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Electrical World 

A Review of Current Progress in Electricity 
and Its Practical Applications 

Volume LXV 

January 2 to June 26, 1915 


239 West 39th St. 


li # 





Entries from the Digest of Current Electrical Literature are indicated by D (/ ' 

shops, '1705 


tra of organic substances in the 
light of the electron theory. By N. P. 
K. J. i 0.) 294 


Comma I son, results, * 1 187 

Danger signals on ash locomotive trolley, 

Emergency cabinet lor electric power sta- 


s and converters, *1307 

Guards "it overhead cranes, *1250 

Lamps show when men enter high-tension 

compartments, 1556 

Xew York subway. Short circuit and burn- 
ing of insulation, 73, 

Protection of flywheels, "1123 


Depreciation : 

\\ . II. I.awton, 1678 
Treatment of by Chicago Commonwealth 

Edison Co., 513 
ing for depreciation. By I. R. Cravath, 
imment, 202; Robert - 

— — Allian Window lighting demon- 

strated free of charge, *558 

Central station. Bv Arthur Williams, 

Cleveland campaign with manufacturers, 

Electric light bills, M694 

Electrical Fourth of July, *1696 

Tan mechanism as window attraction, 

iruary wind 

Fixture display 

rree fans and toasters to 

tford Electric Light Co., Window dis- 
plays, *303 
m <-t advertising by jobbing house, *865 

1 amp and shade demonstrator, '236 

— — Magnet signs save window placard expense, 

— Making us, - windows, M062 
New Year advertisements of Byllesby prop- 
erties, *46 

. "1695 
1 inted matter. Mill.! 

ustomers' bills. '1323 
pi • 1 _mm 

— Pumping window display, Elmira, X. Y., 

"Snowstorm" in show window, 1707 


ka, Km., Appealing to the land- 
lord, 44 

tuffers, 1705 
low display I ll station. 

-ii business) 

i' nrc: 

r. I n 

i , 939 
il i driven. Utility 

itfit, Rnbbins & 

l.ition and 
lightnii '1605 

Arternatit ■ 

.f, caused 

■ land, "22 

American 1 1h~r.i1 Sot ■ 

ing, 54 
American Telephone & Telegraph Co.: 

Annual report, 753 

Stock offered to employees, 53 

Ammeter, P.enford small tubular, 

Ammeter and portable scries transformer, 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., M078 
Amortisseurs. By Karl Schmi-dt (D), 1614. 
Anemometer, hot-wire. By L. V. King, (D.) 

Antennas (See Radiotelegraphy) 

Temperature of the arc and the melting 

of carbon. Review of work by O. 
Lummer. Bv H. Lux, i I).) 293; Com- 
ment. .';; 

In longitudinal magnetic field. Bv R. F. 

Earhart, (1>.) 1303 
Arc lamps: 

Converting shells into containers for nitro- 
gen-filled units, Metropolitan Engrg. 

Electrodes, patent to to II. Ayrton, (D.) 


Half-watt tungsten lamps as substitutes. By 

\ Boje, .Hi 658 
- Motion-picture four-arc lamp, *817 

Statistics. Census returns. 343 

Testing eriuiment for outdoor 


Vs half-watt tungsten. By R. Palmer, 

Arkansas Association of Public Utility Oper- 
ators. Convention, 1437 
Armature, flux distribution determination, By 

niment, 1664 
Armature reaction. By M. De Connich, (D.) 

mer cells, M689 
Ash sifter. Motor-driven, 868 
\-lirs. Specific licit. 1197 

Associated Manufacturers of Electrical Sup- 

Committees membership. 1209 

Governors meeting, Xcw York, 1596 

-Me, ii 621, 821 

n for the Advancement of Science, 
Philadelphia meeting, (DO 54 
Atom model By II - 1426 

Atoms and ions. By 1. I. Thomson, (D.) 

Australia, Electrical imports, (DO 220 
Austria. Central* station troubles in war time. 

Austrian and Hungarian 

ciatio ' > 95 

Automobile battl 

Conn ihcr cells. 

By 1 D 


Automobile batti 1 1 i hai ging 
• i line, M80 

Manufacturing Co., *1075 

-Lr.\. voltage, St. Louis, *437 

. "74S 


II. -Nstcm, 1411 



I 1 \ Hireling. Sill 

Opportunity ' 

P Ken 

. Oppo ■ dustry in 



\utomol. ' 

\utomohilc gear shifter. Culler I funnier. *559 


\iltnmol push button. I 


tungsten. V 



\utomobil ■ 'Hi spin pulley, 

■ nd cut out. *874 

-. Requirements of. By T. 

H. Schoepf and A. L. Broomall, |DJ 
Automobile ring-type horn switch, * 1 745 
Automobile starting device for used cars, Lamb, 

Automobile starting and lighting outfits, Day- 
ton, '488 

, * 1 706 

(int. . Equipment. "1063 

ill Field .v Co., 

1 lev low-priced lightweight vehicle, 

Discussed it X. E, L. A. Convention, 1649 

Electric vehicle service system, 1411 

Experience with pole trucks in Philadelphia, 

t industrial trucks in freight houses, 

Ladder truck, Akron Fire Dept., 1706 

ling efficiency, 1052 




Commercial equipment. By 
Kennedy, 1316; Comment, 

1 Iperating costs, Tabulated, 1318 

Ranch &.- Lang Roadster. "127 

Ranch & Lang, Test runs in Louisville, 


• mplishcd over horse drawn 
. '1063 

Selling on the basis of adaptability. By 

P. D. Wagon..: 

Testing battery jars, 1056 

Automobiles, Gas-electric starting and fighting 

system, General Elec. Co., "1073 
Automobiles, Gasoline-electric, Gait, "358, *870 
Axels, rotating, measuring distortion. By V. 
Vieweg mid A. DO 1616 

Babbitt metal. B> S. I . tuspin, 169 

or, Electric, Electric 

Batten. s. ,i,v. Bright - Co., M072 

age, St. Louis, 

Batlcrv , 

Batteries. Starting and lighting for gas anto- 

Bearings, 423 

'..,11. B> I Kischei llnncn. i D. I 
Bearings. I'-v Andrew 

Bells. Eli 

Hells. Electric, P R, 


'43 J 


1 i an 



[ut i .. 

natanl ratio 

lease efh- 


. i in lur 

forma, lf>24 

.nee brtw 



Boilers: (Continued) 

— I — Hard and suit patches on, 940 

Heat insulation, *1049 

Heating surface a measure of steaming 

ability, Table, 939 

High-voltage alternating-current, Kaiser, 


Leak in settings stopped by paint, 483 

Low-water alarm, Silvis, 111., *221 

Overload capacitv, 1635 

Safety factor, 115 

Salt in boilers indication of other impuri- 
ties. 101 

Scale prevention, 119/ 

Shaking grates of stokers made easy, *735 

Soot blower equipment, *112 

Specifications of the American Society of 

Mechanical Engineers, 97, 114 

Steam heated, to aid quick firing, *1249 

Steam space of return-tubular, 939 

Stopping air leaks, 1039 

Theory, transmission of heat, 1179 

Tube cleaner. Matthews. *432 

Unaccounted for loss. By S. U. Tuspin, 


Water-pipe system cools ash and breaks 

clinkers, *792 

Book reviews: 

A School Electricity. By C. J. L. Wag- 
start, 1119 

A Textbook of Physics. By J. H. Poynt 

ing and Sir J. J. Thomson, 1046 

Advanced Theory of Electricity and Mag- 
netism. Bv' W. S. Franklin and B 
MacNutt, 1248 

American Handbook for Electrical Eng: 

neers. Bv Harold Pender, 220 

Annuaire Pour L' Au 1915. By M. G 

Higourdau, 1120 

Constant Voltage Transmission. By Hei 

bert Bristol Dwight, 1467 

Cours d'Electricite Theorique. By T. I 

Pomey, 38 

Display Window Lighting and the City Beau 

tiful. By F. L. Godinez, 1686 



Coal Mil 


Their Acti. 
By F. I 
tldt, 404 

C. Babstone, 

By Albert S. 

Shearer. 606 
-Electrx Light Fitting 

-Electric Moto 


Morton . 
-Electric Kailw 

Rickey, 1 
-Electric Toy Making for Amateurs. By 

T. O'C. Sloane. 296 
-Elementary Electricity and Magnetism. Bv 

Franklin and MacNutt, 1119 
-Elementarv Mathematical Analysis. Bv C 

S. Slichter. 534 
-Elements of Electricitv. By Wirt Robin 

son, 404 
-Engineering Office Svstems and Methods 

Bv Tnhn P. Davies, 1555 
-Examination of Lubricating Oils. By T. B 

Stillman, 606 
-Experiences in Efficiency. By Benj. A 

Franklin, 16S6 
-Experiments. Bv P. E. Edelman, 296 
-Export Trade Directorv. Bv B. Olnev 

Hough, 1304 
-Financing an Enterprise. Bv Francis Cooper 

-Graphical Determination of Sags and 

Stresses for Overhead Line Construe 

tion. By Cuido Semenza and Marct 

Semenza, 34S 
—Handbook of Machine-Shop Management 

By J. H. Van Deventer, 1178 
— Handhauch der Elektrizitat und des Mag 

netismus, 1248 
-Heat Engineering. Bv Arthu 

Jr., 1248 
—Installations Electriques de Force et 

Lumidre. By Adr. Curchod. 38 
—Installing Efficiencv Methods. By 

Knoeppel, 1686" 
— Konstruktion, Ban und Betrieb von Funk 

eninduktoren. By Ernst Ruhmer, 96, 

-Mechanical World Electrical Pocket Book 

for 1915, 920 
—Mechanical World Pocket Diary and Year 

Book for 1915, 920 
-Merhfach-Telegraphen. Bv A. Kraatz, 296 
-Metal Statistics, 1304 
-Optic Projection. Bv S. H. Gage and H. P. 

Gage, 479 
—Pocket Edition of Diaerams and Complete 

Information for Telegraph Engineers 

and Students. Bv Willis H. Tones, 

—Practical Illumination. By Justus Eck, 296 
—Practical Rate-Making and Appraisement. 

By W. I). Marks, 296 
-Preservation of Structural Timber. Bv H. 

F. Weiss, 992 
-Preventing losses in Factory Power Plants. 

By D. M. Myers, 1178 
-Principles of Electrical Measurements. By 

A. W. Smith, 168 
-Principles of Industrial Organization. By 

Dexter S. Kimball, 1304 
-Public Utilities Reports Annotated. 790 
-Sanitary Refrieeration and Ice Making. Bv 

J. J. Cosgrove, 1119 
-Science and Practice of Management. By 

A. H. Church. 96 
-Standard Wiring for Electric Light and 

Power. By H. C. Cushing, Jr.. 220 

Book- Reviews: (Continued) 

Technical Mechanics. By E. R. Maurer, 

Telegraph Engineering. By Erich Haus- 

mann, 1616 
— ■ — T£l£phonie et les Autres, Moyens d'lnter- 

communication dans l'Industrie des 

Mines et des Chemins de Fer. By P. 

Maurer, 38 
The Art of Estimating the Cost of Work. 

By William B. Ferguson, 1046 
The Boy Electrician. By Alfred P. Mor- 
gan, 1119 
The Electron Theory of Matter. By O. 

W. Richardson, 1248 
Travaux du Laboratoire Central d'Electricite, 


Valve Gears. By C. H. Fessenden, 733 

Welding. By Richard N. Hart, 1178 

Wiring of Finished Buildings. By Terrell 

Croft, 860 
Boring machine, Collapsible hand-operated, 

Henderson, *363 
Boston, Electrical rules of the fire commissioner, 

Boston Edison Electric Illuminating Company, 

Capitalizat'on of welfare improvements 

denied, 903 
Brassware, Dark shelves for, Springfield, Mo., 44 
Brazil, Trade with, 1716 
Bread-pan cleaning and greasing machine, 

Electric, Gottschalk, "306 
Brick factory (See Industrial plants) 
Bridge, Control equipment for lift. *869 
Bridge for measurement of self-induction. By 

D. Owen (D.) 167 
Buffer batteries for alternating-current systems. 

By L. Schroeder, (D.) *788 
Buffing and polishing machine, Electric, At- 

water, *488 
Bullets, Use of Hughes induction balance for 

locating, (D.) *167 
Bureau of Standards, value of specifications to 

industrial concerns, 1269 
Bus supports. Three-way, E. E. E. Co., *489 
Bushing for non-metallic flexible tubing. Metal 

Specialties Co., "358 
Business conditions: 

(Also see Export Trade) 

By W. F. Hickernell, 972 

w tariff law, *972 
ndustry in England. By H. 
-Electrical industry in France, 1443 

-Electrical industr 

of Russia. 

By P. 

(D) 1303, 1465 
Electrical manufacturing business, com- 
ments, 1447 

Financial development of Pacific Gas & Elec. 

Co.. 1669 

Industrial depression. By G. E. Tripp, 11 

Low costs invite construction, comments, 


Need of home markets. Bv G. E. Tripp, 

310, 517; comment, 273; C. L. Mat- 
thews. 517 

Opportunities for manufacturers in Russia. 

Bv Ivan Xarodnv, 973 

Pan-American Financial Conference. 1434 

Political economy and the engineer. By 

G. L. Hoxie, 1549 

Price cutting. By E. N. Hurley, 301 

Public policv questions before the electrical 

industry. By W. W. Freeman, 16 

South America. By Calvert Townley, 1136 

Southern American business and America's 

opportunity. By \V. T. Taylor, 205 

Stabilitv of public utilitv earnings, 883 

Trend of prices and trade, 973 

War orders for electrical manufacturers. 

1210. 1337 

War's effect on regulation of public utilities. 

By X. T. Guernsey, 12 
Butt-welding machines, Toledo electric. *952 
Buzzers, return-call. Holtzer-Cabot Elec. Co., 

Cable circuits, detector. W. N. Matthews S. 
Brother. "1332 

Cable fault localizer, Westinghouse portable, 

Cables (See Wire, wiring and conduit) 

Canada declares its right to forbid the exporta- 
tion of electrical energy, 311 

Canada, electrical year in. By Alan Sullivan. 7 

Canadian Electrical Association, Co-operative 
buying by. 255 

Capitalization of central stations, Census report. 

Capitalization of unproductive improvements, 
Case affecting Boston Edison Company, 
897, 903 

Carbon in the arc. Liquefying. Review of ex- 
periments, by O. Lummer. Bv H. 
Lux. CD.) 293; Comment, 275 

Cars, Single-phase motor cars, Loetschherg Rv., 
(D.) 35 

Census reports: 

Capitalization, 467 

Employees and wages, 600 

Primary power equipment, 215 

Central station business: 

Allentown. Pa.: 

Lehigh Valley Light X Power Co., 
Wiring campaign, 425 

Alliance. O. : 

Making use of "lost business" reports, 

•Indicates illustrated articles. 

tral station business: (Continued) 
-Appliance campaigns, Suggestions. By J. V. 

Guilfoyle, 541; Comment, 540 
-Appliances repair department, Spokane, 

Wash., 233 
-Appliance repair service, 1309 
-Baltimore : 

Consumers' ledger sheets, *304 

Boston Edison Co., New business cam- 
paign, 883 

Flat iron campaign, *233 


ndow displays for holidays, 
loklyn, X. Y.: 
Campaign against private plant 




Keeping industrial motor 
tied, 175 

Percolator campaign, 

Post campaign, *552 
-Brown & Sharpe contract for cen 

tion service, 1338 

Range campaign, 551 
-Campaign to reduce delinquency, *9< 
-Canton, Ohio: 

Increasing electric service, 356 

Cash discount abuses. By J. M 
-Chicago : 

Billing lor small customers, 
Christmas campaign results, 

Cincinnati, Ohio: 

Increasing load of nitrogen 

Kirby, 23 



lamps, 42 


Advertising electricity to manufactur- 
ers, 547 
New business co-operation, 256 
\\ bring campaign in foreign language, 

Wiring of small houses campaign, 811 

-Commercial achievements of Narragansett 
Electric Lighting Co., Methods em- 
ployed, *1311 

-Commercial practices in California. By H. 

B. Pitts, 1409 

-Co-operation with contractors, Brooklyn, 546 

-Co-operative buying, 1309 

—Cost of line extensions. 1191 

-Courtesy to callers in the outer office, 301 

-Credit limits, Basis of establishing, 119 

-Credit to customers, 981 

-Creditman's maxim, 550 

-Dayton, Ohio: 

Service to Federal Building. 741 

-Delivery of bills by messenger and the new 
mail box law, 353 

-Denver, < >1 

Manufacturers assist central station, 

-Development in table decorations, 1692 

-Economy in new-business methods, 385 

-Educational publicity work. Comments, 1097 

-Electric service to Iowa farms. 1127 

-Electric show, Kansas City. By M. T- Rus- 
sell. M693 

-Electric vehicle service svstem. 1411 

-Electrical conditions in the Far West, Com- 
ments, 1500 

-Electrical Fourth of Tuly, *1696 

-Eliminating unwired houses, 1316 

-Employee's personal influence, 1639 

-Essentials of new business development. By 
John Rest, 400 

-Evolution of central station commercial 
man, 1691 

-Farmers spend $400 to get service, 1475 

-Gains in output, *1242; Comments, 1225 

-Handling small consumer in Europe. By H. 
Kiesenmenger, (D.) 1176 

-Hannibal. Mi i. 

Municipal competition in merchandis- 
ing, 120 

-Industrial motor users, Keeping satisfied, 

-Irrigation practice of Wenatchee Valley Gas 
& Electric Co. By A. Gunn, *1560 

-Isolated plant evaluation, 641 

-Japanning ovens, Sales arguments for elec- 
trically heated, 43 

-Kansas City: 

L'se fulness of lamp counter, 356 
Wiring of houses. Special offer, 487 

-Lamp renewal costs, 841 

-Leasing motors. 1324 

-Leavenworth. Kan. : 
Free wiring, 45 

-Lockport, X. V.: 

Service panel for temporary installa- 
tion., *738 

-Louisville, Kv. : 
Gains, 612 
Value of wiring permits, 741 

-Low overhead expenses as shown by a con- 
tractor. W. B. Perry Electric Co., 544; 
Comment, 539 

-Low rates in British central station, (D.) 

-Manager's private data book, 301 

-Manhattan, Kan. : 

Small town distribution and manage- 
ment cost. Data for 1914, *338; 
Comment, 330 

-Mapping prospective customers, 1199 

-Merchandising by central stations. Depart- 
ment store methods. Average profit of 
30 per cent. Bv T. I. Jones, '227; 

C. mment, 225 

-Merchandising electrical appliances. By 

T. V. Guilfoyle, *541 

-Meter showing operatine cost, to sell de- 
vices. New York. *808 



Central station business: (Continued) 

Method of paying salesmen, 1698 

.Method of wiring humbler homes, 1708 


Refund on municipal bills. 119 

Motion pictures to stimulate business, 173 

-service layouts, reparation of, 119 
r service sales methods, "1060 

— New customers through employees, 1323 
New York City: 

Electric Light & Power Co., 
Holiday displays, *117 
Increase in alternating-current serv- 
ice. 568 
New show room, 814 

lippings to extend new business 
field, Brooklyn, N. V.. 118 

Night lamp operation. Inducements for, *558 

Noblesville, Ind.: 

Rural customer problem, M76 

Order blank. Envelopcless. 236 

■ Outlet for shopworn appliances, 1704 

Overhead allowance, 21 per cent, 119 


Co-operation between contractors and 
central station, 174 

Portable cooking table, # 1704 

Portland. ' 

I ounty Light & Power 

Price cutting. By R. S. Hale, 46 

Price cutting. Effect of, 550 

Prospective customers, census, * 1 199 

Providence, R. I.: 

use wiring campaign. Bv E. R. 
Davenport, 388 
Review of 1914, 353 

Purchasing appliances for retail, 1704 

Record system for motors for industrial 

plant, '1190 

Restoring dead services, 1309 

-'Reserve funds for storm losses. By H. S. 

Cooper 1100 

Resem storm losses. By H. S. 

Cooper, 1228 
— — Rio de Janeiro: 

Electric iron given with gas-stove pur- 
chase, 2^3 

Rural applications, 1414 

St. Louis: 

Christmas check to customers. *43 

refunded, 57 
1 nion 1 1" trie Light & Power Co. 
P public policy and its 

results, *470; Comment. 457 

St. Paul. Minn.: 

List of contractors for customers. 484 

Sale of stock to customers, 1487, 1669 

Sa 1 1 

Textile mill contract, 316 

Sales agent-. i I . *237 

Salesmanship, Fine art of, 236 

Salt Lake I 

Franchise situation, 59 

Schenectady. N. V.: 

Repair of heating devices, 552 

Selling arguments, M256 

Selling exhaust steam vs. operating con- 
IMF, 1556 

Selling tlatirons in Birmingham, Ala., 1704 

Selling gas-filled lamp in Nebraska, 1703 

— Selling in irrigation country. 1414 

Selling lamp'Socket appliances in Southern 

i: S fid Kenm 
Selling securities to consumers, Comments. 

Selling shopworn appliances, "1202 

Selling work in North Yakima. Wash.. 1640 

to manufacturers. By II. II. 
Holding, 1231 

Shrcvcport. I a. : 

Free service, 45 


— -in i oblem, 1324 

Small lightil I i of serv- 
ice to I'.v 1. K. Cr.ivath. 148 
Stage craft in elect i I 1. Rus 

■ omments, 969 
bution among wotm 
. 1225 

mtomers, 1646 

en apparatus, Selling small. 

om sweeper campaign, 551 

ii, 117 

. 303 

ig, '7.18 



p • • 

Central station operation: (Continued) 

Ceiling beams marked over equipment, 

Chicago service interruption, 904 

Clamp for jumper cable, "421 

— i leaning fires under boilers, *734 

Coal crusher with motor drive, "42 

Color scheme for identifying 

New York City, "936 
Compact service board, in Bosto 

Building, "1251 

Condensers : 

Advantages of large steam, 104 

Air leakage, Effects of, < 





Old condenser serves 

tsed rating, 113 

Constant pressure at any point on a feeder, 

Apparatus for maintaining, Brooklyn, 
Cooling-water pond and system for city sub- 
station. By F. Buch, *297 

Cost accounting records, 1618 

Cost of steam leak, 1632 

1 langer signals on ash locomotive trolley, 


Dependability, "1255 

Developments in prime movers. By W. F. 

Durand, 19 

Economics of electric railway distribution. 

By H. F. Parshall, (D.) 95 

Economy in small plants. Applicability of 

oil engines, Kansas experience. By G. 
C. Shaad, "923; Comment, 921 

Emergency cabinet for accidents, "1250 

End cell operation, *224 

Feed-water softening compounds, "536 

Feeder cables leading to underground ducts. 

Arrangements ot, New York, "300 
Feeder-end voltages, Apparatus for deter- 
mining, Brooklyn. "300 

Feeder reactors, United Electric Light & 

Power Co., New York. "483 

Fire extinguished in conduit by fans. 40 

Fireroom efficiency. By \V. F. Durand, 19 

Four-bus switching arrangement. Compact, 

Brooklyn, "937 

Fuel, Locomotive cinders for, 399 

Fuel waste detected through the ash-pit, 921 

Fuse blocks as station transformer switches, 

Fuses, Porcelain-clad, high-tension, Brook- 
lyn, "350 

Guards for flywheel, 1356 

Guards for pump pits and equipment, "172 

Heating ot" high-tension galleries. "735 

Heating of water tanks in Winter, 113 

— — High-tension compartment signals, 1556 

Home-made cable rack, M690 

Intake screen unaffected by floods, "861 

I-oad. Division of. between engines, 116 

Load determination in branch distribution 

circuits of direct-current systems. By 
I.. Lewin, (D.J "165 

I.OW water alarm, Silvis, III.. "221 

Machine shop equipment, "1622 

Maps for emergency service, 1186 

Mercury-rectifier tubes. Storing and hand- 
ling, "861 

Motor operation. Card system for, "419 

rs, Duplicate, with separate feeders 

i.m tinuous service, "673 

■ lining i" . . i operating battery, "1558 

Off-peal; schedules and the garage owner, 


— Oil-burniny Seattle, Wash., 

•99; Comment, 98 
1 'il ' ... .oiditions of bear- 

ilers, 414 

Operation, Office and stock-room methods, 

"-I i mi- .iii.l oily waste, Care of, "1556 
I'i.i. tical opet itii g, I list us lion at Boston 
■ t \. E. I 

— Prune movers m Vmerican plants 


'Is. 1690 
Protei itic, oj motot 

i I I m, (D.) 731 

llv F. n. 

I- ion, "352 

n. Automatic device 

for timing, 

lein, Brooklyn, •610 
Re" i motor pulley on belt, 

illation of. Bv 
\ R i 

' g, III . "113 

i : . W II 
Bl I 



■ 1. 1 the public, 
p and small ma- 

King, \uxi1l ii 

lea illustrated 

i i ntral station operation: (Continued) 

Studv of costs for city of Calgarv, "1181; 

Comments, 1180 

Switchboard equipment, Indicating ther- 
mometers, "421 

Temperature records, Automatic, Kansas 

City, "352 

Testing laboratory. Steam apparatus, New 

York, "480 

Three-phase system with storage battery at 

municipal station of Klagenfurt, Aus- 
tria. By W. Von Winkler, (D.) 293 

Training the operating force, 405 

Transformers, Water-cooling oil-immersed. 

By F. Buch, "297 

Valves. Steam, Locking to prevent acci- 
dents, "11 J 

Variability of inspection charges, 1708 

Waterwheel housings, Disposal of condensa- 
tion on, "420 

— — Working cost of operating. By C. A. 
Baker, (D.) 1684 

Central Stations: 

Beautifying surroundings, Chicago Edison 

Co., "941 

Brunots Island, Duquesne Light Company, 

•1289: Comments, 

Brunots Island station. F. Uhlenhant, Jr.. 

CD.) 1553 

Capitalization, Census report, 467 

Cedar Falls plant, Failure of penstocks, 


Cedar Rapids. la., Iowa Railway & Light 

Co. Interconnected service, "150; 
Comment. 147 

City of Havana. By C. W. Ricker, "1233; 

tnents, 1226 

Cleveland, Accident to municipal plant, 129 

Cleveland public lighting plant. *1619 

Cohoes. N. Y., Hydroelectric development, 

■ it, 713 

Dulutfi. Minn., Municipal plant rejected, 


Emporia Railway & Light Co., Description. 


Energy supply on the Rand. Bv B. Price. 

(D.) "1683 

Enlargement of New York Intcrborough 

74th St. Si i.mnicnts, 970 

Extension, South Shields Electricity Works. 

i D.i 155 1 
-Flower bed beautifies interior, Downs, 



tl, ( hemins de fer du 
Mi.l: rt, (D.) 346 

-Great Mi 

• 1 municipal station. Finances. 

Hackney municipal station, (D.) 35 

tensions at the Uster 
Drive, (D.) 16 

Manchester energy supply system, (D.) 

Statistics. (D.) 731 

i no Hydroelectric Power Co., "1599, 

terminal, serving de- 
pot, office building, shops, vards. etc., 
• 1 468 
-Manhattan. Kin.. Actual cost of supplying 
i.imcnt. 330 
s. 953 
-Mount Holly, N C„ Southern Power Co., 
I nehronous motor 
when not under load. I'.v (' V Mers. 
"774; Comment. 770 

ngland stations and the war. By 
Grace plant of I'tah Tower & Light 

I ■ = ! 

