraid we 
have some design of invading their coast, for they are erecting 
many new batteries on this part of their coast. Be that as 
it may, in a very short time we shall be so well prepared, that 
our sea officers wish they may come forth. I have not had a 
letter from you since Wednesday — I only mention this to 
shew you, that although we may write every day, yet they 
cannot always be as regularly received. I am not unwell, but 
I am very low. I can only account for it by my absence 
from all I hold dear in this world. Captain Gore is very 
good and kind to me, and your nephew Cathcart bears a very 
high character as a seaman and an officer, although he cer- 
tainly does not possess the graces. To Mrs. Nelson say every 
thing which is kind, and to the Duke and Lord William. 

*' Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte." 

And on the 3rd off Boulogne : — 

" OflF Boulogne, August 3rd, 1801. 
" My dear Emma, 

" The wind is too far to the northward to allow our bombs 
to go on the coast this morning, or some of the rascals should 
repent their vapouring nonsense. I believe my head will be 
turned with wTiting so much as I am forced to do. You 
may assure our friends that between Dieppe and Dunkirk I 
will insure them from any invasion for the present. The 
French had better be damned than to allow us to catch them 
three miles from their own ports. Your dear letters of the 
1st I received at eight o'clock last night. Best regards to all 
our friends. 

" Yours, 

*' Nelson and Bronte." 

He now resolved on making an attack upon the enemy, 
and at break of day, on the 4th, began to throw bombs and 
shells into Boulogne harbour. Ten vessels were by these 
means disabled, and five sunk. Nelson upon this, though 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 139 

undecisive effect, remarked that it would " serve to convince 
the enemy that they could not come out of their harbours 
with impunity/' 

"Medusa, off Boulogne, August 4th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" Boulogne is evidently not a pleasant place this morning. 
Three of their floating batteries are sunk ; what damage 
has been done to the others, and the vessels inside the pier, 
I cannot say, but I hope and believe that some hundreds of 
French are gone to hell this morning ; for if they are dead 
assuredly they are gone there. In tire or out of fire I am, 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" Tell the Duke and Lord William that the embarkation 
of the French army will not take place at Boulogne. Beyond 
this I cannot say. In my visits to the bombs in my barge, 
my friends think the French have been very attentive to me, 
for they did nothing but fire at the boat and the different 
vessels I was in, but God is good.'' 

" Medusa, off Calais, 7 o'clock, August 4th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" Your kind and affectionate letters up to yesterday are all 
received. Ten times ten thousand thanks for them, and for 
your tender care of my dear little charge Horatia. I love her 
the more dearly, as she is in the upper part of her face so like 
her dear good mother, who I love, and always shall with the 
truest affection. I am on my way to Ostend and Flushing, and 
shall probably be off Margate on Friday. Captain Gore is 
very kind and good to me, for I must be a great plague to 
him. I have to thank him even for a bed. I have only one 
moment to write this, as Admiral Lutwidge sent his own boat 
with my letters of this day's post. Best regards to Mrs. 
Nelson, kind love to Horatia, and believe me, 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" This goes through my kind friend. Admiral Lutwidge 
I wrote to you to-day through Troubridge." 



140 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

"Medusa, August 5th, 1801. 

'' My dearest Emma, 
*' There is not in this world a thing that I would not do to 
please my deai'est friend, but you must not take things amiss 
that never were intended. I know not that I wrote to my 
father more news than to you ; in fact, I know not my own 
movements, they are as uncertain as the wind. I can always 
tell you where / am when I write, but at what spot where 
letters may find me is impossible. I intend going towards 
Flushing, from thence towards Margate, Hosely, or Harwich ; 
but if I was to die for it, I cannot tell which. I really wish 
you would buy the house at Turnham Green. I have £3000. 
which I can pay in a moment, and the other I can get with- 
out much difficulty. It is, my dear friend, extraordinary, 
but true, that the man who is pushed forward to defend his 
country, has not from that country a place to lay his head in ; 
but never mind, happy, truly happy, in the estimation of such 
friends as you, I care for nothing. How great has been Sir 
James Samaurez's success !^ From my heart I rejoice. The 
Spaniards will never surely go to sea again. My command 
is only against small craft, therefore small must be my 
services in the taking and destroying way, but you know I 
will not be inactive. I hope soon to be able to get to London 
for a day or two, at least I will try. Make my best regards 
to jVIrs. Nelson, the Duke, and Lord William. 
" Ever yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte.'' 

" Medusa, back of the Goodwin Sands, 
August 6th, 1801. 

^' My dearest Emma, 
*' The wind being easterly, and the Sea Fencibles not being 
so forward as I could wish them, I have deferred my visit to 
Flushing until they are embarked, and our floating batteries 
placed in the places assigned them. All your dear kind 
letters received yesterday made me much better, for I was 
not quite so well as when in London. 1 could not drink 
Champagne, a sure sign that all is not right ; but indeed I 

' His celebrated victory off Algeziras. 



1801,] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 141 

am not to call ill, but sometimes the exertion of my mind is 
beyond the strength of my body. I hope you will be able to 
get the house at Turnham Green, either to hire or buy. 
Shall I desire my lawyer to call and talk to you, if you think 
it will suit me, and he shall hire or purchase it, Messrs. 
Booth and Haslewood, No. 4, Craven Street, Strand, I 
really want a house. I am grieved to hear you complain. — 
Keep well, get well, for the sake of all your friends, and for 
the sake of none more than 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" The Guardian Angels, although lying by in their cases, 
are not hung up in this ship. Best regards to Mrs. Nelson, 
the Duke, and Lord William .^^ 

Of the proceedings off Boulogne (which certainly were not 
deserving or rather demanding the service of an officer of 
the rank and importance of Nelson) he writes on the 5th to 
his Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence : " The whole of 
this business is of no farther moment than to shew the 
enemy, that, with impunity, they cannot come outside their 
ports." The operations of the 4th were noticed by Nelson 
in laudable terms : " Lord Nelson has reason to be very 
much satisfied with the Captains of the bombs, for their 
placing of the vessels yesterday. It was impossible that 
they could have been better situated ; and the artillery officers 
have shewn great skill in entirely disabling ten of the armed 
vessels out of twenty-four opposed to them, and many others 
Lord Nelson believes are much damaged."^ 

On the 6th he directed the following to Captains Shield,^ 
Hamilton," Schomberg,^ and Edge^ : — 

' To the Squadron. See Naval Chronicle, Vol. vi. p. 160. 

' Captain William Shield acquired a notoriety from an action brought against 
bim, and tried before Lord Chief Justice Loughborough in the Court of Common 
Pleas, in 1792, in which Mr. Leonard, the plaintiff', complained of an assault 
and violence offered to him in consequence of the disobeyance of an order of 
Captain Shield, at that time Lieutenant of the vSaturn of 74 guns. The usage of 
the service was proved, and the thirty-sixth naval article of war authorized 
Lieutenant Sliield in the measure he had adopted, and the jury gave a verdict in 
his favour accordingly. The Court, moreover, finding that a spirit contrary to 
the maintenance of good discipline prevailed among the Midshipmen of the 



142 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

" Medusa, August 6th, 1801. 

" As there can be no doubt of the intention of the French 
to attempt the invasion of our country, and as I trust, and 

London and Edgar, submitted to the Admh-alty the propriety of trying Mr. Moore 
of the London, for the same, as a necessary means of preserving good order, and 
preventing improper combinations. The trial took place, and Mr. Moore was 
sentenced to one month's imprisonment in the Marshalsea. Mr. Shield was pro- 
moted to the rank of Commander, in La Sincere of 20 guns, one of the Toulon 
prizes, and he afterwards commanded the Berwick, and also the Windsor Castle. 
He was made a Post Captain in 1794. In 1795 he commanded the Audacious, 
and was present at the destruction of L'Alcide off Frejus, July 13th, 1795. 
He was then employed in the Southampton under Lord Nelson's orders, harassed 
the enemy on the coast of Genoa, and co-operated with the Austrian army en- 
camped at Sarone. After this service he was appointed to L' Unite in the North 
Sea, was with Nelson off Boulogne, and in 1805 commanded the Illustrious, of 74 
guns, on the coast of Spain. In 1807 he was made Naval Commissioner at 
Malta, then appointed to superintend the payment of ships afloat at Portsmouth, 
thence transferred as Commissioner of the Cape of Good Hope, after which 
he was placed at the Navy Board. In 1814 he was made Deputy Comptroller of 
the Navy, and in the following year Resident Commissioner at Plymouth. He 
retired as Rear- Admiral, January 9, 1829 ; was placed on the Active List, as Ad- 
miral of the White, November 12, 1840 ; and died June 25, 1842. 

* Sir Charles Hamilton, Bart, is lineally descended from the Earl of Mallent, 
in Normandy, whose nephew is celebrated in history for the part he took at the 
Battle of Hastings. The Captain above mentioned is the son of Sir John 
Hamilton, Bart, who acquired his Baronetcy for his conduct during the siege of 
Quebec, where he commanded the Lizard frigate, and was born August 25, 1767. 
He sei-ved as a Midshipman with his father, on board the Hector in 1776, and 
afterwards studied at the Royal Naval Academy at Portsmouth. He was made 
Lieutenant of the Tobago on the Jamaica station. He was made a Post Captain 
November 22, 1790, having previously been elected M.P. for St. Germains in 
Cornwall. He afterwards represented Honiton in Devonshire, and Dungannon 
in the County of Tyrone. Upon the commencement of the Revolutionary War 
in 1793 he was appointed to the Dido of 28 guns, and cruised off Norway, and 
then with Lord Hood at Corsica Upon his return to England in 1794 he was 
appointed to the Melpomene, and remained in the command of that vessel up- 
wards of seven years. He was engaged under Admiral Mitchell in the expedition 
against the Helder, at the blockade of Amsterdam. In 1800 he had the chief 
command on the coast of Africa, and took possession of Porto Praya. In the Ruby 
he commanded the Sea Fencibles at Harwich. In 1802 he acted as Commissioner 
at Antigua in the West Indies, and in the following year commanded the 
Illustrious of 74 guns, in the Channel fleet. In 1809 he obtained a Colonelcy of 
the Marines; in 1810 was made a Rear-Admiral, and Commander-in-chief in 
the Thames, and in 1814 was advanced to the rank of Vice-Admiral. In 1818 
he was made Commander-in-chief and Governor of Newfoundland, and returned 
to England in 1822. He is the present senior Admiral of the Red, and K.C.B. 

^ Captain Isaac Scliomberg was made a Post Captain, November 22, 1790. 
He was in Lord Rodney's action in 1782, and commanded the Culloden in 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 143 

am confident, that if our sea-faring men do their duty, that 
either the enemy will give over the folly of the measure, or, 
if they persist in it, that not one Frenchman will be allowed 
to set his foot on British soil ; it is, therefore, necessary that 
all good men should come forward on this momentous occa- 
sion to oppose the enemy, and, more particularly, the Sea 
Fencibles, who have voluntarily enrolled themselves to defend 
their country afloat, which is the true place where Britain 
ought to be defended, that the horrors of war may not reach 
the peaceful abodes of our families. And as the Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty have been pleased to appoint 
me to command the sea defence of Great Britain, within the 
limits of your district, it is my duty to request that you will 
have the goodness to acquaint all the Sea Fencibles under 
your command, and all other sea-faring men and fishermen, 
that their services are absolutely required at this moment on 
board the ships and vessels particularly appointed to defend 
that part of the coast where the enemy mean to attempt a 
landing, if unopposed. 

" I am authorized to assure the Fencibles, and other sea- 
faring men who may come forward on this occasion, that 
they shall not be sent off the coast of the kingdom, shall be 
kept as near their own houses as the nature of the service 
will admit, and that the moment the alarm of the threatened 
invasion is over, that every man shall be returned to their 
own homes; and also, that during their continuance on 
board ship, that as much attention as is possible shall be 
paid to their reasonable wants. And I flatter myself, that at 
a moment when all the volunteer corps in the kingdom are 

Lord Howe's action of the 1st of June, 1794. He was appointed to the Com- 
mand of the Sea Fencibles at Hastings. He was afterwards made a Deputy 
Comptroller of the Navy, which he resigned, and had a seat given to him at the 
Navy Board. He published the Naval Chronology, an useful work. He died 
at his house in Cadogan Place, January 20, 1813. 

^ Captain William Edge, a Captain of the Royal Hospital at Greenwich, to 
which he was appointed in 1809 ; was made a Commander in the Alert, a French 
brig taken at Toulon and fitted as a fire-vessel. He honourably distinguished 
himself in this dangerous service under Sir Sidney Smith upon the evacuation of 
Toulon. He was afterwards appointed to the Vulcan fire-ship, and thence re- 
moved to the Prince George of 98 guns, in which he was present at the attack 
on the French fleet off L'Orient in 1795. On the 29th of June, 1795, he was 
made a Post Captain, and appointed to the Sea Fencibles between Harwich and 
Yarmouth, aud thus came under Lord Nelson's command. 



144 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

come forward to defend our land, that the seamen of Great 
Britain will not be slow to defend our own proper element, 
and maintain as pure as our glorious ancestors have trans- 
mitted it to us, our undoubted right to the Sovereignty of the 
Narrow Seas, on which no Frenchman has yet dared to sail 
with impunity. Our country looks to its Sea Defence, and 
let it not be disappointed. 

^' I shall send cutters to bring the Sea Fencibles, and other 
sea-faring men to me, in order that I may dispose of them 
in the way most proper for the defence of our King and 
Country, and, at the same time, in the most commodious way 
to the men themselves. 

'^ Nelson." 

To Lady Hamilton he writes : — 

" Medusa, Margate Roads, 
August 7th, 1801. 
*' My dear Emma, 
" I arrived here yesterday evening, and received your kind 
letters from the Downs of the 5th. I am vexed such a 
racket should be made of these trifling things — consider, 
that when I do my utmost they are boats of fifty or sixty 
tons ; but I ever have done my best. I grieve, my dear 
Emma, to hear you are unwell. Would I could do anything 
to comfort you ; try and get well. We shall all meet at 
Naples or Sicily one of these days. I thank Castelcicala for 
his affectionate note, and send him an answer. To-morrow 
morning I go over to Hosely Bay or Harwich, to see what is 
to be done with the Sea Fencibles on that coast. I have given 
directions to Captain Gore (or rather requested) not to let 
any body come into the ship but who had business with me, 
for the Medusa would be full from morning till [night]. 
Fifty boats, I am told, are rowing about her this moment, to 
have a look at the one-armed man. I hope Reverend Sir will 
be satisfied with the new patent, as it is taken from Hilbo- 
rough on purpose to please hun, and if I leave none, he must 
breed stock from his own place. A letter to-morrow will 
find me at either Hosely or Plarwich, perhaps Troubridge 
will send it for you. With my best regards to Mrs. Nelson, 
and the Duke, and Lord William, believe me, 

" Ever yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 145 

" Captain Gore is very good to me, for I must be a great 
plague to him. Parker is very well, and much to do. I de- 
livered your message to Allen. He says he has no fear for 
his wife whilst she is with you." 



"Medusa, August 7th, 1801. 

" My dear Emma, 
'^ Pray send good Castelcicala's letter. My mind is not so 
perfectly at ease as I wish it, but I hope by your next letters 
I shall be made better. To our friends say every thing 
which is kind. 

" Ever yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte." 

The following is the Prince Castelcicala's reply to the letter 
above alluded to : — 

"London, August 8th, 1801. 

" My noble and revered Friend. 
" I received your obliging and friendly reply, and perceive 
the goodness of heart of the incomparable friend and hero, 
whose modesty renders him superior to all others with whom 
I am acquainted. There cannot be another Nelson in the 
world. I shall inform the King and Queen of what you have 
written to me respecting them with so mvich solicitude. My 
patrons owe you so many, and such great obligations ; they 
love and venerate you so perfectly, that they experience the 
highest gratification in your triumphs, and in being constantly 
remembered by you. I hope you will soon bring your 
enemies here to reason, and that then you will be able to 
proceed to save the Sicilies a second time. I beg you to 
accept my unbounded thanks for what your goodness induces 
you to write to me. Permit me, my dear and worthy Lord, 
to solicit care and attention to yourself, to avoid exposing a 
person precious to all the world, to your country, to the Two 
SiciHes, to your affectionate friends, amongst whom I beg you 
to believe me the warmest, for none can put a higher value on 
your friendship, and the opinion you deign to entertain of 

vol. II. L 



146 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [chAP. IV. 

me ; believe me until my latest breath, penetrated with enthu- 
siasm and respect, with gratitude and friendship, 
"• Your grateful, respectful, 

" and obsequiously attached, 

"Castelcicala. 

*' My wife begs to present her best compliments to you." 

" To his Excellency, 
Lord Nelson, Duke of Bronte." 

From Margate Roads Lord Nelson wrote to Earl St. Vin- 
cent respecting the Sea Fencibles, and received the following 
reply :— 

" My dear Lord, 

" I have to thank your Lordship for the continuance of 
your correspondence, touching the arrangement and disposi- 
tion you have made of the Sea Fencibles, the whole of which 
will be left to your judgment, as it is fitting it should, from the 
unbounded confidence we repose in you, I am very sorry 
they do not turn out in greater numbers ; it is understood 
here that they entered into a written engagement, which is 
supposed to be in the hands of the Captains, and we conclude 
has been communicated to you. 

"The public inind is so very much tranquillized by your 
being at your post, it is extremely desirable that you should 
continue there ; in this opinion, all his Majesty's servants, 
with Sir Thomas Troubridge, agree ; and happy as I should 
be to see you, let me entreat your Lordship to persevere in 
the measures you are so advantageously employed in, and 
give up, at least for the present, your intention of returning 
to town, which would have the worst possible effects at this 
critical conjuncture. I will explain further when we meet. 
De Ruyter was intended to be placed under your command, 
and orders will be sent for that purpose ; heartily hoping you 
are recovered from the fatigue you have undergone, believe 
me to be, 

' ' Most affectionately yours, 

" St. Vincent. 

"Admiralty, August 8th, 1801." 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT IVELSON. 147 

Off Yarmouth on the 9th Nelson wrote to Lady Hamilton: — 

" Medusa, Harwich, August 9th, 1801. 

'' My dearest Emma, 

" I find from Lord St. Vincent that even my quitting my 
post at this moment would create an alarm, therefore I must 
give it up ; but, my dear friend, the time will come when I 
am more at liberty. I hope that you and Sir William will 
come and see me when I can get a little more stationary, 
for at present I am running to every port. To-morrow I 
intend to go to the Nore, and from thence to Margate, perhaps 
the Downs, or over the water, not to fight, I have no such 
thing at this moment in my head. Times are when it is 
necessary to run risks : I do not mean myself, for I should 
be very sorry to place any one where I would not wish to be 
myself; but my flotilla must not be wantonly thrown away, 
I reserve them for proper occasions. I wish, my dear Emma, 
that my name was never mentioned by the newspapers ; it 
may create poor Nelson enemies, not that I care, only that I 
hate to be praised except by you. My conduct at this time 
of service, is not to be altered by either praise, puffs, or 
censure. I do my best, and admit that I have only zeal to 
bear me through it. Thank our excellent friend. Lord 
William, for his new song — the last seems always the best. 
How is the Duke ? I saw Sir Edward Berry last night : he 
inquired after you kindly. We only got the Medusa into 
Harwich at noon. I have been in a cutter since six o'clock ; 
apropos, I have seen Captain Dean, late of the King George 
packet. You may remember the other cutter which conveyed 
us over ; she was dismasted on the Sunday, and very near 
sinking. We had a good escape. Make my best regards to 
Mrs. Nelson, and believe me, 

" Yours, &c. 

^'Nelson and Bronte. 

" I passed close to our Baltic friends yesterday ; sent a 
boat aboard the St. George, got a letter from Hardy, a nod 
from George Murray, &c. &c." 

" Medusa, Harwich, August 10th, 1801. 
" My dearest Emma, 
" Your letter from Margate I received last night, and those 
from the Downs yesterday morning. Although I cannot get 

L 2 



146 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

to London yet, I hope that the business of the house will go 
on. I should think the purchase would be the best, then 
I should collect all my little matters together. Having 
arranged all my business here, at noon I am going to the 
Nore. I may be there two days, but it is impossible to say. 
I wish I could fix any time or place where I could have the 
happinesss of meeting you, but in my vagabond state I fear 
it is impossible. I think 1 could have come to London for a 
day, to arrange about the house, without any injury to the 
King's service ; but patience, my dear Emma, and be assured 
I am, 

"Yours, &c. 

"Nelson and Bronte. 
'* Best regards to the Duke, Lord William, Mrs, Nelson, 
and all our real friends." 

" Sheerness, August 1 1th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma^ 

" I came from Harwich yesterday noon ; not having set 
my foot on shore, although the volunteers, &c. were drawn 
up to receive me, and the people ready to draw the carriage. 
Parker had very near got all the honours. 

" I came on shore ; for my business lays with the Admiral, 
who lives in a ship hauled on shore, and the Commissioner. 
Slept at Coffin's : and having done all that I can, am off for 
the Downs, to-day if possible. 

" As far as September 14th I am at the Admiralty's disposal, 
but, if Mr. Buonaparte does not choose to send his miscreants 
before that time, my health will not bear me through equi- 
noctial gales. I wish that Sir William was returned ; I 
would try and persuade him to come to either Deal, Dover, 
or Margate ; for, thus cut off from the society of my dearest 
friends, 'tis but a life of sorrow and sadness, but yatienza 
per for z a ! 

" I hope you will get the house. If I buy, no person can 
say, this shall or shall not be altered ; and you shall have the 
whole arrangement. Remember me most kindly to Mrs. 
Nelson, the Duke, Lord William. Write to me to the 
Downs. 

"Nelson and Bronte. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 149 

'' The Mayor and Corporation of Sandwich, when they 
came on board to present me with the Freedom of that 
ancient town, requested me to dine with them, I put them 
off for the moment, but they would not be let off. There- 
fore, this business, dreadful to me, stands over, I shall be 
attacked again when I get to the Downs. But I will not 
dine there, without you say approve ; nor perhaps then, if I 
can get off. Oh ! how I hate to be stared at."^ 

Off Margate Nelson wrote to the Premier : " In my com- 
mand, I can tell you with truth, that I find much zeal and 
good humour; and should Mr. Buonaparte put himself in 
our way, I believe he will wish himself even in Corsica. I 
only hope, if he means to come, that it will be before the 
14th of September, for my stamina is but ill suited for equi- 
noctial gales and cold weather.^' On the 12th he wrote to 
Lady Hamilton : — 

"August 12th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" You must know me well enough that even when I can- 
not fully repay an obligation, yet I always wish to do something 
which may at least mark my gratitude, so is my situation 
with Captain Gore. I therefore wish you to order for me a 
piece of plate, value £50, in order that I may leave it as a 
memento that I am not insensible of his kindness to me. He 
is very rich, therefore, I must take care not to offend. He 
has every thing except a silver urn or tea-kettle and lamp, 
I think the latter a useful piece of plate, and will come 
to about the sum. I propose to have wrote on the kettle, 
' From Vice-Admiral Viscount Nelson, Duke of Bronte, to 
Captain John Gore, of His Majesty's ship Medusa, in grati- 
tude for the many acts of kindness shewn him when on board 
the Medusa in August, 1801 -' and let it be done as soon as 
possible, as I expect about next Tuesday to leave this ship 
and go into the Amazon. Have it dii'ected for me at Deal, 
and a bill sent with it ; but if, my dear Emma, you think any- 
thing else more suitable of the same value, be so good as to 
order it. 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 47. 



150 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

" That beast, Allen, ^ has left behind, or lost all my 
papers, but I have sent him after them, and he is such a no- 
torious liar, that he never says truth — no, such is his delight 
in lying that even to do himself good he cannot resist the 
pleasure he has in telling a lie, for I asked him in the boat for 
my red case, as I did not see it. His answer was, ' Sir, I put 
it in the stern locker.' I then desired him to take particular 
care in handing the case up the side, when he knew perfectly 
well that he had not put it in the boat, and as all my things 
were brought by him from Coffin's house to the landing-place 
I never expect to see it more. There is £200 in it, and all 
my papers. Huzza f Huzza ! What a beast he is, but I 
trust more to other people's honesty than his cleverness. He 
will one day ruin me by his ignorance, obstinacy, and lies. 

" I am pushing for the Downs, but whether I can stay one 
day or two is impossible to say, but it shall not be long before 
we meet. As for going out of the kingdom without seeing you, 
nothing shall prevent me ; I would sooner give up my com- 
mand. We are just off Margate, and I think one of my 
vessels may save post. I send it under cover to Sir Thomas 
Troubridge. 

" Ever yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte.'* 

On the 13th, he wrote many letters: two to Lady Hamil- 
ton, one to Earl St. Vincent, another to Mr. Nepean, and one 
also to Mr. Davison. 

"Medusa, DownSj August 13th, 1801. 

*' My dearest Emma, 
" I have received all your truly kind and affectionate letters, 
and you may rely it is not my fault that I cannot get to Lon- 
don to see you and Mrs. Nelson ; but I believe it is all the 
plan of Troubridge, but I have wrote both him and the Earl 
my mind. But ' Cheer up, fair Emma,' cheer up, then I 
shall be better to hear you are so, for I would not give a 
farthing for friendship that could be in good health when the 
friend of ray heart is sick. I have had a fever all night, and am 

' His old servant. 



ISOl.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 151 

not much better this morning. I am going to-morrow morning 
over to the French coast, therefore you may be one day with- 
out hearing from me ; but I assure you, my dear friend, that 
/ am going into no danger. The services on this coast are 
not necessary for the personal exertions of a Vice-Admiral, 
therefore, I hope that will make your dear good friendly heart 
easy, you would naturally hate me if I kept back when I 
ought to go forward — never fear, that shall not be said of me. 
I find both at Harwich and Margate that they are disap- 
pointed at my not going on shore ; the whole gentry of the 
country came to see me just as I came away, but a Sir 
George Murray, a very loyal gentleman, related to Princess 
Augusta,^ came near Margate in a Custom House cutter to 
see me. I was in hopes to have seen Lord William. Re- 
specting Banti's son I will ask Captain Gore to take him, 
and I should hope he would not refuse me, or I will take him 
into the Amazon, and fix him with Captain Sutton, and 
under Robert Walpole's eye, who is Lieutenant of her. Get 
the lad ready and send him to me. Whatever I can do you 
may command, for yours are acts of kindness. Look out for 
a house for me (to buy, if you like it), but have a dry situa- 
tion. 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" I have received, I believe, every letter and paper. Never 
ask the question, do they bore me ? All others do most dam- 
nably. Yesterday I received more than one hundred. Pray 
write me everything and of everybody — all you say must be 
most interesting to your, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" Allen is returned with my case.^* 

"Downs, August 13th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
'^ Your letters to-day make me happy. Thank Mrs. Nel- 
son for the perusal of Mrs. Whitens letter. She is a woman 



' Lady Augusta Murray, who was married to His Royal Highness the Duke of 
Sussex. 



152 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

of sense. I send you a letter from Mrs. Cannon. I suppose 
I must give her the money. What can I do, but it must be 
as you please. Keep it secret, I will send an order by return 
of post, if you choose, and you shall write her a kind letter. 
My head is split. 

" Ever yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" Send me a translation of the Queen's letter. Must I 
write ? I shall write to General Jerningham." 

To Earl St. Vincent he sent the Reports of the Sea Fenci- 
bles Captains, and asks, " Where, my dear Lord, is our 
invasion to come from ? The time is gone ; owing to the 
precautions of Government, it cannot happen at this mo- 
ment, and I hope that we shall always be as much on the 
alert as our enemies." He then goes on to the consideration 
of an attack : " Flushing (says he), is my grand object; but 
so many obstacles are in the way, and the risk is so great of 
the loss of some vessels, that, under all cu-cumstances, I could 
hardly venture without a consultation with you, and an 
arranged plan, with the Board's orders."^ 

The Rev. William Nelson never let slip an opportunity of 
soliciting preferment. He applied in eveiy quarter to pro- 
mote his object. The following was addressed by him to 
Lady Hamilton : — 

"Hilborough, August 13th, 1801. 

" My dear Lady, 
" If London, the capital and metropolis of this great em- 
pire, which is herself able, single and alone, to keep the rascally 
French villains at bay, cannot aiford a subject for a letter, 'tis 
no wonder that such an obscure village as this cannot. In- 
deed, the truth is, there is but one object, both here and 
there, that engrosses our w'hole thoughts and soul, and him 
we can for ever dwell upon. Pray God continue to protect 
and preserve him. The greatest comfort we have in the 
country is in the abundant crops of all kinds of corn we are 
now blessed with, and the extreme fine weather to get in the 

» Clarke and McArthur, Vol. ii. p. 298. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 153 

harvest. I think things must be cheaper very soon ; hops 
are so plentiful, that what was sold last year for £16, are now 
offered only at £5, and of best quality, so that your friend, 
Tim Brown, must let us have some of his best brown stout 
considerably cheaper. 

" I was told yesterday by a person who lately came from 
Exeter, that Dr. Harward, the Dean, is eighty years old, and 
is lately grown very infirm. If a vacancy should happen 
there, it would be a most desirable thing if Mr. Addington 
would make me Dean of Exeter, 'tis about seven or eight 
hundred pounds a-year, and a good house and pleasant town 
and country, nothing could scarce be better of the sort, and 
is one of the things I desired my brother to mention to him, 
only you know Mr. Addington at that time could not be 
pinned down to anything. But now we have secured the 
Peerage, we have only one thing to ask, and that is, my pro- 
motion in the Church, handsomely and honourably, such as 
becomes Lord Nelson's brother and heir apparent to the 
title. No put off with small beggarly stalls. Mr, Addington 
must be kept steady to that point. I am sure Nelson is 
doing everything for him. But a word is enough for your 
good sensible heart, so I remain, 

" Your most affectionate and obliged friend, 

"William Nelson." 

Lord Nelson was far from well during this service. He 
writes : — 

"Medusa, at sea, August 14th, 1801. 
" My dearest Emma, 
"The fever which I had seems fallen in my head, which is 
much swelled, and my poor teeth pain me very much. I fear 
my letter will not be in time for the post to-day, and to- 
morrow likewise, the winds and tides fall out so cross that the 
vessels cannot get over the same day, therefore, do not expect 
one ; you know I will write and send over if it is possible, but 
W,e cannot command the winds and the waves. Do not be 
uneasy about me, as I told you yesterday there is at this mo- 
naent no service for a Vice- Admiral j but, my dear Emma, your 



154 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

good heart fancies danger for your friend, and a more true- 
hearted one does not exist than 

" Your faithful, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" I am obliged to send off the cutter, and have not a 
moment. The cheese arrived safe and excellent. Send to 
some good wine merchant for three dozen of the best cham- 
pagne, and order to the Downs by waggon, directed on board 
the Amazon, or I shall have nothing to give you, and that 
would be shameful in me who receive all good things from 
you.^' 

Contemplating the intended attack, Lord Nelson writes 
thus : — 

" Medusa, off Boulogne, August 15 th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
•' From my heart I wish you could find me out a good 
comfortable house, I should hope to be able to purchase it. 
At this moment I can only command £3000 ; as to asking 
Sir William, I could not do it, I would sooner beg. Is the 
house at Chiswick furnished ? if not, you may fairly calculate 
at £2000 for furniture, but if I can pay, as you say, by little 
and little, we could accomplish it. Be careful how you trust 

Mr. ; all must be settled by a lawyer. It is better to 

pay £lOO, than to be involved in law. I am ver}' anxious 
for a house, and I have nobody to do any business for me but 
you, my dear friend. If Davison was in town, I would get 
him to look about, and settle all the law business for me ; 
but as to a house, you are an excellent judge, only do not 
have it too large, for the establishment of a large house would 
be ruinous. As you may believe, my dear Emma, my mind 
feels at what is going forward this night ; it is one thing to 
order and arrange an attack, and another to execute it ; but 
I assure you I have taken much more precaution for others, 
than if I was to go myself — then my mind would be perfectly 
at ease, for after they have fired their guns, if one half the 
French do not jump overboard and swim on shore, I will 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 155 

venture to be hanged, and our folks have only to go on, never 
think of retreating. This will not go away till to-morrow. 
Many poor fellows may exclaim, Would it were bed-time, and 
all were well ; but if our people behave as I expect, our loss 
cannot be much. My fingers itch to be at them. What 
place would you like to come to, Margate or Deal? Dover, 
I fear, would be inconvenient ; Hosely Bay would be also 
the same. As for having the pleasure of seeing you, that I 
am determined upon. I am fagging here, and perhaps shall 
only get abuse for my pains to be half ruined in my little 
fortune, but rich or poor, believe me, 

" Ever yours, 

'^Nelson and Bronte." 

On this day he drew up the plan of attack on the enemy's 
flotilla at Boulogne, and dispatched memoranda for the ships. 
The first division was to be under the command of Captain 
Somerville/ the second under Captain Parker,- the third 
under Captain Cotgrave,^ and the fourth under Cajitain 
Jones.^ There was also a division of howitzer-boats under 
Captain Conn.^ Each division was to be subdivided into 
two, and to be made fast to 'one another as close as possible. 
The utmost silence was to be preserved, and the oars were to 
be muffled. The boats were to be manned at half past ten, 
and at eleven they were to sail, upon a signal of six lanterns 
hung over the guns of the Medusa, Nelson's vessel.^ The 

' Captain Philip Somerville was a Post Captain of April 29, 1802. 

' Captain Edward Thornborougli Parker. 

' Captain Isaac Cotgrave was made a Post Captain in 1802. He was upwards 
of fifty years in the service, and many years Agent for French prisoners at Ply- 
mouth, where he died in 1814. 

'' Captain Richard Jones was a Lieutenant on board the Defence at the Battle 
of the Nile, and was made a Commander upon that victory. After commanding 
the Diligence sloop-of-war, he was appointed to the Sea Feucibles in the Cliepstow 
district. He was made a Post Captain, April 29, 1802, and died December 11, 
1829. 

* Captain John Conn was a Post Captain in 1802. He commanded the 
Dreadnought at the Battle of Trafalgar, and was afterwards appointed to the 
Swiftsure, from which vessel, whilst in chase off the Bermuda Islands on the 4th 
of May, 1810, he fell overboard and was drowned. 

® See Appendix No. 1, for the rough draft of the Plan of attack. The altera- 
tions in the wording of it are very few, and the whole marks tbe genius of Nelson 
for the service, displaying an attention to the minutest details. 



156 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. IV. 

watchword was Nelson, and the answer Bronte. The 
attack was unsuccessful. The flotilla could not be brought 
out of the mouth of the harbour. Great bravery was dis- 
played by the officers and men employed, and the loss was 
severe. The flotilla, brigs, and flats, were moored by the 
bottom to the shore, and to each other by chains, and our 
force was severely injured by the firing of musketry from the 
shore. In this attack, Captain Parker, one of Nelson's 
greatest favourites, received a shot in the thigh, shattering it. 
He was saved from being killed or taken prisoner, by the 
Honourable Mr. Cathcart, for every man in Parker's boat 
was either killed or wounded, and his boat had drifted along- 
side a flat full of men. Parker's condition excited Nelson's 
deepest commiseration — he truly loved him. In his account 
to Mr. Nepean, at the Admiralty, he says : — " Amongst the 
many gallant men wounded, I have, with the deepest regret, 
to place the name of my gallant, good friend and able 
assistant. Captain Edward T. Parker, also my Flag Lieu- 
tenant Frederick Langford,^ who has served with me many 
years ; they were wounded in attempting to board the 
French Commodore." The following letters will shew the 
deep interest he took in the fate of his friend and aide-de- 
camp : — 

" Medusa, August 16th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" You will be sorry to hear that dear little Parker is 
wounded, but the doctors assure me he will do well. Langford 
has his leg shot through, but will do. The damned French had 
their vessels chained from the bottoms to the shore, and also 
to each other; therefore, although several of them were taken, 
yet they could not be brought off. They will not unchain 
them for us to catch them at sea. The enemy have lost 
many men, so have we, about 100 killed and wounded. 
Nobody acquitted themselves in every respect better than 
Cathcart ; he saved Parker from being a prisoner, Parker 
shewed the most determined courage; so did Langford. 

' Lieutenant Frederick Langford died at Jamaica in 1815, being tlien in com- 
mand of the Cydnus. He was made a Commander in 1801, but was not posted 
until 1806. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 157 

You will believe how I am suffering, and not well into the 
bargain, Troubridge has wrote me such letters, that I do 
not know if I shall ever write to him again. It is all his 
doing, my not coming to London. I shall be two days in 
the Downs, but it is just at Sir WilHam's arrival. How I 
envy him the sight of your blessed face ! and probably I shall 
be gone before you can come. I have no friend but one, as 
I wrote Troubridge ; that is you, good, dear, disinterested 
Emma. I am agitated, but believe me, 

" Yours, 

*• Nelson and Bronte. 

" This letter will be opened to a certainty, to hear news 
from Boulogne.'^ 

" Medusa, Downs, August 17th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" Your kind letter of Saturday I received last night, and I 
regret that I cannot find a house and a little piece of ground, 
for if I go on much longer with my present command, I must 
be ruined. I think your perseverance and management will 
at last get me a home. I am now likely to be here till 
Thursday. I wish Sir William had been either at home or 
not coming. Perhaps you, my excellent friend, and Mrs. 
Nelson, might have come down to Deal ; how happy you 
would have made me, but I hope to get in again somewhere 
after this next trip, and by that time Sir William will have 
arranged his affairs in London. As for Troubridge, never 
send a letter through him. I shall never write to him again 
unless his letters are done away. I am no longer useful, and 
we know, ' No longer pipe, no longer dance.' The Admiralty 
are beasts for their pains ; it was only depriving me of one 
day's comfort and happiness, for which they have my hearty 
prayers. Parker will do well, I hope, but he must be kept 
very quiet; his thigh is broken in three places, but as he has 
youth, the doctors hope it will unite ; it is the only chance 
he has. Langford is suffering very much. I have sent and 
taken lodgings for them both, and I trust they will get well 
as fast as I wish them. Now we shall see whether the 



158 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

Admiralty will again neglect me, or whether officers and men 
who serve \uider me are to be neglected. We all dine at the 
Admiral's to day, and sleep on shore, contrary to my inclina- 
tion; but Captain Gore has requested it, that the ship 
may be cleaned and purified, for the wounds smell very bad, 
and they cannot begin to wash till Parker and Langford are 
removed out of the cabin. To-morrow morning I will be on 
board again, Mr. Pitt is coming to Walmer Castle. If he 
asks me to dinner, I shall go to Sandwich ; at present I shall 
not think of it. What pleasure can I derive from it ? Re- 
member me to Sir WilUam. I wish you were here. 

'* Ever 3^ours, 

'* Nelson and Bronte. 

'' To Mrs. Nelson, the Duke, and Lord William, say every 
thing which is kind. How can the Duke think you would 
take his house ? Never." 

Parker wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 

" Deal, August 18th, 1801. 

" My Lady, 
" Your letter has made such strong impressions on me, 
that I hardly know how my feelings allow me to answer, but 
still I must, as long as nature allows me to hold a pen. To 
call me a Nelsonite is more to me than making me a Duke : 
oh God, how is it possible for me ever to be sufficiently 
thankful for all his attentions ! He is now attending me with 
the most parental kindness, comes to me at six in the morn- 
ing and ten at night ; both late and early his kindness is 
alike. God bless him and preserve him. I would lose a 
dozen limbs to serve him. Thank Mrs. Nelson for me. 
Excuse me> for I am tired, and believe me, 

'* Your most grateful servant, 

"E.T.Parker." 

In communicating the approval of the zeal and courage of 
the squadron by the Lords of the Admiralty, Nelson assures 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 159 

them, " that the enemy will not have long reason to boast of 
their security ; for he trusts ere long to assist them in person 
in a way which will completely annihilate the whole of them. 
Lord Nelson is convinced, that if it had been possible for 
man to have brought the enemy's flotilla out, the men that 
were employed to do so would have accomplished it. The 
moment the enemy have the audacity to cast off the chains 
which fix their vessels to the ground, that moment Lord 
Nelson is well persuaded they will be conducted by his brave 
followers to a British port, or sent to the bottom." He 
burned with anxiety for an attack in which he might per- 
sonally partake. He was desirous of attacking the enemy at 
Flushing ; he even contemplated a bombardment of Calais. 
To Earl St. Vincent he says, " I own I shall never bring 
myself again to allow any attack to go forward, where I am 
not personally concerned ; my mind suffers much more 
than if I had a leg shot off in this late business. I am 
writing between poor Parker and Langford ; therefore I 
must beg great indulgences, only believe that I will do my 
utmost."^ 

This service was considered by many as of too petty a de- 
scription for an officer of Lord Nelson's rank and character 
to be employed upon ; but it was undertaken at the request 
of the Hon . Mr. Addington, to satisfy the British people, and 
subdue the alarm entertained by many at Buonaparte's 
threats of invasion. Nelson was not a man to cavil at a 
service when an opportunity offered by which he could benefit 
his country. Although his attack on the Boulogne flotilla 
was unsuccessful in its object, it failed not to demonstrate 
the utter futility of all attempts at invasion. M. Thiers 
says, that the confidence of the English in the enterprising 
genius of Nelson, was greatly diminished by the failure of his 
attack ! " La confiance des Anglais dans le genie entrepre- 
nant de Nelson etait fort diminuee.''- The best refutation 
of this is to be found in his subsequent career, and the un- 
bounded attachment and admiration entertained for him by 
the whole British nation. 

' Clarke and Mc Arthur, Vol. ii. p. 301. 
* Hist, du Consulat. torn. iii. liv. xi. p. 175. 



160 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

On tlie 18th he wrote to Lady Hamilton: — 

" Dealj August 18th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" I have this morning been attending the funeral of two 
young Midshipmen : a Mr. Gore, cousin of Captain Gore, 
and a Mr. Bristow.^ One nineteen, the other seventeen 
years of age. Last night I was all the evening in the hos- 
pital, seeing that all was done for the comfort of the poor 
fellows. I am going on board, for nothing shall keep me 
living on shore without you were here. I shall come in the 
morning to see Parker, and go on board again directly. I 
shall be glad to see Oliver : I hope he will keep his tongue 
quiet about the tea-kettle, for I shall not give it till I leave 
the Medusa. You ask me what Troubridge wrote me ? 
There was not a syllable about you in it. It was about my 
not coming to London, at the importance of which I laughed : 
and then he said, he should never venture another opinion. 
On which I said, " Then I shall never give you one.' This 
day he has wrote a kind letter, and all is over. 

" I have, however, wrote him in my letter of this day as 
follows, viz. : — 'And I am this moment, as firmly of opinion 
as ever, that Lord St. Vincent, and yourself, should have 
allowed of my coming to town, for my own affairs ; for every 
one knoics I left it without a thought for myself.' But this 
business cannot last long, and I hope we shall have peace ; 
and I rather incline to that opinion. 

" I hope, my dear Emma, you will be able to find a house 
suited for my comfort. I am sure of being happy by your 
arrangements. I have wrote a line to Troubridge about 
Darby. Parker will write you a line of thanks if he is able. 
I trust in God he will yet do well ! You ask me, my dear 
friend, if I am going on more expeditions ? And even if I was 

' These two poor fellows were Midshipmen in the Medusa. Mr. Gore was a 
son of Lieut. -Colonel Gore, and only in his 16th year. In attempting to board 
the enemy he was wounded by no less than five musket balls. They were buried 
at Deal in one grave. Lord Nelson and eight Captains of the Navy attending the 
funeral. His Lordship's sensibility was freely expressed on this occasion by a 
flow of tears. A file of marines preceded the bodies, and three volleys were fired 
over the place of their interment. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 161 

to forfeit your friendship, which is dearer to me than all the 
world, I can tell you nothing. For, I go out ; if I see the 
enemy, and can get at them, it is my duty, and you would 
naturally hate me if I kept back one moment. 

" I long to pay them for their tricks the other day, the 
debt of a drubbing, which surely I will pay : but when, where, 
or how, it is impossible, your own good sense must tell you, 
for me or mortal man to say. 

" I shall act not in a rash or hasty manner, that you may 
rely, and on which I give you my word of honour. Just 
going off. 

" Ever your faithful, 

" Nelson and Bronte."' 

And on the 19th: — 

"Deal, August 19th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" Oliver came on board about two o'clock this morning 
with young Banti, who you may be assured I will take every 
possible care of. I have all your truly kind and affectionate 
letters by Oliver, and also those by the post to-day. You 
may rely, that as soon as I can with honour get clear of this 
business, I shall resign it with pleasure; but if I was to give 
it up at this moment, you would hate me. The whole history 
must be over by the 14th of September, if not, I will certainly 
think of giving the command up ; but as I have had all the 
fag, and what is to come must be playful compared to what 
has passed, I may as well have the credit of finishing this 
business. I think it very probable I shall never personally 
be engaged, therefore, my dear Emma, do not let your dis- 
interested friendship make you uneasy. How often have I 
heard you say, that you would not quit the deck if you came 
near a Frenchman. Would you have your attached friend do 
less than you purpose for yourself? That I am sure you 
would not. In these bombardments there is no risk for my 
rank, therefore I pray be quiet. I have wrote Sir William a 
letter, which you will see ; he was so good as to write me one 
from Milford on the 12th, by a Revenue cutter, which arrived 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. ii. p. 48. 
VOL. II. M 



162 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

this morning. I had a note from Mr. Trevor ;^ he is at 
Ramsgate ; he was saihng about Avith Mrs. T., but did not, 
he says, come near the sliip, as he heard I had been unfor- 
tunate. I write a line to Mrs- Nelson. I am sure she will 
not leave you. I will entreat it of her. I am sure the kettle 
is all right, and as it should be ; I shall leave it packed 
with a letter to-morrow. I expect the Amazon ; but all my 
movements are uncertain ; but this is the most likely place 
to find me. The Three Kings I am told is the best house 
(it stands on the beach), if the noise of the constant surf 
does not disturb you. Dear Parker is much better. I 
am sure he will be much gratified with your uniform kind- 
ness. When I left him to go on board yesterday, for I would 
not stay on shore, he got hold of my hand, and said he could 
not bear me to leave him, and cried like a child. However, 
I promised to come on shore this morning to see him, and 
nothing else could have got me out of the ship, for this beach 
is very uncomfortable to land upon. Oliver will tell you 
that I have been to the hospital to see my poor fellows, and 
altogether it has almost upset me, therefore I have not wrote 
so much as I should. Forgive me, and believe me, 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" Your interest with Sir William is requested to come and 
see a poor forlorn sailor .'' 

" Medusa, Downs, August 20th, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend,'' 
*' I approve of the house at Merton ; and as the Admiralty 
are so cruel (no, I never asked the Board of Admiralty), as 
Troubridge and the Earl are so ci'uel as to object to my 
coming to London to manage my own matters, I must beg 
and entreat of you to work hard for me, Messrs. Booth and 
Haslewood will manage all the law business. I have £3000. 
ready to pay to-morrow, and I can certainly get more in a 

' John Trevor Hampden, third Viscount Hampden, bom February 24, 1748-9, 
was in 1780 Minister Plenipotentiary to the Diet of Raleston ; and in 1783, to 
the Coui-t of Sardinia. He succeeded to the title upon the death of his brother, 
and with him the title has become extinct. 



i 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 163 

little time if the people will have patience, therefore pray, 
dear Emma, look to it for me. I shall approve your taste. 
How often have I, laughing, said I would give you £500. to 
furnish a house for me — you promised me, and now I claim 
it ; and I trust to your own dear good heart for the fulfilment 
of it. I Avrote Sir Thomas Troubridge that I had but one 
I'eal friend ; his answer was, that he knew 1 had a hundred, 
but I do not believe the ninety-nine. It is calm, and our 
men are not arrived, therefore cannot go to sea this day. 
How happy I shall be to see you, Sir William, and Mrs. 
Nelson here, and how dear Parker will be delighted. He is 
much better to-day. I went on shore one minute to see 
him, and returned instantly on board. Captain Gore told 
me that Mr. and Mrs. Trevor had been alongside, inquiring 
for me ; that he had asked them to dinner, and that they 
would call again, so alongside they came. Captain Gore 
told them he was afraid he had done wrong, for that I was 
very busy ; upon this Mr. Trevor came into the cabin, and 
begged pardon, but asked for Mrs. Trevor and two ladies to 
come in. My answer was, for being acquaintances of yours. 
Yes, if they wished to see the ship ; but that I really could 
not allow them to stay dinner, for that every moment of ray 
time was taken up. I did not go upon deck to receive them. 
They stayed ten minutes, inquired after you and Sir William, 
hoped you would come down and stay at Ramsgate, and away 
they went, making many apologies. I told him no other 
person should have come in, but for old acquaintance sake I 
could not refuse him. The other ladies were a Lady Some- 
body, and a Mrs. Somebody. I neither know or care for 
their names. Make my kindest regards to Sir William, Mrs. 
Nelson, the Duke, and Lord William. I think if you will 
take the trouble for my house you will have country em- 
ployment enough without going to Richmond, where you 
never can do as you please. 

" Ever yours, 

"■ Nelson and Bronte.'' 

About this time, Captain, now Sir Alexander John Ball, 
Bart., wrote to Lord Nelson : — 

M 2 



i64 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

" Minorca, August 17th, 1801. 

" My clear Lord, 

" Our friend Hallowell, who has had the misfortune to be 
captured by Gantheaume's squadron, is arrived here, and will 
proceed immediately to England, where on his arrival he will 
pay his respects to your Lordship, and communicate the 
many interesting naval and military operations which have 
been transacted since you left us, and he will assure you of 
the ardent wish of the navy to see your Lordship command 
once more in these seas. 

" I inclose a copy of a letter from Lord Hobart ( Secretary 
for Foreign affairs),^ expressing his Majesty's approbation of 
my conduct at Malta, and that he is pleased to give me a 
thousand pounds for my loss of prize money. Had I not 
landed at Malta, your Lordship would have given me the 
same friendly protection and advantage which you gave to 

' " Downing Street, May 15th, 1801. 
" Sir, 

" I have to acknowledge your several letters to Mr. Dundas, of the dates men- 
tioned in the margin, and to express the great satisfaction which his Majesty's 
confidential servants have received from the valuable and interesting communica- 
tions they contain respecting the revenues and interior situation of the island of 
Malta. 

" I am particularly commanded by his Majesty to convey to you his entire 
approbation of your conduct during the time you exercised the Administration of 
the Island, as a testimony of vt'hich, it is with very sincere pleasure that I have to 
inform you his Majesty has been graciously pleased to confer upon you the dignity 
of a Baronet of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 

" With respect to the loss of Prize Money which you have sustained, by ceasing 
the command of the Alexander, you will, I am sure, on reflection, be aware of 
the great inconvenience that would arise from entertaining so delicate a question, 
by the numberless applications of different cases to which it might give rise. 
His Majesty, however, on a consideration of the peculiar circumstances of your 
situation, has been pleased to give directions that the sum of one thousand pounds 
shall be paid to you from the revenues of Malta ; and you may rest assured that 
you will be included in the distribution of the proceeds arising from the shipping, 
ordnance and stores captured in the ports and fortresses on the surrender of the 
island to his Majesty's arms. Whenever that distribution shall be made, the 
claims of the Neapolitan and of the Maltese troops appear to me equally entitled 
to attention, and I shall not fail to recommend them to his Majesty's favourable 
consideration. 

" I am. Sir, 

" Your most obedient humble servant, 

" HoBART." 

"To Captain Ball." 



1 



ISOl.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 165 

the other Captains, who made from eight to sixteen thousand 
pounds, while I was at Malta ; had I remained in the Alex- 
ander I should have received three thousand pounds for the 
captures made before Malta. With respect to precedent, 
Governor Phillip receives £500. a year for his services at 
Botany Bay. Lord Minto has a handsome pension. I cer- 
tainly do not put my services in competition with those of 
Sir Sidney Smith ; but when these gentlemen receive such 
handsome rewards, and I only get one thousand pounds to 
make up for the loss of several thousand pounds, I must 
think that his Majesty's Ministers do not know the diffi- 
culties I have had to encounter. They have appointed a Mr. 
Cameron Civil Commissioner of Malta, and the line is dis- 
tinctly drawn between the civil and military departments. 
This gentleman has never been in a public situation ; he is in 
distressed circumstances from a mercantile house, in which 
either he or his father was concerned, having failed. He 
married a sister of Lord ErroFs, whose interest procured him 
this situation. The Maltese are astonished at this arrana-e- 
ment, and that so little deference is paid to their wishes, and 
the great injustice done me ; particularly after Mr. Dundas's 
declaration in his letter to General Pigot, an extract' of which 
T inclose herewith. If Government suppose that the Com- 
missionership is a recompense, I shall regret having applied 
for it. I have written for leave to go to England, in the hope 
that I shall, with the assistance of my friends, obtain at least 
a full indemnification for my losses. Tyson- is still at Malta. 

' Extract of a Letter from the Right Hon. Henry Dundas, November 17, 1800, 
to Major- General Pigot. 

"The judgment and zeal with which Captain Ball, of the Royal Navy, con- 
ducted the affairs of the island, dui-ing the whole of the blockade, and tlie esteem 
and confidence which have been so justly and frequently shewn him by the inhabit- 
ants, render him in every respect a most fit person for you to consult and advise 
with as long as the duties of his profession may allow him to remain on the island ; 
and I cannot more fully explain to you how much weight is due to his opinions 
and suggestions on the subject, than by informing you that his Majesty feels so 
forcibly how very materially his indefatigable services, and superior abilities have 
contributed to rescue Malta from the French, that it is a matter of regret to his 
Majesty, that the nature of the command and government being purely militaiy, 
at least for the remainder of the war, precludes Captain Ball from retaining a 
situation adequate to his rank, and just expectations in this island." 

' Lord Nelson's Secretary. 



IG6 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

I shall join him in a few days, and then proceed to Gibraltar. 
I wrote to your Lordship about him several months since. 
I am under great obligations to him for the assistance he has 
given me, which I fear has prevented his joining your Lord- 
ship, by which he will be a great sufferer. I believe he has 
never received a line from your Lordship since your arrival in 
England. Adieu, my dear Lord. My very best respects to 
my worthy and good friends, Sir William and Lady Hamilton. 
With the greatest respect, I have the honour to remain, 
" Your most obliged and devoted, 

"Alexander John Ball." 

Merton was now an object of attention, and was ultimately 
purchased by Nelson. To Lady Hamilton he writes : — 

"August 20th, 1801. 
*' My dear Friend, 

"■ I am very much flattered by Mr. Greville's kindness, and 
the great honour he has done me, but independent of that, I 
admire his description of the rising prosperity of Milford,^ 
and the rising of its industrious inhabitants, which will make 
proprietor and tenant rich in time, and not like many fools 
be like the boy with the golden egg. I hope Grseffer is going 
on so at Bronte ; I am sure I take nothing from that estate. 
I entreat, my good friend, manage the affair of the house for 
me, and believe me, yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

" Furniture and all fixtures must be bought.'^ 

The Rev. W. Nelson wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 

" Bmnham, August 20th, 1801. 
" Your letters, my dear Madam, though they make us 
easy about my dear brother, yet make me very uncomfortable 
about poor Parker ; I hope to God his limb may be set again, 
so that he may be able in time to return to his duty, for it 
will be a wretched thing for so young a man to be set aside 
so early in life ; but God's will be done. I am glad Oliver 
is gone down to Deal, it will be a comfort to my brother. I 
shall be happy when he has done with these boat expeditions ; 

' Sir William Hamilton had much property here. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 167 

you see, nothing can be done with these rascals, they are too 
knowing : they well know nothing but iron chains will keep 
their vessels in their own ports when Nelson commands. 
Give my love to him when you write, and tell him I don't 
write to him myself, as he has so much to do, but ray regard 
and love and gratitude to him is, and always willhe, vnaUerahle. 
You say I was silly I did not press for the entail of the 
peerage on Charlotte and her heirs male, as my brother was 
half inclined ; had I known as much, I would have done it, 
for I agree perfectly with you, they don't value the thing as they 
ought ; they are a little tickled with it at first, and that is all. 
However, if he is made an Earl, then will be the time, and I 
will get you to try to have it settled on me and my heirs 
male, and failure of them, on my daughter and her heirs male, 
that will do the business at once. 

" I get on very well ; the old gentleman is pretty well, and 
seems anxious about my brother's safety. He desires his 
compliments to you, and says you promised to write to him 
if any thing particular occurred. I shall be glad to know 
when Sir William returns, on your account as well as my 
own, that you may send my dear jewel to me, for I shall be 
quite alone. I shall be home on Saturday, and expect to find 
letters. 

" Yours most faithfully and affectionately, 

''Wm. Nelson." 

The Hon. Col. Stewart's practice at Copenhagen with Nel- 
son, seems from the following letter, to have inspired him 
with the desire of having been present at the unsuccessful 
attempt upon the French flotilla at Boulogne : — 

" Weymouth Camp, August 21st, 1801. 

" My dear Lord, 
" The anxiety and interest with which I have entered into 
the spirit of your Lordship's late gallant attempt against the 
Boulogne fleet, must apologize for my intruding this letter 
upon time more seriously occupied than even the perusal of 
it can perhaps afford. I know not how it is, but some how 
or other, I do not feel comfortable at the not having requested 
your Lordship more particularly to have taken me with you, 



16S LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

on the late occasion, although out of my line immediately, and 
liable to have created jealousy had I been honoured with any 
thing like a considerable share of friendship ; be it as it may, 
I cannot read your Lordship^s letter, accompanied by our 
dear Parker's, without tears coming in my eyes, and wishing 
that I might at least have borne some share in the danger 
which surrounded that gallant young friend of your Lord- 
ship's on the late occasion. How true is it, that fortune is a 
capricious dame, and favours our attempts in this world only 
when she pleaseth. Those only who understand where to 
attach glory to the attempt and to enterprise, and not to suc- 
cess, can fully feel all that they ought to feel, or enter into 
the grandeur of the action which last Saturday night took 
place. How strongly does that admirable line in the tragedy 
of Cato come to our minds, when he says, 

' 'Tis not in mortals to command success. 
But we'll do more, Sempronius ; we'll desene it.' 

" After having been on this occasion not so fortunate as 
to have been of any use under your command, if chance or 
situation can still, my dear Lord, bring me in any manner, 
with or without mij willing felloios, into play, where you lead 
I shall be made one of the happiest of soldiers, for much as I 
before wished to accompany your Lordship, more anxious do 
I feel now than ever, since the Goddess of Fortune has 
seemed to shew an inclination to be ill-natured, and to dare 
us to still harder trials. I am an individual, who from my 
situation in life, and from my turn of feelings upon certain 
subjects, feel not perhaps more desirous to preserve myself 
beyond this war than many of my contemporary officers. 
Without being tired of the world, I, perhaps, attach not that 
idea of value to it which is so much felt, and am of that turn 
of mind which induces a man sometimes to look forward to a 
long dull and lingering decline, as in the main less enviable 
than a more rapid exit from this world, tinged with a mode- 
rate degree of honour. 

" I am doing my utmost to bring my young regiment here 
into a state worthy of being called upon by your Lordship, 
wherever their services may be useful. My Baltic party has 
at length joined me, and with heartfelt sincerity, (my friend 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 1G9 

Beckwith at their head), submit their hopes of remembrance 
to you. With the same feeling, I beg leave to subscribe myself^, 
my dear Lord, 

" One of your very faithful and humble servants, 

"W. Stewart." 

Captain Parker again wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 

"Deal, August 21st, 1801. 

" My Lady, 
" How much I feel for your goodness to me. I am as well 
as the nature of my wounds will allow, and eat and drink all 
the Doctors will let me. I have strong hopes from what my 
dear Lord says, that I shall see you all down on his return. 
What a joy that will be. I dare say I shall be half well by 
that time. Langford is much obliged to you ; he is upon the 
mending hand, and I hope will soon be well. Companions 
in misfortune are not desirable. I was afraid my friend, my 
nm-se, my attendant, my patron, my protector, nay, him 
whom the world cannot find words sufficient to praise, would 
have sailed ; but he is not yet gone. Remember me most 
affectionately to Sir William, with every thing you can say 
kind and grateful to Mrs. Nelson, and believe me your Lady- 
ship's grateful and obedient servant, 

" Edward T. Parker. 

"■ Thank you for your plan about the letters. I wish the 
newspapers did not say so much ; they are too lavish a great 
deal, they do nothing but cut and shoot, and everything that 
is dreadful." 

And Nelson : — 

" Medusa, August 22nd, 1801. 

" My dear Emma, 
" I shall try and get this letter through Troubridge, but 
one day he is angry and another pleased, that, to say the 
truth, I do not wish to trouble any of them. I have been 
sea-sick these last two days, and I should die to stay here one 
quarter of the winter. God knows w^hether those fellows will 
try and come over, I can hardly think they are fools enough. 
You may rely, my dearest friend, that I will run no unneces- 
sary risk, therefore let your friendly mind be at ease. Would 



I'JQ LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

to God it were peace, and then I would go to Sicily, and be 
happy. I cannot get on shore and afloat again, the surf is so 
great, and yet I could have wished to have seen Parker, but 
nothing but necessity should have made me remain on shore, 
and if I was to go I could not get off. I expect the Amazon 
to-day, and shall get on board her, but in a very wretched 
state, for I have nothing in reality fit to keep a table, and to 
begin and lay out £500. is what I cannot afford, therefore in 
every respect I shall be very miserable. I know not why, 
but to-day I am ready to burst into tears. Pray God your 
friendly letters may arrive and comfort me. I am sure I get 
not one scrap of comfort from any other quarter. Banti seems 
stout, and will, I dare say, do very well. He is not sea-sick, 
which I am — that is very odd, and I am damned sick of the sea. 
This moment I have your letters, and although I rejoice from 
my heart that you are coming, yet I am fearful I shall not be 
here by Wednesday night, but I hope on Thursday, or Fri- 
day at farthest. The three rooms next the sea are all sitting- 
rooms, with a gallery before them next the sea. I will 
desire two of the rooms, if possible, for I believe, except a 
dark sitting room, they are the only rooms in the house, and 
I will desire good bed-chambers to be kept for you at an inn. 
You cannot take rooms without being in the house, for it is 
the eating and drinking that is charged, and not the rooms, 
but I am sure the house will give you accommodation, and I 
will send to say so this day. I will lose no time in returning, for 
the meeting of you and Sir William and Mrs. Nelson will be 
the day of my life, being yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

'' I send this under cover to Nepean. Your letters for 
Parker had better be directed for me at Captain Parker's, 
but explain this to him ; but the postage is nothing, therefore 
direct to him ; the cost is nothing, for I should not like my 
letters to be opened, therefore do away to him the direction 
you sent to-day. I hear he is much better to-day ; he will 
rejoice to see you. Remember me kindly to Sir WiUiam and 
Mrs. Nelson. I am glad she is coming down with you, but 
I fancy you will hate the town of Deal, at least I do at this 
moment, but I shall think it Paradise when my dear only 



ISOl.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. I7I 

friends come to it. Pray get the house and furniture. I 
have sent to pay Mr. Salter/ but I have not got the other 
bills. 

*' Medusa, Downs, August 23rd, 1801. 
Six iu the morning. 

'^ My dearest Emma. 
" I am ready to run mad, I have been at this horrid place 
one whole week, and now on the approach of my dearest 
friends am forced to go to sea and am fearful that I cannot be 
here by Wednesday night, or before Thursday or Friday at 
soonest, and I am more fearful that you will hate Deal and be 
as tired of it as I am without you. If you were here we would 
drive to Dover Castle and Ramsgate if you pleased. Poor little 
Parker cannot occupy much of your time, and Sir William 
may be so tired as to shorten his visit when I arrive, therefore 
had it not better be Friday, by which I hope to be able to 
get back, but for two or three days, when we are once afloat 
you know no one can answer, witness our voyage to and from 
Malta. We are just getting under sail. May God bless 
you and believe me, 

" Your most faithful, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

" If you are here before my arrival, and choose to be 
known to Admiral Lutwidge, he is as good a man as ever 
lived. I know very little of her ; she is a very good woman, 
bu I her figure is extraordinary. Oh that I could stay. How 
I hate going to sea. The rooms are taken, and the master of 
the inn sends me word everything shall be done. I shall send 
a cutter in two days." 

" Medusa at sea, August 24th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" So little is newspaper information to be depended upon, 
that on Thursday although with a + I was not a quarter of 
an hour on shore. I went to Parker, from him to the 
Admiral, from the Admiral to Parker, did not stay five 
minutes, was very low, did not call upon any of the wounded, 

^ The respected Silversmith in the Strand, well known to all Naval Officers. 



172 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

nor at the Three Kings, got into the boat, and have not 
since been out of the Medusa. If I had staid ashore, I should 
not have had Trevor on board. The information I have 
received about Flushing is not correct, and I cannot get at 
the Dutch ; therefore, I shall be in the Downs I trust on 
Wednesday evening, ready and happy to receive you. What- 
ever Sir Thomas Troubridge may say, T feel I have no real 
friends out of your house. How I am praying for the wind 
to carry me and to bring me to your sight. I am tired at not 
being able to get at the damned rascals ; but they are pre- 
paring against me in every quarter, therefore they cannot be 
preparing for an invasion. I agree with you, fight them if 
they come out, so I will and reserve myself for it. I believe 
the enemy attaches much more importance to my life than 
our folks, the former look up to me with awe and dread, the 
latter fix not such real importance to my existence. I send 
this under cover to Parker in case you are not come, that he 
may send it to London. I am making some arrangements 
and shall be across directly. With my kindest regards to 
Sir William believe me, 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte." 

" Medusa, Downs, August 31, 1801. 

'^ My dear Emma, 

" Sir William is arrived, and well ; remember me kindly to 
him, I should have had the pleasure of seeing him, but for 
one of imj lords and masters, Troubridge ; therefore, I am 
sure, neither you nor Sir William will feel obliged to him. 

"The weather is very bad, and I am very sea-sick. I 
cannot answer your letter, probably ; but 1 am writing a line, 
to get on shore if possible : indeed, I hardly expect that your 
letter can get afloat. 

'*I entreat you, my dear friend, to work hard for me, and 
get the house and furniture ; and I will be so happy to lend it 
to you and Sir William ! 

" Therefore, if you were to take the Duke's (Queensberry's) 
house, a cake house, open to everybody he pleases, you had 
better have a booth at once ; you never could rest one moment 
quiet. Why did not the Duke assist Sir William, when he 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. I'JB 

wanted his assistance ? why not have saved you from the 
distress, which Sir Wilham must every day feel, in knowing 
that his excellent wife sold her jewels to get a house for him ; 
whilst his own relations, great as they are in the foolish world's 
eye, would have left a man of his respectability and age, to 
have lodged in the street. Did the Duke or any of them, 
give him a house then ? Forgive me ! you know if anything 
sticks in my throat, it must out. Sir William owes his life 
to you ; which, I believe, he will never forget. 

" To return to the house. The furniture must be bought 
with it, and the sooner it is done, the better I shall like it. Oh ! 
how bad the weather is ! The devils here wanted to plague 
my soul out, yesterday, just after dinner. The Countess M., 
Lady this, that, and t'other, came alongside, a Mr. Lubbock 
with them — to desire they might come in. I sent word, I 
was so busy that no person could be admitted, as my time was 
employed in the King's service. Then they sent their names, 
which I cared not for, and sent Captain Gore, to say it was 
impossible ; and, that if they wanted to see a ship, they had 
better go to the Overyssel (a sixty-four in the Downs). They 
said, no, they wanted to see me, however, I was stout, and will 
not be shewn about like a bicist ! and away they went. 

" I believe Captain Gore wishes me out of his ship ; for the 
ladies admire him, I am told, very much : but, however, no 
Captain could be kinder to me than he is. These ladies, he 
told me afterwards, were his relations. 

"• I have just got your letters ; many thanks for them I You 
do not say in the end, Su' William is arrived. I am glad that 
you approve. You may rely, my dear friend, that I will not 
run any unnecessary risk ! No more boat work, I promise 
you ; but ever your attached and faithful, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

" To the Duke and Lord William, say everything which is 
kind ; and to Mrs Nelson. I am so dreadfully sea-sick, that 
I cannot hold up my head."^ 

Lord Nelson's father's anxiety became great on his account, 
and he wrote the following to Lady Hamilton : — 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 57. 



174 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

" Madam, 

"I heartily congratulate you upon Sir W. Hamilton's 
return from his late excursion, which I hope has firmly 
established his health. As your Ladyship flattered me with 
the favour of a letter from you, whenever any event respecting 
my dear son called forth our immediate notice, I have been 
in hope that you might tell me something more than public 
papers. His situation is more than usually dangerous, and I 
do feel much on that account, perhaps you may have seen 
him, certainly you know more of his health and movements 
than come to my ear. Anxiety is a continual smart. I am. 
Madam, with best compliments to Sir William. 

" Your obliged and obedient servant, 

" Edmund Nelson. 

'^Love to my much esteemed daughter-in-law, Mrs. Nelson." 

The parental anxiety of the Rev. Edmund Nelson also 
appears in the following letter to Lady Hamilton, who wrote 
to the venerable man : — 
" Madam, 

'* I am much favoured by your polite letter, and the very 
friendly regard with which Sir W. Hamilton and yourself 
always mention my dear son ; who is, certainly, a worthy, 
good, brave man, parental partiality apart. But I myself 
am by no means satisfied with his present situation ; as to 
its importance, its safety, or its merited rewards. It is his 
to sow, but others to reap the yellow harvest, all things, I 
trust, however, will work together for good. Captain 
Parker's misfortune, I see in every point of view, with a 
friendly concern. Langfoi'd will quickly be upon his legs. 

" Though the amusements of a dirty sea-port are not the 
most refined, good health, and domestic cheerfulness, will be 
a happy substitute. I beg the whole party to accept this my 
remembrance, and assurance of my regard, respect and love, 
and am. Madam, 

"Your most humble servant, 

"Edmund Nelson."^ 

Nelson was visited by Sir William and Lady Harnilton, 

* Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 190. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 175 

and Mrs. Nelson, (Avife of the Rev. William Nelson) towards 
the end of August. He was then very anxious about obtaining 
Merton, the price of which was to be £S000, but he was 
doubtful of his ability to purchase it. The Bronte estate was 
threatened by a considerable charge upon it, and Lord Nelson's 
agent, Mr. John Grseffer, addressed the following to Sir John 
Acton, Bart. 

" Bronte, .September 3rd, 1801. 

« Sir, 
" Your Excellency's attachment towards the welfare of my 
Lord Nelson, Duke of Bronte, has emboldened me to trans- 
mit the inclosed memorial, craving, in the name of his 
Lordship, your Excellency's assistance to ease the demand, 
so that the same may not become too great a burthen for my 
Lord Nelson to support. Permit me to have the honour 
to be, Sir, 

" Your Excellency's 
" Most obedient and most devoted, 
"Humble servant, 

"John GRiEFFER. 

" His Excellency General Sir John Acton, Bart. 
Palermo." 

SIR JOHN acton's REPLY. 

« Sir, 
" I have received your letter of the 4th instant, and what 
therein you have thought proper to acquaint me of, in regard 
to Bronte, is certainly much deserving of attention. I shall 
ever be ready to promote whatever may be useful to our 
w^orthy and most excellent Lord Nelson. I have taken his 
Majesty's order, and the Conservatore Tomasi shall settle and 
fix the military service in the proper rule, directed to avoid 
certainly that our good Admiral should not be under con- 
ditions more grievous than any other Baron in Sicily. I am 
going to Naples, but confide that every care in my absence 
shall be taken to favour the just demands in Lord Nelson's 
name. I remain constantly. Sir, 

" Your most obedient and most humble servant, 

" J. ACTON. 

" Palermo, September 15th, 1801." 



l7G LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

" The memorial transmitted to General Acton was a 
demand on your Lordship for military service ; to he better 
understood, a quota of horses for the King's military use, 
maintained at your expense, the number proportioned accord- 
ins: to the annual income of the estate, which would have 
been no less than twenty fixed for ever on the Bronte estate. 
But General Acton interesting himself in behalf of your 
Loixlship, the number, from what I can learn, is to be fixed 
either at two or three horses. 

"J. G." 

The attachment of Nelson's officers to his person, their 
desire to give him intelligence, and anxiety to be again with 
him, are shewn in the following: — 

" H. M. S. Kent, Aboukir Bay, 
4th September, 1801. 

'^ My Lord, 

" Presuming on your Lordship's attention to those who 
formerly have had the honour of serving with you, I am 
encouraged to trouble you on the present occasion. The 
surrender of Alexandria, and the entire conquest of the 
country by the exertions of our army and navy, will, I doubt 
not, afford your Lordship very great satisfaction. 

'* It has been my good fortune to render to a detachment 
of our army under Major-General Coote, a piece of service 
that has called forth the acknowledgments of the General, 
and has met with the appi'obation of Lord Keith and Sir 
Richard Bickerton ; to the latter, and to the Honourable Cap- 
tain Cochrane,^ I am under great obligations for the very 

' The Hon. Sir Alexander Forrester Inglis Cochrane was born April 23, 1758, 
entered the Navy early, and having, in 1778, attained the rank of Lieutenant, 
was made signal officer to Sir George Rodney in his action with the Count de 
Guichen in 1780, on which occasion he was wounded. In 1782 he was made a 
Post Captain, and served on the American station. In 1795 in the command of 
the Thetis, he took La Prevojante frigate with stores for France. He captured 
many American privateers, and in 1800 served with Lord Keith in the Mediter- 
ranean, and on the coast of Egypt. In 1803 he was made a Rear-Admiral. He 
joined Lord Nelson in 1805 in his pursuit of the French Fleet, and in 1806 was 
with Admiral Sir John T. Duckworth in the West Indies. In the Northum- 
berland he was engaged in the action with the squadron that had sailed from Brest, 
and had a miraculous escape, his hat being carried away by a grape shot early in 
the battle. The Corporation of Londoa voted him the Freedom of the City on 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. l77 

handsome manner they were pleased to represent my services 
to the Commander-in-chief, but excepting the zeal by which 
I was animated, I am sensible they were over-rated. The 
copies of the letters which passed on the occasion, I have the 
honour to inclose, for your Lordship's perusal, they will 
inform you of the nature and extent of the service I have 
had the good fortune to perform. It may be proper to 
observe that the survey and offer to lead his Majesty's 
ships into a harbour very little known, M^as a voluntary 
act of my own, the survey of the channels being at the 
time a service I was not employed on, or had any connection 
with. 

" Our boats had been driven from the survey of the middle 
channel by the enemy, and the Arab Pilot had refused to 
conduct the ships through any other, when it occurred to me, 
that as the enemy's attention seemed to be directed against 
the survey of the middle and eastern channels only, the 
western might be examined without being materially annoyed 
by the guns of Marabou. I was resolved to try, and was 
lucky enough to succeed in the attempt, and in consequence 
had the satisfaction to lead the squadron under the order of 
Captain Cochrane, through the shoals to a safe anchorage in 
the harbour of Alexandria. By transmitting this account to 
your Lordship I hope to obtain your approbation of my con- 
duct, as it was under your auspices I entered his Majesty's 
service, and under whose command I have principally served. 
I cannot but look forward to a time when 1 may again have 



this ORcasion, and a sword of 100 guiueas value ; the Patriotic Fund a vase valued at 
^'300., and March 29, 180G, he was made a Knight of the Bath. The inhabitants 
of Barbadoes voted him a piece of plate of the value of ^'500. sterling. In 1807 
he was appointed to the Belleisle, of 74 guns, and took possession of the Danish 
islands of St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix, also co-operated with Lievitenant- 
General Beckwith to take possession of Martinique. In 1809 he was advanced 
to the rank of Vice-Admiral, and assisted in the reduction of Guadaloupe, and 
the Dutch islands of St. Martin, St. Eustatia and Saba. He was made Governor 
and Commander-in-chief of Guadaloupe in 1810, and in 181.3 commanded the 
fleet on the coast of North America, and distinguished himself by his great activity 
in this service. He returned to England in 1815, and in 1819 became full 
Admiral, hoisting his flag on board the Impregnable, of 98 guns, as Commander- 
in-chief at Plymouth, February 1, 1821. He died January 26, 1832, Admiral of 
the White, and G.C.B. 

VOL. II. N 



178 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

the honour of serving with you. Wishing you the continuance 
of your health, I have the honour to be, my Lord, 

" Your Lordship's most obedient faithful servant, 

"Thomas Withers."^ 

" Success (as Sir Thomas Suckling writes) is a rare paint ; 
it hides all manner of ugliness ;" so the want of it excites 
discussion and censure, A Mr. Hill, it appears, ventured to 
criticise Lord Nelson's conduct in the attack upon the flotilla 
off Boulogne, and sent to him a paper entitled, " Remarks 
by a seaman on the attack at Boulogne," which contained 
severe strictures on Lord Nelson's official dispatch. To this 
was appended a note to say, " should Lord Nelson wish the 
inclosed not to be inserted in the newspapers, he will please 
to inclose, hy return of post, a Bank note of £100. to Mr. 
Hill, to be left at the Post Office, till called for, London." 
Lord Nelson transmitted it to the Secretary of the Admiralty, 
saying, " If their Lordships think it proper to save me from 
such letters, they wall be pleased to send proper people to 
take up whoever comes for Mr. Hill's letter. I have franked 
it with the following direction : — 
" Mr. Hill, 
" To be left at the Post Office till called for ."2 

To Mr. Hill he wrote as follows : — 

" Amazon, Downs, 6th September, 1801. 