R. R . -lJ5o 
buildings a: inn., Elec- 

merit, 203 

Operating statistics. Returns received by 

1 World, 473; Comment. 457 
< hitpnt ot ting stations for 


_ Outputs ot Lire- s i stems. J 

\ ablation 
inetliols By G. H 

' Development: Physical Growth, 

( o|,|- 

Peninsular Power Mountain, 

Mich , Hydroeli • nts Bv 

' \ 

i ighl Co., Re 

constructing station during continuous 
service. Transmission pro! 

I . 

Portland, M and operating 

Plants at Bonn) Eagle, West Buxton 

Portland, Mi I m Prin 

' substation. Operating methods. 


Romford, M relopment. 

i chemical 

' ' . ."5 
■lie City lighting IV 

partmenl Oil-burning sti 


gincs. Kansas experlenci 


n underground 
Henney, (D.) 


Central station operation: (Continued) 

Southern California Edison Co., annual re- 
port, 1032 

Stanley plant problem; Comment, 1592 

Stanislaus power house, * 137 1 

Statistics, 1610; Comment, 1591 

Statistics of census bureau, 93, 215 

Statistics of companies in Atlantic States 

for October, 1914, 92 

Statistics on generating equipment and out- 
put of stations, 291 

Statistics for large stations for 1914, 255 

— Steam reserve. Enlarging Westport Station 

of Consolidated Gas, Electric Light & 
Power Co. of Baltimore. By Jay C. 
Lathrop, *1161; Comments, 1155. 

Sterling 111., Rock River Light & Power Co., 


Trier, Germany, High-tensi 

transmission. By H. 
293; Comment. 274 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 

handling locomotives. Utilizatic 
exhaust steam. Distributing energy 
through tunnels, *646; Comment, 642 

Valuation methods of Pacific Gas & Elec- 
tric Co. By G. H. Throop, 569 

Centrifuge, motor-driven, Shelton Electric Co., 

Chair, Electrically-operated wheel, *433 

Charging receptacles for surface conduit sys- 
tems, Crouse-Hinds, *490 

Charging receptacle, Removable-plate yard, 
Crouse-Hinds, *561 

■Chart for voltage drop of alternating-current 
transmission and distribution lines. By 
H. B. Dwight 159; Comment, 146 

Charts, Wire-gage and pay-roll, Carpenter, *561 


Commission for public utilities suggested, 

273 . 

Chicago Commonwealth Edison Co., Financ- 

ing, 572 

Daylight-saving movement, o 

— — Labor situation investigated by Department 
of Tustice, 497 

Rate increases, 372 

Strike under city partnership franchise; 

Comment, 1591 

Electric-Railway Strike, 1650 

Chimneys, Effective area, 423 

Chime?, electrically operated. Belts & Betts 
ration, *1007 

China, Trade with, 1716 

Circuit breakers : 

Automatic reclosine. Automatic Reclosing 

Circuit Breaker Co., *1134 

Individual protection for motors, *1308 

Oil. Bv G. Roth, (D.) 1246 

Underload, Roller-Smith Co., *1566 

•Civic forum medal for Edison, 1141, 1230 

Cincinnati : 

Valuation, S83, 1717 

Circuit breakers: 

Gray automatic reversed current, *121 


Arc phenomena, construction, rating 
and specifications. Bv K. C. Ran- 
dall, 524 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., M645 

Cities Service Company of Xew York, Annual 
report, 882 

Clamp for jumper cable, *421 


Loom clamp, Machen & Maver, *429 

■Cleveland municipal situation, 752, 882, 955, 1719 

Clip for loom-wiring, Christo, *435 

Clock, electric, Chicago's Lake front, # 1127 


Analyses. Definition, 1197 

Conserving supply. P. S. Thompson, 406 

Crusher with motor drive, *42 

Economical use of. By P. S- Thompson, 

(D.) 346, 422 

Fixed carbon in, 939 

Fuel value, 1470 

Powdered. Use as fuel, (D.) 1246 

Sulphur in, 350 

Supply of Great Britain. (D.) *1552 

Truck, Electrically dumped, *1047 

Coal burning: 

Formation of clinker. By S. V. Tuspin, 


With much slack, 997 

Without smoke, 1047 

Coal drying machine, Link-Belt Co., *1130 
Coal and ash handling: 

Iowa Railway & Light Co., *151 

Coal handling: 

Electrical equipment, *994 

Gravity-telpherage system, *1249 

Locomotives and coal-storage yards at gen- 
erating plant of University of Michi- 
gan, Ann Arbor, 646 

'Coating with metallic spray, Metals Coating 

Co., *1003 

Coefficients of induction. By S. Butter- 
worth, (D.) 1304 

Losses, determination method. By A. 

Hund, *1300; Comments, 1281 

Self-inductance. By R. E. Shawcross and 

R. I. Wells, (D.) *1246 
'Color illumination (See Lighting, Three-color) 
Color-matching outfit, General Electric. *361 
Color matching, white light, 1710 
Criteria. By F. W. Carter, 1028 

Criteria for the quality of. By J. F. H. 

Douglas. -601: Comment. A, 587. 1284 

Commutation : (Continued) 

Location of unbalanced reductance with 

x-ray, *1122 

Poor commutation and causes of. By E. H. 

Martindale, *863 


Care, method of softening mica. 1252 

High-speed construction. Bv C. C. Haw- 
kins, (D.) 990 

Peripheral speed of commutator of rotary 

converter, 940 

With moulded insulation, Diehl, *488 

Concentric wiring (See Wiring) 


Leblanc-Latour-Scherbius. By T. F. Wall, 

(D.) 858 

Compressor for inflating tires, Hartford 
machine Screw Co., "1643 

Compressor, Portable motor-driven, for inflating 
tires, # 872 


Large sized surface condenser, Waterside 

station of New York Edison Co., *124 

Leaks in surface condensers. Finding, 940 

Measuring the losses of condensers. By 

A. Hund, (D.) *294 

Synchronous. By T. Wiener, (D.) 1465 

On 130,000-volt svstem, LTtah. *1451 

Conduction in thin metallic films. Theory of 
mechanism of, and the electrical re- 
sistance of such films. By W. F. G. 
Swann, (D.) 36 

Conduction, metallic, efficiencv of high tempera- 
tures. By By E. F. Northrup, (D) 1614 

Conductivity, Thermal, of tungsten, tantalum 
and carbon, Measurement of. By A. G. 
Worthing, (D.) 295 

Conductivity of the earth. By L. E. Imlay; 
Comment, 514 

Conductors (See Wire, wiring and conduit) 

Conduit (See Wire, wiring and conduit") 

Conduit hushing adapters. Steel City Electric 
Co., *364 

Connect ine block with spring binding post, 
Fahnestock, *360 


Electric Stage Lighting Co., 

Attitude on public 
commissions; Comment, 1663 

Contracts, contracting, contractors and jobbers: 

Advertising for electrical contractor work, 

# 1061 

Broadening the contractor, Louisville, 

Ky., 544 

Business ethics for the electrical jobber. 

By W. E. Robertson, 550 

Checking overhead percentages periodically, 


Competing for appliance business, *1053 

Co-operation with central station: 

Bv T. L. White, 427 
Brooklyn, 546 
California, 1409 

Cost-keeping svstem of George Weiderman 

Electric Co., «797 

Customers' satisfaction versus unit profit, 


Doing business on low overhead expense, 

W. B. Perrv Electric Co.. 544; Com- 
ment, 539 

Estimate and proposal sheets of Contractors* 

\->nciat ; on, 555 

Fixture displav in shons, *1705 

Household-supply business, 796 

— —Interdependence of store and contracting 
business, *1054 

Jobbing house sales efficiency, 550 

Keeping account of productive hours, Bra- 
man Electric Co., Perry. la.. *613 

Labor estimates, Checkine. 554 

License of contractors and wiremen, Massa- 
chusetts bill, 496 

Louisville. Ky., Electrical Clearing House 

Association, 554 

Manufacturers' prices converted to jobbing 

hasis 301 

Price policy, 1310 

Reducing the jobber's losses, 795 

Remove the mystery of electricity, 1051 

Salesroom of Simplex Electric Heating Co., 


— —Secrets of success in merchandising, M637 

Store wins wiring business, 1051 

Success in contracting. By T. F. Ryan, 173 

■ — -The buvers of to-morrow. 1309 

Value of co-operation, 1051 

Value of friendship. 1051 

Win the architect. 1051 

Wiring on the percentage basis, 1052 

Control, section insulators. Westinghouse Elec- 
tric & Manufacturing Co., *1207 


Alternating-current. Bv Arthur Simon, 


Drum controller for steel mill. Industrial 

Controller Co., *305 

Maenet-s witch controllers for cranes. Bv 

H. H. Broughton, (D.) 35 

Steel mill. Bv L S. Riggs. 1195 

By H. F. Stratton, 1195 . 

— — Taigman controller for small "motors, *748 

Converters, rotarv: 

By W. Linke, (D.) 1175 

Historv of in America. By F. D. Newbury, 

(D.) 401 

Loading coils for synchronizing. *997 

Polarity reversal in synchronous. Condi- 
tions brought about when reversing 
switch in field circuit is used. Bv E. R. 
Shepard. *210 

•Indicates illustrated articles. 

Converters, rotary : (Continued) 

Pressure wave, Effect of shape of upon 

operation of rotary converters, (D.) 

Cooking, Electric: 

Advertising method, *1060 

As off-peak load in Iowa, 1128 

Coal mine kitchen, *1455 

Dinner cooked by each guest at table, *354 

Hospital installation, *182 

London conditions. By W. R. Cooper, 859; 

Comment, 842 

Military equipment in London, (D.) 35 

Portable table, *1704 

Practical education in cooking. Equipment 

in University of New Mexico. By 

H. W. Alexander, *232 

School at Poplar Bluff, Mo., *943 

Small electric stoves, General Electric Co., 


Stove, Hughes Electric Heating Co., M078 

Wildwood. Ohio, *738 

Worcester. Mass., in apartment house, 486 

Copper plating. By M. C. Weber, (D.) 1466 

Corona CSee Transmission lines) 

Cost-keeping system for contractors, George 

Weiderman Electric Co., *797 

Magnet-switcb controllers. By H. H. 
Broughton, (D.) 35 
— — -Electric Cleveland Crane & Engineering 

Co., M481 

Jib crane handles transformers, *791 

Trolley, Electric, Northern Engineering, 

Crossing specifications, Overhead, Revision of, 

Current, high-frequencv, measurement. By A. 

Campbell and D. W. Dye, (D.) 1177 
Curtis Publishing Company, Electrical equip- 
ment, # 905; Comment, 898 
Cut-out boxes. Electric Operations Co., *309 

General Electric primary, 121 

Handguard, General Elec. Co., Ltd., *1644 

Thomson Electric Company, *1333 

Cyanamide. By F. S. Washburn, (D) 1303 


Concrete dam at Austin, Tex., *1460 

Denatured electric current. By G. Picnerle, 

(D.) 347 
Depreciation (See Accounting) 
Die castings of copper-base alloy, 815 
Dielectric potential. By George R. Dean, (D.) 

Dielectrics (See also Insulation) 
Diesel engines (See Gas engines) 
Dimmers f See Incandescent lamps) 
Dish washer, Electric: 

Bromley-Merseles, *247 

Domestic Utilities Co., M071 

Door switch for elevators, Electric, *432 
Dredging with electricity, *1544 
Drills, Electric: 

Crane bench drill, *180 

-Operating from bottom upward, Foote-Burt, 


Portable, Black & Decker, *359 

Portable, stand, Standard Electric Tool Co., 


Portable, A. F. Carver & Co., *1478 

Stow, M82 

Temco portable electric, *123 

Drink-mixer. Fulton Bell Co., '1643 

Shelton Electric Company, * 1 71 1 

Dynamo design, space distribution of flux density. 

By Alfred Still, *1679 
Dynamometric ammeter and voltmeter. By J. 

I. D. Ridsdale, (D.) 920 

Edison medal to Dr. Bell, 1141, 1230 

Education, industrial. By C. P. Steinmetz, 1646 

Egg production increased by electric light, 355 

Egg tester, William Rigling Egg Tester & Manu- 
facturing Co., M431 

"Electric dog." By B. F. Meissner, *1115; 
Comments by H. C. Berger, 1450 

Electric light a misnomer, 1663 

Electric Power Club, Annual meeting, 1435 

Electric Vehicle Association of America, Dinner 
to Frank Smith, 495 

Electrical appliances, Mechanical perfection, 1692 

Electrical associations, clearing house. By R. 
K. Sheppard, 1100; by F. B. Crocker, 

Electrical clearing house development, Com- 
ments, 1591 

Electrical code: 

(See National Electric Safety Code, 845. 


Electrical industries in 1914, Statistics for 
America. By T. C. Martin, 3 

Electrical manufacturers, Need of merchant spirit, 

Electrical manufacturers organized, 183 

Electrical precipitation. By F. G. Cottrell, 
\V. W. Strong, A. F. Nesbit and Linn 
Bradley, 527 

Electrical science in 1914, Applied. Bv A. E. 
Kennelly, 4 

Electrical Supply Jobbers' Association: 
Chicago meeting, 1126 

Convention. 749, *823 

Meeting, 1596 



Electrical World: 

Commercial Section, 201, 225 

Medal of honor. 1591 

Power and operating section, 73, 97 

Electrical prosperity week: 

See Electrical Week) 
Electrochemistry in 1914. By E. F. Roeber, 24 
Electrochemistry, organic. CD.) 1118 
Electrode potentials, Electrostatic measurements 

of single, By A. \V. Ewell, (D.) 219 
Responsibilities of owners of underground 

utilities, 736 
Electrolytic damage. No minimum voltage for, 


(Also see Sell 

Calculation of windings. By E. E. George 

and Harold Pender, 529; Comment. 515 
Pull with moving plunger, measurement. 

By B. C. Batchcller, *1037; Comments, 

Electro-medical apparatus, Violet ray electrode, 

n Electric Co., '1569 
Electron tl 
— — Electric conduction in crystals of metallic 

selenium. By F. C. Brown, (D.) 604 

Emission from glowing solids. By F. Hor- 

■i'.) 1554 
Emissi cathode, Investiga- 
tion of. By Frank Horton, (D.) 402 
Electroplating, addition agents. By A. Mutschel- 

D.) 1685 
Electroscope, new type. By J. A. Fleming, (D.) 

Electrostatic intensity on a conducting sphere in 
a uniform field of force. By G. R. 
Dean. (D.) 659 
Electrostatic measurements of single-electrode 
ntials. By A. \\ . Ewefl, (D.) 219 

Timing device. Electric, '52 

Electric, Protective device, Black-Wood 

Mfg. Co., '1079 

Gearless traction. By D. Linquist, 1011 

Empire State Gas & Electric Association: 

Convention, 1267 


Advice to. on bulletin hoards, 611 

Census report on employees, salaries and 

wages, 600 

Cleveland. Distribution of employees' fund, 


Courtesy poster in Atlantic City, 354 

Opportunities for self-improvement, 1617 

— ■ — Prizes to save materials, 1690 

Stock in company, American Telephone & 

Telegraph Co., 53 

Subscribe for Preferred Stock, Pacific Power 

8 Light Co., 1668 

Technical school instruction, Detroit, 315 

Telegraph Company wages, hearing, 1011 

Energy flow in i Mon system. By 

Robert A. Philip. '1035 
Engineering Foundation: 

Inauguration of, 130, 254, '310 

Organization, 1433 

Engine-room report forms, *1624 

Census bureau statistics, 215 

tants. Purpose and calculation of, 424 

Effect of vacuum and steam pressure on 

economy. 979 

Gas, vertical two-stroke Diesel, Southwark 

Foundry & Machine Co. (See also gas 
engines), *1203 
Steam, Effect of back pressure on econ- 
omy. Bj l ll Stevens, "1525 

Steam, Indicator spring selection, 1635 


Place of the engineer in the defense of the 

nation, 496 

Stain neer, 438 

American Institute 
■ is, 494 
Englan I i 

Evaluating the isolated plant. By R. P. Bolton, 

dl Ig-line, for con- 
I, '934 
Exciter*. led, Westingbouse Elec- 

li.icturing Co., "1261 
egenerator, 940 

foreign trade, 1575 
n that is not combination, 385 

' Foreign Trade con- 




I 160 

March. I. VIS 


I, HK8, 

. 1571 
! by war, 1484 

>ririeal business 

Export trade: (Continued) 

Value " Latin-American trade, 


1914 statistics, 458 

Kyes. Effect of light on I Sec Light) 

Condensers. large steam, 104 



-"Buffalo Planoidal," Buffalo Forge Co, '1006 
I irleton Company. Oscillating, "1712 

Ceiling fans, Robbins ft Mvers, "246 

Crocker-Wheeler, "816 

Displavs, Folder of Western Electric Co., 


Emerson small oscillating. »245 

Knai Kg. Co., '1076 

Lindstrom, Smith, "820 

Menominee, M331 

Table fan. '245 

, "820 

Plate adapter. Frank Adam Electric Com- 

panv, "1332 

Robbins & Mvers ceiling, "815 

I i aust fan, "178 

Table. Lindstrom, Smith Company, "1260 

Vacuum Cai Ventilating Co.. '1568 

Vertical and horizontal oscillating motion, 

Allied ll- 

Westingbouse ceiling fans. "308 

Winter use of. By P. W. Gumaer, "229; 

Comment, 226 
Federal Trade Commi 

. 370, 1717 

Appointments, 53. 130, 439 

Attitude on the tariff. 312 

Conferences with. 953 

Duties and responsibilities as a tariff coin- 
mission. |45, 1S4 

Personnel of. 336, 566. 5S5, 622 


Work of. 750 

Feeder protection, British patent. (D.) 294 
Feeders, protective system. (D.) *991: Com- 
ments. o;o 
Feeders, supporting sectionalizing taps. *994 

Circulating system, "1048 

Filter. Reggs, '431 

Softening apparatus, Harrison Safetv Boiler 

. "1006 
Field coils. Heating of. Bv Mac Lean. MacKellar 

and Bcgg. (D.) 603 
Field coils, temperature rise. Bv M. Mac Lean, 
D. L MacKellar and R. S. Begg, (D.) 
Fields, alternating current, damping factors. Bv 

A. Press. ID.) 1044 
Fields rotary, determining rotation. Bv A. 

KleinstUck, (D.) 1044 
Films, electricity for drying, 914 

Capitalization of unproductive improvements, 

897, 903 

Cost and value. Distrinction between. By 

K P.. Miller. 7S2 

Rate of return changes. 1 

Rate of return. Rochester fare case. 585 

Fire alarm : 

Box, Break glass. Edwards. *306 

Motor-driven siren. "251 

System, Autocall Co.. '1005 

Fire detector, American Telephone Fire Alarm 

Fire extit. micallv operated, Tustrite 

Mi. Co '1132 
Fire protei BtS. Bv N. II. 

Daniels, 1196 
Fire prevention in, "54 

. "433 

Flasher, Motorless. Ryan. "51 

Federal Sign System, "1335 

a. '747, "870 

I uring Co . " 1334 

Tel. M134 

Vest-pocket. Lindstrom. Smith Co., *I2>58 

Electrically illuminated, Pittsburgh Electric 

Specialties Co.. '1565 


Peloure. ' 

Stand. Central Flatiion Manufacturing Co., 


with disappearing receptacle, Brvant. 

Flour mill. fs i Nnts.) 

temperature measurement. Bv F T 

, oni 

Flunrrs ■ . fin 1554 


Bursting wheels may cause boiler explosion*. 



f. I I l 
Franklin to Thomas A. 


ing hla currents. 

Bv I 

-I.oeomnti-. ■ fuel, 3°° 

iSrr al.o foul, nil, a. 1. 1 C.n.t 


Furnaces, Electric: 

By T. F. Bailey, (D.) 1466 

Papers before M. E. L. A., 1526 

Relation to central stations, Comments, 1592 

Steel casting manufacture. By G. Muntz, 

(D.) 403 
Fuse block, Transformer. Chemelectric Co.. * 178 

Tester, Bremer ft Lang, '1713 


Fuse-plug receptacle, Detroit Fuse ^ Mfg. 

Co., *1641 

Inclosed type, Chelton Elec. Co., *1004 

Oil-filled, D. & W. Fuse Co.. "1073 

Porcelain-clad, high-tension, Brooklyn, *350 

Refillable. A. F. Damn Co.. "1133 

Refillable, Approval of. Bv W. H. Merrill, 


Refillable, Underwriters passive, 821 

Renewable, Hearing bv Bureau of Standards, 


Galvanic cell which reverses its polarity when 
illuminated. Bv A. A. C. Swinton, (D.) 

D'Arsonval type, Leeds ft Northrup, '873 

Moving coil. By P. E. Klopsteg, (D.) 1177 


Battery-charging equipment, '747 

Constant-potential charging system effects 

saving in Chicago. 
Co-operation between garage and manufac- 
turer, 810 
iperative garage, New York, 553 

Economy in space and cost, Jackson. Mich.. 


New York's co-operative electric, *810 

Off-peak schedules and the garage owner. 331 

Garbage incinerator. (See Refuse destructor) 

Fuel value, 1470 

Permanent, definition, 1197 

trie \ Street Railway Assn. of Okla- 
homa, Convention, 1340 

Gas rate-making. By G. H. Cook, 316; Com- 
ment, 274 

Gas engine magneto. British Thomson-Houston. 

Developments of. Bv W. F. Durand. 20 

Diesel efficiency for steady and fluctuating 

I, "102 

Diesel engine fuel. By H. Schmidt, (D.) 991 

Diesel European repute. By R. 

w Crowley, 665 

Diesel -tvpc engine in the L'nited States. By 

R. W. Crowley. 412; Comment, 405 

Factors hindering production of high rated 

engines, 92 

Fuel cost on small oil engine, 1557 

■ i fuel-oil engine. 
R i; \\ hit. . ' 
Quantity of gas required per kilowatt-hour, 

. pment, * 1047 

Starting small engines, 423 

Incandescent lamps) 
electric lighting outfit, "420 

< V 

Gear for high-tension circuits. Over voltage pro- 

.mbe, i in 35 
Gearing, Inch ar Co.. *1476 
Generating sets, Strom M4S0 
Air-gap flux distribution. Bv Alfred Still, 

Crocker-Wheeler direct-current for Ford 


pment in 
Bv B. G. Lamme, (D.) 476. 
II, (DO 990 
Delta connected, Triple-frequency currents. 

u bipolar at Saulte Ste. Marie, *1559 

Iriver, Universal Motor 

; in\ . " 1262 
— — •Gasoline-engine operated unit. 01 

Heating curve. Method of finding. Bv A 

. *744 
Inherent regulation of alternators Bv VI 

Klein. <D.1 1465 

Linio i. p..ii of high-tension 

.rent machines. Bv A. Scher- 
H ) 04 

Overheating of field coiK 

Parallel operation of alternating-current 

generators driven bv internal combustion 
engines Rj I; 1 Dohl rtj and II C. 

l\ tester. '102 

Polyphase commutatoi machines and their 
application Bv N Shiiitlrwmth. (Di 

• Reactions with earning unbalanced load, 

mi; Comment*. 

I'.oothman. (It.) 

Robbins & Mvers steel frame direct-current. 

Simultaneous operation of three wire gene 

is, 1 If, 

Single phase. By 1 Knrrner. (T> 

Generators: (Continued) 

Sinusoidal voltage curve? from polyphase 

alternators. Bv W. Seeman, (D.) *918; 

Comment, 899 

Statistics of Bureau of Census, 291 

Stresses in rotor bindings. By Arthur 

Morey, (D.) 94 
Transient phenomena in coils with capacity 

between turns. By K. \V. Wagner, 

(D.) *858 

Turbo. By O. Billieux, (D.) 1245 

Ventilation, Pilot lamp indicating, *793 

Westinghouse small belted alternator, *742 

With cycle car engine, Rochester Motors 

Co., M205 
Germany : 
Berlin Elevated Rv., Electrification. By 

Zehme, (D.) 293 
Copper wires. Substitution of iron for, (D.) 

•218; Comment, 202 

Electric industry and the war, (D.) 168 

Electrical organizations. Bv I. \V. White, 

Jr., 486 
Glue pot, Electrically heated, Fearn, *869 
Governors' messages on public utilities, 313, 372, 

Graphite feeder, Steam-pressed-operated. Terre 

Haute, Ind., *936 
Grates. (See Boilers) 

tnstein and Grossman. 

By A. D. Fokker, (D.) 294 
Great Britain: 
Conditions in the electrical industry. By 

P. P. Wheelwright, (D.) 168 
Electrical engineers and the war. Bv 

Thomas Roles, i D.) 38 
Electrical industry in 1914. By Haydn Har- 
rison, 8 
Legislation on electrical matters in 1914, 

(D.) 295 
London and district electricity supply bill, 

(D.) 604 
London electricity supplv, (D.) 218, 533, 

Technical education. Bv R. W. Paul, (D. ) 

Grinder for surfacing ends of arc lamp inner 

globes, *535 
Grinder, Electric: 

Portable, Sun Electrical Co.. Ltd.. *1645 

Robbins & Myers Company, *1336 

Standard internal, *180 

Stow, *182 


Clamps, Rilled brass, »564 

Plate made from scrap material, *609 

Protection of motors, 429 

Wire, combined steel and copper, *610 

Testing device, *995 


Arc-lamp circuits, ""1308 

Device, Spokane, Wash., *936 

Guy anchors, design. By Terrell Croft. *1607 
Gyroscopic compass. Bv F. M. Denton, (D.) 



Hair drier, electric: 

Shelton Elec. Co., *1075 

Victor, *249 

Hall effect in silicon. By O. E. Buckley. (D.) 

Hammer, Electric, Electro-Magnetic Tool Co., 

Hand lamp. Silvered reflector. Delta. *247 
Hand wheels and dials for use with rheostats, 

Ward-Leonard, *306 
Harmonic analysis, Practical. By A. Russell, 

(D.) 605 
Headlamps for mine locomotives, Esterline Co., 


Non-glare lens, Lancaster Lens Co., *1569 

Heat regulators, Minneapolis Heat Regulator 

Co., *142S 
Heaters, Electric: 

Despatch portable. *435 

Pittsburgh water heater, *245 

Portable, Lindstrom, Smith Company, *1071 

Receptacle. Harvey Hubbell, Inc., »1207 

Heating, District: 

Commercial possibilities. 1576 

Locating overload sections. Bv H. A. 

Woodworth. 1123 
Indianapolis. Ind., Flexible svstem. Bv 

H. A. Woodworth, *937 
Winter conditions, Toledo, Ohio. Bv A. C. 

Rogers, 290 
Heating, Electric: 
Appliances, Marketing. Bv S. M. Kennedy, 

Circuit made useless for lighting, ' Italian 

device. By G. Pincherle, (D.) 347 

Economies possible, 226 

Enameling ovens, test. *1702 

Hot water. Sterling Corp., '1568 

Investigation at Stockholm, Sweden. Bv 

C A. Rossander, (D.) 165 
Pad and foot warmer, *432 

"Sun Ray," '250 

Shoe-treeing iron, Fearn Company, '1329 

Heating, temperature schedule. Bv H. A. Wood- 

worth, 997 
Heusler alloys, Thermoelectricity and magneto- 
striction. By L. O. Gr'ondahl, (D.) 95 
Magnetic induction of, at high frequencies. 

Bv H. Fassbender, (D.) 605 
Hickey. Malleable-iron. Pittsburgh. '51 
Hoists and hoisting. Electric: 

Alternatine-current. Bv R. E. Brown, 1195 

General, (D.) 1043 

Hoisting tank to roof with small motor, *866 





Hoists and hoisting, Electr 

Link-Belt Co.. "1206 

Springfield, Mo., Costs, 43 

Tests of large steam hoist. By H. E. 

Spring, (D.) 790 
Horse-power, Relation to the kilowatt. By S. W. 

Stratton. ( D. ) 167 
Hydroelectric developments: 

Austin. Texas, '1460 

Bombay water-power. 