*' Mr. Hill, 
" Very likely I am unfit for my present command, and 
whenever Government change me, I hope they will find no 
difficulty in selecting an officer of greater abilities ; but you 
will, I trust, be punished for threatening my character. But I 
have not been brought up in the school of fear, and, there- 
fore, care not what you do. I defy you and your malice, 

"■ Nklson AND Bronte.''^ 

' This officer died a Post Captain. His exertions as Agent of Transports at 
Alexandria were highly eulogised by Major-General Fraser in his Dispatch to * 
General Fox on the surrender of the town and fortress on the 20th March, 1807. 

^ In the possession of the Right Hon. J. W. Croker. 

' Letter Book. 



I 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. l79 

Mr, Hill was too cunning however to be taken. A porter 
sent to the Post Office for the answer, was taken up, but he 
either did not or would not know his employer. The confi- 
dence in Lord Nelson's zeal and ability entertained at the 
Admiralty, was in no degree abated by the discomfiture off 
Boulogne, as is seen by the following letters : — 

"Confidential. Admiralty, 9th September, 1811. 

" My dear Lord, 
*' A plan has been in contemplation for attempting the 
destruction of the Dutch squadron at Helvoet, and some 
communications have taken place with Admiral Dickson on 
the subject. The person whose opinions have been taken is 
Captain Campbell' of the Ariadne, who, I understand, is an 
intelligent, enterprising man, and not likely to take up the 
subject lightly, being very well acquainted with the port of 
Helvoet. 

*' The inclosed paper contains Admiral Dickson, or rather 
Captain Campbell's idea of the nature and extent of the 
force to be employed on this enterprise. It is wished that 
your Lordship would consider the subject in all its points, 
and if you think the plan to be practicable, there will be no 
difficulty in sending Captain Campbell to you. If it should 
be agreed to undertake it, your Lordship must leave it to 
Lord St. Vincent to make some arrangement with Admiral 
Dickson for placing it under your Lordship's direction. I 
cannot send your Lordship the plan of Helvoet to-day, but 
you shall have a very good one to-morrow. 
"■ Believe me to be, 

"My dear Lord, 
" Very truly and sincerely yours, 

"Evan Nepean. 

• Captain Patrick Campbell, K.C.B. died a Vice-Admiral of the Blue, Aug. 13, 
1841. He was with Captain Inman in the attack upon the French squadron in 
Dunkirk harbour, in which he took La Desir^e, for which he was promoted and 
made Post Captain of the Ariadue. In 1805 he commanded the Doris, whicli struck 
upon a sunken rock in his progress to Quiberoon Bay, and was ultimately so dis- 
abled as to be burnt. He had also a narrow escape at Rochfort, and most laudably 
exerted himself to save the life of his Commander, Captain Jervis, who, however, 
was unfortunately drowned from the upsetting of his boat. In 1815 he com- 
manded L'Unite, was stationed off Corfu, and afterwards moved into the Levia- 
than on tlie Mediterranean station. He was made C.B. in June 1815. 

N 2 



180 LIFE OF VICB-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

" Markham tells me that he thinks you have already a 
copy of the chart of Helvoet/^ 

" My dear Lord, 
" Until your Lordship has had a conference with Captain 
Campbell, we are not disposed to come to a final determina- 
tion on the design against the port in question, and as we 
have observed more than common caution, I trust it will not 
be let out. The preparations being made under your direc- 
tion, is the only mode we can employ to mask it. Happy 
should I be to place the whole of our offensive and defensive 
war under your auspices, but you are well aware of the diffi- 
culties on that head. 

" Your's most affectionately, 

"St. Vincent. 

" Admiralty, 14th September, 1801." 

Lord Nelson approved the idea and the spirit of Captain 
Campbell. In a letter to Earl St. Vincent he says, "The 
attempt is worthy of an English Admiral. It is one of those 
judicious enterprises in which we hazard only a few boats, 
and may destroy an enemy's squadron." 

To the Earl of Eldon Lord Nelson made application for a 
living for the Rev. Mr. Comyn, his Chaplain. The following 
was the Chancellor's reply : — 

" My Lord, 
" I am honoured with your Lordship's letter ; I can't agree 
with your Lordship's observation that you have no claim on 
Lord Loughborough or on me, because I don't know the 
individual in this country, upon whom your Lordship may 
not be said to have a claim. The living you mention I can- 
not promise yonr Lordship, because I have made it a rule, 
from which I have never departed, not to promise a living 
not yet vacant. I am scrupulous upon this point, because a 
Chancellor is but a being of a day, and I think he can't with 
propriety promise what it may not belong to him to give ; 
and he has no right to embarrass his successor with the hard- 
ships which belong to the situation of those whose expecta- 
tions are crossed by the accidents which remove Chancellors 



ISOL] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 181 

from their offices. But I shall not forget that 1 have received 
your Lordship's letter upon this subject, and I hope I shall 
not be wanting in the attention which is due to your wishes 
at any time. I remain, my Lord, with the greatest possible 
respect, 

" Your obedient humble servant, 

'• Eldon. 

" 16th September, 1801. 

^' P.S. I am the more unwilling, my Lord, to make a 
promise upon the subject of a living, though I hope I shall 
not be less anxious to attend to your wishes, because in the 
five months in which I have been Chancellor, I have hardly 
had three vacancies of most trifling livings to answer many 
hundred applications." 

In the life of the Earl of Eldon, by Horace Twiss, Esq.^ 
is Lord Nelson's response to the preceding letter : — 

" Amazon, September 17th, 1801. 

" My Lord, 
*^ I feel very much obliged by your open and very hand- 
some answer to my request, which so exactly accords with 
what my friend Davison told me of your Lordship's cha- 
racter; and allow me to consider myself, in every respect, 
your most obliged, 

"Nelson and Bronte,'' 

Sir WilHam and Lady Hamilton remained with Nelson 
until the 20th September. On this day he wrote to Lady 
Hamilton : — 

"Amazon, Sept. 20th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
"Although I ought to feel grateful for Sir William, you, 
and Mrs. Nelson's goodness in coming to see a poor forlorn 
creature at Deal, yet I feel at this moment only the pain of 
your leaving me, to which is added, the miserable situation of 
our dear excellent little Parker. Dr. Baird- is in great distress 

' Vol. i. p. 390. 

2 Physician in the Royal Navy. He died July 17, 1843. 



182 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL. [CHAP. IV. 

about him, and it can hardly be said that he lives at this mo- 
ment, and before night will probably be out of this world, and 
if real worth and honour have a claim to Divine favour, 
surely he stands a fair chance of happiness in that which is 
to come. I will not say what I feel because 1 know that your 
feelings are similar. We might have comforted each other, 
but the Fates have denied us that comfort. Sir William's 
business forces him to London, and mine irresistibly forces 
me to remain on this miserable spot. I got on board at seven 
o'clock, and found what a difference ! I must not think of 
it. My sailing to-morrow depends on poor Parker. If he 
dies he shall be buried as becomes so brave and good an offi- 
cer. Mr. Wallis is just come on board ; he says, there are 
no hopes. I am sick to death, but 

*' Ever yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" I send you Mr. Haslewood's letter about the furniture. 
Do what you think best, I shall be content. We must not 
sink under the will of Providence. The valuation had better 
be, probably, by Mr. Haslewood's man — it can make no dif- 
ference to Mr. Dods ; but do as you please, and see it right." 

His mind had endured much suffering on Parker's account. 
In his letters of this period to Earl St. Vincent, Mr. Davison, 
and others, his case and condition is never omitted to be no- 
ticed. He wrote also to Dr. Baird, (whose kindness and 
ability made a great impression upon Nelson), on the 20th: 
^' Your kind letter has given me hopes of my dear Parker ; 
he is my child, for I found him in distress. I am prepared 
for the worst, although I still hope. Pray tell me as often as 
you can. Would I could be useful, I would come on shore 
and nurse him ; I rely on your abilities, and if his life is to be 
spared, that you, under the blessing of God, are fully equal 
to be the instrument. Say everything which is kind for me 
to Mrs. Parker, and if my Parker remembers me, say, ' God 
bless him ;' and do you believe me, 

'* Your most obliged and faithful friend, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 1 S3 

" I have been in real misery. Hawkins' will come off night 
or day."- 

To Lady Hamilton he writes : — 

"Amazon, Sept. 21st, 1801. 
" My dear Emma, 

" My letter from Dr. Baird last evening, and from the 
Assistant-Surgeon at four this morning, again revive my hopes 
of our dear little Parker. He is free from fever, and his 
stomach got rid of the sickness. He can speak, therefore 
I hope the blood is forming again, and if the ligature can 
hold fast he» may yet do well. Pray God he may, in which 
I know you and all with you most heartily join ; but I dare 
not be too sanguine. We have a good deal of swell, and it 
blows strong, so that I cannot go under Dungeness, indeed, 
I know of no use I am, either there or here. We can do 
nothing in future but lay at anchor and wait events. I have 
wrote Lord St. Vincent strongly on the subject this day. A 
gale of wind is brewing, and I think our communication with 
the shore will be cut off. The moon is also eclipsed to- 
morrow. Would to God I was on shore at the farm. I 
have sent to Mr, Dods to carry you a list of my things at his 
house, and to receive your orders what is to go to the farm. 
I have not yet any answer from the Admiralty on the subject 
of my last letter. Make my best regards to Sir William, 
Mrs. Nelson, Mrs, Cadogan, &c. &c. To the Duke, and all 
friends of ours, and believe me ever 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" Yesterday, if I could have enjoyed the sight, passed 
through the Downs 100 sail of West Indiamen. If Sir 
William had accepted Mrs. Lutwidge's bribe of the ginger, 
I suppose he would now have got it, for Captain Beresford is 

' Captain Richard Hawkins was born at Saltash in 1768, and was present in 
the Wmdsor Castle in 1793 at the evacuation of Toulon. He distinguished him- 
self at Ilieres Bay, and served as First Lieutenant of the Theseus at the Battle of 
the Nile, at which he was wounded. He afterwards commanded the Galzo, and 
was made Post Captain in 1802. Five years afterwards he was in the command 
of La Minerva, and continued in her until 1814. He died in 1826. 

' From the Athengeum. Dispatches and Letters, Vol. iv. p. 491. 



184 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [ciIAP. IV. 

arrived. I send you verbatim a postscript of Admiral Lut- 
widge's letter: viz. 'Remember us to your friends who have 
just left you, when you write, with the sincere regret we felt 
in parting with them.' I shall keep my letter open to the 
last moment. 

" Noon. I have this moment your kind line from Roches- 
ter. I grieve at your accident. I am obliged to send my 
letters now, for I doubt if a boat can go at three o'clock." 

" Amazon, Sept. 22nd, 1801. 
" My dear Emma, 

" It blows so fresh to-day that I almost doubt whether a 
boat will be able to get on shore with our letters, therefore, if 
you ever miss receiving letters, you may be sure that it is 
either from bad weather, or that I am gone out of the Downs. 
I shall write you every day if it is possible, and you may 
always be assured that if you do not get a letter from me, 
that no person in London does. At six this morning, I 
received a letter from Dr. Baird, saying, dear Parker had 
a bad night, and he was afraid for him, he was so very weak, 
therefore, we must not flatter ourselves, but hope the best. 
I am more than half sea-sick. I can tell you no news, for 
we can at present hold no communication ; the surf is very 
high on the beach. I shall try if it is possible at three 
o'clock, but I do not expect your letters off to-day although 
I am most anxious to hear of your safe arrival in town, with 
all the news. Your letters are always so interesting that 1 feel 
the greatest disappointment when I do not receive them. Have 
you seen Troubridge ? I dare say he came the moment you 
arrived. I hope you have seen Mr. Haslewood and Mr. 
Dods, and that you will be able to get to Merton long before 
the 10th of October, before wdiich I hope the Admiralty will 
remove me from my command ; much longer than that, I assure 
you, I will not stay. I leave the letter open in hopes I may get 
a communication with the shore. Charles is very well, is a very 
good boy. So is Banti ; but the latter is initiated into the 
vices of London, I fancy, at least, he loves to spend money „ 
Make my best regards to all your party, and believe me, 

"■ Yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 185 

"^ What a difference to when you was here, A boat that 
sells things to the people is the only boat that has come to us 
since six this morning. He says, he will get on shore, there- 
fore, I send my letters. Captain Sutton desii'es his best 
compliments. I am very sick.'' 

The following is from Mrs. Lutwidge, wife of the Admiral, 
to Lady Hamilton : — 

" Deal, September 23rd. 
" Here I am, my dear Lady Hamilton, pen in hand, to 
write to you, and so charming is the task, that pleasure, in 
her gayest attire, should not for one moment induce me to 
relinquish an employment which nothing (but the idea of 
affording the fair Emma amusement) can render more delight- 
ful. Your welcome epistle I found upon the table this 
morning, and it had the good effects of a cordial without the 
bad, for it raised my spirits without intoxicating me. I am, 
indeed, infinitely indebted to your Ladyship for bestowing 
this kind mark of attention upon me, which really was in 
some measure necessary to enable us to support the pain 
occasioned by your absence. It appears to me that all the 
agreeables, like birds of passage, take their flight, and ce 71' est 
que les ennuyeux nous restent. We have not seen Lord 
Nelson since you left us, for how is it possible he could 
remain on shore when his amiable friends were no longer to 
be found there. Report says, his Lordship and squadron 
are getting under weigh, and if my correspondence in his 
absence can be of any use to your Ladyship, you may com- 
mand it, and though I cannot boast of affording much amuse- 
ment I can assure you of a sincere zeal in your service. I 
am truly sorry I cannot give a favourable account of poor 
dear Captain Parker; he had a most wretched night, but 
though considerably better at present, there is much more 
reason for apprehension than hope ; we are all anxiety on his 
account, and should be most truly happy to have it in our 
power to announce his amendment to your Ladyship. Tell 
Sir William, with my best regards, that had he waited one 
day longer, I would have had an opportunity of presenting 
him with the ginger, as Captain Beresford and two hundred 



186 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. IV. 

sail of ships arrived on Sunday. However, the ginger is safe 
in the closet, whence it shall be conveyed to Piccadilly by the 
first safe opportunity, only that I should have been much 
more happy in presenting it myself. Adieu, my dear Lady 
Hamilton ; forgive this sad scrawl, which has been written 
amidst a thousand interruptions. My Admiral desires I'll 
say every thing kind and affectionate for him to yourself and 
Sir William ; he also desires I will speak our regrets at your 
absence, but this I find impossible, for were I to fill a whole 
quire of paper, I could not tell you half of what I feel ; how^- 
ever, we both live in the hopes of meeting soon, when I hope 
to assure your Ladyship by word of mouth, how very sin- 
cerely I am your affectionate friend, 

" C. LUTWIDGE. 

" My Admiral desires to unite in best regards to Mrs. 
Nelson, Sir William, and your social circle." 

Lord Nelson's correspondence with Lady Hamilton is 
continued : — 

" September 21st, 1801. Quarter past ten o'clock, 
" I send you Dr. Baird's comfortable note, this moment 
received. You will find Parker is treated like an infant. 
Poor fellow ! I trust he will get well, and take possession of 
his room at the farm. 

" N. & B." 

" Amazon, September 23rd, 1801. 

" My dear Emma, 
" I received your kind letters last evening, and in many 
parts they pleased and made me sad ; so life is chequered, 
and if the good predominates, then we are called happy. I 
trust the farm will make you more so than a dull London 
life. Make what use you please of it ; it is as much yours 
as if you bought it. Whatever you do about it will be right 
and proper ; make it the interest of the man who is there to 
take care I am not cheated more than comes to my share, 
and he will do it ; poco, poco, we can get rid of bad furniture, 
and buy others : all will probably go to Bronte one of these 
days. I shall certainly go there whenever we get peace. I 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 18/ 

have had odd letters from Troubridge about what Captain 
Bedford^ told me of the conversation about officers. Whether 
it is intended to quarrel, and get rid of me, I am not clear, 
but do not take any notice if you see him, which I dare say 
you will, for he likes to come to you. Remember me kindly 
to Mr. Este.2 I hope we shall have peace. 

'^ Ever yours, faithfully, 

"Nelson and Bronte.'' 

"Amazon, September 23rd, 1801. 

" My dear Emma, 
" I send Dr. Baird's note, just received ; it will comfort 
you. Captain Bedford says he is thought better since the 
report. 

"Ever yours, 

'•Nelson and Bronte. 

"■ If he lives till Thursday night I have great hopes." 

" Amazon, September 24th, 1801. 

" My dear Emma, 
*' This morning's report of Parker is very favourable 
indeed, and if he goes on well this day I think he will 
recover. I should have gone out of the Downs to look about 
me this morning, but 1 wish to leave Parker in a fair way. 
Sutton is gone on shore to make inquiries, and if Dr. Baird 
will allow me to see him for a few minutes, I intend to go on 
shore to assure him that I love him, and shall only be gone a 
few days, or he might think that I neglected him ; therefore, 

' Captain William Bedford served as a Lieutenant during the Russian Arma- 
ment, in the Edgar of 74 guns, and afterwards in the Formidable. He was 
appointed to the Queen of 98 guns, bearing the flag of Sir Alan Gardner in the 
Channel fleet, and was in Lord Howe's action in 1794, and made a Post Captain, 
August 15. He was in the attack oiF L'Orient, and afterwards went into the 
Royal Sovereign of 110 guns. He remained in this vessel until tlie Admiral 
struck his flag, being appointed Commander-in-chief on the coast of Ireland. 
He commanded the Leyden, 68 guns, in the North Sea, and was then with Nelson 
ofi" Boulogne. In 1803 he commanded the Thunderer of 74 guns, and took the 
Venus, a French privateer. In 1805 he commanded the Hibernia, and afterwards 
the Caledonia. He was raised to the rank of Rear-Admiral, August 12, 1812, 
and joined the North fleet under Sir William Young. He was made a Vice- 

Admiral, July 19, 1821, and died in October, 1827 
^ Rev. Mr. Este, author of "My own Life," Lond. 1/87, 8vo., and "A 

Journey in the year 1793, through Flanders, Brabant, and Germany, to Switzer- 
land," Lond. 1795, 8vo. 



188 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

my present intention is to sail in the morning at daylight ; 
therefore you will not probably get a letter on Saturday, but 
you shall if I can, but do not expect it. I would give the 
universe was I quit of my present command, and in October, 
one way or other, I will get clear of it. The wind is now 
freshening, and I do not think I shall be able to land, but I 
will write him a line. Dr. Baird is very unwell, and I should 
not be surprised if he is seriously ill from his attention to the 
wounded under his care. Whether I can afford it or not, 
you must have made for me a silver cup, gilt inside, price 
about thirty guineas, with an inscription, "As a mark of 
esteem to Doctor Andrew Baird, for his humane attention to 
the gallant officers and men who were wounded at Boulogne, 
August 16th, 1801, from their Commander-in-chief, Vice- 
Admiral Lord Viscount Nelson, Duke of Bronte, &c. &c. &c." 
What do you think of this ? Will you order it ? I must find 
money to pay for it. Never mind the newspapers, they can- 
not say we are saving of our money. We give it where it is 
wanted. Even Troubridge writes me, he wished you had 
stayed at Deal. What can you do in London ? I have 
already got cold, but I hope it will go off; I long to hear the 
result of your visit to Merton. I hope Mr. Greaves will give 
up sooner than the 10th. Mr. Dods will do anything for 
you, and have them removed to Merton as soon as you can : 
I long to see you at work. I hope Mrs. Nelson will stay 
with you as long as possible. Make my best regards to Sir 
William. I hope he has had plenty of sport. To Mrs. Nel- 
son say every thing which is kind, to the Duke, &c. &c. and 
be assured I am 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" All the Captains regret your absence. Charles is a very 
good boy, and so is Banti: Captain Sutton is very kind to 
them." 

" Two o'clock (September 24th). 
" Allen has given the inclosed for his wife. Captain 
Sutton is this moment come from the shore. Parker's 
stump has been dressed, looks very well ; he has taken port 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 189 

wine, has eat, and is asleep. I have now great hopes. A 
gale of wind I believe is coming on. 

" Ever yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 
" I am very low — bad weather.^' 

" Amazon, off Folkstone, September 25th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
*' I got under sail this morning at daylight, intending to 
return to the Downs on Sunday or Monday, but receiving a 
note from Dr. Baird of our dear Parker's being worse, and 
requesting me to stay a day or two longer, and as it is calm, 
so that I can neither get to the coast of France or to Dunge- 
ness, I am returning to the Downs. My heart, I assure 
you, is very low; last night I had flattered myself, I now 
have no hopes. I dare say Dr. Baird will write you a line, 
but we must bear up against these misfortunes. I have not 
had your letters to-day; they are my only comfort. Yes- 
terday the Calais flat boats, &c. came out. Captain RusseU 
chased them in again, but they can join at any time, as the 
season approaches when we cannot go on their coast. You 
must, my dear friend, forgive me, for 1 cannot write any 
thing worth your reading, except that I am at all times, 
situations, and places, 

" Yours, 

'* Nelson and Bronte" 

On the 26th he again wrote to Dr. Baird : '* Although the 
contents of your letter were not unexpected, yet I am sure 
you will judge of my feelings — I feel all has been done which 
was possible : God's will be done. I beg that his hair may 
be cut off and given to me ; it shall remain and be buried 
vvith me. What must the poor father feel when he is gone ! 
I shall request Captains Sutton and Bedford to arrange the 
funeral, and I wish you to ask Admiral Lutwidge to announce 
it by telegraph to the Admiralty; the Board ought to direct 

' Of the Gier, he was Post Captain in 1802, commanded the Sea Fencibles 
in Argyleshire, and died on half- pay in 1813. 



190 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

every honour to be paid to the memory of such an excellent 
gallant officer.'' 

To Lady Hamilton on the 27th :— 
"My dearest Emma, 

" I had intended to have gone on shore this morning, to 
have seen dear Parker, but the accounts of him are so very 
bad, that the sight of his misery poor fellow would have so 
much affected me, and if he had been in his senses must 
have given him pain, that I have given up the idea, unless he 
feels better and expresses a wish to see me, then dear fellow 
I should be too happy to go. I slept not a wink all night, and 
am to-day very low and miserable. Captain Sutton is gone to 
see how he is, and should he express a desire to see me, I 
will go whatever I may suffer from it, but he will soon be at 
a place of rest, free from all the folly of this world. 

Sutton is returned. Dear Parker left this world for a 
better at 9 o'clock ; I believe we ought to thank God. He 
suffered much, and can suffer no more. I have no one to 
comfort me. I shall try and keep up, and I beg you will. We 
can now do no good. I shall leave the Downs as soon as the 
funeral is over, 

" Your management of my affairs at Merton, are like what- 
ever else you undertake, excellent. I shall write this day to 
Mr. Haslewood to order £1000. to be paid for the furniture, 
and what you bargained for. Mrs. Nelson's quarter is to 
commence October the 1st. If Davison has left no directions 
I must pay it. I know not who else to desire. Would to 
God I was with you, then I might cheer up a little. I have 
wrote to Mr. Haslewood and desired him to call on you at 
noon. You will see my letter, it is more regular for me to 
desire my agents to pay Mr. Greaves, I can do it by Tues- 
day's post, but these lawyers know how to take a regular 
receipt, which we do not. Remember me most kindly to 
Mrs. Cadogan, Oliver, &c. Sir William gone to Newmarket ! 
well wonders will never cease. Believe me, 

" Ever yours, 
" Nelson and Bronte. 

"■ My heart is almost broke, and T see I have wrote 
nonsense, I know not what I am doing. Send down Dr. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 191 

Baird's cup as soon as you can. I shall not write or say any 
thing about it." 

On the same clay to Mr. Davison Lord Nelson writes : 
" My dear Parker left this world for a better at nine o'clock 
this morning. It was, they tell me, a happy release ; but I 
cannot bring myself to say I am glad he is gone ; it would be 
a lie, for I am grieved almost to death." 

To Earl St. Vincent also : " The scene, my Lord, with our 
dear Parker, is closed for ever; and I am sure your good 
heart will participate in our grief, both as a public and private 
loss ; not a creature living was ever more deserving of our 
affections. Every action of his life, from Sir John Orde to 
the moment of his death, shewed innocence, joined to a firm 
mind in keeping the road of honour, however it might appear 
incompatible with his interest : his conduct in Orde's busi- 
ness won my regard. When he was abandoned by the 
world, your heart had begun to yearn towards him — how 
well he has deserved my love and affection his actions have 
shewn. His father, in his advanced age, looked forward for 
assistance to this good son. Pensions, I know, have some- 
times been granted to the parents of those who have lost 
their lives in the service of their King and country. All 
will agree none fell more nobly than dear Parker ; and none 
ever resigned their life into the hands of their Creator with 
more resignation to the Divine will than our Pai'ker. I trust 
much to your friendship to recommend his father's case to 
the kind consideration of the King. I fear his loss has 
made a wound in my heart, which time will scarcely heal. 
But God is good and we must all die."^ 

To Dr. Baird Nelson wrote : " I should be a wretch if I 
did not feel sensible of all your kindness to my dear Parker ; 
we have the melancholy consolation to think that every thing- 
was done which professional skill and the kindest friendship 
could dictate. God's will be done ; but if I was to say I 
was content, I should lie — but I shall endeavour to submit 
with all the fortitude I am able." 

And to Mr. Nepean he officially writes: " Captain E. T. 
Parker having died in consequence of the wounds he received 
on the 16th of last month, I have given directions for his 

' Claike andMcArthur, Vol. ii. p. 203. 



192 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [ciIAP. IV. 

being buried this day with all the honours and respect due 
to so meritorious and gallant an officer ; and I have to 
request that their Lordships will be pleased to direct the 
Sick and Hurt Board to defray all the expenses of his 
lodgings, &c. on shore, and also of his funeral.'' 

To Lady Hamilton : — 

"Amazon, September 28th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" We are going this noon to pay our last sad duties to dear 
good Parker. I wish it was over for all our sakcs, then we 
must endeavour to cheer up, and although we cannot forget 
our Parker, yet we shall have the comfortable reflection how 
we loved him, and how deserving he was of our love. I am 
afraid his father is but in very indifFereiit circumstances ; but 
I doubt if the Admiralty will assist him, however, they shall 
be tried. I hope the Admiralty will direct all the expenses of 
the lodgings, funeral, &-c. to be paid — if not, it will fall very 
heavy upon me. Pray write me when I am to direct my 
letters to Merton. Is it a post town, or are the letters sent 
from the General Post Office ? I wish I could see the place, 
but I fear that is impossible at present. I entreat I may 
never hear about the expenses again. If you live in Piccadilly 
or Merton it makes no difference, and if I was to live at 
Merton I must keep a table, and nothing can cost me one- 
sixth part which it does at present, for this I cannot stand, 
however honourable it may be. God bless you and believe me, 

'' Yours, 
" Nelson and Bronte. 

" If the wind is to the westward, I shall go to Dungeness, 
but you must not, by Gore's account, which I send, be sur- 
prised at not hearing from me regularly, but you know I 
always shall write and send when it is possible. I only send 
this that your dear friendly mind should be easy. 

" Half past one. — Thank God the dreadful scene is past. 
I scarcely know how I got over it. I could not suffer much 
more and be alive. God forbid I should ever be called upon 
to say or see as much again. Your affectionate letters are 
just come, they are a great comfort. The worst, thank God, 
is past. I must have plate, &c. at Davison's, and I agree 
with you, that nothing but what is mine should be there, and 



ISOl.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 193 

that Sir William should always be my guest. I told you so 
long ago. I will find out what spoons, &c. I have, and send 
you a list to-morrow, but to-day I am done for, but ever 

" Yours, 
'^Nelson and Bronte. 

" I will write to my Father to-morrow." 

Captain Parker's funeral took place at D^al on the 27th, 
and was conducted as Nelson had determined, with all the 
honours due to his rank and distinguished character. His 
Lordship attended as chief mourner, and was accompanied by 
x\dmiral Lutwidge, Lord George Cavendish, and several 
officers of the Army and Navy. The ships in the Downs had 
pendants half-mast high and the yards reversed. Minute 
guns were fired from the Amazon and shore alternately at 
noon.* 

To Lady Hamilton Nelson writes : — 

" Amazon, September 29th, 1801. 
'' My dearest Emma, 
" I send by the coach a little parcel containing the keys of 
the plate chest and the case of the tea urn, and there is a case 
of Colebrook Dale breakfast set, and some other things. 
Mr. Dods had better go to the house, for he is Davison's 
man. Will you have your picture carried to Merton ? I 
should wish it, and mine of the Battle of the Nile. I think 
you had better not have Sir William's books, or any thing but 
what is my own. I have sent in the parcel by the coach 
this day, two salt-cellars, and two ladles, which will make 
four of each, as two are in the chest. You will also find 
spoons and forks sufficient for the present. If sheets are 
wanting for the beds, will you order some and let me have the 
bill. 1 also think that not a servant of Sir W^illiam's, I mean 
the cook, should be in the house, but I leave this and all other 
matters to your good management. Would to God I could 
come and take up my abode there, and if such a thing should 
happen that I go abroad, I can under my hand lend you the 
house that no person can molest you, not that I have at 

' Naval Chronicle, Vol. vi. p. 340. 
VOL. II. O 



194 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP, IV. 

present any idea of going anywhere but to Merton. Do you 
take black James ? Do as you please. I have no desire one 
way or the other. Our dear Parker's circumstances are a 
little out of order, but I have undertaken to settle them if the 
creditors will give me time, for the poor father is worse than 
nothing. I have given him money to buy mourning and to 
pay his passage home again. I trust in God that he will 
never let me want, for I find no man who starts up to assist 
rae. I can with a quiet conscience when all is gone, live upon 
bread and cheese. Nevermind so long as I have your friend- 
ship warm from the heart. I have got some of dear Parker's 
hair, w^hich I value more than if he had left me a bulse of 
diamonds. I have sent it in the little box, keep some of it 
for poor Nelson. 

" Noon. Blows strong. I have just received your kind letters, 
they indeed comfort me, and I hope we shall live to see many, 
many happy years. 

" Ever yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte." 

Sir William Hamilton, who was on a visit to his relative 
the Earl of Warwick at this time, wrote the following to Lady 
Hamilton upon receiving intelligence of the death of Parker : — 

" Wednesday, September 29th. 
" I was not, my dear Emma, the least surprised by the 
account I received from you of the brave young Parker's 
death. What comfort can I give you in a case where there is 
no remedy? We must cherish his memory, and ever do him 
justice when we speak of the glorious attempt he made at 
Boulogne, and the exemplary courage and patience with 
which he bore his misfortune, and of which you and I were 
eye-witnesses. I am soiTy he died hard ; youth will struggle 
with death, but perhaps he might not feel so much as he 
appeared to do in the convulsion of death. I flatter myself 
that Lord Nelson after he has done everything he can do to 
shew his respect for his departed friend, will console himself; 
but I am sorry we are not with him at this cruel moment. 
The accident of the clock in the Nelson room was really 
singular, but 1 hope that you and I think pretty nearly alike 
as to such sort of accidents. 

"William Hamilton.'' 



I 



1801 ] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 195 

To Lady Hamilton Nelson writes : — 

" Amazon, September 30th, 1801. 
" My dearest Emma, 

" I well know by my own feelings that you would think of my 
birth-day with a degree of pleasure and pain. I am sensible 
of all your goodness. Respecting the farm and all the 
frugality necessary for the present to be attached to it, I know 
your good sense will do precisely what is right. I only entreat 
again that everything even to a hook and a cook at Merton 
may be mine. The house should be insured for three or four 
thousand pounds, including the furniture, that all may not be 
lost in case of fire. The Admiralty have refused to bury 
Captain Parker. He might have stunk above ground, or 
been thrown in a ditch ; the expense of that and lodgings, &c. 
has cost me near £200, and I have taken, poor fellow, all his 
debts on myself, if the creditors will give me a little time to 
find the money. Dr. Baird has been very, very good indeed. 
I wish the cup had arrived, for I have taken leave of hira 
with only thanks much against my inclination. You are very 
good, my dear Emma, about poor Parker's father. If he calls 
you will of course see him, but he is a very diflferent person 
from his son. He has £^2. more in his pocket than when he 
came to Deal. I wish for his own sake that his conduct had 
been more open and generous like mine to him, but never 
mind. 

" As I shall go under Dungeness to-morrow for three or 
or four days, I went on shore at nine to call on the Admiral 
(Lutwidge), and to thank him and her for their attentions to 
dear Parker, and I presented your regards, &c. I called on 
poor Langford, who has got full possession of your chaise. 
He removed from the other lodgings to where Captain Bed- 
ford's officers are — much more airy. Dr. Baird is in great 
wrath with the methodist. — He gave her six guineas as a 
present from me, and she was not satisfied. I shall en- 
deavour, in a very little time, to get a few days leave of 
absence, if not, to get rid of my command. The business 
of G. is ov^er, it is gone to Dickson. I wish I could with 
jiropriety have undertaken it, it could not fail, if well man- 
aged, and it would have made me an Earl. You asked me 

o 2 



196 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

did I see Parker after he was dead ? I believe if I had it 
would have killed me. I intend Flaxman to prepai'e a little 
monument, about fifty pounds, for him, on a column or 
pyramid. I shall use Sir William^s or your taste on the occa- 
sion. I cannot afford one, or it should be handsomer, but 
the will must be taken. Remember me kindly to Mrs. 
Cadogan, Oliver, and all friends. Langford desires me to 
say everything which is kind. To the Duke say all that is 
kind, and ever believe me, 

" Yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte." 

Nelson, from the day of Parker's death, and for a consider- 
able time after that event, sealed his letters with black wax. 

Mr. Graeffer forwarded Lord Nelson some intelligence 
respecting the state of his Duchy of Bronte. 

" Bronte, 2Gth September, 1801. 
" My Lord, 
"The letter dated' London, July the 5th, your Lordship 
was pleased to honour me with, I received under cover from 
General Acton, accompanied by one of his Excellency's own 
hand-writing, whereof inclosed I have sent a copy, to shew 
your Lordship the attachment the General has for your wel- 
fare. Your letter, my Lord, has not only quieted my mind 
of the fear that none of my letters had reached London, but 
it has given both myself and Mrs. Graeffer the most heartfelt 
pleasure and satisfaction to hear of your Lordship's health, 
after, not only dispersing the Northern cloud that hung so 
heavy over Great Britain, but also to change the affairs of the 
whole of Europe a second time, to the interest and welfare of 
a country which every unbiassed man must and ought to love 
and adore. My Lord, I feel proud to have the honour of 
being thought worthy by your Lordship to take upon me the 
principal management of the Duchy of Bronte. I shall 
always think it a glory to sacrifice both health and life for 
your advantage ; I flatter myself, that in a very few years, 
your Lordship will find that my time has not been foolishly 
employed in the improvement of your estate. It is true, my 
Lord, and I own it, I am not the man that can augment the 
income of your estate from six thousand ounces to thirty 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 197 

thousand pounds sterling, either through economical or poli- 
tical means ; of the first, I have not aerostatical knowledge 
sufficient to build castles in the air, and the second I detest 
abominably. 

" Mr. and Mrs. Leckie and sister have made a stay with 
us above three weeks. Mr. Leckie took an eight days politi- 
cal excursion ; he had a great inclination to purchase a woody 
mountainous estate, not many miles from Bronte, have since 
heard the owner will not sell it, better for Mr. Leckie, al- 
though he does not think so ; I am sorry for his thoughts. 
The farming utensils and cask with seeds are not as yet arri- 
ved ; Mr. Noble, who had some interest in the ship, informed 
me, that the ship had put in at Mahon, and discharged her 
cargo there, on account of the peace between France and 
Naples. I have written to Mr. Noble, and begged of him to 
do his utmost to get these packages forwarded : I am very 
anxious about them, particularly the seeds, as the season is 
already far advanced for sowing. I hope your Lordship's 
repose from public employments will not be long first, and 
your glorious and ever-memorable actions hasten a general 
peace. We are very happy to hear of your intended unex- 
pected visit, together with good company, and to have the 
honour to kiss that hand which has written the confirmation 
of this promise ; this is as true as the Gospel. 

*^ I hope we shall see your Lordship and company come 
as gentle shepherds and shepherdesses, and peaceable plough- 
men, rural amusement alone can be the diversion here. I 
am very happy of the determination to stay some time with 
us at Bronte. If those gentlemen that have a desire to come 
out to settle here with an intent to acquire a fortune by 
farming, they are mistaken ; but if they are desirous to culti- 
vate and improve a small farm by way of amusement, they 
may live thereon comfortably without lessening their annual 
income, and this they must not altogether expect the first 
two years ; they are to study both soil and climate. Your 
Lordship will please to give me leave to say without reserve 
several difficulties will arise before a small English family of a 
decent income can be fixed or situated comfortably on your 
Lordship's estate, or to say more, on any other in Sicily ; 



198 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

there is not a house on the farms (a very few excepted), for a 
decent English family to live in ; they are, for the most part, 
hovels, it is therefore necessary to build, either by the land- 
lord or the new settler. The farmer in Sicily lives in the 
town, and so do all the ploughmen and other husbandry 
workmen, although many of the farms are above six miles 
distant from the town. This accursed custom, detrimental as 
it is to the advantage of agriculture, yet does not meet with 
any reproach. The farmer (except a few industrious ones), 
lounges half the day about the market-place, and the labourer, 
if the wind blows a little fresh on the Monday morning, is 
furled up, and does not venture to leave the town to go to 
work, but stands in the street to listen to a cock-and-bull 
story ; when he moves he is half tired before he arrives at his 
work : this is another difficulty for a new settler, particularly 
for an English constitution, not easily to digest. Nothing 
would give me more pleasure than to have about four or five 
English agricultural famihes about us, I foresee it would in a 
short time change this most odious and ignorant system of 
Sicilian agriculture. 

" It is in your power at present, my Lord, to do that for 
Sicily as a great promoter of agriculture, what you have 
done for this island as a great warrior. I shall not trouble 
your Lordship any longer at present, because your great 
national employment giveth you little time to attend to private 
affairs. But I hope your repose is not veiy distant, as I 
imderstand there is great hopes of a peace with France. I 
shall, in my next letter, my Lord, send you my observations 
and thoughts of a remedy for the husbandry of this country. 
Your Lordship may perhaps have an opportunity to converse 
with Arthur Young, Esq. on this subject. Mrs. GraefFer 
joins me in duty to your Lordship, and I have the honour to 
be, my Lord, 

"Your Lordship's 
" Most obedient, and most devoted humble servant, 

"John Gr^effer. 

" The Right Hon. Lord Nelson, 
Duke of Bronte in Sicily, 
London." 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 11)9 

In October the correspondence with Lady Hamilton con- 
tinues : — 

" Amazon, October 1st, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
'* From various causes it is as well for me to leave the 
Downs for a few days to change the scene a little, and also 
it is right to look a little at my squadron under Dungeness. 
I left the Downs at day-light, and am now writing off Folke- 
stone. I shall have Hardy to dine which will be a pleasure 
to me, for he is a good man. Captain Sutton has just been 
giving me such instances of want of feeling in Mr. Parker, 
that I am quite disgusted with him ; he is a dirty dog. How 
unlike his worthy son ! but I have done with him. I shall 
send this letter on shore to New Romney, but I think you 
had better, after a day or two, direct your letters to Deal, for 
longer than three or four days I shall not remain here. At 
this moment I fancy you setting forth to take possession of 
your little estate, for this very day I shall make a codicil to 
my will, leaving it in trust for your use, and to be at your dis- 
posal until you wish me to leave it to my nearest and dearest 
relation.^ We die not one moment the sooner by doing 
those acts, and if I die, my property may as well go to those I 
tenderly regard, as to those who hate me ; but I trust to live 
many years with those who love me. I send you a very hand- 
some letter from Lord George Cavendish.- I must return 
his visit when I get back to Deal, but shall not dine there 
or anywhere else. I hope soon to be done with this com- 
mand. I am yet of opinion it will be Peace before this 
month is out. Pray God send it calm, and we shall hardly 
save post as it goes out at one o'clock. The French have all 
gone into Boulogne, but probably they will be out to-day. 
Dr. Baird has been very attentive and good to me, and he 
gave your good things to Langford. 
" Ever yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte." 

' An evident allusion to Horatia. 

^ He attended the funeral of Captain Parker with Lord Nelson. 



200 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

" Amazon, Dungeness, October 2nd, 1801. 
*' My dearest Emma, 
" I am sorry the lawyers should have been the cause of 
keeping you one moment from Merton, and I hope you will 
for ever love Merton — since nothing shall be wanting on my 
part. From me you shall have eveiy thing you want. I 
trust, my dear friend, to your economy, for I have need of it. 
To you I may say, my soul is too big for my purse, but I do 
earnestly request that all may be mine in the house, even to 
a pair of sheets, towels, &c. You are right, my dear Emma, 
to pay your debts — to be in debt is to be in misery, and 
j)oor tradespeople cannot afford to lay out of their money. 
I beg you will not go too much on the water, for the boat 
may upset, or you may catch an autumnal cold which cannot 
be shook off all the winter. Wrap yourself up warm when 
you go out of the house, and for God's sake wear more 
clothes when winter approaches, or you will have the rheu- 
matism. I hope you are this moment fixed — damn the 
lawyers. If black James has no particular desire to come, 
I can have none to have him, he must be a dead expense. 
You w^ill do what is right, and I shall be happy in leaving 
every thing to your management. I don't wonder Sir Wil- 
liam is tired of Warwick Castle. How could he expect to 
find anything equal to what he left — he might as well have 
searched for the Philosopher's Stone. Poor Mrs. Nelson, I 
pity her. She never w^as so happy in her life, but the little 
w^oman will try and be with you again veiy soon, and she 
will succeed. Tell me how I can do anything for you at this 
distance. You command me. I obey you with the greatest 
pleasure. Your letters for the next two or three days, 
may be directed for me here, but after that to Deal. I have 
had dear Hardy on board all the morning, he is a good man 
and attached to me ; indeed, so is Bedford, Sutton, Gore, 
and others, but these from no interested motive. Make my 
best regards to Sir William when you write ; and to Mrs. 
Cadogan, say every kind thing. 

" Yours, 

"Nelson axd Bronte." 

Mr. Davison wrote a letter of condolence to Lord Nelson, 
on the death of Captain Parker : — 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 201 

" Swarland House, 3rcl October, 1801. 

" My clear Friend, 

" It is very often and justly observed, how serious a mis- 
fortune it is to outlive those to whom we have formed an 
attachment , The loss of poor dear Parker, I feel most sensibly, 
having seen such proofs of the rectitude of his mind — the good- 
ness of his heart — the high sense of honour he possessed — 
all combined to rivet and cement a friendship, I had fondly 
hoped would have been of long duration. If there be a 
better world, which we are taught to believe there is, he 
must be gone there to enjoy it, and possibly to be relieved of 
troubles in this, had he survived, as to have involved him in 
misery. Dear fellow — a more sincerely attached friend you 
never had, his whole study and delight was how best to 
secure your approbation of his conduct. 

" I heartily wish you were relieved of your present com- 
mand, though however honourable it may be, must, if it be 
continued for any length of time, wear you down with fatigue 
and incessant anxiety. It will make me very happy when 
the post bears me a letter of your being superseded. 

" I have been in Scotland with my sister, trying all in my 
•power to support her under the most afflicting calamity, 
nearly proving fatal to herself, 

" If you have settled for the house in Surrey you write me 
about, I am sure you must be in want of money to pay for 
it, and lest that should be the case, I have written to my 
Bankers, Messrs, Vere, Lucadou, and Co., to honour what- 
ever bills you may draw on them, with orders to those gentle- 
men to charge the same to my account. You may draw at 
sight on them whenever you please. In my absence this 
will be the easiest mode for you making your payments. 
We are all well here, and all unite in constant prayer for 
your happiness. God ever bless and protect you, my dear 
friend's affectionate 

"Alexander Davisox." 

To this he replied : " Your kind letter has truly affected 
me. Can your offer be real ? Can Davison be uncorrupted 
by the depravity of the world ? I almost doubt what I read ; 
I will answer, my dear friend, you are the only person living 



202 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

who would make such an offer. When you come to town you 
shall know all my pecuniary affairs, and if in arranging them 
I should want your kind assistance, I will accept it with many 
thanks. In my present purchase I have managed tolerably 
well."i 

TO LADY HAMILTON. 

"Amazon, Dungeness, October 3rd, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" Your kind letters of Wednesday night and Thursday 
morning I have just received, and I should be too happy to 
come up for a day or two, but that will not satisfy me, and 
only fill my heart with grief at separating. Very soon I must 
give in, for the cold weather I could not bear ;besides, to say 
the truth, I am one of those who really believe we are on the 
eve of peace. As mine can be only guess from various cir- 
cumstances, do not give it as my opinion. I think we are 
almost signing. You may ask, do you know any good reason 
for this joyful idea? I can answer. No, but my mind tells me 
it must be. I shall long to have the picture of the little one^ 
— you will send it to me; but very soon I shall seethe, 
original, and then I shall be happy. Do not think I am 
seriously unwell, but I am naturally very low. What have I 
to raise my spirits ? Nothing. The loss of my friend, the 
loss of Parker. The Surgeon recommends me to walk on 
shore, but that I cannot do, we lay so far off, and surf, and 
what is to become of my business — but it cannot last long. 
What you want with all the Heraldry I know not — they are 
devils for running up a bill. I shall not agree to Sir William's 
keeping house whenever I come, that is impossible. I hope 
Mr. Haslewood has done every thing to get you into the 
possession, and for the rest and management I give all up to 
you. I have had a letter from Lieutenant Turner — he has 
got the gout, and desires his kind regards. I have had rather 
a begging letter from Norwich, but I cannot at present do 
any thing, for I have nothing ; for heaven's sake never do 
you talk of having spent any money for me. I am sure you 

' Dispatches and Letters, Vol. iv. p. 412. 
- Horatia. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 203 

never have to my knowledge, and ray obligations to you can 
never be repaid. 

" Ever yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

" Make my kind regards where proper. Captains Sutton, 
Bedford, and Gore, all inquire after you. Are there any 
images standing -in the grounds? Gore says there are. If 
so you will take them away^ — they look very bad. Patienza. 
Pray is our Belmonte dead at Baden ? Tell me." 

The preliminaries of Peace were now entered upon, and 
Lord Nelson wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 

"Just anchored, October 4th, nme o'clock. 

" My dear Emma, 
"You are right, no champagne till we can crack a bottle 
together. Your letter with the papers I suppose are gone to 
Romney. I shall have them in the evening. 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" Send to Castelcicala that from my heart I congratulate 
him, and beg to present my duty to his and mine august 
Sovereign. The Lutwidges' have sent off congratulations for 
you, and I always send your regards and respects." 

" Amazon, off Folkestone, October 4th, 1801. 

" My dearest Emma, 

" Although preliminary articles are signed, yet I do not 
find that such lengths are gone towards peace as to point out 
a time when hostilities shall cease, and I am directed to be 
particularly vigilant, and the Earl says the country has 
received so many proofs of my zeal in its service as leaves no 
doubt of my remaining at the head of the squadron until peace 
is proclaimed. 

" I was in hopes that at least all my feeble services might 
be dispensed with. This has fretted me a good deal, for they 
would perhaps gladly get rid of my claim, at least for poor 



204 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IV. 

Langford. I have wrote to the Earl, saying that I was in 
hopes my humble services were no longer wanted, but at 
least I hoped that I might have four or five days leave of 
absence, for that I wanted rest, and could not stay in the 
Channel when the cold weather set in. I shall try the effect 
of this letter, and although my whole soul is devoted to get 
rid of this command, yet I do not blame the Earl for wishing 
to keep me here a little longer. It is probable disturbances 
may break out in these squadrons when I am gone ; I am of 
some consequence. If I can I should like to come on shore 
good friends with the Administration, or my brother will 
stand no chance, probably he does not much at present. I 
have wrote congratulations to Mr. Addington, but if Ministers 
can shake off those who have a claim on them, they are glad 
of the opportunity. If I am forced into this measure for a 
month, you and Sir William might come down, and I would 
hire a house, and have our own things on shore, and not cost 
one-eighth part of the other cheating fellow^s expense. I hear 
he has been fool enough to say as nobody goes twice to his 
house, he takes care to make them pay enough the first time. 
What a fool, but he did not know, if it had been fifty times as 
much I should have paid it ^ith pleasure for the happiness 
of my Emma's company. I think I shall get off this staying 
here, but I hope you will agree with me that a little manage- 
ment may not be amiss. Sir Charles Pole has sent the two 
pipes of sherry. I have wrote to Portsmouth this day to 
have them sent to Merton, therefore the wine cellar must be 
prepared. 

" It is impossible to get on board in a dark night, heavy 
surf, &c. therefore I shall stay on board altogether, unless it 
is a very fine day, which is not to be expected. The surf 
seldom is little at this season. Make my best regards to 
Mrs. Cadogan, and all friends, and believe me, 

"Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" To the Duke, Sir William, &c. say every thing which is 
proper. Yawkins^ desires to be remembered." 

' Master of the King George aired cutter. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 205 

"Amazon, October 5th, 1801. 

"■ My dearest Emma, 
" Give the inclosed to Allen's wife. I have been expecting 
the pleasure of hearing from you by the coach, and when the 
tide turns, I shall send on shore Jind examine the coach office. 
Your kind letters are my only consolation. 

" Yours, 

^' Nelson and Bronte. 

" When does Sir William return ? Say every thing which 
is kind to Mrs. Cadogan, &c." 

" Amazon, October 5th, 1801. 
" My dearest Emma, 

" The weather is getting so very bad, that I doubt whether 
the letters can be got on shore. I am half sea-sick and 
much vexed, but still if the Admiralty would send me leave 
by telegraph, it should go hard but I would get on shore at 
Ramsgate, or some where. Nothing should keep me ; it is 
hard to be kept here, but I should be sorry to quarrel the last 
few days. Admiral Lutwidge has offered to dine at three 
o'clock, but if I dined it would be almost impossible to get 
afloat, and all my wish is to get a-shore for good, as the 
folks say. 

"Thank God it is peace — may the heavens bless us. Say 
every thing kind to Charlotte — hers is a nice innocent letter, 
and to Mrs. Nelson, and my brother, you know what to say. 
As to Mr. Addington's giving him anything, I do not venture 
to believe he ever will. I never had a kind thing done for 
me yet. As the Order of Malta will be restored, I suppose 
now you and Ball will have permission to wear the order, 
however, you shall abroad. I am vexed that you are so much 
troubled to get into the house — I wish we were all in it. I 
shall only come to town on particular business, or to give a 
vote on some interesting question, and that in order to get 
something for my brother. I have not yet wrote to my 
father, but I shall to-day. It rains dreadfully. Pray take 
care and do not catch cold. You have not told me if you 
have seen Troubridge. Hallowell will call of course, or he 
will behave very ill. Mr. Turner desires his thanks for your 



20G LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. iV. 

kind inquiries (for I always say those things for you, as I 
am sure you do for me), and he will certainly come and see 
you when he comes to London. Believe me, 

" Ever yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" Your kind letter just arrived — it has quite cheered me up. 
May the heavens bless you. I always send your remem- 
brances to Admiral and Mrs. Lutwidge. We must think 
about Charles and Banti. Charles says he should like to get 
into a public office, but I shall do every thing you wish me 
for him. Pray God I may soon see you." 

"2 o'clock, just going on shore. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" I did not pay Mr. B. for the drawing of the San Josef, 
£10. is the price. Pay him out of the £300. Have you 
bought any cows. I wish you were got in, and I with you. 
It is dreadfully cold to-day. Good Admiralty, let me get on 
shore. I have settled with Lutwidge for them to forgive 
my dining with them. How the lawyers torment you. 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

'^ I have just got a letter from a Surgeon in the Navy, beg- 
ging for money. If 1 do not get away very soon, I shall be 
ruined.'^ 

"Amazon, Oct. 6th, 1801. 

'^ My dear Emma, 
^^To my astonishment. Captain Sutton, of the Romulus, 
sent me word last night that he was arrived, and ordered to 
hoist a broad pendant aboard the Isis, and he came on board 
this morning at seven. It being a very fine beach, I went on 
shore with him and Bedford, to call on Admiral Lutwidge 
for the first time since ray return from Dungeness, and for the 
second time since your departure. I expected, I own, and 
had prepared Allen, &c. with my trunk, and directed Mr. 
Wallis to make out the necessary orders, to leave with 
Sutton, when in came the letters, and one from Troubridge, 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON, 207 

of which I send you an extract, ' The Earl desires me to 
beg of you to remain until the time for hostilities ceasing 
in the Channel is fixed, and then, if you wish it, you can 
have leave of absence, I think, without striking your flag, 
if that is your wish ; in short, everything that can be done 
to meet your wishes will, but pray remain for the few days. 
The ratification is expected to-morrow, and the time for hos- 
tilities ceasing will be settled directly, and in the Channel 
very soon indeed.' Under all these desires, I cannot help 
staying — fourteen days at the outside — but by complying I 
hope to get rid of it long before that time. 

" I have had a letter of thanks from Parker's uncle at 
Durham. I shall be glad the cup is coming. Dr. Baird 
dines on board to-day. What a curious letter of Mrs. Nel- 
son's and my brother's. How I regret this fortnight, at all 
events Sutton's being here will be ready for me to start when 
the Board will give me leave, or otherwise I want no assist- 
ance. I shall perhaps go to Dungeness, where we lay, five or 

six miles from the shore. As for , he is a fool, and I 

dare say we need not carry that article to Bronte. Mr, 
Scott,^ who writes Italian and all languages, and is a very 
clever man, would be truly useful, and wants to go, but more 
of this when we meet, which, pray God, may be soon. I 
shall come straight to Merton. 

" N. & B." 

"Amazon, Oct. Gth, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend, 
" I have just got your letter of yesterday, and am very 
angry with Mr. Haslewood for not having got you into pos- 
session of Merton, for I was in hopes you would have arranged 
everj^thing before Sir William came home. I shall write Mr. 
Haslewood to-day on the subject. The Peace seems to make 
no impression of joy on our seamen, rather the contrary, they 
appear to reflect that they will go from plenty to poverty. 
We must take care not to be beset by them at Merton, for 
every beggar will find out your soft heart, and get into your 
house. Lord George Cavendish has just been on board to 

' See Appendix, No. II. 



208 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. IV. 

make me a visit before he leaves Walmer to-morrow. If the 
weather is moderate, I shall return his visit and call on Billy 
Pitt, as they say he is expected to-day. I intend to land at 
Walmer Castle. But for this visit I should not have gone 
ashore till all was finished. Make my best regards to Sir 
William. I hope he will be able in bad weather to catch fish 
in the water you so beautifully describe. You must take care 
what kind of fish you put into the water, for Sir William will 
tell you one sort destroys the other. Commodore Sutton has 
been on board all the morning, but dines with Admiral Lut- 
widge. You will see amongst my things return the round 
table and the wardrobe — extraordinary that they should re- 
turn again into your possession. You are to be, recollect, 
Lady Paramount of all the territories and waters of Merton, 
and we are all to be your guests, and to obey all lawful com- 
mands What have you done about the turnip field, duck 
field, &c. ? Am I to have them ? I wish I could get up for 
four or five days. I would have roused the lawyers about. 
The Isis is just coming in — Sutton's broad pendant is to be 
in her. Yawkins has just been on board, and I delivered 
your compliments as directed. He always inquires after you 
and Sir William, and he desires me to say that he wishes Sir 
William was now here, for there were never so many fish in 
the Downs. The beach for two days has been remarkably 
smooth — not a curl on the shore. I shall send to Mr. Tur- 
ner: you will win his heart by your goodness. Your going 
away made a blank in our squadron. Dr. Baird is very much 
affected at receiving the cup; it made him really ill, so that 
he could not come to dinner, but he deserved it for his 
humanity. Lord St Vincent, never, I dare say, gave him a 
sixpence. Best regards to Sir William, Mrs. Cadogan^ and 
all our friends, 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Buonte." 

Dr. Baird, who was specially sent down by the Earl of St. 
Vincent to attend the wounded at the attack of the Boulogne 
flotilla, acknowledged the receipt of Lord Nelson's present 
of a silver vase, through Lady Hamilton, in the following 
letter :— 



ISOl.J LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 209 

"Deal, 7th October, 1801. 

" Madam, 

" I had the honour of receiving your Ladyship's letter 
yesterday, and with it the Duke of Bronte's token of appro- 
bation : so flattering a testimony of his Lordship's esteem has 
affected me most sensibly, and made such an impression on 
my heart as no time can erase ; for indeed, his attention to 
me has ever been very kind. I beg your Ladyship to accept 
my warm acknowledgments for the share you have taken, and 
request you w^ill be so good as to present my respects to Sir 
William Hamilton. Mr. Langford reclines on your Lady- 
ship's sofa, the comfort of which he enjoys much. His 
general health is much improved, he is totally without pain, 
and his wounds look w^ell, and if there be no further exfoli- 
ation, we may soon look forward to all being well, but in this, 
I must not pronounce hastily, for when exfoliation of bone 
has taken place, it is difficult to foresee when it will end. I 
can, however, assure your Ladyship, in general terms, that 
everything has a very favourable appearance. I do not know 
anything he wants. I thought the basket you sent for poor 
Parker, and which came too late, should go by descent to 
Langford, and he had it. I do not mean to prevent your 
Ladyship indulging in your usual benevolence in sending him 
any little nice things you may wish, for I really do not know 
anything that can do him harm at present. 

" 1 mean to send his Lordship's present into the different 
surgical wards in the hospital, that the wounded may see how 
much their Commander-in-chief has been interested about 
their well-doing. 

" I have the honour to be, 
" Madam, 
" Your Ladyship's very obliged humble servant, 

"Andrew Baird." 



vor. II. 



210 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL lCHAP. V. 



CHAPTER V. 

1801. 

Upon the return of peace. Nelson received the following 
letter from his father : — 

"Burnham, Oct. 8tli, 1801. 

" My dear Horatio, 

" Upon the happy return of peace, I may, with a little 
variation, address you in the words of an Apostle, and say. 
You have fought a good fight. You have finished your mili- 
tary career with glory and honour ; henceforth there is laid 
up for you much happiness, subject, indeed, in this present 
time to uncertainty, but in a future state immutable and in- 
corruptible. 

" As a public character, I could be acquainted only with 
what was made public respecting you. Now, in a private 
station possibly you may tell me where it is likely your 
general place of residence may be, so that sometimes we may 
have mutual happiness in each other, notwithstanding the 
severe reproaches I feel from an anonymous letter for my con- 
duct to you, which is such, it seems, as will totally separate 
us. This is unexpected indeed. Most likely the winter may 
be too cold for me to continue here, and I mean to spend it 
between Bath and London. If Lady Nelson is in a hired 
house and by herself, gratitude requires that I should some- 
times be with her, if it is likely to be of any comfort to her. 
EveryAvhere age, and my many infirmities, are very trouble- 
some, and require every mark of respect. At present, I am 
in the Parsonage ; it is warm and comfortable. I am quite 
by myself, except the gentleman who takes care of the 
churches. He is a worthy, sensible, sober man, and as far as 
rests with him, makes me very happ3\ I cannot do any 
public duty, nor even walk to the next house. But, my 
dearest son, here is still room enough to give you a warm, a 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NKLSON. 211 

joyful and affectionate reception, if you could find an inclina- 
tion to look once more at me in Burnham Parsonage. I pray 
God to continue his blessings in all stations, places, and un- 
dertakings. 

"Edmund Nelson." 

Lord Nelson's memorandum for reply to this letter is as 
follows : — 

" I think of writing my poor old father to this eflfect — that 
I shall live at Merton with Sir William and Lady Hamilton 
— that a warm room for him and a cheerful society will always 
be there happy to receive him — that nothing in 7ny conduct 
could ever cause a separation of a moment between me and him, 
for that I had all the respect and love which a son could bear 
towards a good father — that going to Burnham was impossible, 
as my duty, even if I was inclined, would not permit it — that as 
to anonymous letters, they made no impression where they did 
not fit, and that I should ever conduct myself towards him as 
his dutiful son. 

" N. & B." 

To Lady Hamilton, communicating the above, he writes ; 
" Tell me, my friend, do you approve ? If he remains at 
Burnham he will die, and I am sure he will not stay in 
Somerset Street, (Lady Nelson's residence). Pray let him 
come to your care at Merton. Your kindness will keep him 
alive, for you have a kind soul." 

Lord Nelson's letters to Lady Hamilton continue : — 

"Amazon, Oct. 8, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend, 
" I do not expect, although I am writing, that any boat can 
communicate with us to-day. 

" What can be the use of keeping me here ; for, I can know 
nothing such weather ; and, what a change since yesterday ! It 
came on, in one hour, from the water, like a mill-pond, to such 
a sea as to make me very unwell. If I had gone to make my 
visit, I could not have got off again. I rejoice that I did not 

p 2 



212 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. V 

go. Until I leave the station^ I have no desire to go on 
shore ; for Deal was always my abhorrence. 

"That Parker is a swindler. Langford owed our dear 
Parker twenty-five pounds, of which there was no account ; 
but Langford desired his agents to pay Mr. Parker. Langford 
requested, that he would wait two or three months, as it would 
be more convenient to him, to which the other agreed — 
^ Aye, as long as you please.' He got one pound, eleven shil- 
lings and sixpence, from Samuel, by casting his account 
wrong. The first thing he does is to desire Langford's agents 
to pay £34. for Langford, nine pounds more than the debt. 
He is worse than a public thief. His conduct to me was, 
absolutely, the worst species of thieving ; for, it w as under 
false pretences. He sent Dr. Baird on board to me, to say 
that, in London, his pocket-book was stole, in which was 
twenty pounds ; and begged my assistance to get him home ; 
and that he had not a farthing to buy mourning for his dear 
son. At this time, he had £47. in his pocket, besides what 
he had sold of his son's. He has behaved so unlike a gen- 
tleman, but very like a blackguard, to both Captain Sutton, 
Bedford, and Hardy. I am now clear that he never lost one 
farthing, and that the whole is a swindling trick. So you 
see, my dear friend, how good nature is imposed upon. I am 
so vexed that he should have belonged to our dear Parker ! 
I have now" done with the wretch, for ever. I hope he has 
got nothing from you ; and, if you have promised him any- 
thing, c/o not send it. 

"Nelson and Bronte."^ 

" Amazon, October 8tli, 1801. Half-past seven. 

" My dearest Friend, 
" I send on shore one line by the boat which goes for our 
letters, to tell you not to be surprised if you get no other 
letter to-morrow, for it now blows very hard, and every 
appearance of an increasing gale. How I am praying for the 
Admiralty. Last night I had one of the attacks on my 
heart, which some day will do me up ; but it is entirely gone 
off. I know it has been brought on by fretting at being kept 
here doing nothing. I shall write late, and if possible get it 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 67. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 213 

on shore, but you must not expect. Make my best regards 
to Sir William, and believe me, 
*' Yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte." 

"Amazon, October 9th, 1801. 

'■ My dearest Friend, 
" How provoked I am at the slowness of that damned 
rascal Buonaparte, in ratifying the Treaty. I hope he will, 
for if we are involved in a war again, our fools, who rejoiced 
that the French could not come to eat them up, will frighten 
themselves to death, and our country become an easy prey. 
There is no person in the world rejoices more in the peace 
than I do, but I would burst sooner than let a damned French- 
man know it. Let them rejoice that the English rod (its 
navy) is taken from them ; the rod that has flogged, and 
would continue to flog them from one end of the world to the 
other. We have made peace with the French despotism, and 
we will, I hope, adhere to it whilst the French continue in 
due bounds ; but whenever they overstep that, and usurp 
a power which would degrade Europe, then I trust we shall 
join Europe in crushing her ambition; then I would with 
pleasure go forth and risk my life for to pull down the over- 
grown detestable power of France. The country has so 
foolishly called out for peace, that I almost wonder we had 
not to make sacrifices. It has been the cowardice and 
treachery of Europe that has elevated France, and certainly 
not her own courage or abilities. But, I long to get on shore, 
and why am I troubling either you or myself with all this 
stuff. From my heart I wish I was at Merton, and you 
shewing me the place and your intended improvements, for I 
have the very highest opinion of your taste and economy. I 
have not had an opportunity of sending Mr. Turner your 
kind message, and probably he has got the trumpet before 
this time ; but you are good and thoughtful to every body. 
I am going to send Sutton under Dungeness to watch the 
fellows that they do not pick up any of our trade for the few 
days that remain. Letters just come off. Lutwidge has sent 
me word that the vessel with the ratification arrived at eight 
this morning. Mrs. Lutwidge has sent me partridges and a 



214 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cilAP. V. 

pine-apple, and always inquires for you and Sir William. 
Troubridge writes me, that I may rest assured we will not 
keep you longer than I have before stated, that is, I suppose, 
fourteen days ; and he hopes the exercise ashore will quite 
restore me. Now, I never will go on shore but only per force. 
I hate Deal, and from my heart wish I was out of sight of it. 
Remember me kindly to Sir William, the Duke, and all our 
friends, and none but real friends shall come to Merton ; but 
you are to manage every thing. 
" Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" The wine from Portsmouth is on its journey. Is there a 
good wine cellar ? I have a good deal at Davison's. We 
will eat plain, but will have good wine, good fires, and a 
hearty welcome for our friends, but none of the great shall 
enter our peaceful abode. I hate them all. I have had a 
real kind letter from Davison, such a one as is scarce in these 
degenerate times. God bless you.'' 

♦'Amazon, October 11th, 1801. 
'' My dearest Friend, 
" I ought, and do beg you 10,000 pardons for not having 
sent the memorandums for Davison's house, but I was really 
so unwell that I could not. Would to God I was hberated, 
for cooped up on board ship, with my head for ever leaning 
over paper, has almost blinded me, and it is impossible to be 
sure of a beach for one hour together. Captains Bedford and 
Sutton say they will not go any more unless it is perfect 
calm, for they got wet with all theh' care and activity, and yet 
I ought to return Lord George Cavendish's visit, and I see 
Billy Pitt has arrived, as the colours are hoisted. I will see 
him before I leave the station ; he may perhaps be useful to 
me one day or other. We have now cold fogs, and you 
cannot conceive how truly uncomfortable I am. A Bay 
Master and Commander is just come, made Post — never per- 
formed a jot of semce, whilst dear Parker, Somen'ille, Lang- 
ford, and others, smarting and dying of their gallant wounds, 
cannot get a step. You cannot conceive how full every body's 
mouth is. As to Merton, you are the whole and sole com- 
mander. I wish naturally that every thing in the place 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 215 

should be mine ; but as to living, we will settle that matter 
very easily. I only wish I was with you. I agree with you 
— no great folks ; they are a public nuisance. How odd that 
the King has had no levee. I hope he is well, but should 
almost fear it. I have had a very affectionate letter from 
Colonel Stewart, on the death of dear Parker. He desires 
something as a remembrance of him. I have secured a book 
and a chart. The newspapers are not come. I am out of 
patience — a damned rascally Frenchman to be drawn by 
Englishmen ! I blush for the degraded state of my country. 
I hope never more to be dragged by such a degenerate set of 
people. Would our ancestors have done it ? So, the villains 
would have drawn Buonaparte if he had been able to get to 
London to cut off the King's head, and yet all our Royal 
Family will employ Frenchmen. Thanks to the navy, they 
could not. Eleven o'clock. Your letters are just come, but 
now we cannot get newspapers ; they cannot come the same 
day to and from Merton. Soon, very soon, I hope to be 
with you, for there can be no use in keeping me here. 
Sutton, Bedford, &c. all inquire after you. Old Yawkins I 
always give your and Sir William's remembrance to. 
" Ever yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

*' The Bay will come of course, and stupid De Graves' 
men, but not my steward ; he is too fine for me. Our navy 
is all blank at the peace. If you see the Duke, say every 
kind thing. Best regards to Mrs. Cadogan, Oliver, &c." 

" Amazon, ten o'clock, October 12, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend, 

" This being a very fine morning, and smooth beach, I went 
with Sutton and Bedford, and landed at Walmer, but found 
Billy fast asleep ; so left my card ; walked the same road that 
we came, when the carriage could not come with us that 
night ; and all rushed into my mind, and brought tears into 
my eyes. Called at the barracks on Lord George (Cavendish) , 
but he is gone to London. From thence to the Admiral's ; 
found him up; and waiting half an hour to see Mrs. 
Lutwidge, who entreated me to stay dinner, came directly on 



216 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. V. 

board. I did not even call to see poor Langford, who has 
been worse these few days past, and God knows when he will 
be well. I am afraid it will be a long time, for several pieces 
of bone have lately come away, and more to come. 

" But Troubridge has so completely prevented my ever 
mentioning any body's service, that I am become a cypher, 
and he has gained a victory over Nelson's spirit. I am 
kept here ; for what, he may be able to tell, I cannot ; 
but long it cannot, shall not, be. Sutton and Bedford are 
gone a tour, till dinner-time ; but nothing shall make me, 
but almost force, go out of the ship again till I have done, 
and the Admiralty, in charity, will be pleased to release me. 
I am, in truth, not over well. 

'^ Just as I was coming oif I received your packet, and 
thank you from my heai't for all your kindness. What can 
Reverend Sir want to be made a Doctor for ? He will be 
laughed at for his pains. I thank you for the King's letters. 
I shall write a kind line to Castelcicala, and answer the 
King's very soon, and write to Acton, for he can make Bronte 
every thing to me, if he pleases. I dare say I did wrong 
never to write to him, but as he treated Sir William unkindly, 
I never could bring myself to it. 

" I wish you had translated the King's and Acton's letters, 
Banti cannot. 

" Ever yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte."* 

" Amazon, October 13th, 1801. 
'^ My dearest Friend, 
" Sutton and Bedford would fain persuade me, that by the 
post to-day the Admiralty will give me leave to go on shore. 
I own I do not believe it, or I should not begin this letter, 
for 1 should certainly be at Merton to-morrow at breakfast ; 
but they have no desire to gratify me. Thank God there is 
no more than nine days to the cessation of hostilities, after 
that they can have no pretence. My complaint is a little 
better, and you cannot think how vexed I am to be unwell 
at a time when I desire to come on shore, and to enjoy a 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 73. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 2l7 

good share of health ; but at this season, and in this place, it 
is impossible that I can be free from colds. The wind is set 
in very raw from the westward. Mr. Turner came and dined 
with me yesterday, and brought the trumpet with him, and 
he has charged me to say how much he feels obliged by 
your kind remembrance of him. This is the first time for 
five years he has been on board. 

" Eleven o'clock. The letters are arrived, and Troubridge 
tells me not to think of leaving my station, so here I shall 
stay, miserable, shut up, for I will not stir out of the ship. 
I told Dr. Baird yesterday, that I was determined never to 
mention to Troubridge's unfeeling heart whether I was sick 
or well. I wish to my heart I could get to Merton : I had 
rather be sick there than well here ; but in truth, I am so 
disgusted, that this day I care but little what becomes of me. 

" I have this day received a curious letter from the Order 
of Joachim, 1 in Germany, desiring to elect me Knight Grand 
Commander thereof. I shall send it to Mr. Addington, that 
he may give me his opinion, and obtain, if proper, the King's 
approbation : — this is very curious. Dr. Baird is just come 
on board. Although I am not confined to my bed, I should 
be much better out of a frigate's cold cabin ; but never mind, 
my dear friend, I see and feel all kindnesses and unkind- 
nesses towards me. Make my kindest regards to Sir William, 
Mrs. Cadogan, and all friends, and believe me yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" Mr. Pitt has just been on board, and he thinks it is very 
hard to keep me now all is over. He asked me to dine at 
Walmer, but I refused. I will dine no where till I dine with 
you and Sir William. 

" Yours, 

" N. B. 

" Sutton and Bedford desire their respects. If I am cross 
you must forgive me. I have reason to be so by gi-eat 
Troubridge/* 

"Amazon, October 14th, 1801. 
" My dearest Friend, 

"To-morrow week all is over — no thanks to Sir Thomas. 
I believe the fault is all his, and he ought to have recollected 

' See App&ndix, No. III. 



218 LIFE OP VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. V. 

that I got him the medal of the Nile. Who upheld him when 
he would have sunk under grief and mortification ? Who 
placed him in such a situation in the Kingdom of Naples, 
that he got by my public letters, titles, the Colonelcy of 
Marines, diamond boxes, from the King of Naples, 1000 
ounces in money, for no expenses that I know of? Who got 
him £500. a year from the King of Naples? and however 
much he may abuse him, his pension will be regularly paid. 
Who brought his character into notice ? Look at my public 
letters. Nelson, that Nelson that he now Lords it over. So 
much for gratitude. I forgive him, but, by God, I shall not 
forget it. He enjoys shewing his power over me. Never mind ; 
altogether it will shorten my days. The day is very bad — 
blows, rains, and a great sea. My complaint has returned from 
absolutely fretting ; and was it not for the kindness of all 
about me, they, damn them, would have done me up long 
ago. I am anxiously waiting for your letters ; they are my 
only comfort, for they are the only friendly ones I receive. 
Poor Captain Somerville is on board ; himself, wife, and 
family, make twenty, without a servant, and has only £100. 
a year to maintain them. He has been begging me to inter- 
cede with the Admiralty again ; but I have been so rebuffed, 
that my spirits are gone, and the great Troubridge has what 
we call cowed the spirits of Nelson ; but I shall never forget 
it. He told me if I asked any thing more that I should get 
nothing, I suppose alluding to poor Langford. No wonder 
I am not well. 

" Noon. Your kind letters are just come, and have given 
me great comfort. Pray tell Sir William that if I can I will 
write to him this day, but certainly to-morrow. I have 
much to do from Admiralty orders, letters, &c. I rejoice at 
your occupation. Live pretty, and keep a pig. Have you 
done any thing about the turnip field ? Say every thing 
that is kind for me to Sir William, Mrs. Cadogan, &c. I 
have delivered your message to Sutton and Bedford. You 
may rely on a visit. 

" Ever yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

'* Half sea sick. I thank you for Rev. Doctor's letter, and 



1801.] LORD VISCOUXT NELSON. 219 

Mrs. Nelson's. Her going to SwafFham is mentioned seven 
times, and in the postscript. It puts me in mind of the 
directions for the Cardinal. I have laughed, but she is a 
good wife for him, or he would have been ruined long ago. 
His being a Doctor is nonsense ; but I must write to-morrow 
and congratulate him, or else the fat will be in the fire. 

" Ever yours, 

'' N. & B. 

'*To the Duke say every thing. I have wrote to Sir 
William at Merton ; it goes on shore with this." 

On the 14th Lord Nelson wrote to the Admiralty for leave 
to go ashore. This letter has been printed from the original 
in the Admiralty.^ The original draft now before me makes 
an allusion to " revenue vessels, &c. which were added to the 
vessels formerly under the command oi" which he afterwards 
ran his pen through, and it stands thus : — 

"Amazon, Downs, October I4th, 1801. 

" Sir, 
*' Their Lordships' appointment for my particular service 
being now done away by the preliminary articles of peace, 
viz. to prevent the invasion of this country, which service I 
have not only, by their Lordships' appointing so large a force to 
serve under my command, been enabled effectually to perform, 
but also to be able to acquaint you that not one boat belong- 
ing to this country has been captured by the enemy ; and as 
my state of health requires repose on shore, I have, there- 
fore, to request that their Lordships will, when they think 
the service will admit of it, allow me permission to go on 
shore." 

On the following day he received orders for the cessation 
of hostilities against the French Republic, and a copy of the 
prehminary articles of peace between his Majesty and the 
Republic. On the 15th he wrote to Lady Hamilton, and 
was again ill : — 

^ Dispatches and Letters, Vol. iv. p. 511. 



220 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [ciIAP. V. 

" Amazon, October IStli, 1801. 
" My dearest Friend, 
^' The Admiralty will not give me leave till the 22nd ; and 
then, only ten days. What a set of beasts ! My cold is now 
got into my head ; and I have such dreadful pains in my 
teeth, I cannot hold up my head : but none of them cares a 
d — n for me or my sufferings ; therefore, you see, I cannot 
discharge my steward. And yet, I think, upon consideration, 
that I will send up my things, and take my chance as to 
their sending me down again. What do you think ? At all 
events, everything except my bed. I have table spoons, 
forks, every thing ; at least, I shall have, soon, two hundred 
pounds worth. 

"Admiral Lutwidge is going to Portsmouth. Sir W. 
Parker is going to be tried for something. Make my kindest 
respects to Sir William, and believe me, 
" Yours, &c. &c. 

" Nelson and Bronte."^ 

"Amazon, October 15th, 1801. 
" My dearest Friend, 
" I have wrote by the way of London, but as your letter 
came regular, mine may go most likely. The Admiralty will 
not let me move till after the 22nd, and I have got a dreadful 
cold. I send you a letter for my father ; when read, send to 
London, to be put in the post. I could not say Jess ; I hope 
you will approve. Forgive my short letter, but the tooth- 
ache torments me to pieces. 

" Ever yours, 

^' Nelson and Bronte. 
" Sutton and Bedford desire their best respects, and will 
certainly come and eat your brown bread and butter." 