(D) 1302 

Considerations. Bv Henry Flood, Jr., 1267 

Federal legislation, 621 

Investment, Bankers' attitude, 312 

Legislation matters, 54, 131. 184, 496 

Montana power developments. Bv T. D. 

Ryan. 623 

Muscle Shoals project defeated, 312 

Xippashi River plant of the Inawashiro 

Hydroelectric Power Co., *1599, *1671 

-tics of waterpower development. 216 

On the Pacific Coast, *1387; Comment, 1355 

Pacific Cas & Electric Co., 1393 

Pacific Light &- Power Corporation, 

Pacific Power & Light Co.. *1391 

Pittsford Power Co., Chittenden. Vl 

Comment, 1283 
Plants in France. Bv H. Bress 



Portland Railway, Light & Power Co., «1391 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Co.. 

Southern California Edison Co.. *1394 

Southern Sierras Power Company. 1397 

— —Testimony at Washington on water-power 

bill, 54 
Legislation : 

Testimony of S : dney Z. Mitchell. 187: 
Comment. 145 

Water-power rights and the rich, 329 

West Virginia bill. 622 

Hysteresis loops .Determination of. Bv Arle 

Ytterberg, *212: Comment. 202. Bv 

W. X. Fenninger. (D.) 1045 

Ice-cream freezer. Thompson motor-driven. * 

Ice-making (See Refrigeration) 

Idaho, Contest for business in northern. 132 

Hydroelectric Merger Authorized, 1715 

Idaho Public Service Commission: 

Engineer as member of, suggested. 316 

Permits competitic 

Illuminometer. N(S 

*85; Commeni 
Morgan Brooks 

cago, *170 
Illuminating Engineer 

By C. S. 
1 exhibited 

Reddil g. 
in Chi- 

tie Society: 
1 283 




Xew grade of members, 1030 

Steinmetz next president, *1572 

Incandescent lamp fixtures: 

Adam semi-indirect fixture. *564 

— — Adams-Bagnall fixtures for nitrogen filled 
street lamps. *357 

Adjustable clamp. Peerless Lighting Co.. 


Adjustment plugs. Arrow Electric Co., 


Adjustable post fixture. Pittsburgh Lamp, 

Brass & Glass Co., *1334 

Attachment for pull sockets, Empire, *617 

Benjamin pull socket, *360 

Bracket for hotel sample rooms, Bryant, '49 

Bracket for nitrogen-filled lamps. *747 

Cast-metal fixture for gas filled tungsten. 

Herwie Art Shade X- Lamp Co.. *1427 

Clamps for semi-indirect glass bowls, *24S 

Collapsible shade, *875 

Combined smoker cabinet and fixture. Peter- 
son, 249 

-Comb'nation of lamp outlets with warm-air 

diffusers. Evanston, 111.. *45 

Convertible lighting unit. Dale, 490 

Extension attachment, Arrow Electric Co., 


Extens : on swing brackets. General Electric 

I , ! td„ M25S 

Federal socket and shade holder, *562 

Fittings. V. V. Fittings Co., *1565 

— —Fixture for nitrogen lamp. Fares Mfg. 
Co.. '1004 

Fixtures for high efficiency lamps. *1568 

Flush receptacle, Harvey Hubbell, * 1566 

Gas-filled lamps. 203 

Gas-filled unit, *1262 

Glass bowl for nitrogen-filled lamps, 

Lensed, *615 

Hubbell reflector, switch and receptacle, 


Hubbell sockets. '178 

Lamp guards. Electric Service Supplies Co.. 


Lamp cord adjuster. Gowan. *252 

Outdoor bracket, Herwig, *307 

Outdoor fixtures, Central Electric Co.. *308 

Pendant fixture for street lights. Adams- 
Bagnall, '437 

Pettineell-Andrews Co., *244 

Plug, Harvey Hubbell, Inc., '1130 

Portable fixtures with extension arm, *363 

Reading lamp stand, Millar, *249 

Reflectors, Beniamin Electric Co.. M428 

Reflector, Simplex Conduits. Ltd.. '1333 

Reflectors and ventilated hoods for nitrogen- 
filled lamps. Roval. *491 
Semi-indirect unit, Beniamin Electric Manu- 
facturing Co., M336 

•Indicates illustrated articles. 

Incandescent lamp fixtures: (Continued) 

Shade holders, Arrow Electric Co., * 1 64 1 

Shade holder, Harvey Hubbell, Inc., M003, 

Shaving lamp, A. B. Wilson, *1642 

Sign receptacle. Arrow Electric Co., *1257 

Socket, Benjamin Electric Co., *1332 

So* ket and plug attachment, Beniamin Elec- 
tric Co., M257 

Spire portable, *248 

Spiro portable floor fixture, 

Table lamp with interchangeable shades, 

Rockford Light Furniture Co.. *1258 

Weber sockets. *615. *870 

T. C. White Co.. *1336 

Units, Electric Devices Company, 1713 

Workshop standard. General Electric Co., 

Ltd., *1080 
Incandescent lamps: 

Adjustable portable. Aladdin, '746 

Batterv-operated hand-lamp, *47 


Carborundum shunt for series lamps. By 

H. Lux, (D.) *603 

Concentrated-filament, application, 

Cutler-Hammer portable lamp with univer- 
sal joint, 
Dimmers for tungsten lamps. Bv F. E. 

Waller, 469, 526 
Double-filament, gas-filled lamp, H. J. 

Jaeger Co.. *1481 
Electric safety lamo. Bv John George, 

(D.) 1245 
Etching bulbs, Xew- methods, Hartford, 

Fluctuation of light of alternating-current. 

By M. Leblanc, Jr., (D.) 1246 

Garage floor lamp, Morse, *179 


By George Cotton, 1100 

By Evan J. Edwards, 1101 

Changes in details, 1110 

Fixtures for. 203 (See also incandes- 
cent lamp fixtures) 

Integrating sphere for testing, *120 
Gas-filled, Life, *1709 

Life record blanks, *1240 

Oscillograph tests, 1101. 

Photometry. Bv D. H. Tuck, 78 

Studies in Mass. Inst., 1576 

Versus arc lamp for street lighting, 

Half watt tungsten vs. arcs. By R. 

Palmer, (D.) 731; (D.) 1552 

Hand lamp, ilirsch, *362 

Hand lamp, Manhattan battery operated, 

Heating of screw socket lamp holders. Tests 

at National Physical Laboratory. By 

C. C. Paterson, (D.) *532 

Initial current rush of tungsten-lamps. By 

D. C. Black, 1285 

Life test rack and switchboard, Xew York 

City, *40 

Metallic-filament, Rating. Bv S. M. Powell, 

(D.) 1302 

Miner's lamp. General Electric, *563 

Xitrogen-filled (See also gas-filled) 

Automobiles, Yosburgh Miniature Lamp 

Co.. *1077 
Lux 100-watt and 200-watt. *616 
Use in Chicago, * 173 
Use in photography. Bv W. Yoege, 
(D.) '1116 

Overheating of nitrogen-filled lamp. By E. 

J. Edwards, 844 

Patent to I. Langmuir, (D.) 1425 

Rating. Bv F. W. Willcox, (D.) 990 

And designation. Bv E. Solomon, (D.) 

In lumens; Comments, 1099 
Metallic filament lamp. Bv H, Arniag- 
net, (D.) 346; Comment, 331 

Review of the industry of 1914. Bv S. E. 

Doane, 24 

Sales, 1907-1914, '1520 

Signal lamps. By L. Bloch, (D.) 476 

Stage lamp, "Olivette," Sprague, "490 

Statistics, Census returns, 343 

Temperature distribution in filament 

neighborhood of cooling junctio 
A. G. Worthing, (D.) *217 

Test socket, »222 

Therapeutic lamp, X-Radio Thermo Lamp 

Co., *489 

Tungsten. By Paul Eyda 

Chicago regulation as 

filled lamps, 439 
Cleaning-up reactions. 

muir, (D.) 1245 
Duhrssen & Pfaltz, downward light, 

General Electric, *435 
Heterochromatic photometry. Use of 
lamps for. By G. D. Middlekauff 
and J. F. Skogland, (D.) 401 
Initial current rush. By F. E. Austin, 

Life of gas-filled lamps. Determining. 

Patents, Suit for compulsory license for 

British, (D.) 788 
Photography applications. Bv M. Luck- 

iesh, 149 
With f.lament of umbrella type. *820 

Unit of candle-power in white light. By 

C. C. Patterson and B. P. Dudding, 
(D.) 1043 
Versus arc lamps. By H. E. Clifford, 1594 


(D.) 1043 

use of gas- 

By I. Lang- 



Incubator, Electric, Double-deck, Electric Spe- 
cialty Co., '362 

Indexing, electrical engineering subjects, ■ om- 

ments, 1026: Bv Terrell (..roll, 1229; 

E. Wiener, 1229. 

Indian school i 213 

. V.-1 '.. 

f, for 

Baker, (D.) 
By E. T. 

Induction balance, Hughes, L 

bullets (HI, Mor 
Induction coil spam. Bj \\ 

Induction coils. Adjustment 

Jones. U>.) 219 
Induction coils and condensers as protective 

device- '■' > ->' 
Induction regulators: 
Design mid operation of. By G. 11. Lard- 

Inductive interference (See Transmission lmes) 
Industrial Electric Heal '• Plans 

for forming, 

Industrial plants: 

i ii ity in ore handling. 

Boll factory, motor service, '1188 

i quipment, '1315 
Springfield, III., Motor applications, 
•671. T04 

Shaw, electric 

drive, '791 . 

Control of direct-current hoists in iron and 

steel nulls. By G. E. Stoltz and W. O. 

I equipment. By W ■ r. 


Corset factory, Improving motor drive, 


i versus electricity in, 


Cottonseed oil mill, Data on motor appll- 

. '172 

Dire ; ' equipment, 1124 

, ,, in tin mine. By \\ . I-.lsdon- 
D I 1553 
ic service has made excellent show- 

Electricity in building construction, '1068 

Electricity in mining service. Comments, 


Enameling plant, Electrical equipment, * 1702 

Flour mills: . 

mercial Milling Co., Detroit, Mich., 
Electric motor drive. Method of 
interlocking machines for simul- 
■ ration of plant, * 10 1 
Electrification. By E. P. Hollis, (D.) 
402 , .. 

I- Ivantages and objec- 

Hollis, (D.) 476 
Minneapolis. Minn.. Motor equipment, 

Mn drive, 

Furniture store of Paine Furniture Co., 

Class-blowing machines. Induction motor 

drive for, Muncie, Ind.. '171 

Ice house, electric drive, M048 

Individual motor versus group driving. By 

K. Loss. <1>.) 165 

Locomobile power plants of the O. C. Bar- 

bcr .niton, 

Ohio, and ol mcrete Prod- 

ucts Co., Barberton, Ohio, *407; Com- 

lumber mill at Cai I ■ motor 


Lumber mill. World 


— Marble works, motor drive, 1192 

Ne» Com " 

n dton B 

nth, 673 
,ory of W. S. Hicks & 
Individual motor drive, •110 

■.,n by motor, Chicago, 

Portland cement industry, Electric motors 

in. Ill „ 

power in. By 

,.„,,, Publishing Com- 

1 equipment, '905; Com- 
Irive, 1700 

Fuse, 1121 

ll equip 

in build 


driving in. By 
brf Willy 

■1118, nvi 


Insulating materials: (Continued) 

ifive losses in electric fields. By G. L. 

Addenhrooke. (D.) 1118 
Insulating properties of solid dielectrics. By 

II. L. Curtis, (D.I 733 
Insulation : 

"Boro pon i lain," '869 

Electric perforation strength of liquids, 

semi-liquids and solid insulation as 

affected by pressure. By F. lock (D.), 

919; Comment, 897 

Maintenance of line insulation, 586 

— Molded insulation parts, Belden, 491 
Perforation strength of oils as affected by 

pressure. By F. Tock, (D.) 859 
Practical problems. By B. G. Lamme, (D.) 


Borosilicon. Fred M Locke. M429 

Kirchberger lava insulators. *74S 

Pittsburgh large-sized, for wireless 

Selection ol insulators tor high-voltage 

transmission line. Chile Exploration ( o. 

By P. II. Thomas, *30 

Splicing links for pull-socket chains. "432 

Third-rail, Ohio Brass Co., M642 

International Electrical Safety Code: 
Appeal for Criticism By S. W 


Outline, titles, 1103 

Ionization by impact. By Bergen Di 

Ionization by positive rays. By Norman Camp- 
bell, (D.) 1685 
Ionization of air. Bv Leopold .1. Lassalle, (D.) 


Legal: (Continued) 

Company not required to furnish low volt- 
age direct-current for theater, Albany, 

Bj n 

By V Righi. (D.) 1684 
Siemens & flalske Co., 

Ionomagnetic rotation. 
Ionometer, Unn 

(D.) 478 
Ions, New type in air. By T. A. Polio 

Magnetic testing of sheets By J. Sumec, 

CD.) 1177 

Total losses in iron. Bv X. W. McLachlan. 


Cost data. 1404, 1405 

Data, 1407 

Policies and raits in Southern California. 

Bj s. M. Kennedy, M471 

Great Western Power Co., 1406 

Mount Whitney Powei 8 Electric Co.. 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co.. M399 

Pacific Light S Powei i orporation. 

Pacific Power & Light Company. M404 

San Joaquin Lt. & Pwr. Corporation, 

Southern Sierras Power Co.. '1406 
— i — Selling practices, 1414 
I'se of electrical energy on the western 

coast. "1399: western comments, 1354 

B] \ Gu 

Wenatchee Valley, W 


Isolated plant: 

Evaluating th 

A, Rollins 

inc. V 


[apan, Lake In i 

Japanning ovens. Sales arguments for electrical- 

ited, 43 
robbers tors) 

I . Sketch of. •M7 

lovian I 

Jovian Order. Vul.-.-ii, 

Ion St Lambert, 



I rduc effect in 

'. Smith and Alv 

Ihio Court 

<-. Hal- 

I o. 441 
ItM illu.t.air.' 

ervice at loss not compulsory, 
. N. V.. 158 

company not required to 



Dangers, EL_. 

guard against remotely possible, 445 

Difference of one letter in francnise agree- 
ment involves thousands, 757 

Fires caused by defects in consumers' wir- 
ing, company not responsible, Pennsyl- 
vania decision, 260 

-Holding company must keep up property, 


Lease for rights on State property cannot 

be revalued, 190 

Legality of machinery leases. 1486 

Lighting company 'must protect service 

against lighting, Georgia decision, 57 

Massachusetts electricians' licensing bill, 

i = r ; 
Monopolv during good service, California, 


Municipal Light bonds. I Hiio decision, 445 

— Negligence ol company not established, New- 
York. 445 

Rate of return. Rochester tare case, 585 

Re-sale pn. I 

Right of appeal in New Hampshire, 1485 

Right to examine Cleveland plant accounts, 


Shoe machinery 

Utah land case, 502 

Underwriters' approval of installation, 566 


Bright! sed unit, 


For color matching, 1710 

Mechanical equi 11. E. Ives. W. 

W. I obi. nt: and E. F. B 

CD.) 1302 
Production ol light by recombination ot 

ions. D i 919 
Ultra-violet light in its effect on the eye. 

By W E. Burgc. *912; Comment, 

Lighting, Electric: 

By V. 11. Mackinney, I'i 1425 

Automobiles, automatic switch, 

Elec'l Mfg. Co., -1078 
Automobilt ■ ' neral rdec. 

Axial chromatic aberration of the human 

eye. By P. G Nutting, *625 

Baggage room, Kansas City Station, *1708 

Bathroom in private home, "813 

Brightness of intermittent illumination. By 

M. Saltmarsh, (P.) 1465 

-Calculation of illumination. By R. C. Pow- 
ell. "1403; Comment, 1448 

Car illumination. Bj W. G. Gove and L. 

C. I' niiient, 713 

Clock m House, '1000 

Color-matching outfit. I leneral Electric, "361 

Developments during 1914. By P. S. Mil- 



By T. 

R. Cravath, 


Efficiencies of present-day illuminants. 

H. E. Ives. (D.I 1614 
— — Emergence battery relay, 

Factory if]:; 

Faultv illumination injures the eye. By W. 

B. Lancestci 

ine-engine outfit, Lauson-Lawton t o., 

Heal' ■ lighting. 337 

Illuminating ind ideal light. 

B) li 
— Illumination of machinery . 

Improved street lighting in Hot Springs. 

— Improving conditions m municipal buildings. 

Indirect for auditorium. "1070 

Indirect lighting of Philadelphia Church. 

— Motion-picture theatei 

Motion pit tui winking" exit 

lamps, 1062 

Pan.n "1383 

\i S, I omment. 796 

l ..inment, 386 

—RaiU- -ban Pa- 

lo in, I, I lighting. 




II Champion. 

Boat Co.. 

s lamps. *243 

Sidewalk display p 

I K Cravath, 1141 

tacular illumination of Woolworth 

Build '132 



Lighting, Electric: (Continued) 

Status of arc-lamp in street illumination, 


Steel mills. By G. H. Stickney, (D.) 1465 

Studio entrance, Worcester, Mass., *44. 

Three-color illumination, Development of. 

Investigations by M. R. Pevear of Bos- 
ton, *398; Comment, 386 

Train, Dick system simplified. By Emil 

Dick, (D.) 35, 217 

Uninhabited streets, Chicago, 1000 

Units of candle-power in white light. By 

C C. Paterson & B. P. Dudding. (D.) 
1683; Comment, 1664 

Unit of brightness. By P. G. Xutting, 333;- 

H. E. Ives, 460 

Window lighting principles, *813 

Lightning arresters: 

— .... : ■ -volt, Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Co., *1335 

High-voltage, for telephone lines. By E. 

F. Peck, (D.) 920 

- Schweitzer & Conrad automatic resistance 

horn type, *122 

Lightning protection devices. Bv E. K. Scott 
and L. F. Fogartv. (D.) 1426 

Lightning rod. Radio. By B. Scilard, (D.) 295 

Linemen's protectors, *743 

Load determination in branch distribution cir- 
cuits of direct-current systems. Bv L. 
Lewin, (D.) *165 

Load- dispatching system, of Portland Railway, 
Light & Power Company. By R. R. 
Robley, M418 

Load-dispatching system of San Toaquin Light 
i: Power Corpn. By L. J. Moore, 

Locomobile plants in the United St3tes, 556 

Locomobile power plants, American built, of the 
O. C. Barber Mining & Fertilizer Co., 
Canton, Ohio, and of the Barber Con- 
crete Products Co., Barberton, Ohio, 
•407; Comment, 406 

Locomotives, Electric : 

Combination storage-battery and trolley 

mine. General Electric, *252 

Data and figures of equipment of various 

railways. Bv E. E. Seefehlner, (D.) 

Midi Railway, France, (D.) 293 

Mine storage battery locomotive, Kellogg, 

Idaho. By J. W. Gwinn. | 1 1 

Norfolk & Weste'rn R. R., *1456 

Ship towing locomotives on Panama Canal. 

By C. W. Larson, (D.) 533 

Logarithmic decrements of the seconaary of two 
coupled circuits. By Louis Cohen, (D.l 




tension," What 
Lubrication : 
Apparatus for feeding graphite to 


Ball bearings. By A. V. Farr, 9. 

Circulating oil svstem, Vacuum 

Luminous efficiency, determination. 1 

rer, (D.) 1175 

Oil Co., 

t E. Kar- 

Machine shop for power plant, equipment, * 1622 


Performance diagnosis. Lessons of the 

power-time characteristics and value 
of automatic records on analying pro- 
ductive operations, *417 : Comment, 

Power formulas for. Bv A. D. du Bois. 

*928; Comment, 921 " 

Magnetic field of an atom in relation to theorv 
of spectral series. Bv H. S. Allen. 
(D.) 219 

Magnetic flux, Relation to magnetizing current. 
By A. L. Tacklev, (D.) 1118 

Magnetic Particle. By K. T. Compton and E. 
A. Trousdale. (DA 1303 

Magnetic permeability. Effect of temperature 
on. By R. L. Sanford, (D.) 859 

Magnetization curves. Bv T. D. Ball, (D.) 

Magnetization of iron at high flux density with 
alternating-currents. Bv T. S. Nichol- 
son, (D.) 294 

Magnets, permanent, Esterline Co., *1427 

Mail transportation, Cities requiring automo- 
biles for, 566 

Maine public utilities act, 58 

Manhole equipment for pulling cables. *4T 

Manometer for measuring high vacuums, 
Knudsen. Bv .1. W. Woodrow, (D.) 

Manufacturers, Electrical, Organized, 183 

Manufacturers' prices converted to jobbing 
basis, 301 

Maps : 

San Toaqu : n Light & Power Corporation's 

transmission system, *1423 

Transmission svstems around San Fran- 
cisco. *1356 

Massachusetts Board of Gas & Electric Light 
Commissioners on the capitalization of 
unproductive improvements. 897. 903 

Mathematical eauations. Solving. Bv T. Bethe 
nod. (D.) 1426 

Measuring hieh temperatures bv melting o; 
metallic salts, Carl Nehls Alloy Cn. 

Measuring high vacuums with Knudsen abso 
lute manometer. Bv T. W. Woodrow 
(D.) *36 

Measuring low resistances. By F. Wenner and 

E. Weibel, (D.) 168 
Merchandising methods: 

Billing for labor and material only, 740 

Displaying fixtures, A method of, *867 

Guaranteeing sales on a money-back basis. 

By W. N. Matthews, 809 
May-first exodus, Advance preparations for, 


Salesmanship and advertising, 808 

Secrets of success, * 1637 

Shoppers handle appliances displa 

-Signed orde 


very job, St. Paul, 

Soliciting electrical contracting, 808 

Wiring jobs, Handling out-of-town, 866 

— -—(See also Central-station business) 

Mercurv vapor rectifiers, Investigation bv Gen- 
eral Electric Co. By O. Kruh. (.Dj 

Mercurv vapor spectrum in an electric field. 
By C. D. Child. (D.) 36 

Metallic State theory of. By F. A. Lindman, 
(D.) 219 


Accuracy of 10-watt loads, 1634 

Ball bearings for, 115 

Flat- rate controller, Pittsburgh Electric 

Specialties Co., *1478 

Horizontal edgewise, Hickok Electrical In- 
strument Company. *1259 

Induction, (D) 1177; (D.) 1246 

Design of. By W. H. Pratt, (D.) 920 
Ketterer type, (D.) 1119 

Rural meter service. By S. G. Hunter, 

Steam, Biddle, »871 

Steam-heating, Cost of reading and main- 
taining. By II. A. Woodworth, 933 

Switchboard. By G'. Ouaink, (D.) *1044 

Trouble caused bv magnetized metal wall, 

-Variable resistance to motion. By S. Ever- 
shed, i 1>. I 111? 
Mica. Method of softening, 1252 
Milwaukee public utilities, Aldermen seek local 

control, 315 
Bell signals in mines. By T. G. Watts. 

(D.) 295 
Manners Colliery Co., Ilkeston. England, 

Generating plant at mine, (D.) 658 
Protective switch gear. By C. Jones, (D.) 

Sweden, The Luossavaara Kirunavaara 

Company, (DA 918 
Use of electricity. Bv T. H. Rider, (D.) 

Minnesota Electrical Association : 

Convention. v > 

Meeting, 367 

Missouri Public L'tilities Commission. Comment 

on sale of securities, 841 
Montana business conditions, 752 
Motion-picture appliances: 

Phantoscope Mfg. C 

Reels, Apparatus for changing, *744 

Reel. Electric. Northern Sales Co., *l/9 

Studios, Lighting. Bv L. G. Harkness 

Smith, M040 
Motor drives. (See Industrial plants) 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co., *1567 

Battery charging and signal work. Electric 

Specialty Co., *1329 

Electrolytic, Roth Brothers & Co., *1073 

Motion-picture, Westinghouse, * 181 

Small set for charging batteries, Westing- 
house, *50 
Synchronous, versus rotarv converters. Bv 

Hugo Ring, (D.) 35 
Motor plug. Polarized, Harv 

Motor starters: 

Automatic, Alternating current, Allen- 
Bradley Co., *1430 
For induction motors, Fairbanks, Morse & 

Co., M203 
Motors, Electric: 
Adaptability to different 

By D. B. Rushmore. 
Armature of induction 

cuit, Best dii 

Hinnen, (D.) 532 

Calculation of perfor 

motor. By W. V. Lvon, 1168, *1240 

Card record of operation. 419 

Census report on stationarv motors, 399, 

Control, foundries and steel mills. Bv R. 

H. McLain, 1081 
Control, Patent to G. Ellison and M. R. 

H. Mueller. (D.) 1426 

Dental motor for direct-drive, Shelton, *563 

Diminutive motor built bv H. F. Keeler. 

By Adolph Shane. *900 
Direct-current commutating-pole, British 

Thomson-Houston Company, *I257 
Drive for drill press. Reliance Elec. & 

Engineering Co., *1208 
Field coils, Heating of." Bv Maclean. 

Mackellar and Besg, (D.) 603 

Flour mill sizes. By T. E. Simpers. 418 

Fractional horsepower: 

Alternating-cuirent, Reynolds. *564 

Diehl, *436 

Tvpes of, for different services. By 
Bernard Lester, 938: Comment, 922 

'Ground protecting device, *429 

—Induction, Disconnecting. Bv R. Rueden- 

berg. (DA '1425 

"Indicates illustrated articles. 

Hubbell. Inc.. 

classes of work. 

lotors, Short-cir- 
By J. Fischer- 

of induction 

Motors, Electric: (Continued) 

Industrial applications. By H. B. Barnes, 

(D.) 1246 

Kimble adjustable-speed single- phase, *619 

Knapp general utility, *815 

Magnetic held of the three-phase induc- 
tion motor. By F. T. Chapman, (D.) 

Mine hauling. General Electric, *125 

Polarity tester, *102 

Printing press alternating-current, Ameri- 
can, *308 

Railway, Calculation of characteristics and 

capacity required. By S. V. Cooper, 
(D.) 402 

Railway motor design. By R. E. Hell- 

mund, (D.) 731 

Resistors with negative temperature resist- 

ence coefficient for rotor a of induction 
motors, Patent of Mascarini and Con- 
tardi, (D.) 603 

Single-phase series. Bv Robert Moser, 

(D.) 1043 

Small. Bodine Elec. Co., *1003 

Horsepower ratings, 1436 
Knapp Elec. & Novelty Co., *1006 
Marketing. By S. M. Kennedy, 1412 
Requirements. Bv E. F. Henry, 1284 
Robbins & Meyers Co., M075 
Single-phase, Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. 
Co., M076 

Speed reduction of induction motors. By 

A. Winkler. (D.) 165 

Squirrel-cage and wound- rotor, Companion 

of, 822 

Starting and operating characteristics of 

single-phase motors, *433 

Textile mill motors, Crocker-Wheeler. *309 

Westinghouse slip-ring induction, *357 

Wire and starting-fuse sizes for induction 

motor service, 609 

Municipal ownership: 

Analvsis and reviews by municipal opera- 
tion in Pasadena. Cal., 1171 

Cleveland, Developments, 622 

Cleveland plant developments, 1647 

Cleveland plant. Report, 1010 

Committee report N. E. L. A. convention, 


Cost of combination electric service. City 

of Calgary, *1181 

Duluth. Minn., Municipal plant rejected, 


Emporia plant leased to private corporation, 


Memphis Plant, Examination, 1140-1717 

Movements, Grand Rapids, Mich., 1140 

Operation of plants m Oklahoma. By H. 