"Amazon, October 16th, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend, 

" It being a very fine morning, and the beach smooth, I 

went to call on Admiral Lutwidge, and returned on board 

before ten o'clock. Mrs. Lutwidge is delighted with your 

present. Sutton, &c. were called forth to admire it. She 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 76. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 221 

joins in abusing the Admiralty. She pressed me very much 
to dine with them at three o'clock ; but I told her, I would 
not dine with the angel Gabriel, to be dragged through a 
night surf ! Her answer was, that she hoped soon I should 
dine with an angel, for she was sure you were one. You are 
so good, so kind, to every body ; old, young, rich, or poor, it 
is the same thing ! 

" I called on poor Langford ; who has a long time to look 
forward to, for getting well ; he told me your goodness, in 
writing him a line : and I called upon Dr. Baird ; he dis- 
approves of rhubarb, and has prescribed magnesia and pepper- 
mint ;i and I called on Mr. Lawrence. So you see, 1 did 
much business in one hour I was on shore. 

"The moment I got your letters, off I came, and have read 
them with real pleasure. They have made me much better, 
I think ; at least, I feel so. 1 admire the pigs and poultry. 
Sheep are certainly most beneficial to eat off the grass. Do 
you get paid for them ; and take care that they are kept on 
the premises all night, for that is the time they do good to 
the land. They should be folded. Is your head-man a good 
person, and true to our interest ? 1 intend to have a farming 
book. I am glad to hear you get fish ; not very good ones, 
I fancy. 

"It is, I thank God, only six days before I shall be with 
you, and be shewn all the beauties of Merton. I shall like it, 
leaves or no leaves. 

" No person there can take amiss our not visiting. The 
answer from me will always be very civil thanks, but that I 
wish to live retired. We shall have our sea friends ; and I 
know. Sir William thinks they are the best. 

'■' I have a letter from Mr. Trevor, begging me to recom- 
mend a youngster for him ; but none before your Charles.^ 
Banti, I suppose, must return ; but, at present, we know not 
what ships are to be kept in commission. I have a letter 
from a female relation of mine. She has had three husbands ; 
and he, Mr. S. three wives. Her brother, a Nelson, I have 
been trying, ever since I have been in England, to get pro- 

' The irritability of Nelson had at this time occasioned derangement of his 
bowels. 

* Lady Hamilton's nephew, Charles Connor. 



222 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. V. 

moted. The last and present Admiralty promised. I never 
saw the man ; he is in a ship in the North Seas, forty-five 
years of age. 

" I have a letter from Troubridge, recommending me to 
wear flannel shirts. Does he care for me ? No ; but never 
mind. They shall work hard, to get me back again. 

" Remember me kindly to Sir William, &c. &c. 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" Do you ever see Castelcicala ? He is a good man, and 
faithful to his master and mistress.^'^ 

" Amazon, October 16th, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend, 
" I have a letter from Reverend Doctor ; he is as big as if 
he was a bishop ; and one from the Bedel of the University, 
to say how well he preached. I hope you ordered something 
good for him, for these big wigs love eating and drinking. 

" N. & B."2 

"Amazon, October 17thj 1801. 
" My dear Friend, 
" Although my complaint has no danger attending it, yet it 
resists the medicines which Dr. Baird has prescribed ; and I 
fancy, it has pulled me down very much. The cold has 
settled in my bowels, I wish the Admiralty had my complaint : 
but they have no bowels ; at least for me. I had a very 
indifferent night, but your and Sir William's kind letters have 
made me feel better. I send you a letter from Lord Pelham ; 
I shall certainly attend, and let them see that I may be useful 
in council as I have been in the field. We must submit ; 
and perhaps, the Admiralty does this by me, to prevent 
another application. You may rely, that I shall be with you 
by dinner on Friday, at half past three or four at farthest. I 
pray that I may not be annoyed, on my arrival ; it is retire- 
ment with my friends, that I wish for. Thank Sir William 
kindly for his letter; and the inclosure, which I return. 
Sutton is much pleased with your letter ; and, with Bedford, 
will certainly make you a visit. They are both truly good 
and kind to me. Our weather has been cold these two days, 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 81. ^ Ibid. p. 83. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 223 

but not bad. I have got a fire in the cabin ; and, I hope my 
complaint will go off. 

'* May heaven bless you ! I send this through Troubridge, 
direct in Piccadilly. I shall, you may rely, admire the pig- 
stye, ducks, fowls, &c. for everything you do, I look upon as 
perfect. Dr. Baird has been aboard to see me. He thinks I 
shall be better ; and that a few days on shore will set me up 
again. 

*' Make my kind remembrances to Sir William, the Duke, 
and all friends ; and believe me, ever, your most affectionate 

"Nelson and Bronte."^ 

Nelson was eager for the interest of those officers who had 
served with him, and he accordingly applied to Earl St. 
Vincent, who gave the following answer : — 

" My dear Lord, 

" Your Lordship may rest assured that the interest you 
have taken in Captain Somerville's fortunes has not been 
lost upon me. I have made inquiry for the passing certificate 
of his son, but neither it nor his appointment appear. 

" Captain Tobin" has been a little in disrepute with the 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 84. 

^ Captain George Tobin entered the Navy in 1780, accompanied Sir George 
Rodney to the West Indies, and was in the actions of April 9th and 12th, 1782. 
After a variety of service, he learnt that Lord Nelson, whose wife was related to 
Captain Tobin's mother, had retained for him the Third Lieutenancy of the Aga- 
memnon ; but not then contemplating the eminence to which his Lordship would 
arise, he congratulated himself upon being Second Lieutenant to the Hon. Sir A. 
Cochrane, of the Thetis. After the Battle of the Nile his efforts to be with Lord 
Nelson were unsuccessful, and he was paid otf at Plymouth in October, 1801. 
He was made a Post Captain in 1802, and was in the Northumberland, with his 
former Captain as Rear-Admiral. In 180.5 he was on the Leeward Island station, 
and in the following year had a homeward-bound convoy. He was then on the 
Irish station, afterwards escorted a West India fleet of merchant-men, and was 
engaged by the Honourable East India Company to bring home the trade col- 
lected at St. Helena. He was now employed on the Irish station, and in the 
Channel, and in the Bay of Biscay, where he succeeded in making several cap- 
tures. He was with Sir George Collier at the siege of St. Sebastian. He cap- 
tured La Trave, a large French frigate, and in the Andromache, with Rear- 
Admiral Penrose, forced the passage of tlie Gironde. His vessel formed part of 
the assembled fleet at Spithead during the visit of the Allied Sovereigns in 1814, 
at the expiration of which year she was paid off. He died Rear-Admiral of the 
White and C.B., April 10, 1838. 



224 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. V. 

Board, on account of his pertinacity about refitting, a very 
contagious disease in frigates and sloops, extremely difficult 
to eradicate ; I apprehend his health to be delicate. Encom- 
passed as I am by applications and presumptuous claims, I 
have nothing for it but to act upon the defensive, as your 
Lordship will be compelled to do, whenever you are placed 
in the situation I at present fill. 

" Yours, most affectionately, 

" St. Vincent. 

" Admiralty, October 15th, 1801." 

On the 16th Sir William Hamilton wrote Lord Nelson 
from Merton : — 

"Merton, October 16th, 1801. 
" My dear Lord, 
" We have now inhabited your Lordship's premises some 
days, and I can now speak with some certainty. I have 
lived with our dear Emma several years. I know her merit, 
have a great opinion of the head and heart that God Almighty 
has been pleased to give her, but a seaman alone could have 
given a fine woman full power to choose and fit up a residence 
for him without seeing it himself. You are in luck, for in my 
conscience, I verily believe that a place so suitable to your 
views could not have been found, and at so cheap a rate; for 
if you stay away three days longer, I do not think you can 
have any wish but you will find it completed here ; and then 
the bargain was fortunately struck three days before an idea 
of peace got abroad. Now every estate in this neighbourhood 
has increased in value, and you might get a thousand pounds 
to-morrow for your bargain. The proximity to the Capital, 
and the perfect retii-ement of this place are for your Lordship 
two points beyond estimation ; but the house is so comfort- 
able, the furniture clean and good, and I never saw so many 
conveniences united in so small a compass. You have 
nothing but to come and enjoy it immediately, and you have a 
good mile of pleasant dry walk around your own farm. It 
would make you laugh to see Emma and her mother fitting 
up pigstyes and hencoops, and already the canal is enlivened 
with ducks, and the cock is strutting with his hens about 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 225 

the walks. Your Lordship's plan as to stocking the canal 
with fish is exactly mine, and I will answer for it that in a 
few months you may command a good dish of fish at a 
moment's warning. Every fish of any size has been taken 
away, even after the bargain was made ; for there are many 
Trouhridges in this world, but Nelsons are rare. I think it 
quite impossible that they can keep you at Deal more 
than three or four days longer. It would be ridiculous. 
This neighbourhood are anxiously expecting your Lordship's 
arrival, and you cannot be off of some particular attentions 
that will be shewn you, and which all the world know that 
you have merited above all others. I inclose a letter which 
I have just received from Count Dillon O' Kelly, who supped 
with us at Coblentzall's at Prague. See how your merit is 
estimated on the Continent, and shame be it that so little 
justice is done you at home. Be so good as to bring or 
return the letter, as I must answer it. Adieu, my dear Lord, 
and most sincere friend I have in this world. 

" Yours, 

"William Hamilton." 

Nelson continued his correspondence with Lady Hamil- 
ton, until his return to London on the 22nd : — 

"Amazon, October 18th, 1801. 

*' My dearest Friend, 
" I am to-day much better than I have been for several 
days past, and I believe my cold has taken a favoiu^able turn, 
and I trust to being perfectly stout and strong before Friday. 
No thanks to the Admiralty. We have had, and it still blows 
a very heavy gale of wind from yesterday five o'clock. I 
doubt whether any boat will be able to get to us to-day with 
your letters, and less do I believe that mine will get on shore, 
for the wind blows partly from the land. I could not write 
all my thoughts through the Admiralty, for I should not be 
surprised if now and then, for curiosity's sake, they wish to 
know our truly innocent correspondence. I think it probable 
that I shall be obliged, for a week perhaps, to return to Deal, 
for T find, and there they are right, to put by all superfluous 

VOL. II. Q 



226 LIFE OF VJCE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. V. 

expenses, and only to keep what 1 call clean men-of-war in 
commission till the definitive Treaty is signed. What has 
been done already in the Naval department will reduce our 
expenses £150,000 a month. We shall make a better treaty 
with arms in our hands. I am very angry at the great 
rejoicings of the military, and, in some ports, of our naval 
men, at peace. Let the rejoicings be proper to our several 
stations — the manufacturer, because he will have more mar- 
kets for his goods — but seamen and soldiers ought to say, 
' Well, as it is peace, we lay down our arms ; and are ready 
again to take them up, if the French are insolent.' There is 
a manly rejoicing, and a foolish one ; we seem to have taken 
the latter, and the damned French will think it proceeds from 
fear. I hope to manage so that I shall get something for my 
brother ; for myself it is out of the question ; they can give 
me nothing as a pension at this time, but good things may 
fall. I shall talk and be much with Mr. Addington, if he 
wishes it. If not, I can have no desire to go to the House, 
and give myself trouble. Lord St. Vincent says two days 
ago, ' When you, my dear Lord, hold my place, you will be 
obliged, as I am, to act on the defensive against such pre- 
sumptuous claims.' 

" I am in hopes the weather will moderate after twelve 
o'clock, for you will fancy I am ill, but recollect in the winter 
it is often a week, has been fourteen days, without any com- 
munication with the shore. I received all your letters yester- 
day, but you need not direct them to the care of Admiral 
Lutwidge. Wednesday will be your last day of writing. 
Have you thought of the turnip field ? can we get it ? We 
will, if possible, and in any reason of price. I finish my 
letter, that, if it is possible, it may get on shore, but I have 
no expectation at present. Make my kindest regards to Sir 
William, Mrs. Cadogan, the Duke when you see him, and all 
our friends. I am certainly in luck not to be ordered to 
these court-martials ; they will altogether take a fortnight at 
least. 

'*' Ever yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

" What a gale ! does it blow with you ?" 



1 801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 227 

• " Amazon, October 19th, 1801. 

'^ My dearest Friend, 

" What a gale we have had ! But Admiral Lutwidge's 
boat came off; and as your letter was wrote, it got on shore ; 
at least, I hope so, for the boat seemed absolutely swallowed 
up in the sea. None of our boats could have kept above 
water a moment ; therefore, I could not answer all the truly 
friendly things you told me in your letters, for they were not 
opened before the boat was gone. 

"They (the Lutwidges) dine with Billy Pitt to-day ; or, 
rather, with Mr. Long ; for Pitt does not keep house, in 
appearance, although he asked me to come and see him ; and 
that I shall do, out of respect to a great man, although he 
never did anything for me or my relations. 

" I must leave my cot here, till my discharge, when it shall 
come to the farm, as cots are the best things in the world for 
our sea friends. Why not have the pictures from Davison's, 
and those from Dodd's, especially my father's and Davison's ? 
Apropos, Sir William has not sat, I fear, to Beechey. I want 
a half length, the size of my father's and Davison's. The 
weather to-day is tolerable, but I do not think I could well 
get on shore ; but Thursday, I hope, will be a fine day. I 
shall call on Mr. Pitt, make my visit at the hospital, and get 
off very early on Friday morning. My cold is still very 
troublesome, I cannot get my bowels in order. In the night 
I had not a little fever. Hut never mind ; the Admiralty 
will not always be there. Every one has his day. 

" Ever yours, 

"■ Nelson and Bronte.''^ 

On the 20th he received another letter from Earl St. Vin- 
cent. 

"My dear Lord, 
" Many thanks for your hints about the block ships, which 
are approved by the Board, and will be acted upon ; direc- 
tions have been given to the Navy Board to dispose of all 
the gun-vessels out of repair ; the twenty last built are 
efficient, and will be useful in peace. 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 94. 
Q 2 



228 LIFE OK VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. V. 

" Captain Thomson had justice done him, the moment I 
was apprized of his merits, and a notification was sent to 
him some time ago. I wish I could provide for Mr. Priestly 
with the same facility ; the great number of Pursers out of 
employment by the loss and sale of small ships, calls for all 
the vacancies which occur, and it is so beggarly and ruinous 
an office, that I fear very many of those who fill it will be 
thrown into prison at the winding up ; it is no easy matter 
for any of them to find security when they do get warrants. 

" I heartily hope a little rest will soon set you up, but 
until the definitive Treaty is signed, your Lordship must con- 
tinue in pay, although we may not have occasion to require 
your personal services at the head of the squadron under 
your orders. 

" Remember me kindly to all those whom we mutually 
esteem within your reach, and believe me to be, 
" My dear Lord, 

" Yours most affectionately, 

"St. Vincent. 

" Admiralty, 20th October, 1801. 

'^Your Lordship acted with great judgment in releasing 
the French coaster. 

«'St. Vt." 

To Lady Hamilton on the 20th, Nelson writes : — 

"Amazon, October 20, 1801. 

" My dearest Friend, 

" How could you think for a moment, that I would be a 
time-server to any Minister on earth ! and if you had studied 
my letter a little closer, you would have seen that my inten- 
tion was, to shew them that I could be as useful in the cabinet 
as in the field. My idea is, to let them see that my attendance 
is worth soliciting. For myself, I can have nothing, but for 
my brother something may be done. 

" Living with Mr. Addington a good deal : never, in your 
sense of the word, shall I do it. What, leave my dearest 
friends, to dine with a Minister? Damn me if I do, beyond 
what you yourself shall judge to be necessary ! Perhaps it may 
be once ; and once with the Earl, but that you shall judge for 
me. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 229 

*' If I give up all intercourse, you know enough of Courts, 
that they will do nothing : make yourself of consequence to 
them, and they will do what you wish in reason; and, out of 
reason, I never should ask them. It must be a great bore 
to me to go to the House, I shall tell Mr. Addington, that 
I go on the 29th to please him, and not to please myself ; 
but more on this subject when we meet. 

" Dr. Baird is laid up with the rheumatism ; he will now 
believe that the cold may affect me. This is the coldest place 
in England most assuredly. Troubridge writes me, that as 
the weather is set in fine again, he hopes 1 shall get walks 
on shore. He is, I suppose, laughing at me ; but, never mind. 
I agree wath you in wishing Sir William had a horse. Why 
don't you send to the Duke for a pony for him ? 

" I am just parting with four of my ships. Captains Conn, 
Rowley,^ Martin, and Whitter — who are proceeding to the 
Nore on their way to be paid off. The surf is still so great 
on the beach, that I could not land dry, if it was necessaiy 
to-day ; but I hope it will be smooth on Thursday : if not, 
I must go in a boat to Dover, and come from thence to Deal. 
Sutton says, he will get the Amazon under sail, and carry me 
down ; for, that I shall not take cold : Bedford goes with 
a squadron to Margate, so that all our party will be broke up. 
I am sure, to many of them I feel truly obliged. 

*' Nelson and Bronte."- 

" Amazon, October 20th, 1801. 
*' My dearest Friend, 
" Only two days more, the Admiralty could with any con- 
science keep me here ; not that I think they have had any 

' This officer appears to have been Samuel Campbell Rowley, who was a brother 
of Rear- Admiral Sir Josias Rowley, Bart., and made a Commander April 6, 1 799 
He served in the Terror bomb at the attack on Copenhagen, April 2, 1801, 
returned to England and was made a Post Captain, April 29, 1802. He com- 
manded the Laurel frigate, which, at the commencement of 1812, was wrecked 
from 'Striking on a rock called the Govivas, when proceeding through theTeigneuse 
passage in company with the Rota and Rhin. On the wreck he was exposed to 
a very severe fire most inhumanly directed from the French batteries and field- 
pieces, until every officer, man and boy were removed in the boats sent to their 
relief. He afterwards commanded the Impregnable, of 104 guns, and was on the 
Mediterranean station. 

* Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 99. 



230 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. V. 

conscience. I dare say Master Troubridge is grown fat. I 
know I am grown lean, with my complaint, which but for their 
indifference about my health, would never have happened ; or 
at least, I, should have got well long ago, in a warm room, 
with a good fire and sincere friends. I believe, I leave this 
little squadron with sincere regret, and with the good wishes 
of every creature in it. 

" How I should laugh to see you, my dear friend, rowing 
in a boat ; the beautiful Emma rowing a one-armed Admiral 
in a boat ! it will certainly be caricatured ! Well done, far- 
mer's wife! I'll bet your turkey against Mrs. Nelson's; but, 
Sir William and I will decide. Hardy says, you may be sure 
of him ; and that he has not lost his appetite. You will 
make us rich, with your economy. I did not think, tell Sir 
William, that impudence had got such deep root in Wales. 
I send 3 ou the letter, as a curiosity ; and to have the impu- 
dence to recommend a Midshipman ! It is not long ago, a 
person from Yorkshire desired me to lend him three hundred 
pounds, as he was going to set up a school ! Are these peo- 
ple mad; or do they take me for quite a fool? However, 
I have wisdom enough to laugh at their folly ; and to be, my- 
self, your most obliged and faithful friend, 

'* Nelson and Bronte.''^ 



"Amazon, October 21st, 1801. 

*' My dearest Friend, 
" It blows strong from the westward, and is a very dirty 
day, with a good deal of surf on the beach, but Hardy and 
Sutton recommend my going on shore this morning, as they 
believe it may blow a heavy gale to-morrow. But what 
comfort could I have had, for two whole days at Deal ! I hope 
the morning will be fine, but I have ordered a Deal boat, as 
they understand the beach better than ours ; and if I cannot 
land here, I shall go to Ramsgate Pier, and come to Deal in 
a carriage. Has Mrs. Cadogan got my Peei*'s robe ? for I 
must send for Mr. Webb, and have it altered to a Viscount's. 
Lord Hood wrote to me to-day, and he is to be one of my 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 103. 



ISOl.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSOX. 231 

introducers. He wanted me to dine with him on the 24th, 

but I will be d -d if I dine fi^om home that day, and it will 

be as likely we shall dine out on the 23rd, If you and Sir 
William wish me to dine with his brother, it must be the 
time of a very small party, for it would be worse than death 
to me, to dine in so large a party. 

" I expect that all the animals will increase where you are, 
for I never expect that you will suffer any to be killed. I am 
glad Sir William has got the Duke's pony ; riding will do 
him much good. I am sorr}^ to tell you that Dr. Baird is so 
ill that I am told it is very probable he may never recover. 
This place is the devil's for dreadful colds : and I dont 
believe I shall get well all the winter ; for both cough and 
bowels are still very much out of order. I am literally 
starving with cold, but my heart is warm. 

*' Yours, &c. 

On the 22nd Nelson first visited Merton, and on the 29th 
took his seat in the House of Lords, upon being created a 
Viscount. He was introduced by Viscounts Sidneji and Hood. 
On the following day he seconded Earl St. Vincent's motion 
of Thanks to Rear- Admiral Sir James Saumarez, for his action 
with the combined fleet off Algeziras, in the month of July. 
He entered into the details of the action, and lauded the con- 
duct and skill of the Commander. In this speech he inge- 
niously complimented Lords Hood and St. Vincent as forming 
the school in which Sir James Saumarez had been educated, 
and elicited the warm approbation of the Peers assembled. 
On the 3rd of November he again spoke in the House, and 
defended the preliminaries of peace. He considered Minorca 
as an island of little value to us, and he also held Malta of 
no consequence to this country. He yet conceived it to be 
an object of importance to rescue it from the French. He 
estimated 7000 soldiers to be necessary to man the fortifi- 
cations, and expressed his admiration of the extent and 
convenience of the harbours. He spoke of the Cape of Good 
Hope as a tavern to be called at, and thereby often to delay 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 107. 



232 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL. [CHAP. V. 

a voyage from India. When the Dutch possessed it, you 
could buy a cabbage for two-pence, but since it had come 
into our hands, we were obhged to pay a shilling. It could 
only be maintained at an enormous expense, and produced 
little that made it worth holding. Lord Nelson finished his 
address by declaring his approbation of the preliminaries as 
honourable and advantageous to the country. 

Lord Nelson also spoke on the 12th, upon a motion of 
Thanks to Lord Keith and the Officers under his command 
for their services in Egypt. 

On the following day he spoke in the Debate on the Con- 
vention with Russia. He gave his approval of it, and 
contended that it had put an end to the principle endeavoured 
to be enforced by the armed neutrality in 1780, and by the 
late combination of the Northern Powers, that /ree s^/ps made 
free goods, a proposition he looked upon as monstrous in itself, 
and contrary to the law of nations, as well as injurious to the 
maritime rights of this country. The rashness and violence 
of the Emperor Paul, he considered, had formed the con- 
federacy against us to support and enforce that proposition ; 
but the moderation and temper of his successor Alexander 
had consented to give it up and renounce it. He approved 
of the article restricting the right of search of ships under the 
con\oy of a neutral flag-ship of war to our navy, only during 
hostilities, and stated what would have been his own conduct 
if he had met with such convoy, declaring that he should have 
endeavoured to discharge his duty with all possible civility to 
the Captain of the neutral frigate, should have inspected his 
papers, and if, from the information of any seaman, he was led 
to entertain a suspicion that the papers were fraudulent or 
fabricated, and that the convoy did contain what was contra- 
band or illicit, he should in that case have insisted on a 
search, and if he found any contraband articles on board, he 
should have detained such ship or ships. 

The following letter from his father must have been accept- 
able to him : — 

" Hilborough, November 2nd. 
" My dear Horatio, 
*' I have to acknowledge many kind and polite invitations 
from yourself and Lady Hamilton to visit Merton, which it is 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 233 

my intention to accept before my winter residence commences 
at Bath. My journey to London is very slow, not only from 
infirmities, but by necessary and pleasing visits with my chil- 
dren, whose kindnesses are a cordial for age such as few 
parents can boast of. After finishing some necessary business 
in town, if convenient to your family, I shall, with the highest 
gratification a fond parent can receive, pass a time with you. 
I am, with all proper regards to the family at Merton, 

" Yours most affectionately, 

" Edmund Nelson.^' 

Hercules Ross, Esq. whom he had known at Jamaica in 
1779 and 1 780, and from whom he had received great atten- 
tion, solicited Lord Nelson to become godfather to his child. 
He readily assented, and the boy was named Horatio. In 
his reply to this request. Nelson writes : " Whatever call the 
public duty has to my services, yet I must not altogether for- 
get the duty of private friendship. You do not think me 
capable of forgetting when your house, carriages, and purse 
were open to me ; and to your kindness, probably, I owe my 
life, for Green Bay had very often its jaws open to receive 
me. But as money never was my object, so I am not much 
richer than when you knew me, except by my pension. No ! 
the two Parkers have had the sweets of Jamaica, but I would 
not change with them. I pray God we may have peace, when it 
can be had with honour ; but I fear that the scoundrel Buo- 
naparte wants to humble us, as he has done the rest of Europe 
— to degrade us in our own eyes, by making us give up all 
our conquests, as proof of our sincerity for making a peace, 
and then he will condescend to treat with us. He be d — d, 
and there I leave him.^'^ 

This letter is acknowledged by the following : — 

" My dear Friend, 

" So many important events have crowded into the last 

six weeks, that I thought it better for a time to delay intruding 

my grateful acknowledgment of your kind letter from the 

Downs, of the 12th September. Be pleased now to accept 

' From an autograph in the possession of Horatio Ross, Esq. printed in Dis- 
patches and Letters, Vol. iv. p. 488. 



234 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. V. 

my best thanks and high sense of the honour done me, by 
your Lordship's remembrance of our early friendship, your 
good wishes for my son, and the affectionate sentiments of 
regard so warmly expressed. It shall be carefully preserved 
as a record, a valuable one, for your godson, to hereafter shew 
why and wherefore he was named Horatio. On the 27th of 
last month the baptismal ceremony was performed ; Sir John 
Wedderburn had the honour of representing your Lordship, 
Lady Northesk (Lord St. Vincent's niece), and Lady Jane 
Stuart, daughter of the Earl of Leven, were godmothers. 

" I am particularly instructed by the partial mother, to 
assure your Lordship, that our young Horatio is one of the 
finest children imaginable, and likewise to request that you will 
be so good as to express our just sense of Sir William and 
Lady Hamilton's compliments. 

*' I shall not attempt to congratulate your Lordship on the 
peace, such a diversity of opinion prevails ; at the same time, 
I confess my firm belief that it is the best our Ministry could 
make. An enormous sum has been expended, but in fact, I 
know no better way in which money can be spent than for 
the safety of our country and the preservation of our honour. 
Speaking of money, I note what you say about the two Par- 
kers, and I wonder what has become of our old friend Sir 
Peter. The other day, tumbling over some old papers, I fell 
in with a letter of yours of the 12th of June, 1 7^0, from Lady 
Parker's Mountain, it will amuse you one day or other, when 
we shall have the happiness of meeting here. By the news- 
papers, I remarked you lately in the House of Peers, thence 
I conclude in good health, otherwise your Lordship would pre- 
fer the country. Nothing can give me higher pleasure than 
learning that you enjoy that blessing. 

*' We have some thoughts of a trip to London in the spring, 
as a jaunt of variety to our eldest daughter in her 15th year ; 
I shall then hope to have the happiness of shaking my noble 
friend by the hand. May the Almighty bless and preserve 
him, says his faithful and affectionate 

"H. Ross. 

*' Rossie Castle, North Britain, 
7 th November, 1801. 

" I must not forget your remembrance of the Nurse. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 235 

What ! couldn't you trust that pecuniary matter to your old 
Agent ?" 

Lord Nelson was gratified by a letter from Lord Elgin : — 

"Constantinople, November 24th, 1801. 

'* My dear Lord, 

" In forwarding to your Lordship the accompanying letter 
from the Porte, and the remaining insignia of the Order of 
the Crescent, it is but justice to add, that they have a very 
peculiar degree of pleasure in recollecting your services, and 
their infinite obligations to you. Your naming the Order of 
the Crescent, in your Convention at Copenhagen, suggested 
to them the idea of extending that decoration on the occasion 
of the conquest, of which you had laid so solid a basis, and 
really one of their principal inducements in it, was the oppor- 
tunity it afforded them of saying once more, how proud they 
are of being connected with you. 

" They have followed your glories in the North with in- 
finite satisfaction ; indeed, I say a great deal when I can 
assure you, the interest in you is as alive here as it ever was. I 
rejoice in every incident that brings me to your Lordship's 
recollection, and enables me to express the respect and sincere 
regard with which I have the honour to be, 

'' Your faithful humble servant, 

"Elgin." 

The Rev. Edmund Nelson visited his son at Merton, and 
upon his return to Bath, wrote as follows on the 5th, 13th, 
and 19th:— 

[Bath, December 5th, 1801.] 

" My dear Horatio, 
" The affectionate and kind manner in which you received 
and entertained me at Merton, must have excited all those 
parental feelings which none but fond parents know ; and 
having seen you safe through the perils which infancy, 
childhood, and even the early years of manhood are exposed 
to, how must I now rejoice to see so few impediments to as 
much felicity as falls to the share of mortals. What you 
possess, my good son, take care of — what you may still want, 
consult your own good sense in what way it can be attained. 



236 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. V. 

Strive for honours and riches that will not fade, but will 
profit in time of need. Excuse my anxiety for what I esteem 
your real good. 

" My journey here was cold, yet safe — arrived last night ; 
met with a kind and warm reception from your good sister 
and her indulgent husband. Am now going to a warm 
lodging. No. 10, New King Street. Though tired with scrawl- 
ing, yet must add my best thanks to Sir William and Lady 
Hamilton for their very many civilities to me. Your sister 
and Mr. M.'s best regards as ever with you. 

" Affectionately, 

"E. Nelson. 

" December, Friday." 

" My dear Horatio, 
" The little addition you are likely to make to your landed 
property will, I hope, bring some further pleasure and do- 
mestic comfort, such as the real comfort of a private and 
independent life must consist of, and every event which you 
are so good as to communicate to me, which is likely to 
increase your happiness, adds a prop to my declining life, 
and the little incidents, even of indifference, which Lady 
Hamilton politely communicates to me, are at all times very 
acceptable. Your sister's daily care in watching my infir- 
mities, and rendering them as easy as in her power, I feel 
with delight. She is, as usual, cheerful, often regretting not 
having been able to see you, and even still she and Mr. M. 
[Matcham] meditate a visit to Merton for a day or two, to 
wait upon Lady Hamilton and yourself, if the weather is 
tolerably good, and she herself can prudently undertake such 
a journey five or six weeks hence, when the Bairns are all 
returned to their several academies. The box came safe, as 
did the plaid — very handsome. Lady Hamilton will accept 
my thanks for her care about it, to whom with Sir William 
present my respects, as also to the whole party. 

" I am, 

" My dear, 
" Your aflTectionate Father, 

" Edmund Nelson. 

"December 13th, 1801. 



180L] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 237 

" By Inclosing a letter now and then I would not infringe 
upon your privilege." 

" My dear Horatio, 
" From an old man you will accept the old fashioned 
language at the approaching happy season, which is, I wish 
you a merry Christmas and a happy new year. 

" For multiplied favours Lady Hamilton has my respectful 
thanks. 

"E. N/' 

The Rev. Edmund Nelson also wrote to Lady Hamilton : 

" Madam, 

'^ The intelligence you have troubled yourself to commu- 
nicate to me, respecting the lad Cook, vexes me more than a 
little, as I am concerned that any act of mine should have 
given any the least anxiety, or for a moment interrupted the 
domestic quiet of my good son, who is every day so affec- 
tionately shewing marks of kindness to me ; but the idleness 
of youth and their easiness of receiving bad examples are 
not to be guarded against. The lad^s mother must also be 
very much grieved, and his brother is greatly disappointed 
by this rash act, who I think is too good a youth to have 
given any advice so contrary to their mutual interest. But 
I hope it will blow over without much blame on my recom- 
mendation, who would avoid whatever should hurt or bring 
expense upon so good and benevolent a mind. 

^' Even the severity of the season, which makes many a 
poor creature, such as myself, to shake, gives much pleasure 
to the skating parties, so that I hope all in their turns have 
their hours of enjoyment at a season when all the Christian 
world do celebrate with songs of praise the return of Christ- 
mas. Long may you all feel the happy influence of such an 
event here^ and the inestimable benefit of it hereafter. 

"Edmund Nelson. 

" December 21.'' 

Apartments were prepared at Merton Place to receive the 
Rev. Edmund Nelson, after passing his winter at Bath, it 



238 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. V. 

being his intention (according to a statement made in Harri- 
son's Life of Lord Nelson)' to return in May, and then to 
take up his residence entirely with his son, and Sir William 
and Lady Hamilton. His death in April, of course, pre- 
vented this being carried into elFect. He had for many 
years been a great invalid, sutFering from paralysis and 
asthma. He was not able for several hours after rising in 
the morning to hold any conversation, and was compelled to 
pass his winters at Bath. 

About this time Lady Hamilton received the following 
from the Queen of Naples : — 

" December 6th, 1801. 

" My dear Lady, 
" I take the opportunity of the departure of the courier, 
to write to you. You have, I know, shared in the sad mis- 
fortune which has befallen me in the loss of my dear and 
good daughter-in-law, which destroys the only happiness 
remaining to me, in a perfect union and domestic peace ; this 
dear and good princess died like a saint. Her husband is in 
the most profound grief; my poor children do nothing but 
weep for a sister-in-law, who was a tender sister, and who at 
my death (to which my sorrows and troubles are hastening 
me) would have been a mother to them. I flatter myself 
that, though you do not write to me, and I think myself half 
forgotten, yet that you preserve so much recollection of me 
as to feel this cruel trial which is so much more painful now, 
a thousand untoward circumstances preventing my establish- 
ing my dear children, whom I must take back to Naples, 
where, without their sister and friend, they will probably re- 
main for life. Let me hear how you are, and the Chevalier 
also — they say he has bought an estate near London. My 
compliments to the worthy, valorous Lord Nelson, to whom 
I shall feel grateful as long as I live, notwithstanding his 
speech in Parliament against the importance of maintaining 
a position in the Mediterranean, Malta, &c, has greatly dis- 
tressed me ; it is true, he only followed the bitter and unjust 
Lord Hawkesbury, even Pitt and many others, who have 
decided to leave Italy as a mere French dependent province, 

' Vol. ii. page 379. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSOTf. 239 

and the Mediterranean free for them, where they will find all 
the needful resources for the Levant, Egypt, &c. and all the 
commerce ; but it is not for females to reason, we can only 
sigh and weep. My attachment to England has been perfect, 
entire, all our movements, misfortunes, losses and sufferings 
have shewn it, therefore I own this complete abandonment 
is cruel, and so much the more so as one must be silent even 
when laughed at, and asked if our Anglo-mania is cured. I 
grieve, and my tears suffocate me. My attachment may be 
unfortunate, but cannot be destroyed, and leads me to hope 
that England will not before ten years have to repent of this 
peace, now concluded with a nation whose activity, pugnacity, 
and good fortune, will make such efforts as will surprise and 
incommode her ; but I am a woman, and have no right to talk 
about it, and must endeavour neither to think nor to trouble 
myself further with it. Tell me all that concerns you, for my 
heart is interested in it. I can say nothing to you at present 
of my intentions and movements, as they depend on the 
orders of the King, on the evacuation of the French, and 
the season. I think at the commencement of the spring of 
going to die at my post — if my children were established, 
their position certain, I should regard such an event as my 
deliverance from this prospect of further misfortunes, but 
until my children's condition is fixed (I do not say perma- 
nently secured, for no one could, in such times as these), I 
should wish to live to be serviceable to them, and then I 
would quit life without regret. Adieu, my dear lady, I have 
spoken to you with sincerity and frankness, as I have always 
been accustomed to do. I hope that your sentiments are not 
changed, mine are unchangeable, and believe me for life, 
your very sincere and grateful friend, 

" Charlotte. 

" A thousand compliments to the good Chevalier Hamilton, 
and the hero of the Nile, the valorous Nelson." 

A letter to his agents, Messrs. Marsh, Page, and Creed, 
will shew that the demands upon Lord Nelson's purse had 
placed him rather in embarrassment, and that he had been 
obliged to dispose of the diamonds which had been at different 



240 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. V. 

times presented to him. Allusion to a valuation of these is 
made in a letter to A. Davison, Esq. December 18th, 1801, 
in which he says, " The valuation of the diamonds is, as far 
as I have been told, shameful ; therefore, although I am 
naturally very anxious not to obtrude more on your goodness 
than necessity obliges me, yet I wish to talk to you on the 
subject of being even a little longer in your debt, taking care, 
which I hope I shall be able, to secure the payment to you : 
but more of this to-morrow." 

The subjoined letter shews Nelson's anxiety to relieve his 
Secretary, Tyson, from whom he received the following 
letter : — 

" Malta, 21st October, 1801. 

"' My Lord, 
" I refer your Lordship to Sir Alexander Ball, Bart, the 
bearer of this, for all the particulars of my cursed detention 
in this country, and the difficulties I have had to encounter 
in the final settlement of my accounts, a thing beyond all 
calculation grievous to me, and hath very materially affected 
my health. 1 have been ill for near two months last past, of 
a slow fever, attended with boils, with which I have been 
covered from head to foot, and even to the finger ends, a 
more miserable wretch never crept on the face of the earth 
than I was for some time — disease added to disappointment 
in the adjustment of my affairs, have all added to make me 
extremely unhappy. However, I hope in a few days to take 
my departure with Captain Louis to Mahon and Gibraltar. 
I have yesterday received from Mr. Brown on your Lord- 
ship's account the sum of «£767- 13.s 5d sterling, which is all 
he says that is as yet payable, and if there is any payable at 
iVl ahon or Gibraltar, he will give me orders to receive it also. 
The utensils for Grgeflter at Bronte arrived a few days ago, 
and I got Captain Martin's and Captain Louis's launches to 
land them in the dockyard here. Mr. Lawson, the late 
Master of the Alexander, who is now the Master Attendant, 
has them in his care, but I have to mention to your Lord- 
ship that all the seeds which were stowed in one cask, were 
dropped overboard ; we had them immediately opened and 
spread to dry, and I believe the most of them are yet good. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 241 

except the flax seed, which seems to have been rotten before, 
by stowing it in a damp place. The villain that landed them 
at Mahon, although by license of the Court of Admiralty, 
ought not to have been paid his freight : there is a charge on 
those packages of 1144 dollars with the agio on them, and 
Mr. Lempriere has drawn on Noble for the sum, which I 
shall pay on your Lordship's account. Should Graeffer send 
for those things or the seed. Noble will send them over; 
Captain Sayer brought them up from Mahon in the Ulysses 
troop-ship. I sail for Mahon, as I am told, in six days. 
God be thanked it is a peace, and that your Lordship will 
not have any more dangers to encounter, in small vessels 
particularly. We are not yet informed of the terms of peace, 
but expect them soon. Sir Alexander will tell you all the 
news of and about the Great Chief and his Secretary, and 
in the hope of seeing your Lordship in two months from this 
date, I have the honour to be, with the most sincere respect 
and esteem, 

" My Lord, 

" Your Lordship's 
*^' Most obedient and most faithful servant, 

"J. Tyson. 

" I beg your Lordship to make my most respectful com- 
pliments to Sir William and Lady Hamilton." 

To his Agents, Lord Nelson wrote thus : — 

"Merton, December 29th, 1801. 

" Most private, to be returned to me, as I consider this 
letter as a confidential communication to my friends. 

" Mr. Tyson, my Secretary, and as good a man as ever lived, 
is arrived, and I have an account with him which makes me 
his debtor about £4000. There may be some set off, but I 
choose to consider that the sum, and I not only wish, but 
am fixed to pay him the day after he gets to London, there- 
fore I wish to prepare this money for him. If I have money 
in the funds (and I think I have Indian Stock) it must 
directly be sold ; this, with my arrears of pay, will, I hope, 
go far towards raising the money, and if it will not, I must 
trespass on your indulgence. I have the means to repay 

VOL. II, R 



242 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. V. 

you in (even if I lose my cause with Lord St. Vincent) 
£5000. from the Alcmene prizes, and near £3000. from the 
Lima convoy, and even Merton, any part of which I shall 
with pleasure make over to secure you in any advance. I 
have sold diamonds to pay one person to whom I was in- 
debted by his goodness in trusting me £3000. I take no 
SHAME TO BE POOR; ucvcr for myself have I spent six- 
pence, it has all gone to do honour for my country, and in 
a way which, whether the persons have deserved it or no, is 
for their consideration not for mine. I intended to have 
gone to town to-day, but I am not very well, and perhaps I 
have explained myself better in writing than by speaking, 
and give you time to reflect whether you can or not comply 
with my request," 






UdDffiJH) IJlElLSOirS- STATEMTEI^T ©F MIS WdDUMBS. 



iJIS m' j)OJsej^ww of th& JiuJw/- J 



T (yoftxm Crokir.- Ltl}i^q: 



1802.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 243 

CHAPTER VI. 

1802—1803. 

In the year 1802 we find Lord Nelson living at Merton, 
enjoying the society of Sir WilUam and Lady Hamilton, who 
resided with him, and a select few of his friends. 

It was at this time probably pondering over the»proceedings 
during the war, that he marked down the following summary 
of the wounds he had received in the defence of his country : 
(See Facsimile.) 

" Wounds received hy Lord Nelson. 
" His eye in Corsica.^ 
« His belly off Cape St. Vincent.^ 
" His arm at TenerifFe.^ 
" His head in Egypt.* 

** Tolerable for one war." 

The Queen of Naples addressed Lord Nelson : — 

" I received, my worthy Lord, your letter of the 24th of De- 
cember, and was much aifected by your expressions of attach- 
ment. I was very sorry that amongst other speeches in 
Parliament, my Lord, even yours was in favour of the plan of 
abandoning Malta to the domination of the masters of the 
world, to execute their sway without hindrance over us — this 
is very painful to me, and my frank and loyal sincerity compels 
me to say so. But I shall never forget what we owe to you. 
A lively and sincere gratitude towards you will accompany me 
to the grave. And I fervently hope that the opportunity 
may once more occur to enable me personally to tell you, 
that I am your sincere and grateful friend, 

"Charlotte. 

"Vienna, the 5th February, 1802." 

' At the siege of Calvi. 

* He was struck by a splinter on the Hth of February, 1797, in Sir Jolin .Tervis's 
action. 

•'' The unfortunate attempt on Santa Cruz. 

'' Scalp wound from a langridge shot at the Battle of the Nile. 



244 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. VI. 

Although away from his command between Orfordness and 
Beachy Head, Lord Nelson was only on leave, and did not 
strike his flag until the 10th of April. He made many appli- 
cations to the Admiralty in favour of those who had served 
with him, but with very limited success, and he got some 
provided for by the aid of some of his officers who were con- 
tinued in service. 

In the previous year he had received a communication from 
Lord Elgin of the honour conferred upon him by the Grand 
Signior for the Battle of Copenhagen, and on the 30th of 
January he received the letters and ribbon of the Order. 
He forwarded the same to the Hon. Henry Addington with 
the following letter : — 

" Merton, January 31st, 1802. 

" My dear Sir, 
" I have received yesterday from Lord Elgin the letters 
and ribbon sent herewith, and I have to request that you will 
have the goodness to lay them before the King, in order that 
I may know his Royal pleasure as to wearing the ribbon. 
This mark of regard from the Sultan has made a strong 
impression on my mind, as it appears that the Battle of 
Copenhagen has been the cause of this new decoration from 
the Porte. If his Majesty should, from regard to the Sultan 
or honour to me, intend to place the ribbon on me, I am 
ready to attend his commands, but I own, my dear Sir, that 
great as this honour would be, it would have its alloy, if I 
cannot wear the medal for the Battle of Copenhagen at the 
same time, the greatest and most honourable reward in the 
power of our Sovereign to bestow, as it marks the personal 
service of, 

" My dear Sir, 

"&c. &c. &c."i 

Nelson was very much annoyed that no medals had been 
voted for the Battle of Copenhagen, which he designated, 
and always looked upon, as, under all its circumstances, the 
most hard fought battle, and the most complete victory that 
ever was fought and obtained by the Navy of this country. 

' This lette- is printed from Lord Nelson's autograph, and differs a little from 
that in the Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. 3. 



1802.J LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 245 

He had been led to expect, from a conversation he had with 
the First Lord of the Admiralty, that they were intended to 
be granted, and he did not hesitate to communicate the same 
to several of the officers who had been engaged in this 
honourable service. When, therefore, he received from Earl 
St. Vincent a letter which stated that he had never given 
encouragement to the expectation of receiving medals for 
the action of the 2nd of April, he was exceedingly astonished 
and mortified. On the 20th of November, 1801, he wrote a 
letter to the Lord Mayor of London, having seen that the 
thanks of the City had been voted to the army and navy, 
who brought the campaign in Egypt to an honourable con- 
clusion. Nelson expressed his satisfaction at this vote so 
truly deserved, and after noticing the attention of the citizens 
to services in honour of the country, remarked, that there 
existed only one exception, namely, that of the action of the 
2nd of April, 1801; "a day when the greatest dangers of 
navigation were overcome, and the Danish force, which they 
thought impregnable, totally taken or destroyed by the con- 
summate skill of the commanders, and by the undaunted 
bravery of as gallant a band as ever defended the rights of 
this country." He appealed to the Lord Mayor, as the 
natural guardian of the characters of the officers of the navy, 
army, and marines who fought, and so profusely bled, under 
his command on that day. In no sea action during the war 
had so much British blood flowed for their King and country. 
He forwarded this letter to the Hon. Henry Addington, and 
solicited his opinion ; but three days having elapsed without 
a reply, his impatient spirit could brook no further delay, and 
he sent off the letter. Mr. Addington, however, was averse 
to the communication, and was led to be so upon private as 
well as public grounds, and he expressed his willingness to 
state them to Lord Nelson at Downing Street. They were, 
it may be presumed, sufficiently convincing at this time, as 
Lord Nelson in consequence withdrew his letter.^ 

' The following is from the rough draft of this letter, found among the present 
collection of Lord Nelson's papers : — 

" My Lord, 
" I have seen in this day's papers that the City of London have voted their 
thanks to the brave Army and Navy who have so happily brought the campaign 



246 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

To have services of so arduous and important a nature 
unacknowledged by the City, and so disregarded by the 
Government in refusing the medals, occasioned Nelson the 
greatest disappointment. He declared to Captain Foley that 
he never would wear his other medals until that for Copen- 
hagen was granted, and he refused to dine with the Lord 
Mayor in his official capacity until justice was done to his 
companions in arms on the 2nd of April. He never ceased 
to urge these subjects even two years posterior to the action, 
and when Lord Melville had been placed at the head of the 
Admiralty. Nor did the officers, many years after his death, 
cease to put forth their claims to such a distinction. When 
his Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence was appointed 
Lord High Admiral in 1828, a memorial was presented to 
him, praying him to obtain for them the medals they felt they 
had so strong a claim to possess, and also the rank of 
Commander of the Bath, to which some of the officers 
conceived themselves entitled. Time, however, only served 
to render the matter more difficult, and it was never accom- 



in Egypt to a glorious conclusion ; and no thanks were certainly ever better 
deserved. From my own experience I have never failed seeing that the smallest 
services rendered by either Navy or Army to the country, have missed being 
noticed by the Great City of London, with one exception — I mean, my Lord, the 
glorious second of April, a day when the greatest dangers of navigation were over- 
come, and the Danish force, which they thought impregnable, totally taken or 
destroyed by the consummate skill of the Commanders, and by the undaunted 
bravery of as gallant a band as ever defended the rights of this country. For 
myself I can assure you that if I was only personally concerned, I should bear 
the stigma, first placed upon my brow, with humility ; but, my Lord, I am the 
natural guardian of the characters of the officers of the navy, army, and marines 
who fought and so profusely bled under my command on that day. In no sea 
action this war has so much British blood flowed for their King and country. 
Again, my Lord, I beg leave to disclaim for myself more merit than naturally 
falls to a successful Commander ; but when I am called upon to speak of the 
merits of the Captains of his Majesty's ships, and of the officers and men, whether 
seamen, marines, or soldiers, I that day had the happiness to command, I say, 
that never was the glory of this country upheld with more determined bravery 
than on that occasion, and if I may be allowed to give an opinion as a Legislator, 
then I say that more important service was never rendered to our King and 
country. It is my duty, my Lord, to prove to the brave fellows, my companions 
in dangers, that I have not failed at every proper place, to represent, as well as I 
am able, their bravery and their services. When I am honoured with your Lord- 
ship's answer, I shall communicate it to all the officers and men who served under 
my command on the 2nd of April last." 



1802.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 247 

plished. The Lord High Admiral would not advise the King 
at that late period to issue the medals, and although the 
subject was again revived when William IV. ascended the 
throne, it was not attended with better success. 

In the month of September, 1801, Lord Nelson received 
from Germany an Order of Knighthood — that of St. Joachim,^ 
and he, in October, wrote to Mr. Addington to have his 
Majesty's opinion relative to accepting or refusing it. The 
following is the reply of the First Lord of the Treasury 
to this application, as well as to the Order of the Grand 
Signior, and to a solicitation to promote his brother in the 
Church : — 

" Downing Street, February 19th, 1802. 

" My dear Lord, 

'^Many considerations combine to make me particularly 
desirous of giving effect to your wishes in favour of your 
brother ; and I can only repeat that I shall not miss an 
opportunity of doing so, of which I can avail myself con- 
sistently with claims and engagements which leave me no 
alternative. 

" On Wednesday last, I communicated to his Majesty the 
wish entertained by the Grand Signior that you should wear 
the Insignia of the Order of the Crescent, and likewise that 
of the Order of St, Joachim, that you would accept the 
dignity of Knight Grand Commander thereof ; and I have great 
satisfaction in assuring your Lordship of His Majesty's most 
gracious and entire acquiescence. 

" With true regards, 

*' I am ever, my dear Lord, 

" Your faithful and obedient servant, 

" Henry Addington." 

The question of prize-money for Copenhagen was brought 
under Nelson's consideration by the following letter : — 

• The letters relating to the Order of St. Joachim will be found in Appendix, 
No. III. 



248 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

" Yarmouth, March 31st, 1802. 
" My dear Lord, 
" I have a letter from Sir Hyde Parker respecting some 
money which is to be paid on account of the Baltic expedi- 
tion. He tells me that Lieutenant-Colonel Stewart, with the 
detachment of troops, was borne as supernumeraries on board 
the fleet ; but, according to the regulation of Prize Laws, to 
share, they can only share in one class officers and soldiers 
together, not being part of the complement of the ship. We 
will allow being on the expedition joint with the fleet they 
then can only share if His Majesty should be pleased to direct 
a proi)ortion agreeable to their different rank ; in that case, it 
cannot affect the Admiral's right. Sir Hyde says, they mean 
t© Memorial the King, and it is become a question whether it 
would not be better to allow them to share according to their 
several ranks, as he understands it has been the case, in most 
of similar kind, instead of keeping back the distribution of 
£30,000., he says, now in the hands of Mr. Davison, to be paid; 
there can be no objection, I should suppose; and had there been 
a Major-Gcneral sharing in the different classes, in that case, 
1 rather think the Major-General Commander-in-chief of the 
army would have shared with the Commanders-in-chief, as at 
the Texel, and other places, hi/ the King's order ; but Sir Hyde 
tells me, it has been suggested that Lieutenant- Colonel 
Stewart's proportion should be, with the Junior Flag Officers. 
We cannot allow, my dear Lord, a Lieutenant-Colonel in the 
Army to share with us, it never has been, and I hope we shall 
not be the first to make a precedent ; I have no objection to 
making Colonel Stewart a compliment equal to what you 
think is right. Sir Thomas Young is with me, and begs me 
to say, he is ready, as well as myself, to do whatever you 
think is right. 

" I am, my dear Lord, 

" Yours faithfully, 

"Archibald Dickson.* 

' Sir Archibald Dickson, Bart, was a brother of Admiral William Dickson. 
(See Note, Vol. I. p. 438.) Sir x\rchibald was made a Post Captain in 1773, a 
Rcar-Admiral in 1794, a Vice-Admiral in 1795, and an Admiral of the Blue 
Squadron in 1801. His Baronetcy was created July 13, 1802. He died in the 
early part of the year 1803. 



1S02.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 249 

" I long much to see you to ask your advice similar to what 
you are contending for respecting sharing of prize-money. 
You would see the opinion 1 gave to Booth ; mine is a strong 
claim." 

Nelson's opinion is given in the following Memorandum, 
found among Mr. Davison's papers : — 

" From the very particular situation in which the Honour- 
able Lieutenant-Colonel Stewart, with the troops under his 
command, were placed on board the fleet under the command 
of Sir Hyde Parker, for they certainly did not belong to any of 
the ships, therefore, they were borne as supernumeraries, and 
they cannot be considered merely as passengers, therefore, they 
must, in fairness, be considered as connected with the services 
of the fleet, and, as the situation is entirely new, and being 
truly sensible that the Army shared with us the toils and 
dangers of the expedition, we do, therefore, (as the Proclama- 
tion for the distribution of prize-money, nor any joint expe- 
dition, is in the smallest degree similar to the present), as 
a mark of our high sense of the services of the Honourable 
Colonel Stewart and the Army, agree to give up a proportion 
of the Admiral's one-eighth of prize-money, so as to make 
Colonel Stewart's share of prize-money equal to that of a 
Junior Flag-Officer; and we hereby authorize our Agent, 
Alexander Davison, Esq., to take from the one-eighth due to 
the class of Admirals such a sum as will make Colonel Stewart's 
share equal to a Junior Flag Officer ; and we are of opinion, 
that the Field Officers of the 49th Regiment ought to share 
with the Captains of the Navy, and the other classes accord- 
ing to their rank with the Navy."^ 

His mind was very actively directed to improvements in the 
Navy. His observations on the culture of oak in the forest 
of Dean have been already printed ;" and a proposal for build- 
ing superior line-of-battle ships at a small expense to the 
nation was transmitted for his consideration by Lieutenant 
Layman.^ 

' Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. 22. 

^ From an Autograph in tlie Sidmouth Papers in the Dispatches and Letters, 
VoL V. p. 24. 

' See Appendix, No. IV. 



250 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

On the 24th of April, Lord Nelson was made acquainted 
by his brother-in-law with the serious illness, which terminated 
in the death of his venerable parent : — 

" My dear Lord, 
" Your good old father is very ill, and I have directions 
from Dr. Parry and Mr. Spry to say to you that he is cer- 
tainly in great danger. Whatever orders you send me shall 
be executed. Believe me, my dear Lord, 

" Yours affectionately, 

*' G. Matcham. 

"April 24th, 1802." 

The Rev. Edmund Nelson died at Bath on the 26th of 
April in the 79th year of his age. Sir Alexander Ball sent 
the following letter of condolence to Lady Hamilton : — 

" Clifford Street, April 30tli, 1802. 

" My dear Lady Hamilton, 

*' I most sincerely condole with our dear friend Lord Nel- 
son, on the death of his Father, an event which his mind 
has been prepared to receive by the advanced age and gradual 
dissolution of the Doctor.^ I therefore hope that he will 
soon recover from the shock which this melancholy separa- 
tion has occasioned, and I am very glad that he did not go 
to Bath, as it would have added considerable distress to his 
afflicted mind without answering any one good purpose. I 
shall visit Merton early next week ; you have, no doubt, 
great reason at times to feel some of the indignity and con- 
tempt of a misanthrope, but a little reflection will make your 
mind rise superior to such petty neglects and ingratitude. I 
have to regret that I have never had the power to prove to 
you and Sir William how very much I feel your kindness and 
friendship to me on many occasions. 

" I called yesterday on Sir Thomas Troubridge, and re- 
quested him to move Mr. Rhode to a ship building, and I 
named the Ocean — which could not be done, as the Admiralty 
have determined not to appoint Pursers to ships which are 
upon the stocks. I shall call upon Mr. Rhode to know in 
what manner I can be useful to him. 

' The Rev. E. Nelson was not a Doctor of Divinity. His degree was that of 
Master of Arts. 



1802.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 251 

'^ Entre nous, the Cabinet Ministers are of opinion that I 
am fitted for the station of Minister at Malta. Mr. Cameron 
is to be provided for, and an oifer has been made to me un- 
solicited to go to Malta ; but the salary is so inadequate to 
maintain that appointment, so as to render the services which 
will be expected of me, that I have refused to accept of it. 
Lord Hawkesbury has desired to talk to me on the subject 
early next week, and I am likewise to have a meeting with 
Lord Hobart. I am determined, however, not to accede to 
the terms they first proposed. Adieu, my dear sister, be 
assured of my unalterable regard. My best regards to Lord 
Nelson and Sir William, and believe me truly, your obliged 
and devoted, 

" Alexander John Ball." 

From a variety of letters entering into private matters and 
family affairs, it appears that the Rev. Edmund Nelson was 
buried on the llth of May, at Burnham Thorpe, and that 
the Rev. William Nelson, D.D. conducted the melancholy 
duties. Lord Nelson was exceedingly ill at Merton at the 
time, and in one of the letters, his brother recommends him 
to consult Mr. Hawkins or Mr. Everard Home, as his case 
appeared to be a surgical one, and might be serious. 

The Reverend Doctor was desirous of the living of Burn- 
ham Thorpe, and writes : — 

" If Lord Walpole had a proper feeling for the family, or 
had a pride in the name of Nelson being related to him, be 
would give it me, and not barter it away to some elec- 
tionering purposes. The parishioners say enough about it, 
if their wishes would do ; however, that is kind and flatter- 
ing on their part, I can't say but the sight of the place 
brings many pleasant things to remembrance, but then, that 
is alloyed by the reflection of what I am here for, and per- 
haps for the last time, at least the last time one can call it 
home." 

On the 6th of May the Rev. Dr. Nelson heard of the 
severe illness of the Dean of Exeter (Dr. Harward), and that 
he was talked of as his successor. He writes to his brother : 
" I wish it may be so. If you see Mr. Addington soon, you 



252 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

may offer my vote for the University of Cambridge, for 
Members of Parliament, and for the county of Norfolk to 
any candidates he may wish/^ The Dean died on the 15th 
of July, and Lord Nelson applied to Mr. Addington, but 
Dr. Nelson was not appointed. Exeter failing, in a short 
time he directed his views to Durham, as is shewn by the 
following letter to Lady Hamilton : — 

" Dear Lady Hamilton, 

" The Doctor says that he is very angry with you for not 
calling him Doctor, and for degrading the name and dignity ; 
for a Doctor in Divinity of the ancient and learned Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, is as much superior to a Doctor of 
Physic in any of your Scotch Universities (where they confer 
a diploma for two guineas on every quack who applies) as 
an arch-angel is to the arch-fiend. 

"■ If the old Earl^ should slip his cable, and be forced to 
resign, I hope our Great Defender will be able to get into 
his anchorage. He must try hard to get to windward of the 
Minister (in spite of the R — 1 Duke), speak often, and lay 
his plans accordingly, it will be a nice town house. 

"■ We have sent half-a-dozen apple trees, which we hope 
will arrive safe at Merton on Thursday ; some have been 
grafted two, some three years, and some only last spring, I 
would recommend them to be trained as standards, and of 
course not headed down ; they don't do so well to be trained 
as Espaliers, your gardener will understand me. They are 
the true Norfolk Beefen, such as we have sent in the large 
hamper. I call them ^ Lord Nelson's Norfolk Beefen.' 

" If the Earl is only going to the south of France for his 
health, I am afraid he will not resign, he will have leave of 
absence for the winter, and the other Lords of the Admiralty 
will do the business ; any three, I think, are sufficient. Let us 
hear every thing that goes on, your letters are better than the 
newspapers, and we look for them with greater anxiety and 
receive them with greater pleasure. I see by the papers that 
there is a stall vacant at Durham, I suppose worth a thou- 
sand a year, in the gift of the Bishop (Barrington). I re- 

' St. Vincent. 



1802.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 253 

member some years ago, when the Duke of Portland was 
Prime Minister, he secured one for Dr. Poyntz, at Durham. 
There is another vacant at York (if not filled up), in the 
gift of the Archbishop, but I don't know the value, no very- 
great sum I believe. 

" I beg my compliments to Sir William and Mr. Greville 
when you see him, and love to my brother. 
'^ And believe me, 
*' Yours very faithfully and affectionately, 

"^William Nelson." 

Sir Alexander Ball, who was sent to Malta, wrote Nelson 
from Portsmouth. 

"Portsmouth, 14th June, 1802. 
" My dear Lord, 
" I regret extremely that I had it not in my power to pay 
your Lordship another visit before I left town. I had the 
pleasure of seeing Sir William Hamilton, who informed me 
of your having discovered the cause of your stomach and 
bowel complaint, which being removed, I hope to hear of 
your Lordship soon enjoying the most perfect health. When 
I was at Malta I was often much indisposed, and could not 
find the cause until I met with a medical book of Dr. Town- 
send, and found out my case so minutely described, that I 
immediately proved it to be a worm case, and soon recovered 
better health. I had before this read Buchan and many 
other medical books, without fancying any of the numerous 
complaints so fully detailed. The Penelope is having her 
people paid to-day, and we are to sail this evening. I shall 
write to your Lordship from Malta, and give every informa- 
tion I can collect of Bronte. I write this in great haste, and 
have only time to offer my sincere wishes to your Lordship 
and kind compliments to Sir William Hamilton, with my 
love to my dear sister Emma. 

" Ever your Lordship's obliged and devoted, 

" Alexander John Ball." 

In the month of June, Lord Nelson resumed his corres- 
pondence with the Lord Mayor, upon observing a notice of 



254 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

motion in the Court of Common Council to vote Thanks to 
him for his conduct in taking the command of a force destined 
to prevent any designs the French might have of approaching 
the City of London. He entreated that such notice might 
be withdrawn, as the Battle of Copenhagen had not been 
approved by the City of London in the way they were in the 
haljit of doing, and stated that he should feel mortified to 
receive their proposed Thanks for a service so inferior in its 
nature to that which remained unrecognized by them. In 
September he declined dining with the Lord Mayor, but 
offered to be his private guest on any day he would name 
after his Mayoralty, but not in his public capacity, as he had 
determined that until the City of London thought justly of 
his brave companions in arms on the 2nd of April, 1801, he 
as their Commander could not receive any attentions from the 
City of London. The following is printed from a rough 
draft among the Nelson Papers : — 

" My Lord, 
" A few days past, I saw in the newspapers a Motion had 
been made in a Court of Common Council to thank me for 
my conduct in taking the command of a force destined to 
prevent any designs our enemies might have of approaching 
the City of London ; but which question stands over for some 
future Court. I have therefore, my Lord, to entreat that 
you will use your influence that no such question may be 
brought forward. 

" There is not, my Lord, one individual in the world who 
appreciates the honour of having their conduct applauded by 
the City of London, higher than myself. I was desired, my 
Lord, to take the command in question when in a very indif- 
ferent state of health, as I was flattered with the opinion it 
would keep quiet the minds of all in London, and on and 
between the coast of Beachy Head and Orfordness. This 
would have been a sufficient reason for me to have laid down 
my life, much less suffering from ill health; and my Lord, 
his Majesty's Government gave me such a powerful force, 
that the gallant officers and men I had the honour to command 
almost regretted that the enemy did not make the attempt of 
invasion. Therefore, my Lord, you see 1 have no merit, I 



1802] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 255 

only did my duty with alacrity, which I shall always be ready 
to do when directed. But, my Lord, if any other reason was 
wanting to prevent the City of London from thanking me 
for only shewing an anxiety to step forth in time of danger, 
it is this : — that not four months before, I had the happiness 
of witnessing, under all its circumstances, the most hard fought 
battle and the most complete victory, as far as my reading 
goes, that ever was fought and obtained by the navy of this 
country — a battle in Avhich the honour of the British flag was 
supported, and the just rights of our country defended. This 
battle had not, my Lord, the honour of being approved in the 
way in which the City of London has usually marked their 
approbation : therefore may I entreat that you will use your 
influence that no vote of approbation maybe ever given to me 
for any services since the 2nd of April, for I should feel, when 
I reflected on the noble support I received that day from Sir 
Thomas Graves, the Captains, Officers, Seamen, Marines and 
Soldiers I had the honour to command, much mortified at 
any intended honour which would separate me from them, 
for whatever my demerits may be, I am bold to say they 
deserve every honour and favour which a grateful country 
can bestow. I entreat your Lordship's indulgence for thus 
expressing my feelings, and again request that the intended 
motion of Thanks may not be brought forward. I trust your 
Lordship will give me full credit for the high estimation in 
which I hold the City of London, and with what respect I 
am, 

" Yours, &c. &c." 

In 1801 it will be recollected Lord Nelson made application 
to the Lord Chancellor to promote the Rev. Mr. Comyn, 
Lord Nelson's Chaplain on board the Vanguard at the Battle 
of the Nile, and one of his Domestic Chaplains. From an 
autograph in the possession of Robert Cole, Esq., it appears 
that so far back as August 4th, 1799^ when on board the 
Foudroyant in Naples Bay, Lord Nelson drank at supper to 
Mr. Comyn, with his good wishes for a good living. Lady 
Hamilton promised to write to Lord Loughborough, the 
Chancellor, and this letter was signed by Lord Nelson and 
Sir William Hamilton, to the latter of whom Lord Lough- 



25G LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

borough was well known. Lord Eldon's reply to the renewed 
application will be seen (page ISO), and the following letter 
will shew the recollection he bore of the solicitation : — 

"June 23rd, 1802. 

« My Lord, 
** I received the honour of your Lordship's letter, and I 
presume that the living which you state to be vacant is Bridg- 
ham, though your Lordship has not named it. Upon that 
supposition I state to your Lordship that I formerly refused 
to promise it, because I hold it contrary to my duty, to my 
station and my successors to make promises, which, as I may 
not be in office when they may reqmre it to be made good, I 
may be unable to perform. This living I could certainly make 
use of to gratify strong personal wishes of my own, founded 
on strong claims Avhich individuals have upon me to be at- 
tentive to their w^elfare. But I don't hesitate a moment to 
assure your Lordship, that I think public duty calls upon me 
to make use of the opportunity which public situation gives 
me, to accede to the wishes of a person to whom the country 
is so largely indebted as to your Lordship, and I shall give 
orders to my Secretary to prepare the necessary papers for 
presenting your friend to Bridgham. I am, with all possible 
respect, 

'* Your obedient humble servant, 

" Eldon.'' 

Lord Nelson, upon the receipt of this, sent an express off 
to the Rev. Mr. Comyn, with information of his appointment. 

From General WalterstorfF Lord Nelson received the 
following : — 

" St. Croix, 30th June, 1802. 

" My dear Lord 
" I have had the happiness of receiving your Lordship's 
letter in answer to mine from Madeira, and you do me justice 
in thinking that the attachment I profess for you is as unalter- 
able as it is sincere. I hope your Lordship has received a 
small box with liqueurs, which I did myself the honour of 
sending you from Martinique, per the ship the Union. But 
where this letter shall find you I really do not know. About 



1802.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 257 

three months ago, we expected your Lordship in the West 
Indies, and I was thinking of going to Martinique to pay you 
my respects there. The newspapers have since mentioned 
your having been appointed Commander-in-chief in the 
Mediterranean, I have not been able to find out if it be true 
or not ; at all events I direct this letter to be left at the house 
of Sir William Hamilton. 

" I have now finally settled my business with Mr. Swin- 
burne, and have found that gentleman exactly as Lady Ha- 
milton described him to me. We have, upon the whole, 
agreed very well, and have parted upon the most friendly 
terms. Only few claims have been referred to Ministerial 
discussion and decision, and the number of them should have 
been still less had not Mr. Swinburne sometimes suffered 
himself to be influenced by those whose interest it evidently 
was CO defend, or to draw a veil over those numerous irregu- 
larities which have been committed here. Mr. Swinburne 
is certainly a good and very honest man, but sometimes 
rather weak. 

"■ I long extremely, my dear Lord, to hear how your health 
has been this spring ; I hope you have followed the advice 
and prescriptions of your friends, and exposed yourself as 
little as possible to cold and moist weather. But were it not 
that the public ought sometimes to be gratified with the 
sight of those who have been the saviours of their country, 
and that the presence of Lord Nelson must give an additional 
lustre to any festivity, I should have found fault with your 
Lordship's going to the Lord Mayor's feast. I am afraid that 
the French West India islands are as yet far from having 
their tranquillity secured ; I cannot approve of the plan 
adopted by the Commander-in-chief at St. Domingo, and 
still less the measures adopted at Guadaloupe, where the 
new Government already finds itself too weak. The negroes 
at Martinico are ripe for an insurrection. General Rocham- 
beau is the man who ought to have been sent to that island. 

'' It will hardly be in my power to leave the West Indies 
before the month of April next, but I anticipate already the 
agreeable moment when I shall again take your Lordship 
by the hand, and when I shall have the happiness of spending 
some days at Morton, where I hope to renew my respects to 

VOL. II. s 



258 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

Sir William and Lady Hamilton. I am^ with the sincerest 
sentiments, 

" My Lord, 

" Your Lordship's 
" Faithful, obedient and obliged servant, 
"Ernest Frederick Walterstorff." 

The Rev. Dr. Nelson went to Cambridge on occasion of an 
election of Members for the University. He thus writes to 
Lady Hamilton : — 

" Christ CoU. July 6th, 1802. 

^' My dear Lady, 
" Dr. Fisher is very much flattered by your kind and 
friendly expressions towards him, and desires his best respects. 
The election for the University took place yesterday, the 
whole was over in five minutes. Mr. Pitt and Lord Euston 
are re-elected. I had a bow this morning from Billy in the 
Senate House, so I made up to him, and said a word or two 
to him. I purpose leaving this place to-morrow morning, 
but I don't think I can possibly be at Merton before 5 o'clock, 
so don't wait for me, for if I could get there sooner I should 
not like the trouble of dressing and going out to dinner im- 
mediately ; no doubt I shall find enough to dine upon at 
home ; a beef-steak, or any thing will do for me. I am glad 
you think the jewel so well. Make my love to my brother, 
&c. &c. and believe me your most faithful, obliged, and affec- 
tionate friend, 

" William Nelson. 

"P. S. The bells are now ringing for the re-election of the 
members for the Town of Cambrid(/<\'' 

Lord Nelson made a tour into Wales in the months of July 
and August, and was every where received with the liveliest 
joy and satisfaction. 

The principal object of this tour was to view Milford Haven, 
and examine the improvements made by Mr. C. F. Greville 
upon his uncle's estate, under the powers of an Act of Par- 
liament passed in 1 790. Besides Lord Nelson, Sir William 
and Lady Hamilton, there were the llev. Dr. Nelson, Mrs. 



1802.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 259 

Nelson and their son. At Oxford they were joined by Mrs. 
Matcham, Lord Nelson's sister, her husband and son. Lord 
Nelson was presented with the Freedom of the City in a gold 
box, and the University confei'red upon him the degree of 
Doctor of Laws, and also upon Sir William Hamilton. Lord 
Nelson's brother being already a Doctor of Divinity of Cam- 
bridge University, was admitted ad evndem — thus they were 
all complimented on this occasion. The party visited Blen- 
heim ; but were annoyed at not being received by the Duke 
of Marlborough, who was there at the time. Refreshments 
were sent to them, but were declined. This apparent neglect 
of civility and attention due to so distinguished a naval 
warrior, from the descendant of so renowned a military chief 
was attempted to be explained by the absence of the usual 
ceremonials of introductory etiquette, which the Duke's shy 
and retiring habits prevented him from putting aside on the 
occasion. 

At Gloucester the bells were rung upon their arrival, the 
cathedral and other objects of interest were visited, and here 
separating from the Matchams, who left for Bath, Lord 
Nelson, Sir William and Lady Hamilton proceeded to Ross. 
Preferring the passage to Monmouth by the River Wye to 
that by land, a vast concourse of people attended them in 
boats, that which Nelson occupied being tastefully decorated 
with laurels. The shore was lined with spectators, guns 
fired, and other demonstrations of delight manifested. Nelson 
was made a Burgess of the Borough, and escorted into the 
town by the bands of the Monmouth and Brecon militia, 
playing " God save the King," and " Rule Britannia." Nelson 
visited his old friend Admiral Gell. At Brecon he was warmly 
greeted by the farmers, and at Milford, where preparations had 
been made, the reception was most enthusiastic. Here Sir 
W^illiam Hamilton visited his tenants, from whom he had been 
absent many years. The first of August was of course selected 
as a grand fete day ; all the nobility and gentry round had 
been invited by Mr. Greville to do honour to Nelson, and to 
commemorate this visit and the victory of the Nile. An 
annual rowing match, fair day, and exhibition of cattle were 
established. At the dinner Lord Nelson was peculiarly 
happy, and delighted every one with the judicious observations 

s 2 



CO LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP.VI. 

he made upon the harbour at Milford, which with that at 
Trincomalee, he observed, were the two finest he had ever 
beheld. 

Lord Nelson put up at the New Hotel during his stay in 
this place, and Sir William Hamilton left a fine whole length 
picture of his Lordship, which had been painted in 1 799 by 
Leonardo Guzzardi of Palermo, to be preserved there for the 
gratification of the visitors. This portrait has been recently 
purchased by the Lords of the Admiralty, and now hangs up 
in the Council Room at the Admiralty, facing that of his late 
Majesty William IV.^ 

Lord Nelson visited Lord Cawdor, Lord Milford, Lord 
Kensington, Mr. Foley, the brother of his friend Captain 
Foley, and many others. At Haverfordwest he was drawn 
through the streets by the populace, and at Swansea he 
received the same attention from a body of exulting tars. 
Lord Nelson and Sir William Hamilton received the Freedom 
of this place. Returning to Monmouth he dined with the 
Mayor and Corporation, according to a promise he had made ; 
thence he proceeded to Ross, where a triumphal arch had 
been erected for the hero to pass through, after which he 
went to Herefoixl, and received the Freedom of that city 
inclosed in a box, cut from the wood of the apple tree, the 
pride of that county. Nelson viewed the cathedral, and 
afterwards paid a visit to the Bishop, who was confined by 
illness to his room. He then departed for Downton Castle, 
near Ludlow, the seat of Richard Payne Knight, Esq. where 
he was received by similar marks of regard, and had conferred 
upon him the Freedom of the Borough of Ludlow. Thence 
he proceeded to Worcester, where he partook of a collation 
prepared by the Corporation, and was admitted a freeman of 
the city. He visited the China manufactory of Messrs. 
Chamberlain, the cathedral, &c. and then left for Birmingham, 
arriving there two hours before the time he was expected, to 
avoid tumult in so populous a place. He examined the 
principal manufactories of this town, saw medals struck to 
commemorate his visit, attended the theatre, where he was 

' I have thankfully to acknowledge the kindness of their Lordsh'ps in granting 
me permission to engrave this portrait for tlie present biography of the celtbrated 
Admiral. 



1802.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 261 

received with the most heartfelt pride, and after the per- 
formance escorted to his hotel by an immense throng carrying 
hundreds of lighted torches. At Warwick and at Coventry 
similar honours awaited him. He then paid a visit to the 
Earl Spencer at Althorp, and returned to Merton on the 
5th of September. The excitement attendant upon this 
journey tended to the perfect restoration of his health, and 
he could not fail to have been exquisitely delighted by the 
grateful and affectionate manner in which he had been every 
where received by all classes of society. 

During his tour he made many inquiries respecting the 
growth of oak timber, and recorded notes upon the subject. 

By the following letter Lord Nelson learnt of the death of 
his steward at Bronte. 

"Naples, 21st August, 1802. 
" My Lord, 

" I take the liberty of accompanying a letter from Mrs. 
Graeffer, which I am sorry to say conveys your Lordship the 
sorrowful tidings of the sudden death of poor Graeffer. From 
my own feelings for the loss of so worthy a character, I can 
judge what distress it must give your Lordship, and more 
particularly Mrs. Graeffer on so trying an occasion ; but I 
have endeavoured to console her, and hope that as we must 
all be deprived of our nearest and best comforts, she will bear 
her loss with fortitude and resignation. Mrs. Graeffer entreated 
I would apply to General Acton and press him to allow her 
to continue the administration of the estate until your Lord- 
ship's answer, but the General told me this afternoon that a 
proper person had been already named at the request of 
Cavalier Forcella, as a necessary step that your Lordship's 
interest might not be prejudiced, and which the General 
seemed to have much at heart. I presume Cavalier Forcella 
will have written to your Lordship every circumstance that 
has occurred. Tf it should be your Lordship's intention to 
send out a farmer from England, he must take with him all 
the implements he may want, as the former ones sent out 
were mostly lost or spoilt. 

" The Revolutionary principles in Italy are nearly the same ; 
no social order or steadiness in the Government are re-esta- 



262 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

blished, and consequently there can be no security given to 
individuals, which prevents many commercial people from 
fixing their residence in Italy. General Doyle is here, and 
General Fox is hourly expected — they have no orders as yet 
for evacuating Malta. The Queen returned here last Tuesday, 
and will shortly accompany the Prince and Princess to Bar- 
celona ; it is considered it would not be prudent for the King 
to quit the capital. 

" Permit me to request your Lordship to present my best 
respects to Sir William and Lady Hamilton, and to Mrs. 
Cadogan, and I have the honour to be, 

" My Lord, 
" Your Lordship's most obedient and 

" Most humble servant, 

"Abraham Gibbs. 