V. Bozell, 1573 

Saginaw. Mich., Reports on controversy, 57 

Statistics of municipal plants, Census re- 
port, 161: Comment. 145 

Spokane rejects, 1490 

Watertown, N. V., 954 

Nail-Packing Machine, A. T. Otto & Sons. '1714 
National Association of Electrical Inspectors, 

Convention, S24 
National Association of Manufacturers of Elec- 
trical Supplies, 365 
National District Heatinc Association, Conven- 
tion, 1576 
National Electric Light Association: 

Accounting committees, 312 

Accounting section : 

Organization, 184 

By H. M. Edwards. 498: Comment, 
457; L. M. Wallace. 644 

Commercial section : 

Meeting of executive committee, 500 
Executive committee meeting, 880 

Committee work. 641 

Company section work, Plan to improve, 


Constructive work before the association. 

By H. H. Scott, 5; Comment, 1 

Convention : 

Accident, Prevention committee report, 

Analvsis of water-wheel governor ef- 
fort. By E. D. Searing. M513 
Analytical accounting by central station 
companies. Bv O. B. Coldwell, 
Application of diversity factor. By H. 

B. Gear, *1515 
Commercial application of resistance 
furnaces. By C. W. Bartlett, 1526 
Company section committee. report, 

Plans, 314, 440 

Report, 1502; Comments, 1499. 
Demonstration of a power sale. Bv C. 

H. Stevens, *1525 
Education of salesmen. Committee re- 
port, 1528 
Electric furnace power loads. By F. 

T. Snyder, 1527 
Electric vehicle and control station. 
By T. F. Gilchrist and A. T. Mar- 
shall. 1524 
Electric vehicle topics, 1649 
Electrical apparatus report, * 15 1 7 
Electrification of main-line railroads, 

report, 1518 
Grounding secondaries committee, re- 
port. 1520 

National Electric Light Association: (Continued) 
High-tension apparatus, sub-committee 

report, 1518 
High-tension sub-committee rcpurt, 1518 
Hydroelectric and transmission com- 
mittee report, 1517 
Hydroelectric development in the West. 

By P. M. Downing, 1514 
Lamps commuter, report, "1520 
Merchandizing port, *1 522 

Meters committee, report, *1530 
Municipal regulation of public utilities. 

Oil-burni plants. B. C. H. 

. 1514 

ruction committee 
t , 1517 

bureau, report, 1526 
in high-head hydraulic plants. 
P tallyman, 1513 
President Scott, address, 1502; Com- 
ment, 1499 

iiiittee, report, 1516 
Public policy committee on state regu- 
lation, 1597 
Public policy committee report, 1510; 

Comment, 1500 
Public utility accounting. By I.. R. 

Public utility regulation in California. 

en, 1512 
Publications committee, report. 152') 
Rate research committee, report, 1527 
Return of Delegates from Convention 
Tours. »1716 

for Electrical Development, by 
J. M. Wakeman, 1530 
Stassano arc-furnace operation at Re- 
dondo, Ca. Bv W. M. McKnight, 
Street lighting committee, report, * 1 52 1 
Terminology committee, report, 1534 

development in 
the West, report, 1526 
Underground construction 

report, "1519 
L'niform system of accounts committee, 

report. 1531 
Wiring existing buildings committee, 

Workmen's compensation insurance. 
By V G. i .1 533 

Executive committee. Meeting, 186 

New England section, Boston meeting, 786, 


Overhead crossing specifications, Revision 

of, 769 

Prime mover committee, Economizer figures, 


Public policy, Comments, 1353 

Public policy committee. Meeting. 740 

Rate-research committee, Comments, 1591 

Report of standardizing plugs and recep- 

San Francisco convention building, 750 

Wiring committee, Meeting, 570 

National Elei I I 

— Changes suggested by Nation I Pro 

tecli" ,501 

sis. 878 


National Electrical Safety Code; 

By Carl M. H 

Description of Code for station. Inns, equip- 



ment and operatii 

Proposed rules formulated by tbi 

I: Rosa, 845 
National Electrical Contractors Association: 

Estimate ami proposed shc.-t>. 555 

National electrical week: 

Approved bv Society for 

ooment. 404, 570 
Districts, Map, •1649 

I \ Britton I " I 'ark. < >. B 

I. Tail. Robert 

rurner, 388; W. 


I Gibbs, \rlliur Wil 

[.. LB \\ Menden 

R. Call,,,- ,y, I C Mcl |u ton, I Free 

. ,,. 877 

tion, St I ouis. 
New Yoi 



Vnnual re 


Nitric acid and nitrates. Manufacture of from 

air. By E. ' DO 403 

Nitrogen, atmospheric, fixation of: 

By W. S. Lan.lis, (D.) 1176 

I D.) 605 

By L. I.. Summers. 1109 

Bv F. S. Washburn, 1109 

By E. Weinwurm, (D.) 403 

Cyanamide processes. Bv F. B. Washburn, 

Electrical processes. By L. I.. Summers, 

Nomenclature and symbols, British report, (D.) 

Northern White I edar \~- 

li, n. 369 

Office buildings, Hartfoi i ,ght Co., 

1 equipment and efficient fea- 
tures. *206; Commen 

Association, Convention, 

Ohmmeter with several scales. Bv H. A. W. 

Klinehemer. I 
Oil : 

Filter. Richardson-Phenix Co., *1130 

Fuel value. 1470 

Selection for engines, 1618 

Transformer. Bj I S I awson, (D.) 1175 

Transformer and switch oil, Report of 

British Institution of Electrical Engi- 
neers. (D.J *345 

Transformer. Life record. 

Oil-engines. I See gas engines) 


Mercury-vapor tube. Bv B. I 

(D.I 1045 
Portable high-frei|u, Electric 

i ,,.. 

National, '873 
For concrete work. Steel, City Electric Co., 

For flexible Hug Foundry & 


Sprague. ' 

Ovens, El 

For baking varnish. Dispatch Mfg. Co., 


For glowing-coil stoves, "1711 

The;:, tests ol B) A. E. 

Kennellv. F. D. Everett and A. A. 

Prior, I , 'it, 771 

,'H,,n (See 1 ransn ,~sion lines 

and overhi I uction ) 

Oxygen gas. Manufacture at Kansas City. 216. 

Panama Canal, Electric towing system, "288 
Panama-Pacilc exposition: 

Civic auditorium, *3I3 

Electricity, at, 

Home electrical. ■ 

Illumination, •1383; Comments, 1353 

Illumination L Bayh 

•391; Comment, 386 

International jury, membership, 1209 

— Tury of Awards. M484 
lighting system, 132 



Sui .-.513 

controlling batter) of washing ma- 
oh, "620 


— Faili m, 824 

Peanut r tl ,,-, Rtng- 


. 1287 
-Memorial Services,. 1717 

of powet . 11: 
ilitj in iron, I' igh, (D.) 



Co., W, B, I ii 

i hompson, (D.) 


,,g unit. Benlamin Electric Manufac- 


h, 110 

! illumina- 


Photometric Units: (Continued) 

Heterochromatie, Tungsten filament lamps 

for. By G. D. Middlekaulf and J. F. 
ind, (D.) 401 

Illumim, meter. Morgan Brooks model ex- 

e.xhibited in Chicago, *170 

Integrating sphere equipped for testing gas- 
tilled lamps, "120 

Integrating sphere photometer. Bv A. 

Ci/mger, (D.) 1246 

1 hotometry of Sources of light of differ- 
on: , olors. By M. Pirani, i D. i 1552 

I- of. Bv I. Blon- 
» I -479 

Pipe bending machine, Motor-driven. I. Fill- 
more Cox, "125 

Color scheme for identifying, *936 

Pipe reaming machine. Henry Ilillegas. "1480 

Pipe thawing with electricity. Bv C. E. Beck- 
with, 352; A. C. Kelm. 644 

Piping, steam: 

Expansion, 1636 

l-.xpansion loops, "1121 

Heat losses and economical desig: 

L. lohnston, (D) 346 
Installation of. By S. V. Tuspin, "415 

Water hammer, cause and prevention, 1636 

Plating with metallic sprav, Metals Coating Co., 

Pliers. Electrician's, Kleii 

Plov. foi laying cable, Philadelphia, "41 

Plugs and receptacles: 

Arrow, tor large lamps, ■ 

Best swivel attachment, "24S 

For charging batteries, Albert \ I. M. An- 
derson Mfg. Co.. "1074 

Heating :>Iug Monmouthshire standard, 


Hubbell duplex flush receptacle, '435 

Manifold plug for automobile engine, In- 

I i . "47 

Manufacturers' com ,, lardizing. 

New York. 501, 

Pull socket tap, Arrow. "249 

- — Signal lamps attachment plug. Hubbell, '436 

Stage pockets, Sprague, *560 

mdardization, 877 

Standardizing. Report of N. E. L. A . 25« 

I\»o-»:o plug, General Elec. Co.. Ltd., 


Polarity reversal in synchronous motors. Bv 
E. R. Shepai I 

Polarity tester of British \\ cslinghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing Co., *102 

Pole line equipment, St. Louis, *876 


— Combined concrete poles and lighting stand- 
ards, Salem, Ohio, "739 
Crete, Advantages and disadvantages. 
Test and construction details. By R. 
D. Coombs. "341 

tecting pole but i - 


trie. By E. E. F. Creightou. 

( hernyshoff and 
is 1554 

1 ine making fifty an I 
Potentiometer alti 

le, (D.) 1554 

R. D. Gilford. 
(D.) 1177. (D.) 1685 

By A. 1> 
nt. 921 
See 1 i'strial plants* 

Prjmarj Bellini, (D.) 930 

Prime movers, ltevclopments in. Bv W. F. 

Prime movers in American plants. i 

Poller and \\ A Buck, 668; Com- 
ment, 661 

See Industrial plants) 

\ Fleming. I D. > 

1'iony h i name. 939 

Protection, balanci Garrard, 

- on lines* 
II VVefl 

I 'i i' ■ faci .on v, 

New Y..ik City, ii 185: Com 

■lions. 1715 

licity for rcgul . 1648 


omnient of Missouri 
84 1 

om regulation 

t i . Humphi 

Floy, 1 S 


ke of Philadel- 

t, (D.) 731 

■ ,tes. Bv F. G 

,-, ol B) M, I . Cooke. 755 
Nfonopol) upheld In California, 641 

Kr w - 


By H. H. 

M. Wake 

; of, 97 

x, Luit- 
z pumps, 


Public service corporation: (Continued) 

Reports to public authorities too numerous, 

Vital problems in regulation. By T. N- 

Vail, 770 
Public utilities (See Public service corporations) 
Publicity, Letting the public know. 

Scott, 5 ; Comment, 1 ; J. 

man, 148 
Pulley, Cut-out, Cutter *618 
Pumps and pumping, Electric: 
Automatic control of step bearing oil 

pumps, Brooklyn, *297 

Centrifugal pumps, Operating featu 

Columbus automatic house pump, 

Gould centrifugal, *430 

House pump, *562 

Mine pump, Weinman, *429 

Motor-drivers double-acting triple 

weiler Pumping Lngme Co., 
Sewer trench draining with elect ri> 

Salt Lake City, *171 
Turbine-driven centrifugal b< 

pumps. Advantages ot, 116 
Villa Grove, 111., Chicago & Eastern Illi- 
nois R. R., *39 
Push buttons for call system, Desk form, Ed- 
wards, *247 

High-voltage Russell, *357 

Pyrometers, High- resistance, Bristol Co., *1477 
Pyrometry, Electric resistivity of molten metals 

and their use for pyrometry. By E. S. 

Northrup, (D.) 733 


Rack and switchboard for life tests on series 
incandescent lamps, *40 

Racks tor cables, Insulated, *952 

Radiators, Electric: 

Appel \ Jansen, '815 

\\ estinghouse mantle type, "48.8 

Radiological Institute of the University of 
Heidelberg, Annual report. By P. 
Lenard and C. Ramsauer, (D.) 294 

Radiotelegraphy : 

By Fracque, (D.) 1304 

British patent on Marconi and Round re- 
ceiving system, (D.) 295 

Communication between substations, 1490 

Development of 1914. By J. L. Hogan, 

Jr., 27 

— .—Directive systems. By E. Bellini, (D.) 168 

Double-audion type of receiver. Station in 

North Dakota. By A. H. Taylor, '652; 
Comment, 643 

Efficiency, comments, 969 

Electrical constants of antennas. Form- 
ulas for determining induction and 
capacity of aerials and frequency of 
oscillations. By Louis Cohen, *286; 
Comment, 274 

Experiments at Arlington, \'a. By I.. W. 

Austin, (.D.) 606 

Long-distance, discussion. By L. F. Fuller, 


Low horizontal aerials. Experiments with. 

L'se of single and multiple earth-wire 
systems. By C. A. Culver and J. A. 
Riner. *723; Comment, 714 

Measuring strength of wireless signals. By 

E. \V. Marchant, (D.) 1616 

Measuring wave lengths. By F. A. Klos- 

ter, (D.) 478 

Operators, Requirements 

Greaves, <D.) 168 

Patent litigation. 1288 

Patent suit on tuning, *1263 

Proposed work by the International Com- 
mission on Wireless Telegraphy. Bv \V. 
Duddell, (D.) *347 

Quenched spark transmitter, Operating 

characteristics of three-phase, 500-cycle. 
By E. T. Simon and L. L. Israel, 
(D.) 37 

Seasonal effects, comments, 1448 

Sensitiveness of heterodyne receiver. By 

Marius Latour, 1101 

Sensitiveness of the heterodyne receiver in 

wireless telegraphy. By Marius Latour, 
1039; Comments, 1027 

Strength of signals in conditions affecting 

variations in. By E. \V. Marchant, 
(D.) 660 

Time receiver, De Forest "Audion," *81S 

Transmission speed. Bv H. Abraham, A. 

Dufour and G. Ferrie, iD.) 1247 

— — Ultraudion detector for undamped waves. 

By Lee De Forest, 465; Comment, 458 
Radiotelephony, Development of 1914. By J. 

L. Hogan, Jr., 27 
Radio-transmission, pure electron discharge. By 
Irving Laugmuir, (D.) *1247 

Railways: (Continued) 

Italy, Electrification possibilities. By Aldo 

Righi, (D.) 604 
Italv, Three-phase system on Giovi line. 

By F. Sanatoro and L. Calzalori, (D.) 



W. Bothe, (D.) 920 
tive deposit of ra- 
fields. By H. P. 

Determination of. Bv 

Distribution of the a 

dium in electric 

Walmsley. <D.) 95 
Rails, Finishing temperature of. Bv \Y. R. 

Shimer, (D.) 731 
Railw-ays : 

Austria. Vienna to Pressburg. By E. E. 

Seefehlner, (D.) 95 

Cab signals on British railways, (D.) 293 

Electric traction on trunk railways. By 

\V. S. Murray, (D.) 1303 
Electrification of steam roads, Operating 

results, 756 
■ Federal valuation, Cost of. By James Mac- 
Donald. 589 

electrification, * 1456 ; 
By W. Betlige, 

Norfolk & Western, 

Comment, 1449 
Rapid transit in cities. 

(DO *H76 
Selection of car equipments for city and 

suburban service. By T. F. Layng, 

(D.) 533 
Three-phase. Bv Maurice d'Auste, i I >. i 

Ranges (.See Stoves, Electric) 
Rate-making for gas. Demand principle. By 

C. E. Cook, 316; Comment, 274 
Rate of return (See Financial) 
Rates for electrical energy: 
Art of rate-making. By Alex Dow, 17; R. 

S. Hale. 149 

Rates, changes in various cities, 1000 

. Chicago, Increase, 372 

Cincinnati Gas & Electric Co., 202 

Cincinnati temporary service rate extended, 

Combined flat rate and meter rate. By 

Franklin Punga, (D.) *788; Comment, 


Detroit agreement, 315, 442 

Effect of bv-products on rates. By T. R. 

Cravath. 1029 
Factors in rate making. Bv A. S. Ives, 

655, 7S3, 987: Comments, 971 
Factors in rate-making. By J. R. Cravath. 

— — Germany, double-rate schedule at Stuttgart. 

By'Bueggeln, (D.) 859 

Increase in Missouri comments, 

Irrigation in Southern California. By A. 

M. Kennedy, *1471 
Legal return upon investment in New York, 

comments, 969 
London, Possible increase in charges, (D.) 

Massachusetts rate bill opposed at Boston, 


New schedule of New York Edison Co., 1159 

New York Edison Co., 1012 

New York rate reduction, -828, 841 

New York rate schedules multiplied, 371 

New York State Public Service Commission, 

Order concerning uniform compilation, 

Prussia, Charges for energy sold from rail- 
way power plant to private consumers. 

By Bruno Thierbach, (D) 402; Com- 
ment, 387 
St. Louis, Mo., Average rates in cents per 

kw-hr, 470 
St. Louis, Reduction in motor service rates, 


-L'niform, Based 

-Value of service 

cost. By Win. Adams, 

rate-making, 1031 

Kates, special for telephone, 1719 

Razor blade sharpening machine, Hyfield Manu- 
facturing Co., *1329 

Reactance coils, Metropolitan protective. *945 

Reactors. By H. Chireix, (D) 1119 


Aluminum. By G. Schulze, (D) 1552 

Commutator tvpe driven bv synchronous 

motor, Standard Metal Mfg. Co.. *48 

Mercurv vapor, Investigation by General 

Electric Co. By O. Kruh. (D) 293 

Reflection from painted surfaces. By Louis Bell, 

Refrigeration : 

Absorption svstem of ice-making, Advan- 
tages. By H. Cochrane, 943 

"Could not exist without ice business," 173 

Electrical cost, *1202 

Machine electricallv operated, Arctic Ice 

Machine Co., M204 

Massachusetts Commission reports against 

central-station ice-making, 457 

St. Paul and Minneapolis ice-making, 866 

Refuse destructor, Barmen, Germany. Bv T. 
Festner, (D.) 35 

Regulation of public utilities. (D.) 731 


Automatic voltage regulators. By W. H. 

Acker, *127 

General Electric regulator for 5000-kw 

turbo-generators, 123 

McDonnough feed-water regulator, * 123 

Mercury stream regulator. By Franz 

Beutl, (D.) '477 

Relays : 

Alternating-current reverse relays. By C. 

C. Garrard, (D.) 919 

Installation of reverse energy. By A. R. 

Haynes, *221 

Overload protection on alternating-current 

curcuits bv tripping devices. By C. C. 
Garrard. I'D.). '476 

Selective time element of. *Bv Paul Mac- 

Gahan, *597 

Timing operation. Automatic device for, 


Resistance, Electrical, of thin metallic films and 
a theory of the mechanism of conduc- 
tion in such films. By W. F. G. Swann, 
(D.) 36 

Resistance of pure iron. Electrical. By G. K. 

Burgess and I. N. Wellberg, (D.) 789 
Resistance material, "Koppat," *491 

'Indicates illustrated articles. 

Resistance test set, Thompson-Levering Co., 

Resonance, Features of. By R. C. Clinker, 

(D.) 478 
Field rheostat for small generators and 

motors, Ward Leonard, *125 
High-voltage water rneostat. By L. I. 

Clark, *669 
Inductive rheostats. By F. Andre, iD.) 


Variable range suitable for large currents. 

By k. G. \an Name, (,D.) 295 
Water rheostats, Test of Large at Spokane, 

Wash.. *41 
Roentgen Kays: 
ADsorption coefficients. By W. H. Bragg 

and S. E. Peirce, (D.) 95 
— -Examination of engineering materials. By 

C. M. Moore. <1>. > 659 

To locate blow-lioles. 1122 

Secondary effects. By Paul T. Weeks, 

(D.) 1044 

Tube. By Sidney Kuss, (D.) 992 

Coolidge, Data on wave form of current 

passing through tube. By Ralph 

Brown, '3>J6 

Cooling arrangement. Automatic (D.) 478 

Metallic. By L. Zehnder, (D.) *605; 

Comment, 58S 
Roof replacement while station in operation, 


)del. By F. M. Denton, (D.) 

Rotating held m 

Rural s. 

Demand for 

Meter servic 

Noblesville, Ind.,""176, 

Russia; tor i 

J. G. Koppel, 773 
Electrical Development 

Schmidt, 1719 

al service, 

By S. G. Hunter, 

ufacturers. By 
By Ludwis W. 

vealth Edison 

W. Den- 
By B. 

orth, (D.) 

n, 733 
■elude. By 
Sieg and 

Safety plan for Chicago Comn 

Co., 661 
Salesrooms. (See Central Station Bu 

Saws, electrically operated, Reno-Kaetker Elec- 
tric Co., *1568 
Scandinavia, Electric supply in, (D.) 91S 

By C. S. McDowell, 526 

British Navy, Austin Motor Company, 


Crompton & Company, Ltd., *1262 
Projector improvements. By C 

ney, (D.) 858 
Spiral wire. Tungsten lamps 

Dushnitz, (D.) 658 
Selenoids (Also see Electromagnets) 
Self-induction. By C. Butteru 


Conductivity of. By I\ C. Brow 

— Cells: 

For operating self-propelled ' 
B. F. Meissner. -1115 

Light action in. By L. P. 
F. C. Brown, (D.) 295 

New construction of ceils due to 
Pfund. Bv D. S. Elliott, (D.) 
Service houses for ground and pole mounting, 

Sewing machines. Electric Wisconsin, *250 
Ship-purchase bill and public ownership, 495, 

Electric propellsion of California, 1139; 

Comments, 1098 
Electricity on board. By H. L. Hibbard, 

(D.) 1246 
Shops, Confectionery, Novel use of electricity, 

.Minneapolis, *614 
Short circuits and their prevention. By I. W. 

Gross, *163; Comment, 147 
Siam. Bangkok. Electrical trade, (D.) 918 
Siberia, Opportunities for electrical manufac- 
turers. By Frank Dabney, 516 
Sign and decorative lighting: 
— - — Boston regulations, 371, 740 

Chicago Merchants' Association, *244 

Cleveland, Emphasizing the service idea, 


Columbus ordinance, 868 

Economical swinging sign, Quebec, *356 

Flashing coal sign, Toledo, *612 

Flood lighting by gas-filled lamps, 1682 

Gas-filled lamps attract attention to prop- 
erty, "427 

Giant thermometer, *1475 

Glass sign illuminated by invisible means, 

Lighting with large nitrogen-filled lamps, 


New York, "Kleanwell" sign, *243 

Port Arthur, Texas, Novel sign, *426 

Shutter background for large roof sign, 

Taunton, Mass., Central station sign in 

city square, *487 

Typewriter sign with 2400 keys, 944 

Signaling systems, protector, New form of. By 

Dr. Fritz Schrbter. 842 
Signals, Cab signals on British railways, (D.) 





Silicon, Hall effect in. By O. E. Buckley, 
■ I'.i 166 

Silver burnishing machine. Tahara electric, 

Silvering quartz fibers. By II. B. Williams, 
I 295 

Skin effect' in bimetallic wires. By John M. 
Miller. 1612; Comment 

Sluicegate indicator, M632 

Smoker cabinet and lighting fixture combined, 
II, '249 

Society of Automobile Engineers, Annual 

Societv for Electrical Development: 

Annual meeting. Report of I. M. \\ akeman, 


Electrical prosperity, committees organiza- 
tion. 1009 

Electrical Prosperitj Week. Sectional com- 
mittees, 1570 

Paper by I. M. W akeman, 1530 

Publicity work of. By J. M. W akeman, 148 

Sales and educational campaign, 183 

Work of, 

Society I of Engineering Educa- 

tion, Annual meeting, 

Society . 1719 

Soldering equipment, Portable, '112 

Soldering tool holder, Vulcan. 

ern Electrical ft Gas Assn., Conven- 
tion. 1435 

Spark-over voltages of bushings, leads and in- 
s, Effect of altitude and tem- 
I. W. Peek, Jr., (D.) 


Fahnestock Elec. Co., 

Spark-plug connect 

Spectrum from mercury vapor in an electric 
field. By CD. Child, (D.) 36 

Speed indicator, electric, Esteriine Co., "1206 

Speed variation recording methods. By F. B. 
Steele, "1687 

Standard Gas & Electric Co., Annual report, 956 

Standardization rules: 

American, (I).) 1245 

A. I. E. E.. discussion. Bv E. Schufler, 

(D.) 990 

British, (D.) 1245 

Germany and the United States. By L. 

Schueler, (D.) 1116 


Capitalization of central stations, 467 

Census reports, 93 

Census returns on generating equipment 

and output of stations, 291 

Central-station companies serving San 

Krancisco, '1357 

Central-station operations. Gain in. Com- 

parison of 1913 and 1914, 726; Com- 
ment, 713 

Central-station returns, * 1242 

Central-station returns, Atlantic States for 

October, 1914, 92 

mercial stations. State of Iowa, 1129 

Distribution of power in electric generat- 
ing stations. By A. A. Potter and W. 
A. Buck, "995 

Electrical equipment. Northern California 

I Co., 1380 

Electrical industries in 1914 in America. 

By T. C. Martin, 3 

Electrical exports, 1083 

Equipment of Inawashiro Hydroelectric 

Power Co., 1603 
Equipment of Great Western Power Com- 
pany, 1368 

Equipment, Transmission plant of the 

Inawashiro Hydroelectric Pwr. Co., 1676 
l r.iting equipments of Pacific Gas & 
Electric Co., 1360 

tput of the central station 
for the United States, *981 
■ lis. Electric, Census returns, 343 

■ port on stationary, 399, 

Municipal of Bureau of 

. 161 ; Comment, 145 
npal stations, State of Iowa, 1128 
uting costs of commercial electric 

of central stations, Re- 
turns trcrivcd by Electrical World. 
473; Comment, 457, 1610; Comment, 

i large gencrat 

I i 918 

CO Power 
. 1.172 
im and electric equipments. Sierra & 
San I 1373 

oent. Northern Califor- 
, 1379 

systems, 769, 







3 ets 








1 e r y 



v a i » . m 

Alley lighting. »356 

by half-watt tungstens, 
ly. By A. Boje, (D.) 


Steel: (Continued) 

Magnetic properties and chemical composi- 
tion. By W. 1 Under, ill.) 1044 

Permanent magnetism of chrome and 

tungsten steels. By Margaret B. Moir 
(D.) 347 

Structural and hvsteresies loss in medium- 
carbon steel. By I". C. Langenberg 
".i 5.14 

Steering gear. Electric, Scott patent. (D.) 604 

Sterilizer, electric: 

Cereal manufacture. Despatch Mfg. Co., 


Stoneware. Santiseptic Manufacturing Co., 


Victor, '246 

By W 1' . i i 

Stoker, Underfe* ition Engineering 

Corp., '950 

machine. Protective. '434 

Lincoln Electric Co., M258 
I alternating-current and di- 
nt svstem. '1305 
mobiles, Gould Storage Bat- 
. r charring outfit. Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Co., 

Mounting for oil switch battery, * 1558 

Voltage regulation. Bv C. S. Redding, 

Storm ties up transmission systems on At- 
lantic seaboard, 902 
Stoves, Electric: 

Hotpoint. '873 

Oven lifter for range, *868 

Range with glass-front oven, Standard, *51 

Street lighting: 

Alliance, ()hi< 

Arc lamps repla 

Stettin. Gel 

Arc lamps versus incandescent lamps. 1594 

Arkansas City, Kan., Tungstens supplant 

arc lamps, *1 18 

By Ely. (I).) 1117 


Boulevard arcs replaced with nitrogen- 
filled tungstens. *480 
Concrete standards, American Cement Prod- 
ucts Co., -874 

Gas-filled lamps in Dubuque. Ia„ 1635 

Gas-filled lamps in I '1201 

Gas-filled units for New York, '1639 

Incandescent versus 1594 

Indianapolis contract upheld. 1140 

Isle-of-safetv lamps. Temporary, Chicago, 


Lafayette. Ind.. Levee lighting '868 

Milwaukee. 1718 

Nitrogen-filled lamps, cost compared with 

arc, '1174 

Nitrogen-filled lamps. Cost with, 74(1 

Nitrogen-tilled lnmps in Chicago. *1173 

Ottumwa, la., Christmas tree lanes. 43 

Philadelphia, Contract renewed. 131 

Portland. Ore.. Terwilligei Boulevard, *612 


Sectionalized circuit for series tungsten. 


Seattle. Wash., Mayor arranges policy, 53 

Standards. I M331 

— Time switch for svstem, 

. Wash. By I P. Byron, l 223 

"White-way" installations in Ohio. '1709 

Street sprinkler- I in., "238 

Submarines, motor driven. By N. H 
i switching and protective units. 
Delta Star, '430 

llr ii of 

ted, 145 

Detroit. Mich.. Tin. • 

St at i "i 

1 1 itcbway guard. Removabl 
In.i oelectt ii P ■ i 


Lancast. r ! rmet and 

I ight & Power 
■ in 
i lutdoor, Delta Star Elec Co . '1644 

P.urkhnl.ler and Nich 


Switi b and met< i 
tan. - 1 M 1 

\utomobile charging. (D 

II Wed 

=>«iirh. Western Power Co 



Switches: (Continued) 

Automatic protective switchgear. By E. B. 

Wedmore, (D.) 991 

Candelabra. Cutler-Hammer, *16.42 

Combination cut-out, Trumbull Elec. Mfg. 

Co., M007 

Double-throw horn-gap switch, Railway & 

Industrial Engineering Co., *949 

Hartman automatic switch for small light- 
ing plants, '122 

Horn-gap for Brush contact, *1714 

Inclosed oil-break, British-Thomson Hous- 
ton, M26 

Inclosed service switch and meter protec- 
tive device. Metropolitan, *49 

Interlocking to keep down demand, M563 

Oil, explosions. By A. Weinberger, (D) 

1176; Comments, 1154 

Protection, M559 

Oil starting, for induction motors. Condit 

Electrical Manufacturing Company, *1260 

Oil switch and fuse terminals, Condit Elec- 

trical Manufacturing Company, '1004 

— —Panel Board, Arrow Electric Company, '1712 

Pendent type, Union Electric Company, "49 

Remote-control device for knife switches, 

Tittle, '51 

Pouting, Harvey Hubl.ell. Inc.. "1429 

Series trip for high-voltage, oil switches. 

General Electric, "434 

Time, electrical wound, Minerallac Electric 

Company, M431 

Albert & J. M. Anderson, *618 

series-tungsten, street lighting system. 

By J. P. Byron, *223 
With clock face, "816 

Tripping mechanism for oil switch, *39 

Trumbull push switch, '309 

: switch, "1632 
Switching phenomena. By W. Linke (D-), 165 

Exhibition in Bern. By E. Winkler-Buschler 

Incandescent lamp purchases for ten years. 

■:l>.) 294 
Synchroscopes, large size, M251 

Tachograph, Detecting production losses with, S62 
Tap block, Hart ,* Hcgeman, '50 

Wisconsin, Increased taxation and its 
effect upon public service companies. Bv 
Edwin GrubJ, 259 
Technical literature, classification committee, 1434 

~ liness conditions. By Newcomb Carlton, 

-Cable telegraphy. By H. 
1466 (D.) 1616 

W. Malcolm, (D.) 

Cable tefegraphv. Future progress of. Bv 

It W. M oo6, (D.) 1685 

Census report, 625 

Disturbances caused by single-phase rail- 
roads. By (i- Brani 

High-speed. By O. Arendt, (DA 1555 

Interference from power circuits. By S. C. 

Bartholomew, (IM 478: Comment, 45" 

Loaded telegraph cable. By II. W. Mai- 

n.) 660 

Printing telegraph system. Apparatus devcl- 

ern Union Co. Bv F. M 
I omment, 843 

Progress of cable telegraphy. Bv II W 

■ii. (D.) 920 
Quadruplex system, Efficiency of the Amcr- 

Kates. Higher, suggested. By C. II. Mackav.. 


Relavs of Ileurtlev and Orling. Bv II. W 

' '403 

Repe i -t office tvpe. Bv A C 

rn Union multiplex printing. By Don- 
Telephone manufacturing con 
Telephone valuation in New York, 624 

rt of American Telephone 4 
. 753 

Artificial line. By G. M. B. Shepherd, (D.) 

— Vudion repeater, Its importance. Bv F, M. 
Williamson, 900 

Automatic connecting switches, patent to F. 

R Mi 
Vutomalk systems for private buildings. Bv 

Balancing of telephone cables. (D 

signalling, Danger in mines, 
tt, 625 

Common-bar. nut 10 1 W 

drum. 1046 
(ut ui for transmitters, patent to A. R. 
i, 1120 

Desk-stand set. patent to N. Pedrrson, 1046 

Bj I' W 

Disui- pstent to R. H 

I Well, and II. 1 1 

neering economic Bj II A Smith. 
Exchangs design work Bv H I". E 

Gang krv. patent to \ I Carter 993 

Inductive system, patent to J. H. Reinekc. 

i. patent to S A 
Koltonskl, I17S 

Commission, inquiry 

Telephony: (Continued) 
Interstate Commerc 

stopped, 1025 

Jack ana signal, patent to A, F. Dixon, 993 

Key, patent to E. B. Craft, 993 

Listening circuit, patent to S. B. William, 

Loading telephone lines, patent to Pleizel 

and A. H. Olsson, (D.) 1426 
Long-distance, over unloaded and loaded 

lines. By J. A. Fleming, (D.) 404 
Manual-exchange systern, patent to F. R. 

Parker and E. R. Corwin, 993 
Manual service in large exchanges. By W. 

Pinkert, (D.) 220 
New York Telephone Co., Valuation, 496, 


Polarized bell, patent to E. B. Craft, 993 

Private branch-exchange, signal, patent to 

B. G. Jamieson, 993 

Rate case in New York City, 441 

Receiver, Investigation of vibrations of dia- 
phragm. By L. Bouthillon and L. Drou- 
et, (D.) 534 

Receiver support, patent to K. H. Atherton 

and M. N. Rodgers, 1178 

Repeater, patent to C. Stille. "993 

Repeating device, patent to D. H. Wilson, 


Resistance of carbon-contacts in transmit- 
ters. By L. A. Clark, (D.) 478 

Reverting test for party lines, patent to C. 

C. Bradbury, 993 

Simultaneous signaling, patent to M. J. Car- 
ney, 1120 

Sound tubes, patent to F. L. Jensen and E. 

S, Pridham, 1046 

Step-by-step call, patent to H. O. Rugh, 1120 

Step-by-step control relay, patent to A. H. 

Dyson. 993 

Step by-step selector, patent to A. E. Case, 


■ Statistics for 1913 and 1914. By W. H. 

Gunston, (D.) 295 

Telephone relay. Bv R. Lindemann and E. 

Hupka, (D.) 1616 

Telephone troubles in the tropics. Bv W. L. 

1'reece. (D.) 992 

Termal telephone. By M. de Lange, (D.) 

*96; Comment, 73 

Toll-trunk circuit, patent to E. E. Hinrich- 

sen and J. F. Toomey, 993 

Transcontinental service inaugurated. Dem- 
onstrations at New York, Boston and 
San Francisco. Dr. Bell talked to Mr. 
T. H. Watson. 3400 miles awav, *279; 
Comment, 273 

Vacuum tubes for line protection. By Fritz 

Schroeter, (D.) *790 

Water-tight loading coil case, patent to F. 

B. Jewett and Thomas Shaw, "1046 

Western Electric automatic and semi-auto- 

By G. H. Green, (D.) 


-Absolute zero. 
-Estimation bv 

and B. P. 

C. S. Jeff, 
corder, "Wil 

Bv S. Dushman. (D.) 477 
color. By C. C. Patterson 
Dudding, (D.) 1119 
in modern power house. Bv 
ey, (D.) 1176 
on-Maeulen. *871 
Tenney companies. Convention, 499 
Terminal block for lamppost circuits. Colonial 

Sign & Insulator Co., Ml 33 
Test clip, R. S. Mueller & Company, *1334 
Thawing sleet on transmission lines by electric- 
ity. By J. B. Dorais, 516 
Thawing water pipes with electricity. *607 
Thawing pipe with electricity. Bv C. E. Beck 

with. 352: A. C. Kelm, 644 
Thawing pipes bv electricity, Sault Ste. Marie. 

Mich.. 866 
Thermal conductivity of tungsten, tantalum and 
carbon. Measurement of. Bv A. G. 
Worthing, (D.) 295 
Thermal e.m.f. of iron oxide 
By 5. Leroy Brown : 
magen, (D.) 1615 




sign. "14 

Resistance Thermometer. 

(D.) 860 
Thermophone apparatus. By M. de Lange, CD.) 

*96: Comment, .73 
Thresher operated from transmission line. 943 
Third harmonic in voltage wave, Effect of. Bv 

K. C. Powell, 157: Comment. 146 

Northern White Cedar Association. 369 

Time switch, Yenner Time Switches, Ltd., ' 1333 
Tools for cutt : n? threads, Borden. *S19 

Electrically operated, Stow, *745 

-Portable electric. United Mfg. Co., '493 



Tractor, three-wheel electri 

Co.. *1076 
Trade with Latin-America, 166C 
Training for the industrial side of engii 

By A. P. M. Fleming, (D.) 860 
Train lighting. (See Lighting) 

Asbestos board cells. "1689 

Bell, Jefferson Electric Manufacturi 

Bclt-rineine. P : ttsburgh Transformi 


Calculation. By Roger Chavaunes (D.) 1116 

Care, rules, 1198 

■ Construction practice 

Edler, (D.) 532 
Cooling coils, Rate of 





Transformers: (Continued) 

Current and potential, phase angle determi- 
nation. By R. D. Gifford, (D.) 1467 

Dimensions. By A. R. Low, (D.) 1116 

Double fuse protection, "1557 

Drying large units electrically. *736 

Efficiency cost. By VV. E. Burnand, (D.) 


Explosive gases generated in transformer, 

South Africa, 41 

Fiber conduit used in installation, *1633 

High voltage dangers. By J. L. Thompson 

and S. A. Stigant, (D.) 217, 346 

Oil, Fort Wayne, '818 

Open delta connection of. By G. P. Roux, 

(D.) 476 

Outdoor instrument transformer, "1530 

No load losses, avoiding. By Br. Thierbach, 

(D.) *111> 

Non-symmetric loads. By M. Vidmar, (D.) 


"Phasing out," 115 

Portable station, *1193 

Radiator-type, New Haven road, *491 

Series. Theory of. By M. Rosenbaum, (D.) 


Series transformers, Mathematical discus- 
sion. By A. G. L. McNaughton, (D.) 

Theory. Bv J. Lissner. (D.) 1116, (D.) 1302 

Third harmonic in voltage wave. Effect of, 

By R. C. Powell, 157; Comment, 146 
Water-cooling oil-immersed, for city sub- 

Bv F. 


?rhead construction: 
:s. By C. E. Magnus- 
and R. Rader, "1545; 

Transmission lines and 
Artificial line 200 mi 

son. T. Gooderhai 

Comments, 1501 
Cables, Single-core conductor. Use of. By 

C. F. Proos, (D.) *218 

Calculation. By G. R. Dean, (D.) 1684 

Calculation of voltage drop and power loss 

in alternating-current lines. Bv R. W 

Adams, (D.) 347 

Cedar Rapids-Massina line in service. 439 

Central Illinois Light Co., Peoria, 111., '281; 

Comment. 275 
Chart, Labor-saving. Bv H. B. Dwight, 159; 

Comment, 146 
Chile Exploration Co., Chuquicamata, Chile. 

110.000-volt ins*alla>ion at elevation of 

10,000 feet. By P. H. Thomas, *29, "87; 

< lomment, 2 

Corona. Bv Donald MacKenzie. (D.) 1303 

Corona-loss "curves, Tomnarison of calculat- 
ed and measured. By F. W. Peek, Jr., 

534- Comment, 515 
Corona losses under various conditions. Chile 

Exploration Co. By P. II. Thomas, »32 
Corona phenomena. By E. II. Warner. 

CD.) 477 
Cost of 66,000-volt line. Springfield Mass.. 


Cost of construction, itemized. 1244 

Crossing specifications. Revision of over- 
head, 769 
Distribution box on underground system, 

W*terMVM. r 'avan->. Cuba, *224 

Distribution-line loss, 1634 

-Distribution system patent (D. ) 1465 



-s as protective 
<D. i 217 
n transmission, 
: - 



Induction coils and condense 

devices. Bv E. Pfiffner, 

Inductive interference betwei 

telephone and telegraph circui 
C. Bartholomew, l D. I 4TS; 

Inductive interference. Prevention, British 

patent, (D.) 918 

Insulation of line. Maintenance of. 586 

Insulators, Chile Exploration Co. By P. H. 

Thomas, "30. 

Iowa Railway & Licht Co., 184 miles of 

high tension lines, *150; Comment, 147. 

Line and tower construction. Chile Explora- 
tion Co. By P. H. Thomas, *87 

"Low tension." What is? 97 

Marking the "dead" wire, 997 

Portland. Me., Cumberland County Light & 

Power Co., "592 

Protection of high-tension circuits against 

dangerously high voltages. Bv Kenelm 
Edgcumbe, (D.) *94: Comment. 74 

Protective coatings for line structure and 

equipment. Bv R. D. Coombs, 730 

Review of work of 1914. By Louis Bell, 21 

Rock Falls, III., Lines under railroad in- 
stead of over, *299 

Sag in overhead conductors. Determining 

effect of ice, wind loads and tempera- 
ture changes. By K. L. Wilkinson. 336 

Sleet damage to telegraph lines in Wisconsin 

and Michigan, 438 

Special cross-overs, "980 

Special structures. By R. D. Coombs, "980 

Static electricity from transmission lines. By 

C. O. Poole, *773 

Steel Tower Substation, Self-contained, 

Delta Star Electric Co., "1714 

Storm guys attached to towers by means of 

eye-bolts, "538 

Storm losses, comments, 969' 

Studv of artificial line. By C. E. Magnus- 
son, J. Goodenham and R. Rader. 1545 

Swinging-conductor, elimination, * 1 251 

Thawing sleet by electricity. By J. B. Do- 
rais. 516 

Theory of differential equations. By G. R. 

Dean, (D.) 166 

Torsional strength of guy anchors. By 

Terrell Croft, *1607 

•Indicates illustrated articles. 


lines and overhead construction: 

Guard to protect wires from boys, Day- 
ton, Ohio, *483 

Foundations. By Ira W. Dye, (D.) 

Protection at ground line, *737 

Raised by oil-well derrick, *537 

Weakness of steel. By V. Haskell, 
204, 516; R. D. Coombs, 388 

Troublemen maps, *1690 

Underground transmission at high-tension. 

Trier, Germany. By H. Henney, (D.) 

293; Comment, 274 
Under-voltage protection. By F. L. W. 

Peebles. 148 
Transmission plants: 
Chile Exploration Co.. Chuquicamata, Chile. 

110,000-volt installation at elevation of 

10,000 feet. By P. H. Thomas, "29, *87; 

Comment, 2 
Energy supply on the Rand. By B. Price, 

(D.) "1683; Comments, 1665 

Great Western Power Company, *1367 

lnawashiro Hydroelectric Power Co., *1599, 

•1671; Comment, 1663 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co.. "1358 

Montana Power Co. Bv Max Hebgen, "1535; 

Comments, 1501 

Northern California Power Co., 1378 

Sierra & San Francisco Power Co., "1371 

Serving San Francisco, "1357; Comments, 


Serving San Francisco, Map, "1356 

Southern Power Co., Mount Holly, N. C, 

Steam auxiliary station. By C. A. 

Mees, "774; Comment, 770 

Storm damages on Atlantic seaboard, 902 

Turners Falls, Mass., Cost of 66,000-volt 

line, 904 

Utah Power & Light Co., "1451 

Underground. 23,000-volt, 1183 

Trucks. Electric: 

1 vco-Lectric delivery vehicle, "361 


Hospital service. *1066 

Light Delivery, Milburn Wagon Co.. 

Operating costs, 567 

Three-wheel tractor. Mercury Mfg. Co., 

Wagon with two-motor concentric-gear 

drive, •74(, 

Marshall Field & Co., Chicago, 120 

Parcel post, Conditions in various states, 225 

Shop, Waverley, *742 

Street sprinklers, Calgary, Can.. "238 

Ward Bread Co., Cambridge, Mass., Charg- 
ing installation, "239 
Trust legislation. By J. E. Davies and W. H. 

Childs, 497 
Trusts and monopolies: 

roval of merger by Idaho Public Utility 

Commission, Comment, 1663 

Harvester Trust Case to be Reheard, 1716 

Idaho merger, 1212, 1715 

Policy of new Department of Justice, 1647 

Tubular woven fabric, Chernack Mfg. Co.. 47 
Turbine, steam: 

Consumption of bleder-tvpe, "1622 

Developments of. Bv W. F. Durand, 20 

Effect of vacuum and steam pressure on 

economy, 979 

Gland packing, "416 _ 

Improvements in auxiliaries, 97 

Small non-condensing, steam consumption. 

By W. I. A. London, 1048 

Statistics of development, 215 

Water rates affected by worn blading, 1634 

Turbines, water. 22,500-hp., 1389 
Turbo generators: 

M. M. Manufacturing Co., 126 

With impulse turbines, Ridgway, "951 


Ultraudion detector for undamped waves. By 

Lee de Forest, 465: Comment, 458 
United Gas Improvement Co., Investigation of, 

438, 496. 621. 881 
Units, electric, dimensions. Bv H. Maurer, (D.) 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Central 

generating and heating plant, "646; 

Comment, 642 
Utilities Bureau, Organization, 131 

Vacuum Cleaner: 

Atwood stationary, motion-driven, "95: 

Cylinder press cleaners, Britton & I 


Electric, Pneuvac Company. "1712 

For cleaning pool tables, 1704 

General Electric, *817 

Light-weight, -564 

Rented bv the day. Chicago, "303 

Santo Manufacturing Co., 1430 

Spencer Turbine Cleaner Co., *113J 

With vertical motor, Thurman Va 

Cleaner Company, "1259 
Valuation of public utilities in Ohio, 171 
Valuation of railways. Cost of Federal. 

Tames MacDonald, 589 
Valve Gears, leakage, 1179 
Composition disc for globe valves, lei 

Motor-operated installation, 1626 



vater regulator, Kitts, 

Valves: (Continued) 
Pilot valve for feed 

Vector diagram produced experimentally. By 

A. E. Kennelly and ft. G. Crane, '985 

Gerdes & Company, M329 

Portable, for steam pipe tunnel, '1250 

Vibrator, electric. Shelton Elec. ( o., M080 
Vibrator for automobile ignition set, New Era, 

Voltage regulation. By G. E. Grau, (D.) 991 
Voltage wave. Effect of third harmonic in. By R. 

C. p mment, 146 


Automobiles. Roller-Smith Co., "1565 

— — Roller-Smith portable alternating-current for 

signal systems. "181 
Vulcanizer, electric, Flaherty Mfg. Co., '1478 
Port.r I ursey Company, 



War and Engineering. By Marquis of Graham, 

i I), i 404 
Warships, Motor-drive on, Experiences of the 

American Navy. <I> 
Washing machines, electric: 

Capital Elec. Co., '1008 

Dodge & Zuill, -1072 

ici, '40 

lohnson Elec. Washer Co.. M078 

Pittsburgh Gage ,V Supply Company, '1260 

Thor, lr. Hurley, "489 

With inverted drive. Haag, '618 

Water, Electric decomposition of, (D.) 534 
Water gage for forebay levels, *1250 
Water hammer, Cause and prevention, 1636 
Water heater. Electric, Apfel & Jansen, *876 
1 1 oelectric developments) 
Water power. New England. By II . I. Harri- 

nian. 751 
Water sterilizer. (II) 1555 

1. el nral control of pressure on. 

Waterwhecls, governing, analysis of governor 
effect. By E. D. Searing, '1513 

Watt-hour meter--: 

Duncan small-sized direct-current, *361 

In maintenance, 1690 

Mcr ...rv Nrwfrc I- \ A. Radtkt c 39i 

i nl. 387 

Prepayment type. Westinghouse. M477 

Tc-ting polyphase. Bv F. R. Innes, "927 

Wave-form of flux. Derivation of, from the 
irm of electro-motive force. By 
:. II and R. Brown. (D.) 476 

Waves, Prop igal I ante, (Dl 1466 

Wehnclt cathode, Investigation of action of. By 
Frank Horton, (D.) 402 

Welding, El Principl By I. F. 

Lincoln, 861 

Welding, i By C. E. Skinner 

D i 1177 

Welding oxyacetyline. Welding exhaust connec- 

Wcst, Call of the. 385 

Western Electric Co., Changes in directors. 954 
Western Union Telegraph Co., Annual report, 

1. Presentation of Perkin medal, 

' ing arrangement. By R 

iment, 329, 


Calculations of electric data from external 

dimensions of wound coils. By G. 

Maye, (D) 476 

Electromagnet windings. Calculation. By 

leorge and Harold Pender, 529: 

Comment, 515 
Window displays. (See 
Winnipeg Master Elect 

ciation. 953 
Wire clamp or grip, Klein, *51 
Wire-stranding machine, Highspeed 
Butt Co "' 



\\ i 

es. wiring and conduit: 

-American versus Continental wiring stand- 
ards. By IT. K. Richardson, 1157 

-Cable and conduit hanger, Minerallac Elec- 
tric Co., 

-Cable currents due to earth's magnetic held, 

-Cable joint failures, causes, '1122 

-Cable laying plow. Philadelphia. "41 

-Cable puller operated with storage-battery 

-Cheap wiring. By W. W, Lewin, 716; Leo 

t, 717" 
-Chicago i lianges, *353 

-Clamps for stranded wire. Steel Citv Elec- 
tric Co., "1330 
-Concentric wiring, 201, 514; By H. A. Fell, 
132 G. W. Borst, 516; C. W. Abbott, 
R S. Orr, 717: Committee meeting, 828 
Advantages and opportunities in use of 
wire. By R. II- Hale. 570 

ion hv electrical interests. New 
York, December, 129, 185 
For interior lighting! Stannos, "177 
In Great Britain. By A. H. Seabrook. 

Insurance saving and wiring. Discus- 
at Illinois Electrical Con- 
tractors Association, 254 

. : , , . B I ; B B< 

389; L, II. Si 
Preliminary draft of rules, 365 
Underwriters passive, 821 
-Conduit of ne.v form, Perfects s 
Tube & Condu ' 
i u iring "ii narrow panel, '737 
-Cooling underground cables, Niagara Falls 
Power Co. By L. E. Imlay. 523; Com- 
ment, 514 
-Copper wire in Germany. Substitul 

iron for, (D.) "218; Comment. 202 
—Device for bending conduit, "1193 
—Drying out cable with electricity, "1194 
-Effect of insulating resistance on armored 

cables. By ^. 
-Electric wiring. By George C. Shaad, '1067. 

-Emporia, Kan., Price schedule. 240 
—Faults. Analysis of. 116 
-Feeder protection. British patent. (D.) 
-Fittings. V. V. Fitting 
-Flexible tubing fastener. Thomas E. Hop 

1 208 
-Heating of buried cables, (D.) 732 
tor, in Metal M 
i pany, "1712 
-Home made cable rack. 
-Independent circuit for individual lamps. 

—Installation of to switch com- 

— Insula! For wires and 

. 1 050 
—Laying armored cable in frozen earth. 140 

ires, wiring and conduit: (Continued) 

— Laying cables from Tyssedal power plant on 

Hardanger Fjords to factory in Odda, 

— Load determination in branch distribution 

circuits of direct current systems. By 

L. Lewin (D.) "165 
— Manhole equipment for pulling cables, *42 
—Master-switch, lighting circuits. By V. N. 

Heath. "811 
—Metal-covered cable, Packard Elec. Co., *1131 

— Method of breaking porcelain tubes. By A. 

Gorman, "1707 

— Modern methods. By D. S. Munro, (D.) 

Mi r. idd, i D > 732 
— Modern work in bad situations. By H. C. 

Toficld, (D.) 659 
—Municipal Electrical Code, New York City, 

— National Electric Light Association, Activi- 
ties, 367 

Elimination of, 367 
' 'Id frame building. Wiring at three dollars 
an outlet. By Terrell Croft. '240 
— i 'Id house wiring campaign, Providence. R. I. 

By E. R. Davenport, 388 
— Phasing out after cable joints are made. 

— Protection of cable, 424 

— Receptacles for concealed wiring, Bryant 

Electric Co., *1479 
— Report of N. E. L. A. committee. 877 

— Resistance of irregular shape of conductors. 

By I. F. H. Douglas. (D.) 95 
-Rules. Austria and Germany. By R. Beron. 

(D.i I 
— Safer and cheaper systems. By W, II. 
Fr„ W. II Reed, 76: Charles 

Wirt. 77 D. A. Course, Geo. Weider- 

msii, K. S. Hale. 204: William Handley, 

— Safety first and concentric wiring, 225 

Saving time in decorative wiring, *240 

— Service connections in industrial plant, 

Short circuits and their prevention. Bv I. \\ . 
•163: Comment. 147 
Single-core conductor cables. Energy trans- 

— Steel and bimetallic conductors as substitute 
d aluminum, (D) 1466 

Stringing long wires. 424 

tution of iron and steel wii 

for copper, in Germany, i D.) 
"732: Comment. 714 

Switch boxes for knob and tube installations. 

Rv A. Gorman, "1564 

Testing high tension cables bv direct-current. 

Bv L. I ichten- ' omment. 2 

Tool for tving wire, Smith & Hemingway. 


Wiring for coal mine lighting. P 

tt, ( p.) 1«26 

Wiring machine tools, 117° 

Zinc cables insulate. 1 with reclaimed rubber, 

(D.I 1614 
Wisconsin Electrical Contractors Association, 

Annual meeting. 512 
V'oven fabric to cover cable, hose. etc.. Cher- 
' ; 

X ray. (See Rocntger 

7crm.ui effect. By II. R. Wooltjer. (DA 347 


ABBOI I. ( W. due of the hazards in con- 
. 716 
Acker. W. II. Automatic voltage regulators, 

Adams, Win Uniform electric rates based on 

Alexander, II. W. Practical education in elec- 

i tungsten 

Batchellr. with ■ Plunger 

Bayley, G. 1 II 

•i wok of 1014, 


War on foreign com- 
lluck, Fred. Cooling-water pond and system for 

in, *297 
Itiiek, W A Prune movers in American plants, 

Distribution of power in electric generating 

Bui i- W -'lira-violet 

Byron, .1. P. Time switch foi series tungsten 

Champion, I n Selei tins ligliiiny. units 
II \ tional 

I, High \oii igi 

Cliffoid, II I oc lamps, 

i ..hrn. i intennas, 


1 531 


"ire and 


Cooper, II I Testimony on water-power bill, 

Reserve funds for central sta- 
tions, 1100 
i it.istrophc" reserve for central stations, 

les, i 158 

I \ i heap ii 

i ..» Irs. W. C, Workmen's compensation injur- 

i i.inr, II. G. Producing 

mentally, '985 
Cravath, J. R. The small lighting consumer. 148 

lunting for dei 

I laking. 1028 

— The lighting oi vm,l| interiors, 1141 
in and lighting effects. 1228 

earing house for 

: trams ouilding, 

In I. il engineering subjects, 

lengths of guv anchor rods, 

i rowly, B \\ ine in the 1'nited 

. s. 412 

nr in European repute, 

I I. V Kincr Kadiotelegraphy 
without elevated antennas. 