" The Statel}^ and Hydra are here, and the Medusa is at 
Clvitu Vecchia. The Greyhound, Captain Hoste, is going to 
the Levant. General Acton considers that nothing is forth- 
coming to the British officers for the reduction of Civita 
Vecchia and Rome, since those places have been given up 
again.'^ 

Lord Nelson wrote to Mr. Davison on the subject : " How 
short-sighted we are ! I have lost Mr. Grseffer, my Governor 
of Bronte : he died August 7- It embaiTasses me a little, 
but I endeavour to make the best of things, and it may pos- 
sibly turn out to my pecuniary advantage. I have his full 
account of my estate ; rather more than £3000. a year nett, 
and increasing every year in value. General Acton has taken 
possession of every thing for me, and is behaving very 
friendly."^ 

From an old schoolfellow Lord Nelson received the fol- 
lowing curious epistle : — 

" My Lord, 
*^ Dean Swift closes, or terminates, a letter to the great 
Earl of Peterborough, by telling that nobleman — 'That he 
should be happy to have it in his power to shew one of his 

' Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. 30. 



1802.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 2G3 

Lordship's to his Parishioners/ You, my Lord, have not 
suffered me to languish respecting that point. For these 
some months past 1 have had it in mind to shew to my 
acquaintance and friends a letter from you, and thereby to 
convince them I had once the pleasure of being your school- 
fellow, and have now the honour to be considered by you as 
a friend. In truth, my Lord, we never were otherwise, 
though not intimate. 

" Your Lordship, though in the second class, when I was 
in the first, was five years my junior, or four at least, and at 
that period of life such a difi'erence, in point of age, is con- 
siderable. I well remember where you sat in the school-room. 
Your station was against the wall, between the parlour door 
and the chimney : the latter to your right. From 1769 to 
1771 we were opposites. Nor do I forget that we were under 
the lash of Classic Jones, as arrant a Welshman as Rees-ap- 
Griffith, and as keen a flogger as merciless Busby, of birch- 
loving memory ! Happy am I indeed, my Lord, to find, by 
your very kind letter, that Hac meminisse javat ! According 
to an old sentimental toast, we imprecate the meeting an 
* old friend with a new face :' consequently, how very pleasing 
it is to find that not to be the case, respecting an old school- 
fellow ! As a philosopher, I obsei*ve, my Lord, with great 
satisfaction, that your honours have not changed you. Rea- 
sonable men always behold those things through the proper 
medium. Titles and Peerages may honour Lord Barrington, 
or Lord Carrington, or Lord Lavington, or Lord Borringdon : 
Lord Nelson confers honour upon them by his acceptance. 
/ regard my old schoolfellow as the saviour and deliverer of 
Europe in general, and of his country in particular : and in 
my eyes, those titles are superior to all others. Nevertheless, 
far be it from me to despise honours. That I never do, nor 
those who bestow them. But I often do those upon whom 
they are bestowed. Animated by these principles, and con- 
sidering your Lordship as the hero of this age, I particularly 
suggested to my friend, the Baron d'Ednor, the idea of the 
Chapteral Order of Saint Joachim's requesting you to accept 
the dignity of Knight Grand Commander of that Order, 
according to a particular clause in the statutes of that body. 
This I mention without pretending to arrogate any merit to 



264 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI* 

myself, since my advising such a measure could not have had 
any effect, unless the whole Chapter was unanimous. It was 
I likewise who advised M. Rlihl, the Chancelist of that Order, 
to dedicate his learned history of all the Existing Orders of 
Knighthood to your Lordship, and procured him the assist- 
ance of one or two learned men, to facilitate the completion 
of that ingenious work, upon which he has bestowed inde- 
fatigable perseverance. In my last letter I observed to your 
Lordship, that like the Senator, who boasted that he possessed 
the Curule chair, on which Caesar, the Dictator, sat when he 
was assassinated, and was married to Terentia, the widow of 
Cicero ; so would it ever be my boast — that I was two years 
your schoolfellow ; and so long the fellow student at the 
University with Mr. Pitt: I now, my Lord, beg leave to add, 
that were I ambitious of monumental fame, these two circum- 
stances should form parts of my epitaph ; but I should only 
imitate Sir Fulke Greville, (first Lord Brooke of Beauchamps 
Court, and a collateral ancestor of Sir William Hamilton's 
nephew, the present Earl of Warwick), whose epitaph is as 
follows : — 

' Fulke Greville, 

Servant to Queen Elizabeth, 

Councellor to King James, 

And friend to Sir Phihp Sidney, 

Trophoeum Peccati.' 

" I wish, my Lord, as well as this epitaph, I could send 
you the Dictator's curule chair, and a joint of the little finger 
of the Centagenary Terentia. What a treat it would be to 
Sir W^illiam Hamilton ! ! ! I am sure he would prefer the 
chair to those of the Speakers of both Houses ; and the tip 
of Terentia's little finger to that of any one woman, save 
Lady Hamilton ! Respecting Mr. Riihl's work, I trust, my 
Lord, you will patronise it amongst your friends and ac- 
quaintance; since it is certain we have not so complete a 
compendium, on that subject, in our language. I think his 
accounts of the Orders of Saint Joachim, the Crescent, the 
Bath, and Saint Ferdinand are drawn up — de main de maUre 
as old Jemmy Moisson, the French master at N. AValsham 
school, used to express himself. Pray, my Lord, are we to 



1802.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 265 

have a commercial treaty with the French or not ? If we are, I 
wish your Lordship could procure me a place of Consul in some 
one of the ports of the Eepvblic. I am sure, if you would 
ask for it, it would not be refused you. With the topography 
of the French nation, its resources, manufactures, commerce, 
exports and imports, I am perfectly well acquainted ; having 
lived ten years, and upwards, in that country. As to the 
language, I know it as well as my own. Of the Italian and 
German I have a competent knowledge. With Mortimer's 
Lex Mercatoria I should be able to make my way. It is 
not that I want this to live. Thank God, no — but it would 
be some employment for me ; and no bad thing when joined 
to Cuptahi's pay ! I could bear being under an obligation 
to you, my Lord, whom I venerate beyond expression : but 
I should be sorry to be so to many, and many of those whose 
names enjoy a niche in the red book. If you and Sir William 
Hamilton could compass this, I could manage to pay the 
official fees, and you would enable me to bless you every day 
for the additional comforts of life you procured me. Excuse 
my taking the liberty of inclosing to you this letter for Sir 
William Hamilton, and believe me with every kind wish for 
your health and felicity, 

^' My Lord, 
" Your much obliged old friend, 

"Levett Hanson. 

'^ P. S. I suppose, my Lord, it is not necessary for me to 
observe to your Lordship, that twenty-five guineas are the 
usual doucevr which is bestowed upon any one for a dedication 
when it is accepted : and as this honest man Riihl has nothing 
save a place of eighty pounds a year, and official fees ; I think 
therefore, that in case you doubled that sum, (as he was 
charged with the whole of the correspondential business 
relative to your Lordship's promotion), that you will do no 
more than is proper. In case you think fit, my Lord, to 
make him this compliment, I will pay him that sum in your 
name, and will, when you permit me so to do, draw upon you 
for the same through the channel of Messrs. Hammersleys 
and Co. my Bankers, and will finally send you Mr. Riihl's 
receipt as my voucher. Since the month of June I have 
been at Hambro' to see several old acquaintances. You may. 



266 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

my Lord, send your answer under cover, or for me at Messrs. 
Thornton and Power's, who are my friends and bankers, as 
they are, I find, of all English travellers. Ever yours ! I 
shall not fail to drink your Lordship's health to-day, nor so 
long as we live, to celebrate that and the Anniversaries of 
Aboukir and Copenhagen. 

"Hamburgh, September 29th, 1802." 

Mr. J. Hiley Addington of the Treasury alludes to the 
hearty reception given to Lord Nelson in his Welsh tour : — 

" Langford Court, October 4th, 1802. 

' ' My dear Lord, 
" I was honoured with your letter just as I was stepping 
into my carriage on Friday morning, to wing my flight west- 
ward. You may be perfectly assured that I will do every 
thing in my power to give effect to your wishes in favour of 
Mr. Brent, as I am certain that my brother will be well dis- 
posed to do ; and trust that it will not be long before some 
means may present themselves. 

^' It was matter of real regret to me that I had not the 
good fortune to be at home when you w^re so good as to call 
in Great George Street, when I should have been glad to 
have talked over with you your Welsh tour. We almost trod 
upon your heels. I heard with infinite satisfaction your 
reception in every part of the principality, which was highly 
creditable to the honest Cambrians, who know how to appre- 
ciate eminent services and superlative merit. 

^' With the most cordial esteem and respect, 
" I am ever, my dear Lord, 

" Yours very faithfully, 

"■ J. Hiley Addington." 

The Hon. Colonel Stewart had been unsuccessful in an 
attempt to get into Parliament. Lord Nelson had written to 
him on the occasion, and the following was the reply : — 

" Shorne ClifFe Barracks, Sandgate, 
October 10th, 1802. 

" My dear Lord, 
" I have the honour of having now at my elbow your Lord- 
ship's two letters of the 27th and 28th of last month, and 



1S02,] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 267 

should apologize for not having earlier answered the appli- 
cation in favour of Mr. Porter, did I not conceive that the 
last ten days^ mode of occupation, marching, preparing my 
regiment for a march, and arranging it in very uncomfortable 
cantonments, will in some measure plead my excuse. Having 
earnestly solicited a removal of m}^ young regiment from the 
iniquity of Chatham, we have been ordered into these barracks, 
and into the three forts which are in front of Hythe, and shall 
probably be stationed here for the ensuing winter, the country 
is excellent for the movement of Chasseurs, and the neigh- 
bourhood seems tranquil and good ; very ill equipped bar- 
racks, and much dispersion of my corps is my only complaint, 
but as a soldier and a man I, as well as my neighbours, find 
the world much composed of contrarieties, ' J^t quil n'l/ a 
point de roses sans le.urs epines.' 

"Your Lordship's letter of the 2Sth September contains 
many sentiments of kindness towards me, and my private 
concerns of a political nature, which I must ever feel grateful 
for; on the subject of my late unsuccessful canvas in Scotland, 
you are pleased to express yourself with a degree of interest 
which no merits of mine have called for, and the whole his- 
tory of Parliamentary representation, (as it is carried on at 
least in that part of our island) has moreover blunted all my 
feelings so much, that I am not worthy to have an interest 
felt for me, whilst I am totally careless of the matter myself; 
for the six years that I represented the County of Wigton, 
I did my best to deserve well of it ; it was apparently thought 
otherwise, and feeling tranquil in my own conscience upon 
the occasion, the present choice of that shire meets with my 
quiet acquiescence. I shall not be apt to try the seat again, 
feeling as I now do ; but enough, my dear Lord, of personal 
concerns. Mr. Porter shall, upon the strength of your 
Lordship's recommendation, have my support and voice at 
the Magdalen. 1 have written to this purport to the clergy- 
man of the Institution, Mr. Prince, who will inform me if 
any forms but that of my epistolary promise be necessary. 
I should like, if a leisure half hour bring the recollection of 
what I might like into your Lordship's memory ; I should 
like, I was observing, to have your opinion upon the probable 



268 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

chance of long tranquillity to us all in this country, from the 
other side of the Channel. 

" Some things which were in yesterday's newspaper, and 
the view of the Boulogne shore from my barrack window 
have together united, to make me think more than usual of 
this possibility, and when I have before me the spot where, 
little more than one twelvemonth ago, nearly the last gallant 
effort of our country was made under your guidance, and 
poor Parker fell, the thoughts of renewed hostilities run much 
in my mind. Heaven grant that there may be no necessity 
for such an event; but may Heaven also grant that we may 
not be so wanting in spirit as to await provocations and 
encroachments too long ! 

"Adieu, my dear Lord. May I request that my respects 
may be made to Sir William and Lady Hamilton, and that I 
may ever sign myself, with the greatest truth, 

^' Your Lordship's very faithful friend, 

" And very humble servant, 

" Wm. Stewart. 

'^' I hear nothing from our Agent about the Baltic prize- 
money being arranged." 

From Jamaica, Lord Nelson received the following : — 

" Kingston, Jamaica, Oct. 15tb, 1802. 

" My dear Lord, 
" I am favoured with your Lordship's kind letter to me of 
12th of July, informing me your Lordship had seen Mr. 
Pedly, who had informed your Lordship that I was still alive. 
I am also very happy to congratulate your Lordship that you 
are alive too, after the great number of perils, dangers, and 
battles, your Lordship has been engaged in, and I most sin- 
cerely hope and wish that your Lordship will live many, 
many more years to enjoy the honour your Lordship has so 
gloriously earned, and to experience the gratitude your Lord- 
ship is so well entitled to from a nation to whom your Lord- 
ship has been so great a bulwark and support. I am much 
afraid, and indeed know, that we unhappy Colonists will want 



1802.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 2G9 

the aid and assistance of any friend we have in the new Par- 
Hament, for Mr. Addington's speech on the 27th of May, seems 
to prognosticate to us nothing but evil ; indeed, if there is 
not a totally new system adopted towards the Colonies to what 
has been followed and carried out for these many years past, 
they will become altogether useless to Britain, as they must 
be abandoned by the white inhabitants, for it will be impos- 
sible to carry on the culture of them, from the numberless 
i mpediments that are thrown in their way. Myself, and our 
whole country, must consider ourselves under the highest 
obligations to your Lordship for your intended support of us 
in the arduous trial that we expect will come on in the next 
Session of Parliament, and consider it will decide whether in 
future Britain shall have West India Colonies, or not, or 
whether eighty millions sterling, and the lives of all the white 
people in them are to be sacrificed or not. Ministers, before 
they are in too great a hurry, should contemplate the scene 
that St. Domingo just now presents. The first Colony that 
ever was in the world, covered with the vestiges of houses, 
and works burnt, and bushes growing where the most fertile 
crops were raised. Forty millions of property annihilated, 
200,000 Negroes and Mulattoes, as well as 30,000 white 
people butchered, massacred, and murdered, in consequence 
of the dream of Liberty having been promulgated among 
them under the pretence of humanity. Of 25,000 military 
that have been sent there from Europe since the Peace, not 
3000 alive. Those that are arriving are melting off as ice in 
a hot sun, and it will require 100,000 more troops to settle 
tranquillity in this island, and from eighty to one hundred 
millions sterling money to put it into the state it was in in 
1 787, and 700,000 Negroes to be imported from Africa. There 
is not a proprietor on the north side of the island that is re- 
stored to, or in the possession of, his former property, or who 
dares to go out to look at it. Four gallows were erected in each 
of the towns of that island, on which every Negro is hung with- 
out the least ceremony, or question asked, who is found in the 
streets after dusk, and it will be an utter impossibility ever 
to settle that island or Guadaloupe again so as to become use- 
ful Colonies to France, or any other European nation, until the 
whole present breed of Negroes on them is totally extirpated. 



270 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

With all these matters staring him in his face, a British 
Minister is still paying attention to those men who have been 
by their writings, and going to France, encouraging the 
visionaries there to effect these things in their Colonies, and 
who are now endeavouring to scatter the same through the 
British ones, and who have as far blinded him as to keep still 
regimented and armed black troops in the islands, who will 
not fail, whenever opportunity offers, to aid and assist those of 
their colour to act the same part in our islands as has been 
done in St. Domingo and Guadaloupe, and they cannot plead 
ignorance, after what has happened at Dominica, where they 
murdered their white officers. I have thoughts, and do intend 
to go to England in the spring, and your Lordship may be 
assured that I shall do myself the honour to pay my respects 
to your Lordship wherever you are, and to return my grateful 
thanks for your Lordship's good intentions and wishes 
towards me and my native country, and I have the honour to 
be, with the greatest respect, 

" My dear Lord, 
" Your Lordship's most obedient humble servant, 

"SiMOxN Taylor." 

From Malta, Sir Alexander Ball wrote to Lady Hamil- 
ton : — 

" Malta, 8th November, 1802. 

" My dear sister Hamilton, 
" I participated in the gratifying scene you and your good 
Sir William witnessed in the national testimonies of gratitude 
which our brave and good Nelson received in his journey to 
Wales. I desired all the paragraphs in the newspapers which 
mentioned it, to be marked for my perusal. I think his 
Lordship and Sir William must have been almost overpow- 
ered by such a load of caresses and kindness, and w^ould feel 
relieved at the sight of Merton and the prospect of repose; 
as for your Ladyship, I believe you could hip, hip, hij?, your 
Nelson when every other power was exhausted. I have in- 
troduced your relation to my son, who has carried him about 
the country, and delighted him much. Captain Capel is very 
kind to all his young gentlemen, and attends particularly to 



1802.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 27l 

their improvement. I am glad to hear the Tysons are well, 
have the goodness to tell honest John that I have written to 
the Treasury, and represented his losses by undertaking the 
commission of purchasing corn for the Island of Malta. I 
shall write to him soon. Miss Charlotte Nelson, I dare say, 
is fully sensible of the great and very rare advantages she has 
in the tuition of so accomplished a patroness. Pray give me 
all the traits you know of the Prince of Pantelaria, who is 
the Neapolitan Minister here ; he has a difficult task ; he is 
afraid of offending the French Minister, and it is to be appre- 
hended that this passion will operate more powerfully than 
love for the English — time will prove this. 

" The Deputies often talk of the kind attention and hospi- 
tality with which they were honoured by your Ladyship, Sir 
William, and Lord Nelson. Our business here is a jumble, 
and it is difficult to say what will be finally arranged. 

" Adieu, my dear sister, present my best respects to good 
Sir William, and believe me ever 

" Your obliged brother and friend, 

'* Alexander John Ball." 

Lord Nelson was anxious to have something done for his 
eye, as appears fi-om the following letter to his Physician, 
Dr. Benjamin Moseley: — 

" Merton, October 26th, 1802. 

'' My dear Sir, 
" I shall be in town in a few days, and will endeavour to 
see you . I agree with you, that (if the operation is necessary) 
the sooner it is done the better ; the probable risk is for your 
consideration ; I cannot spare very well another eye. 

" Ever yours, faithfully, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

" To Dr. Moseley." 

The military successes on land by France, and the naval 
glory of England established by her victories at sea, had 
rendered the contending nations unable to prosecute further 
the war with vigour. The French navy was not only reduced 



272 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

in number, but its spirit was completely disheartened. The 
force of the British navy had been augmented by captures 
and newly built vessels of war to a considerable extent. It 
is stated that at the time of the Peace of Amiens, we had 
nearly 800 war vessels of one description or other, ready to 
be arranged against an enemy. Two hundi'ed and ninety- 
eight French vessels had been taken, and fifty-five ships de- 
stroyed. James, in his Naval History records, that in 1796, 
eighty-two ships were added to the British Navy, and in 1798, 
sixty-three; the former measuring 64,847 tons, and the latter 
30,910. To the prizes obtained from the French, the 
Spanish and Dutch forces, taken and destroyed, are to be 
enumerated ; and the loss sustained by the Danes in the 
attack on Copenhagen is also to be considered. Whilst the 
British navy held itself to be invincible by sea, France re- 
garded herself as unconquerable by land ; the former triumph 
had been achieved principally by the genius and valour of 
Nelson, the latter by the sagacity and vigour of Buonaparte. 
The object of France in obtaining a recognition of the 
Republic on the part of England, the last of the powers to 
do so, was accomplished by the Peace of Amiens, which was 
entered into on the one side by that of his Majesty the 
King of Great Britain and Ireland, and on the other, by 
that of the French Republic, the King of Spain and the 
Indies, and the Batavian Republic. The preliminaries were 
agreed upon October 1, 1801, but the Treaty was not signed 
until March 27, 1802. There were but few sanguine enough 
to regard the Peace of Amiens as likely to enjoy any per- 
manence, for even whilst the negotiations for the definitive 
treaty were in progress, a French fleet, with a large arma- 
ment, departed from Brest to San Domingo, to recover that 
place from the revolted, or the free and independent negroes. 
This measure, which compelled England to maintain a force 
of thirty-five sail of the line in the West Indies, so directly 
undertaken, naturally excited distrust, and the naval and 
military forces of Great Britain Avere directed to remain un- 
reduced for three months. Buonaparte's views with regard 
to Italy, as shewn in his transactions with the Cisalpine 
Republic at Lyons, increased the suspicions already enter- 
tained, and Mr. Addington obtained the sanction of the 



1802.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSOX. 27-3 

House of Commons on the 3rd of March to a supply on the 
war estabUshment for sixty-one days more. 

When the French landed under General Le Clerc at St. 
Domingo, they found every negro in the island hostile to 
them ; which, added to the destructive nature of the climate, 
rendered the warfare one of the most perilous descrip- 
tion. Early successes had given to the French a dan- 
gerous confidence, inspiring hopes of conquest that never 
were to be realized, and although Toussaint L'Ouverture, a 
black slave of considerable ability, and the leader of his race, 
decoyed by false promises of amnesty, honours, and the vice- 
royalty of the island was entrapped and sent a prisoner to 
France, loaded with chains, and confined in a loathsome 
dungeon, the opposition rendered by Henri Cristophe and 
others, supported by the bravery and revengeful feelings 
of the negroes, and above all, the mortality among the 
French troops from the yellow fever, proved so destructive, 
that the army was reduced down to a few hundreds. Under 
General Rochambeau, however, Le Clerc having fallen a 
victim to the fever, a reinforcement of 15,000 men arrived, 
but they fared little better than those by whom they 
had been preceded, and the war recommencing between 
France and England, neither more troops nor ships could be 
afforded to follow up so hazardous an enterprise. A capitu- 
lation was therefore entered into ; Cape Frangais was evacu- 
ated, and the French under Rochambeau, together with a 
number of white families, who left the island fearing the 
revenge of the black population, departed. The fleet or 
convoy, together with the remaining troops, &c. fell into the 
power of the English, being captured by the British squad- 
rons ; Rochambeau was brought a prisoner to England, and 
not less than 8000 Frenchmen are reported to have been 
taken on this occasion. 

The Irish exiles in France were at this time carrying on an 
active correspondence with their countrymen, and endeavour- 
ing to provoke insurrection and civil war. At Paris this 
movement was warmly cherished, and the exiles had pledged 
themselves to its success if provided with money, arms, 
artillery, and troops. The shores of England were ako 
threatened with invasion, and Buonaparte, although fully 

VOL. II. T 



274 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

alive to the difficulties and the chances against his success, 
yet in his interview with the British Minister, Lord Whit- 
worth, did not hesitate to declare his determination [to 
attempt it, should the war be renewed. This threat, how- 
ever, failed to disturb the equanimity of our Ambassador. 
Buonaparte collected all the fugitive or disaffected Irish on 
the Continent, embodied them in what was called the Irish 
Legion, and contemplated effecting a universal civil war. 

The speech from the Throne delivered November 16, 1802, 
clearly intimated the probability of a renewal of hostilities. 
His Majesty said : " In my intercourse with foreign powers 
I have been actuated by a sincere disposition for the mainte- 
nance of peace. It is nevertheless impossible for me to lose 
sight of that established and wise system of policy, by which 
the interests of other States are connected with our own ; and 
I cannot therefore be indifferent to any material change in 
their relative condition and strength. My conduct will be 
invariably regulated by a diie consideration of the actual 
situation of Europe, and by a watchful solicitude for the per- 
manent welfare of my people. You will, I am persuaded, 
agree with me in thinking, that it is incumbent upon us 
to adopt those means of security which are best calculated to 
afford the prospect of preserving to my subjects the blessings 
of peace." 

Lord Nelson seconded the address, moved in the House of 
Lords by Lord Arden, on the 23rd of November, and in 
doing so, emphatically declared, " I, my Lords, have in dif- 
ferent countries, seen much of the miseries of war. I am, 
therefore, in my inmost soul, a man of peace. Yet I would 
not, for the sake of any peace, however fortunate, consent to 
sacrifice one jot of England's honour. Our honour is in- 
separably combined with our genuine interest. Hithei'to 
there has been nothing greater known on the Continent than 
the faith, the untainted honour, the generous public sympa- 
thies, the high diplomatic influence, the commerce, the 
grandeur, the i-esistless power, the unconquerable valour of 
the British nation. Wherever I have served in foreign coun- 
tries, I have witnessed these to be sentiments with which 
Britons were regarded. The atlvantages of such a reputation 
are not to be lightly brought into hazard. I, for one, rejoice 



1802.] LOUD VISCOUNT NELSOX. 275 

that his Majesty has signified his intention to pay due re- 
gard to the connection between the interests of this country 
and the preservation of the Hberties of Europe. It is satis- 
factory to know, that the preparations to maintain our dignity 
in peace, are not to be neglected. Those supplies which his 
Majesty shall for such purposes demand, his people will roost 
earnestly grant. The nation is satisfied that the Government 
seeks in peace or war no interest separate from that of the 
people at large ; and as the nation was pleased with that 
sincere spirit of peace with which the late treaty was nego- 
tiated, so, now that a restless and unjust ambition in those 
with whom we desired sincere amity has given a new alarm, 
the country will rather prompt the Government to assert its 
honour, than need to be roused to such measures of vigorous 
defence as the exigency of the times may require." 

On a motion for the Army Estimates, the House of Com- 
mons readily acceded to the proposal of the Secretary of 
War, Mr. Charles Yorke, and in the course of the debate on 
this occasion, Mr. Sheridan observed that " the ambition of 
the ruler of France must now be principally directed against 
this country. Prussia was at his beck, Italy his vassal, Spain 
at his nod, Portugal at his foot, Holland in his grasp, and 
Turkey in his toils. What object then remained for his de- 
vouring ambition greater than, or equal to the conquest or 
destruction of England ? This is the first vision that breaks 
on the French Consul through the gleam of the morning : 
this is his last prayer at night, to whatever deity he may 
address it, whether to Jupiter or Mahomet, to the Goddess 
of Battle or to the Goddess of Reason." 

The whole country was in favour of war — the expense 
attending an armed truce was severely felt and disliked, and 
it was only to be lamented that through the stratagems and 
cunning of Buonaparte and his Minister Talleyrand, our 
ambassador. Lord Whitworth, could not sooner obtain his 
passport and quit the soil of France, as the delay served 
only to give time to France to recruit her strength and pre- 
pare for renewed hostilities. 

On the 21st of December Lord Nelson spoke with great 
fervour in the House of Lords in favour of the Naval Com- 
missioners' Bill; he gave his opinion that great abuses 

T 2 



276 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. VI. 

existed in the navy, and were most especially practised by 
the Prize Agents. He stated the difficulties of getting 
money out of the hands of the Agents, and frequently the 
impossibility of obtaining it at all. The Bill gave great 
powers, but they were necessary to correct the abuses com- 
plained of. He afterwards gave evidence before the Com- 
mittee of Naval Inquiry. 

Lord Nelson was always eager to serve his friends, either 
by advancing their interest, or contributing to their comfort.. 
He had spoken in great praise of the Maltese asses, and un- 
dertook to obtain one for his old friend, Mr. Richard Bulkeley.^ 

' Mr. Bulkeley was with Lord Nelson at the attack on St. Juan, and as one of 
the very few who survived that disastrous affair was naturally much attached to him. 
They maintained an occasional correspondence, and Lord Nelson obtained ad- 
mission into the Navy for one of Mr. Bulkeley's sons. The following is the 
letter, making request for this purpose, and also alludes to the present most able 
Hydrographer of the Admiralty, Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, K.C.B. 

" Chaceley, Tewksbury, 12th March, 1800. 
" My dear Nelson, 

" Your very kind letter of the 8th October reached me about six weeks ago, it 
came by the way of Cork. Accept my sincere thanks for the manner in which 
you received my recommendation of Mr. Beaufort. I trust and believe he will 
not prove a discredit to either of us. I have been twice in London within the 
last four weeks, both times I saw, as you may suppose. Lady Nelson very often, 
and your good old father, on whom the hjind of time presses hard ; he appears 
gradually to sink, and witli Christian resignation to look forward to those blissful 
regions which are the ultimate abode of such men as him. God grant him an 
undisturbed journey, and the reward he merits. Lady Nelson's health appears 
much mended since last summer ; she looks anxiously for your return, but as 
well as the rest of your friends, knows not how to flatter herself; reports have 
been so many and positive, that, at last, I expected to see you so soon as to deter- 
mine me not to write, however, I find it is so uncertain, that I can withhold no 
longer, and the report of an expedition from home to the Mediterranean almost 
assures me that yoti can't come home for the present for the sake of the general 
cause. I wish from my heart that I may not see you till you have given frenh 
cause for envy ; to be envied by the brave and deserving may be reconcileable, for 
from such men one expects liberality, but to be the envy of blockheads and fellows, 
who, if the opportunity presented itself, could not, and would not if they 
could, avail themselves of the precious moment, quite drives me mad. For one part 
of the many things said of you, you may have some reason to be vain, for it has 
begot you the prayers and praises of the fair sex, who all impatiently wait your 
return. 

*' In three or four weeks I hope to move to a house, which I have just jiurchased 
in Shropshire ; my address, remember, when you write, will be Ludlow, Sln'opshire. 
You may recollect, one evening I called on you and Lady Nekon in Bond Street ; 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 277 

The following is an acknowledgment of the arrival of the 
animal : — 

"Ludlow, Saturday, 8tli January, 1803. 

" My dear Nelson, 

" I am very sincerely obliged to you for your letter of the 
6thj giving me information of the arrival of the Maltese, for 
which I shall dispatch a messenger to-morrow, and I have by 
this day's post written a letter of thanks to Captain Max- 
well, and have directed a person at Portsmouth to give a 
guinea to the man who took care of the ass on the passage, 
and to pay other charges. I look with impatience to the time 
when I shall get the animal into my stable. Sir A. Ball's 
account of him raises my hopes, and I expect a nonsuch. 

" In your last letter, you told me that he cost thirty pounds, 
which I now send you an order for, and to which I have added 
five pounds, as I recollect my son's writing to me from on board 
the St. George, in the Baltic, to tell me that you had given 
him five pounds, and when I mentioned it to you at Merton, 

my boys were with me ; you then shewed them your sword, that with what passed 
at the same time, and frequently hearing me speak of you, made such an impression 
on one of them, who is in his thirteenth year, that for two years past, he has been 
secretly indulging a fancy to go to sea : this, however, he cautiously kept to himself, 
believing I would not give my consent ; however, within the last six weeks, he de- 
termined on writing himself to you to solicit your intercession with me. He actually 
wrote the letter, which I intercepted, and this made a discovery which surprised, and 
of course, led to a conversation, in which I found him so determined, that no 
arguments I was master of could move him from his purpose, and, at last, I have 
been forced to make him happy, by promising him that if he applies diligently 
to Mathematics, French, and Italian, tUl he is fourteen, he should then pursue his 
inclination, and by that time I trust in God peace will be restored, so that he will 
liave quite an uphill game before him. However, as you have bit him, you must 
be his physician. I hope you may be back by the time Pat takes his seat in the 
Imperial Parliament, for it will be necessary some cool and determined hands 
should be in each House to keep my poor countrymen m order. I am endea- 
vouring to be one of the Hundi-ed in the Lower House, but I fear I have not 
much chance. 

"Mrs. Bulkeley desires her best regards, and compliments to you, and I am, 

" My dear friend, 

"Very affectionately yours, 

Richard Bulkeley." 

Mr. Richard Bulkeley served as a Midshipman on board the Victory, and was 
at the Battle of Trafalgar, and wounded on that occasion. He was made a Lieu- 
tenant in 1806, and died in 1810. 



278 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. VI. 

you said, * Hardy will settle it/ but when I paid him his 
advance to Dick, he took no notice of the money that you 
advanced ; it therefore remained unpaid, and for that reason 
I have included it in the present draft. I have heard from 
one or two quarters that the Amphion is intended for the 
East Indies ; it therefore occurs to me to suggest, what ap- 
pears to me of some moment to Dick. Next month, he will 
have served three years, and I hope and believe that when he 
shall have served his time, he will be found perfectly qualified 
to be made ; supposing him then to be in the East Indies 
at that period, and that the then Commander-in-chief should 
be a person of whom you may not like to ask a favour, and that 
the Captain of Dick's ship should not have weight with the 
Admiral, may he not miss his promotion ? This reasoning 
you can easily enter into, and judge of its propriety better 
than I can. I am, therefore, particularly desirous of know- 
ing your opinion, by which I shall be entirely guided. If you 
say, Let him go, I shall be satisfied ; but should you prefer 
his being on the Home or Mediterranean station, I shall be 
equally pleased. Do, therefore, my dear friend, let me hear 
from you on the subject. 

" Mrs. Bulkeley desires her best remembrance to you, 
and joins me in compliments to Sir William and Lady 
Hamilton. 

" I am, my dear Nelson, 

" Most affectionately and truly yours, 

" Richard Bulkeley.'' 

From Captain Louis : — 

" Chilston, Newton Abbott, January 16th, 1803. 

"My Lord, 
*' I have had the honour of receiving your Lordship's letter 
of the 11th instant, and that of my good friend Lady Hamil- 
ton, of the 13th. I can never sufficiently express my grati- 
tude for the warmth in which you have interested yourself 
in my behalf; the recollection of your Lordship's letter will 
ever be highly gratifying to me ; and though the result has 
not been favourable to our wishes, your Lordship's taking- 
it up so kindly is so great a mark of your attachment to me. 



1S03.J LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 279 

that it never can be erased from my memory, and considerably 
lessens the disappointment. How truly happy should I feel 
myself, my Lord, were it ever in my power, in the least 
degree, to be useful to your Lordship. 

" My best respects to all at Merton ; and I beg to remain, 
" Your Lordship's faithful 

" and grateful humble servant, 

"Thomas Louis." 

Rear- Admiral Duckworth wrote on the question of Prize- 
Money : — 

« My Lord, 

"The November and December packets having trod so 
close upon each other as to be here together, 1 have by the 
former to express my warmest thanks for your friendly letters 
of October 9th and November 28th, which drew forth my 
admiration at the glorious uncertainty of the law, even when 
all the combinations of it, turn them in common sense which 
way you will, must be operative in our favour; but if 
influence or power can cause the palladium of our liberty to 
be thus perverted, I shudder for our posterity. Yet, as I am 
convinced you will take every just care of our interest, let it 
turn as it will, I shall be satisfied in having endeavoured to 
protect the rights of our profession against what appears to 
me a most unjust and unprecedented claim ; and from the 
arguments which appear in the paper, they dwell much upon 
the cause of the St. Ann with Admiral Murray, which, in 
my opinion, is quite irrelevant, as he was a Flag Officer, 
serving alone, and consequently, when not relieved, is like 
other Flag Officers coming from abroad, entitled to share till 
under other orders, or his flag struck. With respect to the 
Marquis de Niza, the law of reciprocity must prevent him 
from sharing for the capture of vessels of a nation with which 
he was in amity, and I shall think even for French, if the 
Portuguese colours were not in sight; but should common 
sense lose its force in these, we must have a claim upon the 
captures made by his squadron from the Tunisians, &c. 

" I cannot but feel sensible of your Lordship's friendly 
sentiments of the public benefit by my continuance in this 



280 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [ciIAP. VI. 

command, but I consider, whilst a peace lasts, an officer that 
has been above forty out of forty-four years servitude on 
board ship, and for these last ten years never had a moment 
to attend to his private affah's, or see a favourite daughter for 
six years, has a full claim to relief, and I trust we have a 
thousand as good as he to occupy the place ; besides, if I 
was to stay till Buonaparte's ambition was satiated, or St. 
Domingo in a perfect state of tranquillity, I must have a 
longer tenure in this world than I expect. I therefore, my 
good Lord, cannot but be anxious to return, on which event 
I anticipate much pleasure in paying my respects at Merton, 
and personally assuring your Lordship that I have the honour 
to feel, with real regard, 

" Your much obliged, 

" and faithful humble servant, 

" J. T, Duckworth. 

'* P. S. I will beg your Lordship to say all that is kind and 
respectful to Sir William and Lady Hamilton, believing me 
ever yours, 

«J. T. D. 

" Leviathan, Jamaica, January 16, 1S03." 

And Captain Hardy : — 

"Amphion, Portsmouth Harbour, January 20th, 1803. 

« My Lord, 
" The Amphion is to be paid off in a few days, and I shall 
be happy to take the youngsters your Lordship wrote to me 
about. Young Bulkeley continues to behave very well, and 
I have no doubt but he will make a very good officer. I have 
not the least idea what is to become of us, but shall always 
be proud to follow your Lordship, in whatever part of the 
world I may be in, should the country call for your Lord- 
ship's services again. I will trouble your Lordship to make 
my best compliments to Sir William, Lady Hamilton, and 
all friends at Merton. I have the honour to be, with the 
greatest respect, 

" Your Lordship^s obliged, 

" very humble servant, 

"T. M. Hardy.^' 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON, 281 

In Lady Hamilton's handwriting, probably by the dic- 
tation of Nelson, I find the following letter, the autograph of 
which is in the Sidmouth Papers,^ addressed to the Earl St. 
Vincent : — 



" 23, Piccadilly, January 28th, 1803. 
" My dear Lord, 

**As your indifferent state of health will, I fear, prevent 
your coming to town for some time, I write to your Lordship 
on a subject which we once entered upon, but which you 
desired to defer till the Dutch ships were paid for, when you 
would settle our Copenhagen business with Lord Hawkes- 
bury. I am now, by desire of several Captains, asking your 
Lordship if any decision has taken place on this business. If 
you refer me to Lord Hawkesbury as the proper Minister for 
this business, or any other Minister, I shall address myself to 
him (or them) ; or if you think that a public letter to the 
Secretary of the Admiralty is the proper channel, I will 
write one to him. It is now two years since that battle was 
fought. 

" I own myself exactly of the same opinion as when I wrote 
to you from the Baltic, that under all the peculiar circum- 
stances of the case, no war with Denmark, therefore, no con- 
demnation could take place ; that it would be better to give 
a gratuity for our services ; I said (I believe) £100,000. was 
as little as could be offered. You differed from me, but wrote 
me that you would recommend a large price to be given for 
the Holstein. You will, my dear Lord, see the situation I 
am placed in, and excuse my resorting to you to advise me 
in what channel I shall proceed, to bring our Copenhagen 
prize business to a close. With every kind wish for the 
re-establishment of your health, believe me yours, 

« Most faithfully, 

" Nelson and Bronte.'^ 

Another letter from Captain Hardy prefers a request for 
Mr. Danes : — 

' Printed in the Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. H. 



282 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

" Amphion, Portsmouth, February 2nd, 1803. 

'' My Lord, 
" Mr. Daniel Danes, who was pilot on the Downs station 
nnder your Lordship's command (and a short time in the 
Isis) will be thankful if you can intercede with Mr. Pitt to 
get him a branch for that place. I am convinced that your 
Lordship has already asked so many favours, that you will 
not like to do it, and I shall not press it unless quite con- 
venient. Thomas Ramsey has requested me to ask your 
Lordship if you received a letter from him lately, which he 
thinks (without cause, I suppose) has miscarried. I will 
trouble your Lordship to make my best compliments to Sir 
Wilham and Lady Hamilton. I have the honour to be, 
'* Your Lordship's obliged humble servant, 

"T. M. Hardy. 

*' Mr. Danes commanded a small lugger, I believe, under 
your Lordship's command." 

Mr. Davison was very liberal in his offers of assistance to 
Lord Nelson : — 

" Calais, February 3rd, 1803. 

" My dear Friend, 
'* Long ere this I had settled my return to St. James's 
Square, after having reached Paris, spending a fortnight there, 
and setting off from thence in great good health for Bruxelles 
and Antwerp, my dear boy William^ was taken extremely ill 
at Lisle, and it was with difficulty I could get him with safety 
on to this place. He has now been confined to his bed a 
fortnight, in a delirium, and only within these two days the 
fever has taken a favourable turn, and the physician considers 
him out of danger. You may well believe the vexation and 
concern this unfortunate circumstance occasions me. I shall 
hope the best, though the doctor tells me 1 must not expect to 
move from hence sooner than the 15th. What a prison — 
state of misery. If my absence occasions to you any 
pecuniary inconvenience, apply to my bankers, and shew to 

' The William Davisou was afteiTvards Lieutenant-Colouel William Davison, 
K.H. 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 283 

them this side of my letter, and I authorise them to pay to 
your order five thousand pounds sterling. This possibly 
may supply your present wants. If an extension be neces- 
sary, command the purse of your ever 

'^ Unalterably affectionate friend, 

" Alexander Davison." 

Nelson acknowledged this letter on the 8th, and says, 
" Your kind offer I feel most sensibly, but at present I have 
no wants ; and I hope soon to be in that state of complete 
independence, which you so really wish. But ' a friend in 
need is a friend indeed' is an old adage, but not the less true, 
and I am truly thankful and grateful for all your kindness. 
I am just got to work on the Copenhagen business, and I 
hope to get from Mr. Addington 50 or £60,000. for the cap- 
tors, including the Holstein. Sir Hyde has given up the 
management of this matter to me. At another Board, they 
are still disputing, but the Secretary and myself are feeling 
towards each other as we ought (I do not choose to mention 
names). Yesterday I was at Colonel Despard's^ trial, sub- 
poenaed by him for a character. I think the plot deeper than 
was imagined; but as to the extent, nothing except the 
Guards has come out. I have been, and am, very bad in 
my eyesight, and am forbid writing ; but I could not resist.'^^ 

At this time Nelson's eye was very bad, and he was for- 
bidden to write ; but in personal matters he could disregard 
injunctions. Mr. Bulkeley writes : — 

" Ludlow, Thursday, February 17th, 1803. 

" My dear Nelson, 
" I am aware that I ought not to call upon your eyes to 
read my letter, after the restrictions of Moseley, and the 
account that you give of yourself, which I can with strict 
truth say grieves me very much, and though I don't desire 
you to answer me, but on the contrary, request you not to 
write, still I cannot impose silence on myself, and do so much 
injustice to my heart, as not to express my deep concern at 

' See Vol. i. p. 12, ante. 

• Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. 42. 



284 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. VI. 

what gives you any serious cause for alarm, and which seems 
to threaten a severe misfortune to our country. My con- 
solation in the present instance arises from my confidence in 
Moseley's skill, and my conviction that he will not trifle, or 
practise experiments, where so much is at stake, and I am 
sure that your resolution to withstand every temptation to 
deviate from his rules is sufficient to ensure him success. 
I shall be impatient to hear how you go on, and therefore beg 
that if any material change takes place, you will employ the 
pen of some one about you to communicate the intelligence 
to me, which I most ardently hope will be of the most pleas- 
ing kind. 

" From every thing that the papers related as appearing 
upon the trials, I had no idea that the detestable conspiracy 
had gone the lengths which you seem to imagine, or involved 
in it any (poor Despard excepted) but of the lowest orders. 
I am sorry that you think it so extensive, and of so serious a 
natm'e ; however, I still think and hope that the countiy at 
large is staunch to the constitution : in that case, the dis- 
affection of a great majority of the Guards would not, I trust, 
when joined only to the rabble, without their officers, be able 
to effect more than partial evils, though certainly thousands 
on all sides might fall, and many families be reduced to 
penury. 

" I rejoice that you have given your attention to the sub- 
ject of our seamen ; if we don't keep them in good humour, 
and firm from principle^ our decline must be very rapid 
indeed. I can have no doubts of the Ministry paying eveiy 
attention, and giving the greatest weight to your recom- 
mendations upon this subject. In all your systems you have 
shewn your preference for decision and vigour, and the good 
effects have been proved in all your actions. Even in matters 
of less moment I am an enemy to half and timid measures, 
and in the unfortunate executions which are to take place, I 
would have Government make all the parade which the case 
will admit of, and shew that it is undaunted. Despard ought 
not to be spared. The King owes to the country that the 
execution should take place. 

"The Maltese is perfectly well, and recovered from the 
effects of his voyage. He is beautiful, and as fond of biting 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 285 

and kicking as any of his fraternity. Those of this country 
are all heavy and stupid looking, but this, on the contrary, 
is most playful, with a very animated eye.^ 

" Offer Mrs. Bulkeley's and my kind respects to Sir Wil- 
liam and Lady Hamilton, Dr. and Mrs. Nelson, and believe 
me, my dear friend, most sincerely and affectionately, 

" Yours, 

" Richard Bulkeley.'' 

The allusion made to Nelson's attention to the subject of 
seamen refers to a communication made by him to Earl St. 
Vincent, on the manning of the Navy.- 

Sir John Acton wrote from Caserta : — 

" Caserta, 2n(i March, 1803. 
" My Lord, 

" A messenger arrived to Mr. Drummond, has brought to 
me your Lordship's kind favour of the 6th of February. I 
hear this moment that the same person goes back again in a 
few hours. I present these few words in answer. I shall 
employ my best cares and attentions in every respect for the 
welfare of your business in Sicily, and the success of your 
demands on the same. I have given the proper commissions 
for the best regulation and surest march of the propositions 
to come from Sicily on the same purposes. Your Lordship 
may be assured of my readiness to contribute to eveiy wish 
that may afford you any satisfaction, if in my power. 

" I have seen with sorrow what your Lordship mentions 
on treasons and spirit of revolutions still in agitation. I am 
sorry to hear that the Guards themselves could be corrupted 
in these times ! ! ! So everywhere the same and horrid dis- 
temper has afflicted every class of men ! It seems, however, 
that the principles which were the cause, and gave room to 
so many mischiefs, is at least out of mode and fashion at 
present. 

' The asses of Malta are remarkable for tlieir strength and beauty ; they sell for 
a high price, and are called Janets. 

^ See Paper in the possession of Vice-Admiral Sir William Parker, Bart., and 
letter to the Right Honourable Sir William Scott; printed in Dispatches and 
Letters, Vol. v. pp. 41 and Gl. 



286 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

" What you favour to explaiu to me on the perfidious pro- 
jects of Despard is horrible, and could that plan have its 
effects in England? I hope not, but many and many 
calamities might have taken room and affect the prosperity of 
the nation, but never, I confide, overcome its system of 
government at large. I am speaking on what I feel and 
desire, but find myself thoroughly unacquainted with the 
particular situation of that and my country. 

" I hope that for some time peace will continue, though 
nobody can answer to that question certainly, whether we 
shall have peace or war as the things are at present. Buona- 
parte does not wish for war, though he detests the only 
nation which he could not subdue nor influence. He makes 
conquests in peace as well as in war. If however, a rupture 
takes room again, poor Italy is lost : no remedy can save it 
as the circumstances stand in the Continent at this moment. 
The more, however, that is left to operate to Buonaparte in 
the peaceable way, the more he seems to intricate himself in 
difficulties. He loses every day in the opinion of his people, 
and exposes himself to the highest danger — he cannot stop 
neither in his projects — his fall might happen every moment. 

" I see that you have that ungrateful and dangerous 
woman the Belmonte, in London. I hope, by what you 
please to mention to me, that she will find there the same 
credit which she found established even at Paris, of a most 
horrid revolutionist. I am glad to hear that Sir William 
Hamilton is in a fair way as to his health. I beg Lady 
Hamilton to receive and agree my best compliments and 
wishes. I return you my thanks, ray Lord, for what you 
are so good to tell me on my estates in Shropshire. I find 
that Mr. Haslewood of Bridgenorth, has given you proper 
informations. I think that I must go as soon as possible to 
visit that country with my little family, and judge better of 
my business on the spot. I shall have the pleasure then to 
see your Lordship, and rely much on this satisfaction. I shall 
be glad to be acquainted with those gentlemen of Shropshire 
which you are so good to recommend. I have agents, but 
could till now take very little care of those business of mine. 
All my cares have been taken for the best of Sovereigns, 
which I have the honour to serve. They have been glad to 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 28/ 

hear the news of your Lordship, and your loyal and cordial 
declaration on their regard. 

^' I beg your Lordship to be sure of my best wishes and 
constant sincere friendship, as well as of the highest regard 
and consideration of 

" Your Lordship's 
*' Most obedient and most humble servant, 

"John Acton." 

Nothing can speak more favovirably for the kindness of 
Nelson's nature than the repeated applications made to hiin 
by the parents of the officers who had served with him to 
promote the welfare of their families. 

Captain Louis wi'ites : — 

" Chelston, Newton Abbott, March 8th, 1803. 
" My Lord, 

"The kindness with which your Lordship entered into my 
views respecting my son to India, induces me to be trouble- 
some to you again on his behalf. I doubt how far I might 
attempt getting him into one of the public offices to bring 
him forward in the diplomatic line, which would be my next 
wish to that of India. 

" If that is not practicable I think of placing him at 
Woolwich, could I obtain from my Lord Chatham an ap- 
pointment of a Cadet. He is now fourteen, and in order to 
lose no time, I have written my Lord Chatham on the sub- 
ject. I am well aware, at the same time, how very essential 
a line from your Lordship would be to strengthen my appli- 
cation to Lord Chatham, which, I make no doubt, would 
procure the desired appointment. I have two sons unpro- 
vided for, and I am sorry to say, although my services during 
my life have been devoted to the public, that I find the 
greatest difficulty in getting my sons forward ; but I shall 
ever feel most grateful to your Lordship for the kindness and 
attention with which you have endeavoured to assist me. 
My best wishes attend all at Merton, and believe me with 
every respect, 

" Your Lordship's faithful humble servant, 

'■'Thomas Louis." 



2S8 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

The following relates to the widow of Colonel Despard : — 

" Ludlow, Wednesday, 9th March, 1803. 

"My dear Friend, 

" Your last letter gave me great concern, because it speaks 
of your suffering eye, but is perfectly silent as to any proba- 
bility of speedy relief. Do, my good friend, tell me who you 
have considted besides Moseley, who though an excellent 
physiciav, is not, I apprehend, a professed oculist. And you 
have given so much reason to the country, to look with 
confidence for essential advantages from your future services, 
that it has some right to require of you to seek for every aid, 
and to do every thing in your power to preserve your health. 
Let that claim then which your country has upon you, call 
forth your utmost exertions. 

" I highly approve of your withholding the money which I 
intended for an object, who as I conceived ?/om interested your- 
self about, I concluded might be deserving, and if you think 
her so, my donation is still at your service to appropriate 
as you think proper, but 1 am by no means ambitious of 
classing myself, or being a contributor with her late husband's 
associates, or with such villains as Citizen Hardy. 

" I find that the Board of Admiralty has established Club 
Law, and that the First Lord has a most powerful support in 
a man who has often proved his readiness and courage in a 
more honourable way than that of frightening an emaciated 
Secretary. Ministers would, by all accounts, gladly get rid 
of the Earl, but he loves power and patronage too well to 
indulge them by taking miff. Have we any chance, in case 
of a vacancy, of seeing the place filled by a man who would 
most ably and honourably execute the duties of the office, 
and who I wish to see gratified in every desire of his heart ? 
You can't be at a loss to guess who I mean, you know my 
sentiments too well, and that I am at all times, 
" My dear Nelson, 
" Your Lordship's very affectionate and sincere, 

" Richard Bulkeley. 

'- P. S. I just understand that the Amphion is ordered 
to Ireland to receive seamen. Give my compliments to Sir 
William and Lady Hamilton." 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 289 

The following is a good sailor's letter : — 

"Le Renard, Waterford, 
March 17, 1803. 

" My Lord, 

" I take the liberty of writing to solicit your Lordshij) to 
have the goodness (should a war take place, which God forbid 
there should be a doubt of) to do me the honour of applying 
for Le Renard to be under your Lordship's command, as I 
trust you would find her a tolerable fast sailer, and I hope at 
least as prompt as her neighbours in executing any orders it 
may be her good fortune to receive. 

" We are at present at Waterford, twenty miles up the 
river Suir, employed day and night pressing. 

" For the trade carried on (which except in the Salt Provi- 
sion line is very ti'ifling, there being only thirty vessels here) 
have been fortunate. I have ready to ship for his Majesty's 
service fifty prime seamen, and about thirty ordinary and 
landsmen. The seamen are all White Haven men, which in 
my opinion enhances their value, though I must say I found 
the potatoe diggers very quiet. Le Renard is full and well 
manned. 

" They were so nice at Plymouth as to reject some of my 
new raised men, because their wrists were too small, and they 
had had broken shins. Some of those men on their return I 
entered for Renard, and T have found them as good as ever 
came into a ship. 

" I beg leave to transcribe a part of my last letter to the 
Admiralty, which I wrote fearing they might charge the ex- 
pense of these rejected men against my wages, which would 
not have been very agreeable entertainment to me. ' 1 beg 
leave to add that the volunteers are all raw potatoe diggers, 
lightermen, &c. I believe to get them without broken shins 
and mutilated carcases must remain among the desiderata ; 
as by my experience here, I can affirm, those complaints to 
be their general characteristics. The volunteers that were 
rejected at Plymouth from this place, were the best to be 
procured, being only slightly afflicted with the above-men- 
tioned maladies.' 

" I will conclude by begging your Lordship to excuse the 
liberty I have taken in addressing this scrawl to you, and 

VOL. II. u 



290 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

after adding that it is my most fervent prayer soon to have 
the happiness of seeing Renard's answering Jack to signals 
addressed her by blue at the fore, will subscribe myself 
ever 

" Your Lordship's 

'' Obliged humble servant^ 

"W. Cathcart." 

The applications to Nelson to accompany him, should he 
go to sea, were most numerous. Even the Chaplain was 
anxious to quit his living and attend him : — 

" Southminster, Essex, March 20th, 1803. 

" My Lord, 

" Under the impression that your Lordship would take 
me with you to the Mediterranean, I hastened to take pos- 
session of my living here ; intending as soon as that was 
secured, to mention the matter to you : I am sorry to say 
that ill health detained me a day and night at Chelmsford, and 
this circumstance will prevent my getting through the neces- 
sary forms and ceremonies so soon as I anxiously desire. I 
am out of the world here, and know not what turn things take, 
but I will not lose a moment in getting to London as soon 
as I possibly can, where I hope to pay my respects to your 
Lordship. 

" I have likewise to beg your Lordship, when at leisure, 
to send the certificate which I took the liberty to request of 
you, to Mr. George Rose, of Palace Yard, and to repeat to 
your Lordship how devotedly 

" I am, with respect, your faithful humble servant, 

"A. J. Scott." 

Sir Edward Berry was desirous of again sailing under 
Nelson : — 

" Catton, near Norwich, 21st March, 1803. 

« My dear Lord, 
"■ Seeing the continual reports in the newspapers of your 
Lordship having an appointment to a command, I can no 
longer resist again offering myself as a candidate to serve with 



180?.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 291 

you, either temporary or permanent, in any way your Lord- 
ship will accept of my exertions in the event of war. I have 
hardly thought it probable that we actually should again 
commence hostilities, I have therefore not made any appli- 
cation to the Board, from an idea that I should be put to 
some expense and a great deal of trouble for nothing, by being 
turned to the right-about again in a few months. 

" When you can spare time, pray have the goodness to give 
me a line on the subject. By a letter from Tyson the other 
day, he says you are not very well ; I hope it is nothing ma- 
terial. Every body here is complaining of La Grippe. I 
am but so-so. Pray remember me kindly to Sir William and 
Lady Hamilton, and believe me ever 

*' Your Lordship's 

'* Faithful and obliged 

"E. Berry. 

^' I am in great distress about a berth for a Midshipman, 
a relation of mine, a very good young man. I wrote to 
Hardy about him, but fear he sailed before my letter reached. 
Can your Lordship assist me ? I would see the Admiralty 
folks at Bagdad before I ask them. Is the Arch Jesuit (as 
the Duke of Clarence calls him) going out ?" 

Reports of Lord Nelson's appointment to be Commander- 
in-chief of the Mediterranean were rife, but it did not take 
place until May 16th. Mr. Bulkeley writes : — 

" Ludiow, Wednesday, 23rd March, 1803. 

'■' My dear Friend, 
*' This infernal threat of war, and consequent bustle, I am 
sure, has entirely engaged all your time and thoughts ; there- 
fore,from the moment that the subject was announced officially, 
I knew that I was not to expect to know any thing about you 
but through the newspapers. Satisfied as I am as to your dis- 
like to writing, and knowing that it is not an easy task with 
the left hand, and that you have at such a time no leisure for 
letter-writing, still my anxious friendship and desire to be 
acquainted with every thing that concerns you, has made me 
look with impatient hope for the arrival of every post for the 
last fortnight. 

u 2 



292 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL, [CHAP. VT. 

" You have proved yourself too true a prophet, for you have 
said ever since the peace, that it could not be of long duration ; 
and though I hoped you might be mistaken, still I had my 
fears, and now confess that if war was inevitable, in the course of 
a very few years from the peace, I am better satisfied that 
we should embrace the first justifiable cause for war, while 
our brilliant achievements in the last are fresh upon our own 
and that of our enemies' memories, and whilst the breasts of 
every effective sailor burns with desire to follow the unex- 
ampled example that you liave set them. Tell me, my dear 
Nelson, when you can, all you can, (consistently with State 
secrecy) as to your own probable destination. Poor Vardon 
is gone to town to ofier; I wish that he had his flag and at 
quiet in Ludlow. He is a very venerable and good old man. 
I offered during the late war, repeatedly, my poor services 
without fee or reward. I was coolly thanked, but not ac- 
cepted, and I did not think it necessary to exert much interest 
to put myself to great inconvenience by undertaking the 
training and commanding a set of fellows in a profession for 
which, in our country, I have the most thorough contempt, 
notwithstanding Lords Moira and Hutcheson's figs to each 
other. If I was a sailor, which I ought to have been, I would 
cut off both my arms rather than be idle at such a time. 
Can you tell me where the Amphion is gone ? Dick is now 
old enough to enter into the glory and honour of his profes- 
sion. He must earn those laurels which his father missed, 
and perhaps was not equal to the attainment of. 

" My best compliments to Sir William and Lady Hamilton. 
" I am, my dear Nelson, 

'* Ever sincerely yours, 

'* Richard Bulkeley." 

Dr. Baird recommended a Surgeon : — 

" Portsmouth, 24th March, 1803. 

" My Lord, 

'* My unexpected and hasty departure from London on 

Saturday night totally precluded me doing myself the honour 

of waiting on you, and since I have been here, I have been 

so engaged on board the Neptune, that I have scarcely 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 293 

time to write a daily report to the Admiralty. She is now, 
I trust, in good health, and the means pursued will preserve 
it. The newspapers of to-day announce the Victory com- 
missioned for your Lordship, if so, Mr. Allen, the Surgeon of 
the Venerable, is the Surgeon I would reccommend, if Mr. 
Bell stays with Lord Keith — perhaps your Lordship might 
ask Lord Keith that question. I am solicitous that your 
Lordship may not think me forgetful of so necessary an ap- 
pointment as a good Surgeon, and your Lordship may rest 
assured if it be your wish to delay on that head, that I shall 
not fail to accommodate you with an eligible person. 

" I take the liberty of offering most respectful compliments 
to Sir William and Lady Hamilton, I have the honour to 
be, my Lord, with every sentiment of gratitude, 

" Your Lordship's dutiful servant, 

" Andrew Baird.'' 

The prospect of being with Nelson put them all alive ; Cap- 
tain Louis writes : — 

" Plymouth Dock, March 23rd, 1803. 

" My Lord, 
" I have the pleasure to inform your Lordship of my 
having joined the Conqueror at Plymouth. I think her a 
very fine ship indeed, and equal to Minotaur. I have now 
only to hope that she may be as useful to your Lordship 
whenever you may be pleased to call upon her services, 
though I agree with you very much that I do not think we 
shall go to war ; appearances are strong for it, and I only 
wish Johnny came forward to man us. Several ships here : 
Sir Edward Pellew, Murray, BuUer, Sutton, and yesterday 
arrived Admiral Campbell, whose flag goes to CuUoden. No 
doubt we shall soon hear when your Lordship moves. I 
hope you enjoy your health, as well as my good friends Sir 
William and Lady Hamilton, to whom I beg my best regards. 
" I remain, my Lord, 
*' Your most obliged and faithful servant, 

*' Thomas Louis. 

*'P.S Pray command me if I can serve in any shape 
whatever. Youngsters, or any thing else." 



294 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

Lord Nelson turned his attention seriously to the state of 
his pecuniary affairs in the month of March, and forwarded a 
statement to the Right Hon. Henry Addington, by which it 
appeared that his whole real property did not amount to more 
than £10,000, and that, deducting from his income the 
amount apportioned to Lady Nelson, the interest due on 
money borrowed, the pension to his brother's widow, and the 
assistance he rendered towards the education of his nephews, 
that he had only the sum of £'J68 per annum to answer 
all demands made upon him. This sum, so far beneath that 
which his station and rank demanded, induced him to apply 
to the Government for an increase of means. The particulars 
given to shew the justice of such an appeal, are to be found 
in his letter to the First Lord of the Treasury .^ 

On the 9th of March, 1803, a Debate took place in the 
House of Lords on the King's message respecting military 
preparations in the ports of France. Nelson was present, but 
did not speak. He, however, watched narrowly what was 
going on, and retiring from the body of the House, he wrote 
the following laconic epistle to the Premier, the Hon. Henry 
Addington : — 

" House of Lords, 4 o'clock, March 9th, 1803, 

*■ Whenever it is necessary, I am your Admiral." 

"Nelson and Bronte."^ 

Lord Nelson commenced the month of April by delivering 
his evidence upon oath before the Committee of Naval Enquiry, 
and gave his opinion on the conducting of Prize Money in 
future.^ 

Writing to Captain Murray on the 2nd, he congratulates 
him upon the anniversary of the Battle of Copenhagen, and 
says : " No man sets a more just value on your gallantry and 

' Dispatches and Letters, Vol. V. p. 47. See also p. 59. From the original 
draft of this application now before me, the chief part appears to have been written 
by Sir George Rose, and is in his hand -writing ; the latter part is in Lord Nelson's 
autograph. 

'^ Life of Lord Sidmouth, Vol. ii. p. 1/0. 

^ A copy of the examination of Lord Nelson is preserved at the Admiralty. 
Certain passages within brackets have been supplied by Nelson himself, and 
written in his own hand. Sir Harris Nicolas has printed it in his Dispatches and 
Letters, Vol. v. p. 53. 



1803 ] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 295 

important services than myself." To Captain Sutton he 
writes on the 4th, to tell him that the Victory (the ship des- 
tined for Nelson) was to be commissioned on the 7th or 8th, 
and that he had sent a list of six Lieutenants, which was 
enough to begin with. He was under much distress at this 
time on account of the serious illness of Sir William Hamilton, 
who died on the 6th in his and Lady Hamilton's arms. Lord 
Nelson sat up with Sir William Hamilton for six nights prior 
to his decease, upon the occurrence of which he removed into 
lodgings in Piccadilly. To his Royal Highness the Duke of 
Clarence he wrote : " My dear friend Sir William Hamilton 
died this morning : the world never lost a more upright and 
accomplished gentleman.'^ 

Among Nelson's papers is the following written by Lady 
Hamilton : — 

"April 6th. Unhappy day for the forlorn Emma. Ten 
minutes past ten dear blessed Sir William left me." 

Nelson appears from the following letter from Lord Mel- 
ville, to have made some application relative to Lady Hamil- 
ton : — 

*' Wimbledon, 17th AprQ, 1803. 

" My dear Lord, 
" I have received your Grace's letter, together with one 
from Lady Hamilton herself. I had an opportunity of speak- 
ing with Mr. Addington yesterday, agreeable to your and her 
wishes ; but I had no occasion to press any thing with im- 
portunity, as he seems fully possessed of the circumstances of 
the case, and disposed to give a favourable attention to them. 
I need not trouble Lady Hamilton with a separate letter, as 
your Grace will communicate to her the contents of this, 
and I remain, my dear Lord, 

" Yours very truly, 

"Melville. 

" I will take an opportunity soon of calling on Lady Ha- 
milton." 

The Marquis of Douglas and Clydesdale (now Duke of 
Hamilton) kindly sympathized with her: — 

"The inclosed letter, my dear Lady Hamilton, I received 



29G LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cilAP. VT. 

3^esterclay. It was my intention to have given it into your 
own hands ; but having been prevented, I think it my duty 
to send it to you by the earhest opportunity. In the course 
of the day I am in hopes of being able to call and inquire 
after you. I shall hope to find that necessity will have begun 
to work upon your mind, and that you will feel that whatever 
are the misfortunes under w^hich we labour, patience and 
resignation are the only proper, only efficacious remedies. I 
will not preach, because I feel myself inadequate to it. My 
own love and affection for our much lamented friend far 
supersedes any sensations that philosophy and reflection can 
possibly suggest, and in uniting a sigh with yours, I only 
bestow what my heart acknowledges, and my every thought 
approves. Believe me, with regard, dear Lady Hamilton, 
" Your affectionate friend and relative, 

"Douglas and Clydesdale. 

"April 19th, 1803." 

Lord Nelson intended Murray for his Captain, but he was 
already in the Spartiate : " You are fixed as fate my First 
Captain, and it is only on that score that I can speak to the 
Earl soon, if nothing is decided soon as to peace or war, to 
beg that you may not be sent out of the way, and then, if 
you authorize me, I will mention to him that if the Spartiate 
is wanted to go to sea, that you submit to him whether it 
would not be better to give her up — there are scores wanting 
her. I congratulate you on the birth of a son ; if one of his 
names is not Baltic, I shall be very angry with you indeed — 
he can be called notlnng else,'" Sutton and Hardy were, 
liowever, his Captains. The Duke of Clarence wanted Lord 
Nelson to take Lieutenant the Hon. Edward Rodney, the 
son of Admiral Lord Rodney, but his number was complete, 
and he had twenty on his list. " Had I known (he says) 
that there had been this claimant, some of my own Lieu- 
tenants must have given way to such a name, and he should 
have been placed in the Victory."^ 

On the 6th of May he was ordered for departure. He 
went to Merton to settle his affairs there. He received his 
appointment as Commander-in-chief on the Mediterranean 

' Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. 58. 
^ Clarke and McArthur, Vol. ii. p. 312. 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 297 

station from the Admiralty on the 16th, and on the ISth set 
ont for Portsmouth, where he hoisted his flag on board the 
Victory, and in communicating this to the Earl of St. Vincent, 
he says : " You may rely, my dear Lord, that nothing shall 
be left undone by me, by a vigorous and active exertion of 
the force under my command, to bring about a happy peace." 
His anxiety now was to get off, for on the following day, the 
19th, he wrote to the Earl, " If the devil stands at the door, 
the Victory shall sail to-morrow forenoon." 

Admiral Lord Gardner^ was the Commander-in-chief at 
Portsmouth. Nelson saluted him with thirteen guns, and the 
salute was returned. He sailed on the 20th. 

' Lord Gardner has been universally esteemed a Naval officer of distinguished 
ability. Lord Collingwood gave it as his opinion that there was no officer on the 
list who had the skill of Lord Gardner, and expressed his surprise in 1804 that he 
was not appointed to any situation of importance. The Right Hon. Alan Lord 
Gardner was boi'n at Uttoxeter, April 12, 1742, and commenced his naval career 
under Captain Peter Denis of the Medway, 60 guns, in May, 1755. He was at 
the taking of the Raisonable by the Dorsetshire in 1758, and in 1759 in the 
action off Belleisle between Sir Edward Hawke and Marshal de Conflans. He 
was made Lieutenant in 17C0, and appointed to the Bellona ; was at the capture 
of Le Courageux of 74 guns, and in 1762 made a Commander. He was made 
Post in 1766, and sent to the West Indies in the Preston, the flag-ship of Rear- 
Admiral Parry. He returned to England in 1771, but in 1775 was again sent to 
Jamaica, and in 1778 cruised off the coast of America in the Maidstone of 28 guns, 
in which he captured the Lion of 40 guns. Arriving at Antigua he was appointed 
to the Sultan, 74 guns, and was in the action with Count D'Estaing in 1779, 
distinguishing himself by his intrepid conduct. In 1781 he was ordered to join 
Sir George Rodney's fleet in the West Indies, and was engaged on the 12th of 
April, 1782, being the first to have the honour of breaking through the enemy's 
line. In 1785 he was appointed Commander-in-chief on the Jamaica station, 
where he remained three years. In 1790 he was appointed to Le Courageux, 
and afterwards made one of the Commissioners for executing the office of Lord 
High Admiral, and remained at the Admiralty Board until 1795. In 1796 
he was elected one of the Representatives in Parliament for Westminster, having 
previously sat for the Borough of Plymouth. At the commencement of the 
Revolutionary war he was made a Rear- Admiral, and appointed to the command 
of a squadron in the West Indies. He hoisted his flag in the Queen, 98 guns, 
and afterwards joined the Channel Fleet under Earl Howe, and was in the glorious 
1st of June ; was appointed Major-General of the Marines, and was made Vice- 
Admiral of the White, June 1, 1795, and created a Baronet, on the 6th of August. 
He was second in command in Lord Bridport's action with Admiral Villaret de 
Joyeuse off Port L'Orient. In 1797 he was appointed to the Royal Sovereign 
of 110 guns, and was active in suppressing the mutiny in the Channel Fleet. In 
1 799 he was made Vice-Admiral of the Blue, and in the following year Commander- 
in-chief on the coast of Ireland. He was created Baron Gardner of Uttoxeter, 
a Peer of Ireland. He died January 1, 1809, at Bath, in the 66th year of his age. 



2i)8 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VI. 

Three days previously to Nelson's departure, an Order of 
Council was published, directing that reprisals be granted 
against the ships, goods, and subjects of the French Repub- 
lic, and a proclamation was issued for an embargo on the 
French and Batavian vessels in British ports. On the 18th, 
the Papers forming the Diplomatic Con-espondence between 
France and England, from the Peace of Amiens, were laid be- 
fore Parliament. A Royal declaration was also issued on the 
subjects of complaint against France ; it especially noticed 
and repudiated the opinion of Buonaparte that Great Bri- 
tain had no right to take an interest in the affairs of the 
Continent, or to interfere with the proceedings of France in 
any point which did not constitute part of the stipulations 
in the Treaty of Amiens, and demonstrated the incompatibility 
of such a principle with the spirit of treaties in general, and 
the national law of Europe. The sentiments of the King, 
and the Declaration, were approved by the Parliament on the 
23rd. In June, additional forces were raised, and a Bill was 
brought in by Mr. Yorke to enable the King to raise a levy 
en masse, in case of invasion, which was carried nem. con. The 
King's Speech and debates thereupon, excited the rage of the 
First Consul, and after many conferences with the Minister 
Talleyrand, and also with the First Consul, and a variety 
of subterfuges employed to cause delay, the English Ambas- 
sador obtained his passports and quitted France. Two days 
after Lord Whitworth's return, an Order of Council for 
granting reprisals and letters of marque, and a proclamation 
for an embargo, were issued, and the detention and capture of 
French and Dutch vessels, estimated at the value of three 
millions sterling, were effected. The First Consul ordered 
all English of every condition in the French territory, to be 
considered as prisoners of war, and not less than 10,000 
Bi-itish subjects were thus detained. The Peace was thus at 
an end. 



1S03.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 299 

CHAPTER VII. 

1803. 

On his road to Portsmouth, at Khigston, Lord Nelson 
wrote a few lines to Lady Hamilton, and upon his arrival : — 

" May 18th, 1803, (Portsmouth). 

" My dearest Emma^, 
" I wrote you a line from Kingston by the Duke's servant, 
and having breakfasted at Liphock, arrived hei*e almost 
smothered with dust exactly at one o'clock. I found Hardy 
and Sutton waiting for me. They both agreeing with me 
my flag is hoisted in the Victory, to prevent, without the 
service absolutely requires it, the indelicate removal of an 
Admiral. To-morrow night or Friday morning at daylight 
she sails. My things only begin to arrive this evening, and 
till noon to-morrow. Lord Gardner dining out, I have Hardy, 
Sutton, Mr. Scott, and Murray to dine with me — but what 
a change — it will not bear thinking of, except in the sweet 
hope of again returning to the society of those we so sincerely 
love. Either my ideas are altered or Portsmouth, it is a 
place the picture of desolation and misery, but perhaps it is 
the contrast to what I have been used to. Hardy is in good 
health and spirits. The Victory lays so far off that I can 
hardly see her, and the Amphion is beyond my vision. I am 
writing to the Admiralty — must keep them in good humour. 
When you see my eleve, which you will when you receive 
this letter, give her a kiss for me, and tell her that I never 
shall forget either her or her dear good mother, and do you 
believe me, 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and BrOnte. 

" Write to the Duke of Glueensberry and say how truly 
sensible I am of all his kindness. When I am onboard I will 
write him a line ; and say every thing for me to the Duke of 
Hamilton, and the Marquis of Douglas, Mr. Este, &,c. : and 
to the Doctor and my sisters you will say every thing that is 
kind, and never forget me to your good mother." 



300 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL. [cHAP. VII. 

A lul at the moment of departure : — 

'^ BY MESSENGER. 

" May 20th, 1803. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" The boat is on shore, and five minutes sets me afloat. 
I can only pray that the great God of heaven may bless and 
preserve you, and that we may meet again in peace and in 
true happiness. I have no fears. Your dear kind letters 
are just come. 

" Yours, 

'* Nelson and Bronte." 

When arrived on board the Victory he penned another 
letter, and again on the 21st. 

"Victory, May 21st, 1803. 
" My dearest Emma, 
"This morning we stopped a Dutch ship from Surinam, of 
some value. Hardy carries her into Plymouth. We have a 
fine wind. I have only a moment to say, God in heaven 
keep you. 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte." 

" May 22nd, 1803. 
Eight o'clock in the morning. 

" My dearest Emma, 

" We are now in sight of Ushant, and shall see Admiral 
Cornwallis in an hour. I am not in a little fret, on the idea 
that he may keep the Victory, and turn us all into the Am- 
phion. It will make it truly uncomfortable ; but I cannot 
help myself. We are very comfortable. Mr. Elliot is happy, 
has quite recovered his spirits ; he was very low at Portsmouth. 
George Elliot is very well ; say so to Lord Minto. Murray, 
Sutton, in short every body in the ship, seems happy; and if 
we should fall in with a French man-of-war, I have no fears but 
they will do as we used to do. Hardy has gone into Ply- 
mouth to see our Dutchman safe. I think she will turn out 
a good prize. 

" Gaetano desires his duty to Miledi ! He is a good man ; 
and, I dare say, will come back : for, I think, it cannot be a 
long war ; just enough to make me independent in pecuniary 
matters. If the wind stands, on Tuesday we shall be on the 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 301 

coast of Portugal ; and before next Sunday, in the Mediterra- 
nean. 

" I shall now stop till I have been on board the Admiral." 

" May 23rd. 

'' We were close in with Brest yesterday, and found by a 
frigate that Admiral Cornwallis had a rendezvous at sea, 
thither we went, but to this hour cannot find him. It blows 
strong. What wind we are losing ! If I cannot find the 
Admiral by six o'clock, we must all go into the Araphlon, and 
leave the Victory to my great mortification. So much for 
the wisdom of my superiors. 

" I keep my letter open to the last, for I still hope ; and I 
am sure, there is no good reason for my not going out in 
the Victory. I am just embarking in the Amphion : cannot 
find Admiral Cornwallis. 

'* May God in heaven bless you ! prays your most 

sincere, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

" Stephens's^ publication I should hke to have. I have left 
my silver seal ; at least I cannot find it." 

' Alexander Stephens, Esq., author of a " History of the Wars of the French 
Revolution," 2 vols. 4to. Lond. 1803. He applied to Lord Nelson for informa- 
tion relating to the proceedings in the Bay of Naples. The fallowing is printed 
from the draft of Nelson's reply, and is in Lady Hamilton's hand- writing : — 

" 23, PiccacUlly, February 10th, 1803. 
" Sir, 

" By your letter, I believe that you wish to be correct in your History, and 
therefore desire to be informed of a transaction relative to Naples. I cannot, at 
this moment, enter at large into the subject to which you allude ; but I shall 
briefly say, that neither Cardinal Ruffo, Captain Foote, nor any other person had 
any power vested in them to enter into any Treaty with the rebels — that even the 
paper which they so improperly signed, was not acted upon, as I very happily 
arrived at Naples, and prevented such an infamous transaction from taking place. 
I put aside the dishonourable Treaty, and sent the rebels notice of it ; therefore, 
when the rebels surrendered, they came out of the castles as they ought, without 
any honours of war, and trusting to the judgment of their Sovereign. 

'* If you allude to Mrs. Williams's book, I can assure you that nearly all she 
writes relative to Naples, is either entirely destitute of foundation, or falsely 
represented. If you wish to have any conversation with me on this subject, I am 
at home every morning at 10 o'clock, and am, Sir, your most obedient servant, 

"Nelson and Bronte." 

The Mrs. Williams alluded to by Lord Nelson, was Miss Helen Maria Williams, 
author of " Sketches of Manners and Opinions in the French Republic," 2 vols. 
8vo. and has been well described in the Pictorial History of England (Vol. viii. 



302 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII. 

" May 25th, 1803. 

" My dearest Emma, 

*' Here we are in the middle of the Bay of Biscay — nothing 
to be seen but the sky and water. I left the Victory at eight 
o'clock last night, a reflection I think on those who ordered 
me, for I am sure she is not wanted off Brest. Hardy takes 
good care of us, and the Amphion is very comfortable. 

" May 26th. We have now got a foul wind, thanks to the 
Admiralty and our not finding Admiral Cornwallis off Brest, 
for we could with ease have been round Cape St, Vincent, 
when this would have been a fair wind. Not a vessel is to 
be seen on the face of the waters. 