DABNEY, FRANK. Electrical manufacturers 
in Siberia, 516 

Daniels, N. II. Fire protection in electric plants, 

Davenport, E. R. Old house wiring campaign. 

DeForest, Lee. Ultraudion detector for un- 
damped waves, 465 

Doane, S. E. Incandescent lamp industry, 24 

National electrical week, 277 

Dolkart, Leo. Cheap wiring versus cneap elec- 
tricity, 717 

Dorais, J. B. Thawing sleet by electricity, 516 

Douglas, J. F. II. Criteria for the quality of 
commutation, *601 

Criteria of commutation, 1284 

Douthitt, H. N. Electrical markets in Brazil, 

Dow, Alex. Art of rate-making, 17 

Downing, P. M. Hvdroelectric development in 
the West, 1514 

Du Bois, A. D. Power formulas tor machine 
tools, *928 

Duffield, G. H. National electrical week, 278 

Durand, W. F. Developments in prime movers, 

19 ■ ,- 

Dwight, H. B. Labor-saving transmission-line 

chart, 159 

T. Feb 

window displays, 
heating of nitrogen-filled 

Edwards, E. T. O 

lamp, 844 

Gas-filled lamps, 1101 

Edwards, II. M. Accounting section of the 

National Electric Light Association, 498 
Eidlitz, C. L. National electrical week, 278 
Einstein, A. C. National electrical week, 277 
Everett, F. D. (See Kennelly, A. E.) 

FAKK. A. V. Lubrication of ball bearings, 925 
Fee, H. A. Concentric wiring, 332 
Finney, J. H. Testimony on water-power bill, 55 
Fisher, W. L. Testimony on water-power bill, 55 
Flood, Henry, Ir. Hvdroelectric development, 

Floy, Henry. Results of the war for public 

service commissions to consider, 15 
Flynn, D. T. Testimony on water-power bill, 55 
Freeman, Earnest. National electrical week, 277 
Freeman, \Y. W. Large questions for public 

policy before the electrical industry, 16 
Fuller, L. 1'". Long-distance radiotelegraphy, 983 

pALLOWAY, .1. K. National electrical week, 

Gaskill. D. L. National electrical week, 276 
Gear, H. 11. Application of diversity factor, 

George, E. E., and Harold Pender. Calculation 

of electromagnet windings, 529 
Gibbs, L. D. National electrical week, 276 
Gilchrist, J. F. Opportunities for the central 

station in the electric vehicle industry 

in 1915, 9 
The electric vehicle and the central station, 

Gooderham, I. 200-mile artificial transmission 

line, *1545 
Gorman, A. Switchboards for knob and tube 

installations, *1564 

A method of breaking off tubes, *1707 

Gove, W. G., and L. C. Porter. Car illumina- 
tion, 729 
Gross, I. W. Short circuits and their preven- 
tion, 163 
Gruhl, Edwin. Increased taxation in Wisconsin, 

Guernsey, N. T. Effect of the war on regulation 

of public utilites, 12 
Guilfoyle, J. V. How to merchandise electrical 

appliances, *S41 
Gumaer. P. W. Electric fans in the winter, *229 
Gunn, .V. Irrigation in the Wenatchee Valley, 


HALE. R. S. Rate making, 149 
Cheap house wiring, 204 

Bare concentric wire, 570 

Bandley, William. Cheap electric wiring, 332 
Hansen, t arl M. Proposed national electrical 

safety code, 1229 
Harrison, Haydn. Electrical industry in Eng- 
land in 1914, 8 

Electrical industry in England, 974 

Harriman, H. I. Water powers of New Eng- 
land, 751 
Harrington, R. E. (See Odav, A. B.) 
Haskell, B. Weakness in steel towers. 204, 516 
Haynes, A. R. Installation of reverse energy 

relavs, 221 
Hays, W. S. National electrical week, 58S 
Heath, V. N. Master-switch lighting circuits, 

Hebgen. Max. Montana Power Co. system, M535 
Henry, E. F. What does the user of a small 

motor require? 12S4 
Hickernell, W. F. Business cond'tions, 972 
Hogan, T. L., Jr. Radiotelegraphy and radio- 
telephony, 27 
Holding, H. H. Evaluating the isolated plant, 

Manufacturers and central-station service, 

Hoxie, G. L. Political economy and the engi- 
neer. 1549 

Hund, August. Differential method for the de 

termination of losses in coils, "1300 
Hunter, S. G. Rural meter service, 388 
Hurley, E. N. Price cutting, 301 

Ives, A. S. Enactors in rate making, 655, 783, 

Ives, H. I. Unit of brightness, 460 

TOLLYMAN, J. P. Practice in high-head hy- 
J draulic plants, 1513 

Jones, T. I. Merchandising by central stations, 

National electrical week, 276 

KELLY. G. H. Training dealers to sell ve- 
hicles, 553 

Kelm, A. C. Pipe thawing, 644 

Kennedy, S. M. National electrical week, 5S8 

Selling lamp-socket appliances, 1412 

Irrigation policies and rates in Southern 

California, *1471 

Kennedy, W. P. Review of the electric vehicle 
field, 25 

Kennellv, A. E. Applied electrical science in 
1914, 4 

F. D. Everett and A. E. Prior. Thermal- 
insulation tests of electrical ovens, *779 

Producing vector diagrams experimentally, 


Koppel, J. G. Opportunities for manufacturers 
in Russia, 77i 

LANCASTER, W. B. How faulty illumination 
injures the eye, 624 

Lathrop, Jav C. Enlarging a steam reserve sta- 
tion, -1161 

Latour, Marius. Considerations on the sensitive- 
ness of the heterodvne receiver in wire- 
less telegraphy, 1039 

Lawton, Willard H. Depreciation Accounts, 

Lavman, W. A. National electrical week, 333 

Leilich, F. T. Measurement of flue-gas tempera- 
ture, 901 

Leslie, E. A. Evaluating the isolated plant, 844 

Lester, Bernard. Types of fractional horse- 
power motors to employ in different 
services, 938 

Lewin, W. W. Cheaper wiring, 716 

London, W. J. A. Steam consumption guaran- 
tees of small non-condensing turbines, 

Luckiesh. M. Tungsten lamp in photography. 

Lyon, W. V. Calculation of the performance of 
an induction motor, 1168, *1240 

V/lcCABE, E. F. Lighting of country roads, 

McCollum, Burton. Responsibilities of owners 
of underground utilities in electrolysis 
prevention. 736 

McDowell, C. S. Searchlamps, 526 

McKnight, W. M. Stassano arc-furnace opera- 
tion at Redondo, Cal.. '1527 

McQuiston, J. C. National electrical week, 277 

Mat-Donald, 'Tames. Cost of valuation, 589 

MacGahan, Paul. Selective time element of re- 
lays, *597 

Magnusson, C. E. 200-mile artificial transmis- 
sion line, *1545 

Marshall, A. T. The electric vehicle and the 
central station, 1524 

Martin, T. C. American electrical industries in 
1914. 3 

Martindale, E. H. Causes of poor commutation 
and remedies, ^863 

Matthews, C. L. Business conditions, 517 

Mees, C. A. Auxiliary station for transmission 
system, *774 

Meissner, B. F. The "Electric Dog" and pos- 
sibilities of torpedo control bv beams 
of light, ♦HIS 

Mendenhall, B. W. National electrical week, 276 

Merrill, W. H. Aporoval of refillable fuse, 461 

Millar, A. R. Developments in illumination dur- 
ing 1914. 22 

Miller, Tohn M. The Skin Effect in Bimetallic 
Wires. 1612 

Miller, K. B. Distinction between cost and value, 

Mitchell, S. Z. Testimony on water power bill. 

Montgomery, Robert. National electrical week, 

Moore, L. T. Supervising 840 miles of lines, 

Murray. Donald. The Western Union multiplex 

printing telegraph, 1284 

for manu- 

Near, N. G. Why are switchboards elevated' 

Nutting, P. G. LTnit of brightness. 332 
Axial chromatic aberration of the human 

eye, + 625 
Photometric units, 645 

♦Indicates illustrated articles. 

ODAY, A. 1L, and R. E. Harrington. Illumina- 
tion systems for office lighting, *814 
Orr, R. S. Concentric wiring, 717 
Oudin, M. A. Future prospects of the electrical 
export business, 14 

PEEBLES, F. L. W. Under-voltage protection, 

Pender, Harold. (See George, E. E.) 

Pitts, H. B. . Commercial Practices in California, 

Poole, C. O. Static electricity from transmission 
lines, *77i 

Porter, L. C. (See Gove, W. G.) 

Potter, A. A. Prime movers in Amer.can plants, 

Distribution of power in electric generating 

stations, # 995 

Powell, R. C. Effect of third harmonic in volt- 
age wave, 157 

Calculation of illumination, M463 

Powelson, W. V. N. Testimony on water-power 
bill, 54 

Prior, A. A. (See Kennelly, A. E.) 

nile artificial transmission 

w-type mercury watt-hour 

printing telegraph system, 

circuit breakers, 524 

n illumination photometer, 





line ♦ 




A. A. 






P. M. 




K. C. 




, C. S. 



Storage-battery voltage regulation, M134 

Reed, W. B. Cheaper house wiring, 76 
Reynolds, L. R. Public utility accounting, 1531 
Richardson, H. K. American versus Continental 

Wiring Standards, 1157 
Kicker, ( . W. New power station tor City of 

Havana, 1233 
Riner, J. A. (See Culver, C. A.) 
Robertson, W. E. National electrical week, 27S 
Robley, R. R. The work of the load dispatcher, 

Roeber, E. F. Electrochemistry in 1914, 24 
Roemer, J. II. Municipal regulation of public 

utilities, 1511 
Rollins, R. W. Evaluating the isolated plant, 

Root, F. S. Window display for the central sta- 
tion, ^302 
Rosa, E. B. National electrical safety code, 

845, 915 
Rushmore, D. B. Characteristics of electric mo- 
tor involved in their applications, 523 
Russell, M. T. Stage Craft in the Electric Shop, 

Scherck, L. H. Concentric wiring. 390 

Schmidt, Ludwig W., Electrical Development in 

Russia, 1719 
Scott, A. C. Motor-driven plant of the "Dallas 

News," M62 
Scott, H. H. Constructive work before the 

N. E. L. A., 5 
Seabrook, A. II. Concentric Wiring in Great 

Britain, M156 
Sealy, Robert. Accounting for depression, 460 
Searing, E. D. Analysis of water wheel gov- 
ernor effort, -1513 
Shaad, G. C. Small electric generating stations, 


Electric Wiring, *1067, *1326 

Shane, Adolnh. Diminutive motor, ^900 
Shepard, E. R. Polarity reversal in synenronous 

converters, ^210 
Sheppard, R. K. Clearing house for electrical 

associations, 1100 
Smith, G. O. Testimony on water-power bill, 55 
Smith, L. G. Harkness electric lighting for 

motion-picture studios, M040 
Snyder, F. T. Electric furnace power loads, 

Steele. F. B. Records of Speed Variation, *1687 
Stevens, C. H. Demonstration of a power sale, 

Still, Alfred. Space Distribution of Flux Den 

sity, M679 
Stratton, S. W. Electrical safety rules issued, 

Strohm, R. T. Air-space of graves, 103 
Sullivan. Alan. Electrical year in Canada, 7 
Summers, L. L. Fixation of atmospheric nitro- 
gen, 729, 1109 
Svkes, F. G. National electrical weeK, 333 

TAIT. F. M. National electrical week, 388 
Taylor, A. 11. Double-audion type of re- 
ceiver, # 652 

Taylor, W. T. South American business and 
America's opportunity, 205 

Thelen, Max. Public utility regulation in Cali- 
fornia, 1512 

Thomas, P. H. High-voltage transmission at 
high altitude, *29, # 87 

Throop, G. H, Valuation methods of Pacific 
Gas & Electric Co., 569 

Tripp, G. E. Present industrial aepression, 11 

Business conditions, 310. 517 

Tuck, D. H. Photometry of gas-filled lamns, 78 

Turner, O. C. National electrical week, 388 



Tuspin, S. U. Babbitt metal, 169 

Installation of steam piping, *4I 5 

Stresses in steam pipes, 926 

The formation of Clinker in Coal, 1184 

The unaccounted for loss, 1306 

flNDERWOOD, \V B. Electricity for steriliz- 
*-* ing purposes. "34 

WAGONER, P. D. Selling trucks on the basis 
of adaptability of the work, 1322 
Wake-nan. T. M. Letting the public know. 148 
Society for electrical development. 1530 

Wallace, L. M. Accounting section of the X. E. 

L. A.. 644 
Washburn, F. B. The cyanamide process. 729 
Washburn, F. S. Fixation of atmospheric nitro- 

een, 1109 
Weiderman, George. Cheap house wiring, 204 
\\ eintraub, E. Fibrox. 1108 

I W., Tr. Electrical organizations in 

Germany, 48« 
White, R. B. Operating and Test Data for a 

Fuel Oil Engine and Generator. *1688 
Wiener. A. E. Indexing of electrical engineer- 
ing subjects, 1229 
Wilkinson. K. I.. Sau in overhead conductors, 


Williams, Arthur, National electrical week, 276 

Evaluating the isolated plant, 772 

The value of advertising. '1001 

Williamson. F. M. Anduri telephone repeater, 

Wirt. Charles. Concentric wiring 77 
Woodwortb, ... A. Cost of reading and main- 
taining steam-heating meters, 933 

Flexible central-heating system, "937 

Allowance for holiday habits, *997 

Locating overloaded sections in a central- 
heating system, 1123 

1 teresis loops, # 212 

ination of hys- 

The consolidatic 

of Electrical World and Engineer and American Electrici.< 
Published by McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 

Vol. 65 


No. 1 

The Business Problems 

CONDITIONS in the industry during 1914 and the 
hopes and prospects for the new year are discussed 
by authorities of experience and high standing in the 
articles published in this issue. The foremost of these 
problems are business rather than engineering in char- 
acter. From the beginning of the European war the 
economic effects have borne upon this country, not so 
heavily as upon other neutral parts of the world but 
more heavily than many competent judges thought 
would be possible. Having warded off serious disaster 
by prompt banking precaution, the country has drifted 
through five months of the war without that definite 
improvement in its affairs which is needed for sus- 
tained prosperity. The question of what governmental 
or private constructive policies are necessary to indus- 
trial health is the one that demands the earnest con- 
sideration of all who have our commercial welfare in 
mind. Mr. Tripp dwells on the fact that the welfare of 
home industry and labor depends upon home markets. 
This diagnosis is wholesome and suggestive. Let us 
put our own house in order. The governmental authori- 
ties, national, state and municipal, can encourage busi- 
ness, and if their attitude is helpful business will meet 
them more than half-way. 

The Rate of Return Changes 

SOME of the contributors to the symposium in this 
issue discuss the effect of the war upon conditions 
that must influence regulative policies of state commis- 
sions. The first conspicuous result of this kind was, of 
course, the complete change in front of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission in the steam-railroad rate case. 
With this stimulus from the leading regulative commis- 
sion of the country, which had not yielded previously to 
the arguments for generally higher rates, it is confident- 
ly to be expected that state commissions will show en- 
lightenment. Mr. Guernsey speaks of the plain fact 
that the cost of service includes the cost of capital and 
that the cost of capital will be higher in the future. 
Because many of the state commissioners have not 
had experience in financing or even in commercial bor- 
rowing they do not realize the profound truth that sup- 
ply and demand regulate money rates, that money is a 
commodity which flows to the best and safest market, 
and that in order to get money in times of scarcity it is 
necessary to bid higher than other borrowers. Conser- 
vation of capital is of world-wide importance. Natural 
demands will be increased by the abnormal demands for 
reconstruction in Europe as soon as destruction shall 
have ceased. Ample supplies of capital for needed ex- 

tensions of public utilities will be secured only by the 
promise of rates of return that are better than the 
rates obtainable in other channels of investment involv- 
ing equal risk of principal. That the conditions of sup- 
ply and demand will undergo changes for the entire 
world is a consideration which commissioners eager to 
encourage development will not ignore. 

Dissatisfaction with Public Service Commissions 

JUST as the principle of regulation is becoming estab- 
lished and almost all of the states have provided 
themselves with public service commissions, there are 
murmurings of discontent with some of the existing 
regulatory bodies. In New York, Ohio, Indiana, Idaho 
and other states the rulings of the commissions evi- 
dently are not drastic enough to suit, or what is still 
worse the commissions may have become the playthings 
of politicians while still in their infancy. This is re- 
grettable because an excellent principle is made to suffer 
by reason of abuse. A vast amount of costly detail 
work performed by commissions is unknown to the gen- 
eral public, work which is not spectacular in its nature 
and which cannot be staged in a way to impress the aver- 
age man. Moreover, in its efforts to remedy evils and 
effect reforms the public becomes impatient at delays 
and unreasonable at times in its demands. Reasonable 
or unreasonable, however, there is no escape from public 
wrath once it gains momentum, and creatures of the 
public must stand or fall by public whims. Weak com- 
missions have no reason for existence. They are dan- 
gerous alike to the public and to the utilities, and if the 
principle of regulation is jeopardized because of them, 
the sooner they are replaced the better it will be for the 
industries of the country. 

Letting the Public Know 

THE suggestion of President Scott of the National 
Electric Light Association that there is a work 
to be done in leading people to understand the value of 
electrical service has excellent possibilities. In his 
article on the constructive work before the association, 
published elsewhere in this issue, Mr. Scott says that 
the public does not know that, while everything else 
has gone up in price, central stations are giving much 
more in service than they did and that their prices are 
lower, "although their costs of lab^r, materials and capi- 
tal are higher. One reason why many people do not 
realize this is that it has never been told to them. It is 
the idea of Mr. Scott that Class A memt 2rs should make 
it their duty to explain the facts to the public. This is 


Vol. 65, No. 1 

a much-needed work. If it is not done from within the 
industry, it will never be done from without. If those 
who are responsible for furnishing the service cannot 
testify to the indespensable value of it, they will find 
that the world is too busy to do anything else than take 
what they furnish as a matter of course without any 
thought of its real value. The community interest in 
prosperity for the central station can be strengthened 
by the policy outlined by Mr. Scott. The proposal to 
inaugurate a movement at the 1915 convention is a most 
hopeful expression of a desire to bring the public in 
closer contact with the business aims and accomplish- 
ments of the central station. 

A Noteworthy Transmission System 

The plant of the Chile Exploration Company de- 
scribed by Mr. P. H. Thomas in this issue is noteworthy 
on account of the unusual character of the installation 
and the service it will be called upon to perform. The 
mines of the company are situated high up on the 
Andes at an elevation of between 9000 ft. and 10,000 
ft., the range lying within 100 miles of the sea. The 
territory is in northern Chile toward the northern end 
of the nitrate district, in a country that is desert from 
the sea to the mountains. The mines contain immense 
quantities of low-grade copper ore which is readily 
treated by electrolysis and is of a character to yield a 
particularly pure product when thus treated. Fuel at 
the mines is commercially unattainable. 

There being no available water-powers within reach, 
the transmission plant is one of the few long-distance 
systems receiving energy from steam power, in this 
case at the sea, where fuel oil can be obtained at a rea- 
sonable price. The seacoast point chosen for the plant 
was Tocopilla, and the generating station erected there 
has an equipment rating of 40,000 kva in four 10,000- 
kva turbo-generator units, delivering energy at 5000 
volts and fifty cycles. Pressure is stepped up to 110,000 
volts for transmitting the energy over a suitable tower 
line across the desert to the mines, where are seven 
2500-kw motor-generator sets, three with synchronous 
motors and four with induction motors. 

The transmission line, with which we are chiefly con- 
cerned, is somewhat out of the ordinary in design. Use 
is made of galvanized-steel towers spaced about eight 
to the mile and designed to carry the three wires in 
a horizontal plane. As compared with the usual stand- 
ard types employed in this country, the towers are 
stubby and wide, being only 47 ft. in height to the 
ground wire, while the base of the tower is 13 ft. by 16 
ft. The spacing of the-'- wires 12 ft. 11 in. apart is much 
r than is U li work. The advantage of 

the construction is its great mechanical solidity, which 
is more than usually necessary on account of the high 
winds which sometimes sweep over the mountainous 
desert country- ^ n *"«' Other hand, the low position 
of the wires is Unobjectionable, because there is nothing 
to fall across the wires, and no risk would be avoided 
by increasing the height of the lines. 

Use is made of insulators of the suspension type with 
seven two-part disk units. Arcing horns to protect the 
conductor and lowest disk are fitted to each cable clamp. 
To insure continuity of service the insulators have had 
the most rigorous series of tests of which we have yet 
heard. Every shell and each cemented disk when com- 
pleted was tested up to the flash-over point, and the 
flash-over was continued as a stream of sparks for half 
a minute. Barely more than 2 per cent of the com- 
pleted units broke down under this severe treatment. 
Moreover, puncture tests under oil were carried out, on 
insulators that had withstood other tests, in order to 
detect any serious want of uniformity in the product, 
and every unit was subjected for five seconds to me- 
chanical strain 10 per cent above that expected in serv- 
ice. Finally, completed insulators were strained until 
broken. The mechanical factor of safety was between 
four and five. In addition to all these, a heavy con- 
denser discharge under a transformer emf of 300,000 
volts was repeatedly thrown across sample insulators 
to afford an idea of their performance with transient 
discharges such as accompany minor disturbances from 
lightning. Under all these tests the insulators held up 
well, evidence enough of their skilful design and good 

Testing Cables in Service by Direct Current 

The use of high-tension underground cables in city 
distribution networks calls for the testing of such 
cables for acceptance. At the same time, such tests 
are difficult to make, except on very short cables, owing 
not only to the high voltage which has to be used but 
also to the powerful charging currents which the test- 
ing apparatus is called upon to deliver. On overhead 
aerial lines the charging currents and high voltages 
encountered in present long-distance energy transmis- 
sion are not so serious as to handicap the alternating- 
current system by comparison with the direct-current 
system, which has troubles of its own to meet when high 
voltages are employed. But in the case of long under- 
ground cables the handicap of the alternating-current 
system may become serious. If in the future high-ten- 
sion direct-current transmission systems come into use, 
the incentive for the change will probably arise from 
the needs of the transmission call 

In a recent number of the Klcktrotcchnische Zcit- 
schrift an article, referred to in this week's Digest, was 
contributed on the question by Pr. Lichtenstein. The 
author showed that by the use of a synchronous rectifier, 
operated in a testing wagon, with a high-tension alter- 
nating-current transformer, it becomes possible to ap- 
ply a suitable testing voltage to a fairly long cable after 
laying, without any of the difficulties from reactive 
current and power which beset the use of the corre- 
sponding alternating-current test. In order to employ 
a suitable direct-current testing voltage, equivalent in 
its dielectric stress to an alternating-current testing 
voltage 50 per cent In the working voltage, it 

is necessary to use three and nine-tenths times the 

root-meas-square working vi 11 

January 2, 1915 


American Electrical Industries in 1914 

By T. C. Martin* 

A STEADY and in many respects a notable advance 
was made in the restoration of American elec- 
trical industries in 1913 to the active and progres- 
sive conditions that had prevailed up to 1907; and all 
counted gladly on a full measure of prosperity for 1914 
that should mark the completion of the period of seven 
lean years. It was little anticipated that before half 
of the now-expired year had run the largest part of 
Europe, and incidentally the largest part of the rest of 
the world, would be plunged into war. It is some conso- 
lation to know that amid these cataclysms industries 
survive and can exhibit even some measure of growth. 
It will be admitted that under the existing circum- 
stances it is well-nigh, if not quite, impossible to pre- 
sent figures and estimates that will correctly portray 
the real outcome of 1914. One-half of the year was 
brightened by growing sunshine; the second half has 
been thrown into the blackest gloom, and he who can 
find the resultant curve at this moment must be the 
Prophet himself and not his son. The great monu- 
mental fact confronting any economic student is that 
the electrical industries of America have needed and 
will need millions of dollars every week for their legiti- 
mate and automatic expansion. It is has been a small 
sum perhaps, compared with the horrid, crazy waste of 
war, but the trouble is that while a bankrupt nation can 
still put up a fight for destruction with an empty treas- 
ury, a constructive corporation has to quit unless it can 
pay its bills for labor and material. This should be one 
of the great underlying arguments against government 

United States Census Returns 

In reaching some fairly accurate statistics for 1914, 
we are assisted by having available in several instances 
the returns of the United States Bureau of the Census 
for 1912. Thus, for electric street railways in that 
year a total gross income was reported of no less than 
$586,000,000. This, however, does not include electrical 
operation on main lines or in their suburban territory, 
so that the figure given in these columns in January, 
1913, for the whole — $625,000,000— would appear to be 
remarkably near the mark. A rate of 8 per cent growth 
since 1912 would give about $730,000,000 for 1914, and 
it is believed that this is well within the range of plausi- 
bility. It cannot be far wrong. 

The central-station figures are somewhat more diffi- 
cult to arrive at with reasonable approximation. An 
average rate of increase has been maintained for years 
far in excess of normal American rates, and the push 
and punch of the industry, aided by its growing diver- 
sity-factor, have yielded remarkable results. It would 
seem to stand to reason that an industry so interwoven 
with all others would feel the pressure of bad times. 
The fact is that it naturally does, but by no means so 
strongly as might be expected. Over the whole indus- 
try an average gain in gross of from 15 to 20 per cent 
per annum has been maintained. From 1907 to 1912 
the total income rose from $175,000,000 to $302,000,000. 
We get, therefore, somewhere around $400,000,000 
for 1914, not so much as was predicted, but undoubtedly 
it bulks up near the real figure. 

Telephone figures are also very difficult to arrive at 
owing to the perplexing complication introduced by the 
existence of "independent" systems in various parts of 
the country. The Bell system reported in 1913 gross 
earnings of $215,572,000, and it is understood that while 
it gained in that year some 8 per cent over 1912, the 

gain in 1913 was only 5 per cent. That, however, was 
worth while in such a frightfully "off" year. Assuming 
that the Bell system has more than a good half of the 
whole telephone business of the country as evidenced 
by other figures— in 1912 74 per cent of the wire mile- 
age and 58.3 per cent of the telephones — a total of $350,- 
000,000 for 1914 would seem moderate, especially as it 
is the same estimate as was made in these columns for 

Electrical Manufacturing Statistics 

As to electrical manufacturing, a United States cen- 
sus is now in progress under the five-year period sys- 
tem, but probably no true figures will be available 
from it for a year. The total for the last census year, 
1909, was $221,000,000, leaving out many items that are 
really electrical in their nature, and the rate of growth 
per annum was then shown to be 10 per cent. Evi- 
dently the lowest total to be considered would work out 
at around $375,000,000, while a more comprehensive 
estimate, including many branches of work not con- 
tained in the government returns, would justify a total 
of $450,000,000. 

Along the lines thus suggested, and subject to the 
closer study and checking of anyone interested, a table 
may be drawn up as follows as to the total expenditure 
in the United States on electricity in 1914: 


Electrical manufacturing *J52'XS2'SS2 

Electric railways Inn' ' 

Central stations .Sn'nnn'nnn 

Telephone service 12'SSS nnn 

Telegraph service iSt'nn!!'!!!! 

Isolated plants 125,000,000 

Miscellaneous 1^5,000,000 

Tota i $2,265,000,000 

•Secretary National Electric Light Association. 

This is only about $100,000,000 more than the total 
gross estimate given in these pages in January last for 
1913. The figures cannot be much out of the way. 
They have been checked up from a great abundance 
of data and from the views and opinions of many differ- 
ent authorities. At one point they may be somewhat 
high and at another rather low. Taken en bloc the 
writer is ready to stand by them, and it is a source of 
pleasure and pride to him to note that on the average 
they show every living soul in these United States to be 
spending voluntarily about $20 per annum for elec- 
trical materials and service, of which he would not 
spend a single cent if he did not benefit thereby. 