" May 30th. Our wind has been foul, blowing fresh and a 
nasty sea. We are still off Cape Finisterre. We have seen 
some Spaniards but not one Frenchman. We speak nothing 
for I am very anxious to get to my station. This is all lost 
time, and the sooner I get to work, the sooner, if it please 
God, I shall return. Perhaps by my being delayed much 
harm may arise, and even Sicily may fall into the hands of the 
French, but we are carrying sail, doing our utmost. Patience 
is a virtue at sea. Your dear picture and Horatia's are hung 
up, it revives me even to look upon them. Your health is 
as regularly drank as ever— the third toast, and that is all 
we drink. Sutton was in desperation when we left the Vic- 
tory. As to news, you will not expect after what I have told 
you that we have not spoken a vessel. Gaetano has been 
tolerable — William very sea-sick. 

*' June 2nd. We have just passed the rock at Lisbon, 
and with a gentle fair wind, if it holds, we shall be off Cape 
St. Vincent in the night. 

" June Srd. We have had a fresh breeze and fair ; at this 
moment, two o'clock, we are entering the Straits of Gibraltar, 
having run more than 100 leagues since eight o'clock yester- 
day morning. I have caught a little cold, but am otherwise 
very well. I am anxious to hear what is passing. I hope 
that we shall anchor at Gibraltar at eight o'clock. 

^^ Jane ^th. I am saihng at one o'clock, having just been 

p. 16), as "a rabid Republicaness, a vain, conceited, heartless woman, who had 
fixed her abode in France as a new and enlarged Goshen, and who had scribbled 
and printed a stupendous quantity of nonsense in praise of the whole Revolution, 
and in dispraise of all Kingly Governments, and all Kings, whether constitutional 
or despotic." 



1803.] LORD VISCOUVT NELSON. 303 

to pay my respects to the Governor. We captured a brig 
from the West Indies yesterday, and our boats another brig 
this morning. Buonaparte's brother, Jerome, passed a few 
days ago in a ship of the line from Martinique. 

'^ Yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

'* I am much hurried, for they know nothing of the war.'' 

The following from John Scott, Esq., Lord Nelson's Secre- 
tary, to Lady Hamilton, explains his removal from the Victory 
into the Amphion. 

" Amphion in Gibraltar Bay, 
8 o'clock, P.M. 3rd June, 1803. 

" Dear Madam, 
'^We have this moment anchored here, and I have the 
pleasure of acquainting your Ladyship that Lord Nelson is 
in excellent good health and spirits. We were hopeful when 
we left Spithead to have fallen in with Admiral Cornwallis off 
Brest, and that he would have allowed the Victory to have 
gone on with us, but we were much disappointed at not finding 
the Commander-in-chief, particularly as his Lordship con- 
sidered it proper to leave the Victory to add to the show off 
Brest, and proceed in this ship. This change gave a good 
deal of trouble, besides the many inconveniencies which must 
be submitted to before the Victory may join. His Lordship 
left his steward with all his stock, &c., a few trunks of linen 
excepted, on board that ship, so that until we get her, we 
shall not be able to commence regular ^owsckeeping, but I 
beg to assure your Ladyship, the moment that is the case, 
the most strict regard shall be paid to everything that con- 
cerns his Lordship's interests. We only remain here a few 
hours, so that I shall not be able to give your Ladyship the 
news of the Rock till my next. His Lordship has been 
particularly anxious to get here, but I am happy to ob- 
serve that his health has not been in any degree affected by 
it, nor has it brought on any internal complaint ; I have the 
remedy ready in case it should be wanted, and have directed 
Gaetano to watch narrowly the least appearance of any indis- 
position. His Lordship's life is so valuable and dear to his 
friends and country, that I trust Providence will ever guard 



304 LIFE OP VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII. 

and defend him from all danger ; if the assistance of man can 
contribute to his happiness, or avert any danger, I am sure 
his Lordship will be in the full possession of the former, and 
never in any risk of the latter, for every one about him ap- 
pears more anxious than another for his welfare. I have the 
pleasure of seeing your Ladyship's picture, it is hung up in 
the cabin, it is an excellent likeness, and one of the hand- 
somest I ever saw. We have the honour every day of drink- 
ing a bumper to the health of the original, as our Guardian 
Angel, and I sincerely hope our wishes may contribute to 
that desirable end. I have many thanks to return your 
Ladyship for the kind and polite attention I had the honour 
to receive from you when in London, and to assure you that 
I shall ever think of it with grateful remembrance, and be 
particularly happy if it shall ever be in my power to shew 
your Ladyship how sensibly I feel your much respected kind- 
ness. I hope Dr. Nelson and his good family are well : may I 
presume on your Ladyship's kindness to make offer of my 
best compliments when you write them. With every wish 
for your Ladyship's health and happiness, I have the honour 
to be with great and due regard, 

" Dear Madam, 
" Your most obedient and faithful humble servant, 

" John Scott." 

Nelson's correspondence with Lady Hamilton thus con- 
tinues : — 

"June 10th, twenty leagues east of Algiers. 

^' My dearest Emma, 
'* We left Gibraltar at three o'clock, June 4th. The next 
day we took a French brig from Cette, and a Dutch one from 
the same place. We have had foul winds, but by exertion 
are got so far on our voyage, and at present our wind is 
favourable, but with a nasty sea. The Admiral has had a 
severe cold, and is a little feverish. I really believe from anxiety 
to get on his station. Mr. Elliot, if this wind continues, 
leaves us to-morrow, as he passes over to Sardinia, and we 
inside the island of Galeta, passing Turin and Cape Bon. 
Gaetano will go in the Maidstone, and I hope return in her ; 
but I think that very doubtful, when he once gets with his 
wife and familv. 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSONT. 305 

*' How this letter will get home I know not. It will be 
read by every post office from Naples to London. 

*' The Admiral does not mean to stay at Malta jnore than 
twenty-four hours, for he is very anxious to get off Toulon. 
News I can tell you none, except from vessels spoke. We 
find that it was the Jemappe, seventy- four, passed the Straits 
a little before us, she was in a calm off Majorca, the 31st of 
May, so that if we had proceeded direct in the Victory, we 
should have had her to a certainty. This letter will probably 
find you returning from Hilborough, where my fancy tells 
me you are thinking of setting out, for it will amuse you by 
change of scene. I have wrote Gibbs a long letter to know 
something about Bronte — this is a matter 1 am determined 
to settle as speedily as possible, for the Admiral says it is 
shameful the way it has been managed. I have also wrote 
about your things at Malta. You forgot to give me the 
order, but I suppose they will believe me. 

^^ June Wth. Mr. Elliot just leaving us, but this letter I 
send to Gibbs to send by the post, therefore I cannot write 
all I wish, but when the Admiral gets off Toulon, he mtends 
sending a vessel direct to England. 

" Yours, &c." 

Nelson wrote the same day to Sir John Acton, and com- 
municated to him his orders in regard to Naples, viz. : — 
" Your Lordship is to be very attentive in observing if the 
French have any design of attacking the kingdoms of Naples 
or Sicily, and your Lordship is to exert yourself to coun- 
teract it, and to take, sink, burn, or destroy any ships or 
vessels which may be so employed, and to afford to his Sici- 
lian Majesty and his subjects, all the protection and assist- 
ance may be in your power, consistently with a due attention 
to the other important objects entrusted to your care.'" 

He also wrote to the King and the Queen of the Two 
Sicilies. The Ambassador left the Amphion on the 11th. 
The Queen wrote thus to Lord Nelson : — 

" July 6, 1803. 
" I have read your letter, my worthy and respected Lord? 
addressed to General iVcton and to Elliot, which has pro- 
' Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. 82. 
VOL. II. X 



.106 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII. 

duced a lively sensation. You enter into our position and cir- 
cumstances perfectly, in prudently employing the strictest 
vigilance both by sea and land, so that we may not be com- 
promised, and no pretext supplied to the destroyers of the 
human race for devouring us. You render us the most 
essential service, and have another claim on our eternal 
gratitude — depend on our vigilance, which is excited by a 
complete mistrust, and knowledge of the activity and per- 
fidity of those we watch, and you shall be informed of every 
thing. What you send me increases my gratitude towards 
your loyal Government, and my satisfaction at their having 
chosen your worthy self for the command in the Mediterra- 
nean is infinite, and adds greatly to my tranquillity and 
safety. The stationing a ship constantly in the Gulf of 
Naples to be ready for any occasion augments the obligations 
of my family and myself towards you. You know that the 
Algerines have dared to declare war against the British flag, 
which renders the navigation still more difficult. I should 
be infinitely obliged could you send a first-rate frigate to 
Naples, which cruising th^ Adriatic would observe Tarento, 
OtrantO; and carry the letters to Trieste, and our Minister 
to Vienna, the Commander RufFo, without such protect on, 
has no safe means of proceeding to his appointment. Pardon 
these demands and inconveniences, but I know your obliging 
attention. Rely also upon my esteem and eternal gratitude. 
Your sincere and very attached friend, 

'^ Charlotte. 

" The King my husband, and all my dear children desire 
me to present their compliments and assurance of eternal 
esteem and gratitude.*' 

Nelson wrote on the 14th to the Capitan Pacha, and 
acquainted his Highness of his appointment as Commander- 
in-chief of the Fleet in the Mediterranean, and that he had 
instructions to prevent the French from disturbing the tran- 
quillity of the Ottoman empire, and to give every assistance 
in his power to the Sublime Porte and its subjects. He also 
addressed the Government of the RepubUc of the Seven Isles 
to the same effect, and referred to Mr. Spiridion Foresti for 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON'. .?07 

the sentiments of respect he entertained towards them, recol- 
lecting very vividly the testimony offered to him by the 
Presidents of the island of Zante, after the Battle of the Nile. 
He directed Captain William Edward Cracraft/ of the Anson, 
to cruise between Cape Matapan, and the south-west end of 
Candia, for the protection of commerce, and the destruction 
of the enemy, having received information that the French 
had a squadron of frigates in the Archipelago. The Maid- 
stone, Captain Mowbray," was dispatched with Mr. Elliot to 
Naples, and in her passage captured a French brig, L'Arabe, 

' This ofiBcer commanded the Sea Fencibles on the coast of Sussex, and died at 
Chichester after a few days illness, in 1810, at the age of 48 years. 

' Richard Hussey Mowbray was a native of Plymouth, born March 16th, 1776, 
and related to Sir Richard Bickerton, with whom he first went to sea in 1789. 
Re served on the Newfoundland, Channel, and Jamaica stations. He had an op- 
portunity of seeing much service, and was soon made a Lieutenant, and appointed 
to the Magicienne of 32 guns, and was at the taking of Port-au-Prince, after 
which, in 1794, he commanded the Fly, and brought home the bearers of the 
Disjiatches on that occasion. He afterwards conveyed His Royal Highness the 
Duke of York from Helvoetsluys to Harwich, and assisted at the capture of two 
Dutch line-of-battle ships, one frigate, two sloops of war, nine East Indiamen, 
and about sixty other vessels in Plymouth Sound. In April, 1797, he was made 
a Post- Captain, and served as a volunteer with Sir Richard Bickerton in 
the Ramillies and the Terrible. In 1801, he was commissioned to the Maid- 
stone frigate, and sent to the Mediterranean with information of the Peace of 
Amiens. Conveying the Russian Ambassador from Naples to Constantinople, he 
received a pelisse from the Grand Vizir. In 1803, he captured the brig L'Arabe 
with the antiquities as above stated, and in August of this year Lord Nelson ap- 
pointed him to the Active, and stationed him as a frigate of observation off Toulon. 
In 1805, he, together with the Seahorse, Capt. the Hon. Courtenay Boyle, waschased 
by the French fleet, but they effected their escape. He afterwards cruised on the 
Irish station, and in 1807 accompanied Sir J. T. Duckworth to the Dardanelles, and 
most gallantly distinguished himself in the battle off Point Pesquies. On the return 
through the Dardanelles, his ship received one of those tremendous granite balls 
already mentioned, weighing 8001bs., and measuring six feet and a half in circum- 
ference. It struck the vessel two feet above the water, lodged oia the orlop deck 
close to the magazine scuttle, without injuring any one ! Proceeding to Malta 
with the Russian Ambassador, the Active was repaired, and afterwards em- 
ployed in the Adi-iatic. He then commanded the Montague of 74 guns, and was 
at the reduction of Santa Maura. In 1811, he was employed in the Rejjulse in 
the in-shore squadron off" Toulon, and then in arduous sei-vice with Rear-Admiral 
Hallowell. Off" Port Morjean and in the Gulf of Genoa, he subsequently ren- 
dered much service, and in 1814 escorted a fleet of merchantmen from Malta 
to Kngland. Tn 1815, he was made C.B., attained the rank of Rear- 
Admiral, July 19, 1821, and died Senior Vice- Admiral of the Red, and K.C.B. 
in November 1842. 

X 2 



308 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII. 

which had on board several cases of antiquities from Athens, 
supposed to be for Buonaparte and the French RepubHc. 
They were, however, for the Count de Choiseul Gouffier,^ as 
appears by the following letter : — 

"Aux Eaax de Bareges, 
1st Sept. 1803. 
*' My dear Lord, 

" I am informed that a number of antiquities, &c. belonging 
to the Comte de Choiseul Gouffier, formerly French Ambassa- 
dor at Constantinople, have lately been captured on board a 
French corvette, which was taken by an English frigate off 
Sicily. Your Lordship can be in no doubt what these vessels 
were, though I am ignorant of their names. But as I take upon 
myself to assure your Lordship, that the articles claimed by 
the Comte de Choiseul are really his private property, and as I 
had occasion to witness the treachery and losses to which he 
was subjected in regard to similar matters, from his country- 
men and dependents in Turkey, I feel anxious to recom- 
mend his case, in a particular manner, to your Lordship's 
goodness. 

" I am aware that these effects must be disposed of accord- 
ing to the general rules of the service ; still, I am confident 
your Lordship will have the kindness to order every indulgence 

' Count de Choiseul Goviffier, an eminent scholar and antiquary, was born at 
Paris, Sept. 27, 1752. He studied under the Abbe Barthelemy, from whom he 
derived his taste for learning, and the study of history and antiquities. He visited 
many countries, travelled in 1776 through Greece and Asia Minor, and com- 
menced the publication of the results of his studies upon his return to France 
in 1782, in a splendid volume, entitled, "Voyage Pittoresque de la Grece." 
Louis XVI. named him his Ambassador to Constantinople in 1784, where he 
erected an observator)', and established a printing press. Corresponding with 
Louis XVL his papers were seized in 1792, and he was proscribed. He sought 
an asylum in Russia, and was protected by the Empress Catherine IL The Em- 
peror Paul named him a Counsellor of State, and Director of the Academy of 
Arts, and of the Imperial Library. In 1802, he returned to France, and although 
deprived of the principal part of his fortune, he collected around him many 
friends of arts and letters, and in 1809, published the first part of the second 
volume of his splendid work, the remaining portion of which appeared after his 
death, under the editorship of M. M. Barbie du Bocage and Letronne. Upon 
the restoration of the Bourbons, Choiseul Gouffier was made a Peer of France, a 
Minister of State, and Privy Counsellor. In 1816, he returned to his former 
seat in the Royal Academy, and contributed to the transactions of that learned 
body. He died of an attack of apoplexy at AL\-la-Chapelle, June 20, 1817. 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON'. 309 

to be shewn to the Comte which can be granted to him. If 
they are necessarily to be sold, it would be an essential obli- 
gation to him, that the purchase could be made for hitii 
agreeably to the instructions he may send for the purpose. 
If the purchase were better made in the name of an English- 
man, I would then beg you to authorize its being transacted 
on my account, according to the Comte's instructions, and to 
be paid for by his agent, or by drafts, on Messrs. Coutts, for 
my behoof, which will be immediately honoured. The unfor- 
tunate situation in which I stand will apologize to your Lord- 
ship for my not adding more than the expression of my very 
best wishes which ever attend you, and with which, I have 
the honour to remain, 

" Most faithfully and truly yours, 

" Elgin. 

" It were, I am sure, unnecessary for me to recommend to 
your friendship and assistance the several matters in which 
Sir Richard Bickerton, and my other friends, had taken a 
warm interest for me. I am confident of your Lordship^s 
kindness.^' 

Arrived at Gibraltar, Lord Nelson had the Guerrier fitted 
up for the reception of between 3 and 400 prisoners, and 
suggested to the Admiralty the appointment of a Lieutenant, 
Purser, and proper officers to her as a guard of safety. He 
suggested also the propriety of a similar establishment at 
Malta. He was much pleased with the Amphion, and de- 
scribed her to Captain Sutton as one of the nicest frigates he 
had seen. Off Messina he heard with much displeasure 
that a breach of neutrality had been committed by Captain 
FyfFe of the Cyclops, and by the Experiment, in the Bay of 
Naples, at anchor, in sending their boats to capture two 
French vessels coming into the port. One was immediately 
restored, and the other directed to be so when it should 
arrive at Malta. Nelson was very rigid in observing a strict 
neutrality, and would not allow it to be broken with impu- 
nity. He had upon his arrival at Malta, on the 15th, been 
enthusiastically received. He left it on the l7th, and as the 



310 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CilAP. VII. 

following letter shews, was in the passage of the Faro on 
the 20th :— 

"June 20th, 1803. 

" My dear Emma, 
" I am now in the passage of the Pharo. Charles is with 
me, and Captain Capel says behaves very well. I dare not 
say more, for I never expect you will ever receive this letter 
from 

On June 25th :— ' 



" Yours." 



" June 25th, off Capri. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" Close to Capri the view of Vesuvius calls so many cir- 
cumstances to my mind, that it almost overpowers my 
feelings, I do not believe that I shall have any opportunity 
of sending this letter to Naples, and if I did, Lord Nelson 
does not believe Mr. Elliot would have any opportunity of 
sending it safely to England, therefore I can tell you little 
more than here we are. AVe arrived at Malta June 15th, in 
the afternoon, and sailed Thursday in the night. Lord Nelson 
being so very anxious to join the fleet off Toulon. Sir A. 
Ball is very well, but I think he looks melancholy. It was so 
hot that I was glad to breathe the sea air again. I saw the 
Marquis Testefatte — I think that is the name; he inquired 
after you. What is going on in Italy I cannot tell you, and 
if I could, dare not by this conveyance. The Admiral tells 
me that very soon he shall have a good and safe opportunity, 
therefore believe all the kind things I would say, and your 
fertile imagination come up to them. 

'* Yours. 

" Charles is very well. The Maidstone is just in sight 
from Naples, where she went with Mr. Elliot. Reports say, 
by the Maidstone, that all at Naples have great confidence in 
Lord Nelson." 

' This, and the preceding letters, are without signature, and from the mode in 
which they were written, display his caution in a correspondence through the 
post. 



1S03.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 311 

Nelson was now much occupied in corresponding with 
Mr. Elhot and Sir John Acton as to the conduct to be 
pursued in order to preserve the Two Sicilies. Lord Nelson 
was charged by the Government with the exercise of his 
discretion as to the steps to be taken with regard to the Two 
Sicilies and to the possession of the Citadel and Fort of 
jSIessina. He was anxious to prepare against any accident ; 
and to secure an asylum and safe retreat to the royal family, 
he proposed to leave either a ship of the line or a frigate 
always at Naples. In a private letter to Sir John Acton he 
says, " If I know myself, it is to know that the more my friends 
are in distress, the more I am anxious to save them. A mouse 
assisted a lion, which is the only comparison I can make in 
arrogating to myself the power of assisting a King of the 
House of Bourbon ; and I am sorry to say, the only one who 
has strictly preserved his honour, or dignity and fidelity to 
his Alhes, and I shall feel proud in aiding you, my dear Sir 
John, in saving these two fine kingdoms, and Mr. Elliot wdll 
join us most cordially in this good work. All we must take 
care of is, not to run the risk of Sicily, beyond the line of 
prudence ; on this point, we rely (as the seaman's phrase is) 
on your Excellency's look out. You must be aware of our dis- 
tance, and be in time. I will, if you send to me off Toulon, 
either attend myself, or send Sir Richard Bickerton.''^ 

Lord Nelson upon quitting Capri furnished his Excellency 
Mr. Elliot with an order, directed to the Senior Captain of 
His Majesty's ships in the Bay of Naples, to take on board, 
upon its presentation, the King, Queen, and Royal family 
of Naples and convey them to Palermo or such other place as 
the King might choose to proceed to. The order also ex- 
tended to His Majesty's Minister and suite, and also to afford 
as much pi'otection as possible to British subjects and their 
property. Nelson ordered Captain Richardson" of the Juno, 
to cruise off Cape Spartivento and on the coast towards 
Tarento for the purpose of interrupting French troops which 
Nelson suspected would be conveyed along shore. His 
orders were to take, sink, burn, and destroy them without 

' From a copy in the Elliot Papers : Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. 99. 
^ This officer died after a long illness, December 28th, 1815. 



312 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII. 

regard to their being in any ship or vessel bearing a Neutral 
flag. This determined measure arose from the French 
having taken possession of Pescara, Brindisi, Otranto and 
Tarento, and his fears that troops might thence be sent into 
Sicily or on the coast of Calabria opposite. He also issued 
orders to Captain Schomberg^ of the Madras, or the Senior 
Officer of the ships at Malta to give any assistance that might 
be required by General Villettes to 'convey troops from Malta 
into Sicily. The importance of a Commander-in-chief of 
Nelson's vigour and capacity was strongly manifested at this 
time. His paper" to the Right Hon. Heniy Addington, 
giving in brief the condition of Gibraltar, Algiers, Malta, 
Sicily, Sardinia, Rome, Tuscany, Genoa or Liguria, and the 
Morea, and his suggestions to the Government as to measures 
which it might be deemed advisable to adopt, exhibits 
Nelson's powers in a very prominent and effective manner. 
The Rev. Mr. Scott, Lord Nelson's chaplain and translator, 

' Cheu-les Marsh Schomberg was the son of Sir Alexander Schomberg, born at 
Dublin, and went to sea with his father. He was in active service during the 
Revolutionary war under Admiral Macbride with whom he continued until he 
was made a Lieutenant in 1795. He served under Captain Louis of the Minotaur, 
and with the Fleet off Cadiz was engaged in various daring enterprises with the 
Spanish flotilla and land batteries. In 1798 he went to the Mediterranean and 
was at the Battle of the Nile, where he took possession of the Aquilon. He was 
afterwards actively engaged on the coast of Italy, as already described in the account 
of Captain Louis's proceedings in the Minotaur. Lieutenaiit Schomberg accom- 
jianied Lord Keith to Egypt in the Foudroyant, and was Flag Lieutenant on that 
occasion. Advanced to the rank of Commander, he was appointed to the Terma- 
gant sloop, and received the gold medal of the Imperial Ottoman Order of the 
Crescent. After the evacuation of Egypt, he went to Tunis, and obtcdned the thanks 
of Governor Ball, and the present of a piece of plate for his services. Upon his 
return to England he was appointed to the Hibernia, and went to the Tagus. In 
1 8 1 he commanded the Astrea, went to the Cape of Good Hope, was detached to the 
^Mauritius and fought an action with a French squadron near Madagascar, May 21, 
1811. In 1813, he was appointed to the Kisus, sent to Brazil, and convoyed 
home a large fleet of merchantmen. In 1815, he was made C.B. and appointed 
to the Rochfort, 80 guns, the Flag ship of Sir Graham Moore in 1820. He 
returned in four years and was paid off at Chatham. He attained the rank of 
Rear-Admiral, was, in addition to the Companionship of the Bath, a Knight 
Conimander of the Guelphic Order, and of the Royal Portuguese Order of the 
Tower and Sword. He died Lieutenant-Governor of Dominica, January 1st, 1835. 

* See Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. lOG-11 ; from Autograph in the Sid- 
mouih Papers. 



1 



1S03.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 313 

says^ that the services in which Lord Nelson was at this time 
engaged, were so comphcated and harassing, and requiring so 
much untiring patience and watchfuhiess, that they gave full 
and anxious employment not only to himself but to all who 
were in his confidential service. 

Off Monte Christo on the 1st of July, Lord Nelson ordered 
Captain Hardy of the Amphion to seize all vessels and 
property belonging to Genoa or the Ligurian Republic, the 
Government of the RepubUc having adopted the wishes of 
the French Minister as acts of their own Government, and 
thei-eby become hostile to Great Britain. He transmitted 
intelhgence of these transactions to Sir Evan Nepean, Bart, 
for the Admiralty, and strongly advised an immediate block- 
ade of Genoa in order to cut off supplies for the southern part 
of France and the northern parts of Italy. On his course 
from Monte Christo to Toulon, which voyage was unusually 
slow from the frequent calms and contrary winds, Nelson 
wrote the following letter to Lady Hamilton : — 

" July, 1803. 

" My dearest Emma, 

" Although I have wrote letters from various places, merely 
to say ' Here I am,^ and ' There I am,'- — yet, as I have no 
doubt but they would all be read, it was impossible for me to 
say more than ' Here I am, and well,^ and I see no prospect 
of any certain mode of conveyance, but by sea ; which, with 
the means the Admiralty has given me, of small vessels, can 
be but seldom. 

'' Our passages have been enormously long. From Gib- 
raltar to Malta, we were eleven days, arriving the 15th in the 
evening, and sailing in the night of the 16th, that is, three in 
the morning of the 17th, and it was the 26th before we got 
off Capri ; where I had ordered the frigate, which carried 
Mr. Elhot to Naples, to join me. 

" I send you copies of the King and Queen's letters. I am 
vexed that she did not mention you ! I can only account for 
it, by her's being a political letter. You will only shew the 
King and Queen's letters to some few particular friends. The 



314 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VIT. 

King is very low ; lives mostly at Belvidere ; Mr. Elliot had 
not seen either him or the Queen, from the l7th, the day of his 
arrival, to the 21st. On the next day he was to be presented. 

" I have made up my mind, that it is part of the plan of 
that Corsican scoundrel, to conquer the kingdom of Naples. 
He has marched 13,000 men into the kingdom, on the 
Adriatic side ; and he will take possession with as much 
shadow of right of Gaeta and Naples : and if the poor King 
remonstrates, or allows us to secure Sicily, he will call it war, 
and declare a conquest. 

^'I have cautioned General Acton, not to risk the Royal 
family too long, but Naples will be conquered, sooner or 
later, as it may suit Buonaparte's convenience. The Morea 
and Egypt are likewise in his eye. An army of full 70,000 
men are assembling in Italy. I am, you may believe, very 
anxious to get off Toulon, to join the Fleet. Sir R. Bickerton 
went from oflP Naples, the day I left Gibraltar. We passed 
Monte Christo, Bastia, and Cape Corse, yesterday ; and am 
now moving slowly direct for Toulon. What force they 
have I know not ; indeed, I am totally ignorant, some say 
nine sail of the line, some say seven, some five. If the former, 
they will come out, for we have only the same, number, 
including sixty-fours, and very shortly manned. However, 
I hope they will come out, and let us settle the matter. You 
know I hate being kept in suspense. 

''July 8th. — I left this note, to put down what force the 
French have at Toulon. Seven sail of the line ready, five 
frigates, and six corvettes. One or two more in about a week. 
We to-day, eight sail of the line, to-morrow, seven, including 
two sixty -four gun ships. 

" I have not mentioned my Bronte affairs to Acton, as yet ; 
but, if Naples remains much longer, I shall ask the question. 
But I expect nothing from them. I believe, even Acton 
wishes himself well and safely removed. I think from what 
I hear that the King's spirits are so much depressed, that he 
will give up the reins of Naples, at least to his son, and retire 
to Sicily, Sir William, you know, always thought that he 
would end his life so. Certainly, his situation must be 
heart-breaking. 



]803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 315 

" We joined this morning the fleet. The men in the ships 
are good ; but the ships themselves are a little the worse for 
wear, and very short of their complements of men. We shall 
never be better: therefore, let them come, the sooner the 
better. 

'^ I shall write a line to the Duke,^ that he may see I do 
not forget my friends, and I rely on your saying every kind 
thing for me to the Doctor, Mrs. Nelson, ^c. &c. 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte."'^ 

The following appears to be the letter of the King of 
Naples to Lord Nelson, referred to in the preceding letter : — 

" Admiral Nelson, Duke of Bronte, 
" Your letter of the 10th of June gave me the liveliest 
satisfaction, which would have been complete, could I have 
had the pleasure of seeing you, but the reasons which induce 
you to abstain from granting it to me I quite appreciate. I 
recognize in that attention another proof of the constant 
attachment which I have experienced on so many other cri- 
tical occasions. The hand of Providence again weighs on me 
and on my people. I see no hope or consolation but in the 
friendship of your august Sovereign, who was always my 
faithful and sincere ally. His support is certain, since he 
has appointed you to the command in these seas. I shall 
assuredly be under new obligations, and shall receive new 
succour from your valour and activity, to which I am infi- 
nitely indebted, as well as to the friendship of the British 
nation. I must solicit your immediate consideration of my 
position. I may lose the Kingdom of Naples, and must act 
with circumspection, in saving one part, not to risk the whole 
of the kingdom. Yon are too attached, and see too clearly 
all the circumstances, for me to fear being compromised, 
whilst I am also assured of being supported and perhaps 
saved a second time. I am very desirous of making Monsr. 

' Queensberry. " Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 123. 



316 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIUAL [cHAP. VII. 

Elliot's acquaintance. I knew his excellent father, and 
have heard his praises spoken of. I trust in his intelligence, 
and in yours. You know my mode of thinking, it will remain 
the same to my last moment. Receive my wishes for all that 
interests you in every respect ; and I pray God to have you, 
Admiral Nelson, Duke of Bronte, in his holy keeping. 

" Your affectionate 

"Ferdinando B. 

" At Naples, the 20th June, 1803." 

Lord Nelson also wrote to his Royal Highness the Duke 
of Clarence, and observed : — 

" It is, perhaps, very difficult for any one to say what are 
the plans of Buonaparte ; he is assembling a very large army in 
Italy, and has ah'eady placed 13,000 men in the kingdom of 
Naples. I think it can only be with a view to conquer it, 
when it may, on some pretence or other, suit his convenience. 
The Morea, and ultimately Egypt, are in his view ; therefore, 
his assembling so many troops in Italy — they say full 
80,000 — can only be for the purpose of removing them across 
the Adriatic. With this idea, I fully expect that the French 
fleet from Brest wil assuredly come into the Mediterranean, 
to protect his army across the water, and along-shore from 
Genoa, Leghorn, &c. which are full of troops. We must 
keep a good look-out, both here and off Brest ; and if I have 
the means, I shall try and fight one party or the other, before 
they form a j unction.^' ^ 

On the 8th Lord Nelson joined the fleet with Sir Richard 
Bickerton ; he found them looking well, but short of men. 
Sir Richard was desirous of remaining with Nelson in the 
Mediterranean, and requested him to communicate the same 
to Earl St. Vincent, which he did, adding that he had no 
objection, as he had always heard him spoken highly of as an 
officer. 

Captain Gore, of the Medusa, gave Nelson information of 

' Claike andMcArthur, Vol. ii. p. 313. 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 3l7 

the strength of the French fleet in the harbour of Toulon, 
and he determined on watching their movements most 
strictly. 

The following interesting letter to Lady Hamilton is from 
Lord Nelson's Secretary : — 

" Amphion, ofF Toulon, 8th July, 1803. 

"Dear Madam, 
" I had the honour of writing your Ladyship on the 3rd 
ultimo, and in order that I might not be too late, sealed up 
my letter just as we were going into Gibraltar Bay, on that 
evening. His Lordship went on shore next morning at five 
o'clock, after breakfast, to examine the state of the Yard, and 
pay his respects to the Governor. He returned about twelve, 
and after having finished his public dispatches, we left the 
Rock at four in the afternoon. I had not an opportunity of 
getting on shore to see the beauties of that place, nor did I 
much desire it. War was considered there as inevitable, but 
they had no account of it till our arrival ; there was no news 
on the Rock. His Royal Highness the Duke of Kent had 
been some time gone previous to our arrival ; Sir Thomas 
Trigge, notwithstanding, continues to act under his Sign 
Manual, but is now and then obliged to suspend some of his 
orders (which, however well they may answer, with Royalty 
to enforce them, are not perhaps so well calculated for 
another officer). His Royal Highness's aides-de-camp con- 
sider his return as certain ; it is not, however, the public 
opinion, that such a desirable event is likely to take place, 
and therefore they are endeavouring to reconcile themselves 
to the absence of that illustrious military character. I forgot 
to mention to your Ladyship that we captured a French 
merchant brig off Tangier, and carried her into Gibraltar ; 
she is supposed to be worth about £8000. On the 5th 
ultimo we captured another French merchant brig and a 
Dutch ship, and sent them to Malta. On the 11th his Lord- 
ship sent the Maidstone to Naples with his Excellency Mr. 
Elliot, who is really a pleasant, well-informed man. Gaetano 
went with him to see his wife, and was in very high spirits 
on the occasion. What a remarkable proof of his Lordship's 



318 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [ciIAP. VII. 

goodness of heart to jiart with a man, even for a short time, 
so essentially necessary to his comfort, as a servant. We did 
not set to Malta till the 15th, about four in the afternoon. 
Sir Richard Bickerton had left that place on the 18th of May, 
in consequence of the enemy's movements, and was informed 
of the war on the 4th of June, by the Niger from Naples, the 
French Minister at that Court having received the official 
account of it some days previous to that, and long before it 
was known through any other channel. It was not known 
at Malta till we went there. We left that place on the l7th 
ultimo, early in the morning. It is certainly one of the best 
fortified towns in the world, and is worth every sacrifice we 
have made to possess ourselves of it. I hope we shall never 
give it up ; its local advantages to England are incalculable, 
although the possessing it may cost a considerable sum. We 
got off Naples on the 20th of June, and were joined by the 
Maidstone, who brought Gaetano back ; this is a wonderful 
proof of his attachment, and really more than I expected. 
William did his best in the interval, though I fear was very 
deficient in many instances. We are now on our way to 
Toulon, where I hope we may soon arrive, and find the Vic- 
tory before us, for although Captain Hardy's kind attention 
cannot be excelled, yet the comfort of a large ship in this 
climate is so desirable, that we are all wonderfully anxious to 
fall in with her, and get settled. His Lordship, I have the 
pleasure to tell your Ladyship, is quite well, and in excellent 
health ; he has been very anxious (and no wonder, when it is 
considered how necessary his presence is off Toulon.) to join 
Sir Richard Bickerton. I have heard much of Lord Nelson's 
abilities as an Officer and Statesman, but the account of the 
latter is infinitely short. In my travels through the service 
I have met with no character in any degree equal to his Lord- 
ship ; his penetration is quick, judgment clear, wisdom great, 
and his decisions correct and decided: nor does he in com- 
pany appear to bear any weight on his mind, so cheerful and 
pleasant that it is a happiness to be about his hand ; in fact, 
he is a great and wondei'ful character, and very glad and 
happy shall I be, if in the discharge of my duty, private and 
public, I have the good fortune to meet his Lordship's aj)pro- 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON, 319 

bation. With every uish for your Ladyship's health and 
happiness, I have the honour to remain, \^'ith great regard, 
'* Dear Madam, 
" Your most obedient and faithful humble servant, 

"John Scott. 
" P.S. We arrived off here yesterday forenoon, and this 
morning, 8th of July, fell in with Sir Richard Bickerton and 
his squadron. We hear the Victory is in this country. I 
hope in fourteen days she will be with us." 

Lord Nelson also wrote to Lady Hamilton on the 1 2th : — 

" Amphion, July 12th, 1803. 

" My dearest Emma, 

" 'Tis now near two months since my departure, and 
thanks to the Admiralty, nothing is yet arrived, nor have I 
heard the least bit of English news. It is my intention, the 
first money I get, to pay off Mr. Graves* £2000 mortgage, 
which is due 1st October next, and after that Mr. Davison ; 
then I shall have Mr. Matcham's mortgage money lodged, 
after which I shall send you some to begin next spring our 
alterations ; but first 1 will, if I can, get out of debt, I am 
talking as if I had made a fortune, and God knows, as yet I 
have not received one farthing of Prize Money. Some vessels 
are taken, but they, even if they are condemned, will not give 
me much. Prize Money does not seem mj lot. However, 
time must give me something handsome, and I shall keep 
everybody alive, and on the look-out ; for although money may 
not absolutely constitute the whole of happiness, yet we both 
know that happiness sits much more easy when we have a 
purse of money to resort to, and we must allow that there is 
great comfort in it. 

"July ISt/i. Off Toulon. We have just had a three 
days gale, but we are close off Toulon, looking at them. 1 
have not seen a single vessel these five days, except our own 
fleet ; therefore, I neither can tell you news, nor have received 
any. The happiness of keeping a station is always to have a 
foul wind, and never to hear the delightful sound. Steady. 
Victory, I hope, will soon join. I have heard Sutton has 
made £8000. in her in his way to join me, but I fear with 



320 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. VII. 

my usual prize luck I shall not share for his prizes ; but 
perseverance will do wonders, and some day I shall get very 
rich. Hard}- has been very unwell, indeed I was afraid that 
he would have been obliged to go home, but he is much 
better. His loss would have been a most serious one to me. 
Rev. Dr. Scott^ is very busy translating; his health is much 
recovered. Murray, Hardy, and Mr. Scott are on a Court 
Mai'tidl, so I have all the ship to myself. My Secretary I 
esteem a treasure ; he is not only a clever man, but inde- 
fatigable in his business, and an extraordinary well behaved, 
modest man ; in short, I feel very well mounted at present, 
and I trust shall have no reason to wish for any alteration. 
I long to hear of your Norfolk excursion, and everything you 
have been about, for I ever am most warmly interested in all 
your actions. 

'■'■ Jnhj 2\st. We have not seen a vessel these many days. 
The Medusa and Termagant have been up the Gulf of Lyons, 
they spoke some Spaniards from Marseilles who tell them 
that all the seamen are sent to Toulon, and the merchant 
ships laid up. We are anxious for the Victory joining, as we 
are almost eating salt beef. Make my kind regards to Mrs. 
Cadogan, and all our friends, and be assured I ever am, 
" Yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte." 

On the 17th, Captain Langford, who was wounded at the 
attack upon the Boulogne flotilla, wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 

" H. M. Ship Fury, 
Downs, July 17th, 1803. 

" My dear Lady, 
^' Your kind mention of me to my family, believe me, is 
very flattering to me, and has made me both proud and 
grateful. I trust you will do me the justice to suppose I 
should lose no opportunity in assuring you of my respects, 
as well as informing you the moment I have any intimation 
of following our noble Admiral to the Mediterranean — for 
this you may guess I am extremely anxious. But I guess 
Lord St. Vincent, in his great goodness, does not think the 

' The Chaplain, not a Doctor at that time. See Appendix, No. II. 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 321 

Fury's services absolutely necessary in that quarter. After 
having so long followed the fortunes of our noble friend^ I 
confess I do not feel a relish for serving under any other, I 
intend writing to Lord St. Vincent on the subject, and any 
service you can be to me on the part of Lord Nelson, in this 
case, I shall ever acknowledge with much gratitude. I am 
grieved to find Sir William Bolton is still unemployed ; I had 
expected from the Earl's promises, he would immediately on 
the war have been called on. 

" I am sure he must be happy in governing his present 
command. I have not been as yet very successful ; in fact, 
the station I am on (which is the Downs) does not admit of 
it, being too far to the eastward to get prizes. I have had a 
brush with our friends the Boulognese — but no mischief done. 
My protegee is doing very well. I am much obliged to you 
for your good intentions towards him. 

' I hope you found the great County of Norfolk agreeable. 
I am no friend to it. l*ray assure every body under your 
roof of my respects, and believe me ever, 

"Your much obliged, 

" Fred. Langford." 

Nelson was full of activity and eagerness regarding the 
French fleet, and on the 21st wrote to Captain Gore, of the 
Medusa, to gain every information respecting their move- 
ments, fearing they might be joined by a squadron from the 
West Indies or from Brest. 

Sir Alexander Ball wrote to Lady Hamilton on the 23rd : — 

" Malta, 23rd July, 1803. 

" My dear Lady Hamilton, 

" I was happy to hear from our most worthy Nelson that 
you were in good health, and supporting with as much for- 
titude as possible the greatest loss which could happen to you, 
but which you must have foreseen, and knowing it to be 
unavoidable, your mind would be gradually preparing for 
the awful event. I hope that you will now be many years 
Mdthout meeting any misfortune to interrupt your peace of 
mind. 

" I have great satisfaction in acquainting you that Lord 

vol. II. Y 



322 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII, 

Nelson never looked in better health than when here. He will, 
I trust, return soon to his favourite spot with additional 
honours and wealth. If you should have any person coming 
here to whom I can be of use, pray command me, and con- 
sider me among your zealous friends. I have had a great 
deal of plague with the Foreign Ministers here. I found the 
Prince of Pantellaria disaffected to his Sicilian Majesty's 
Ministers, and very unfriendly to the English; he seemed 
devoted to the French. 

*' My family enjoy good health here. My son is grown 
very much, and desires to be respectfully remembered to you. 
Adieu, my dear Lady Hamilton. Believe me, with every 
wish, your obliged and affectionate friend, 

" Alexander John Ball." 

The Queen of Naples wrote to Lady Hamilton at this 
time : — 

" My dear Lady, 
*' I take advantage of the departure of Mr, A'Court.^ to 
write to you. It is really so difficult now to find an oppor- 
tunity of communicating with England, that one is glad to 
seize any offer. I embrace this in order to assure you of my 
constant and unchanging sentiments towards you. I learnt 
with great interest and regret the loss you have sustained of 
the good Chevalier, and what much distresses me is, that you 
are left so indifferently provided for : that, I am really much 
grieved to hear, for I take the liveliest interest in all that 
concerns you. My health is always ailing; that of my 
dear children, thank God, is good. We all recall with gra- 
titude the many attentions you bestowed upon us, and only 
desire to be able to shew you how we appreciate them. The 
command in the Mediterranean being given to the brave and 
virtuous Lord Nelson has filled us with joy, and we already 
feel the happy results of it. Adieu, my dear Lady ; let me 
have news of you sometimes, and believe me for life your 
grateful friend, 

" Charlotte. 

" The 26th July, 1803." 

' Afterwards Lord Heytesbury. 



1803.J LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 323 

Lord Nelson wrote to her Majesty the same day : — 

"Off Toulon, July 26, 1803. 
" Madam, 
*' The first great object which is always nearest my heart 
is the safety of the persons of your Majesties, and of all the 
Royal Family. The second, so far as it is in my power, is 
that of the Kingdom of Naples, which is a very difficult 
affair. 

"If your Majesty were to act with all the circumspection 
in your power, either the French would feel themselves 
offended, or, what is worse, if possible, their assistance would 
be given by force to the King, for the preservation of Sicily. 
The great wisdom of your Majesty will know all that I could 
allege upon this subject. I shall therefore only say, that if 
Sicily is lost, Europe will blame the councils of his Sicilian 
Majesty, and Lord Nelson, for having been so weak as to 
pay attention to, or credit what is reported by the agents of 
the present French Government, 

" 1 have written to the English Government, declaring 
fully the unhappy position of the Kingdom of Naples ; regret- 
ting the orders given for the return of the army of Egypt, 
and setting forth with energy the necessity for sending troops 
not only to assist in the defence of Sicily, but in sufficient 
numbers to place garrisons in Gaeta, in the castles of Naples, 
if it should be expedient, and to send a body of men into 
Calabria, to support the loyal and brave inhabitants of that 
country of mountains, in case the French should be too 
imperious in their demands. 

" His Excellency, Mr. Elliot, will inform your Majesty of 
the difficulty I have in leaving a ship of the line at Naples, 
considering the present state of the enemy's fleet at Toulon ; 
but I will never permit my personal feelings to weigh against 
the sacred interest which I shall always take in the safety 
and well-being of your Majesties, and of all the Royal 
Family; and I assure your Majesty that I am always 
" Your most devoted and faithful servant, 

"Nelson and Buonte.'^' 

' Life of the Rev. Dr. Scott, p. 111. 

Y 2 



324 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAI- [CHAP. VII. 

Nelson was rendered unhappy at this time by intelHgence 
that his friend Mr. Davison had got into trouble, and been 
prosecuted for bribery at the Ilchester election, and for which 
in April, 1804, he was sentenced by the Court of King's 
Bench to twelve months imprisonment in the Marshalsea 
prison. In a letter of the 27th, Nelson says, " I hope in 
God. my dear Davison, that you will get over these damned 
prosecutions for the election. It has, and does give me very 
serious uneasiness."^ And on the 24th August : " I was glad 
to hear, and hope it will prove true, that your damned elec- 
tioneering business will be got quit of. It has cost me many 
bitter pangs : and without those feelings for our friends, 
there can be no friendship."^ 

On the 1st of August, Lord Nelson wrote off Toulon to 
Lady Hamilton : — 

"Victory, off Toulon, August 1, 1803. 

*' My dearest Emma, 

"Your letter of May 31, which came under cover to Mr. 
Noble, of Naples, inclosing Davison's correspondence with 
Plymouth, arrived by the Phoebe two days ago ; and this is 
the only scrap of a pen which has been received by any per- 
son in the fleet since we sailed from England. You will 
readily conceive the sensations which the sight and reading 
even your few lines [occasioned]. Sutton joined me yester- 
day, and we are all got into the Victory, and a few days will 
put us in order. Everybody gives a very excellent character 
of Mr. Chevalier, the servant recommended by Mr. Davison ; 
and I shall certainly live as frugal as my situation will admit. 
I have known the pinch, and shall endeavour never to know 
it again. I want iJ2000. to pay off Mr. Greaves,'' on October 
1st, but I have not received one farthing; I hope to receive 
some soon. Mr. Haslewood pi'omised to see this matter kept 
right for me. 

" Hardy is now busy, hanging up your and Horatia's pic- 
ture ; and I trust soon to see the other two safe arrived from 



' Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. 143. From an autograph in the possession 
of Colonel Davison. ^ Ibid. p. 175. 

^ On account of the purchase of Merton. 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 325 

the Exhibition. You will not expect much news from us. 
We see nothing. I have great fear that all Naples will fall into 
the hands of the French ; and, if Acton does not take care, 
Sicily also. However, I have given my final advice so fully 
and strongly, that, let what will happen, they cannot blame 
me. Captain Capel says, Mr. Elliot cannot bear Naples. 
I have no doubt but that it is very different to your time. 

" The Queen, I fancy by the seal, has sent a letter to Castel- 
cicala ; her letter to me is only thanks for my attention to 
the safety of the kingdom. If Dr. Scott has time, and is 
able, he shall write a copy for you. The King is very much 
retired. He would not see the French General St. Cyr; 
who came to Naples, to settle the contribution for the payment 
of the French army. The Queen was ordered to give him 
and the French Minister a dinner, but the King staid at Bel- 
videre. I think he will give it up soon, and retire to Sicily, 
if the French will allow him. Acton has never dared give 
Mr. Elliot, or one Englishman, a dinner. 

" The fleet are ready to come forth ; but they will not come 
for the sake of fighting me. I have this day made George 
Elliot, Post ; Lieutenant Pettit, a Master and Commander ; 
and Mr, Hindmarsh, the gunner's son of the Bellerophon, 
who behaved so well this day five years, a Lieutenant. I reckon 
to have lost two French seventy- fours by my not coming out 
in the Victory ; but I hope they will come soon, with interest. 
This goes to Gibraltar, by Sutton, in the Amphion. I shall 
write the Doctor in a day or two. I see by the French 
papers he has kissed hands. With regards, &c. &c. 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte."^ 

Lord Nelson dispatched Captain Sutton of the Amphion 
to cruise from Cape Spartel towards Madeira, and thence to 
Cape St. Vincent and to Cape Spartel, to gain information 
of the French fleet, and acquainted the Admiralty that the 
enemy's force consisted of seven sail of the line, five or six 
frigates, and six or seven corvettes. At Genoa there were 
three Genoese vessels of war, about forty sail of merchant 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 129. 



326 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII. 

ships, and throe Dutch merchantmen ; and at Marseilles, he 
learnt from vessels that had been spoken with, they were 
putting in requisition eighty or ninety sail of vessels of about 
forty tons each, to be fitted as gun-boats, and to proceed by 
the Canal of Languedoc to Bordeaux. He directed Captain 
Sir Richard Strachan, Bart., of the Donegal, to proceed to 
the Straits of Gibraltar, and look after a French seventy-four 
and some frigates at Cadiz, impeding our trade. 
To Lady Hamilton he wrote on the 10th : — 

"Victory, oflf Toulon, August 10th, 1803. 

"■ My dearest Emma, 

" I take the opportunity of Mr. A^Court's going through 
Spain with Mr. Elliot's dispatches for England, to send this 
letter : for I would not for the world, miss any opportunity of 
sending you a line, 

*' By Gibraltar I wrote you as lately as the 4 th ; but 
all our ways of communicating with England are very un- 
certain ; and I believe the Admiralty must have forgot us ; 
for not a vessel of any kind or sort has joined us since I left 
Sj)ithead. News I absolutely am ignorant of; except that a 
schooner, belonging to me, put her nose into Toulon ; and 
four frigates popped out and have taken her, and a transport 
loaded with water for the fleet. However, I hope to have an 
o]}portunity, very soon, of paying them the debt with interest. 

"Mr. A'Court says, at Naples they hope that the mediation 
of Russia will save them : but I doubt if Russia will go to 
war with the French for any kingdom ; and they, poor souls ! 
relying on a broken reed will lose Sicily. 

" As for getting anything for Bronte, I cannot expect it ; 
for the finances of Naples are worse than ever. Patienza, 
however, I will. 

" I see many Bishops are dead. Is my brother tired of 
Canterbury ? I wish I could make him a Bishop. If you 
see him, or write, say that I have not ten minutes to send 
away Mr. A'Court, who cannot be detained. 

" I hope Lord St. Vincent has sent out Sir William Bolton. 
As soon as I know who is first Lord, I will write him.''^ 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 130. 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 327 

Lord Nelson ordered Captain Cracraft of the Anson to 
proceed off Cape Sparticnto, and between that and the 
entrance of the Adriatic, learning that the French intended 
sending a squadron of frigates into the Adriatic to protect 
their army at the heel of Italy. He lost no opportunity with, 
it must be admitted, very inadequate means, to protect our 
commerce in every direction. 

In this month he endeavoured to effect an exchange of 
prisoners with the French Admiral, but his letter was refused 
acceptance. His offer was again made to Admiral La Touche, 
and the reply to this was, from the singular course adopted by 
the French Admiral by sending it through Paris, only received 
by Lord Nelson by the attention of Lambton Este, Esq. who 
addressed his Lordship as follows : — 

" Malta, July 7th, 1804. 

" My Lord, 

" While searching, this morning, the old papers at the 
Post Office for certain letters of my own, concerning which 
not any accurate account could be given, I accidentally met 
with the inclosed ; from the signature on the direction, per- 
ceiving it to be on public service, I can feel but doubly 
assiduous in forwarding it to your Lordship. 

*^The letter brought by the Italian post from Sicily to 
Malta, about the middle of the month of May, has been laying 
at the office ever since, and but for a mere chance might have 
continued there to remain. 

" This instance, one among very many others it has been 
my fate to witness generally through the Mediterranean 
during the Egyptian expedition, no less than in the course 
of my present voyage, may serve to convince your Lordship, 
how from want of arrangement and regularity, the general 
service may suffer ; while scarcely any individual can escape 
the inconveniences occasioned thereby. 

" I venture thus to trouble your Lordship, as in the course 
of my various voyages at different periods, and in different 
parts of the Mediterranean, with the greatest deference to your 
Lordship's better judgment and opinion, it has ever appeared 
that were the general inspections and superintendence of the 
posts given in charge to some active intelligent person well 



328 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII. 

acquainted with the Mediterranean, the service might be 
materially benefited, and every individual embarked in its 
different departments, not only at Gibraltar and Malta, but 
generally ; while such as are engaged in civil and commercial 
pursuits, along the Barbarese-Levant and Adi'iatic, together 
with the former, might thence derive most material and 
important accommodation. 

" I have the honour to remain, 
"My Lord, 
" With the greatest consideration and profound respect, 
" Your Lordship's most humble and obedient servant, 

"Lambton Este. 

" Private Secretary to the Consul General in Egypt. 

" Vice- Admiral Lord Viscount Nelson^ 
&c. &c. &c." 

This was acknowledged by Lord Nelson, August 3rd, 1804 : 
" I feel very much obliged by your letter of July 7th, and for 
Monsieur La Touche's letter, who, I suppose, not knowing 
irJicre to find me, directed to Malta. I most perfectly 
agree with you on the great irregularity of our Post Offices in 
this country, but the mending them does not only not rest 
with me, but, probably, if 1 was to meddle or recommend, it 
might make had worse. I hope you left your worthy father 
well : do little wonder that you are not at your post in Egypt. 
I had a line from Mr. Lock from Naples : reports say that 
he is first going to Constantinople."^ 

' Mr. now Dr. Lambton Este, was the son of the Rev. C. Este, well known to 
Lady Hamilton, and was introduced to Lord Nelson by the following letter : — 

" My most dear and greatly to be honoured Lord, I cannot help troubUng you 
with a line or two, for a beloved son of mine, who once dined with you at Merton, 
is again going through the Mediterranean to Egypt. When there before he was 
one of the Surgeons to the Guards. Now he goes with the mission of Mr. Lock 
as the Secretary and Physician. In the strange vicissitudes of Time and Chance 
it may so happen that he may come into your notice and correspondence : if it 
should be so, my dear Lord, I will answer for his manly conduct and unoffending 
manners ; for the faithfulness and good aiTections of his heart. 

" Adieu, adieu, Sir, the time and my spirits fail me to say more, than that the 
order for going to Portsmouth came with cruel abruptness but a few hours ago, 
and that my Lady, the most noble creature living, has been writing for us ever 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 329 

In the exercise of these great and unwearied exertions 
requiring incessant attention and watchfulness, Nelson pre- 

since. With kind emotions more than I can utter, and with esteem and admiration 
too, my most dear Lord, again and again, very tenderly adieu. 

" Your most obHged servant, 

" C. ESTE. 

"Feb. 3, 1804, at midnight." 

Mr. Este thus acknowledges Lord Nelson's letter : — 

" Malta, August 20th, 1804. 
" My Lord, 

" Your Lordship's favour of the 3rd of August, I had the honour of receiving 
duly by the Amazon ; not at all surprised that Monsieur Latouche Ti-eville should 
be endeavouring to find your Lordship any whei'e where your Lordship does not 
happen to be — cannot abandon hope that your Lordship may yet have fair oppor- 
tunity of letting him know, and in the most unequivocal manner, precisely where 
it is, your Lordship may, occasionally, be met with, in order not to leave room 
for mistakes in future. 

"The administration of the posts — I never should have ventured to mention 
to your Lordship — had the inconveniences thereof been confined to myself or to 
my friends. But in the course of present and preceding voyages, 1 never remember 
meeting a single individual in any rank or situation, who had not been to greater 
or less degree a sufferer. 

" Under such an impression, and the remembrance of certain observations, 
not in the way of every person to make, I felt it incumbent upon myself, as a kind 
of duty, to communicate the result of my experience to your Lordship ; especially 
on an opportunity, and an act of irregularity, like that of Monsieur Latouche 
Treville's letter. 

' ' The inclosed will afford further confirmation of any thing that may have been 
before mentioned ; no account is given of it — the present letter did not appear at 
the Post OfBce till very lately — probably came from Gibraltar in the Termagant, 
and for some trivial reason or other had been thrown into that part of the office, 
commonly called in England, the Dead Letter Office, whence I have the honour 
of redeeming and of forwarding it. 

" My father, concerning whom your Lordship makes such kind inquiries, I 
parted with in high health in London ; on leaving him he put the annexed into 
my hand, and desired me to deliver the same unto your Lordship- — I have since 
been preserving it, under vain but flattering expectations that the chapter of 
accidents might have afforded me the satisfaction of so doing. 

" Mr. Lock on the 19th of June, with Captain Vincent of the Arrow, sailed 
for Smyrna. Captain Vincent has since written to announce their speedy voyage. 
Mr. Lock may be expected daily, on return to Malta before taking a fresh depar- 
ture for the Levant, or will send such instructions as will determine and guide the 
movements of, 

" My Lord, 
" With the greatest cons^ideration and respect, 
" Your Lordship's 
" Most humble and most obedient servant, 

" Lambton Este." 



330 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII' 

served his health and spirits, as appears from the following 
letter from his Chaplain to Lady Hamilton : — 

"August I8th, 1803. 

" Dear Lady Hamilton, 
'^' I have the pleasure to assure you upon my honour that 
Lord Nelson is well both in health and spirits, hoping as he does 
most sanguinely to meet the enemy's fleet, and gather some 
more laurels. I have just read your letter, and can solemnly 
declare no one circumstance for years past has given me so 
much pleasure as this proof of your remembrance of me. In 
attaching myself to Lord Nelson I really considered you, as 
it were a part of him, and to say truth was sorry you did not, 
as I thought, like me enough. You have written to me, and 
I am contented. If you knew me long, you would rely upon 
my word, when I assure you that I hold as sacred this pro- 
fession of attachment to you and Lord Nelson. 

" I ought, perhaps, to have written to your Ladyship in a 
more distant and formal manner, but as it comes from the 
very bottom of my heart, you will pardon me on account of 
my sincerity. I am happy to hear all the family are well, 
and hope they will remember me, and accept of my best wishes 
and respects. 

" I am ever, 
" With the most devoted regard, 
" Your Ladyship's faithful friend and humble servant, 

" A. J. Scott. 

*' I have been so delighted with hearing from your Lady- 
ship, that I have not thanked you for the verses, which are 
excellent. 

" Addio I e qualche volte almeno 
" Ricordati di me." 



" Lazaretto, Malta, September 18th, 1804. 
" My Lord, 

"The inclosed dispatch, left open for your Lordship's perusal, contains the 
particulars of the unhappy fate of Charles Lock, Esq. late Consul-General in Egypt, 
Again, my Lord, I remain, 

" &c. &c. &c. 

" Lambton Este." 
Mr. Lock died of the Plague in the Lazaretto at Malta, September 12, 1804. 
Mr. Este placed himself in the Lazaretto, and attended him and two of his suite, 
who also fell victims to the pestilence. 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 331 

On the 21st Lord Nelson wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 

*« August 21st, 1803. 

" We have had, my dearest Emma, two days pretty strong 
gales. The Canopus has lost her fore-yard, but we shall put 
her in order again. This is the fourth gale we have had since 
July 6th, but the Victory is so easy at sea, that I trust we 
shall never receive any material damage. It is never my 
intention, if I can help it, to go into any port — my business 
is to be at sea, and get hold of the French fleet, and so I shall 
by patience and perseverance. As for Malta you know what 
I said about it in Parliament — it is useless to us for the 
blockade of Toulon, and nothing but an action, and probably 
not that, can ever make me go there — it takes upon the 
average seven weeks to get an answer to a letter. Malta and 
Toulon are entirely different services. It struck me that it 
was a horrid place, and all the captains who have been laid 
up there detest it. Our friend Ball, if I am not mistaken, 
wishes himself afloat, but he is too proud to own it. He is, 
I can assure you, a great man, and on many occasions appears 
to forget that he was a seaman, he is bit with the dignity of 
the Corps Diplomatique ; but I differ with no one, however 
I can think a little, and can see a little into a mill-stone. 

" I entreat that you will let nothing fret you, only believe 
me, once for all, that I am ever your own Nelson. I have 
not a thought except on you and the French fleet — all my 
thoughts, plans, and toils tend to those two objects, and I 
will embrace them both so close when I can lay hold of either 
one or the other, that the devil himself should not separate us. 
Don't laugh at my putting you and the French fleet together, 
but you cannot be separated. I long to see you both in your 
proper places, the French fleet at sea, you at dear Merton, 
which in every sense of the word, I expect to find a paradise. 
I send you a copy of Gibbs's letter, my answer, and my letter 
to Mr. Noble about your things, and I will take all care that 
they shall get home safe." 

Lord Nelson was anxious that Mr. Abraham Gibbs of 
Palermo should undertake the management of his Bronte 
estate, and wrote to him on the subject August 1 1th, 1 2th, and 



332 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP, VII. 

13th. It appears from some fragments of letters among his 
papers that his property at Bronte had been much mis- 
managed. In one of these he says: — 

" I see that Grseffer has pensioned some man that is said 
to have gained my cause, 65 ounces a year, and Gibbs recom- 
mends me to buy him off. This is one thing that I never 
heard of before, however I have sent Gibbs an order to 
receive this year's rents, and to sell the stock on the farm, 
that the debts may be paid as soon as possible. You may 
rely that I shall take care and settle something, if possible, 
solid before I leave this country. It is more than two months 
since I have heard from Naples, and till yesterday five weeks 
since I heard from Malta. I had a letter from poor Macaulay, 
he desires to be most kindly remembered to you. I hear 
Mr. Elliot does not like Naples, indeed I can conceive it is 
very different to what it was in our time. Do you ever hear 
from the Queen ? I fear that she is a time-serving woman, 
and cares for no one except for those at the moment who may 
be useful to her. However, time will shew. I am every day 
taking care of them. It is seven weeks since I heard from 
Gibraltar, for I have no small vessels to send about. We 
are cruising here in hopes some day to get hold of the French 
fleet, and that will repay us for all our toils." 

In another fragment he writes that he is determined to lay 
out no more, and adds : — 

"They say the house which is fitted up is ridiculous. 
Instead of a farm house it is a palace — quite a folly in Graeffer. 

" I had yesterday Charles on board to dine with me ; he is 
not much grown, but Captain Capel says he behaves very 
well. I want to know what changes have taken place at the 
Admiralty — the French papers have announced Lord Castle- 
reagh. I have wrote to Mr. Booth, and to Mr. Haslewood, 
and ordered home from Gibraltar £2100. to pay off Mr. 
Greaves, and I hope it will arrive before the 1st of October, 
but if it should not, I trust that Haslewood will manage that 
I get into no scrape. It is the first-fruits of prize-money, 
not much you will say, but I am not over fortunate in that 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 333 

respect. Be so good as to write a note to Haslewood. I 
long to be out of debt. I see by the papers that my cause 
has been argued and judgment deferred, I hope I shall get it, 
I long to know Haslewood's opinion. You will be sorry but 
not surprised to hear of Lord Bristol's death. ^ We are all 
well, and with kindest regards to Mrs. Cadogan, and all friends, 
believe me, 

*' Yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte." 

The following is Mr. Gibbs's reply to Lord Nelson : — 

" Palermo, 12th September, 1803- 

" My Lord, 

" I have had the honour of receiving your Lordship's kind 
letters, 11th, 12th, and 13th ultimo, which are highly flat- 
tering to me. Allow me to assure your Lordship, that I regard 
the Bronte estate as if it belonged to myself, and have the 
satisfaction to acquaint you, that by the pressing orders given 
since my an-ival, matters are already in a great state of forward- 
ness. The old accounts are under examination, pai't of the un- 
necessary expenses diminished, the Baschetto farmed out, and 
the debt of four thousand ounces to the Archbishop of Bronte 
ordered to be discharged from this year's rents. 

" Your Lordship is right, that nothing was repaid of the 
seven thousand ounces borrowed, which, with interest from 
the first period, is swelled to near eight thousand ounces. 
The occasion of there being no money resulting from the 
estate was, that poor Grseffer employed three years' rent for 
fitting up the house and improving the farm, instead of two 
years' rent as first intended, for reasons that he wrote your 
Lordship at the time. I have thought, therefore, that these 
four thousand ounces might as well be paid out of the full 
rental due next August, 1804, and there would remain over 
at that period another thousand pounds to remit to your 

' This nobleman before mentioned was fourth Earl of Bristol, and also Bishop 
of Derry. He died on the 8th of July, 1803. To avoid any superstitious ex- 
hibition on the part of sailors, who entertain a dread of having a corpse on board, 
his Lordship's body was packed up in a case, and shipped as an antique statue ! 
Could he have anticipated such a circumstance, it would have afforded him a 
capital subject to have written upon. 



334 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. VII. 

banker, when the estate will be quite clear, so as to enable 
you to have the full rental of the year 1805, unless, however, 
it should be your Lordship's pleasure to accept of the best 
offer made for the hire of the farm for a certain number of 
years. 

'* I have written last past to Mr, Broadbent to entreat him 
to renew his offer, that it may be in my power to decide upon 
the plan most suitable to your Lordship's interest, and as soon 
as Sir John Acton may have been pleased to communicate to 
me his Sicilian Majesty's determination relative to your Lord- 
ship's desire, to receive the value of the estate. I addressed 
Sir John the 9th instant upon the subject, in the manner you 
directed me, and sent my letter under cover to Cavaliere 
Gerardi, who is his present secretary, and my friend. I flatter 
myself therefore, that I shall shortly have the pleasure of 
sending your Lordship some satisfactoiy answer from Sir 
John Acton. 

" In the event of the estate being hired, I shall be mindful 
of all your Lordship's orders ; but supposing his Majesty 
should insinuate your Lordship's selling the estate to the 
best bidder, and that I should be able to find an equitable 
offer for it, would this be anyways against your Lordship's 
inclination ?^ 

" I expect hither Mrs. Graeffer every hour from^Bronte ; 
her presence will facilitate the classing of the past concerns, 
she is very desirous of remaining some time longer at Bronte, 
and considers it would be for your Lordship's interest. 

" How very fortunate it was my landing dear Lady Hamil- 
ton's cases at Girgenti from the vessel that was taken in 
returning to Malta, and sent to Tunis : I had a foresight of 
this accident, owing to the number of French privateers in 
the south parts of Sicily ; 1 expect the cases are embarked 
for Malta at this hour to Mr. Noble's care (either by the 
Spider brig or Cyclops), who writes me that he had received 
your Lordship's directions to forward them to England. 

" The Arms of Bronte" are ordered, and will be sent to 
your Lordship immediately. Those of your Lordship are 

' Lord Nelson has written ' Quite the contrary,' against this paragraph. 
* Lord Nelson was desirous of having them for the Herald's College. 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 335 

sought for here to be placed among the rest of the nobility 
of the island, and at Bronte particularly. 

" Mr. Taught and me, and Mrs. Porcelli are extremely 
flattered by your Lordship's remembrance ; the former lost 
his wife the 9th instant. Your godchild really grows a fine 
boy, and is the comfort of the family. 

^' We can have no news here but what is known to your 
Lordship through Mr. Elliot. 

" I hope I have not trespassed upon your Lordship's time, 

and have the honour to be, my Lord, 

" Your Lordship's most obedient, and 

" Most humble servant, 

" Abraham Gibbs. 
"The Right Hon. Lord Nelson, K.B. 
Duke of Bronte, &c. &c. &c." 

On the 24th, Lord Nelson wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 

"Victory, August 24th, 1803. 

" My dearest Emma, 

"Yesterday brought me letters from Mrs. Grseffer,via Malta. 
As far as my own private concerns can occupy my attention 
in these times, they have made me angry, but I have done. 
I am glad I wrote to Gibbs ; if I have time I will send you 
copies. In one part, she says, that if I had been there, I 
should have spent more ; that might be, and yet very improper 
for them. She says, the house cost so much. Why did it? 
it was not my ordering. Graeffer thought that I approved 
giving to the poor ; so I am to be held forth as angry at a few 
ounces given to the poor, but I have done ; what I have 
promised shall be punctually and regularly paid. From some 
expression in her letter, I think she means to say that she 
cannot live for £200. a-year. I suppose she will say some- 
thing of it to you. She intends to reside at Palermo, and she 
wants me to apply to the Court for a pension. Do yoi know 
the King never knew of my wish to resign Bronte ; it is 
said, Acton dare not tell him, and now I fear the French will 
have Sicily, so that I shall be well off. If that does not 
happen, 1 shall hope to get regularly £2000. a-year — that 
will be a pretty addition to our housekeeping. 

" Mr. A'Court told me that Castelcicala was as great a 
favourite as ever with the Queen, and that if Acton went 
away she would try and have him Prime Minister — then I 



336 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII. 

believe the kingdom would be well governed. If she has not 

wrote you she is an ungrateful . Admiral Campbell is 

on board, and desires his best compliments. He has made a 
large fortune in the Channel Fleet — so much the better — the 
more we take from the French the less they have, and the 
sooner, I hope, we shall have peace. I have given Mrs. 
Johnson's letter to the lad South, and have promised him my 
protection if he is a good boy. Whenever young Faddy 
comes, he shall be promoted. 

" Ever yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte." 

Small as was the amount of prize-money Lord Nelson was so 
fortunate as to obtain, the appointment of Agents seems to 
have given him no little trouble. The following fragment of 
a letter applies to one of these occasions : — 

" To say the truth, I am so situated between Davison and 
Mr. Marsh that I do not think I ever can name an Agent 
again. I have had many and great obligations to both of 
them, and I never put a sixpence into Mr. Marsh's pocket — 
to Davison it has been twice in my power. Say he has touched 
(besides the use of the money, which you may lay at £10,000), 
full £15,000, and when I told Davison how I was situated 
with Mr. Marsh, and that I wished to name them together, 
Davison declined it, and said, ' Whatever you do, let me stand 
alone.' I may never have the power of naming one alone, 
for Secretaries and other Admirals will naturally look to the 
compliment being also paid them of joining together ; there- 
fore, if Davison will never be joined, I see but little chance 
of my being able to name him alone, and indeed. Captains 
have naturally so many friends of their own, that it is not to 
be expected. I have wrote Davison pretty near as much 
some time ago, but he may be assured that I shall never omit 
an opportunity when it can be done with propriety, and I am 
sure he is too much my friend to wish to place me in difficul- 
ties ; but keep this to yourself. I will for a moment suppose 
a case which may happen : We take the French fleet, the 

' Sir George Campbell, G.C.B., attained the rank of Admiral of the White, 
was appointed Commander-in-chief at Portsmouth, and in a fit of derangement, 
shot himself, January 23, 1821. 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 337 

Captains name the three Secretaries, and pay me, perhaps, 
the compliment of asking me to name a person in England 
to do the business. I should, of course, wish to join Mr, 
Davison and Mr. Marsh ; it would hurt me for him to refuse 
to be joined to Mr. Marsh and the Secretaries here, and yet 
he would do it; I know he would give up the proportion, 
and only ask to have his name stand alone, but neither the 
captors nor the other parties would agree to it ; therefore, I 
know of no other way but not taking the French fleet, and 
that would be very hard upon me ; but I have done with that 
subject. What is it that Mrs. Denis thinks that I can be 
useful to Mr. Denis in at Civita Vecchia ; no prizes can be 
carried in there; even if the Pope would allow it, nobody 
would trust their property under the Pope's care, therefore, 
I know of nothing. I shall never have any communication 
with that place now Lord Bristol is dead. It cannot be an 
object for them to go out, the pay will not hire their lodgings, 
and there can be no trade till the Peace. 

" N. & B." 

On the 26th he again wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 

"August 26th, 1803. 

" My dearest Emma, 

" By the Canopus, Admiral Campbell, I have received all 
your truly kind and affectionate letters, from May 20th to 
July 3rd, with the exception of one dated May 3 1st, sent to 
Naples. 

" This is the first communication I have had with England 
since we sailed. 

" I do not think it can be a long war ; and I believe it will 
be much shorter than people expect : and I shall hope to find 
the new room built ; the grounds laid out, neatly but not 
expensively ; new Piccadilly gates ; kitchen garden, &c. Only 
let us have a peace, and then all will go on well. It will be 
a great source of amusement to you ; and Horatia shall plant 
a tree. I dare say she will be very busy. Mrs. Nelson, or 
Mrs. Bolton, &c. will be with you ; and time will pass away 
till I have the happiness of ariving at Merton. 

" I feel all your good mother's kindness ; and, I trust, that 
w^e shall turn rich by being economists. Spending money to 
please a pack of people is folly, and without thanks. 1 de- 

VOL. II. z 



338 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII. 

sire that you will say every kind thing from me to her, and 
make her a present of something in my name. 

*' Dr. Scott^ is gone with my mission to Algiers, or I would 
send you a copy of the King and Queen's letter. I send you 
one from the Queen. Both King, Queen, and Acton, were 
very civil to Sir William Bolton. He dined with Acton. 

" Bolton does very well in his brig ; but he has made not 
a farthing of prize-money. If I knew where to send him for 
some, he should go ; but, unless we have a Spanish war, I 
shall live here at a great expense ; although Mr. Chevalier^ 
takes every care, and I have great reason to be satisfied. 

" I have just asked William, who behaves very well, whe- 
ther he chooses to remit any of his wages to his father ; it 
does not appear he does at present. He is paid, by the King, 
eighteen pounds a-year, as one of my retinue ; therefore, I 
have nothing to pay. I have told him, whenever he chooses 
to send any, to tell Mr. Scott, or Captain Hardy, and he 
will receive a remittance bill ; so he may now act as he 
pleases. 

"Apropos of Mr. Scott. ^ He is very much obliged to you 
for your news of Mrs. Scott's being brought to bed. No 
letters came in the cutter but to me, and he was very uneasy. 
He is a very excellent good man ; and I am very fortunate in 
having such a one. 

" I admire your kindness to my dear sister Bolton. I h^ve 
wrote her that certainly I will assist Tom Bolton at College. 
It is better, as 1 tell her, not to promise more than I am sure 
I can perform. It is only doing them an injury. I tell her, 
if vacancies, please God, should happen, that my income 
will be much increased. 

" With respect to Mr. Bolton — every body knows, that I 
have no interest ; nobody cares for me : but, if he will point 
out what he wants, I will try what can be done. But I am 
sure, he will not be half so well off as at present. Supposing 
he could get a place of a few hundreds a-year, he would be a ten 
times poorer man than he is at present. I could convince you 
of it, in a moment ; but if I was to begin then it would be 
said 1 wanted inclination to render them a service. 

' His Chaplain and Private Secretary. 
■^ His Steward. ' His Secretary. 



1803,] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 339 

'^ I should like to see Sir Home Popham's book. I cannot 
conceive how a man that is reported to have been so extrava- 
gant of Government's money, to say no worse, can make a 
good story. 

" I wish Mr. Addington would give you five hundred 
pounds a-year ; then, you would be better able to give away 
than at present. But your purse, my dear Emma, will always 
be empty : your heart is generous beyond your means. 

" Your good mother is always sure of my sincerest regard ; 
pray tell her so. Connor is getting on very well : but, I can- 
not ask Captain Capel to rate him ; that must depend upon 
the boy's fitness, and Capel's kindness. I have placed another 
year's allowance of thirty pounds in Capel's hands, and given 
Connor a present. 

" I have wrote to Dumouriez ; therefore, I will only trouble 
you to say how much I respect him. I fancy he must have 
suffered great distress at Altona. However, I hope he will 
now be comfortable for life. He is a very clever man, and 
beats our Generals, out and out. Don't they feel his coming ? 
Advise him not to make enemies by shewing he knows more 
than some of us. Envy knows no bounds to its persecution. 
He has seen the world, and will be on his guard. 

*' I put Suckling into a frigate, with a very good man, who 
has a schoolmaster ; he does very well. Bulkeley will be a 
most excellent sea officer ; it is a pity he has not served his 
time. I have answered Mr. Suckling's letter. 

" Mr. Denis's relation has been long in the Victory ; but, 
if the Admiralty will not promote my Lieutenants, they must 
all make a retrograde motion. But, I hope, they will not do 
such a cruel thing. I have had a very affectionate letter from 
Lord Minto. I hope George will be confirmed ; but the Earl 
will not answer his application. I shall send you some sherry, 
and a cask of paxoretti, by the convoy. Perhaps it had 
better go to Merton at once, or to Davison's cellar, where 
the wine-cooper can draw it off". I have two pipes of sherry 
that is bad ; but, if you like, you can send the Doctor a hogs- 
head of that which is coming. Davison will pay all the 
duties. Send it entirely free, even to the carriage. You 
know, doing the thing well, is twice doing it ; for, sometimes, 
carriage is more thought off" than the prime cost. 

7 9 



340 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. VII. 

" The paxoretti I have given to Davison ; and ordered one 
hogshead of sherry to Canterbury, and one to dear Merton. 

Captain Donnelly, afterwards Rear- Admiral Sir Ross Don- 
nelly,- K.C.B., was ordered by Lord Nelson to repair in the 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 146. 

^ Ross Donnelly, a distinguished officer, entered the Navy early in the Ameri- 
can war, under Vice- Admiral Arbuthnot, and was at the siege of Charlestown in 
1780. He had the misfortune, after the capture of that place, to be taken pri- 
soner, and was inhumanly turned adrift, with his crew, in an open boat, without 
either sails or provisions ; but he fortunately reached Trepassay, almost exhausted, 
after a pull of two days and a night. On the Newfoundland station in the follow- 
ing year, he was made a Lieutenant, and appointed to the Morning Star of 16 
guns, after which, he served in the Cygnet and the Mediator to the end of the 
war. In 1785, out of employ in the Navy, he became mate of an East Indiaman, 
and continued in this service until the revolutionary war commenced, when 
he was appointed First Lieutenant of the Montague of 74 guns, was in the 
battle of the 1st of June, 1794, and honourably mentioned by Earl Howe on 
this occasion. In 1795, he was made Post Captain, and during the remainder of 
the war commanded the Pegasus and Maidstone frigates. The merchants of 
Oporto voted him a handsome piece of plate, for his protection of their trade, and 
his escort of a large homeward bound fleet to England ; but as he had not had an 
opportunity of fighting any of the numerous privateers then hovering about, he, 
much to his honour, declined accepting their generous offer. 32,000 pipes of 
wine, the largest quantity ever imported at one time into this country, were con- 
veyed by this fleet. In 1801, he was appointed to the Narcissus of 32 guns, and 
took out the Algerine Ambassador and his suite, receiving from the Dey a 
handsome sabre. He then went for Malta and the Archipelago, and was engaged 
in a survey of the principal islands. Discovering some pirates ofi" Miconi, he 
landed his men and secured thirty-six, whom he placed at the disposal of Lord 
Elgin, the British Ambassador then on board the Narcissus. The Capitan Pacha 
rewarded him with a Damascus sword for this service — it was presented by him 
to the Prince of Orange three days before the Battle of Waterloo, and used by 
the Prince on that memorable occasion. At Alexandria he hoisted a broad pen- 
dant, and after the evacuation of that place, he escorted General Stuart's army, 
and the French prisoners, to Malta. He afterwards went to Toulon and thence 
to Palermo, where he entertained the King of the Two Sicilies and his Court. 
Off Sardinia, in 1803, he captured L'Alcion, and was afterwards entrusted by 
Lord Nelson to watch off Toulon, and he possessed the Admiral's confidence in 
no small degree. He was employed on several missions to the Barbary States, 
and succeeded in obtaining the liberation of several English merchantmen that 
had been taken by the Corsairs. Under Sir Home Popham, he went to the Cape 
of Good Hope, took several vessels, and upon the subjugation of the Cape, accom- 
panied Sir Home Popham to the Rio de la Plata, and brought home the dispatches 
giving an account of the capture of Buenos Ayres, and the specie, amounting to 
1,086,208 dollars, found in the treasury of that place. He was immediately ap- 
pointed to the Ardent of 64 guns, and took out a reinforcement of troops to 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 341 

Narcissus to interrupt the French, and prevent them landing 
or forming a junction with the Corsicans at Ajaccio, and 
should they escape, he was directed to pursue them, even 
into the port of Sardinia. This order was given in conse- 
quence of a report which had reached him, that an embarka- 
tion of troops at Toulon or Marseilles was intended to join 
the Corsicans and invade Sardinia. 

Sir N. Harris Nicolas has printed fi-om White's Memoirs 
of Nelson, a letter supposed to have been written about the 
6th of September to Mr. Haslewood, Lord Nelson's Soli- 
citor, in which he inclosed him a codicil to his will to be 
drawn up properly and sent to him for execution. The 
following letter of the 8th will shew the nature of the in- 
tended instrument: — 

" Victory, off Toulon, September 8th, 1803. 

" I have, my dearest Emma, done what I thank God I have 
had the power of doing — left £4000. to my dear Horatia, 
and desire that she may be acknowledged as my adopted 
daughter, and I have made you her sole guardian ; the 
interest of the money to be paid you until she is eighteen 
years of age. I trust, my dearest friend, that you will (if it 
should please God to take me out of this world) execute this 
great charge for me and the dear little innocent, for it would 
add comforts to my last moments to think that she would be 
educated in the paths of religion and virtue, and receive as 
far as she is capable, some of those brilliant accomplishments 
which so much adorn you. You must not allow your good 
heart to think that although I have left you this important 
charge I fancy myself nearer being knocked off by the 
French Admiral. I believe it will be quite the contrary, that 

La Plata, but before his arrival, Buenos Ayres had been retaken by the enemy. 
Monte Video was therefore invested, and Captain Donnelly co-operated with the 
army in this service. In 1808 he commanded the Invincible of 74 guns, and 
fitted out in the short time of eight days the Spanish fleet at the Caraccas, and 
thereby prevented them falling into the possession of the French. He then joined 
Lord Collingwood off Toulon, and, from the failure of his eyesight, was com- 
pelled to retire from service for a time. Upon recovering, he was appointed to 
the Devonshire of 74 guns, but Peace being made, he did not again go to sea. 
He was made a Rear- Admiral in 1814, and died Admiral of the Blue, and K.C.B., 
September 30th, 1840. 



342 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII. 

God Almighty will again and again bless our just cause with 
victory, and that I shall live to receive your kind and affec- 
tionate congratulations on a brilliant victory. But be that 
as it may, I shall support, with God's help, my unblemished 
character to the last, and be 

" Yours, 

*' Nelson and Bronte." 

Lord Nelson having ascertained that French privateers 
had, under colours of the Bey of Tunis captured the Pomona, 
he sent Captain Donnelly to represent the same, and to claim 
the restitution of the ship. At the same time the Bey was to 
be informed that if Tunisian vessels were permitted to carry 
cargo belonging to the French, such property could not be 
respected, though conveyed in vessels belonging to the Bey. 

The foresight of Nelson was remarkable : whether it re- 
lated to the victualling or the repairing of the ships, or to 
the health of the seamen, it was always considered by him, 
and as far as means would permit, provided for. By this 
conduct he kept his fleet in as good condition as possible, and 
often under adverse circumstances there would not be a single 
man sick in the whole fleet. Contemplating the necessity of 
being at sea during the whole of the winter, at this period he 
wrote to the Admiralty to obtain a supply of topmasts, top- 
sail-yards, and spare sails, as the Gulf of Lyons was remark- 
able for the number and severity and suddenness of its gales. 
To these gales the following letter alludes : — 

" September 26th, 1803. 

*' My dearest Emma, 
" We have had, for these fourteen days past, nothing but 
gales of wind and a heavy sea. However, as our ships have 
suffered no damage, I hope to be able to keep the sea all 
winter. Nothing but dire necessity shall force me to that 
out-of-the-way place, Malta. If I had depended on that 
island for supplies for the fleet, we must all have been knocked 
up long ago, for Sir Richard Bickerton sailed from Malta the 
same day I left Portsmouth ; so that we have been a pretty 
long cruise ; and if I had only to look to Malta for supplies, 
our ships' companies would have been done for long ago. 



1S03.] LOUD VISCOUNT NELSON. 343 

However, by management, I have got supplies from Spain 
and also from France, but it appears that we are almost shut 
out from Spain, for they begin to be very uncivil to our ships. 
However, I suppose by this time, something is settled ; but 
I never hear from England. My last letters are July 6th, 
near three months ; but as I get French newspapers occa- 
sionally, we guess how matters are going on. I have wrote 
Mr. Gibbs again a long history about Bronte, and I hope, if 
General Acton will do nothing for me, that he will settle 
something, but I know whatever is settled, I shall be the 
loser. 

'^N. & B."i 

Lord Nelson's chief thoughts were directed to attacking the 
French fleet. Taking of prizes with him, much as he stood 
in need of money, was a secondary consideration. In a letter 
to Alexander Davison, Esq., he says : " I am truly sensible of 
your good wishes for my prosperity. I believe I attend more 
to the French fleet than making captures ; but what I have, 
I can say as old Haddock" said, ' it never cost a sailor a 
tear, or the nation a farthing.' This thought is far better 
than prize-money ; — not that I despise money — quite the 
contrary, I wish I had 100,000 pounds this moment, and I 
will do every thing consistent with my good name to obtain 
it. We are healthy beyond example, and in great good 
humour with ourselves, and so sharp set, that I would not be 
a French Admiral in the way of any of our ships for some- 
thing. I believe we are in the right fighting trim, let them 
come as soon as they please. I never saw a fleet altogether 
so well officered and manned ; would to God the ships were 
half as good, but they are what we call crazy. "^ The fact is, as 
stated by Nelson in a letter to Earl St. Vincent : " All the ships 
have expected every day before the war to go to England ; 
therefore, when the war came, they wanted for everything, 
wore especially to go to England. However, a good deal of that 
fever is worn off, and we are really got to a state of health 
which is rarely witnessed. I have exerted myself to get all 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 154. 

^ Admiral Sir Richard Haddock, of the reign of William III. 

' Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. 219. 



344 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII. 

the good things we could from Spain, and latterly our cattle and 
onions have been procured from France ; but from the apparent 
incivilities of the Spaniards, I suppose we are on the eve of 
being shut out. Our length of passage from Malta is terrible. 
We have not procured one single article of refreshment from 
them since the fleet sailed (May 18th) ; therefore, if a fleet here 
had only Malta to trust to, the fleet must go to Malta, for the 
good things of Malta could never come to us ; and in that case 
the French might do as they pleased between here and Gibral- 
tar for two months together. At this moment I think the squad- 
ron, us far as relates to me, are fit to go to Madras. Their 
hulls want docking. I hope to be able to keep the sea all the 
winter — in short, to stay at sea till the French choose to come 
to sea ; and then I hope to send many of our ships who want 
what I cannot give them to England, towing a line-of-battle 
ship. I believe we are uncommonly well disposed to give the 
French a thrashing, and we are keen ; for I have not seen a 
French flag on the sea since I joined tlie squadron. A fort- 
night ago, three or four sail of the line were under sail, and 
some had got a few miles from Sepet, but I believe it was 
only for an exercise. Reports say, they are hard at work, 
fitting out two new 80-gun-ships ; their lower rigging is over 
the mast-heads. I wish tliey would make haste, for our gales 
of wind, Admiral Campbell says, are harder and more frequent 
than ever. I believe them mucli the same — always very 
violent, and a heavy sea.''^ 

The following letter from Lord Elgin was received by Lord 
Nelson : — 

" Aux EaiLx de Bareges, 
September 30th, 1803. 

" My dear Lord, 
" As Prince Maurice and Prince Louis Lichtenstein may 
endeavour to visit Malta in the course of this winter, I wish 
to introduce them to your Lordship's acquaintance, and to 
mention, that I have recommended them to any British 
officers they may find cruising off the coast of Italy, and 
who may be able to give them a passage to La Valctta, in a 
British man-of-war. 

' Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. 214. 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 345 

*' They are officers of distinguished merit in the Austrian 
service, travelling on account of severe wounds ; and having 
passed two months with them here, previous to their going 
southward, which their health obliges them to, I have ad- 
vised their going to Malta as not less worthy notice than 
Italian antiquities. I hope they may have the good fortune 
to fall in with your Lordship. If they have that good for- 
tune they will mention to you the melancholy situation to 
which Lady Elgin and I are reduced — God knows where or 
how it may terminate. 

" Your Lordship will have learnt the nature and circum- 
stances of the interests I have left behind me in the Levant. 
I am confident of your kind concern to objects so important 
to me, and that you will have been so very obliging as to 
give me essential and effectual assistance at Cenjo, and in the 
various points on which Sir Richard Bickerton, as well as 
Sir A. Ball and Mr. Macaulay are well informed. 

" Wishing your Lordship success, which can add to your 
glory and comfort, I remain, 

'^ My dear Lord, 

" Most faithfully, 
"Your humble and obedient servant, 

"Elgin.^' 

And Lord Nelson wrote to Lady Hamilton on the 5th and 
6th of October :— 

"Victory, off Toulon, October 5th, 1803. 

" By a letter from Davison of the 15th of August, sent by 
Lisbon, which reached me on the 1st of this month, I was 
made truly happy by hearing that my dearest Emma was at 
Southend and well, and last night I had the happiness of 
receiving your letters of June 26th from Hilborough, and of 
August 3rd from Southend, and most sincerely do I thank 
God that it has been of so much service to your general 
health. You jdesire to know my opinion of your coming to 
Malta or Sicily, &c. &c. I will tell you as I told you before 
my situation here, therefore you must let your own good 
sense have fair play. You may readily believe how happy I 
should be to have peace and live quietly at Merton. At this 



346 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII. 

moment I can have no home but the Victory, and wherever 
the French fleet may go, there will the Victory be found. 
As to Malta or Sicily, or Naples, they are places which I 
may see from some extraordinary occasion, such as an action, 
a landing in Sicily, and then probably only for a few days ; 
but should the French fleet travel westward, then I shall 
never see either Malta or Sicily. I assure you that Merton 
has a greater chance of seeing me sooner than Malta. How 
would you feel to be at that nasty place Malta, with nothing 
but soldiers and diplomatic nonsense, and to hear that the 
fleet has gone out of the Straits ? The time will come, must 
come, that I shall see Merton, if God spares me. Malta, it 
is possible, I never may see, unless after a battle, and then 
that is not certain, for if it takes place down the Mediterra- 
nean it would be Gibraltar ; in short, I can see nothing but 
uncomfortableness for you by such a voyage, and however 
much we feel, and I believe mutually the pain of being sepa- 
rated, yet the call of our country makes it indispensable for 
both our honours — the country looks up to the services of 
the poorest individual, much more to me, and are you not a 
sharer of my glory ? These things must have their due 
weight in your mind, and therefore I shall only assure you 
that I am 

" Yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte." 

" October 6th, 1803. 

" My dearest Emma, 

'* I have had a letter from Mr. George Moyston, who is at 
Naples, and a very kind one. He has been to the Cataracts 
in Upper Egypt, through Syria, Palestine, Greece, &c. but 
has nearly died two or three times, and is now a prisoner on 
parole to the French, being in quarantine at Otranto when 
the French went there. 

" I beg that you willjnot give^credit to any reports which 
will reach England of the battle — trust to Providence that it 
will be propitious to your most sanguine wishes, and I hope 
that Captain Murray will be the bearer of a letter from me 
to you. Never fear, our cause is just and honourable. From 
Davison's letter of August 15 th, I expect a ship of war every 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 347 

moment ; it is now three months I see by the papers that 
Bolton has got the Childers. Had he been here he would 
have been Post. The Admiralty will send him out of course, 
and if I know how, I must try and put £5000 in his pocket. 
Don't you laugh. How I talk of thousands when I do not 
know how, or rather have not tried, to put money in my own 
pocket, but they will come. I wish you would have the plan 
made for the new entrance at the corner. Mr. Linton should 
give up that field this winter, and in the spring it should be 
planted very thick to the eastward, and a moderate thickness 
to the north. The plan for filling up the water on the south and 
east sides of the house [is good], but care must be taken that 
the house is not made damp for want of drains. A covered 
passage from Downings must be made beyond the present 
trees, and rails, and chains, in a line with it to keep carriages 
from the house. An opening can be left with a post, that 
foot-passengers may go to the kitchen. This may be done 
even before you begin the room, it will amuse you, and be of 
no great expense. 

'' Yours, 

*' Nelson and Bronte." 

The representations made to the Government by Lord 
Nelson with regard to Genoa occasioned orders to be sent 
out in accordance with his suggestion for a blockade of that 
port and of Port Especia. He was also instructed to demand 
the delivery of all Maltese taken by the Algerine cruisers. 
The intelligence given by Nelson to the Government was so 
highly estimated and his judgment so regarded, that he was 
now requested to transmit his correspondence upon all 
political subjects to Lord Hobart, one of the Secretaries of 
State, direct, that they might be laid before the King, and 
his Majesty's commands taken thereon. This was highly 
gratifying to Nelson, who writes to Sir John Acton on the 
8th : — " I have the pleasure also to inform your Excellency 
of his Majesty's most full and entire approbation of my con- 
duct, and that he places full confidence in all my actions for 
the honour of his crown, and the advantage of his faithful 
friends. The testimonies of private confidence and approlja- 
tion from the other Members of the Cabinet, are too flatter- 



348 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII. 

ing for me to repeat ; therefore I shall only request your 
Excellency to lay me with all humility at the feet of the 
King and Queen, and assure them of my eternal fidelity and 
vigilance for their safety."^ 

On the 4th of October, Lord Nelson issued orders to the 
Fleet in the Mediterranean, announcing the establishment of 
the blockade. The condition of his men at this time was 
remarkable. " Never (he writes to Mr. Elliot) was health 
equal to this squadron ; it has been within ten days of five 
months at sea, and we have not a man confined to his bed." 

On the 13th Lord Hood wrote to Lord Nelson. 

" Royal College, Greenwich, 
October 13th, 1803. 

*^ My dear Lord Duke, 

*' I give your Lordship a thousand thanks for your very 
affectionate letter of the 21st of August, am happy to hear 
you enjoy health, and flatter myself the day is not far distant 
when we shall be informed of your having taken or destroyed 
the greatest part of the Toulon fleet. 

" I had much satisfaction in being somewhat useful to 
Mr. Nelson, whenever I have given a promise, I bear in 
constant remembrance the fulfilling of it. 

" I am too sore, my dear Lord, from the harsh and unmerited 
treatment I have experienced with respect to my late Secre- 
tary, to say a word upon the subject with any degree of 
temper, and have been so accustomed to mortifying dis- 
appointments in all my views for the last eight years, that I 
have constantly expected them, am therefore become callous, 
but feel some consolation that I have mustered sufficient 
fortitude and resolution to enable me to bear up against them. 
Your Lordship will hear from all quarters that Buonaparte 
threatens us hard, and perceive that his Majesty's Ministers, 
and in consequence the nation in general, believe he will 
certainly attempt to carry them into execution ; but I am very 
confident he will fail. At the same time, however, I am free 
to confess, that should he by good luck make a landing with 
any considerable force, either in England, Scotland, or Ireland, 

' Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. 241. From a copy in the Nelson 
Papers. 



i 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 349 

the country would be thrown into such confusion, there is no 
saying to what extent the evil might go. We are, I am 
happy to tell you, well prepared, and are improving daily. 

" I am grieved to inform your Lordship that my dear Lady 
Hood still continues a very great invalid. She has not been 
out of her house but for an hour in a day in her coach since 
you left England ; she is however better to-day than she has 
been for many weeks past, but I cannot flatter myself with 
any hopes of her being well enough to enjoy the society of 
her friends again. 

'• I saw Mr. Addington yesterday, and we had a good deal 
of conversation about you ; he is in high health and good 
spirits. 

" Lady Hood most cordially unites, as does Mrs. Hodwell 
in all kind wishes for your Lordship's health and success, 
with, 

" My dear Lord, 

*^ Your very affectionate and faithful, 

" Hood. 

" P. S. Mr. Hood is at Southampton with his corps of 
Yeomanry and Wheler is Aide-de-camp to General Grosvenor, 
in the neighbourhood of Exeter." 

Another old friend's letter he acknowledged on the 14th. 

*' to admiral sir peter PARKER. 

" 14th October, 1803. 
"Your grandson^ came to me with your kind letter of 
August 20th on October 6th, nothing could be more grateful 
to my feelings than receiving him. I have kept him as Lieu- 
tenant of the Victory, and shall not part with him until I can 
make him a Post Captain ; which you may be assured I shall 
lose no time in doing. It is the only opportunity ever offered 
me, of shewing that my feelings of gratitude to you are as warm 
and alive as when you first took me by the hand : I owe all 
my honours to you, and I am proud to acknowledge it to all 
the world. Lord St. Vincent has most strongly and kindly 

• Afterwards Captain Sir Peter Parker, Bart, who fell at the storming of an 
American cainp near Baltimore, August 30th, 1814, 



350 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII. 

desired your grandson's promotion ; therefore I can only be 
the instrument of expediting it. Believe me ever, my dear 
Sir Peter, your most grateful and sincerely attached friend, 

*' Nelson and Bronte. '^^ 

To his Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence he wrote on 
the 15th, described the bad state of the weather, and expressed 
his hope of soon falling in with the French fleet: "Your 
Royal Highness will readily imagine my feelings, although I 
cannot bring my mind to believe they are actually out ; but 
to miss them — God forbid ! They are my superior in num- 
bers, but in every thing else, I believe, I have the happiness 
of commanding the finest squadron in the world — Victory, 
Kent, Superb, Triumph, Belleisle, and Renown. Admiral 
Campbell is gone to Sardinia, and I have been anxiously 
expecting him these ten days. If I should miss these fellows, 
my heart will break : I am actually only now recovering the 
shock of missing them in 1798, when they were going to 
Egypt. If I miss them, I will give up the cudgels to some 
more fortunate commander ; God knows I only serve to 
fight those scoundrels ; and if I cannot do that, I should be 
better on shore."- 

The destruction of the French fleet was a matter of much 
uncertainty. Lord Nelson wrote to Lord Hobart : " What 
the real destination of the French fleet may be is very difficult 
for me to guess. Mr. Elliot thinks they will try to have 
Sicily previous to their going to Egypt ; others think they may 
go to Trieste to cover thie army across to the Morea ; others, 
that in the present unsettled state of Egypt, they may push 
with 10,000 men to Alexandria, and they may be bound out- 
side the Mediterranean. Plausible reasons may certainly be 
given for every one of these plans, but I think one of the 
two last is their great object ; and to those two points my 
whole attention is turned. If they put to sea, I hope to 
fall in with them, and then I have every reason to believe 
that all their plans will be frustrated.''^ 

' Clarke and McArthur, Vol. ii. p. 330. =" Ibid, 

^ Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. 249. From the Original in the Colonial 
Office. 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 351 

Lord Nelson wrote to Lady Hamilton on the 18th : — 

"Victory ofFTuulon, October ]8th, 1803. 

" My dearest Emma, 

"Your truly kind letters from July l7th to August 24th, 
all arrived safe in the Childers, the 6th of this month. Since 
September the 1st, we have not had four fine days ; and, if 
the French do not come out soon, I fear some of my ships 
will cry out. You know that I am never well when it blows 
hard. Therefore, imagine what a cruise off Toulon is ; even 
in summer time, we have a hard gale every week, and two 
days heavy swell. The other day we had a report that the 
French were out, and seen steering to the westward. We 
were as far as Minorca, when the alarm proved false. 

*' I have received your letter with Lord William's and Mr. 
Kemble's about Mr. Palmer : he is also recommended by the 
Duke of Clarence, and he says, by desire of the Prince of 
Wales. I have, without him, twenty-six to be made Captains, 
and list every day increasin":. It is not one whole French fleet 
that can get through it. I shall probably offend many more 
than I can oblige. Such is always the case : like the tickets — 
those who get them, feel they have a right to them ; and those 
(who) do not get them, feel offended for ever. But I cannot 
help it, I shall endeavour to do what is right, in every 
situation; and some ball may soon close all my accounts 
with this world of care and vexation. 

" Naples, I fancy, is in a very bad way, in regard to money. 
They have not, or pretend not to have enough to pay their 
officers ; and I verily believe, if Acton was to give up his 
place, that it would become a province of France. Only 
think of Buonaparte's writing to the Queen, to desire her 
influence to turn out Acton ! She answered properly ; at least, 
so says Mr. Elliot, who knows more of Naples than any of us ; 
God help him ! and General Acton has, I believe, more power 
than ever. 

" Our friend, Sir Alexander, is a very great diplomatic 
character, and even an Admiral must not know what he is 
negotiating about : although you will scarcely believe, that 
the Bey of Tunis sent the man at my desire. 

" You shall judge, viz. * The Tunisian Envoy is still here, 



352 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL. [CHAP. VII. 

negotiating. He is a moderate man ; and, apparently, the 
best disposed of any I ever did business with.' Could even 
the oldest diplomatic character be drier? 1 hate such parade 
of nonsense ! But I will turn from such stuff. 

"N. & B."i 

On the 21st of October Lord Nelson wrote his first letter 
to his child, addressing it to Miss Horatia Nelson Thomson : — 

•'Victory, offToxilon, Oct. 21, 1803. 

" My dear Child, 
" Receive this first letter fi:'om your most affectionate father. 
If I live, it will be my pride to see you virtuously brought 
up ; but if it pleases God to call me, I trust to Himself, in 
that case, I have left Lady Hamilton your guardian. I there- 
fore charge you, my child, on the value of a father's blessing, 
to be obedient and attentive to all her kind admonitions and 
instructions. At this moment I have left you, in a Codicil 
dated the 6th of September, the sufti of £4000. sterling, the 
interest of which is to be paid to your guardian for your 
maintenance and education. I shall only say, my dear child, 
may God Almighty bless you and make you an ornament to 
your sex, which I am siu'e you will be if you attend to all 
Lady Hamilton's kind instructions ; and be assured that I 
am, my dear Horatia, your most affectionate father, 

" Nelson and Bronte."^ 

On the same day Sir John Acton wrote the following to 
Lord Nelson : — 

"Palermo, Oct. 21st. 1803. 
^' My dear Lord, 

*' I must return your Lordship my best thanks for the 
copies of the letters wrote to her Majesty and to Mr. Elliot. 
The Queen has sent me the original, but the secret shall be 
kept of your kindness to me, as well as with Mr. Elliot. I 
return your Lordship the copy of this last. 

• Collection of Letters, Vol. i. p. 168. 

^ Dispatclies and Letters, Vol. v. p. 260. From an autograph ia the pos- 
session of Mrs. Horatia Nelson Ward. 



1 



1S03.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 353 

"Your reflections, my Lord, are just in every respect on 
our position, and the general situation indeed of all Europe. 

" I hope most earnestly, my Lord, that we may see you 
soon in these seas again, where your presence is so much 
desired, and. with so very true and interested reasons. 

" I am glad that Mr. Este was satisfied with this country 
for the short time that he favoured us with his company. 

" Every thing that may depend on me, my Lord, shall be 
employed with energy in regard to your intentions and desires 
about Bronte. In the mean time I shall with pleasure 
concur on my part with whatever Mr. Gibbs shall desire for 
the management of these manors. I have inclosed a letter 
in the article of Sir Thomas Troubridge. Lady Acton begs 
leave to present her best wishes to your Lordship for your 
health and general satisfaction. I join with her, and so shall 
for ever do. Give me leave to repeat this assertion, and with 
the most faithful and sincere attachment, 
"Your Lordship's 
" Most obedient and most humble servant, 

" J. Acton." 

The Queen also wrote to Lord Nelson : — 

" My dear and worthy Lord, 

" I hasten with great satisfaction on the present occasion 
to renew my sentiments of esteem, attachment and gratitude 
for all that you have already done, and continue to do for us, 
not only having saved us from being compromised, by the 
painful and disagreeable circumstances in which we were 
placed, but also for continuing with your usual vigilance to 
watch over our safety. We are on the eve of a great crisis, 
may heaven vouchsafe our prayers, and your great nation 
reap the advantage and glory that my heart desires for it, 
which would have an important influence on our situation, 
and that of all Europe — ours is always dangerous and painful, 
having pretended friends but real enemies in the centre of 
our kingdoms practising injustice solely. I place our interests 
in your worthy hands, my Lord. I rely on your care, pru- 
dence and friendship, and I pray you to believe in my eternal 
gratitude and esteem, which my dear family desire me to 

VOL. II. 2 A 



334 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [ciIAP. VII. 

assure you they also feel, and believe me for life, my very 
worthy and respected Lord, your attached and grateful friend, 

"Charlotte. 

" lOth December, 1803." 

To this Lord Nelson replied : — 

"Victory, December 29, 1803. 

" Madam, 

" Yesterday evening I had the honour of receiving your 
Majesty's gracious and flattering letter of the 10th of Decem- 
ber, and it is only possible for me to repeat my assurances, 
that my orders for the safety of the Two Sicilies will be 
always exactly executed, and to this end my whole soul goes 
in unison with my orders. The Gibraltar shall not be sent 
away, for I would rather fight twice our number of forces, 
than risk for a moment the seeing your royal person and 
family fall into the hands of the French. I see no hope of a 
permanent peace for Europe during the life of Buonaparte. 
I ardently wish, therefore, that it would please God to take 
him from the world. 

*' Your Majesty's letter to my dear and good Lady Hamilton, 
shall set out by the first opportunity. Her attachment to 
your Majesty is as lively as ever. Her heart is incapable of 
the slightest change ; and whether in prosperity or in adver- 
sity, she is always your devoted servant; and such, permit 
me to say, remains your faithful 

^' Nelson and Bronte. 

" I beg to be allowed to present my humble respects to the 
Princesses, and to the Prince Leopold."^ 

Her Majesty replied on the 2nd January, 1804 : — 

" My dear and very worthy Lord and Friend, 
" I received your two letters ; penetrated with the liveliest 
gratitude I trace in each line, the grandeur and attachment 
of your soul, and am deeply grateful. I should have wished 
to have sent you twelve others of your own ships with the 
Gibraltar, but that grand quality (so well known) with which 

' Life of tlie Rev. Dr. Scott, p. 113. 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 355 

you inspire others, as so often witnessed, has no need of 
numbers. My vows will be offered to heaven for your com- 
plete success and happiness. We are always in a painful 
position, but which, thanks to the friendship of your Sovereign 
and Government, and your care and attention is only painful, 
not dangerous. Receive with the new year, my dear and 
worthy Lord, my wishes for your perfect happiness. The 
happiness of all Europe, and of all the right thinking is 
blended with it. May the wishes I form for you be fully 
realized, and your toils and cares be crowned with full success. 
Such are the wishes formed for you by her who is, and will 
be all her life, with the highest esteem and sincere gratitude, 
your very attached and true friend, 

"Charlotte. 

"The 2nd January, 1804. 

" My children, son and daughters, desire me to assure you 
of their eternal gratitude, esteem and attachment." 

Whilst in the Bay of Rosas, where the ships had gone for 
wood and water, several seamen deserted from the fleet. 
The following admirable memorandum addressed to the 
Captains and Commanders of the ships and vessels on the 
Mediterranean station was issued by Lord Nelson : " When 
British seamen and marines so far degrade themselves in 
time of war, as to desert from the service of their own country, 
and enter into that of Spain ; when they leave Is per day, 
and plenty of the very best provisions, with every comfort 
that can be thought of for them — for 2c? a day, black bread, 
horse beans, and stinking oil for their food ; — when British 
seamen or marines turn Spanish soldiers, I blush for them : 
they forfeit, in their own opinion, I am sure, that character 
of love of their own country, which foreigners are taught to 
admire. A Briton to put himself under the lash of a French- 
man or Spaniard must be more degrading to any man of 
spirit than any punishment I could inflict on their bodies. 
I shall leave the punishment to their own feelings, which, if 
they have any, and are still Englishmen, must be very great. 
But, as they thought proper to abandon voluntarily, their 
wives, fathers, mothers, and every endearing tie, and also, 

2 A 2 



356 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII 

all prospect of returning to their native country, I shall 
make them remain out of that country, which they do not 
wish to see, and allow others, who love their country, and 
are attached to their families, to return in their stead. And 
as they have also thought proper to resign all their pay, I 
shall take care that it is not returned to them, nor their 
^ R.'^ taken off; but it shall be noted against their names, 
* Deserted to the Spaniards,' or ' Entered as a Spanish soldier,' 
as the case was. 

''Nelson and Bronte. 

" The above memorandum respecting the desertion of 
British seamen or marines is to be read to the respective 
companies of his Majesty's ships and vessels under my com- 
mand, and copies thereof to be stuck up in the most public 
places of the ships, in order that the magnitude of the crime 
may be properly impressed on their minds. 

" Nelson and Bronte."^ 

The sum of forty shillings was allowed by him to Mr. 
Gibert the Vice-Consul at Barcelona for the apprehension 
of every deserter, with an allowance of ninepence per diem 
for the subsistence of each while in custody. The foregoing 
excellent address did not, however, it would appear, put a 
stop to desertion, for at the Madalena Islands, November 
7th, he issued another memorandum : — " Lord Nelson is 
very sorry to find that notwithstanding his forgiveness of the 
men who deserted in Spain, it has failed to have its proper 
effect, and that there are still men who so far forget their 
duty to their King and Country, as to desert the service, at 
a time when every man in England is in arms to defend it 
against the French. Therefore Lord Nelson desires that it 
may be perfectly understood, that if any man be so infamous 
as to desert from the service in future, he will not only be 
brought to a Court Martial, but that if the sentence should 
be death, it will be most assuredly carried into execution. 

" Nelson and Bronte."^ 

* Otherwise Run, the mark afl&xed in the ship's books against the names of 
those who have deserted. 

* From a copy in the Nelson Papers. 
3 Ibid. 



1803.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 357 

At the end of October, Lord Nelson left for the Madalena 
Islands to wood, water, obtain oxen, sheep, onions, &c. for the 
squadron, and Captain Donnelly was entrusted to watch the 
enemy off Toulon during his absence. On the 10th of 
November Lord Nelson sailed for Toulon, and on the 24th 
advised Sir John Acton that he had ascertained the French 
fleet to consist of eight sail of the line, eight frigates, and several 
corvettes. He describes them as being in high feather, as fine 
as paint could make them ; but doubts not that his weather- 
beaten ships would make their sides like a plum-pudding. 
On the 4th of December he renewed his application to the 
French Admiral for an exchange of prisoners, which he had 
before ineffectually made. He also offered to allow a number 
of French officers to return on their parole of honour until they 
should be regularly exchanged by their Governments. At the 
end of November he had again put to sea, intending to proceed 
with the squadron to St. Pierre, near the island of Sardinia, 
leaving Captain Mowbray in the Active to watch the enemy. 
On the 7th of December he was again off Toulon, and wrote 
to his Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence : "The French 
fleet kept us waiting for them cj^ring a long and severe 
winter's cruise ; and such a place as all the Gulf of Lyons, 
for gales of wind from the north-west to north-east, I never 
saw; but by always going about large, we generally lose 
much of their force, and the heavy sea of the Gulf, however, 
by the great care and attention of every Captain, we have 
suffered much less than could have been expected."^ 

On the 10th he departed for the Madalena Islands to com- 
plete the necessaries for his ships. He preferred the Gulf of 
Parma to St. Pierre, and was there on the 11th, whence he 
wrote to Mr, Davison, and therein states that he had signed 
his proxy for Lord Moira, and in doing it had broken 
through a resolution he had made never to give a proxy, nor 
could any thing have induced him to swerve from it but to 
such a man as Lord Moira : "■ Whether he is in or out of 
office (says Lord Nelson), my opinion of him is formed for 
ability, honour, and strict integrity, which nothing can shake, 
even should ever we unfortunately differ on any particular 

' Clarke and McArthur, Vol. ii. p. 341. 



358 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. VII. 

point." In this letter he also speaks of the state of his 
fleet and of his own personal condition : " My crazy fleet are 
getting in a very indifferent state, and others will soon follow. 
The finest ships in the service will soon be destroyed. I know 
well enough that if I was to go into Malta, I should save the 
ships during this bad season ; but if I am to watch the French, 
I must be at sea, and if at sea, must have bad weather; and 
if the ships are not fit to stand bad weather, they are useless. 
I do not say much , but I do not believe that Lord St. Vincent 
would have kept the sea with such ships. But my time of 
service is nearly over. A natural anxiety, of course, must 
attend my station ; but my dear friend, my eye-sight fails me 
most dreadfully. I firmly believe that, in a very few years. 
1 shall be stone blind. It is this only, of all my maladies, 
that makes me unhappy ; but God's will be done. If 1 am 
successful against the French, I shall ask my retreat ; and if 
I am not, I hope I shall never live to see it ; for no personal 
exertion on my part shall be spared.'' 

To his brother, the Rev. Dr. Nelson, he also wrote on the 
14th : *'The mind and body both wear out, and my eye is 
every month visibly getting worse, and, I much fear, it will 
end in total blindness. The moment the battle is over, if I 
am victorious, I shall ask for my retreat — if, unfortunately, 
the contrary, I hope never to live to see it. In that case, 
you will get an early seat in the House of Lords. If Mr. 
Addington does not give me the same pension as Government 
gave to the rich Lord St. Vincent and Duncan, I shall con- 
sider no great favour done to me, and the country never could 
avoid giving the pension to you : therefore, unless the other 
is tasked to it, I would not give thanks or sixpence to have 
it brought before Parliament to benefit Lord St. Vincent's 
heirs, and certainly, from circumstances, not mine. The 
putting the stone over poor Maurice was well done, and I 
approve very much. I do not know that you owe me any 
thing respecting Hilborough ; but if you do, I fully acquit 
you of the debt, and so let it be considered."^ 

On the 19th December, Lord Nelson quitted the Gulf of 

' From an autograph in the Nelson Papers. Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. 
p. :J11. 



1S03.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 359 

Parma, '^ the finest open roadstead he had ever seen ;'' was 
again at the Madalena Islands on the 24th, whence he wrote 
the following to Lady Hamilton : — 

" Victory, Madalena, December 2Gth, 1803. 

" My dearest Emma, 
"After closing my dispatches the weather was so bad, 
that we could not unload our transports at sea, therefore I 
anchored here on Saturday, and hope to get to sea on Wed- 
nesday. The Phoebe joined me here, and carries my letters 
to Gibraltar. I had Charles on board yesterday to dinner. 
Capel gives a very good account of him, and I have impressed 
upon his mind that if he behaves well, he will never want a 
protector in you and me. He had about three months ago, 
something wrong in his head. The killing a Lieutenant and 
some men belonging to the Phcebe, made such an impression, 
that he fancied he saw a ghost, &c. but Dr. Snipe thinks it is 
gone off. Was any of his family in that way ? He is clever, 
and I believe Capel has been kind to him. I have had violent 
colds, and now and then a spasm, but Dr. Snipe takes care 
of me, and would give me more physic, but he says I am a 
bad patient ; but I trust I shall do very well till the battle, 
and after that, if it pleases God I survive, I shall certainly ask 
permission to go home to recruit, and in this world nothing 
will give me so much pleasure as to see my dear Emma, 
being most faithfully, 

" Nelson and Bronte." 

At the close of this month he was busily engaged in 
making proper arrangements for the new Naval Hospital 
established at Malta, and entered minutely into every par- 
ticular for its perfection. He was much impressed with the 
importance of Sardinia, and wrote to the Secretary of State 
thus : " God knows if we could possess one island, Sardinia, 
we should want neither Malta, nor any other ; this, which is 
the finest island in the Mediterranean, possesses harbours fit 
for arsenals, and of a capacity to hold our navy, within twenty- 
four hours sail of Toulon. Bays to ride our fleets in, and to 
watch both Italy and Toulon ; no fleet could pass to the 
eastward between Sicily and the Coast of Barbary, nor through 



360 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VII. 

the Faro of Messina : Malta, in point of position, is not to be 
named the same year with Sardinia. All the fine ports of 
Sicily are situated on the eastern side of the island, conse- 
quently of no use to watch any thing but the Faro of Messina. 
And, my Lord, I venture to predict, that if we do not — from 
delicacy or commiseration of the lot of the unfortunate King 
of Sardinia — the French will get possession of that island. 
Sardinia is very little known. It was the policy of Piedmont 
to keep it in the back ground, and whoever it has belonged 
to, it seems to have been their maxim to rule the inhabitants 
with severity, in loading its produce with such duties as 
prevented the growth. I will only mention one circumstance 
as a proof: half a cheese was seized because the poor man 
was selling it to our boats, and it had not paid the duty. Fowls, 
eggs, beef, and every article, are most heavily taxed. The 
Court of Sardinia certainly wants every penny to maintain 
itself; and yet I am told after the wretched establishment of 
the island is paid, that the King does not receive £5000 
sterling a year. The country is fruitful beyond idea, and 
abounds in cattle and sheep, and would in corn, wine and 
oil. It has no manufactories. In the hands of a liberal 
government, and freed from the dread of the Barbary States, 
there is no telhng what its produce would not amount to. It 
is worth any money to obtain, and I pledge my existence it 
could be held for as little as Malta in its estabhshment, and 
produce a large revenue."^ 

' Clarke and McArtliur, Vol. ii. p. 344. 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 361 



CHAPTER VIII. 
1804. 

On the 4th of January 1804, Lord Nelson again quitted 
the Madalena Islands with his squadron ; writing to Lord 
Hobart,^ that his heart was warm, his hand firm, but his 
body unequal to his wishes. It is astonishing the patience 
he exhibited in watching for the French fleet, exposed as he 
was at such a season of the year to all the vicissitudes of the 
sea. With small means he yet contrived to dispatch his 
officers to observe in various places, and to be alive to any 
circumstance that might occur. Every one was on the look 
out for intelligence. The political position of the different 
countries, particularly Sardinia and Sicily, escaped not his 
intelligent observation. The former place, as already stated, 
was of much advantage in his estimation, and his zeal in the 
cause of the King and Queen of the Two Sicilies, rendered 
him willing to undertake any measures for the defence of 
the latter. He was sensible of the misgovernment of both 
these countries and lamented their impoverished state. He 
received information of an intended attack by the French in 
Corsica upon Sardinia, and he did all within his power to 
check it, and to afford assistance should it take place. The 
invasion, however, was not undertaken — other views actuated 
Buonaparte, and to be master of the Continent was evidently 
his ambition. Nelson, however, offered his aid to the 
Viceroy his Royal Highness Prince Charles Felix Joseph, 
Duke of Genevois in Savoy,- from whom he received the 
following letters: — 

1 Afterwards the Earl of Buckinghamshire. 

' Charles Felix of Savoy, brother of Victor Emanuel, the then reigning King of 
Sardinia. In 1792, and the succeeding year, the Sardinians under Victor 
Amadeus III. bravely resisted the French and repulsed their invaders witli consi- 
derable loss. The state of the elements likewise favoured them, for the French 
fleet was dispersed by a furious hurricane, and Truguet, the Admiral, was com- 
pelled to seek shelter in the Gulf of Palmas, where with eleven sail of the line 



362 LIFE OF VICK-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. VIII. 

*' De Cagliari, 17th December, 1803. 

« Sir, 
" Accept my thanks for your attention in acquainting me 
with the motive which induced you to anchor your fleet in 
the Gulf of Palma, which I regret that bad weather should 

he was detained nearly a month. The King of Sardinia though delighted at the 
brave conduct of the Sards, and the success attending their exertions, was yet 
unwilling, and absolutely refused to yield to their constitutional demands. These 
were five in number: — 1. The Convocation of the Stamenti. 2. The confirma- 
tion of their laws, customs, and privileges. 3. The exclusive right of holding the 
national offices. 4. The establishment of a Council instead of a Secretary of 
State, to advise the Viceroy. 5. The permission to send a Minister to reside at 
the Court of Turin. The refusal to grant these requests irritated the people and 
disposed them to rebel, but after a slight emeute in April 1794, they were reduced 
to submission, and a new form of Government established, which stipulated that 
the Viceroy and the Piedmontese should immediately return to the Continent and 
the reins of Government be confided in the interim to the native members of the 
Royal Audience and the Stamenti according to the old constitution of the island. 
Another rising, however, took place on the 6th of July 1795, from the conduct of 
the Court ; and CavaUer Pitzoln, the Intendant General, was dragged forth from 
his confinement in the Elephant tower and shot in the castle square. The pro- 
ceedings had thus assumed a sanguinary character, and a remonstrance was sent 
to Turin in some measure to exculpate the people. An investigation followed, 
the Archbishop of CagUari was dispatched to the Pope of Rome, and on the 
8th of June, 1796, a diploma was obtained, which gave a general act of oblivion 
on the late events, the ratification of their laws, customs, and privileges, and the 
exclusion of foreigners from all public offices, except that of Viceroy. The 
finances of the kingdom were, at tliis time, exhausted by the expense attending 
the army, which had been much increased by this monarch, who was fond of 
great miUtary parade. By the storms of the Revolution, Savoy and Nice had been 
lost in 1792, and Oneglia in 1794. An expensive warfare along the line of the 
Alps was continued for two years, and although the Piedmontese displayed great 
valour, the French ultimately succeeded by passing the Ligurian Apennines, and 
thus poured down into the plains of the Po. A hasty peace was the consequence, 
and the dominions were principally at the mercy of the Fi-ench. Victor Amadeus 
died in October, 1796. 

Savoy, Nice, and Oneglia thus lost, and Piedmont overrun by the French, a de- 
plorable position of affairs presented itself when Charles Emanuel ascended the 
throne. The French in the course of two years gained admission into the strongest 
fortresses of the island. Emissaries and propagandists were actively employed by 
Buonaparte to work discontent in Cagliari and urge the people to an union with 
the French Republic, and his subjects favouring republicanism, demanded the ab- 
dication of the King. His Majesty went to Leghorn and received the deputies of 
the Stamenti of Sardinia, who assured him of the fidelity of the Sards. The 
Royal family and suite arrived at Cagliari, March 3, 1799, conveyed by an 
English frigate, and were enthusiastically welcomed ; but the King was induced 
to return to the Continent, and hearing of the Battle of Marengo, determined to 
remain in the South of Italy. His Queen Clotilde, sister of Louis XVI. dying 



1S04.] LORD Vli^COUNT NELSON. 363 

have rendered necessary. The bearer will inform you of the 
condition of the country, and of the threats of our neigh- 
bours, but whatever may occur, I shall rely on receiving your 
aid, convinced that it will be employed with skilfulness to 
meet the actual circumstances of the King my brother, and 
begging you to give me an opportunity of proving to you 
the sentiments of esteem which animate me, I am, with the 
highest consideration, my Lord, 

" Your good friend, 

" De Cagliari, 14th January, 1804. 

« Sir, 
" By your letter of the 2nd current I learn with less sur- 
prise than indignation the contents of the letter from the 
French Minister at War to the General of Ajaccio, and I 
may confidently inform you that the conduct of the Com- 
missary-General for commercial affairs here, tends to con- 
firm, I think, your suspicions as to a project for attacking 
this island. Firm to my duty of executing on all occasions 
the orders of the King, my brother, I shall neglect nothing 

in March 1802, he became inconsolable for her loss, abdicated the throne, resign- 
ing, as he said, "a crown of thorns," in favour of his brother Victor Emanuel 
at that time a resident at Naples. Having withdrawn from the toils and exertions 
of royalty, Charles Emanuel lived in great privacy, devoted himself to pious 
exercises at Rome, became totally blind, and died in 1819. 

Victor Emanuel relied upon British assistance to regain his Continental dominions. 
He remained in Italy, but the Peace agreed upon at Amiens being at an end, and 
the French advanced upon Naples, he embarked for Sardinia in February 1 806. 
His endeavours were directed to improve the country by attention to its agricul- 
ture, whilst at the same time he was organizing the forces of the island and 
improving the administration, but his means were very limited to effect such 
objects. In the year 1814 he went to Turin. An insurrection in Piedmont, 
excited by the constitutionalists, induced him to abdicate in 1821, in favour of his 
brother, Charles Felix, who, supported by Austria, quelled the insurrection, in- 
troduced many improvements benefiting his country, and became popular with his 
people. His reign was distinguished by mildness and an attention to the culture 
of the natural products of the country. He estabhshed an Agrarian Society, and 
also a Museum of Antiquities, and the Natural History of Cagliari. He died 
April 27, 1831, and having no male issue was succeeded by his collateral relative, 
Charles Albert of Carignano, the present Sovereign. 



364 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. VIII. 

for the defence of all now remaining to him, and which he 
has confided to me ; but I will not conceal from you that my 
means are very feeble, being equally deprived of money and 
troops. In consequence of which I can only rely upon your 
generous offers, persuaded that in such circumstances you 
will display the same interest that you have always manifested 
in favour of the King and of our family, and that to you we 
shall owe the safety of this state. Accept in anticipation, 
the assurance of the liveliest gratitude, and the expression of 
my sentiments of perfect esteem and of the highest consi- 
deration with which I am, my Lord, 

" Your good friend, 

" Charles Felix de Savoye. 

" P.S. There is no doubt that the General Colli spoken 
of is an old Piedmontese officer, a bad man, but very intel- 
ligent. It would be very desirable if you could furnish me 
with the order of the Minister of War to give rations and 
and pay to the Sardinian refugees, who in fact are but revo- 
lutionists ; that commission would enable me to expose to the 
King and his friends how the good faith with which he has 
always acted is responded to.^' 

" 25th February, 1804. 

" Sir, 
" I hasten to reply to your letter of the 1 7th current, and 
to thank you for the interest you take in the defence of Sar- 
dinia, and the counsels you are yjleased to give me respecting 
it, assuring you that it will always be a great pleasure to me 
to act according to your advice. I indeed expect the King's 
galley from Civita Vecchia, and two half galleys which have 
been ceded to us by the King of Naples, their destination is 
to destroy Bonefaccio. I can rely upon the merit and zeal of 
the officers commanding them, and am persuaded that nothing 
will be neglected on their part to ensure the execution of the 
orders given to them — I should have wished to put them 
directly under the orders of the Commander of the English 
corvette which your Lordship may appoint to the station of 
that Straits, but as we are not openly at war with France, I 
cannot take such a step on my own authority ; it rests with 
the King, but it appears to me that the best measures for 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 365 

opposing the enemy might be secretly concerted with the 
oflEicers charged with your instructions, for which object I 
shall send my orders to the Brigadier commanding the galley, 
Baron Desgenays, The report is current that you have 
seized a packet of French correspondence addressed to Sar- 
dinian Jacobins, and that some of the letters were for per- 
sons of consequence, and that you have sent them to me. 
As I know nothing of this affair I cannot give the least 
credence to it, but nevertheless think it better to mention it 
to you in case you really have written to me and the packet 
has been lost. If the bad weather has detained you in the 
same anchorage, doubtless you have seen Major Lowe,^ who 
came from Naples to Cagliari, and afterwards crossed the 
kingdom to rejoin you. I agree entirely with what he will 
tell you respecting us, and am persuaded that you will fur- 
nish us with every thing requisite, and procure for us that 
assistance so indispensable to us in this emergency. I con- 
clude by assuring you of my undivided sentiments of esteem, 
and of the very high consideration with which I am, my 
Lord, 

"Your very good friend, 

"Charles Felix de Savoye." 

The importance of Sardinia dwelt strongly on Lord Nelson's 
mind : most of his letters at this period allude to it. To 
Lord Hobart we have seen he pointed out the advantages of 
this island. To Earl St. Vincent he says, " in addition to my 
other cares, Sardinia must be guarded ; the French most 
assuredly mean to invade it, first, I suppose, under a pretext 
for keeping us out of it ; and then they will have it ceded to 
them. I have written to Lord Hobart on the importance* of 
Sardinia, it is worth one hundred Malta's in position, and has 
the finest man-of-war harbour in Europe ; they tell me it is 
superior to Beerhaven — in short, it has nothing but ad- 
vantages; the mode of getting it is to be considered by 
Ministers, but money will do any thing in these days. To 
keep it, could not in the first instance cost half so much as 
Malta. I can have no reserves — I venture my opinion, 

' The late Sir Hudson Lowe. 



^QG LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [ciIAP. VIII. 

Ministers are not bound to follow it : I can have no views, 
but to benefit my country by telling all I know of situations, 
and how far they can be useful,"^ 

To Lord Minto he also writes, " Sardinia, if we do not take 
it very soon, the French will have it, and then we lose the 
most important island, as a naval and military station in the 
Mediterranean. It possesses at the northern end, the finest 
harbour in the world ; it equals Trincomalee. It is twenty- 
four hours sail from Toulon ; it covers Italy ; it is a position 
that the wind which carries the French to the westward is 
fair for you to follow. In passing to the southward they go 
close to you. In short, it covers Egypt, Italy, and Turkey. 
Malta must not be mentioned in the same century. I delivered 
my opinion on the inutility of Malta as a naval station for 
watching Toulon. A fleet would sooner pass from St. Helen's 
to Toulon than from Malta. If I lose Sardinia, I lose the 
French fleet; and to keep it, it could not, in the first 
instance, cost half so much as Malta, and be of all the use of 
Malta, and ten thousand times as much. I have told Lord 
Hobart fully my opinion on this subject. I can have no 
reserves. I venture my opinion. Ministers are not bound 
to follow it. I can have no views but to benefit my country 
by telling all I know of situations, and how far they can be 
useful."- 

To Lord Hawkesbury also : ^' Either France or England 
must have it. The loss to us will be great indeed. I do not 
think that the fleet can then be kept at sea. From Sardinia 
we get water and fresh provisions ; the loss of it would cut us 
off from Naples except by a circuitous route, for all the pur- 
poses of getting refreshment, even were Naples able to supply 
us. I have hitherto watched Sardinia ; but at this moment, 
when from the bad condition of many of the ships under my 
command, I can barely keep a sufficient force at sea to attend 
to the French fleet, I have not ships to send to Madalena : 
not less, my Lord, than ten frigates, and as many good sloops, 
would enable me to do what I wish, and what, of course, I 
think absolutely necessaiy. But I am aware of the great 

' Clarke and McArthur, Vol. ii. p. 352. 

^ Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. 365. From an Autograph in the Minto 
Papers. 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 367 

want of them in England, and that other services must be 
starved to take care of home. If I were at yom- Lordship's 
elbow, I think I could say so much upon the subject of 
Sardinia, that attempts would be made to obtain it ; for 
this I hold as clear, that the King of Sardinia cannot keep it, 
and, if he would, that it is of no use to him ; that if France 
gets it, she commands the Mediterranean ; and that by us it 
would be kept at a much smaller expense than Malta : from 
its position, it is worth fifty Malta's."^ 

Upon the Earl Camden being appointed to succeed Lord 
Hobart as Secretary of State for the Colonial and War 
Department, his Lordship wrote to Lord Nelson on his often 
repeated communications on the value of Sardinia. The 
opinions expressed by Loi'd Nelson would appear from this 
letter to have been duly appreciated by the Government, and 
a proper weight given to his authority. To prevent the island 
of Sardinia from falling into the hands of the French, the 
English Government considered as of the first importance. 
Captain Leake" (so well known by his admirable works on 
Albania, Morea, &c.), had been sent by Lord Harrowby to 
make inquiries into military matters connected with this 
subject, and Lord Nelson was requested to aid him in his 
objects to the utmost of his power, and to take him under 
his own orders if thought necessary. Lord Nelson was very 
favourably impressed by Captain Leake's zeal and ability, 
and solicited assistance for him from Sir Alexander Ball, 
General Villettes, and other distinguished persons. Lord 
Camden solicited a continuance of the correspondence Lord 
Nelson had maintained with his predecessor in office so useful 
to the public service. In a private letter to Lord Nelson, 
Earl Camden, in repeating this solicitation, adds, " in en- 
trusting to me your Lordship's sentiments on the political 
subjects connected with the Mediterranean, you repose them 
in a person who justly appreciates your opinions, and has the 
highest admiration of your character." Lord Harrowby 
also wrote to Lord Nelson requesting a continuation of his 
correspondence as with Lord Hawkesbury, and introducing 
Captain Leake to him, who was instructed to act according 

' Clarke and McArthur, Vol. ii. p. 374. 
2 Colonel Leake, F.R.S. 



368 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VIII. 

to Lord Nelson's directions. Lord Nelson's information with 
regard to Sardinia, was so complete, that it was not thought 
necessary to send Captain Leake thither, and he accordingly 
departed for Malta, Corfu, &c. 

In the month of January Lord Nelson departed, as he said, 
" to settle a little account with the Dey of Algiers.'' He 
held that it was better to be at open war than to be insulted, 
which he considered we had been by the Dey, who had sent 
off Mr. Falcon, the Consul-General, to Algiers. A great 
offence had been committed by Mr. Falcon, it appears, in 
having admitted some Moorish women into his house. The 
Algerine cruisers had also taken some Maltese vessels, and 
their crews considered as belonging to his Majesty's subjects, 
and other vessels having English passports, and conveying 
provisions to his Majesty's Maltese subjects. These acts had 
excited Lord Nelson's indignation, and he sent Captain Keats^ 

' Sir Richard Goodwin Keats was the son of a Clergyman in Devonshire, and 
Head Master of the Free Grammar School at Tiverton. Entering the Navy at 
an early age he served as Lieutenant of the Ramillies in the action with the Count 
D'Orvilliers in 1778, and afterwards was in the Prince George, 98 guns, bearing 
the Flag of Rear-Admiral Digby. Promoted to the rank of Commander in 1782 
he served on the American station, and was made Post Captain June 24th, 1789, 
and afterwards commanded the Southampton and the Niger. In 1 793 he was 
appointed to the London. In 1795 he sailed under Sir J. B. Warren to Quiberon, 
and was at the taking of L'Etoile and four sail of French merchantmen. In 
the Galatia, to which he was appointed in 1794, he continued until 1797, when 
he removed into the Boadicea frigate, and cruised in search of French privateers. 
With Sir Charles Pole in 1799 he commanded the frigates of the squadron, 
covering an attack by some bomb vessels on the Spanish squadron under the 
batteries of Aix, and was afterwards in the Superb, 74, with Sir James Saumarez 
off Cadiz. He distinguished himself in the second attack off Algeziras, and by 
Nelson, in 1804, he was sent off Algiers, there performing very important service. 
He was subsequently engaged in jjursuit of the French fleet. In November, 

1805, he was made Colonel of Marines, and was sent to seek the squadron of the 
French sent to the succour of St. Domingo. In the action of the 6th February, 

1806, he gave a proof of his admiration of Nelson in suspending his portrait to 
the mizen-stay of his vessel the Superb. The Captain and his men fought gal- 
lantly, and the Patriotic Fund voted to him a vase or sword. Nelson entertained 
a very high opinion of Keats. In a letter to him, August 24, 1805, he says, 
" Nothing, I do assure you, could give me more pleasure than to have you at all 
times near me, for without a compliment, I believe your head is as judicious as 
your heart is brave, and neither, I believe, can be exceeded." He was afterwards 
engaged against Copenhagen, and on the 2nd October, 1807, was made a Rear- 
Admiral. He then went to the relief of the Spanish army in the North of Europe, 
and brought off the Marquis de la Romana from Denmark, for which he was 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 3^9 

of the Superb, to demand apology for sending away the 
Consul, and restitution of the vessels, their crews and cargoes. 
Nelson was very explicit to Captain Keats in his instructions 
on these several points, and directed him particularly as to 
the mode of conducting himself, and upholding the dignity 
of a British officer. Nelson also wrote to the Dey, and after- 
wards determined himself upon going thither to have the 
matter definitively settled. He felt that the Government had 
reposed great confidence in him, and no man could be more 
jealous of the honour of his country, or more determined to 
maintain her dignity and interests. 

The negotiation by Captain Keats was unsuccessful. Lord 
Nelson wrote to Sir Alexander Ball on the 19th of January : 
" The Dey is violent, and will yield no one point, therefore I 
have no further business here. Time and opportunity will 
make him repent.^^ Nelson entirely approved Captain Keats's 
conduct. He wrote to him no less than four letters on the 
17th ^ He also wrote to Lord Hobart concerning the failure 
of the negotiation and observed : " The insolence of the Dey 
is only to be checked (with due submission to whatever his 
Majesty may please to direct) by blockading Algiers, and his 
other ports of Bona, and Oran, and to capture his cruisers ; 
for the more that is given up to him the more he will demand 
with insolence in future. Therefore, I should propose, that, 
on the 28th day of April next, when, if he means to send his 
cruisers to sea, they will be out, that on that day, every ship 
under my command should have strict orders (to open on 
that day), to take, sink, burn, and destroy every Algerine, 
and that, on that day, the ports of Algiers should be declared 
in a state of blockade. Thus, the Dey could get neither 
commerce, presents, or plunder ; and, although the other 
powers may rejoice at the war with us, yet, my Lord, I am 



created a Knight of the Order of the Bath. In 1809 he was engaged in the 
Scheldt, then commanded off Cadiz, and in 1811 went to the Mediterranean in 
the Hibernia, 120 guns, being then second in command on that station. He was 
made a Vice- Admiral in 1810, and in 1813 appointed Commander-in-chief and 
Governor of Newfoundland. He also succeeded Sir George Hope as Major- 
General of Marines in 1818, and Sir John Colpoys as Governor of Greenwich 
Hospital in 1821. He died Admiral of the White and G.C.B. April 5th, 1834. 

' See Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. pp. 376-77- 

VOL. 11. 2 B 



370 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. VIII. 

firmly persuaded that it will be most advantageous to us 
(and humiliating to the other powers whom he will squeeze), 
for the next one hundred years. If I should find his cruisers 
at sea before that time, in consequence of what has passed, I 
shall of course, take them, but my wish is to make a grand 
coup."^ He wrote also to the Earl St. Vincent, "Before the 
summer is out, I dare say the Dey of Algiers will be sick of 
his insolence, and perhaps have his head cut off. I have 
recommended Mr. Falcon to go to England, and then, he will 
be able to explain every part of his conduct ; but it appears 
to me that Mr. Falcon's conduct has been spirited, but 
perfectly correct, and that the two women found in his house 
was greedily seized as the pretext for getting rid of a clear- 
headed, spirited man. I should do great injustice to my own 
feelings, if I did not state my opinion to your Lordship, and 
other his Majesty's Ministers."- 

Lord Nelson's conduct and that of Captain Keats obtained 
the commendation of the Government, and in May, Lord 
Nelson received a letter from Lord Hobart upon the subject, 
recommending, that provided the Dey would express regret 
at the manner in which Mr. Falcon had been sent away, 
another Consul should be appointed. Captain Keats was 
sent by Lord Nelson to negotiate with the Dey upon the 
subject. The Dey made the amende honorable for his con- 
duct to Mr. Falcon, and Mr. McDonough was sent under 
certain conditions to fill his place. These, however, were 
not complied with. They related to the restoration or the 
value of the English vessel, the Ape. The Consul would be 
sent, only upon this condition being complied with. Captain 
Donnelly was dispatched with a strong letter to the Dey at 
the end of August ; but it was not until December that 
Lord Nelson received replies to his dispatches from Earl 
Camden, signifying to him the entire approbation of his 
conduct in the affairs of the Dey of Algiers, and recommend- 
ing that in future regular passports should be given to British 
vessels to prevent misunderstanding. Mr. Cartwright was 

' From an Autograph in the Colonial Office. Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. 
p. 378. 

* Dispatches and Letters, Vol v. p. 379. From an Autograph in the possession 
of Vice- Admiral Sir W. Parker, Bart. G.C.B. 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 37l 

appointed Consul-General at Algiers, but be was not to be 
landed unless the Ape and her crew were restored. 

About this time Lord Nelson was much elated by receiving 
intelligence of the successful issue of a law-suit, nominally 
Nelson v. Tucker, but really Nelson v. St. Vincent. It 
related to a sum of Prize-money which had occasioned much 
discussion. Tucker was the Agent for Prizes taken by the 
Mediterranean fleet under Earl St. Vincent in 1799. The 
action was to recover £13,000, one-eighth share of the prizes 
taken by Captain Digby belonging to the Earl's squadron, 
after the Commander-in-chief had quitted his station and 
returned to England, leaving Lord Nelson in command. In 
the first instance judgment was given for Earl St, Vincent, 
but upon a writ of error the Lord Chief Justice of the Common 
Pleas, Lord Ellenborough, reversed the decision by delivering 
the opinion of the Courts that " the moment a superior officer 
left his station, the right of the next Flag officer commenced ; 
and, consequently, that Lord St. Vincent having returned to 
England, the enterprize and conduct of the fleet devolved on 
Lord Nelson, judgment was accordingly given in favour of 
Lord Nelson, who thereby becomes entitled to the whole of 
the Admiral's share of the Prize-money."' This decision put 
Lord Nelson out of debt, and allowed him to think of improve- 
ments at Merton, of which he wrote to his friend Mr. Davison. 

On the 20th of January 1804, from the Dispatches and 
Letters published by Sir N. Harris Nicolas, it will be per- 
ceived that Lord Nelson wrote no less than nine letters. To 
these he added the two following : The first is addressed to 
the care of Lady Hamilton for his child, then three years of 
age. The second is to Lady Hamilton : — 

' Victory, January 20th, 1804. 

" My dear Horatia, 

" I send you a watch, which I give you permission to wear 

on Sundays, and on very particular day^s, when you are 

dressed and have behaved exceedingly well and obedient. I 

have kissed it, and send it with the affectionate blessing of 

YOUR 

" Nelson and Bronte.''^ 

' In the fragment of a letter. Nelson writes to Lady Hamilton : " You have 
sent me in that lock of beautiful hair, a far richer present than any monarch in 

2 B 2 



^72 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VIII. 

"Victory, January 20th, 1804. 

'*■ My dear Emma, 

" I send a very neat watch for our god-child, and you will 
see it is by a good maker, that is I suppose it will tick for a year 
instead of a month or two. You will impress her that it is 
only to be worn when she behaves well and is obedient. I am 
very sorry that your comb is not arrived, the brig is at Malta, 
but I daresay it will arrive sometime and you shall have it 
the first opportunity. I send you Mr. Falconet's letter. 
You will see how very civil both of them are. Mr. Elliot is 
a great Minister, but I doubt whether the Queen has much 
real friendship for him. Acton has him fast, but I believe 
that Mr. Elliot had rather that Acton and the King and the 
Queen looked to him for my services, than applying to myself, 
but circumstanced as I have been and am with that Court, 
Sir William Hamilton gave it up, and no other person shall 
deprive me of the immediate communication. No, my dear 
Emma, what I do for them shall be from myself and not 
through him. They are in very great fears at this moment. 

" I have been towards Algiers, where I sent a ship with 
Mr. Falcon our Consul, whom the Dey turned away, but the 
Dey has been made so insolent by Mr. North's conduct in 
giving him £.80,000, that nothing I suppose but a flogging 
will put him in order, and with the French fleet ready to put 
to sea that I have not time for. I have been but very 
indifferent, a violent cold upon my breast. Asses milk would 
have done me much service, but 1 am better, and I hope to 
continue so till the battle is over, then I hope my business 
here will be finished : that it may be soon is the sincere wish 
of 

'^ Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte." 

On the 23rd Lord Nelson sailed for the Madalena Islands, 
leaving Captain Mowbray of the Active to look after the 
French fleet. His anxiety increased about the French fleet, 

Europe could if he was so inclined. Your description of the dear angel makes me 
happy. I have sent to Mr. Falconet to buy me a watch, and told him if it does 
but tick, and the chain full of trinkets, that is all which is wanted. He is very 
civil, and Mrs. Falconet has sent word that she will do her best in choosing any 
thing I may want." 



I 



IS04.J LORD VISCOUNT NELSON, 373 

which he anticipated having shortly to encounter, and on the 
10th of February wrote thus to Lady Hamilton : — 

"Victory, February 10th, 1804, Madalena. 

" My dearest Friend, 
" We were blown in here on the 8th , in the heaviest gale 
of wind at N.E. and snow storm that I almost ever felt, but 
all your letters to December 27th I found just arrived. I 
cannot tell you all I wish, as Lord Nelson has enjoined the 
fleet not to write politics. We are on the eve of a battle, and 
1 have no doubt but it will be a glorious one ; at least it shall 
be such a one that shall never bring a blush on the cheeks of 
my dearest friend, when my name is mentioned. Our fleet 
is healthy, our men spirited, our Commanders brave and 
judicious, and for our numbers the finest fleet in the world. 
I only hope our dearest friends are well, and happily past all 
danger. May God in heaven bless and protect you I my last 
sigh will be, my dearest Emma, for your felicity, for I am to 
the last moment, 

" Yours. 

" Best regards to all friends. I have received oil letters 
and papers." 

About this time Sir William Bolton wrote to Lady Hamil- 
ton : — 

'^^ Dear Madam, 

" I will flatter myself that a few lines may be worth the 
trouble of breaking the seal, since they inform your Ladyship 
my noble patron was in good health when the Seahorse left 
the fleet, which was then off Minorca, on its return from 
Algiers. 

*' The English letters by the Diana frigate went up to the 
fleet eight or ten days ago. I have several letters for his 
Lordship, which I received from Mr. Locker, which, as I sail 
to-morrow to join him, I hope his Lordship will soon get. 
Captain Sutton of the Amphion here, had a singular piece of 
good fortune ; he fell in with, apparently, a Dutch ship off 
Cape St Vincent, all her masts gone, not a soul on board, but 
what was fairly worth the whole, a valuable cargo, estimated 



374 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. Vlll. 

at twenty-two thousand pounds, nine thousand of which he 
has ah'eady received. Not long ago, all Lord Nelson's friends 
were rejoiced to read in a newspaper that the long depending 
cause between him and St. Vincent was decided in his favour. 
But it is peculiar to Lord Nelson to carry his point, whatever 
cause he engages in. 

'^ Your Ladyship will impute it to my vanity — I have had 
the honour of being introduced to your Ladyship's friends, 
their Sicilian Majesties. 

" I will trespass no longer on your patience, than to return 
your Ladyship many thanks for your kind attentions to my 
wife, and pray for your health and happiness; being ever, 
" Dear Madam, 

" Your faithful servant, 

"W. BOLTON.I 

" Gibraltar, February 2nd." 

To Captain Gore of the Medusa he wrote on the I /th : — 

*' The Admiralty seem to think that the Spaniards may be 
hostile to us, and therefore have put me on my guard. Do 
not let it escape your lips ; I am determined to have the first 
blow ; even if they come Avith their whole eighteen they shall 
not join the French. If they come up the Mediterranean, 
and you have a mind for a shooting party, come with your 
frigates. Every part of your conduct is like yourself, per- 
fect.""- 

To Lady Hamilton, on the 25th, Lord Nelson wrote 
thus : — 

' Sir William Bolton was the eldest son of the Rev. William Bolton, the bro- 
ther of Thomas Bolton, Esq. who married Susannah, sister of Lord Nelson. 
Under the protection of his Lordship he entered and proceeded in the naval ser- 
vice, as will be seen from the letters printed in these volumes. He was made 
Commander in 1801, and appointed to the Childers in 1803, but he was not made 
Post Captain until April 10, 1805. He commanded the Eurydice, the Druid, 
the Endymion, and the Forth in the Mediterranean, and in the Irish Channel and 
North American stations. He received the honour of knighthood, acting as 
proxy for Lord Nelson at his installation as a Knight of the Bath. He married 
his cousin Catherine, second daughter of Thomas Bolton, Esq. He died in 
December, 1830. 

■^ Clarke and McArthur, Vol. ii. p. 359. 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 375 

" February 25th, 1804. 

" As Lord Nelson tells me that it is very probable this 
letter may not only be read, but never arrive to your hands, 
I only write this line to say, here we are, and have for the 
whole of this month experienced such a series of bad weather, 
that I have seldom seen the like. I am anxious in the 
extreme to hear that you are perfectly recovered from your 
late indisposition. Lord Nelson has heard very lately from 
Naples. The French army is prepared for service, and have 
a month's bread baked in readiness ; an embargo is laid at 
Genoa and Leghorn, and all the vessels seized as transports ; 
so that we must have some work very soon. I only hope to 
keep my health till the battle is over, but my spasms have 
been very bad lately. We saw the French fleet very safe on 
the 22nd, at evening. Lord Nelson rather expects the ships 
from Ferrol in the Mediterranean. With my kindest love 
and alFection to all I hold dear, believe me, 

" Yours. 

" This goes by Spain." 

In March, Lord Nelson received from Dr. Moseley, of 
Chelsea Hospital, a present of a copy of the fourth edition of 
his work on Tropical Diseases, to which Nelson had furnished 
some particulars. It was thus acknowledged: — 

"Victory, Mai'ch 11th, 1804. 

" My dear Dr. Moseley, 

" Yesterday brought me the favour of your invaluable book 
and most kind letter, and although I know myself not equal 
to your praises, yet I feel that my honest intentions for the 
good of the service have ever been the same, and I feel as I 
grow in rank that my exertions double. 

" The great thing is health, and you will agree with me, that 
it is easier for an officer to keep men healthy than for a surgeon 
to cure them, situated as this fleet has been, without a real 
friendly port where we could get all the things so necessary 
for us. Yet I have, by changing the cruising ground, not 
allowing the sameness of prospect to satiate the mind, some- 
times looking at Toulon, Ville Franche ; sometimes Barce- 
lona, Rosas ; running round Minorca, Majorca, Sardinia, and 



37G LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. VIII. 

Corsica, and two or three times anchoring for a few days 
sending a ship to this place for onions^ which I find the best 
thing which can be given to seamen, having always good 
mutton for the sick ; cattle, when w^e can get it, and plenty 
of fresh water. In the winter, giving half the allowance of 
grog instead of all wine. These things are for the Com- 
mander-in-chief to look to ; and shut very nearly out from 
Spain, and only getting refreshments by stealth from other 
places, my task has been an arduous one. Cornwallis has 
great merit for his persevering cruise, but he has everything 
sent him — we have nothing — we seem forgot by the great 
folks at home. But our men's minds are always kept up with 
the daily hope of meeting the enemy. I send you as a curi- 
osity, an account of our deaths and sent to the hospital out 
of 6000 men. The fleet put to sea, May 18th, 1803, and is 
still at sea, not a ship has been refitted or recruited, except 
what we have done at sea. 

" You will readily believe that all this must have shook me. 
My sight is getting very bad, but / must not be sick till after 
the French fleet is taken ; after which, I shall soon hope to 
take you by the hand. I am glad always to hear good 
accounts of our dear good Lady Hamilton ; that she should be 
universally beloved does not surprise me ; the contrary would 
very much. I am sure she feels most sensibly all your kind- 
ness. Believe me for ever, my dear Doctor, 

" Your much obliged friend, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

"To Dr. Moseley.'" 

He wrote to Lady Hamilton on the 14th respecting Merton, 
and it is curious to perceive into what details he entered re- 
lating to it whilst his mind was so deeply engaged upon the 
French fleet : — 

^ This letter has been printed in Harrison's Life of Nelson, (Vol. ii. p. 418), 
and copied into the 5tb volume of Sir Harris Nicolas's Dispatches, &c., but it has 
been dressed up, and although the orthography of Nelson's letters is not always 
correct, I hold it much better to print them as they were written, for the hurry and 
circumstances attending which, the reader is always ready to make proper 
allowance. The above is taken from the autograph in the possession of Dr. 
Moseley's executor, my old and esteemed friend, William Luxmoore, Esq. 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 377 

" I would not have you lay out more than is necessary at 
Merton. The rooms, and the new entrance, will take a good 
deal of money. The entrance by the corner I would have 
certainly done ; a common white gate will do for the present ; 
and one of the cottages, which is in the barn, can be put up, 
as a temporary lodge. The road can be made to a temporary 
bridge ; for that part of the Nile, one day, shall be filled up. 
Downing's canvas awning will do for a passage. For the 
winter, the carriage can be put into the barn ; and, giving up 
Mr. Bennett^s premises, will save £50. a-year ; and, another 
year we can fit up the coach house and stables which are in 
the barn. The footpath should be turned. I did shew Mr. 

Haslewood the way I wished it done ; and Mr. will have 

no objections if we make it better than ever it has been ; 
and, I also beg, as my dear Horatia is to be at Merton, that 
a strong netting, about three feet high, may be placed round 
the Nile, that the little thing may not tumble in ; and then, 
you may have ducks again in it. I forget at what place we 
saw the netting; and either Mr. Perry or Mr. Goldsmid, 
told us where it was to be bought. I shall be very anxious 
till I know this is done. 

" I have had no very late opportunities of sending to 
Naples : but via Malta. I wrote to Gibbs, to desire he would 
send over the armoisins. They will arrive in time. I hope 
the watch is arrived safe. The expenses of the alterations at 
Merton you are not to pay from the income. Let it all be 
put to a separate account, and I will provide a fund for the 
payment. Sir William Bolton was on board yesterday. He 
looks thin. The fag in a brig is very great ; and I see no 
prospect of his either making prize-money, or being made 
Post, at present : but I shall omit no opportunity. 
^' Ever yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte."^ 

Suspicions were, at the commencement of 1804, beginning 
to be entertained with regard to hostile preparations on the 
part of Spain, and Government sent to Nelson the Royal 
Sovereign of 100 guns, to be followed by the Leviathan, to 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. ii. p. 16. 



378 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. VIII. 

strengthen his squadron. He removed Sir Richard Bicker- 
ton into the Royal Sovereign. To the Russian gentlemen on 
board this vessel, he addressed the following : — 

"Victory at sea, 16tli March, 1804. 
" Gentlemen, 

" Far removed from your country and relations, and placed 
to serve in the fleet under my command, I desire that you 
will, on every occasion, both in private and public concerns, 
consult with me, and let me know your wants and wishes, and 
always consider me as 

" Your sincere friend, 

" Nelson and Bronte."^ 

In March also he received a letter from Lord Hobart, con- 
veying to him the King's approbation of his conduct in regard 
to Algiers, Tripoli, and Naples. Of the French fleet, he 
writes to Sir Thomas Troubridge : " The French want to 
get out, and we want them out. Yesterday, two of their 
frigates were outside the Hieres, peeping to know if we were 
gone to the devil. Ball is sure they are going to Egypt; the 
Turks are sure they are going to the Morea ; Mr. Elliot, at 
Naples, to Sicily ; and the King of Sardinia, to his only spot."^ 
To Hugh Elliot, Esq. he wrote : " I have no doubts but that 
the French fleet would long ago have sailed from Toulon, but 
for the commotions in France." 

At this time, he was sorely troubled about his eye-sight, 
which was very bad, and he was under great apprehensions 
of becoming blind, a fear that frequently harassed him much. 
He directed Captain Richardson, of the Juno, to communicate 
with Mr. Gibert, the Consul at Barcelona, and learn the 
probable course of things in Spain towards England. 