The growth in population would thus seem to afford 
some measure of the increase in electrical service and in 
the use of energy from the circuits, or in the consump- 
tion of material. This may be relatively true, but a 
number of disturbing factors come into play, and it is 
never quite certain what the population is from year to 
year. Moreover, the calculation is governed to a great 
extent by the fact that hitherto the commercial develop- 
ment of electricity has been based very largely upon 
an abnormal growth in the urban population. This 
tendency has not declined but still shows intensification. 
On the other hand, one of the most notable social and 
economic changes of the last few years is that due to 
the extension of electrical service of every kind to rural 
districts, and this condition has by no means yet reached 
its fullest manifestation. In fact, it may be said to have 
barely begun. Hence the population electrically con- 
sidered is a much larger percentage of the total popula- 
tion each year. 


Vol. 65, No. i 

Applied Electrical Science in 1914 

By A. K. Kennelly 

THF year 1914 will undoubtedly be signalized in 
the history of our world by two great epoch- 
making events, namely, the opening of the Pan- 
ama Canal and the opening of the worldwide war. Both 
events may be classified as relating to engineering or ap- 
plied science, the one being an engineering event of 
international constructiveness and the other an engi- 
neering event of international destructiveness. Both 
have distinct relations to electrical engineering, and 
both are doubtless destined to leave their impress upon 
human affairs for many generations. Nevertheless, we 
may well hope that, in the long run, the constructive 
effects of the canal upon international activities will out- 
weigh the destructive effects of the war. 

Influence of the Panama Canal 

The influences of the Panama Canal are manifestly 
destined to be more potent on civilization than those of 
the Suez Canal because, to use an electrical analogy, the 
route short-circuited is greater. The Cape of Good 
Hope lies approximately in south latitude 35 deg.. 
whereas the Magellan Straits lie in south latitude 53 
deg. By means of the new short-circuit the whole world 
is virtually made smaller and the nations of the Pacific- 
are brought into greater relative prominence. Elec- 
trical machinery and long-distance electrical control, 
with their concomitant modes of thought, not only actu- 
ate the locks of Gatun but will carry their stimulating 
influences to all parts of the Pacific. The center of grav- 
ity of the world's engineering activities must necessar- 
ily undergo some displacement. 

The War's Effect on Electrical Engineering 

The war has already exercised notable effects upon 
electrical science. On research, pioneer investigation 
and all that goes to pave the way for advancing engi- 
neering knowledge it has laid a heavy hand of repres- 
sion, many young men having been taken from the 
laboratories of Europe to trenches, fortifications and 
graves. The influence of this setback is likely to be felt 
in scientific research for many years to come. 

On the other hand, the war itself has had a remark 
able influence upon particular branches of electrical en- 
gineering, and notably on radiotelegraph engineering. 
This has been stimulated by the needs of maintaining 
communication between co-operating forces separated 
by considerable distances, especially as submarine 
cables have been intentionally cul in a number of places. 
Hostile cruisers have commandeered and erected radio 
stations, while they have also been captured by means oi 

■.-. sent <>ut through other radio stations. For the 

time in the world's history we have witnessed the 

regular use of radio transmission across the Atlantic, bj 

of the belligerenl powers, tor the dissemination of 
daily war bulletins. Radio communication has also been 
employed In the Held along the astonishingly long lino- 
running over hundreds of kilometers, while aeroplane- 
have also been equipped radiotelegraphically. Battle 
kept their ships in touch with radio Bignals, 
and "lamming" between hostile signalers is now p 

liar weapon in the new ethereal WB1 

i di peodi ' pon engineering a 
This is a petrol war, in which transportation to the 

the field beyond rail head has depended 

vital aobiles, advances of troops on the ranges 

,,f the mi roved type oi rapid Are cannon, and 

•prof, riltj 

naval contests on the results of shooting at distances not 
less than 6 km. It is manifest that next to discipline 
and morale engineering is most important in war. 

Another instance of the stimulus which war may give 
to engineering is afforded by the decision which has 
been recently announced in the press that, in view of 
the satisfactory experience last year with the electro- 
magnetic drive on the United States naval collier Jupiter, 
the United States Navy Department intends to try elec- 
tromagnetic variable-speed drive between steam turbines 
and propellers on a new battleship. On such a ship the 
demand for high fuel economy over a wide range of 
speeds is particularly great. Nevertheless, if the elec- 
tromagnetic drive proves very satisfactory on warships, 
it may be possible to extend its application to com- 
mercial vessels. 

Immense Field for Electromagnetic Research Opening Up 

Turning to more tranquil themes, the year just passed 
has witnessed a remarkable development in the elec- 
tronic theory of the atom. It is only about two years 
since Dr. Laue discovered the remarkable effects of the 
interference of Roentgen rays passing through thin 
crystal plates. This discovery appears to have set ajar 
the door of a new world, which many pioneers such as 
Moseley and Bragg are rapidly opening. 

The world of our immediate recognition may per- 
haps be described as commencing with the linear mag- 
nitudes revealed by the ordinary microscope and ending 
with the linear dimensions of the earth's diameter, a 
range in round numbers from a micron or meter-sixth 
up to some 10,000 km, or a meter-seven, a total range 
of ten million millions. Beyond this we recognize a 
telescopically revealed world of upper magnitudes com- 
mencing, say, at a meter-seven and going up to what 
limit we know not, but employing measures of decades 
of light-years, and light is supposed to travel in one of 
our years through nearly ten millions of millions of 
kilometers, or a meter-thirteen ; so that the upper mag- 
nitude world may lie estimated in round numbers as 
from a meter-seven to a meter-fifteen, or through an 
explored range of about one hundred million. There is 
now opened to our comprehension a third and lower- 
magnitude world, commencing, say, at a micron, where 
the ordinary microscope stop-, owing to the relative 
coarseness of light waves, and descending to we know 
not what lower limit, but already it is said to an infini- 
besimal part of a micron: that is, to the X-ray wave- 
length. The world of our immediate cognizance thus 
comes between an upper-magnitude telescopic world, 
with no known upper limit, and the new lower-magni- 
tude X-ray microscope world or under world, with no 
known lower limit. The under world is also an elec- 
trical world in the -euse that its dynamics and modes 

of exploration are essentially electromagnetic. Already 

the explorers in the under world are explaining to us, 

from the results of their measurements, some oi tin' 
mysteries of crystalline structure and holding out 

possibilities as to the yet deeper mysteries of atomic 
structure An immense field for electron 

be opening on the borderland between 

ours and the under world as the result of discoveries 
during 1914. 

While notable progress has been made in the invest i- 

n of extremely short electric waves, progress has 

also been made during 191 I at the other end of the 

spectrum, or in the extreme]} long electric waves of 
lonp radiotelegraphy. Ranges, powers and 

January 2, 1915 


wave-lengths have all been advancing. Moreover, 
marked advances have been made in the construction of 
very high-frequency machines for radio communication. 
It would seem as though the progress of engineering in 
long-distance radiotelegraphy called for the design of 
exciters of sustained oscillations in the sending antenna, 
as distinguished from exciters of oscillations in sepa- 
rate groups. 

Steady progress has been witnessed during the year 
in the direction of the manipulation, control and knowl- 
edge of high-tension phenomena in relation to trans- 
mission lines, including corona losses and over-voltages. 
Energy-transmission lines have increased in voltage, 
number and length. 

Applied Science of Illumination 

In the applied science of illumination, there has been 
a tendency to increase the use of the lumen or unit of 
luminous flux and to diminish the use of the candle or 
unit of luminous intensity. The tendency has been 
fostered by the difficulty which presents itself in the 
photometric measurements of certain new types of lamp, 
in which the zonal distribution of light is more than 
ordinarily complex. In so far as the tendency is parallel 
to similar movements in the past development of elec- 
trics and magnetics, it is presumably to be regarded 
as an advance. 

In the direction of standardization of electrical ma- 
chinery the publication by the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers of a new edition of its Standardiza- 
tion Rules constitutes a distinct step in advance. The 
new edition is not only a great improvement upon the 
old but it also covers much more ground, owing to the 
collaboration of many specialists in the various branches 
of electrical engineering. The new rules have not only 
presented a fine series of technical definitions, but they 
also abolish the antiquated preceding notion of an over- 
load capability to be expected in electrical machinery, 
like a bonus on a stock transaction. The new order of 
ideas in regard to thermal rating allows of no overloads 
in regard to temperature, but it establishes clearly the 
principle that each and every type of electrical machine 
inherently possesses a certain hottest-spot temperature 
that should not be exceeded if the particular insulating 
material entering into the machine is to be preserved 
from injury. Consistently with maintaining this limit 
of temperature, the capability of the machine to carry 
load depends upon the temperature of the machine and 
the cooling powers of its environment so that in win- 
ter weather, with low surrounding temperatures, a ma- 
chine may be capable of carrying considerably more 
load than in a hot engine room or at a summer tempera- 
ture. Under specified conditions of ambient tempera- 
ture the rated load may be obtained. 

Constructive Work Before the N. E. L. A. 

Bv Holton H. Scott* 

THE National Electric Light Association is a co- 
operative body and its operations cover a very 
wide field. Its membership embraces practically 
all central-station companies in cities of 10,000 or more 
in the United States and Canada and in addition many 
companies in cities of less than 10,000. Its proceedings 
and reports are a minute history of the development of 
the electrical business. The committee reports have 
established the latest authoritative standards in ap- 
proved, suggested or recommended practice, as, for ex- 
ample, in the classification of accounts, overhead-line 
construction, meter work, rules for resuscitation from 
shock, and the formulation of rules for accident preven- 
tion. The public policy committee deals with a wide 
range of subjects such as the relations with public serv- 
ice commissions, national departments of the govern- 
ment, state boards and bureaus, relations with the pub- 
lic, and relations with employees in regard to such mat- 
ters as pensions, sick and accident relief and profit 

Last year a new committee, namely, the educational 
committee, was created to bring about closer relations 
between our industry and the technical universities and 
colleges. This is important because from 30 per cent 
to 50 per cent of the graduates of the electrical engi- 
neering courses enter the central-station field and here- 
tofore no effort has been made by the association to sug- 
gest possible ways to make the courses more valuable. 
The committee will also arrange to have leaders of the 
industry make addresses from time to time before the 
larger universities, and it is hoped that this will result 
in much good. 

Our association has the means of reaching more 
people than any other body because each month a repre- 
sentative of our Class A members comes in contact one 
or more times with a property owner or a renter of 
property. The total number of consumers of our com- 
pany members forms a list that would be considered a 

•President National Electric Light Association. 

valuable asset by a mail-order house or bond house. 
It will be the aim of the present administration to 
formulate a plan which will stimulate our Class A mem- 
bers to teach their consumers something about the value 
of electrical service. This is the biggest constructive 
thing we can do because it is the inability of most of the 
public utility companies always to finance themselves 
that prevents the more rapid development of electric 
sales. Much has been said about the duty of the public 
service corporation to the public, but too little has been 
said about the duty of the public to the public service 
corporation. The public does not know that, notwith- 
standing the fact that practically everything else has 
been going up in price and notwithstanding the fact 
that we are paying more for our raw materials, for labor 
and for capital, we are literally giving three times as 
much for a dollar as we were fifteen years ago, to say 
nothing about the wonderful improvement in service in 
other ways. The public could not have possibly forced 
by legislation any reductions in rates which would have 
been the equivalent of the benefits it has derived from 
the installation of more efficient energy generating and 
consuming apparatus. 

Need of Public Understanding of Problems 

If the electric industry is to grow in the future as 
rapidly as it has in the past, the public must be taught 
that central stations are not selling a commodity, they 
are not selling kilowatt-hours, but they are selling a 
service. The public, or at least a portion of it, must 
be made to understand that the passage of drastic legis- 
lation and the hampering of the legitimate operations of 
central stations only makes it harder for the company 
to finance itself and makes it harder for the company to 
serve its community properly. 

If the N. E. L. A. can in a proper way through its 
Class A members cause that portion of the public to see 
matters in their true light, it will have accomplished a 
wonderful work. The writer has asked all the Class A 



Vol. 65, No. l 

members to give this matter of service serious thought 
and has invited suggestions, and it is the intention to 
devote considerable time at the 1915 convention to this 
broad question. 

The San Francisco Convention 

Our 1915 convention will be held at San Francisco 
from June 7 to 11, and arrangements for the meetings 
are well in hand. The transportation committee has 
already practically settled on the itineraries of the spe- 
cial trains, and the local hotel committee in San Fran- 

cisco has been at work for several months. Mr. John 
A. Britton, who was a recent visitor in New York, prom- 
ises that, notwithstanding the fact that it is the expo- 
sition year, the delegates to the convention will be well 
taken care of. He also expresses the belief that all visi- 
tors to the exposition will be agreeably surprised at 
the beauty, completeness and magnitude of the grounds 
and buildings, and we therefore hope to have a very 
large attendance. Notwithstanding the distance many 
will have to travel, this opportunity to visit the Pacific 
Coast will meet a widespread acceptance. 

Outlook for Central Stations in Pacific Northwest 

By 0. B. Coldwell* 

THE growth and development of practically all 
lines of industry in the Pacific Northwest during 
the decade ended with the year 1912 were with- 
out precedent. 

Throughout this period there was an increase in the 
demand for central-station service, which in some com- 
munities in individual years was as high as 30 per cent, 
the increase during the decade being such as to require 
the enlargement of the electrical facilities about five- 
fold. Those who were employed in central-station work 
in this section of the country were engaged busily in an 
endeavor to keep abreast of the rapidly increasing de- 
mands upon generating plants, transmission lines, sub- 
stations and distributing facilities which come into play 
in rendering electric service. The class of service given 
by the central station in 1902 was not so good in quality 
as is expected and furnished to-day. Hand in hand 
with the expansion of facilities there were carried out 
comprehensive plans for improving the quality of the 
service. This has resulted in the elimination of much 
of the apparatus of older types and the substitution 
therefor, at large expense, of new and more efficient ma- 
chinery, together with amplification of transmission 
and distributing facilities. 

Extension of Central-Station Lines 
During this period central stations have extended 
their lines into many new communities and have thereby 
been instrumental in bringing about a more rapid de- 
velopment of the country. This is especially noticeable 
in the expansion of the central-station systems operat- 
ing in eastern Washington, Oregon and certain sections 
of Idaho. Many rural communities in these States have 
actually been put on the map by the coming of the elec- 
tric supply lines of central-station systems. Electrical 
energy has entered into and become a part of rural life 
and is ever finding a wider application. It is unneces- 
sary to cite all of the various farm operations which are 
now taken care of easily and readily by electrical energy. 
Activity along these lines will continue. 

At the time many of these extensions were made the 
business in the community erved was hardly 

sufficient to justify the expenditui ry to carry 

out the construction work, but, having faith in the ulti- 
mate outcome and appreciating their obligations as pub- 
lic utilities, the central-station interests In the Mi 

li.-ive done their full duty in this very important 
work of helping to upbuild the communities. 

Water jiower plants are the eommon source of power 
n systems in this region, steam plants 
; il rule for Only relay and • 

" Ith an abundai i 

streams which fall rapidly in their course, ;m<! while 

the Bgures usually quoted about the quantity of power 
available represent what mipht be called the extreme 

ultimate potential possibilities, there is, even on the 
basis of present-day economic conditions, an abundance 
of water-power projects available for feasible commer- 
cial development. 

Time Needed to Develop Hydroelectric Projects 

It takes time, possibly one and one-half to three 
years, to develop one of these water-power sites and 
build transmission lines from the hydroelectric plant 
into communities where the market is located. It is 
essential, therefore, that central-station interests an- 
ticipate their requirements a sufficient time in advance 
so that the new plants may be built and ready by the 
time they are demanded. 

At the end of the above-mentioned decade of unusual 
activity at a time when economic conditions the world 
over were such that business was beginning to be 
affected, the companies in the Northwest, in many in- 
stances, with due regard for the demand which previous 
growth had led them confidently to expect, had entered 
upon the construction of additional facilities in gener- 
ating plants, transmission lines, etc. With the comple- 
tion of these additional facilities in 1913, there was 
something of a let-up in business and a resultant de- 
crease in the demand for central-station service. The 
result is that the central-station systems in the North- 
west find themselves with facilities somewhat in excess 
of immediate needs, and they are, therefore, in an excel- 
lent position to take care of new business in the near 
future, to which all are looking forward. 

Increased Population for Future Development 
It is generally appreciated in the Pacific Northwest 
that our greatest need for future development is an in- 
creased population. We are ambitious to attract more 
people to come here. Above all we desire the indus- 
trious farmer to help us introduce more intensive farm- 
ing met ; 

The Pacific Northwest abounds in undeveloped na- 
tural resources, which, through the opening of the 
Panama Canal, are over 5000 miles nearer the markets 
of the world. With the demand for manufactured prod- 
ucts which has already started and which will doubt- 
less grow to large proportions as the result of the Euro- 
pean war, these natural resources are hound to he an im- 
portant factor. Having unbounded faith that with the 
coming of the year 1916 there will be an increased de- 
mand for electric service, the central stations of the 
Pacific Northwest extend a cordial welcome to the home 
builder, the farmer and the manufacturer to come into 
our community and grow Up with us. We have demon- 

ted in the p.-i^t our ability to take care of am res 
sonable demand for ■'. our policy for the 

future will be to extend our S) Btems in such a waj 
take care properly of increased loads ;is they mate- 

January 2, 1915 


New England Central Stations and the War 

By Howard T. Sands* 

THE declaration of war in Europe in the midsum- 
mer carried to America a feeling of uncertainty 
regarding the effect upon business which can 
never be measured. The faith of the central-station in- 
dustry in the fundamental stability of electric service, 
however, has been justified by the experiences of the 
last five months, and unless developments in interna- 
tional affairs not now apprehended arise, there is every 
reason to believe that 1915 will bring increased prosper- 
ity to electric light and power companies in this 
country, particularly to operating organizations which 
enjoy or are in a position to cultivate a diversified load. 
Varied Industries Served 

Many New England central stations supply energy to 
communities of varied industries. Such cities and towns 
have felt the effects of the war much less than munici- 
palities dependent upon a single large industry. The 
supply of electrical energy means so much to the gen- 
eral public that as a rule even the shock of hard times 
has failed to prevent growth of service, although prog- 
ress would be faster with more favorable conditions in 
the business world. In the Tenney companies in New 
England the number of new electric meters set since 
Aug. 1, 1914, has increased 2 per cent over the number 
placed in service in the period between Aug. 1 and Dec. 
1, 1913, and there has been no decrease in the average 
of kilowatt-hours used per meter in service. Since the 
war began our New England companies have gained 
some 1500 new customers, and in some instances the 
October and November gains were greater than at any 
previous time in the history of the individual organiza- 
tions reporting to the headquarters office. 

The economies of electric drive are winning recogni- 
tion in all branches of industry. Manufacturers who 
seek to reduce expenses and increase output per ma- 
chine are turning to central-station service with an in- 
terest heightened by present business conditions, and 
in the lighting and appliance fields the popularity of 
electrical energy has continued to increase practically 
without reference to conditions in many other lines of 
industry. Between Aug. 1 and Dec. 1, 1914, these com- 

panies connected 1872 hp in new motor business. Sales 
departments have been remarkably successful in extend- 
ing service in the most varied fields. 

Few persons outside of the central-station industry 
and allied activities realize the extent to which electric 
service pervades modern affairs, and even many who 
are within the field of electrical supply fail to appreciate 
the great opportunities for further development. A 
study of diversity factors in different industries and in 
the field of appliance service and commercial lighting 
shows that the eventual date on which a growing and 
live community can be considered electrically saturated 
cannot be predicted. Within the last few years the price 
of electrical energy has been generally reduced, and 
this, combined with decreasing cost of appliances be- 
cause of production on a larger scale, special campaigns 
and better adaptability to the needs of the average man 
and woman, is contributing powerfully toward the en- 
during success of the industry. 

Electrical merchandising is more prominent than ever 
before, and in the motor-service field the savings in net 
operating cost per unit of product are, with the other 
advantages of the electric drive, responsible for the 
steady expansion of this class of service toward limits 
that cannot be foreseen. 

A Good Showing Despite Adverse Conditions 

The rapid advance of electrical energy as a necessity 
of modern life, which has enabled the companies to 
make a good showing despite almost unparalleled ex- 
ternal adverse conditions, will be continued in the new 
year with beneficial results to public and investor alike. 
It would be futile to claim that a business depression 
has little effect upon the electrical industry, but, so 
far as New England is concerned, that effect has been 
rather to restrict extensive new construction in indus- 
trial fields offering a wider market for service than to 
curtail expansion of central-station loads in existing 
enterprises. That the industry has shown a positive 
growth under the conditions of the last five months 
ought to encourage everyone's faith in the outlook for 
the future. 

The Electrical Year in Canada 

By Alan Sullivant 

IN Canada the sale of electrical energy proceeded in 
an entirely satisfactory way until the latter part 
of the year, when business became affected gen- 
erally by the war. Until that time progress had been 
excellent. At the end of July one of the largest corpo- 
rations reported a yearly increase of 15 per cent in 
energy sold. The same corporation reported later that 
the amount of its October, 1914, business was identi- 
cal with that for the same month in the previous year. 

Since August, however, both manufacturers and 
private individuals have decreased materially their con- 
sumption of energy. Merchants are displaying unusual 
economy in lighting their shops and citizens have re- 
duced their entertaining to a minimum, with the result 
that the revenues of electricity-supply corporations 
have been reduced. 

The business of the privately owned light and power 
companies has been handicapped further by competi- 

tion with municipally owned enterprises, which pay 
neither taxes nor dividends. This peculiar governmen- 
tal competition has had a deterrent effect upon the in- 
vestment of foreign capital. This influence and the 
current tightness of money mean a double burden upon 
private enterprise. The light and power companies of 
Canada are making every effort to secure public recog- 
nition of the fact that they should have conditions of at 
least equality with those of their rivals for business. 

As tending to offset these difficulties there has been 
evolved a type of management unsurpassed in effi- 
ciency and in practical interpretation of the essential 
meaning of "service." In fact, it might be stated that 
the service given by privately owned companies in 
Canada has secured and will continue to hold for them 
the most profitable business in their communities. 

The report of the Department of Inland Revenue for 
the year ended March 31, 1914, indicates that six of the 
largest hydraulic generating stations produced over 
1,500,000,000 kw-hr., of which about one-half was for 



Vol. 65, No. 1 

export. Out of 128,471 electric meters tested by the 
government, only 224 were rejected. This is an excel- 
lent showing. 

Business on the Pacific Coast has been about the 
same as in the East. A few manufacturers are work- 
ing double shift on foreign and domestic war orders, 
but most have curtailed their activities. 

Notable New Development 

New development of note has been confined prac- 
tically to that of the Cedars Rapids Company, on the 
St. Lawrence River above Montreal. Here the ultimate 
output will be 180,000 hp. It was expected that the 
first units would be in operation by January, 1915, and 
they have, in fact, already been completed. The Elec- 
trical Development Company, now controlled by the 
Toronto Power Company, has installed two additional 
generators, yielding about 20,000 kw. 

Owing to the unprecedented lowness of water during 
1914 many hydraulic plants on northern rivers have been 
short of power. This result is attributable largely to 
the lack of adequate snowfall during the preceding 
winter and to an exceptionally scanty rainfall. This com- 
bination has made costs of generation more than usually 
high for the companies affected. In western Ontario, 
however, electrical energy is being developed by gas 
engines supplied by natural gas at a cost of $14 per kw- 
year. It is difficult to see how energy transmitted 180 

miles from Niagara at a cost of $32 per kw-year can 
compete under these circumstances. Yet this is what 
certain municipalities are attempting to do in the pur- 
chase of energy from the Hydro-Electric Power Com- 
mission of Ontario. 

Co-operative Movement 

All through Canada there has been a movement on 
the part of privately owned companies to co-operate. 
Thus a system of co-operative purchasing of electrical 
supplies is about to be established, by means of which 
not only a high standard and a thoroughly standardized 
article but also a low price which will benefit directly 
the ultimate consumer, the man in the street, will be 
secured. This will comprise part of the work of the 
members of the Canadian Electrical Association for the 
coming year. 

The association, through the close watch which it 
keeps on legislation that may affect privately owned 
companies, was successful in securing a reduction of 
50 per cent in the proposed amount of the corporation 
tax in the act passed recently by the Ontario government. 
As is generally known, the association is a sister or- 
ganization of the National Electric Light Association, 
with which it is in affiliation. Col. D. R. Street, secre- 
tary-treasurer of the Ottawa Electric Company, is 
president. The membership extends across the conti- 

The Electrical Industry in England in 1914 

By Haydn Harrison* 

GREAT BRITAIN has now been at war since 
August, and it is a proof of the importance of 
the electrical industry that our factories are as 
full as ever of electrical work of all descriptions, while 
those which are provided with suitable tools are work- 
ing day and night to produce the seemingly endless list 
of electrical and mechanical contrivances needed in 
modern warfare. 

The perfecting of manufacturing methods which has 
been carried out by those producing electrical machinery 
has naturally led to these works being particularly effi- 
cient for rapid production of war materials. Thus 
many of our works now present an altered appearance. 
In place of stocks of electric motor covers, piles of pro- 
jectile cases are to be seen, and accurate machines which 
in times of peace were turning out parts of electrical 
appliances are now rotating day by day grinding out 
essential parts of engines of war. 

The War and Electrical Workers 

When Lord Kitchener decided that it would be neces- 
sary for tins country to prepare millions of men for the 
fighting line recruits came forward from all classes arid 
trail'' ; bul it ooii became obvious that volunteers taken 
from engineering workshops would seriously affect the 
supply of war materials; or. in other words, thai a 
mechanic working at the lathe or the bench, doing his 
share in the production of war electrical or other ma 

rhin> more value to the country than tin 

inic behind a rifle al the front. Thus volunl 
from this source are now being thanked for their ex 

i init are asked to 

remain al I heir posts in the workshops. This show:, Imu 

important the electrical n the protection of 

.mil it mil Li I ion to I he 

lournal to know how well provided for 
pa t. on bo "nni of the effl 
of her engineering woi ind the men 


who work in them. To all engineers it cannot fail to be 
gratifying to know that the importance of their indus- 
try will be more than ever realized by the world at 

Growth of the Industry 

In order to appreciate the growth of the electrical 
industry in Great Britain during 1913-1914 it is only 
necessary to note the increase in capital invested, 
namely from £435,100,000 to £458,700,000, or by £23,- 
600,000. In the previous similar period the increase 
was under £12,000,000, and it is therefore obvious that 
considerable development has taken place. 

This increase is partly accounted for by the steps 
taken by the main-line railways to electrify such of 
their systems as are de\oted to carrying the millions 
of daily workers backward and forward to London. 
This can hardly be called suburban traffic since, for ex- 
ample, the London & North Western Railway is in 
process of electrifying its line as far as Watford. IS 
miles from the city. The London & South Western 
Railway is similarly occupied in connecting the river- 
side residential districts. The success of electric trac- 
tion mi the London. Brighton & South Coast Railway 
has no doubt led to tin' others following suit; but. 
despite this success, it is noticeable that neither of the 
other lines mentioned has adopted the same system, 

namely, inch tension single-phase with stationary 
transformers on the trains. They have preferred I 

substations and transform the high-tension supply from 
iinr stations to direct current at 500 volts. 

' ail, in place of an overhead conductor 

\\ ith the exception of the Brighton line, the railways 

are putting Up their own generating stations. This 
. at a time when bulk supply schemes are r. 