The activity of his mind and the comprehensiveness of its 
character, led him to reflect seriously on every thing around, 
and the probable views entertained by the ditferent Powers. 
He wrote to Sir John Acton : " Will Russia come forth as 
she ought, or are her plans only preparative to the taking 
possession of Greece, and of course Constantinople? This is 

' Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. 448. From the Letter Book. 
* Clarke and Mc'Arthur, Vol. ii. p. 360. 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 379 

a subject I have no business at present to enter into, although 
it is seriously in my mind ;"^ and at the same time to Spiri- 
dion Foresti, Esq. : " The ultimate views of Russia become 
every hour more distinct ; how long the mask may be kept 
on I cannot say, but sooner or later, the Morea will come 
by conquest to Russia. What part Great Britain may take, 
the connexions which Russia may form will point out. How- 
ever, we are at present on the most friendly terms with the 
Emperor, and I hope we shall always continue so. I have 
said enough to so sensible a man as yourself."^ He appointed 
Lieutenant Woodman^ to the charge of the transports, and 
wrote to him thus : " I have thought proper to send you, 
and must recommend to your serious attention the circum- 
stances in general that are passing in the Black Sea, on the 
part of Russia, who, it is said, is forming an armament to a 
very considerable extent ; and although there is not the most 
distant idea that this armament will direct its operations 
against the interests of Great Britain, yet it is essentially 
necessary that its real intentions should be discovered as early 
as possible, and, therefore, you will let no opportunity escape 
you of obtaining all the information you may be able to collect 
on this important subject. And I must desire that you will 
endeavour to gain a particular account of the Naval force 
which Russia may have at Sebastapol and Cherson (their two 
principal naval ports in the Black Sea), and to what extent 
they are arming there. You will likewise endeavour to obtain 
a knowledge of their fortifications, and what number of guns 
is mounted on their different batteries, and whether they are 
able to protect their trade. It will be advisable to ascertain 
whether these armaments are with a view to check and oppose 
the measures of the French, should they attempt to possess 
themselves of the Morea. You will also endeavour to gain 
information of the trade and manufactures carried on by the 
Russians in the ports above mentioned — what supplies of 
provisions and naval stores might be drawn from that country, 
and upon what terms. In order to obtain a perfect know^- 
ledge of the local situation of the Russian territory in the 
Black Sea, you are to procure a chart of their country, which 

' Clarke and McArthur, Vol. ii. p. 361. ^ Ibid. 

' He died a Lieutenant in 1811. 



380 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VIII. 

will assist you in forming a more clear idea of the places of 
principal importance, and endeavour, by every means, to 
obtain information of their present and future intentions with 
regard to England, transmitting me a very full and correct 
account of your observations, and, on your return to 
Malta, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty.''^ 

These instructions exhibit Lord Nelson's exceeding adap- 
tation to the conduct of affairs. 

Towards the end of March he again repaired to the Mada- 
lena islands. " Day by day (he now writes to his friend Mr. 
Davison), I am expecting the French fleet to put to sea — 
every day, hour, and moment ; and you may rely that if it is 
within the power of man to get at them, it shall be done ; 
and, I am sure, that all my brethren look to that day as the 
finish of our laborious cruise. The event no man can say 
exactly, but I must think, or render great injustice to those 
under me, that let the battle be when it may, it will never 
have been surpassed. My shattered frame, if 1 survive, that day, 
will require rest, and that is all I shall ask for. If I fall on such 
a glorious occasion, it shall be my pride to take care that my 
friends shall not blush for me. These things are in the hands 
of a wise and just Providence, and His will be done. I have 
got some trifle, thank God, to leave those I hold most dear, 
and I have taken care not to neglect it. Do not think I am 
low-spirited on this account, or fancy anything is to happen 
to me. Quite the contrary : nay mind is calm, and 1 have only 
to think of destroying our inveterate foe. April ^tk. — A 
frigate has just brought me an account that she saw the French 
fleet outside Toulon, thirty-four hours ago, and she does not 
know that they are returned. I have two frigates gone for 
more information, and we all hope for a meeting with the 
enemy. Nothing can be finer than the fleet under my com- 
mand."2 

On the 2nd of April, he sailed from the Madalena Islands, 
and wrote to William Marsden, Esq., who had succeeded 
Sir Evan Nepean, Bart, as Secretary of the Admiralty 



Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. 470. From the Letter Book. 

Ibid. p. 475. From an Autograph in the possession of Colonel Davison. 



1804,] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 381 

at this period. Captain Layman,' of the Weazle, (which 
was lost, and for which he was tried by a Court-Martial 

' This officer, when only a Midshipman in the Myrmidon, scuttled the lower 
deck of the vessel in a very heavy gale, and to this proceeding the preservation of 
the ship was attributed. His Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence entertained 
a very high opinion of his abilities. He paid great attention to the growth of 
timber and the building of ships, as will be seen in Appendix, No. IV. Tn 1800, 
he was made a Lieutenant, and joined Earl St. Vincent's flag ship, and presented 
to the Earl a plan for annually building a frigate at Bombay, which was carried 
into execution. Shortly before the battle of Copenhagen, April 2, 1801, he so- 
licited Lord Nelson to employ him in the event of boat duty being required, 
either for boarding, towing off the enemy's fire-ships, and other dangerous service 
His Commander gave him, when at Merton, a testimonial in regard to his services, 
observing, "You were always ready to go on every service I am sure ; for the only 
favour you ever asked of me was, to be sent on all services of danger and difficulties, 
and I always understood you acquitted yourself as an able officer and seaman." 
He does not appear to have received the promotion his gallant conduct deserved. 
During the Peace of Amiens, he made some valuable suggestions to Government 
with regard to the cultivation of Trinidad, and the establishment of Chinese hus- 
bandmen in the island of Ceylon. In 1803, he was again with Nelson, and in 
1804 was in the command of the Weazle at Gibraltar. In this vessel he kept 
the Straits free of French privateers, but he unfortunately lost his sloop on the 
rocks off Cabritta Point. He was appointed to the Raven, which was fitted up 
at Woolwich under his direction in a peculiar manner, giving great advantages 
under a chase, in clearing an enemy's coast, &c. In 1805, he was a prisoner 
of war at Puerto- Santa-Maria, near Cadiz. This circumstance, and the loss of 
his vessel, in which he was conveying dispatches for Sii" John Orde and Lord 
Nelson, arose from the negligence of the officers to whom he had entrusted the 
safety of the vessel ; he was ready to substantiate these assertions, but under the 
recommendation of Lord Nelson, induced by feelings of humanity towards those 
officers, he suppressed the allusions in regard to them, and was unhappily censured 
for the loss of his ship, and put at the bottom of the list. On hearing this, 
Nelson exclaimed, " I did not expect this, but it's all my fault ; never mind, 
I'll get you over it." Nelson immediately wrote to Viscount Melville, at that time 
head of the Admiralty, strongly recommending Mr. Layman, and vouching for 
his bravery, zeal, judgment, and activity, and to strengthen his case, declared that 
if he had been censured every time he had run ships or fleets under his command 
into great danger, he should long ago have been out of the service, and never in 
the House of Peers. Commander Layman arrived at Portsmouth in May, 1805, 
and Nelson still urged his merits. He took him to the Admiralty, and a promise 
was given that he should be sent out to the Mediterranean, but, to use the words 
of Layman, " the next month terminating his Lordship's glorious career, the 
promise was forgot, and my offer of service rejected." He offered to prevent 
premature decay in our ships, to divulge a plan rendering forest trees fit for imme- 
diate use, provided he should be entrusted with the measure, but his applications 
were disregarded. He published some works, the Precursor, and others con- 
nected with this subject, but could not get his suggestions adopted. He is said 
to have terminated his existence in 182(5. 



382 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VIII. 

and acquitted of all blame, presented himself with Dis- 
patches to Earl St, Vincent, and was soon after appointed 
to the Raven sloop), conveyed the following letter to Lady 
Hamilton : — 

"Victory, (April) 7th, 1804. 
'' My dearest Emma, 

*' I send this by Captain Layman ; he is a good man, and 
an excellent officer, and he is attached to me. I have given 
him a strong caution not to say too much at the Admiralty. 
If he was dumb, and could not write, it would, upon the 
whole, be better for him. Do you caution him not to talk too 
much. He will tell you of my determination not to be absent 
from Merton on Christmas-day. Nothing, I can assure you, 
but events which I cannot foresee, can prevent me, and if I 
have the pleasure of meeting the French fleet, which I expect 
every hour, I shall certainly ask for rest, let who will be at 
the Admiralty, it is the same thing to me. 

" April 9th. Whilst I was writing, a frigate communicated 
to me that, thirty-four hours before, she saw the French fleet 
outside Toulon, standing off; that in the evening they stood 
inshore again. Yesterday we saw some French ships of war, 
and they are now in sight, working into Toulon. Captain 
Layman will tell you my anxiety. I was in great hopes that 
all my fag was near being brought to a close, and that I 
should visit dear Merton. 

« Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte." 

Nelson wrote again on the 10th : — 

" Victory, off Toulon, April 10th, 1804. 
"■ My dearest Emma, 

" I have received all your truly kind and affectionate letters 
to January 25th, by the Thisbe ; and last night your letter of 
January 13th, by Naples. The armoisins will go under the 
care of Captain Layman, who unfortunately lost his sloop ; 
but with much credit to himself, he has been acquitted of all 
blame. 

" I rejoice that dear Horatia is got well ; and also that you 
are recovered of your severe indisposition. In our present 
situation with Spain, this letter, probably, may never reach 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 383 

you. I have wrote fully ; and intend to send them by the 
Argus, who I expect to join every minute. Elphi Bey, I 
hear, has had all his fine things taken from him. He escaped 
into the Desert, and is pursued ; probably his head is off long 
before this time. The French fleet came out on the 5th, but 
went in again the next morning. Yesterday a Rear- Admiral 
and seven sail of ships, including frigates, put their nose 
outside the harbour. If they go on playing this game, some 
day we shall lay salt upon their tails ; and so end the 
campaign of, my dearest Emma, your most faithful and 
affectionate."^ 



On the 19th:- 



" Victory, AprU 19th, 1804. 



" My dearest Emma, 

" I had wrote you a line, intended for the Swift cutter, but 
instead of her joining me, I had the mortification, not only to 
hear that she was taken, but that all the dispatches and letters 
had fallen into the hands of the enemy : a very pretty piece 
of work ! 1 am not surprised at the capture ; but am very 
much so that any dispatches should be sent in a vessel with 
twenty-three men, not equal to cope with any row boat pri- 
vateer. The loss of the Hindostan was great enough ; but 
for importance, it is lost, in comparison to the probable 
knowledge the enemy will obtain of our connections with 
foreign countries ! Foreigners for ever say — and it is true — 
' We dare not trust England ; one way or other we are sure 
to be committed !' However, it is now too late to launch out 
on this subject. Not a thing has been saved out of the Hin- 
dostan, not a second shirt for any one; and it has been by 
extraordinary exertions that the people's lives were saved. 

" Captain Hallowell is so good as to take home for me, wine, 
as by the inclosed list ; and if I can, some honey. The 
Spanish honey is so precious, that if [any one has] a cut, or 
sore throat, it is used to cure it. I mention this, in case you 
should wish to give the Duke a jar. The smell is wonderful ! 
It is to be produced no where, but in the mountains near 
Rosas. The Cyprus wine, one hogshead, was for Buonaparte. 
I would recommend the wine- cooper drawing it off; and you 

'Collection of Letters, Vol. ii. p. 26. 



384 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. VIII. 

can send a few dozens to the Duke ; who I know takes a 
glass every day at two o'clock. 1 wish I had any thing else 
to send you, but, my dearest Emma, you must take the will 
for the deed. 

" I am pleased with Charlotte's letter ; and as she loves 
my dear Horatia, I shall always like her. What hearts those 
must have who do not ! But, thank God, she shall not be 
dependent on any of them. 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Broxte.'" 

And on the 21st : — 

" Victory, April 21st, 1804. 

" My dearest Emma, 
'' We have had a hard gale of wind for two days, and it is 
now lulling for a moment, I am getting Hallowell on board 
to give him my dispatches. We shall be under Corsica 
to-morrow morning. I never saw such a continuation of bad 
weather. I received the inclosed from Charles. I did not, 
you may believe, let him go to the hospital. There has been, 
several times within this year, something very odd about him. 
Capel has been always very kind to him. I have had Dr. 
Snipe to examine him ; he complains of a violent pain in the 
back of his head ; it comes on occasionally. Has any of his 
family been so ? He does not at other times, Capel says, 
want for abilities, and he is as well kept in money and clothes 
as any Mid. in the fleet. It has vexed me upon your 
account, for I know you will be sorry. I hope he will grow 
out of it. Remember me kindly to good Mrs. Cadogan, and 
believe me, 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte.'' 

In this month the Swift hired cutter employed to convey 
dispatches to Lord Nelson (alluded to in his letter to Lady 
Hamilton, April 19th), was taken by a French privateer, and 
he was exceedingly annoyed at their having been sent in so 
inefficient a vessel. He wrote to Lord Hobart a private letter, 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. ii. p. 29. 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NKLSON. 385 

saying, " I rely with confidence that, although the Admiralty 
for ever send their dispatches, of whatever consequence, 
without the use of cypher, and trust to their being thrown 
overboard in case of capture, yet, as I know the other depart- 
ments of Government always use cypher if of importance, 
and although Admirals are never intrusted with cyphers, yet 
I rely that your Lordship would not trust any dispatch of 
consequence in a vessel with twenty-three men, much less 
commit the interests and schemes of other powers to such a 
conveyance. This is the only consolation I derive from all 
the dispatches being this day read by the First Consul ; I 
wish they were in his throat. I think a great deal on this 
matter, but it may be prudent to hold my tongue."* 

Also to Hugh Elliot, Esq. : "The capture of the Swift 
cutter of four or six guns, and twenty-three men, with all the 
dispatches, is a loss which ages cannot do away. I only 
hope, but I have my great fears, that not only the secrets of 
our own country are exposed, but that, perhaps, Naples, 
Russia, Sardinia, and Egypt, may be mentioned. How the 
Admiralty could send out such a vessel is astonishing ! I 
wish it to be known at Petersburgh and Constantinople, in 
case any plan has been agreed upon by our Courts, for the 
French will, of course, strike a blow instantly. Naples will 
keep on her guard, for we must prepare for the worst which 
may have happened. It has made me very uneasy and un- 
well."2 

On the 26th he dispatched a secret and confidential letter 
to Captain Pulteney Malcolm^ of the Kent, in which he says : 

' Dispatches and Letters, Vol. v. p. 107. From an Autograph in the Colonial 
Office. 

^ From an autograph in the Elliot Papers. 

^ This distinguished officer was born at Douglas near Langholm, February 20, 
1768. At the age of ten years he entered the Navy as a Midshipman on board 
the Sybil frigate, which was commanded by his uncle Sir Thomas Pasley, Bart, 
and his first voyage was to the Cape of Good Hope. He was afterwards engaged 
in the affair at Porto Praya, and at the taking of a fleet of Dutch Indiamen in 
Saldanha Bay. He was engaged in various services, from 1782 to 1793, in the 
Jupiter, the Formidable, the Scipio, the Pegasus, the BeUerophon, the Vengeance, 
and the Penelope, in which vessel he had much arduous duty in cutting out vessels 
in the port of St. Domingo. He was made Lieutenant March 3, 1783, and a 
Commander in the Jack Tar, April 3, 1794. His commission as Post Captain is 

VOL. II. 2 c 



386 MFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VIII. 

" You are hereby required and directed, on this order being 
delivered to you, to receive on board, or to convey them if 
they embark on board their own ships^ the King, Queen, and 
Royal family of Naples, to Palermo, or such other place as 
the King may choose to proceed to, and you will afford every 
protection and assistance to all those who may wish to follow 
their Majesties (and that they approve of). And you will 
also receive his Majesty's Minister and suite, and afford such 
other protection as in your power to all British subjects and 
their property, as the urgency of the case may require.'^^ 

dated October 22, 1794, and he was appointed to the Fox frigate. In the fol- 
lowing year he escorted a fleet of merchantmen to the Mediterranean, and after- 
wards served at Quebec, and in the North Sea, and then in the East Indies, and 
the China seas. In the Suffolk and the Victorious he served as Flag Captain to 
Vice-Admiral Rainier, Commander-in-chief in the Indian seas, and upon his 
return to England in 1803 the latter vessel was in such bad condition that she 
was obliged to be broken up, and he came back in a vessel hired at Lisbon for 
his conveyance. In 1804 he was appointed to the Royal Sovereign, proceeded 
to the Mediterranean, removed into the Kent, and joined Lord Nelson as above. 
He was afterwards in the Renown, and in 1805 in the Donegal, which he com- 
manded for six years. In this vessel he was with Nelson in his pursuit of the 
combined French and Spanish fleets to the West Indies, and then returned 
to the Channel, and was sent by Sir Robert Calder to reinforce Vice-Admiral 
Collingwood off" Cadiz. He aided this officer in the capture of El Rayo, which 
had escaped at the Battle of Trafalgar. Re was then, after very meritorious 
exertions and humane conduct towards the Spanish prisoners, brought to 
Gibraltar, placed under the orders of Sir J. T. Duckworth, sailed to the West 
Indies, and was in the battle at St. Domingo, February 6, 1806. He proceeded 
with the prizes to England, and suffered much from a very heavy gale of wind. 
The Patriotic Fund presented him with a vase of the value of ^'100. In 1808 
he was engaged to escort the army under Sir Arthur Wellesley to Portugal, then 
attached to the Channel Fleet under Lord Gambier. In 1811 he was appointed 
to the Royal Oak, and in 1812 to the San Josef as Captain of the Channel Fleet, 
then under Lord Keith. He was made a Colonel of Marines, August 12, 1812, 
and a Rear-Admiral, December 4, 1813. He hoisted his flag in 1814 in the 
Royal Oak, and took the troops under Brigadier- General Ross from Bourdeaux 
to North America. He was with Sir Alexander Cochrane in the Chesapeake 
expedition, and obtained the warmest acknowledgements from the Commander- 
in-chief for his services. In 1815 he was made K.C.B. and upon his an-ival in 
England Sir Pulteney was ordered to co-operate with the Duke of Wellington in 
the proceedings against France. He stnick his flag September 26th, but upon 
Napoleon Buonaparte's being sent to St. Helena, Sir Pulteney was made 
Commander-in-chief on that station, where he gained the respect and confidence 
of the ex-Emperor. He was promoted to the rank of Vice-Admiral, July 19, 1821, 
and died Admiral of the Blue, June 28, 1838. 
' From an Autograph in the Elliot Papers. 



I 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 387 

At this time the King and Queen of Naples addressed the 
following to Lord Nelson : — 

" Portici, 22nd of May, 1804, 

" My dear Lord Duke Nelson, 
" I am anxious that my letter should reach you as soon as 
possible to inform you of what has happened to me, and 
depose in your heart and friendship the pain and grief which 
I undergo. After innumerable sacrifices made to procure 
me peace, and after the peace to procure me the quiet and 
tranquillity of my subjects, I receive fresh insults, threats, 
and inexpressible demands from the French Government ; 
my loyalty and constant mode of proceeding have kept me 
from yielding, but such conduct on my part has excited 
against me the animosity and hatred of the First Consul, in 
such a manner as to cause it to be signified to me, by several 
occasions that I must remove from about my person, the 
worthy and well-deserving General Acton. As there was no 
founded grievance, no precise facts to be brought against him, 
Buonaparte alleges his nationality as a motive, and attributes 
to him as being English, every kind of disposition to favour 
his own country alone. He has been attacked with fury, so 
far as to have had personal altercations with the French 
Ambassador, not a single circumstance could be produced 
as a subject of just remonstrance. But great power cannot 
be restrained, and at this moment in France the abuse of 
force is arrived at its height. It is demanded of me to send 
away this Minister, and I am menaced with war, if I do not 
comply with this extraordinary demand. Orders will arrive 
in a few days to Alquier, the French Ambasssdor, to go away, 
in case Acton shall not already be gone. The latter has 
thought it his duty to prevent a war, to which I was exposed : 
he goes therefore into Sicily, but possessing all my faith and 
just confidence. The present circumstances, and not having 
a numerous English force by hand, the Russians in Corfu 
not being in sufficient number, compel me still to temporise, 
so much the more, as such is the opinion of Lord Hawkes- 
bury given lately to Castelcicala, and such likewise the senti- 
ments of the Emperor of Russia, from whom I have letters 

2 c 2 



388 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [OHAP. VIII. 

of the 22nd of April. I must therefore submit, against my 
will, to the hard step which the moment demands, in order 
that I may not by anticipation mislead the ideas of your 
Court and that of Russia. When these shall come and assist 
me with effective bodies of troops, I will take up another 
position for this kingdom : in the mean time I am thinking 
equally for the safety of Sicily, which is furnished with every 
thing for that effect. To you, my dear Lord Nelson, I 
recommend myself again whatever may occur in case of the 
war's renewal : the ship which you leave me becomes more 
and more necessary in this Bay. My wife, son, and I shall 
divide ourselves. She will take upon her the defence of 
Naples, my son that of Calabria, and I shall go to Sicily, 
while the rest of the family will remove to Gaeta ; I reclaim, 
however, your assistance at all events. Acton will continue 
to inform you of every thing from Palermo, Avhither I shall 
write him at whatsoever time any thing occurs, and shall 
avail myself always of his lights and counsels, which I have 
experienced to be constantly useful, firm and wise. I have 
mentioned to you what my two friendly Courts advise me in 
the case of Buonaparte's endeavouring to exercise his rage 
against me and my family ; I have no other line of conduct 
to follow than that which they hold out to me, reposing upon 
their aid and friendship. 

" To you, my Lord, I continue to recommend my fate, and 
that of the kingdom which you have once before saved : I 
will take care that you shall be exactly informed of every 
thing in time, so that you may assist me without provoking 
an attack from the troojDS, which I have the misfortune to see 
in my dominions, but which hitherto do not pass over the 
line marked out. Enjoy, my dear Duke, the best health 
which your constantly affectionate friend wishes you. 

"Ferdinando B." 

" My dear and very worthy Lord and Admiral, 

" The King and our worthy Minister will explain to you 

in detail what occasions the present dispatch, and plunges 

me in the deepest affliction, but I can assure you that our 

real sentiments will never be changed by any thing, but are 



1S04.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 389 

confirmed daily. The King, my husband, has consented, at 
the repeated soHcitations of General Acton, to give up tem- 
porarily the direction of affairs, to avoid any pretext on the 
part of the Imperial usurper for violent measures. It is a 
deep sacrifice he has made in acceding to the continual 
demands of his honest Minister, and to tranquillize the fears 
of his subjects, who dread deplorable events : besides England 
and Russia counsel temporising, and waiting the result, so 
he has felt himself compelled, without in any point changing 
his sentiments, and it is to assure you of this that he sends 
you this vessel. You know, my worthy Admiral, the truth 
and sincerity of my mode of thinking, which would ever 
prevent my asserting a fact, of which I was not perfectly sure. 
Continue, then, to be always our defender, protector, and 
guard, from the insidious treatment of those who have neither 
law nor faith. We confide totally in your Government and 
your achievements. You will be informed duly of all, and 
believe that I trust only in your brave loyal nation, and in 
you, my worthy Lord. Preserve the same sentiments always 
towards us, believe that we merit them, being, until death, 
your grateful and very attached friends, myself your affec- 
tionate friend, 

" Charlotte. 

"The 22nd May, 1804. 

" The Prince, my son, who thinks entirely as we do, desires 
me to present his compliments to you, as also all my other 
children." 

On the 28th and on the 3rd of May Nelson wrote to Lady 
Hamilton : — 

"Victory, April 28th, 1804. 

'* My dearest Emma, 
"■ I have been for some days, and am still, very unwell, 
without being seriously ill, but I fret absolutely like a fool 
for the faults of others. It was no fault of mine that the 
dispatches were taken, but of those who sent them in a vessel 
not fit to trust my old shoes in ; nor is it my fault that the 
Kent, the finest ship in the fleet, is kept so long from Eng- 
land, notwithstanding my representations that she is now 
obliged to leave the fleet, to lay guard-ship at Naples, and 



390 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VIII. 

more will very soon be in as bad a plight. My only wish is 
for the coming out of the French fleet to finish all my uneasi- 
nesses. But I yet trust that the reign of Buonaparte will be 
soon over, and then that we shall have a few years of peace 
and quietness. 

" Remember me kindly to all we hold most deal', and 
believe me, 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte. 

"Captain Layman, Captain Hallowell, and I believe 
another packet of letters for you, are now at Gibraltar." 

" Victory, May 3rd, 1804. 
" Since I wrote you on the 28th April, we have not had 
the smallest communication with any vessel, but as I am 
sending a letter to Madrid, I cannot let the opportunity slip 
of saying we are alive this day. Events, and great ones, 
must soon take place. France seems prepared in all quarters, 
and if they do not attempt something, they must feel their 
own disgrace, and as Buonaparte cares not for the lives of 
Frenchmen, something must be done to keep up his Govern- 
ment, which, notwithstanding all that is said abroad, I believe 
is in very great jeopardy at home. God send a finish to it, 
for the benefit of mankind. I have not been very well lately, 
and I have only to wish for a battle with the French fleet, 
when probably my career will be finished. I only serve, you 
know, for the pleasure of fighting them ; that over, I shall ask 
for rest for a little time, but I most sincerely hope that by the 
destruction of Buonaparte, that wars wdth all nations will cease. 
Sir William Bolton is now on board very well. 

" Yours. 

" Kiss Horatia for me. Admiral Campbell is on board, 
and desires his kind regards ; so does Lord Nelson." 

Lord Nelson dispatched Captain Sir William Bolton in the 
Childers, in quest of three French privateers off Tunis, inter- 
rupting our trade, and he again brought the subject of Sardinia 
under Lord Hobart's notice : " The question (he says) is not, 
shall the King of Sardinia keep it ? that is out of the question ; 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 391 

he cannot, for any length of time. If France possesses it, 
Sicily is not safe an hour; and the passage to the Levant 
is completely blocked up. Pardon me, my Lord, for 
bringing this important subject again before you : but I really 
think that I should not do my duty to my country if I did 
not."i 

On the 5th of May he wrote the following to Lady Hamil- 
ton : — 

" Victory, May 5th, 1804. 

" I find, my dearest Emma, that your picture is very much 
admired by the French Consul at Barcelona ; and that he has 
not sent it to be admired — which I am sure it would be, by 
Buonaparte. They pretend that there were three pictures 
taken — I wish I had them : but they are all gone,^ as irre- 
trievably as the dispatches ; unless we may read them in a 
book, as we printed their correspondence from Egypt. Dr. 
Scott went to Barcelona, to try to get the private letters ; but 
I fancy they are all gone to Paris. The Swedish and American 
Consuls told him, that the French Consul had your picture, 
and read your letters ; and Doctor thinks one of them, 
probably, read the letters. 

" By the master's account of the cutter, I would not have 
trusted a pair of old shoes in her. He tells me she did not 
sail, but was a good sea boat. I hope Mr. Marsden will not 
trust any more of my private letters in such a conveyance ; 
if they choose to trust the affairs of the public in such a thing, 
I cannot help it. I long for the invasion being over, it must 
finish the war, and I have no fears for the event."^ 

On the 11th he again departed for the Madalena Islands to 
complete the wood and water, and obtain other necessary 
supplies for the squadron, leaving Captain Mowbray in the 
Active to keep a watch on the French fleet. On the 22nd 
and 30th he again addressed Lady Hamilton : — 

' From an Autograph in the Colonial Office, 

* Taken in the Swift cutter. 

^ Collection of Letters, Vol. ii. p. 36. 



392 LIFE Oi' VICE-ADMIItAL [CHAP. VIII. 

" Victory, May 22nd, 1804. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" Your two letters vld Lisbon arrived the same day with 
those in the Leviathan. I do not deserve your scolding. I 
have looked at my log, and I find that the Phoebe sailed 
for Gibraltar with the English letters on December 27th, and 
that all the English letters went in her ; therefore no signal 
for English letters could be flying on the 28th, as you state. 
Your letter was dated the 26th. The Cameleon went to 
Naples, but I never have, nor intend to write by such a very 
uncertain route when I could write by a better at the same 
time, and we may be sure that all my^ietters would be read ; 
not that I care, but I shall be more careful how I write a 
word of the fleet, as I see that extracts from my letters get 
into the newspapers. Davison is very wrong ever to quote a 
word I write, but I shall not scold him now, as I fear, poor 
fellow, he is in the King's Bench. I am quite hurt about his 
getting into such a scrape ; he always told me : ' Oh ! I know 
my ground — let me alone — I cannot be deceived/ It often 
turns out that these very clever men are oftener deceived 
than other people. Now let me put you right about Mr. 
Marsh. He did what was most perfectly right, and it was 
very hard upon me to force the money out of his hands. 
You knoiv how £4000 was meant to be disposed of, but never 
mind, I never meant but to pay Davison, with many, many 
thanks, and a due sense of the obligations I owe him. I had 
hopes, if we got the Dutch ship given to the Victory, 
that, with a little more I should be out of his debt ; and I do 
assure you that I should have ordered the money to have 
been paid to him, but that he begged me not to t/mik of it. I 
feel it all, I would not have acted so by him had I been so 
rich ; so finishes that matter. 

" With respect to the improvements at Merton, I never 
meant that they should be paid out of the £1200 a year, and 
I send you an order that Davison will pay the bills, as I wish 
to know exactly what the alterations cost. With respect 
to the room, I hardly know how to find the money; but 
if it is to be done this year, it is begun before this time ; 
it is too late to say a word now. I have wrote to Sir John 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 393 

Acton on the subject you wished me, but that person is now 
so much French, that I doubt the effect if she does write — 
so it is said, but 1 cannot beheve it. I have not heard of the 
arrival of the watch for Horatia, or a httle box for you, but 
I suppose they went in the British Fair cutter, and the 
answers came out in the Swift. I shall write by Gibraltar 
in a few days. This goes through Spain by the care of Friend 
Gayner. 

" Yours.'' 

" Victory, May 30th, 1804. 

" I see Lord Stafford is going to oppose Mr. Addington ; 
the present Ministry cannot stand. I wish Mr. Addington 
had given you the pension ; Pitt, and hard-hearted Grenville 
never will. What a fortune the death of Lord Camelford 
gives him ! 

" Every thing you tell me about my dear Horatia charms 
me. I think I see her, hear her, and admire her, but she is 
like her dear, dear mother. I wish I could but be at dear 
Merton, to assist in making the alterations. I think I should 
have persuaded you to have kept the pike and a clear stream, 
and to have put all the carp, tench, and fish who muddy the 
water into the pond. But as you like, I am content. Only 
take care that my darling does not fall in and get drowned. 
I begged you to get the little netting along the edge ; and 
particularly on the bridges. 

^' I have only one more word — Do not believe a syllable 
the newspapers say, or what you hear. Mankind seems fond 
of telling lies. 

" Remember me kindly to Mrs. Cadogan, and all our 
mutual friends : and be assured I am for ever your most 
faithful, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

" George Campbell desires me always to present his best 
respects, and make mine to good Mr. Yonge; and when you 
see Sir William Scott, make my best regards acceptable to 
him. There is no man I have a higher opinion of, both as a 
public and private character." ^ 

* Collection of Letters, Vol. ii. p. 39. 



394 LIFK OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. VIII. 

"Victory, May 30th, 1804. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" I am writing this day by way of Gibraltar and Barce- 
lona ; to take both chances. I wrote you on the 22nd through 
Friend Gayner, the Quaker at Rosas. We have nothing in the 
least new here. We cruise, cruise, and one day so like 
another, that they are hardly distinguishable, but hopes, 
blessed hopes, keeps us up, that some happy day the French 
may come out, then I shall consider my duty to my country 
fulfilled. I have been but so so, and am not so well as I 
could wish, a slow nasty fever hangs upon me, but 1 have a 
good medical man in the Surgeon of the Victory, Dr. Snipe 
being absent at Malta. I am not seriously ill, but am not 
quite in rude health. For God's sake and my sake do not 
believe anything that newspapers may tell you ; I can tell 
my own tale ; or conn over every word in my letter. My 
saying we are on the eve of a battle could only be intended 
to convey my belief that the French intended to put to sea, 
and so they did on April the 5th, and had we not been near, 
probably they would have pushed for their destination, there- 
fore do not fancy this, that, or the other, as how, where, or 
when, I can get at them. I cannot do impossibilities, or go 
into Toulon, but all that man can do shall be done, and the 
sooner it is done the sooner I shall certainly be at dear Merton. 
Kiss my dearest Horatia for me. I shall hope to see her at 
Merton on my arrival. I think the election of Buonaparte 
to be Emperor will give us Peace, and the Ministry seems 
going. I hope Mr. Addington has given you a pension — it 
is shameful if he has not, however nothing shall be wanting 
from me. I will give you two-thirds of the last bit of bread 
I have. I have wrote Admiral Lutwidge, by Gibraltar. Say 
every kind thing for me to all friends. I have sent you a 
case of macaroni by the Agincourt, and will send for more 
from Naples this very day. I have not heard from Gibbs 
this age, nor of Bronte, but I hope he will do well for me. 
Gaetano desires his duty, he says he is afraid you have forgot 
him. I do not hear of William having any inclination to 
send home any part of his wages. Don't you give any, for 
it will come out of my pocket, which is not necessary, as his 
pay is £18. a year." 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 395 

The fever alluded to in this letter is more particularly 
described by Lord Nelson in a letter to Dr. Baird. He 
says : — " The health of this fleet cannot be exceeded ; and I 
really believe that my shattered carcass is in the worst plight 
of the whole fleet. I have had a sort of rheumatic fever, they 
tell me ; but I have felt the blood gushing up the left side of 
my head, and the moment it covers the brain, I am fast 
asleep : I am now better of that ; and with violent pain in 
my side, and night sweats, with heat in the evening, and 
quite flushed. The pain in my head, nor spasms, I have not 
had for some time. Mr. (now Sir George) Magrath, whom 
I admire for his great abilities every day I live, gives me ex- 
cellent remedies; but we must lose such men from our 
service, if the army goes on encouraging medical men, 
whilst we do nothing. I am sure much ought to be done 
for our Naval Surgeons, or how can we expect to keep valu- 
able men? I look to you not only to propose it, but to 
enforce it to Lord St. Vincent, who must be anxious to pre- 
serve such a valuable set of men to the navy.^'^ 

He wrote to Lady Hamilton, June 6th, 10th, and l7th : — 

" Victory, June 6th, 1804. 

" Since I wrote you, my dearest Emma, on the 30th and 
31st of May, nothing new has happened except our hearing 
the fev de joie at Toulon, for the declaration of Emperor. 
What a capricious nation those French must be ! However, 
I think it must in any way be advantageous to England. 
There ends for a century all republics ! By vessels from 
Marseilles, the French think it will be a peace, and they say 
that several of their merchant ships are fitting out, I 
earnestly pray that it may be so ; and, that we may have a 
few years of rest. 

" I rather believe, my antagonist at Toulon, begins to be 
angry with me, at least, I am trying to make him so, and 
then he may come out and beat me, as he says he did off 
Boulogne. He is the Admiral that went to Naples, in 
December, 1792, La Touche Treville, who landed the grena- 
diers. I owe him something for that. 

' Clarke and McArthur, Vol. ii. p. 367. 



396 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP, VIII. 

" I am better, my clear Emma, than I have been, and shall 
get through the summer very well. 

'^ Would you conceive it possible ! but it is now from 
April 2nd since I have heard from Ball. The average time 
for a frigate to go and return, is from six to seven weeks. 
Sir William Bolton joined last night ; and received his letters 
announcing his being called papa. He is got a very fine 
young man and good officer. Lord St. Vincent has desired 
he may have the first Admiralty vacancy for Post ; but no- 
body will die, or go home. 

" Apropos ! I believe you should buy a piece of plate value 
fifty pounds, for our god daughter of Lady Bolton : and 
something of twenty or thirty pounds value, for Colonel 
Suckling's. But my Emma you are not to pay for them, let 
it rest for me; or, if the amount is sent me, I will order pay- 
ment."^ 

" Victory, June lOth^ 1804. 

" My dearest Emma, 

*' I wrote to you on the 6th vid Rosas : this goes by Bar- 
celona : to which place I am sending Sir William Bolton, to 
fetch Dr. Scott, who is gone there, poor fellow, for the benefit 
of his health. 

" I have just had very melancholy letters fi-om the King 
and Queen of Naples, on account of General Acton's going 
to Sicily. The insolence of Buonaparte was not to be parried 
without a war ; for which they are unable, if unassisted. I 
have letters from Acton, May 28th, on board the Archi- 
medes, just going into Palermo. He will probably return to 
Naples, unless new events arise and that may be; for a 
Minister, once out, may find some difficulty in renewing his 
post. He has acted with great and becoming spirit. 

" I am better, but I have been very unwell. It blows here 
as much as ever. Yesterday was a little hurricane of wind. 
I dare say Prince Castelcicala knows it by express ; if not 
you may tell him, with my best respects. He and every 
one else may be sure of my attachment to those good Sove- 
reigns. By this route I do not choose to say more on this 
subject. 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. ii. p. 48. 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 397 

'* T fear Sardinia will be invaded from Corsica before you 
get this letter. I have not small ships to send there or any 
where else ; not in the proportion of one to five. You may 
communicate this to Mr. Addington, if you think that he 
does not know it ; but to no one else except Castelcicala, of 
what relates to Naples. 

" I have very flattering letters from the Grand Vizir, in 
the name of the Sultan, and from Cadir now Capitan 
Pacha.''! 

"Victory, June 17th, 1804. 

" Not the least alteration has taken place in the fleet since 
I wrote you last on the 10th via Barcelona. By the French 
accounts I see therefore almost a total change of Administra- 
tion. I sincerely wish that Mr. Addington may have ren- 
dered you justice in granting the pension before he left office, 
if not, I fear it will never be done, for although Dundas would 
express his wishes for your success, when he had but little, 
if anything, to say, yet you will find now he has much to 
say that he will say less. My last letters from England are 
April 5th, going on for three months in total ignorance of what 
is passing, but as Doctor Scott has continued through Spain 
to get the Paris papers, we know all the great events which 
are passing. I still think that we have a fair prospect of 
Peace. Pitt can have no objection to treat with a French 
Monarchy, and I should think that the new Emperor would 
wish very much for one. My friend Monsieur La Touche 
has got his fleet fully manned — he sometimes plays bo-peep 
in and out of Toulon, like a mouse at the edge of her hole ; 
but as these playful tricks, which mean nothing serious, may 
be magnified by nonsensical letters, of which too many are 
wrote, I desire and beg that you will never give any credit 
to them. You are sure that when any one can write from 
the fleet that I can, and you are sure that I should to you. 
I very much doubt now your female friend at Naples has got 
Acton removed, whether he will be able to return. The 
male friend of ours says he will go to Sicily, and as neither 
Russia nor England can trust either Galio or Micheroux 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. ii. p. 53. 



398 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. VIII, 

who want the place, and who, we know, are both French in 
heart ; this is the only chance he has at seventy-three of 
being again Pi-ime Minister, and the Queen cannot, I fancy, 
do now so well without him as formerly. My state of health 
is such that if I could fight the French fleet to-morrow, I 
should certainly solicit permission to come home for a few 
months rest, and I must do it before the winter, or I shall be 
hors de combat, and they ought to make some allowance for 
my maimed carcass. Kiss dear Horatia for me, and re- 
member me to all our friends. Charles is very near perfectly 
recovered, and he behaves very well. I long to hear how poor 
Davison gets on. I hope he is out of prison, for I fear he 
has been in one before this time. Again and again bless you. 
" June 18. Dr. Scott has just brought me from Barcelona 
one of your dear prints, the French Consul had it framed 
and glazed, the other he sent to Paris. 

" Yours, 

"Nelson." 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 399 



CHAPTER IX. 

1804. 

On the 14th of June m this year, the French fleet of eight 
ships of the line, and six frigates, came out of Toulon. Nel- 
son was off Hieres with five ships, and chased the fleet 
into Toulon again. He thought the French Admiral meant 
nothing beyond a gasconade. Monsieur La Touche, the 
French Admiral, put a very different version on this affair, 
and highly excited the indignation of Lord Nelson. His 
letter to Paris is as follows : — 

" Abord du Bucentaure, en rade de Toulon, 
le 26 Prairial An XII. 

" General, 
" J'ai I'honneur de vous rendre compte de le sortie de toute 
I'escadre a mes ordres. Sur I'avis que j' avais re9u que plu- 
sieurs corsaires Anglais infestaient la cote^^et les iles d'Hieres, 
je donnai Pordre, il y a trois jours, aux fregates PIncorruptible 
et la Syrene, et le brick le Furet, de se rendre dans la baie 
d'Hieres. Le vent d'est les ayant contrarices elles mouille- 
rent sous le chateau de Porqueroles. Hier matin, les enne- 
mis en eurent connaissance. Vers midi, ils detacherent deux 
fregates et un vaisseau, qui entrerent par la grande passe, 
dans I'intention de couper la retraite a nos fregates. Du mo- 
ment ou je m'apperyus de sa manoeuvre, je fis signal d'appa- 
reiller a toute I'escadre ; ce qui fut execute. En 14 minutes, 
tout etait sous voiles, et je fis porter sur I'ennemi pour lui 
couper le chemin de la petite passe, et dans le dessein de I'y 
suivre, s'il avait tente d'y passer; mais I'Amiral Anglais ne 
tarda pas a renoncer a son projet, rappela son vaisseau et ses 
deux fregates engages dans les isles et prit chasse. Je I'ai 
poursuivi jusqu'a la nuit ; il courait au sud-est. Le matin, 
an jour, je n'en ai eu aucune conrioissance. Je vous salue 
avec respect, 

"La Touche Treville." 



400 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IX. 

Lord Nelson frequently referred to this letter in his corre- 
spondence. To Mr. Davison, he says, that he has only to 
hope M. La Touche will give him an opportunity of settling 
his account before he goes home. To Sir Evan Nepean, 
*^ All my wishes now rest that I may meet M. La Touche 
before October is over.'^ To his brother, the Rev. Dr. Nel- 
son, " You will have seen Monsieur La Touche's letter of 
how he chased me, and how I ran. I keep it ; and, by God, 
if I take him, he shall eat \i." To Mr. Davison, on the 9th 
of August, " I am expecting Monsieur La Touche (as he has 
wrote a letter that I ran away), to come out of his nest. The 
whole history is too contemptible for my notice, but I have 
thought it right, not upon my own account, but for the satis- 
faction of the Admiralty, &c. &c. to send a copy of the Vic- 
tory's log : for if my character for not running away, is not 
fixed by this time, it is not worth my trouble to put the world 
right at my time of life ; and if any Englishman has believed 
for one moment the story, I may, to my friend, say, without 
fear of being thought arrogant, that they do not deserve to 
have me serve them ; but I have kept Mr La Touche's letter ; 
and if I take him, I shall never see him, or, if I do, make him 
eat his letter — perhaps, sovereign contempt is the best."^ 
His letter to the Secretary of the Admiralty run thus : — 

" Although I most certainly never thought of writing a line 
of Mons. Touche's having cut a caper a few miles outside of 
Toulon, on the 14th of June, where he well knew I could not 
get at him without placing the ships under the batteries which 
surrounded that port ; and that, had I attacked him in that 
position, he could retire into his secure nest whenever he 
pleased, yet, as the gentleman has thought proper to write a 
letter, stating that the fleet under my command ran away, 
and that he pursued it, perhaps it may be thought necessary 
for me to say something. But I do assure you. Sir, that I 
know not what to say, except by a flat contradiction; for if 
my character is not established by this time for not being apt 
to run away, 'tis not worth my time to attempt to put the 
world right. It is not, therefore, I do assure your Lordships, 
with any such intention that I stain my paper with a vaunt- 
ing man's name, and, therefore, I shall only state, that the 
' From autograph in the possession of Colonel Davison. 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 401 

fleet I have the honour and happiness to command, is in the 
highest state of disciphne, good order, good humour, and good 
health, and that the united wishes of all are, I am sure, to 
meet Mons. La Touche at sea : then I ought not to doubt that 
I should be able to write a letter equally satisfactory to my 
King, my*country, and myself."^ " Such a liar," (he writes 
to Sir Alexander Ball), " is below my notice, except to thrash 
him, which will be done if in the power of, my dear Ball, 
jour sincere friend, Nelson and Bronte." And in another 
letter to Mr. Davison : " I dare say, Mons. La Touche will 
have a different sort of letter to write, if I can once get a 
shake at him. Whether the world thinks that I ran away or 
no, is to me a matter of great indifference. If my character 
is not fixed by this time, it is useless for me to try to fix it at 
my time of life." Monsieur La Touche, however, did not 
survive to feel Nelson's vengeance. He died on the 18th of 
August, at Toulon. Nelson wrote to General Villettes : "La 
Touche has given me the slip — he died of the colic ; perhaps 
Buonaparte's, for they say he was a rank Republican. Du- 
manoir is the Rear-Admiral at present in Toulon." And to 
Sir Alexander Ball : " He is gone, and all his hes with him. 
The French papers say, he died in consequence of walking so 
often up to the signal post, upon Sepet, to watch us : I always 
pronounced that that would be his death." 

The capture of the Swift cutter, induced Lord Nelson to 
alter the sheet of signals, and he communicated the same to 
the Admiralty. He determined likewise to cut off all com- 
merce between Italy and the enemy's ports at Marseilles and 
Toulon, and therefore ordered Captain Mowbray of the 
Active to repair to the Hieres islands, and cruise between 
these and Cape Taillat. Captain Donnelly of the Narcissus 
relieved Captain Mowbray on this service on the 23rd, the 
Active being ordered to join Lord Nelson. The vessels at 
this time cruising with Lord Nelson, were the Victory, Royal 
Sovereign, Canopus, Donegal, Belleisle, Triumph, Leviathan, 
Renown, Seahorse, Active, Amazon, Maidstone, Childers, 

' Dispatches and Letters, Vol. vi. p. 150. From the original in the Admiralty, 
and autograph drafts in the possession of the Rev. Henry Girdlestone, and of 
James Young, Esq. of Wells. 

VOL. II. 2 D 



402 I.IFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. IX. 

Camelcon, thunder-bomb ; the Medusa and Araphion were 
cruising outside the Straits, for the protection of trade into 
the Mediterranean ; the Halcyon and La Sophie between 
Ceuta and Cape Spartel, for the protection of trade in the 
Straits of Gibraltar; the Anson, Arrow, Bittern, Moi'giana, 
and Jalouse from the mouth of the Archipelago,* along the 
Adriatic as far as Ancona, for the protection of trade, and to 
prevent the enemy sending troops into the Morea ; the Juno 
off Cape Sebastian to communicate with Barcelona, and gain 
intelligence of Spanish affairs ; the Agin court and Argo, at 
Gibraltar; the Kent at Naples, to relieve the Gibraltar, for 
the protection of the Royal Family of Naples ; the Superb 
and Niger at Malta ; the Gibraltar to repair at Gibraltar ; the 
Termagant to Naples with dispatches ; the Narcissus at 
Madalena Islands to repair; the Excellent to Porto Conte in 
Sardinia, to assist in victualling, and in obtaining wood and 
water ; the Phoebe and Thetis at the Bay of Rosas for the 
same ; the Acheron bomb, with public dispatches for the 
Minister at Naples ; the ^tna bomb atMalta, for provisions ; 
the Spider brig, and Renard schooner at Malta, to protect the 
trade ; L^Hirondelle at Malta to be under the directions of 
Sir Alexander Ball, and the Madras as a prison ship at Malta. 
Such was the disposition of the Mediterranean fleet under 
the command of Lord Nelson towards the end of June. 

The Queen of Naples again addressed Lord Nelson in the 
following letter : — 

" My very worthy, dear Lord, 
'' I seize the present opportunity of writing to you to assure 
you in the name of the King, and from myself, our unchanged, 
fixed, sentiments towards you, your Government, and great 
nation. Our position is very painful and disagreeable ; we 
are surrounded by open and concealed enemies, and by treason 
of every kind, even the Pope, they say, at the instigation of 
the upstart Emperor, wishes to embarrass us as far as he has 
the means, but nothing will embarrass or make us waver from 
our fixed principles. I always rely with confidence on your 
friendship and interest in us. All that occurs is so contrary 
to all reason, that one can only sigh and detest a life so replete 
with horrors. Take care of your health my respected 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 403 

Admiral, continue your support, aid, and care to my husband 
and children, and to our unfortunate and ungrateful subjects, 
and rely on the gratitude which will terminate only with life, 
of your very sincere, attached and grateful friend, 

" Charlotte. 

" 14th June, 1804." 

Her Majesty also wrote on the 28th, as appears from the 
following letter of Lord Nelson : — 

" Victory, 10th July, 1804. 

'^ Madam, 

" I have been honoured by your Majesty's gracious and 
condescending letter of June 28th. I have no other reply to 
make to such flattering expressions of confidence, than to 
offer my most devoted thanks, and my assurances of always 
studying to merit your Majesty's favourable sentiments, and 
those of my benefactor the King. 

" It would be presumptuous on my part to venture to speak 
of political matters, in a letter to your Majesty ; but I cannot 
help wishing that Europe, was like a handful of rods against 
France. If it be proper to give way to the times, let us tem- 
porise : if to make war, let us all make it. On this principle, 
I could have wished that Russia had avoided war, unless she 
had been joined by Austria. Then, acting honourably side 
by side, there would have been some hope from such a 
coalition. 

'' If Russia sends men, and vessels to the Ionian Re- 
public, and into the Morea only, I have no hesitation in 
saying, that she compromises Naples much more, than if she 
had, for the moment, bent to the storm. At least 50,000 troops 
(it should be 1 00,000) are necessary to answer for the safety of 
Italy. To say the truth, I do not believe we had in the last war, 
and according to all appearance, we shall not have in the 
present one either, plans, of a sufficiently grand scale to force 
France to keep within her proper limits. Small measures 
produce only small results. I dare not let my pen run on : 
the intelligent mind of your Majesty will readily comprehend 
the great things which might be effected in the Mediterra- 
nean, on this side Buonaparte is the most vulnerable. It is 

2 D 2 



404 I^IFE OF VICE-ADMIKAL, [cHAP. IX. 

from here that it would be most easy to mortify his pride, 
and so far humble him, as to make him accept reasonable 
conditions of peace. I entreat your Majesty's pardon for 
having expressed my sentiments with such boldness. 

*' Mr. Elliot has informed me, by writing, of what your 
Majesty wished to say on the subject of writing to the 
Minister, respecting the pension for your Emma. Poor Sir 
William Hamilton believed that it would have been granted, 
or it would have been unpardonable in him to have left his 
widow with so little means. Your Majesty well knows, that 
it was her capacity and conduct which sustained his diplo- 
matic character, during the last years in which he was at 
Naples. It is unnecessary for me to speak more of it. It 
only remains for me — begging pardon for having occupied 
your Majesty's time so long — to subscribe myself, 

" Your Majesty's faithful and devoted servant, 

" Nelson and Bronte."^ 

This letter is acknowledged by the Queen in the following: — 

"■ My very worthy and respected Lord, 
"■ I received with much gratitude your skilful, perfect letter 
of the 10th of July. I think entirely as you do, that trifling 
and partial attacks are only mischievous, contributing cheap 
laurels to the modern Emperor. I always wait with impatience 
your interesting news, and pray sincerely for the preservation of 
your health, and that for the sake of our safety and tranquillity 
you may remain in the Mediterranean, my confidence in you 
being perfect. God grant that a loyal, sincere union between 
the great Powers may stem the devastating torrent, and plans 
of conquest and aggrandisement of the despot of Europe, but, 
to obtain a durable peace, it requires to be prepared to en- 
force it. You may feel assured that I shall do all that 
depends on me for a friend in v^hom I am so greatly in- 
terested. Continue to favour me with news. May heaven 
accord to you all the prosperity I desire for you, and believe 
me for life, with sincere esteem, your very grateful, confiding, 
attached friend, 

" Charlotte. 

"2Cth July, 1804." 

' Life of the Rev. Dr. Scott, p. 114. 



1801.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 405 

Lord Nelson received the following from Mr. Elliot : — 

" Naples, June 15th, 1804. 

" My dear Lord, 

*' Accept of my most grateful thanks, and of those of Mrs. 
Elliot, for your kindness to our dear boy. We rely with 
confidence, that if God spares your life, you will in time be 
as useful to those of our children who embrace your honour- 
able profession, as their good conduct may deserve. I am 
certain you have placed William as advantageously as 
possible, and I trust he will prove worthy of your pro- 
tection. 

*' The Queen asked me for your letter to Sir John Acton, 
as he had left directions for her Majesty and the King to 
open those which might come for him. The next day they 
were sent to me to be translated — that of the 1st of June, I 
did translate without hesitation in writing ; but the other I 
only read to the Queen, as I can see no use of leaving copies 
of them in her hands. The originals will be sent by the first 
opportunity to Palermo. 

" There are many things to say about the Queen, which I 
do not wish to commit to paper. She is in many respects so 
completely biassed in her attachments, by the sad favourite 
of the day, that her heart and her understanding are equally 
the dupe of this weakness. 

*' I understand that the Courts of Berlin and of Vienna, will 
without hesitation acknowledge the validity of Buonaparte's 
new title. This Court will follow their example. 

" From Spain I have no news of a later date than what is 
mentioned in your Lordship's letter. It is the fashion here to 
believe, that the King of Spain will continue to avoid the war. 
But I speak from no authority concerning a topic which 
belongs to Mr. Frere. The King of Sardinia, thinking himself 
no longer safe in the Roman States, is expected to come to 
Gaeta in the course of this month. I have not failed to 
convey the kind expressions of your Lordship towards him 
through the proper channel. Ever most truly, 

" Your Lordship's faithful and humble servant, 

«H. Elliot." 



406 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IX, 

On the 27thj Lord Nelson wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 

" Victory, June 27th, 1804. 
*'Last night, my dearest Emma, I received your three 
letters of April 13th and 22nd, and May 13th, by way of 
Naples. It is the only scrap of a pen we have had from 
England since April 5th, by Leviathan. You must not 
complain of my not writing, for I never miss an opportunity, 
as the following list will shew. February 25th by Barcelona, 
March 2nd, 15th, by Rosas ; 19th, by Gibraltar; April 10th, 
by Rosas; 14th, by Captain Layman; 19th, 21st, 23rd, by 
the Argo ; 20th, by Rosas ; May 3rd, by Barcelona ; 5th, by 
Rosas; 12th, by Rosas; 30th, 31st, by Gibraltar; June 6th, 
by Rosas; 10th, by Barcelona; 19th, by Rosas. You will 
see, and I have wrote Davison to pay every bill relating 
to the alterations at Merton, and that nothing is to be touched 
on that business from the £100. a month. I also wrote to 
him to pay, if I can afford it, poor blind Mrs. Nelson^s debts. 
The change of Ministry can do us no harm, and if Lord 
Melville is a true friend he may now get it^ for you ; but my 
dear Emma, all their promises are pie-crusts, made to be 
broken. I hope to get out of debt and to have my income 
clear, and then we shall do very well with prudence. I am 
not surprised at the time poor Davison is to be confined, after 
what passed in Parliament, I did not expect so little, and I 
fear he has a heavy fine to pay besides. He would only 
consult Lord Moira and such clever folks, but an ignoramus 
like me, could only warn him not to touch Boroughs. He 
has, poor fellow, been completely duped, and who cares ? not 
one of those great folks. I am most sincerely sorry for him, 
but a year will soon pass away. Have not I been shut up in 
a ship without any one comfort ? He is ashore, with his 
friends round him, and even you to go to see him. I would 
change with him with much pleasure. I shall write him a 
line, he must not kill himself, that his enemies would rejoice 
at, and I hope he will live to plague them. Acton being gone 
to Sicily, the Queen had authority to open his letters. Mr. 
Elliot explained the one relative to her writing to Mr. Adding- 
ton. She said, as Mr. Elliot writes me, as Mr. iVddington is 

' The pension. 



180-1.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 40/ 

out of office the application to him from her would no longer 
meet your purpose, and as to a letter to his successor, she 
must be regulated in that by your future explanation upon 
the subject. I can think a great deal. Mr. Elliot likes to 
class you in such a way as may make a precedent — that you 
recollect was always his plan, but I shall write Acton and 
the Queen to say, that there can be no harm in her writing 
to Mr. Pitt. Your eminent services, and her personal obli- 
gations to you, &c. &c. But you know enough of the world 
not to be surprised at any forgetfulness from even great folks. 
How delighted I shall be with Merton, and I shall hope to 
find Horatia fixed there. Why not ? kiss her for me, and 
may God bless her. I am always glad to hear that Charlotte 
behaves well to you. She would be very ungrateful if she 
did not. Remember me kindly to Mrs. Cadogan and all our 
friends. I shall, if it pleases God, eat my Christmas dinner 
at dear Merton. My health absolutely requires a few months 
rest, even if my services are required again. Pray God in 
heaven bless and preserve you. 

" Yours.'' 

On the 1st of July, the two following letters : — 

'' Victory, July 1st, 1804. 

" Although I have wrote you, my dearest Emma, a letter 
by Rosas, of June 27th, not yet gone, the weather, being so 
very bad, that ships cannot get across the gulf of Lyons, yet 
I will [not] miss the opportunity of writing by Gibraltar. 
You must not, my Emma, thjnk of hearing from me by way 
of Malta; it takes as long to send a letter to Malta as to 
England. Your letters of April 13th, 22nd, and May 13th, 
through Mr. Falconet, came safe a few days ago ; Mr. Fal- 
conet is the French banker; and he dare not buy a little 
macaroni for me, or let an Englishman into his house ! 

" What our friends are after at Naples, they best know. 
The poor King is miserable at the loss of Acton. The Queen 
writes me about honest Acton, &c. &c., and I hear, that she 
has been the cause of ousting him : and they say — her ene- 
mies — that her conduct is all French. That, I do not believe, 
although she is likely to be the dupe of French emigres, who 



408 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. IX. 

always beset her. I doubt much, my dear Emma, even her 
constancy of real friendship to you ; although, in my letter to 
Acton, which Mr. Elhot says he read to her, I mentioned the 
obligations she was under to you, &c. in very strong terms. 

" You will not hear of my making prize-money. I have 
not paid my expenses these last nine months. I shall expect 
to eat my Christmas dinner at Merton ; unless those events 
happen which I can neither foresee nor prevent. I am not well : 
and must have rest for a few months, even if the country [want 
me], which is very likely they will not. News, I can have 
none. April 9th. — Leviathan sailed, so Government don't 
care much for us. 

"Nelson and Bronte."^ 

"Victory, July 1st, 1804. 

" My dearest Emma, 
*' I have a moment, and but a moment, to write you a line 
through Spain. I wrote you yesterday by Gibraltar, and sent 
you the first Bill of Exchange for £lOO. for you, and 
£100. for poor Mrs. Bolton. I take this opportunity of 
sending the second, as I dare say that this will be home 
months before the other. Nothing from England since 

April 5 th. 

" Yours. 

" All my public dispatches go for Gibraltar this day." 

At the beginning of this month. Lord Nelson learnt that 
the enemy was collecting troops and stores at Porto Fer- 
rajo to make a descent on Sardinia, and he therefore sent 
off the Hon. Captain Capel in the Phoebe, together with the 
Cameleon, to cruise between that Port and Leghorn, and 
capture or destroy any vessels or transports he might meet 
with. On the 9th, he wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 

" Victory, July 9th, 1804. 

" Last night, my dearest Emma, I received your most kind 
letter of May 24th, and I feel very much distressed that my 
numerous letters do not get quicker to your hand, but I can 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. ii. p. 56. 



1804.] LOUD VISCOUNT NELSON. 409 

only write and send off, and indeed, I dare say, if I was the 
carrier, they would not be so long in travelling, I have men- 
tioned the date of every letter, and how they went, in a letter 
sent a few days ago by Barcelona ; in March, three ; in April, 
six; in May, five; in June to the 19th, three; June 27th, 
July 1st. I must not write a word of any political matter, 
for as I send this through Mr. Falconet, I have assured him 
that nothing which can in any manner commit him in his em- 
ploy with the French Government, shall be put in the letter. 
This, I am sure I may say, that we have had no summer 
here. For the last four days not a boat could pass. Before 
many months I shall certainly see all your improvements, and 
if Government, after some rest, want my services, they shall 
have them, but I must have a change of air, for always shut 
up in the Victory^s cabin, cannot be very good for the consti- 
tution. I think you will find me grown thin, but never 
mind. Your trip to Canterbury I should suppose the very 
worst you could take ; for, on any alarm, there you must stay, 
and in a town filled with soldiers ; but if you like it I am 
content. However, we know to June 18th, all was safe. 
What a long letter Sir Sidney Smith has wrote. Well, this 
is an odd war — not a battle ! Admiral Campbell always 
inquires after you, and desires to be kindly remembered. I 
have little to say — one day is so like another, and having long 
ago given you one day there is no difference but the arrival of 
a letter or newspapers ; the same faces, and almost the same 
conversation. Remember me kindly to all our friends, and 
be assured, I am, 

" Yours. 
" Kiss dear Horatia for me." 

" July.Wth. — We have the French news to June 28th. I 
have wrote to the great lady at Naples about your pension. 
I think she must try and do something. God bless you. 

" July 12 th. — We have Paris papers to June 27th. I believe 
we are never to hear from England again." 

The boats of the Narcissus, Seahorse, and Maidstone, made 
an attack on some of the enemy's vessels at La Vandour, in 
Hieres Bay, on the night of the lOth of July, at the reports 



410 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IX. 

upon which, from Captain Donnelly and Lieutenant Thomp- 
son, Nelson was highly pleased, and he wrote to the former 
as follows : — " Lord Nelson has received with much satisfac- 
tion the report of Captain Donnelly, of the gallant conduct 
of the officers and men employed in destroying the enemy's 
vessels at La Vendura. The judicious arrangement of Lieu- 
tenant Thompson merits my praise, for without that, bravery 
would be useless ; and the example of Lieutenant Parker, ^ 
Lumley," and Moore,^ was such as to insure the bravery of 
the inferior officers and men ; for I never knew the superior 
officers to lead on well, but that they were always bravely 
supported by the men under their orders. Wounds must be 
expected in fighting the enemy. They are marks of honour, 
and our grateful country is not unmindful of the sufferings 
of her gallant defenders. A regular list will be sent to 
the Patriotic Fund at Lloyd's, and the Captains are to give 
each man a certificate before he leaves the ship, describing 
his wound, signed by the Captain and Surgeon.'^^ He soon 
after ordered Captain Donnelly, in the Narcissus, and with 
the Maidstone, off to the Port of Genoa, having received 
information that the enemy were in the habit of sending their 
privateers, and other vessels of war, from Corsica, thither. 
On the 14th, Lord Nelson wrote to Lady Hamilton — 

" Victory, July Uth, 1804. 

" I wrote you my dearest Emma, on the 8th, a letter dated 

' Hyde Parker, now a Rear- Admiral of the White, is the son of the late Ad- 
miral Sir Hyde Parker, Knight, who so gallantly foujjht the Dutch squadron off 
the Dogger Bank. Admii-al Donnelly had a very high opinion of his merits. 
He was made a Lieutenant, September 24th, 1804, a Commander, January 22nd, 
180G, Post Captain, October 13th, 1807, and Rear-Admiral of the White, No- 
vember 23rd, 1841. He distinguished himself early, as above stated ; afterwards 
commanded the Prometheus fire-ship, and in 1812, the Tenedos frigate. He was 
actively employed on the North American station, and assisted in the taking 
of the President in January, 1815. He subsequently commanded the Iphigenia 
at Quebec, and on the Jamaica and Mediterranean stations, and was put out of 
Commission in June, 1821. 

^ Richard John Lumley, died a Post Captain, July 23, 1821. 

' Lieut. Ogle Moore, died on half-pay in 1817. 

* Dispatches and Letters, Vol. vi. p. 108. From autograph draft and Order 
Book. 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 411 

June 27th, and July 4th, by way of Barcelona, and 9th and 
12th by way of Naples. I begin very much to suspect that 
my letters from Rosas go directly into France. You must 
only rely that I omit no opportunity of writing. Although 
it will be frost and snow when I see dear Merton, yet good 
fires and your charming society, will make my heart warm, 
and asses milk will set me up again. In due time I shall 
write to the Admiralty, but this you will keep to yourself. 
Rest I ought to have for a few months, even should they 
want my poor services, but there will be so many desirous of 
getting the Mediterranean command, that I cannot expect 
they will allow me to return to it ; but all this keep to yourself. 
It is time enough for the multitude to know of my move- 
ments by my arrival, whether it will be in frigate, brig, or 
leaky 74, 1 cannot say ; that will depend on the Admiralty, but 
I yet hope before my departure that the French fleet will 
come out, indeed I expect the Brest fleet into the Mediter- 
ranean, and that this will be the great scene of action this 
autumn and winter. All I beg, my dearest Emma, that you 
will not believe any idle stories in newspapers. I am perfectly 
prepared how to act with either a superior or an inferior force. 
My mind is firm as a rock, and my plans for every event fixed 
in my mind. May God in heaven bless and preserve you. 

" Yours. 
" Remember me to all our joint friends.'* 

Lord Nelson was apprehensive that part of the French 
fleet had got out, the idea of which he describes to Rear- 
Admiral Campbell, as giving him '* half a fever.'' He wrote 
also to Sir Richard Bickerton, " I have been in a little 
alarm at the idea of Mons. La Touche having given me the 
slip, and it is not quite cleared up. I am sending Active 
and Thunder off Marseilles for information ; for I am sure if 
that Admiral were to cheat me out of my hopes of meeting 
him, it would kill me much easier than one of his balls."^ 

The following from General Dumouriez was written in this 
month : — 

' Clarke anil McArthur. Vol. ii. p. 370. 



412 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IX. 

"Le 20 Juillet, 1804. 

" My dear Nelson, 

" I love you as a brother, and agree with me the extreme 
enjoyment I would find in holding you fast in my arms, but 
I am so intimately convinced of the necessity of your assist- 
ance at the head of the Mediterranean fleet, that I heard with 
the greatest sorrow the tale of your removal of your important 
station, I hope you received the posterior orders sent of the 
new Ministry, and will remain to give us account of the 
Toulon fleet that is under your inspection. I consent to 
adjourn after the peace the very moment to live with you, 
except the case of being myself sent in Italy to partake your 
labours, and join in your glory : that is the hearty answer I 
return to your kind letter of the 3 1st May. 

" I expect no answer of her Majesty, if even the Minister 
did faithfully return in her hands the letter, I dared to write 
for the public sake. The Sovereigns are all of them afraid 
or apathetic, and will remain so, tiU God judges convenient 
to awaken them, and strengthen their debased hearts. 

" I see with horror the Corsican tyrant invested with an 
imperial mantle, impurpled with Bourbon's blood. I hope 
the Providence to be weary of so much impudence of one 
side, and meekness of the other. I hope the instant of 
revenge will soon come, my greatest desire is to be with you, 
an instrument of the catastrophe that is impendent upon that 
nefarious head. These are the indelible sentiments of your 
admirer and faithful friend, 

"Le General Dumouriez. 

*' A Milord Nelsou, Duke de Bronte, 
&c. &c. &c." 

The month of August commenced with a letter which does 
great credit to Lord Nelson, and shews how superior he was 
to any feelings of jealousy or envy towards those officers who 
had the gratification of serving with him. The Corporation 
of London voted to Lord Nelson their thanks as Commander 
of the fleet blockading Toulon. On the copy of Lord Nelson's 
reply to this Lady Hamilton wrote : " The following is a 
copy of Admiral Lord Nelson's answer to the vote of thanks 



ISOl.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 413 

of the Corporation of London. It breathes a most noble and 
generous spirit, and does his Lordship as much honour as a 
victory/* 

" TO THE BIGHT HONOURABLE THE LORD MAYOR. 

"Victory, August 1st, 1804. 

« My Lord, 

"This day I am honoured with your Lordship's letter of 
April 9th, transmitting me the resolutions of the Corporation 
of London, thanking me as commanding the fleet blockading 
Toulon. I do assure your Lordship, that there is not a man 
breathing who sets a higher value upon the thanks of his 
fellow citizens of London than myself; but I should feel as 
much ashamed to receive them for a particular service, 
marked in the resolution, if I felt that I did not come within 
that line of service, as I should feel hurt at having a great 
victory passed over without notice. I beg to inform your 
Lordship, that the port of Toulon has never been blockaded 
by me ; quite the reverse — every opportunity has been offered 
the enemy to put to sea, for it is there that we hope to realize 
the hopes and expectations of our country, and I trust that 
they will not be disappointed. Your Lordship will judge of my 
feelings upon seeing that all the junior Flag Officers of other 
fleets, and even some of the Captains have received the thanks 
of the Corporation of London, whilst the junior Flag Officers 
of the Mediterranean fleet are entirely omitted. I own it 
has struck me very forcibly, for where the information of the 
junior Flag Officers and Captains of other fleets was obtained, 
the same information could have been given of the Flag 
Officers of this fleet and the Captains ; and it is my duty to 
state that more able and zealous Flag Officers and Captains 
do not grace the British Navy than those I have the honour 
and happiness to command. It likewise appears, my Lord, 
a most extraordinary circumstance, that Rear -Admiral Sir 
Richard Bickerton should have been, as second in command 
in the Mediterranean fleets, twice passed over by the Cor- 
poration of London : once after the Egyptian expedition, 
when the first and third in command were thanked, and now 



414 I.IFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [ciIAP. IX. 

" Consciousness of high desert instead of neglect made the 
Rear-Admiral resolve to let the matter rest, until he could 
have an opportunity personally to call on the Lord Mayor 
to account for such an extraordinary omission ; but from this 
second omission, I owe it to that excellent Officer not to pass 
it by. 

^' And I do assure your Lordship, that the constant, zealous, 
and cordial support I have had in my command from both 
Rear-Admiral Sir Richard Bickerton, and Rear-Admiral 
Campbell has been such as calls forth all my thanks and 
approbation. We have shared together the constant attention 
of being more than fourteen months at sea, and are ready to 
share the dangers and glory of a day of battle ; therefore it is 
impossible that I can ever allow myself to be separated in 
thanks from such supporters. I have the honour to remain, 
with the very highest respect, your Lordship's most faithful 
and obedient servant, 

'' Nelson and Bronte.'' 



From Prince Charles Felix of Savoy Lord Nelson received 
the following : — 

" Cagliari, 9th August, 1804. 

" My Lord, 
" I have not replied sooner to the letter you politely wrote 
me, because I thought you must have quitted the anchorage at 
Palma to return again to the coasts of France, but having 
the pleasure of seeing you take a situation within sight of 
this town, I hasten to write to thank you, my Lord, for the 
trouble you have taken in chastising the insolence of the 
English Corsairs, as well as for the kindness with which you 
sent me the pretended Sardinian, whom you found on board 
a vessel coming from Marseilles, but as it proves that he does 
not belong to that nation, I intend transferring him to the 
English Consul, in order that he may be sent back to you 
(to do with him as you think fit) as soon as I have had his 
papers examined, which cannot be done until the Corsair, 
he was put on board of, has finished her cruise. I hope that 
your proximity to this town will permit of your landing and 
dining with me, that I may have the pleasure of making the 
personal acquaintance of so distinguished a person, an inter- 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 415 

view which would also enable me to make some communi- 
cations which cannot be easily written. Deign to accept my 
assurance, my Lord, that I shall seize every occasion to 
convince you of the sentiments of esteem and perfect con- 
sideration with Avhich I am, my Lord, 

" Your very good friend, 

" Charles Felix of Savoye." 

In this month Lord Nelson received intelligence from the 
Admiralty of having been appointed Vice-Admiral of the White, 
the highest rank he lived to attain in the service. He wrote 
to Lady Hamilton on the 13th : — 

"Victory, August 13th, 1804. 

"The Ambuscade brought me your letters to June 5th, 
viz. April 9th, 15th, 18th, May 14, 22, 30, vid Lisbon. 
May 10, 18, 29, June 1, 4, G, by sea. The box you mention 
is not arrived, nor have I a scrap of a pen or newspaper from 
Davison. 

" 1 do not believe one syllable of the intention of the late 
Admiralty to remove me without my own application. I 
verily believe so much the contrary, that I much doubt that 
they would have suffered me to come home without much 
contesting the point. I have every reason to believe that as 
a Board, my whole conduct met their entire approbation, 
and to say the truth, the old Earl was led wrong against his 
better judgment many a time. I am not so vexed with him 
as with the others. I am sure he would have promoted 
Bolton if they had mentioned him, but never mind, the late 
Admiralty have the execrations of the service for destroying 
as much as in them lay the NavyP 

The number of gales of wind, and the long continuance of 
the vessels at sea, severely deteriorated the condition of the 
ships forming his squadron. The Gibraltar was to be sent 
home — the Kent was in a miserable state — the Superb could 
not be expected to keep the sea in the winter — the Renown 
and the Triumph were only fit to be sent home — the Maid- 
stone and Narcissus were also out of repair. In August, he 
wrote to his Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence that they 



41G LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL, [flJAr. IX. 

had an uniform sameness, day after day, and month after 
month — gales of wind for ever. " In July, we had seventeen 
days very severe weather ; the Mediterranean seems 
altered. However, with nursing our ships, we have roughed 
it out better than could have been expected. I have always 
made it a rule never to contend with the gales ; and either to 
run to the southward to escape its violence, or furl all the 
sails, and make the ships as easy as possible. Our friend 
Keats is quite well ; in his own person, he is equal, in my 
estimation, to an additional 74 ; his life is a valuable one to 
the State, and it is impossible that your Royal Highness 
could ever have a better choice of a sea- friend, or counsellor, 
if you go to the Admiralty. Keats will never give that counsel 
which would not be good for the service."^ 

Nelson's health began to suffer, and he wrote to Mr. 
Marsden to communicate to the Admiralty the necessity of 
a few months quiet to enable him to serve in the next spring. 
A winter like that which had passed, he felt unable to with- 
stand. He had much regret in making this application, as 
he says, " No officer could be placed in a more enviable 
command than the one 1 have the honour to be placed in, 
and no command ever produced so much happiness to a 
Commander-in-chief, whether in Flag Officers, the Captains, 
or the good conduct of the crews of every ship in this fleet ; 
and the constant marks of approbation for my conduct which 
I have received from every Court in the Mediterranean, leave 
me nothing to wish for but a better state of health. I have 
thought it necessary to state this much, that their Lordships 
might not for a moment suppose that I had any uneasiness 
of mind upon any account. On the contrary, every person, 
of all ranks and descriptions, seems only desirous to meet my 
wishes, and to give me satisfaction. I must, therefore, en- 
treat their Lordship's permission to return to England for 
the re-establishment of my health, and that their consent 
may reach me as soon as possible, for I have deferred my 
application already too long."" 

To Viscount Melville, the First Lord of the Admiralty, he 
also wrote on the necessity of returning home to recover his 

' Clarke and McArthur, Vol. ii. p. 381. 

^ Dispatches and Letters, Vol. vi. p. 157. From the orighial in the Admiralty. 



1804] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 4l7 

health, and spoke highly of the talents of Sir Richard 
Bickerton, the second in command in the Mediterranean, 
and as being eminently qualified to command a fleet. He, 
however, hoped to get hold of the French fleet before the 
arrival of his successor — that he said would add ten years to 
his life. He determined upon enticing them out. He 
directed Captain Donnelly to proceed to the west end of 
Porquerolle, whilst he w^ould get into the Gulf of Lyons and 
push round Cape Sicie the first favourable wind. He thought 
the appearance of the Narcissus might tempt the French 
fleet to come out and stand to the eastward, or to anchor in 
Hieres Bay, which would afford his squadron an opportunity 
of bringing them to action. 

Their Sicilian Majesties were not a little alarmed at the 
announced intention of Nelson to return home, as appears 
from the following letter from Hugh Elliot, Esq. : — 

" September 8, 1804. 

'' My Lord, — I cannot sufficiently express the infinite 
regret with which their Sicilian Majesties have learnt your 
determination of quitting your command in the Mediterra- 
nean, and of going to England this winter for the re -esta- 
blishment of your health. Their Sicilian Majesties are in 
this not more concerned for your indisposition, than they are 
anxious from the evil effects which they apprehend must 
ensue to their interest, in consequence of your Lordship's 
absence from the Mediterranean. I know it is the King's 
intention to write to the Prince of Castelcicala, to apply to 
the British Government for your Lordship's speedy return 
to these seas, in order to resume the high command you 
have hitherto exercised, with no less credit to yourself than 
advantage to the many countries, whose future security rests 
entirely upon the skill by which a British Admiral may be 
enabled to maintain the superiority of the British fleet over 
that of the enemy in the Mediterranean. When such great 
interests are concerned, I shall not presume to dwell upon 
my own feelings, although I cannot but recall to your Lord- 
ship, that I only consented to depart as abruptly as I did 
from England, to undertake this arduous and ruinous mission, 
from the expectation that my efforts to direct the councils of 

VOL. II. 2 E 



418 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IX. 

this kingdom would have been seconded by your pre-emi- 
nent talents and judgment. Allow me, however, my Lord, 
in this emergency, to propose to your consideration a plan, 
concerning which I have already had much conversation with 
the Queen, and which, if it can be adopted, will obviate 
many of the misfortunes to which we should be exposed by 
your absence. As your Lordship's health requires that you 
should not be exposed to the rigours of another winter's 
cruise in the Gulf of Lyons, it is the sincere wish of this 
Court that you would spend the severe months of the year 
either here or at Palermo, without abandoning your chief 
command in the Mediterranean. I only do ray duty in 
suggesting this idea to your Lordship, without venturing to 
press upon you the many arguments by which, I think, I 
could prove its expediency. You must be sensible, my Lord, 
that no Admiral who is not as well acquainted as yourself 
with the political state of these Kingdoms, or other Eastern 
countries, and of Russia, can possibly act with the same 
effect that you can do, when there is every reason to expect 
that the Emperor of Russia, and perhaps even the Ottoman 
Porte, will ultimately co-operate with us in our endeavours to 
set bounds to the lawless ambition of France. May my 
representations upon this subject not come too late, as I am 
certain that your departure from the Mediterranean will not 
less tend to encourage our enemies, than to diminish the 
confidence of those friendly Powers, who look towards your 
Lordship's abilities as the surest means of success. 
" I have the honour to be, 

" &c. &c. &c. 

"H. Elliot.''! 

On the 20th Lord Nelson wrote to Charles Connor : — 

" Victory, August 20th, 1804. 
" Dear Charles, 

"As Captain Hillyar has been so good as to say that he 
would rate you Mid., I sincerely hope that your conduct will 
ever continue to deserve his kind notice and protection, by a 
strict and very active attention to your duty. If you deserve 
well, you are sure of my assistance. 

' From the original in the Elliot Papers. 



1S04.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 419 

" Mr. Scott will supply you with money to begin your mess, 
and I shall allow you £30 a year, if it is necessary, which 
Captain Hillyar will supply you with ; and as you this day 
start in the world as a man, I trust that your future conduct 
in life will prove you both an officer and a gentleman ; and 
recollect, that you must be a seaman to be an officer, and 
also that you cannot be a good officer without being a gentle- 
man. 

" I am always, with most sincere good wishes, 
" Your true friend, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

" If you follow Mr. Magrath^s advice, your eye will be as 
well as ever. 

" Mr. Charles Connor, 
" Mid. of H.M. Ship Niger." 

He also wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 

" Victory, August 22nd, 1804. 

'^ My dearest Emma, 
" The ship was gone for Rosas, when the Spencer yesterday, 
nineteen days from Plymouth, joined us, by whom I had the 
happiness of receiving your letters of via Lisbon, June 28th, 
and one without a date through Mr. Marsden, July 4th, 7th, 
10th, and 19th. I think it impossible that my friend the 
banker, I don't mention names, would allow me to be dis- 
tressed by loss of money in his banking house. I cannot 
believe it, and why Haslewood in some measure forced 
the £5000 from Marsh and Creed's hands, who lay out every 
farthing as they get it in the funds, never keeping more than 
£50 in hand ; but I hope the best, and I am sure, poor as I 
am, if the money I have in the house would save my friend, 
he should be welcome to it, but why should my all go to 
serve a parcel of people that I never saw or care one farthing 
about. I sincerely hope that the bathing has quite set you 
up again. The Kent will, I have no doubt, have a very short 
passage, and as she carries my request to come home for the 
restoration of my health, which a few months may set up, 
and fit me, if the Admiralty pleases, to return to this com- 
mand ; but there are so many my seniors who are using every 

2 E 2 



420 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. IX. 

exertion for employment, that when once it is gone from me 
I stand no chance of getting it back again. The inore likeli- 
hood of a Spanish war, the less chance for me. You will 
know from Mr. Marsden what the Admiralty intend. 

" I wish my proxy had never been given. I am not clear 
I should have voted on that side, but I have not read the 
debate. I hate the Grenvilles — cold-hearted. IfLordMoira 
was to be First Minister, and I First Lord of the Admiralty, 
it would be my duty to support, but I am to expect nothing 
from them ; and to make enemies of those who are in, I'll be 
damned if I do. I will stand upon my own bottom, and be 
none of their tools. When I come home I shall make myself 
understood. I like both Pitt and Lord Melville, and why 
should I oppose them ? I am free and independent. I have 
not heard from Davison more than six months. I shall write 
him a line, poor fellow ; I wish his time was out. My kindest 
love to those we hold most dear — Horatia ; and regards to 
good Mrs. Cadogan, Charlotte, &c. &c. &c. Don't forget 
old Oliver. God bless you. Amen, Amen, Amen. In a 
few days I shall write by Gibraltar." 

" Victory, August 27th, 1804, 

'* My dearest Emma, 
^' Your kind letters by Friend Gayner, of June 22nd, and 
July 10th, are just received, and those by Spencer to July 
19th. I do not believe that there is any danger of Davison's 
failure — I mean the house, for if they set off with a capital of 
£500,000, no speculation could have injured them, especially 
last winter, by the time the house was formed. As I wrote 
you. Marsh and Creed were the only authorized persons to 
receive the Prize-money from Mr. Tucker, and neither Davi- 
son nor Haslewood had a right to bully my agents. Nor do 
I believe that they ever said I was in their debt, unless it was 
to save the money for me ; when that was received, I was 
£.S800 in Davison's debt. He had wrote me never to think 
of his debt, for if it was never paid it was nothing to him. 
My agents put every farthing out to interest. God knows, it 
is not much. I dare say the banking house has done no such 
thing for me, but I shall be soon at home, and settle all my 
affairs ; and if I do serve again for an expedition or another 



1S04.] LORD VISCOUNT Nr.LSON. 421 

year, I shall be aTble to leave all my affairs in a better plight 
than at present. I am settling my Bronte affairs, and next 
year my net income from thence will be as sure as any estate 
in England ; but I have very much to weed away; the gross 
amount is large, but the salaries for Governor, Campierias, 
the College fees, &c. &c. &c. with Mrs. Graeffer's pension, 
will not be less than £800 sterling a year. I am now work- 
ing to know why all this expense. If I allow Mrs. Graeffer 
£100 a year, I think I shall do well, although I dare say not 
half satisfy her. In case of any accident happening to me, I 
have given you £500 sterling a year out of the estate, but I 
hope we shall live many years. The moment I get home, I 
shall put it out of your power to spend dear Horatia's money; 
I shall settle it in trustees' hands, and leave nothing to chance. 
If Horace^ behaves well, he shall marry her. Mr. Elliot seems 
to think they will all go to the devil at Naples, that it is per- 
ceptibly getting to be French. I do not see things in so 
black a light as he does. Mr. Elliot says both King and 
Queen are in desperation at my going away ; they say that I 
have so uniformly protected them, and never in the smallest 
instance committed them, notwithstanding what Castelcicala 
said. I have letters from Acton of August Qth. The lady, 
I hear, wishes to go to England, and Acton says so, but I 
am sure that he has no such intention, and that he will die 
in Italy. He longs to get to his house at Castel-a-Mare, in 
short, that he may be near the Court, and he thinks he can 
direct Circello, but I doubt whether the Queen will permit 
. him even to come to the Kingdom of Naples, unless she finds 
that she is involved in difhculties, and cannot get out of them. 
Respecting your business he says, ' I see what you tell me, 
my Lord, on Lady Hamilton's settlement by Sir William ; 
I think it very just that she should be helped. I have wrote 
to her Majesty on the subject, and she is pleased to answer 
me that she will do whatever is in her power on the sub- 
ject, and has acquainted your Lordship lately by one of her 
letters.^ I suppose, my dear Emma, that letter is the one 
which I sent you, and if her application through Castelcicala 
is as cold, I do not expect much from it ; never mind. 

" The letters you send with yours are many of them interest- 

' His nephew, afterwards Viscount Trafalgar. 



422 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IX. 

ing. What a fool Sir E. H. must be to tell ; but tittle-tattle 
is almost all that the men of the present day can talk about. 
To marry into the family of the Macnamaras, what a prospect ! 
As for Captain Macnamara, it is not difficult to foresee 
that he will be shot ; he seems to lay himself out for it, and 
after what has happened no one will pity him. Our friend 
Mr. Davison seems to think him a nonsuch. Every scrap of 
your letters are so interesting, that flattering fancy for the 
moment wafts me home. Triumph and Narcissus leave the 
fleet this day to join the Maidstone, therefore do not expect 
letters by those two ; this goes by Triumph. If Davison has 
not paid poor Mrs. Nelson's debts, which you say are £90, 
I shall be very sorry ; if he has not, I will do it when I come 
home. You will not have time to answer this letter before 

you will see 

"Yours, 

'^Nelson and Bronte. 
" We have just reports from a vessel spoke that our fleet 
has gained a great victory. God send it may be true, and 
give us peace. Faddy^ is confirmed, he is lucky, and Sir R. 
Barlow speaks highly of him." 

"Victory, August 31st, 1804. 
*' My dearest Emma, 

" Yesterday I wrote to you through Spain ; this goes by 
Naples. Mr. Falconet, I think, will send it ; although I am 
sure he feels great fear from the French Minister, for having 
anything to do with us. The Admiralty proceedings towards 
me, you will know much sooner than I shall. I hope they 
will do the thing handsomely, and allow of my return in the 
spring ; but I do not expect it. 

*' I am very uneasy at your and Horatia being on the coast, 
for you cannot move, if the French make the attempt ; which, 
I am told, they have done, and been repulsed. Pray God it 
may be true ! I shall rejoice to hear you and Horatia are 
safe at Merton ; and happy shall I be the day I join you. 
This is written within three miles of the fleet in Toulon, who 
are looking very tempting. Captain Hardy has not been very 
well : and I fancy Admiral Murray will not be sorry to see 
England, especially since he has been promoted.''- 

' Lieutenant William Faddy died in 1811, at the Leeward Islands. 
^ Collection of Letters, Vol. ii. p. C". 



1304.] LOUD VISCOUNT NELSON. 423 

" Victory, September 9th, 1804. 

" Since I wrote you, my dearest Emma, on August 30th, 
not the least change has taken place, nor have I received a 
letter from any place. I have lost my opponent Mons. La 
Touche. I grieve to think he died a natural death — it was 
more than I bargained for, however, I hope not to follow his 
example for many years to come. You will know long before 
me what are Lord Melville's intentions towards me — who 
comes, and how I am likely to get home. If Captain Keats 
will allow me a passage with my numerous suite, I wish to 
go home in the Superb, but if the Admu'alty send out a 
senior Admiral I must be subject to his will and pleasure — all 
that I hope is, that the Admiralty will not keep me in 
quarantine at farthest beyond the return of the post, for we 
shall be well crowded, seven or eight to sleep in one cabin, 
but I cannot help it, it was the same and very uncomfortable 
coming out in the Amphion, but then I shall look, my dear 
Emma, for happier moments, for I shall not stay three minutes 
at Portsmouth, but fly to dear Merton, where all in this world 
w hich is dearest to me resides ; and, therefore, I would have 
you remain at Merton, being assured I shall lose no time in 
coming to you. I have only a moment to scrawl this line, 
but be assured I am, 

*' Yours,, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

"The box you mentioned sending May 18th, has never 
arrived, nor my arms from Mr. Nayler. I wish Mr. Spinks 
may please you in building, but he is a drunken fellow. I 
dare say you have made the subterraneous passage so as to 
stop the kitchen door and windows, or you will find the smell 
of the kitchen I fear very bad ; but I think you have pro- 
vided against that." 

" Victory, September 22nd, 1804. 

'^ Your two letters of August 7th and 13th I have received. 
I am not sure whether I gave the Spanish dresses to Captain 
Layman, or sent them to the Admiralty ; the pieces of 
Armoisins and Naples shawls I gave him open, or there might 
be difficulty in getting them on shore. I have been expect- 



421 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. IX. 

ing a ship from Naples and Palermo these several days, per- 
liaps the Queen or Acton from Palermo might say something 
about you, but I can no longer defer sending off my dis- 
patches to catch the Triumph at Gibraltar. Report says, she 
and the King are likely at last to have a serious rupture, 
Circello, who is Acton's man, will not give into her wants and 
wishes. However, I never trouble myself with these matters, 
they may settle their own affairs, they are old enough. Acton 
will get back to Castel a Mare, and by degrees try to get 
into office again, he will never go to England if he can help it. 
I am sure it is not his inclination. Your disposition is too 
generous to insult a fallen man, however much we may detest 
the principles which guide his conduct, and I am sure nine- 
tenths of those who now abuse the Earl and Troubridge were, 
and would be again, their most abject flatterers were they 
again in office — for me, I feel myself above them in every way, 
and they are below my abuse of them ; now no longer in 
power, I care nothing about them, and now they can do no 
harm to any one I shall not abuse them. Sir William Bolton 
is going to Gibraltar to refit the Childers. I see no prospect 
of making him Post. When I come home I w^ll speak to 
some of the Admiralty about Tom Bowen, but I must stick 
to Sir William Bolton, for if I ask many favours I may get 
none. Charles is rated on board the Niger, and I hope he 
will do well. I have talked much to him and he promises 
fair. When you receive this letter I shall most probably be 
upon my passage, in what ship, &c. &c. must be left to the 
Admiralty or the Admiral who they may send out. I have 
plenty of candidates for taking me to England. Gore of the 
Medusa writes in desperation, but I am not my own master. 
Superb I think will be the ship. God bless you. Kiss dear 
Horatia for me, and be assured I am, 

"Yours, &c. 

"Nelson and Bronte." 

" Don't fix anything about Linton's farm till my arrival, 
perhaps some of it may be sold. 

" 1 am anxious to hear from Gibbs and to settle Bronte, 
then that will be off my mind. It ought to have brought me 
£3000. a year, instead of a little more than £2000, when all 



1804.] LOUD VISCOUXT NELSON. 425 

is paid however. However, I have been a great fool in that 
business, but never mind. God bless us. Amen." 



In October he wrote on the 2nd, the 5th, the 7th5 the 10th, 
and on the 12th. 

" Victory, October 2ncl, 1804. 

''It was only yesterday, my dearest Emma, that I received 
your letter ^of July 1st, it having travelled in a Spanish 
smuggling boat to the coast of Italy and returned again to 
Spain, the boat not having met any of our ships. I am 
anxious to put you right about my proxy, and that Lord 
Moira's having it could have had no influence against Mr. 
Addington, not having done anything for me or my friends ; 
you will see that it was entrusted to support Mr. Addington. 
Perhaps Davison has been the innocent cause of any one 
having my proxy, for I never liked giving it. Lord Moira, 
in his letter to Davison, says, — ' being intrusted by him with 
the charge of repelling any attack which envy might even aim 
at his character, I will give myself the pride of being osten- 
sibly confided in by him, and in Political questions I shall 
hold myself bound to give his vote as his relation to the 
Ministry requires, though it may be in contradiction to my 
own.^ 

" On January 13th, 1 804, I signed the Proxy and sent it to 
Davison with the following extract : ' I have intrusted 
him with what I did not believe I would have intrusted any 
man, and I hope he will be a firm supporter of Mr. Adding- 
ton's Administration.' This did not get home till March, 
therefore no vote was given in Mr. Addington's administra- 
tion, but you see if any had, it would have been to support 
Mr. Addington, therefore it could have had no influence upon 
Mr. Addington if his inclination had led him to do anything ; 
but the fact is, that if my pension was entailed so would Lord 
St. Vincent's, and at a time he was to be turned out for mis- 
conduct, that I take to be the reason. I think I should not 
have given my vote against Pitt. I am no party man as a 
tool, if I am to be a part of Administration it alters the case. 
If Pitt is attentive to me he shall have my vote. I have told 



426 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IX. 

you all this that you might see my conduct had nothing to 
do with Addingt07i's conduct. 

" I have kept myself in this letter entirely to the subject 
of yours. You see Lord Moira bound himself to support 
Addington. God bless you,^' 

" Victory, October 5tb, 1804. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" Hallowell is just arrived with your dear letters, and 
although I have not in fact one moment of time, still I send 
a line to thank you for them. I have only hastily run over 
them. I never could have thought you did not give enough 
to poor Mrs. Bolton. I must have meant that you should 
hold your generous hand, for if you have a fault, it is that you 
give away much more than you can afford ; but respecting 
her and Tom, &c. &c. I will regulate those things to the full 
extent of what I ought to afford, upon due consideration, and 
that shall be regularly paid. I can only touch hastily upon 
several subjects. I have letters from Mr. Elliot and the 
Queen. The King is also in desperation at the thoughts of 
my going home. The King offered me houses either at 
Palermo or Naples. A messenger is now near England with 
a letter for Castelcicala, to present to the King, begging 
that I may be desired to return in the spring, but I do not 
expect that Pitt will accord with their wishes, although 
I receive from every part of Administration the most 
flattering marks of confidence. Acton is also very uncom- 
fortable at the thoughts of my going away — he was very kind 
to Dr, Scott. I much fear without great management Naples 
will be lost, I fear the Emperor of Germany is too closely 
allied to Buonaparte to mind his relations at Naples. The 
Queen is very angry. I have much to tell you when we meet 
upon all those subjects. Your brother Ball desires to be 
remembered to his Sister Emma. You will not have time to 
answer this. Letters are on the average five weeks getting 
vid Lisbon to Rosas. Gibbs is doing I believe all he can 
for me at Bronte. Mrs. Graeffer will be allowed £100. a year. 
I see I must do it, and then it can never be said but that I 
have done nobly by her. Gibbs wants to get her to England, 
and I can see by his letter that he means something. 



1S04.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 427 

" I must just write a line by post to Davison to thank him 
for his letters. He says every thing shall be done according 
to my desires, therefore I hope you will have no more trouble 
about paying for the improvements. Sir William Bolton is 
gone to heave down to Gibraltar, he is a veiy good young 
man. I wish I could make him Post, and into a good frigate. 
I shall write by Gibraltar in a few days." 

"Victory, October 10th, 1804. 

"This, my dearest Emma, will, I dare say, be the last 
letter you will receive before you see me. Whatever arrange- 
ments are made about me by the Ministers, it is all settled 
long before this time. You will know from the Admiralty 
about my quarantine, but I dare say it will not be longer 
than return of post, I would wish you to remain at Merton. 
You are sure I shall lose no time, and it is possible, if I have 
leave, to strike my flag at that same moment that I get 
pratique. I shall not land at Portsmouth. As I wrote you 
before, I think the Superb will carry me, but if a senior 
Admiral comes out, I am subject to his will and pleasure. 
If all our house is not finished it can be done next summer, 
and we shall get through the winter very comfortable I 
have no doubt. Your last letters were to August 27th. You 
write so naturally that I fancy myself almost, not quite, in 
your company, but that will soon be, and I hope you have 
fixed Horatia at Merton. We have had much bad weather, 
and it has disagreed very much with me. I have much to 
say to you, 

'^ Yours, 

"N. & B." 

<• Victory, October 13th, 1804. 

*' My dearest Emma, 
" The dreadful effects of the yellow fever at Gibraltar and 
many parts of Spain, will naturally give you much uneasi- 
ness, till you hear that, thank God, we are entirely free from 
it, and in the most perfect health, not one man being ill in 
the fleet. The cold weather will I hope cure the disorder. 
W^hilst I am writing this letter, a cutter is arrived from 
England with strong indications of a Spanish war. I hope 



428 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL, [ciIAP. IX. 

from my heart that it will not prove one. But, however 
that is^ my die is cast : and long before this time, I expect, 
another Admiral is far on his way to supersede me ; Lord 
Keith, I think, a very likely man. 

" I should for your sake, and for many of our friends, have 
liked an odd hundred thousand pounds ; but never mind. 
If they give me the choice of staying a few months longer, 
it will be very handsome ; and for the sake of others we 
would give up, my dear Emma, very much of our own feli- 
city. If they do not, we shall be happy with each other, 
and with dear Horatia.''^ 

On the 13th Lord Nelson received a secret Admiralty 
letter, inclosing instructions issued to the Honourable Admiral 
Cornwallis to continue the strict blockade of the Port of 
Ferrol, to prevent the escape of the French ships, and to 
oppose any hostile attempts on the part of the Government 
or subjects of Spain against his Majesty's dominions. Lord 
Nelson dispatched his instructions therefore to Captain Sir 
Richard Strachan, Bart, of the Donegal, to proceed immedi- 
ately outside the Straits of Gibraltar, together with the 
Medusa, Amphion, Sophia, and Halcyon. 

Captain Sutton wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 

" Amphion, Plymouth, 
20th October, 1804. 

'^ My dear Lady Hamilton, 
" I am very unexpectedly come to England, having in 
charge one of the Spanish frigates taken otf Cadiz on the 
5 th instant, for the particulars I refer you to Captain Moore's' 
public letter to the Admiralty. They are very valuable, 
having on board nearly one million sterling in specie, besides 
cochineal and other valuable merchandise. I hope it wall 
turn out a good thing for that great and good man Lord 

' Collection of Letters, Vol. ii. p. 79. 

'■^ Captain Graham Moore of the Indefatigable, which with the Medusa, Captain 
Gore ; the Amphion, Captain Sutton ; and the Lively, Captain Hamond, fell in 
with fom- Spanish vessels from South America. Captain Moore resolved to 
detain these vessels, and an action commenced. One was blown up, and the 
remaining three were taken. Spain being at peace with England, at this time, 
great indignation was expressed, and the conflict led to a Spanish war. 



1SG4 ] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 429 

Nelson, as well as for myself. The frigate I was opposed to 
took fire and blew up In action. I could only save one 
officer and forty-four men. Thirteen ladies, passengers from 
South America, were lost in the ship. On the 2nd instant off 
Gibraltar I spoke the Childers, Sir William Bolton, who left 
Lord Nelson on the 22nd of September off Toulon. Bolton 
told me his Lordship meant to leave the fleet in a few days 
afterwards in the Superb for England, so that if this Spanish 
business does not prevent him from quitting the command, 
his arrival may be very shortly looked for. I hope your 
Ladyship has enjoyed good health since I had the pleasure 
of seeing you. I never was better, it could not be other- 
wise with me, for Loi'd Nelson's kindness has been unbounded 
to me. When the Childers left the fleet his Lordship was 
tolerably well. I have no idea of what is to become of the 
Amphion ; but wherever Lord Nelson is employed I hope I 
shall be so happy as to be with him. May I hope for the 
honour of hearing from you, for believe me to be, with great 
respect and regard, 

" Your Ladyship's 
" Most obedient and faithful servant, 

"Samuel Sutton. 

^' Two of the frigates present on this occasion belonged to 
Admiral Cornwallis, the other two to Lord Nelson, so that 
it prevents any dispute as to right to share prize-money.'^ 

Mr. Bulkeley writes : — 

" Pencombe, Bromyard, 20tli October, 1804. 

" A thousand thanks to you, my dear Lady Hamilton, for 
your kind and immediate reply to my last letter. I had just 
sent it off when the post brought me one from my son, and 
one from my most esteemed Nelson, in which he speaks of 
being in England before Christmas. I congratulate you 
on so certain a prospect of a happy meeting, but I join with 
you most sincerely in lamenting (as I am sure you do) the 
cause of his return, and most ardently hope that a few weeks 
quiet at Merton, and the society of those he loves, will 
restore him to vigour of body equal to the ardour of his mind. 



430 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. IX. 

Our country can't spare him, and you know as well as I do, 
that he can experience no wretchedness equal to that which he 
would feel at being compelled to withdraw his arm and most 
gigantic mind from the service of Old England, therefore I 
hope that your care of him (as it has upon other occasions), 
will soon enable him to resume his station, and once more to 
extort clamorous admiration even from those who burst with 
envy, from a consciousness that they can never be put in the 
same page with him. 

" Nelson did right to tell the dirty City Scrubs of their 
neglect. I wish he had got some of those rich Spaniards. 
Mrs. Bulk el ey desires her best compUments to you, and I 
am very truly yours, 

" Richard Bulkeley.'' 

Mr. Davison to the same : — 

" My dear Madam, 

" I was greatly disappointed in not seeing you on Friday, 
and was fearful some accident had happened ; but yovu- letter 
on Saturday explained. 

"The Admiralty could do nothing short of behaving hand- 
somely. If they are not attentive and kind to Lord Nelson, 
to whom should they shew respect ? I hold his character to 
be such as not only to demand civility from every depart- 
ment of Government, but the nicest and most scrupulous 
consideration from every individual in this country. For to 
whom ai'c we all so much indebted as to him — to whom does 
the nation owe so much — to none, so much as to him. And 
I am satisfied in my own mind, whoever is in or out of 
Administration, it will be precisely the same to him, and he 
will be beloved and admired wherever he is. I only now wish 
that he was at home to enjoy the comforts of his own fire- 
side for a few months, and endeavour to regain that health 
which has nearly been destroyed in the service of his country. 
You would read his letter to the Lord Mayor which appeared 
in all the papers, it staggered the high dignitaries in the 
City. The Lord Mayor came to me on receipt of our dear 
Lord's letter. I told him it was such a rebuke as the City 
merited, and such as he could only expect from the pen of 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NEI.SON. 4.31 

such a character as Lord Nelson, who thought more for the 
honour of his officers than for himself. 

" You ask me if our dear friend shares in the prizes taken? 
There can be no doubt of his participating in them, as 
Captains Gore and Sutton were under his orders. I hope 
these prizes never will be given up, but condemned as legal 
capture — which would put a very handsome sum into the 
pocket of our best friend — a week or ten days will determine 
it. 

" The wines, citrons, &c. that came home by the Kent, 
arrived from Portsmouth on Saturday. I have given orders 
for them all to be sent to Merton this morning, which I hope 
you will receive safe. When you are well enough to take an 
airing, a ride even to a prison will do you no harm and me 
much good. 

*' Your very sincere and faithful, 

"A. Davison. 

" ISIonday Morning, 22nd October." 

Understanding that the enemy intended sending three 
privateers from Ajaccio with 100 men to surprise and take 
possession of the town of Madalena, Lord Nelson directed 
Captain George Cocks^ of the bomb vessel Thunder, to pro- 
ceed to the town and anchor in such situation as he might 
deem best calculated to prevent the invasion of the enemy, and 
to render to the governor every assistance in his power. He 
received the following from Prince Charles Felix of Savoy : — 

" Cagliari, 28th October, 1804. 
" My Lord, 
" It is always with the greatest pleasure that I hear of your 
being in the Sardinian waters, I only regret being unable to 
testify my attachment and esteem in such a manner as I should 
wish, and you are entitled to. I shall not fail to inform the 
King, my brother, of the last instructions you have received 
from his Majesty, both for his safety, and that of all our 
family, and also of Sardinia, as well as of the obliging manner 
in which on all occasions you fulfil them, which augments my 

' This officer commanded the Thunder bomb, at the siege of Copenhagen, in 
1807, and received the thanks of Admiral Gambier and Lord Cathcart, for his 
bravery and effective service. He was made Post Captain, Oct. 13, 1807. 



432 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [ctlAI'. IX. 

gratitude to you, and my obligations towards your King, to 
whom I beg you to represent my feelings. I doubt not but 
your pressing statements respecting our pecuniary necessities 
in Sardinia, will produce the desired result in England. 
Meanwhile I rely upon your vigilance and the wise measures 
which you will take for the safety of the country. I beg to 
observe I have not received your letter of the 20th August, 
of which you speak, and assuring you of my sentiments of 
esteem, and of high consideration, I am, your very good 
friend, 

" Charles Felix de Savoye." 

To Lady Hamilton Lord Nelson wrote : — 

" Victory, October 31st, 1804. 

"■ My dearest Emma, 
" Various circumstances make me rather believe that it 
will not be possible to land this letter in Spain, and if it is 
landed, I hardly think it will ever reach Lisbon. However, 
as I never miss an occasion of writing, I take the chance of 
saying a very few words. I have prepared every thing for my 
successor be he who he will, and a few hours will suffice me to 
give him up the cudgels. The fleet is perfection, not one 
man ill of any complaint, a great thing to say in these dread- 
ful times of sickness. I have got Mr. Este's son on board 
— he wants to get to England, but through Spain it is im- 
possible, as no one is allowed to travel from one town to 
another. I purpose sending him vid Gibraltar, if we hear 
more favourable accounts of the fever, and from thence he 
intends to get to Lisbon, and so go home by the packet ; but 
if my superiors comply with my request, I may probably be 
in England sooner than this letter. The French fleet all 
well the 29th. Sir William Bolton is at Malta, therefore I 
have not sent his letter. I have much to tell you on many 
subjects, and what I can tell the great people (you under- 
stand me) will, if I return again, be most useful to them, if not 
too great to hear what I know. God in heaven bless you, 
and send us a meeting at dear Merton. My cough is so 
so. Love to Horatia. 

" Yours, 

«&c. &c. &c." 



1S04.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 433 

" Victory, November, 1804. 
" I yesterday, my dearest Emma, had the happiness of 
receiving your letters of September 16th, 20th, 27th, and 
October 1st. I cannot but think that I shall see you before 
you read this letter ; it goes by way of Lisbon, where I am 
sending Mr, Este, who is very anxious to get to England. 
I have been, you will believe, as attentive to him as I could. 
I am glad that you have had so pleasant a trip into Norfolk. 
That you have made them all happy I have no doubt, but 
you have made yourself poor. I do not believe that Pitt will 
give you a pension any more than Addington who I sup- 
ported to the last moment of his Ministry. There is no 
gratitude in any of them, however if they do not do it I will 
give it you out of Bronte. You will see what effect your 
Queen's letter has through Castelcicala — a very pretty channel. 
She has made Roger Dumas, Commander-in-chief, and some 
other Frenchman something else, against both the King's and 
Acton's consent, but I fear she is ruling not so well as we 
could wish. I did not hear from her by the last vessel from 
Naples ; perhaps she is angry at my ill health and going 
home for a few months to save my life. The china that we 
heard so much about was never ordered. I have very atten- 
tive letters from General Acton, but he has no more the 
Power ; the Queen has got clear of him, and never whilst she 
rules will he be suffered to even enter the kingdom. I send 
you his private letter, his public one goes to Lord Camden. 
Gibbs writes me of the difficulty of settling all my affairs at 
Bronte. He is anxious to remove Mrs. Grasffer, I shall allow 
the £100. a-y ear and have done with her. If she intends to 
go to England, 1 have wrote to Captain Lamb, Agent of 
Transports to find her a passage, which he has promised me 
to do. I shall get nothing from Bronte hut accounts till next 
year's crop, and when I let it the rents will be raised 
one-third at least, and I not benefited till eight years are 
expired. 

" You may tell Davison, and truly, that I have so much 
fever and head-ache, that if I had the King's ransom I could 
not write to him, but remember me kindly to him, and com- 
pliments to Haslewood. Love to Mrs. Cadogan, Charlotte, 
&c. &c." 

VOL. II. 2 F 



434 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [ciIAP. IX. 

To Lady Hamilton, Lord Nelson again writes : — 

" Victory, Nov. 6th, 1804. 

"Although I have wrote you by the Admiralty, yet I will 
not allow Mr. Este to leave me without carrying a line from 
me. I think his father's and his own inclination, will induce 
him to call upon you and deliver this letter. He will be able 
to tell you how 1 am, not very stout, although perhaps not 
very ill. The Kent must have been arrived several days when 
you wrote October 1st. I am momentarily expecting a vessel 
from the Admiralty with either another Admiral, or permis- 
sion or refusal for my return to England. 

'' As Mr. Este is first to go by Lisbon, instead of sharing 
my fate, I have sent the Termagant to land him there, but I 
tell him that he had better stay, for that I shall be in 
England before him, which that God may grant, is the 
fervent prayer of 

" Yours, 

" Nelson and Bronte. 

" I have this day appointed Mr. Westphaling's friend, Mr. 
Roberts, to the Anson, it will most probably be my last act 
of attention during my present command.'' 

The Admiralty issued an order to Lord Nelson on the 31st 
of July : " to hold in readiness, in such port as may be agreed 
upon by you and Mr. Jackson, one of the ships under your 
command, for the purpose of conveying his Sardinian Majesty 
to such port in the Mediterranean as he may appoint ; and 
to adopt such measures for the naval defence of the island of 
Sardinia as may be best calculated for that purpose, and as 
may be consistent with the other services entrusted to your 
care." He dispatched Captain Henry Richardson of the 
Juno to Gaeta, to receive, if necessary, his Majesty, and to 
convey him to any place in the Mediterranean he might 
think proper. Captain Richardson therefore proceeded with 
his dispatches and letters to the King, who transmitted the 
following to Lord Nelson : — 

" My Lord, 
" I received the letter you forwarded to me by Captain 
Richardson of the Juno, who entered this port this morning. 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 435 

It is a fresh proof of the interest taken in and felt for me by 
the King, your master, and also of that which you yourself 
never cease taking. Your sentiments towards me and my 
family excite all my gratitude. The formation of a French 
camp at Velletri has really been discussed ; French troops 
have defiled towards the kingdom of Naples, but the firm 
measures taken by the King of Naples, who has increased 
his army, supported by the declaration of Oubril on quitting 
France, that any new enterprise of the French disturbing the 
peace of Europe, or directly opposed to Russia, or to her 
allies, would be regarded as a declaration of war by Buona- 
parte against Russia, has had an effect, so that 5000 French 
who were marching by Romagna towards this kingdom, have 
had orders to retrograde, and the army of St. Cyr, that 
occupied Fogia, and other places in the interior, have taken 
up their old position so as to avoid a rupture with Russia 
at present. A French regiment of artillery, which was at 
Alexandria and Liguria, has received orders with other troops 
to quit Italy for Toulon. It appears, therefore, that there is 
nothing to fear for this kingdom at present, but they seem 
to have some special object in view at Toulon, where they 
have assembled a large force without any known reason. 
As you are in those seas, I am not at all uneasy as to what 
the French fleet might attempt to do. Your name is dreaded 
as it ought to be in the French Navy, the French will never 
forget Egypt. I have had much conversation about you 
with Captain Richardson, who is a very intelligent man, and 
of great merit apparently, and both myself and the Queen 
are deeply sensible of your solicitude and attention in such 
a critical moment as the present, but not wishing to infringe 
upon it, and seeing no immediate danger, flattering myself 
also that events may in some way place me in a position of 
proving by action the desire I feel to render some service to 
my good friends, and being besides in a strong fortress, well 
provisioned, and commanded by a good soldier, who would 
know how to defend it in case of an attack, and whom I 
could assist in case of need, having already combatted with 
those who might attack it, I have thought it best to remain 
still here, as being more likely to realize my desires, I have, 
therefore, left Captain Richardson at liberty to follow his 

2 F 2 



436 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. IX. 

ulterior orders, reserving the privilege of having recourse 
to you again, should my situation require it. I shall with 
great pleasure take charge of the letter from you for Mr. 
Jackson, brought by Captain Richardson, and I conclude 
by renewing to you my very sincere thanks, as well as those 
of the Queen, and assuring you of the sentiments of esteem 
with which I am, my Lord, 

" Your good friend, 

" V. Emanuel. 

" Gaeta, November 12, 1804." 

Nelson's uncertainty from the dispatches he had received of 
the reality of a war with Spain,^ determined him to proceed 
to Barcelona, where he arrived on the 15th of November, 
and received from Mr. Frere orders for the general seizure of 
all Spanish vessels, whether of war or merchandise. On this 
day he boarded an Imperial ship from Barcelona, having a 
complete regiment going to Minorca, and issued his orders 
to the Captains of the respective vessels of his fleet to take 
or destroy all Spanish ships they might fall in with. He 
wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 

■ When the declaration of war was made against France by the British Govern- 
ment, Holland was included, but not Spain, though this country was at that time 
occupied by French arms. It, however, soon transpired that an armament was 
fitting out in the port of Ferrol, that a large Spanish force was there collecled, 
and that a junction of the French was immediately expected. This intelligence 
induced our Government to send out a Commodore^ with a small squadron to 
intercept four Spanish frigates which were known to be laden with specie, and 
bound for that port from Monte Video. The Commodore selected for this lucra- 
tive mission was Captain Graham Moore (the brother of the celebrated General 
Sir John Moore), who in the Indefatigable of forty-four guns, and three other 
frigates, the Amphion, the Lively, and the Medusa, formed this squadron. The 
Spanish vessels were under the command of Don Jos6 Bustamente, and were 
descried by the British when malting all sail to get into Cadiz bay. Upon being 
hailed, and unsatisfactory answers given, Captain Moore directed a fire upon the 
Spaniards. One of the Spanish vessels, the Mercedes, blew up ; another, La 
Fama, surrendered, as did also the Medea and the Clara. The value of these 
prizes amounted to little short of a million of money. The knowledge of this 
capture excited great commotion at Madi-id, and orders were immediately given 
to make reprisals on English property. This action took place on the 5th of 
October, 1804, and on the 12th of December the King of Spain formally declared 
war against Great Britain. 

* See page 428 note, ante. 



1804.] LOUD VISCOUNT NELSON. 437 

" Victory, November 23rd, 1804. 

^' As all our communication with Spain is at an end, I can 
now only expect to hear by the very slow mode of Admiralty 
vessels, and it is now more than two months since the John 
Bull sailed. I much fear something has been taken ; for 
they never would, I am sure, have kept me so long in the 
dark. However, by management, and a portion of good 
luck, I got the account from Madrid in a much shorter space 
of time than I could have hoped for ; and I have set the 
whole Mediterranean to work, and think the fleet cannot fail 
of being successful ; and if I had had the spare troops at 
Malta at my disposal, Minorca would at this moment have 
had English colours flying. 

" Where is my successor ? I am not a little surprised at 
his not arriving. A Spanish war I thought would have has- 
tened him. Ministers could not have thought that I wanted 
to fly the service, my whole life has proved the contrary ; 
and, if they refuse me now, I shall most certainly leave this 
country in March or April ; for a few months' rest I must 
have, very soon. If I am in my grave, what are the mines 
of Peru to me ! 

^' But to say the truth, I have no idea of killing myself. 
I may, with care, live yet to do good service to the State. 
My cough is very bad, and my side, where I was struck on 
the 14th of February, Ms very much swelled; at times a lump 
as large as my fist, brought on occasionally by violent cough- 
ing ; but I hope and believe my lungs are yet safe. 

'^ Sir William Bolton is just arrived from Malta, I am 
preparing to send him a cruise, where he will have the best 
chance I can give him of making ten thousand pounds. He 
is a very attentive, good young man. I have not heard from 
Naples this age. I have, in fact, no small craft to send for 
news. If I am soon to go home, I shall be with you before 
this letter. As our mieans of communicating are cut off, I 
have only to beg that you will not believe the idle rumours 
of battles, &c. &c. &c. 

" Nelson and Bronte.^'- 

» The battle off Cape St. Vincent. 
* Collection of Letters, Vol. ii. p. 83. 



438 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. IX. 

Vice-Admiral Sir John Orde came out as Commander-in- 
chief of a squadron off Cadiz, which had previously formed a 
portion of Lord Nelson^s command. Nelson wrote to Lady 
Hamilton : — 

"Victory, December 4th, 1804. 

" If any one could have told me that Admiral Campbell 
would have sailed for England before me I should not have 
believed him, but his state of health is come to that crisis, that 
probably his life would be lost if he was kept here even forty- 
eight hours longer, therefore he proceeds this day in the 
Ambuscade, and poor fellow I hope he will arrive safe. I 
have for several months thought that his mind^ was debili- 
tated, but we tried to laugh him out of it. I send you his 
letter when I announced to him, in consequence of his appli- 
cation, that a frigate should carry him to England imme- 
diately. All my things are on board the Superb, and if my 
successor would arrive I could be off in two hours. We have 
reports that Sir John Orde is the man, which has thrown a 
gloom over all the fleet, but I hope unnecessarily, for six years 
upon the shelf, may have taught him a little moderation towards 
officers. I have made up my mind to overwhelm him with 
respect and attention, and to even make an offer, as Admiral 
Campbell has gone home, to serve till the Admiralty can send 
out another Flag-officer. I have wrote to Lord Melville that 
I should make such an offer, and that I entreated him to send 
out a Flag-officer as soon as possible, but I dare say Sir John 
Orde is too great a man to want my poor services, and that he 
will reject them ; be that as it may, you will, I am sure, agree 
with me, that I shall shew my superiority to him by such an 
offer, and the world will see what a sacrifice I am ready to 
make for the service of my King and Country, for what 
greater sacrifice could I make, than serving for a moment 
under Sir John Orde, and giving up for that moment the 
society of all I hold dear in this world. Many here think that 
he is sent out off Cadiz to take a fortune out of my mouth, 
that would be very curious. The late Admiralty directed 
Admiral Cornwallis to send Campbell to cruise at the mouth 
of the Straits, and he took all my sweets, and now this 
Admiralty sends and takes all my golden harvest; it is very 

' See page 336 note, ante. 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NKI,80N. 4.59 

odd — surely I never served faithfully, I have only dreamt 1 
have done my duty to the advantage of my country, but I am 
above them, I feel it, although not one farthing richer than 
when I left England. It is this day seventy-five days since 
my letters were dated in London from the Admiralty. 
Kiss dear Horatia for me, and give my kindest regards to 
Mrs. Cadogan, Charlotte, and all our friends. 

" Yours, 

"Nelson and Bronte." 

From Captain Staines/ Lord Nelson received the follow- 
ing :— 

" Cameleon, Trieste, 5th Dec. 1804. 

" My Lord, 
" I am extremely sorry to say that my visit to the Adriatic 
has not been attended with that success, which I am per- 
fectly persuaded it was your Lordship's good wishes it should 

• Captain Thomas Staines was a native of Kent, born near Margate in 1776, 
and in 1790 entered the Navy as a Midshipman in the Solebay frigate, Captain 
Matthew Squire. He proceeded to the West Indies, and remained there during 
two years, was afterwards in the Mediterranean with Captain Cunningham, and 
at the surrender of Calvi in 1794. In the Victory, with Lord Hood, he was 
at the destruction of L'Alcide, and afterwards mate of signals under Sir John 
Jervis, who made him a Lieutenant in 1796, and was appointed to the Peterel, in 
which he saw much service, and experienced considerable danger off the coast of 
Portugal. In this vessel he was taken prisoner by four Spanish frigates, and very 
ill-treated, but the vessel was fortunately retaken by theArgo. In 1799, in this 
vessel, under the command of Captain Austen, he communicated the intelligence 
to Nelson at Palermo, that the Brest fleet having eluded the vigilance of Lord 
Bridport, had passed the Straits of Gibraltar, and the zeal with which he performed 
this duty insured the regard of Nelson. He became Third Lieutenant of the Fou- 
droyant, the flag-ship of Nelson, in which he assisted in the capture of the 
two French Rear- Admirals, Perree and Decres, on the 15th of February and the 
30th of March, 1800. Lieutenant Staines afterwards served in the Foudroyant 
with Lord Keith to the end of the Egyptian campaign. He received the Order 
of the Crescent. In 1801 he was made Commander of the Romulus, and after- 
wards of the Cameleon, in which vessel, in 1803, he joined Lord Nelson off" Toulon, 
and was sent by him upon a confidential mission. He distinguished himself along 
the coasts of Italy and Provence. He also cruised in the Adriatic, and afterwards 
protected the Levant trade. He was paid off" at Portsmouth in September, 1805, 
and had the honour to dine with Nelson, together with Mr. Canning and Mr. 
George Rose, prior to his departure for his last battle. Captain Staines was made 
Post-Captain in 1806, commanded the Cyane, fought an action with a French 
squadron in the Bay of Naples in June, 1809, prior to which he was in all the ope- 
rations which led to the capitulation of Copenhagen ; afterwards blockaded Zea- 



410 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CHAP. IX. 

be ; but, notwithstanding my failure of making captures, the 
arrival of his Majesty's sloop Cameleon in these seas, in com- 
bination with other circumstances, has certainly tended to rid 
this coast most completely of the numerous French privateers 
which have lately infested it. The Anson and Bittern having been 
in the Adriatic just previous to the Cameleon's arrival, and 
the liberation of the British ship taken by one of the French 
privateers, with costs against the captors, are the circumstances 
which I allude to, independent of the fear which they might 
have entertained of our retaliating by capturing them under 
the same circumstances, in defiance of neutral protection. The 
effect of that combination is not only proved by my not 
having seen, or even having heard, of one of those depreda- 
tors since my arrival in this port, but also by the late arrival 
of the Morgiana, with a convoy for Trieste ; which, although 
it was separated for several days among the small islands, and 
on the coast of Istria (which was most pai'ticularly the scene 
of their depredations), yet they all arrived in safety at this 
port without any annoyance or the least appearance of hostile 
intention. 

" My endeavour has been to search into all the small 
islands, and in every other part wherein I thought it most 
probable they might still be lurking, but all without effect. 
I am perfectly well convinced, however, that your Lordship's 
liberality of sentiment will not for a moment allow my failure 

land, then protected the trade in the Baltic, and was employed on the south coast 
of Spain. In the performance of those and subsequent duties, in which Captain 
Staines was so unfortunate as to lose his left arm, he obtained the marked appro- 
bation of Admiral Martin and Lord Collingwood, and received the honour of 
knighthood, together with permission to wear the Order of St. Ferdinand and 
Merit, which had been conferred on him by the King of Sicily for his conduct in 
his dominions. In 1810 he was appointed to the Hamadryad, went to Newfound- 
land, escorted troops, &c. to the Tagus, cruised on the Irish station, then in the 
Briton, in the Bay of Biscay, during a veiriety of service. In 1813 he sailed for 
the East Indies, convoyed a disabled Indiaman to Rio Jameiro, then went round 
Cape Horn, to Valparaiso. He proceeded to Callao, Paita^, the Gallopagas, and 
Marquesas islands. Returning from the latter to Valparaiso he came upon Pit- 
cairn's island, and thereby ascertained the manner in which the ship Bounty had 
been disposed of. (An account of this may be found in Marshall's Naval Biogra- 
phy, Suppl. Parti, pp. 96 — 104.) He returned to England in 1815, was made 
K.C.B. In 1823 he was appointed to the Superb of 78 guns, and aftenvards 
visited Barbadoes, St. Vincent, Dominica, Bermuda, and Lisbon. He was paid off 
in December, 1825, and died near Margate, July 13, 1830. 



1804.J LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 441 

in this pursuit to be attributed to inertness or deficiency of 
exertion on my part, and I am also well aware of the good 
construction which your Lordship has ever been in the habit 
of putting on circumstances, although wearing the most unfa- 
vourable appearances : but I am still very anxious to have every- 
thing of that nature perfectly undoubted, and much more so, 
to retain your Lordship's good opinion, which constitutes the 
summit of my ambition, and the most effective spur to my 
endeavours. 

'^ I am waiting here, my Lord, since the 29th of November, 
from an application which the Consul has made to me to. 
convoy three English vessels to Venice, which will be ready 
in two days, and from thence I proceed immediately to Malta, 
with the liberated ship under my convoy, she being ready 
laden for that destination. I am to continue in quarantine at 
this place, from having had communication with the island of 
Lissa, and many other parts which are not at this moment 
considered in liberal pratique. 

" The Mareschino which your Lordship expressed a wish 
for, I have procured in four cases of two dozen bottles each, 
the bottle containing about a pint and a half, which I shall 
take the earliest opportunity of forwarding to England. May 
I request your Lordship will do me the honour of pi-esenting 
my best respects to Lady Hamilton, which liberty I am in- 
duced to take from her Ladyship having been a shipmate of 
mine in the Foudroyant. 

" I have the honour to be, 
'' Your Lordship's 
" Most obliged, most obedient, humble servant, 

" T. Staines." 

From Prince Charles Felix : — 

"Cagliari, Dec. 15tb, 1804. 

" My Lord, 
'^ I regret that circumstances have deprived me of the 
pleasure of making your acquaintance, as I should have been 
highly gratified by your intimacy, and by an interview in 
which several important subjects would have been discussed. 
Having met Mr. Scott this morning, and knowing that he 
enjoys your confidence, I have explained to him the disastrous 



442 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cilAP. IX. 

situation of this country, which I do not repeat, as I am per- 
suaded he will lay before you full particulars of our unfortu- 
nate situation. lie assures me, that you wrote urgently to 
your Court upon the subject, in consequence of my communi- 
cations some months back, and I flatter myself that your repre- 
scntatiou'will be attended with success, but I beg you to 
observe, that delay is likely to be equally prejudicial to Eng- 
land, for the occupation of Sardinia by the French will deprive 
her of several advantageous ports for the purpose of watching 
the operations of the enemy from Toulon, and if unfortunately 
she once falls into their power, a reconquest will be very diffi- 
cult, even if twenty times the amount were expended, which 
would now suffice to protect her. As soon as I knew you 
had anchored at Poula, I determined to send Baron Desge- 
nais, Commander in the Royal Navy, to convey to you what 
Mr. Scott will now say. The interest you take in the welfare 
of our family, will induce you, my Lord, I trust, to aid us to 
the extent of your power, and be assured of the gratitude of 
him who subscribes himself truly, 
" My Lord, 

" Your good friend, 

" Charles Felix de Savoye. 
" P.S. — I beg you not to lose sight of Madaleine Island. I 
suspect the French have a project to seize it, either to deprive 
the English of that anchorage, or that they may with more 
facility invade Sardinia. Some light ships cruising there 
would probably suffice to secure it.^' 

" Cagliari, Dec. 26, 1804. 

" My Lord, 
" Up to the present moment I have received no report as 
to the French fleet having been seen from any part of the 
coasts of Sardinia, and consequently am unable to give you 
any information. I hope you will speedily meet it, and 
achieve success to your own satisfaction, and that of him who 
begs to reiterate the assurance of his sentiments, and sub- 
scribes himself, 

" My Lord, 

" Your good friend, 

" Charles Felix de Savoye.'' 

On the 19th December Nelson wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 443 

"Victory, December 19th, 1804. 

" My dearest Emma, 
" Since I wrote you by the Ambuscade, when I was every 
moment expecting the arrival of the great Sir John Orde, I 
have received a letter from him, telling me that he was in 
the chief command of a squadron outside the Straits, ike. &c. 
He has treated my ships a little harshly, but never mind, he 
will get all the money, and your poor Nelson all the hard 
blows. Am I to take this act as a proof of Lord Melville's 
regard for me ? but I submit patiently, but I feel. I have 
not had a scrap of a pen from England ninety days this day, 
it is rather long in these critical times. I send this through 
Mr. Falconet at Naples, and as it will be read by the French, 
and many others, I do not choose to say any thing more than 
I care for all the world knowing. I keep every thing packed 
up, and two hours would finish every thing I can have to do 
with my successor, who must certainly be near at hand ; or 
is Sir John, after he has got riches, to come here and get 
glory ? 1 have certainly much to arrange when I get home, 
and the situation of Mrs. Bolton shall have serious con- 
sideration, but such a place as Tyson's would very soon 
involve Mr. Bolton in difficulties ; however, I will ask, and 
I fear I shall be refused. My cough is still very, very bad, 
and I ought at this moment to have been snug at Merton, 
but I look forward for that day with much pleasure, and 
please God it will arrive soon. You may tell Lord Melville 
that the French fleet was safe the 12th December, but my 
reporter says, that they are certainly embarking troops, but 
I hope to meet them, and to realize the fond wishes of my 
country. 

"Yours, &c. 

" Remember me kindly to all our friends. I wish I could 
be with you all this Christmas, which I fully expected." 

In relation to the appointment of Sir John Orde, which it 
is evident from the preceding letters rankled in Nelson's 
breast, Mr. Coleridge has made some pertinent remarks. 
After beautifully alluding to the love of him entertained by 
the whole fleet, and the unexampled harmony which con- 
stantly reigned among them under circumstances that might 
well have undermined the patience of the best balanced dis- 



444 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. IX. 

positions, much more of men with the impetuous character 
of British sailors, he observes : " Year after year, the same 
dull duties of a wearisome blockade, of doubtful policy — little 
if any opportunity of making prizes ; and a few prizes, which 
accident might throw in the way, of little or no value — and 
when at last the occasion presented itself which would have 
compensated for all, then a disappointment as sudden as it 
was unjust and cruel, and the cup dashed from their lips ; 
add to these trials the sense of enterprises checked by a 
feebleness and timidity elsewhere, not omitting the tiresome- 
ness of the Mediterranean sea, sky, and climate; and the 
unjarring and cheerful spirit of affectionate brotherhood, 
which linked together the hearts of that whole squadron, 
will appear not less wonderful to us than admirable and affect- 
ing. When the resolution was taken of commencing hos- 
tilities against Spain, before any intelligence was sent to 
Lord Nelson, another Admiral, with two or three ships of 
the line, was sent into the INI editerranean, and stationed 
before Cadiz, for the express purpose of intercepting the 
Spanish prizes. The Admiral dispatched on this lucrative 
service save no information to Lord Nelson of his arrival in 
the same sea, and five weeks elapsed before his Lordship 
became acquainted with the circumstance. The prizes thus 
taken were immense. A month or two sufficed to enrich the 
Commander and Officers of this small and highly favoured 
squadron, while to Nelson and his fleet the sense of having 
done their duty, and the consciousness of the glorious services 
which they had performed, wei'e considered, it must be pre- 
sumed, as an abundant remuneration for all their toils and 
long sufferings ! It was, indeed, an unexampled circum- 
stance, that a small squadron should be sent to the station 
which had been long occupied by a large fleet, commanded 
by the darling of the Navy, and the glory of the British 
Empire ; to the station where this fleet had for years been 
wearing away in the most barren, repulsive, and spirit-trying 
service in which the Navy can be employed ! and that this 
minor squadron should be sent independent of, and without 
any communication with the Commander of the former fleet, 
for the express and solitary purpose of stepping between it 
and the Spanish prizes, and as soon as this short and pleasant 
service was performed, of bringing home the unshared booty 



1S04.J LORD VISCOUNT NELSON". 445 

with all possible caution and dispatch. The svhstantial 
advantages of naval service were perhaps deemed of too gross 
a nature for men already rewarded with the grateful affections 
of their own countrymen, and the admiration of the whole 
world ! They were to be awarded, therefore, on a principle 
of compensation, to a Commander less rich in fame, and 
whose laurels, though not scanty, were not yet sufficiently 
luxuriant to hide the golden crown which is the appropriate 
ornament of victory in the bloodless war of commercial cap- 
ture ! Of all the wounds which were ever inflicted on Nelson's 
feelings (and these were not a few) this was the deepest ! this 
rankled most ! ' I had thought,' said the gallant man, in a 
letter written on the first feelings of the affront, ' I fancied — 
but nay, it must have been a dream, an idle dream — yet, I 
confess it, I did fancy, that I had done my country service — 
and thus they use me. It was not enough to have robbed 
me once before of my West India harvest — now they have 
taken away the Spanish — and under what circumstances, 
and with what pointed aggravation ! Yet, if I know my own 
thoughts, it is not for myself, or on my own account chiefly, 
that I feel the sting and the disappointment : no ! it is for 
my brave Officers ; for my noble-minded friends and com- 
manders — such a gallant set of fellows ! such a band of 
brothers ! My heart swells at the thought of them !' "^ 

The Admiralty approved Lord Nelson's recommendation 
of Sir Richard Bickerton's remaining in command of the 
squadron, and on the 25th of December he received the 
dispatches of the date of October 6th. He replied to the 
Admiralty, that the moment another Admiral in the room of 
Admiral Campbell joined the fleet, (unless the enemy's fleet 
should be at sea, when he should not think of quitting his 
command until after the battle), he should avail himself of 
the permission granted him to return to England. 

On the 30th he wrote to Lady Hamilton : — 

" Victory, December 30th, 1804. 

" My dearest Emma, 
*' I received by the Swiftsure your letters to October 29th, 
on your return from your long expedition into Norfolk, on 
Christmas-day, the day I had devoted to spend most happily 

' The Friend, Essay vi, p. 358. 



446 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [ciIAP. IX, 

with 3'ou and our clear adopted Horatia at dear Merton. I 
received the Admiralty's permission to go to England for the- 
re-establishment of my health, and I think that a few months 
may enable me to serve another year, and then, except for an 
expedition, I shall most likely never serve again. The winter 
has been quite different to the last. We have not had a cold 
day, nor near so many gales of wind, but my cough is very 
troublesome, particularly from two in the morning until I 
have had my bi-eakfast ; but a little of your good nursing 
will set me up again. The Niger has been sent home, I 
fear by Sir John Orde, who has not behaved very civil towards 
any of my squadron, therefore I am afraid Mr. Charles 
Connor will lose his kind protector in Captain Hillyar, which 
will be a serious misfortune to him, for he was rated Mid- 
shipman, and forced by Captain Hillyar to study, which he 
was not very fond of. The going home of George Campbell 
has protracted my departure till another Admiral comes out, 
which may very well be in January, then unless the French fleet 
is actually at sea, nothing will keep me two hours. I have 
not heard from Naples for some time, but I hear the French 
are oppressing both the Sovereigns and the people very much. 
I wrote you on the 19th through Mr. Falconet. 

" I have wrote to Lord Melville as strong as possible, and 
in fact have sold myself to him, if he complies with my 
desires for Mr. Bolton, but my dear kind hearted Emma, I 
do not believe he will give me any thing. I only wish I had 
the power myself, and so I might if the station had not been 
taken from me, and given to that great officer who has served 
so much and so well ; but as I have asked favours of Lord 
Melville, I must not grumble. The end of February, or the 
first week in March, I shall certainly be in England in the 
Superb, and I only hope that we shall have a very short 
quarantine, for I shall certainly not communicate with 
Gibraltar, I cannot say what I would wish in this letter, for it 
goes by way of Lisbon in the Admiralty packet, and will be 
smoked, cut, &c. &c. before it gets to you, and I may very 
probably be with you before the letter, which will give inex- 
pressible happiness to 

" Yours, 

"• Nelson and Bronte. 

" Kiss dear Horatia for me." 



1804.] LORD VISCOUNT NEL60X. 447 

At the close of this year Lord Nelson wrote to Lord 
Melville, complaining of the want of frigates in the Mediter- 
ranean, and the following was directed to the Hon. Captain 
Boyle :— ^ 

"Victory, December 30th, 1804. 

" Dear Boyle, 
"I am most exceedingly hurt at your not having joined 
the fleet, as you must know my distress for frigates, and I am 
much displeased with Captain Mowbray for interfering with 
your orders. I sincerely hope this will not find you at 
Gibraltar, but should it unfortunately, I desire you will not 
lose one moment in joining the fleet. 

" Ever yours faithfully, 

"Nelson and Bronte." 

' The Hon. Cotirtenay Boyle was the third son of Edmund Earl of Cork and 
Orrery, born September 3, 1769, and served as a Midshipman under Sir Hyde 
Parker in the Latona frigate. Having received an accident from a fall from the 
booms to the orlop, he was obliged to go on shore for recovery ; he afterwards 
served in the Goliath, and studied in the Naval College at Portsmouth, whence 
he came under the auspices of Nelson in the Boreas in 1784, and went to the 
West Indies. He afterwards served on board the Barfleur, bearing Lord Hood's 
flag, then in the Leander, L'Aquilon, the Vanguard, and the Roebuck. In the 
Revolutionary war he was in the Egmont of 74 guns. Lord Hood appointed 
Lieutenant Boyle to the Fox cutter, and he afterwards was in the Excellent and 
the Saturn. He brought over the Princess Caroline of Brunswick from Cuxhaven, 
and was made Commander, appointed to the Kangaroo, and placed on the Lisbon 
and Irish stations. He was made Post Captain in 1797. In 1799 he was 
appointed to the Cormorant, attended upon the Royal Family at Weymouth, went 
to the Mediterranean, captured a Spanish brig, and retook an English West 
Indiaman. In March, 1800, however, he was so unfortunate as to be wrecked 
off Damietta, when on his way to Alexandria, with dispatches of the ratification 
of the Treaty of El Arish. General Menou treated him in a savage manner, he 
was kept confined three months. Recovering his liberty he joined Sir Sidney 
Smith at Cyprus, whence he proceeded to Minorca, was tried for the loss of his 
ship, and honourably acquitted, it being proved to have arisen from an error in 
the reckoning, occasioned by the incorrectness of the Charts. He remained un- 
employed until 1803, when he was appointed to the Seahorse, and ordered to the 
Mediterranean, where he was placed under the orders of Nelson, who liked him 
much, and in 1787, in a letter to his father, described him as "amiable in the 
truest sense of the word ; and I feel great regret in parting from him. In his 
professional line he is inferior to none: his virtues are superior to most." In 
1805 he exchanged into the Amphitrite, and in 180G to the Royal William. In 
1809 he was made a Commissioner of Transports, and had the conti-ol of the 
Dockyard of Sheerness in 1814 ; subsequently he had a seat at the Navy Board. 
He lived to attain the rank of Vice-Admiral of the Red, was K.C.H. and died in 
May, 1844. 



448 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [ciIAP. X. 

CHAPTER X. 

1805. 

Lady Hamilton received the following account of Nelson 
at the commencement of 1 805 : — 

" Sunday Evening, 6th January, 1805. 

" My dear Madam, 

" I presume you have received letters from your dear 
Lord ; but should that not be the case, I cannot delay a 
moment in acquainting you that he was quite well on the 4th of 
December. His private letter to Lord Melville I have heard 
read, and which gives as good an account of himself as you 
could wish. Admiral Campbell is come home in consequence 
of bad health, and Sir Richard Bickerton is but so, so. Your 
dear Lord says he cannot afford to be ill. I was rejoiced to 
know he was so well, and he writes in great spirits. I had a 
conversation about yourself, and am sure it will afford you 
great satisfaction to know how much Lord Melville interests 
himself in your favour. He tells me he has spoken to Mr. 
Pitt of the propriety of your having a pension settled upon 
you of £500. per annum, and that he will speak to him again 
very shortly about it. 1 asked Lord Melville if I might say 
as much to you. He immediately said, ' Yes, certainly.^ 
He spoke very handsomely of you, and of your services in 
favour of this country when in Naples. It is needless to 
repeat the just compliments he paid to our gallant Nelson, 
who is reinforced with four ships-of-the-line, and now must 
make his fortune. Spain has declared war, and now will here 
be announced publicly, I presume, on Tuesday. 

"Sir John (General) Moore is returned from Portugal, 
and looks better than he did ten years ago. 

" Lord Melville told me that he would dispatch a letter or 
two for the Mediterranean, so that you must immediately set 
to work, and write your dispatches. I shall begin mine to- 
morrow morning. Yours, my dear Madam, 

'• Most faithfully. 

" Alexander Davison." 



1S05.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 449 

At this time Lord Nelson received information from his 
Excellency, Hugh Elliot, Esq. as to the state of affairs at 
Naples. In reply Nelson expresses his satisfaction at the 
spirited part the Queen took in the defence of Naples, and 
hoped she would not be depressed by hearing that the French 
are at sea, as if they never came out she could not enjoy the 
spectacle of a battle in the Bay of Naples. " Nothing/^ he 
added, " shall be wanting on my part to make it superior to 
the Nile, which it may be ; and could any thing add to my 
exertions against the enemy, it would be the additional 
pleasure of knowing that I was fighting for the existence of 
the monarchy of my benefactors. But let who will command 
this fleet, they cannot go wrong : only get close enough."^ 

On the same day, the 13th January, he wrote a secret 
letter to Mr. Elliot, saying, " Sir John Orde brought me out 
my leave to go to England, for the re-establishment of my 
health, and many suppose that, the moment I had passed the 
Straits, he would take upon him the command. Others 
suppose. Sir John Colpoys will be my successor ; and there 
are others that think, I shall return, if my health permits, and 
that my services will continue to be acceptable. However, I 
have kept my permission a profound secret in the fleet. 
Everybody expects that it will come; therefore do not men- 
tion my having received it, to either Captain Sotheron or 
Captain Malcolm, although you may to the King and Queen. 
I do assure you, that nothing has kept me here, but the fear 
for the escape of the French fleet, and that they should get 
to either Naples or Sicily in the short days ; and that when I 
go, I shall leave such instructions with Sir Richard Bickerton 
(who, I am sure, will follow them up) to guard the Two Sici- 
lies, as he would the apple of his eye ; and nothing but grati- 
tude, to those good Sovereigns, could have induced me to 
stay one moment after Sir John Orde's extraordinary com- 
mand, for his general conduct towards me is not such as I 
had a right to expect.^'*^ 

On the following day, he instructed Captain Frank 



' Dispatches and Letters, Vol. vi. p. 317. From an Autograph in the Elliot 
Papers. ^ Ibid. 

VOL. II. 2 G 



450 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [ciIAP. X. 

Sotheron,^ of the Excellent, to hold himself in readiness to 
convey, if necessary, the King, Queen, and Royal family of 
Naples to Palermo, or such other place, as his Majesty 
might choose to proceed to, and to afford protection to 
all who might accompany their Majesties, and the English 
Minister and his suite, as well as to afford protection to 
British property and British subjects. 

The opinion expressed in Mr. Davison's letter, to Lady 
Hamilton, (see ante^ p. 448) of the improvement of Nelson's 
health is confirmed by the following : — 

"Victory, January 14th, 1805. 
" Although, my dearest Emma, I have not heard that Mr. 
Falconet forwarded my other letter of December 19th, yet I 
shall take the chance of another crossing the Continent, just 
to say I am not so unwell as I have been. The French are 
certainly preparing for an expedition. I only fear they will 
defer it till my departure. All our friends at Naples are 
pressing me to stay and save them, and certainly their situa- 
tion becomes every day more critical. The Usurper has 
made most unjust demands upon them, and held out threats, 
but the Queen is firm. I must not go on with this subject, 

' Captain Frank Sotheron, a native of Yorkshire, was born in 17G5, and entered 
the navy at the age of eleven, as a midshipman, in the Bienfaisant, under Admiral 
M'Bride, with whom he remained during six years. He was lent to the Arethusa, 
and was in the action with La Belle Poule, ia 1778, and afterwards in the action 
off Ushant, between Keppel and D'Orvilliers. He was also present at the capture 
of the Caraccas convoy, the defeat of Don Juan de Langara, and the relief of 
Gibraltar, under Sir George Rodney. He was also at the taking of the Comte 
d'Artois, of 64 guns, and the Comtesse d'Artois, a French privateer. The former 
was considered one of the finest vessels of her class in the world, and Mr. 
Sotheron moved with his Commander into her, engaged in watching the Dutch 
squadron, and in the action off the Dogger Bank, and in the captures of the 
Hercules and Mars, two Dutch privateers. He was sent to the Irish coast, and 
then to Newfoundland, where, in 1783, Admiral Campbell made him a Lieutenant. 
In 1792, he was First Lieutenant of the Romney, and afterwards in the Fury. In 
the following year, he was made a Post Captain, and appointed to the Monarch, 
of 74 guns, but moved into the Romney again, and was at Newfoundland. In 
1799, he was in the Latona, sent against the Helder, and then continued in the 
North Sea. In 1802, he went abroad with dispatches, &c. in the Excellent, 
joined Nelson in the Mediterranean, and was entrusted with the defence of the Bay of 
Naples. He was made Rear- Admiral, August 1, 1811. He was promoted to be 
Vice-Admiral, August 12, 1819. He represented Nottinghamshire in Parliament, 
and having arrived at the rank of Admiral of the White, died in February, 1839. 



1805.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 451 

for Lord Nelson insists that I shall put nothing of politics 
in my letter, therefore I can only assure my dear Emma of 
my truest affection and love for you. 

" I shall probably be at home long before this letter, there- 
fore shall only say, God bless and preserve you, for your own 
faithful 

'' J. T."^ 

The anxiety of the King and Queen of Naples for Lord 
Nelson's presence is seen in the following : — 

" Beh'idere, 19th January, 1805. 

" My dear Duke de Bronte, 
" I take advantage of the return of the vessel to reply to 
your letter of the 19th of December last; pleased as I have 
been by all you say to me in it, on the other hand, I am 
grieved to hear that the weakened state of your health renders 
it necessary that you should give up the command of the 
Mediterranean squadron, and return to your country ; and 
particularly at a period, and under circumstances so critical 
for me, my family, and this kingdom, threatened with the 
same unhappy lot which has befallen so many others. A 
repetition of your sentiments is superfluous, since they are 
engraven on my grateful and affectionate heart, and will re- 
main so till death. Every thing will certainly be done to 
sustain the good cause, and to raise up, protect, and defend 
the innocent and oppressed; but it is impossible that I should 
ever find such another true friend as the brave and attached 
Nelson. May God be with you in all your undertakings, 
increasing your glory, and crowning you with the happiness 
and blessings which you merit, and which I desire for you. 
^' Your ever affectionate and grateful friend, 

" Ferdinando B." 

"January 19, 1805. 

^' I have received, my worthy Lord, your letter of Decem- 
ber, and I profit of the departure of the man-of-war to wTite 
to you I cannot express to you, my worthy Admiral, how 
much both the King and I consider your departure from the 
command in the Mediterranean as a real calamity, added to 

' Lord Nelson's fictitious signature. 
2 G 2 



452 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [cHAP. S. 

the misfortunes that already oppress us. Your sensibility, 
your attachment, your great bravery ; your name inspires 
that confidence which expectation had justified. You can 
never be replaced ! Thus I must regard it as a real misfor- 
tune, and should be very happy if this could change, or at 
least retard it. I am convinced the crisis is fast approaching 
that will confirm the indolence of Europe, or great events 
arise. The ambition and immoderate good fortune of the 
Corsican has just created his brother Joseph hereditary King 
of Lombardy, or to speak more truly, its scourge. This must 
awaken the Sovereigns of Europe from their slumber, or con- 
solidate their slavery. It is in these moments of struggle and 
indecision, when our dangers are infinitely increased, that 
our earnest desire is augmented to see you, my worthy and 
respectable friend, fixed near us. Consider, with your usual 
discernment, the present situation of affairs ; above all, consult 
with your own heart, and you will acknowledge the justice of 
my wishes. In a word, my worthy and respectable friend, 
continue to be our saviour, and be assured of the eternal and 
sincere gratitude of those who deserve and feel they ought to 
live in an age different from this degenerate one. The trusty 
Elliot will better explain to you our painful circumstances. 
I confine myself to express our ardent desire that you will 
not quit us, and may you be once more our saviour. I know 
that the King, my innocent family, and all good people, 
prefer the same wishes. May they be realised ! It will aug- 
ment the gratitude with which I am, and ought to be for life, 

your 

"• Much attached and grateful friend, 

" Charlotte." 

The following are copies of Napoleon's communications to 
the King and Queen of Naples, found among Nelson's 
papers : — 

" Sir, my Brother, 
" I reply to the letter of your Majesty. The French troops 
are in the kingdom of Naples, in consequence of the Treaty 
of Florence, and will remain there as long as the affairs of the 
Levant are unsettled; and I must so consider them until 
Malta shall be evacuated by the English, and Corfu by the 



1S05.] LORD VISCOUXT NELSOX. 453 

Russians. Had not those Russian troops been sent to Corfu 
at the special solicitations of your Majesty's Minister, I 
should have diminished the number of the French troops, 
leaving at Tarento only the four or five thousand men neces- 
sary for the occupation of that post; their arrival, on the 
contrary, compelled me to augment the number. If your 
Majesty will permit me to say so, you have been badly coun- 
selled, and follow a system pernicious- to the interests of your 
house. Paris, Madrid, and Vienna, are the real supports of 
your Majesty. Your Majesty is more interested in peace than 
any other Prince. Reject the perfidious counsels with which 
England enthrals you. You have preserved your kingdom 
intact in the midst of the overthrow of social order ; do not 
risk the loss of it now that social order is settled. The world, 
tranquil and pacific for a moment, will perhaps suddenly 
resume its accustomed politics and practice. I have provided 
for the payment of the French troops, which by the Treaty 
of Florence your Majesty engaged to do, wishing by it, to 
give you a proof of my desire to respond, as much as is 
reconcileable with general politics, to the sentiments that you 
express towards me. This said, I pray God to have you, Sir, 
my brother, in his holy keeping. 

" Your good brother. 



" Napoleon. 



Paris (Nivose), January, 1805." 



BUONAPARTE TO THE QUEEN OF NAPLES. 

'' Madam, 
'* Your Majesty's letter has been handed to me by the 
Marquis de Gallo. It is difficult to me to reconcile the 
sentiments it contains with the hostile projects apparently 
entertained at Naples — I have several of your Majesty's 
letters in my hands, which leave no doubt as to your real 
secret intentions. What must be the hatred your Majesty 
bears to France, that after the experience you have had, 
neither your conjugal love, nor your parental, nor love of 
your family, nor subjects, induce you to forbear a little, and 
adopt a policy more conformable with their interests. Is your 
Majesty's mind, so distinguished amongst women, unable 
to divest itself of the prejudices of sex, treating of affairs of 



454 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. X. 

state as if they were matters of the heart. You have ah'eady 
lost your kingdom once, and have twice been the cause of a 
war, which has shaken and ruined your paternal house to its 
foundation — do you wish to be the cause of a third ? Already 
at the solicitations of your Ambassador at St. Petersburg, 
ten thousand Russians have been sent to Corfu. What ! is 
your hatred so vigorous? Is your love for England so uncon- 
trolled, that you would (although certain to be the first 
victim) set the Continent in a blaze, and work a fortunate 
diversion for England? I confess I should admire in some 
degree such strong passions, if the simplest reasoning did 
not make me feel their frivolity and impotence. Your 
nephew, the Emperor of Austria, does not partake these 
sentiments, and does not wish to renew a war, the results of 
which could not be very satisfactory to him ; even Russia, 
who has yielded to the solicitations of your Majesty's 
Minister so much as to send ten thousand men to Corfu, is 
very sensible that war against France would be very different 
from that, and the feelings of Alexander I. are not war- 
like. But supposing that the overthrow of your family and 
throne were effected, and Russia and Austria were on that 
account induced to arm, can your Majesty, who has such a 
good opinion of me, think that I should remain inactive, and 
fall into subjection to my neighbours ? Let your Majesty 
listen to this prophecy without impatience — In the first war 
caused by you, you and your posterity will cease to reign, your 
children will wander, begging in the different countries of 
Europe for assistance for their parents — by an inexplicable 
conduct your Majesty will have caused the ruin of your 
family, which providence and my moderation would have 
preserved to you. Would you thus renounce one of the 
finest kingdoms of the universe ? I should be sorry, how- 
ever, that your Majesty should view my frankness as threats. 
No, if it had entered into my plans to make war upon the 
King of Naples, I should have done it on the entrance of 
the first Russian in Corfu, agreeably to a wary policy, but I 
wish for peace with Naples, with Europe entire, with England 
even, and I do not fear war with any one. I am in a condition 
to make it with whoever provokes me, and to punish the 
Court of Naples without fearing the resentment of any one 



1805.] LORD VISCOUNT NELSON. 455 

whatever. May your Majesty listen to the advice of a good 
brother, recall from St. Petersburg a Minister whose measures 
serve no end but to damage the affairs of Naples, and plunge 
them into imminent danger. Send back M. Elliot, who only 
weaves plots of assassination and excites all the movements 
in Naples. Give your confidence to the head of your house ; 
and I venture to say it, to me, and do not be so much your 
own enemy as to lose a kingdom you have kept in the midst 
of the great confusion in which so many States have perished. 
I do not flatter your Majesty in this letter — it will be dis- 
agreeable, but it is also a proof of my esteem — it is only to 
a person of a strong character and above the common that 
I would give myself the trouble to write such truths. This 
said, I pray God, Madam, my sister and cousin, to have you 
in his holy keeping. 

"Napoleon. 

** Paris Nivose I'an 13. 
January, 1805." 

In the early part of January Lord Nelson was off Toulon. 
On the 12th he was at the Madalena Islands, where on the 
19th, by the Active and Seahorse, he learnt that the French fleet 
had got out of Toulon the day preceding. Nelson conceived 
them to be bound round the south end of Sardinia, and 
resolved to intercept them by proceeding to the southward. 
He received the intelligence of the departure of the French 
fleet at 3 p.m. of the 19th, and by 6 p.m. the whole English 
fleet was at sea. 

M. de la Graviere gives the following testimony to Nelson's 
extraordinary activity and zeal in the pursuit of the French 
fleet at this time : — 

"On January 19th, 1805, Nelson was at anchor in Agin- 
court Roads, when two of his frigates, the Active and Sea- 
horse, appeared at the entrance of the Straits of Bonifacio, 
under a press of sail, with the long expected signal, ' The 
enemy is at sea.^ It was at three o'clock in the afternoon when 
they anchored near the Victory, and at half-past four the 
English fleet was under sail. It becomes dark there about 
five o'clock at that time of the year : the wind was blowing 
strong from the westward, and the fleet could not work to 



456 LIFE OF VICE-ADMIRAL [CIIAP. X, 

windward against it, so that it was necessary to go through one 
of the eastern passages which open into the Tuscan sea. 
Though it was now completely dark, Nelson took the lead in 
the Victory, and resolved to conduct his eleven ships of the 
line between the rocks of Biscia and the north-east extremity 
of Sardinia. This passage, whose breadth does not exceed a 
quarter of a mile, has never since been attempted by any 
fleet. The English squadron cleared it; formed in a single 
line a-head ; each ship shewing a light astern, to guide the 
one which followed."^ 

This generous testimony to Nelson's zeal and determina- 
tion, will be found to agree with what has been stated, and it 
remains to observe, that a heavy gale arrested their progress 
on the 20th, and by the 22nd they had only reached sixteen 
leagues east of Cape Carbonara. Nelson then dispatched 
frigates to Cagliari and St. Pierre, to obtain information of the 
position of the enemy, and another frigate to Sir John Acton 
at Palermo, that Sicily might not be surprised, and that intelli- 
gence might be conveyed to Naples of the movement that 
had been made. He wrote also to Sir Alexander Ball, that 
he might send to every position in which information was 
likely to be obtained : " What would I give to know where 
they are bound to, or to see them ! — the result of the meeting 
I should be a wretch to doubt.'' From the Hon. Captain 
Boyle he learnt that a French frigate had been standing in 
for Pula, but the weather was too thick to enable him to 
perceive the fleet. Nelson therefore thought if Cagliari was 
their object, he should be in time to protect the Sards. 

Off the Island of Serpentari on the 25th, he wrote to Sir 
John Act