Ing bo much favorable consideration, must appear to 
man] as incomprehensible, it can only be concluded 
that difficulties of Intel n between the various 

compar I ave arisen. 

\ further source of increase to the electrical Indus- 

Jam aky 2, 1915 


try is the more general use of electric drives in factories 
and workshops. This is especially noticeable in the 
manufacturing districts, where the lighting load is be- 
coming relatively insignificant. 

The effect of the reduction in output due to the intro- 
duction of the tungsten lamp is now being compensated 
for by the large increase in lighting consumers and also 
by the demand for improved lighting. However, the 
high cost of installing electric circuits is still largely 
preventing the use of electricity among the lower mid- 
dle classes. The result is that municipalities owning 
electricity undertakings are awakening to the advan- 
tage to be gained by obtaining the right to borrow 
money to wire premises and install fittings on the hire 
or hire-purchase basis, as their competitors, the gas 
companies, having such rights, are to a large extent 
able to hold their position among the less wealthy 
classes by virtue of them. 

Progress of Electric Cooking 

This remark applies particularly to electric cooking, 
which is now beginning to make progress in England. 
It has been the custom of the gas companies to rent gas 
cookers and other appliances at such reasonable rates 
as to allow of their use among all classes down to that of 
the artisan. In order that electricity may compete in 
this direction it is evident that a similar policy must be 

To encourage electric cooking many of the supply 
companies now charge 0.5d. per kw-hr. plus a small 
charge on the ratable value of the house, or, as an alter- 
native, a minimum charge. At these rates there is no 
doubt that the cost of electric cooking and heating com- 
pares favorably with, and is in many cases less than, 
that of gas, but the cost of the appliances and wiring 
still bars the way to its general adoption. 

The supply of electricity to small towns and villages 
is receiving more attention owing to the prejudice 
against overhead mains being slowly but surely over- 
come. This branch will soon represent an important 
field of development, as small gas companies are not in 
a position to work economically and cannot compete 

with electricity generated by means of internal-combus- 
tion engines. The number of such towns in England is 
very large. Few of these can be reached by bulk 
supply companies, and in any case small local under- 
takings are proving a sound financial investment, 
which, when money is more available for the purpose, 
will no doubt be sought after by the investing public. 

The Nitrogen-Filled Lamp 

The advent of the nitrogen-filled lamp has failed to 
have any appreciable effect for the moment. The pro- 
duction of it in England has only just begun, and its 
most important field, namely, street lighting, is now 
receiving little attention on account of the precautions 
being taken against the enemy's aircraft by reducing 
the lighting of the streets. 

Steps are being taken by the supply undertakings to 
popularize the electric road vehicles — more particularly 
the slower-speed delivery vans. This development is 
progressing slowly, but it is anticipated that by this 
time next year it will form an appreciable factor in the 
electrical industry. 

At the present moment the government is busy erect- 
ing winter quarters for the thousands of men who are 
being prepared for the fighting line, and it is a sign of 
the advance of electric lighting that nearly all these 
camps, temporary as they are, are being lighted through- 
out by electricity. Many of them are in the very heart 
of the country, out of reach of any supply, and are 
therefore being provided with generating plants of 
their own. Nevertheless, before this article is in 
print the majority of these camps will be built, drained, 
heated and lighted throughout, which is in itself an in- 
dication that the Britisher can meet an emergency when 
called upon. The emergency which the British nation 
is having to meet now cannot fail to awaken those in- 
stincts in the individual which lead to rapid develop- 
ments in the arts of peace. There can be no doubt that 
the whole world looks forward to an early cessation of 
war. When this wish is granted, the development of 
all industries, including our own, will go foward with 
renewed vigor in this country. 

Opportunities for the Central Station in the Electric- 
Vehicle Industry in 1915 

By John F. Gilchrist* 

SUBSTANTIAL commercial progress is promised for 
the electric vehicle during the twelve months to 
come. Already we have seen the uses of the pas- 
senger car broaden until it is finding more and more 
favor with business and professional men. The recent 
business depression and consequent personal retrench- 
ment on the part of many of the people have, in the case 
of the electric automobile, only served to bring out more 
strongly the latter's advantages and economies in com- 
parison with the gasoline car. Well-to-do business men 
who formerly owned and used cars of both kinds but 
have latterly felt it to be the course of prudence to 
give up the use of one or the other have, almost invari- 
ably, retained their electric cars for personal and busi- 
ness purposes. No better testimony than this could be 
asked for the economy of the electric vehicle — to say 
nothing of all its obvious advantages of convenience, 
simplicity, reliability and ease of operation compared 
with other vehicles. 

•President Electric Vehicle Association of America. 

One of the most important features in the develop- 
ment of the passenger vehicle has been the garage fa- 
cilities offered owners of electric cars in the larger 
cities. In comparison the commercial truck has suf- 
fered from the lack of such facilities, and if the develop- 
ment of the commercial truck business has latterly 
fallen short of the optimistic expectations of a few 
years ago, the fault may be laid, very largely indeed, to 
this lack of garage facilities. 

Greater Charging Facilities Needed 

Few garages doing an electric passenger-car business 
are in suitable locations for handling trucks, nor do 
they have the charging facilities for supplying the large 
currents required by the truck batteries. And where 
the progressive garage man considerately takes the elec- 
tric truck under his roof he is often confronted with 
protests from women owners of pleasure vehicles, who 
declare that they will not have their favorite cars kept 
alongside delivery wagons, the protesters seeming to 
fear that damage to their vehicles will ensue. 


Vol. 65, No. l 

On the other hand, the electric truck stabled in a gar- 
age with gasoline trucks is placed at a disadvantage 
from the outset. Not only does it suffer from the ab- 
sence of experienced attention, but as it sometimes has 
to withstand the prejudice of the garage "hikers," a 
poor performance showing is often made to the owner 
of the truck. 

Operated in fleets under experienced supervision, the 
electric truck has invariably fulfilled the most optimistic 
promises made by its adherents and has given every 
satisfaction to its owners. To give the user of one or 
two trucks the same advantages, it is evident, therefore, 
that we need more commercial garages, catering exclu- 
sively to the electric truck business, and manned with 
attendants experienced in the care of batteries and 
electric vehicles. 

Possibilities of the Electric Passenger Car 

But it is in the development of the electric passenger 
car that the greatest possibilities seem to lie just ahead. 
Limiting its usefulness as a man's car, the electric has 
for years suffered from the handicap of a lack of va- 
riety in body design. 

In mileage, speed and performance the electric vehicle 
has long fulfilled all the requirements of that ideal uni- 
versal utility car which its advocates predict that ulti- 
mately it will become. But in designing the bodies 
along the single line so closely followed thus far the 
broadest development of the electric car has been seri- 
ously trammeled. If the five-passenger arrangement of 
seats employed on gasoline cars has been proved to be 
the most useful after fifteen years' experience on hun- 
dreds of thousands of automobiles, we should not hesi- 
tate to apply a similar design to the battery-driven 
chassis, even if at the risk of being called imitators of 
gas-car models. 

To repeat, the mileage, speed and economy of the 
electric vehicle are already highly satisfactory, but we 
need a more workaday design of body, for the banker, 
the professional man, the business man and the sales- 
man making city calls properly demand models differing 
from the luxurious cars which ply the boulevards. 

I lility Passenger Cars for Central-Station Work 
If a movement which is now receiving some consider- 
ation by the Electric Vehicle Association of America 
be adopted and prove successful, it will open the way 
for the introduction of practical electric passenger cars 
of enlarged usefulness in many cities and towns of the 
country. As the first step it has been proposed that 
100 central stations each agree to purchase during 1915 
one electric vehicle which may be a standard car or 
may be of a special design considered particularly serv- 
iceable for central station work by a committee of cen- 
tral-station engineers. Special prices have been ob- 
tained for these i of twenty-five. 

With these practical electric passenger cars in use 
by electric companies scattered over the country, ex- 
amples would lie Bel for local owners, and. it is believed, 
there would result a great demand for electric vehicles 
of a type to replace the present popular two seated gas- 
car model, but with all Hi ■ inherent advantages of elec- 
tric- operation. 

Viewing the transportation requirements of the elec- 
trical industry for a minute, there certainly appears no 
n why an ition organization in this 

country should have h ;i single gasolint 

when t he el. 1 1 in- vehicle [a capable of performing ■■ 

duty required bj the business. An 
■ made, perhaps, in the case of the com- 
pany • men must 
large territories, But try-road work the 

need Is for a machine of Small lise and weight, rather 

than for one of any particular type of motive power, and 
thousand-mile tours have already demonstrated the de- 
pendability of the electric for the widest variety of road 

Have the Central Stations Done Their Share? 

Although many central-station companies have helped 
in the work of introducing the electric vehicle, the fact 
remains that as a whole the central-station industry has 
not done its share in popularizing the electric automo- 
bile. Not only have the central stations failed to push 
vehicle sales among their customers, being content to 
sit back and take the vehicle-charging revenues when 
these have come through the efforts of others, but, as al- 
ready intimated, the electric companies have ignored 
their own duty to use themselves the machines they 
prescribe for others. 

This condition has been brought about in part by the 
lack of confidence of company executives and in part by 
the prejudice of the men lower down. With thoughts of 
a Sunday spin in the country, too often the man whose 
work requires the use of a car during the week very 
humanly picks his machine with the week-end joy ride in 
view, rather than the sober requirements of his daily- 
job. These men need training in loyalty to the elec- 
trical industry, if, indeed, they are not lacking in knowl- 
edge of the possibilities of the electric vehicle. Their 
superiors also, perhaps, need to know more about the 
vehicle to give them courage to insist on the use of elec- 
tric vehicles at all times when such cars can perform the 
company's service satisfactorily. 

An End to Bickering in the Industrv 

We have been witnesses long enough to the bandying 
of charges and counter charges between central stations 
and manufacturers, on the one hand, that vehicles should 
be sold at lower prices, and on the other that lower rates 
should be offered for vehicle-charging service. Instead 
of assuming agreement with the extreme positions of 
these claimants, let us take the word of each on the 
operation of his own business and admit, for the sake 
of the industry, that electric cars of the quality which 
the makers say the purchasing public demands cannot 
be built more cheaply than those now offered. Let us 
also concede that the central station is justified in the 
rates which it is forced to charge to deliver energy to 
the private garage. The cost of electricty, like the cost 
of gasoline, is, after all, but a fraction of the cost of 
running an automobile. Let us put aside these dissen- 
sions within the electric-vehicle industry, and let us 
silence the carping claims of those who seek to evade 
responsibility ami effort by the familiar process of 
blaming others. 

Co-operation That Will Bring Reandta 
"Co-operation" has been a much-used word in the 
electrical industry of late a word dinned into our ears, 
in. Iced, until it has almost lost its meaning. But there 
HOW ami real significance in the kind of co-operation 
which will follow if, while the vehicle maker 
freebj to the central station active assistance in the de- 
velopment of the Im-al field, the cent ral- station staff, from 
executive to salesman and troubleman. will in return 
specify electric vehicles as the onlj cars for their work, 
and thus set an example to the community which they 
With dOSer cooperation in this was between 
. and with bet- 
iraging facilities for both commerical and passen- 
ars, the electric vehicle is bound to come to the 
front and ultimately to serve the general public in an 
overwhelmingly large proportion of cases calling for 
the use of a motor-driven conveyance either for bust- 

January 2, 1915 


The Present Industrial Depression 

By Guy E. Tripp' 

THERE is little difference of opinion about the 
extent and intensity of the present industrial 
depression, but there is much about what has 
caused it. 

It is laid at various doors — the war, tariff reduction, 
"unliquidated" condition of labor, troubles of the rail- 
roads, anti-trust legislation, competition, monopolies, 
and some make up combinations of these to suit them- 

What follows may be interesting if only for pur- 
poses of comparison with other ideas that have been 

The effect of the war on world industrial conditions 
has been full of surprises. English manufacturing 
concerns generally are now unusually busy, not alone on 
war materials but in the production of usual supplies, 
because English shipping has not been greatly inter- 
fered with and manufacturing orders throughout the 
world that had been given or were about to be given 
to Germany have been canceled and generally placed in 
England; and, as a result, strange to say, a greater de- 
pression probably exists in the manufacturing indus- 
tries of the United States than in England. 

Shock to Capital Caused by War 

The effect of war orders that have been received here 
has been more than offset by the unparalleled shock to 
capital and the world-wide disturbance of financial cur- 
rents and exchanges, the war being a revelation to many 
of us of the extent to which we are a debtor nation. 

This country will probably receive further war orders 
and to that degree will derive benefit ; but should the 
Allies be victorious the nation that will receive the 
greatest impetus and permanent business increase will 
probably be England. 

This does not say that our foreign commerce, partic- 
ularly with South America, cannot be increased ; but, in 
my opinion, the conditions after the war will be sub- 
stantially what they were before — that is to say, the 
foundation-stone of American manufactures will be our 
home market, and anything that weakens it will do 
damage that will not be offset by any increase that is 
likely to come in our foreign trade. 

We shall still be a debtor nation, and England, if she 
wins, will still be rich and her ability to do foreign 
financing practically unimpaired. Her possessions and 
colonies will tend to trade with the mother country out 
of patriotic feelings and the rest of the world will be in 
sympathy with her and largely financed by her. Nor 
will the situation be much different if Germany wins, 
for she will probably regain her trade very rapidly. 

Therefore, I repeat, the welfare of home industry 
and labor will depend upon home markets quite as much 
or more after the war than before. So much for the 
effect of the war. 

One of the important factors in determining our in- 
dustrial future is the so-called "liquidation" of labor. 
This is ordinarily understood to mean a reduction in 
the rate of wages, but there probably will be no perma- 
nent reduction in wages. 

Variations in wages go hand in hand with the cost of 
living. Higher wages mean higher costs of production 
and consequent higher prices for necessities. Another 
contributing cause to higher wages and cost of living is 
the lesser intrinsic value of the "yardstick" by which 
"cost" is measured, namely, the gold dollar. 

•Chairman of the board of directors, Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company. 

In the last few years the amount of gold per capita 
has greatly increased, principally on account of the 
enormous new output of African mines, and this means 
that the "yardstick" of exchange has shrunk accord- 

Another cause contributing to the high cost of living 
is education and advance in civilization, with the accom- 
panying increasing demands for comforts and luxuries. 
One other cause contributing in some cases to higher 
wages, and thus to higher cost of living, is the arbitrary 
raise demanded by labor unions. 

If, as a result of any of these factors, wages are rel- 
atively too high and cannot be reduced, and the cost of 
living cannot be readjusted in any great degree, it seems 
obvious that the effect can be offset only by a reduced 
return to capital or increased prices or greater effi- 
ciency of labor. 

An increase in prices would have a temporary effect, 
but that again would increase the cost of living. 
Whether or not this would, in turn, tend to increase 
wages would depend largely upon business activity and 
the supply of labor available to meet the demand. 

Speeding up machines and other devices to get more 
work out of employees, while it may in effect tempo- 
rarily reduce wages, creates unrest and does not perma- 
nently increase the efficiency of the man. His efficiency 
can be increased only when he is willing to have it in- 
creased, and human nature is such that he must be 
offered a reward before he is willing, which means that 
a portion of the savings effected through extra exertion 
or care must be given to the workmen. A great deal 
is now being done in that direction by manufacturing 
concerns, and the more progressive employers in other 
industries are adopting the theory more and more. 

A concrete case is that of an electric-light company 
whose manager, as an illustration of his methods, de- 
scribed recently how he had fixed a standard for read- 
ing meters. He adopted the simple method of multi- 
plying the number of meters read by the standard price 
and deducting the meter readers' payroll from the sum, 
dividing the difference between the company and 
the meter readers, with the result that for several years 
(although his business has increased at a normal rate) 
it has not been necessary to employ any new men in this 
department. That is real efficiency work and the only 
light that I see in the direction of permanently "liqui- 
dating" labor. 

Competition Versus Monopoly 

Perhaps the next important question to be adjusted 
(if it can be adjusted) is competition versus monopoly. 
Very few believe in an uncontrolled business monopoly 
under our political institutions, but unfortunately dur- 
ing the last decade the public mind has settled into such 
a suspicious condition that many business methods, and 
even agreements and contracts, which are not only 
harmless but desirable from the standpoint of the pub- 
lic welfare are prohibited and business is certainly more 
or less hampered. 

However sympathetic one may be with this hypersen- 
sitive public opinion, in view of many indisputably 
obnoxious business methods which brought it about, he 
must certainly stop short of approval of present laws 
when they protect the foreign buyer against the Amer- 
ican seller. 

The methods now fostered by these laws have been 
set out by Mr. John D. Ryan in his description of the 
tactics adopted in copper purchases by a foreign ring 
of buyers. The operation was simple — a group of large 


Vol. 65, No. 1 

copper buyers would get together in London or Ham- 
burg, pooling their needs and advising small purchasers 
throughout England and Germany to place copper pur- 
chases in their hands for the purpose of getting lower 
prices. Then, as a next step, they would sell a few 
million pounds of copper short in the London market in 
order to establish a low quotation. With these prelim- 
inaries they would appear in the New York market for 
an astoundingly large order for copper and "shop it 
around." Naturally, the American producers, being 
forbidden by law to combine in submitting a price and 
equitably dividing the order, entered into fierce compe- 
tition, with the result, as Mr. Ryan says, of a loss of 
about $00,000,000 annually to an American industry. 

Foreign-Trade Exemption from Anti-Trust Acts 

There is no valid argument against excepting foreign 
trade from the operations of the Sherman and Clayton 
anti-trust acts. 

So far as the railroads are concerned, since they can 
do so little of their own free will or without previous 
approval by the Interstate Commerce Commission, they 
certainly cannot be blamed for failing to secure a suffi- 
cient amount of net earnings to pay return enough on 
capital to attract it to their needs; and, since there is no 
way of compelling investors by law to invest their 
money in railroads, it has been obvious that an increase 
in rates must be approved; but it has taken a very long 
time to get the relief, and in consequence it comes at 
a time when financial conditions could hardly be worse. 

It seems quite certain that there is not, and probably 
will not be for some time, any European buying power 
of American railroad securities, and it is doubtful 
whether there is surplus capital enough in the United 
States to supply the railroads and at the same time do 
all the other work that is waiting if the work is to be 
done upon an essentially cash basis. 

But we have ample labor desirous of employment, 
needing food and clothing; we have ample wheat for 
food, cotton for clothing, mills and factories anxious 
for orders, railways eager for traffic. 

The present need, then, is the movement which will 
put labor at work producing, thus not only providing 
labor with means to purchase its food and clothing, but 
at the same time setting in motion the idle mills, fac- 
tories and railroads. 

This can be done only if, first, the wage demanded by 
the laborer is sufficiently less than the value of his prod- 
uct to allow the employer a fair margin of profit, and, 
second, if the employer either has or can obtain by 
credit the capital required to bridge the period until he 
receives returns for his products sold. By "capital" is 

meant not necessarily gold but accumulated stores and 
supplies useful to others, of which gold is merely the 
unit of measurement, being not in itself capital. 

Therefore, with our accumulated wealth of wheat, 
cotton, manufactured materials and the like, our abun- 
dance of labor and facilities for manufacturing and 
transportation, we have sufficient instruments for bring- 
ing about general prosperity, provided only that confi- 
dence be restored and sufficient credit extended. 

One other thing is essential, that while the laborer is 
worthy of his hire, he is not entitled to receive reward 
greater than value given. He must be content with fair 
and not relatively too high wages. On the other hand, 
he is entitled to, and must receive, a fair wage, suffi- 
cient for his support and something over. 

Likewise, the railroad is entitled to receive fair com- 
pensation for the services rendered, sufficient for its 
support and enough over to pay a fair interest upon the 
wealth invested in it by its stockholders. 

If the rates recently established by the Interstate 
Commerce Commission are high enough for this and to 
thus induce further capital investment, then capital and 
credit will be forthcoming; otherwise it is doubtful if 
the railroads, notwithstanding the rate increase, have 
yet solved their problems. 

Effect of Tariff Reduction 

The effect of the reduction in the tariff has been ob- 
scured by the war conditions, but the balance of trade 
was running against the United States when the war 
broke out. The tariff went into effect in October, 1913, 
with the result that the balance of trade (which in every 
month of 1911, 1912 and 1913 ran largely in our favor) 
began in April, 1914, to be against us. What the re- 
sult would have been in the end is hard to say, but the 
immediate effect would probably have been very de- 
pressing even if there had been no war. 

This year we were fortunate in having great crops. 
Those of the West and Northwest are finding a ready 
market and are creating a great buying power in that 
section. The South is not so fortunate in the cotton 
conditions, which have resulted in great depression 
there. However, the cotton will eventually be sold. 

I have not the figures at hand, but the surplus of a 
crop which is 10 per cent above normal will build a good 
many miles of railroad, and every year we are nearer 
being able to furnish our own capital for our own needs, 
but until we accumulate surplus capital it will be a mis- 
take to stop encouragement and protection of our home 
trade on the erroneous theory thai we can seize, from 
either England or Germany as the case may be. enough 
export trade to make up for it. 

Effect of the War on Regulation of Public Utilities 

By Nathaniel T. Guernse] 

Tin: total wealth of the United state, is roughlj 
estimate (mo, i.oon. oi this aggre- 

gate, more th.-.n $28,000,000,000 la represented by 
h ■• ire common d a public 

utilities, Including the telephone, the telegraph, eli 

el© light, heal and 

and property employed in furnishing water 

power, water, gas and t ran- portal ion. 

■ ha taught the public thai competition, 

• n local public utilities, | | a public Inn 
■ of a public benefit that it means hiss and 

e, with eventual consolidation i the remedy. 
ed i rom competil Ion to regulal Ion, 

and to-daj practically all of the utilities in the United 

States are subject to regulation DJ one or more tri- 
bunals, federal, state or municipal. 

Regulation Governed l>> Public interest 
Broadly, what determines the scope of this regula- 
tion i . the public interest, which is that the service fur- 
nished h\ the8e utilities In' good and ellicient service, 

available to the entire community, thai there be no dhv 

nation between members of the community, and 

that the price charged for the service be reasonable. Die- 
crimination has never been a factor of great 
qiience from the public poinl of view, excepl in connec- 
tion With the operation Of the railroads, and as to them 

it has peon target) eliminated It may be noted in 

January 2, 1915 



passing that in what was its most offensive form, 
namely, rebating, it was the outgrowth of competition 
for business. Questions as to service still arise, and will 
continue to arise, but they are not and will not be of 
controlling importance. The modern public utility is 
well managed and has thoroughly learned the lesson 
that it is to its advantage to give to the public the very 
best service which the rates paid by the public will 

The serious, vital question which is involved in this 
experiment, because regulation has not yet passed be- 
yond the experimental stage, is presented in connection 
with the determination of the return which must be 
earned upon this enormous investment. The indirect 
effect of the concrete experiences growing out of the 
present European war promises, in connection with the 
solution of this question, the most lasting and im- 
portant influence of the war upon the utilities of the 
United States. 

The direct effect of the war upon the utilities has been 
obvious, but will be merely temporary. Because the 
utilities are essential parts of all business transacted 
in this country, war between the principal nations of 
Europe, with which we have most intimate business re- 
lations, could not fail to react to some extent upon the 
business of this country and of its utilities; but this 
war cannot permanently impair business conditions in 
the United States. The effects of the sudden readjust- 
ments which the war made necessary are already begin- 
ning to disappear. Ultimately, the result of the war 
should be to increase and not to decrease the business 
and commerce of the United States. 

Fundamental Truths Demonstrated by War 

But the war has afforded a striking, concrete appli- 
cation of some of the fundamental propositions under- 
lying the adjustment of rates of public utilities which 
should demonstrate the soundness of the views of the 
commissions which have commenced to recognize these 
principles, and which should be of immense permanent 
educational effect in connection with the matter of rate 

There have been grave and fundamental misconcep- 
tions as to what in fact determines the amount of the 
returns which public utilities must earn. These mis- 
conceptions have been due largely to a failure to cor- 
rectly apprehend two fundamental facts — first, that a 
public utility requires continual additions to its capital, 
and, second, that this capital must be acquired in a com- 
petitive market. 

Theorists, in discussing these matters, have looked at 
the investment in a public utility as a fixed thing, and 
have discussed the amount of the return upon the as- 
sumption that this investment is already made, is used 
for the benefit of the public, and cannot be withdrawn. 
This is fundamentally wrong, in that it ignores the big, 
persistent, practical question in financing public utili- 
ties, which is, how shall the new money be obtained to 
provide for the constant additions to the plant which 
are necessary if it is to serve the public properly and 
keep pace with the development of the community? 
This is a live, vital question, which arises year after 
year, and every year. 

It is useless to theorize as to what money invested in 
utilities ought to earn. It is impossible to establish any 
fixed rates, as 7, or 8, or 9, or 10 per cent. The question 
is a practical and concrete one. It is, what rate of re- 
turn is essential in order to enable the utility to secure 
the new money that is absolutely necessary if the utility 
is to perform its functions efficiently? This rate is not, 
and cannot be, fixed, because conditions affecting the 
money market are not permanent but are constantly 
varying. This proposition underlies the conclusion of 

the Interstate Commerce Commission in the "five per 
cent case," filed Dec. 16, 1914. The commission says: 

"The conflict in Europe will doubtless create an 
unusual demand upon the world's loan fund of free 
capital, and may be expected to check the flow of for- 
eign investment funds to American railroads. It ap- 
pears that our railroads represent the bulk of European 
investment in this country. The rate of interest — the 
hire of capital — has risen during the last decade, and 
may rise still further. It is computed that in the years 
1915, 1916 and 1917 the carriers in official classification 
territory must arrange for the payment or refunding 
of securities aggregating over $500,000,000 * * * 
But we do not doubt that the financial problems of the 
carriers have been made much more acute by reason of 
the war, and if we are to set rates that will afford rea- 
sonable remuneration to these carriers, we must give 
consideration to the increased hire of capital as well as 
to other increased costs." 

The new money for public utilities must come from 
the general fund seeking investment, made up of the 
combined savings of the public. The investors who own 
this money are not controlled by philanthropic purposes 
in making their investments. The money will go where, 
all things being considered, it will receive the largest 
profit. Public utilities will not obtain the portion of this 
fund which they require unless they are allowed a re- 
turn which will successfully bid for this money in this 
competitive market. The most important effect of the 
■ war upon the public utilities of the United States is 
that it has brought these things out into sharp relief, 
through actual experience. This experience has demon- 
strated the unsoundness of the contention that there is 
some standard return which is adequate for money in- 
vested in public utilities. The declarations of war 
created conditions so radically affecting the money mar- 
ket that securities were offered in such quantities that 
it was necessary to close the exchanges of the world to 
avert a panic. This demonstrates conclusively that a 
profit which will make an investment attractive under 
some circumstances is utterly inadequate where the 
conditions have radically changed, and that this profit 
must and will vary with the variations of the condi- 
tions affecting the money market. 

Again, this experience has thoroughly exploded the 
fallacy underlying the contention frequently made that 
because the money invested in public utilities is de- 
voted to a public use it is not entitled to as much profit 
or return as money devoted to private uses. The money 
which supplies the fund for investment in public utili- 
ties comes from the aggregate of the small savings of 
the entire community. The very great proportion of 
these investments is in small amounts. Most of these 
investors could not afford to furnish this money for the 
public for less than it is worth in the market, and none 
of them are disposed to do this. 

The Investor and the Utilities 

In the final analysis, the investor determines the 
price which the utilities must pay for his money. It is 
he who finally determines whether the prospective profit 
is attractive enough to induce him to part with his 

The regulation of public utilities will not be estab- 
lished upon a sound basis until these propositions are 
understood and recognized. Their soundness will be 
conceded by the public as soon as they are brought to 
the attention of the public in such a way that it clearly 
understands them. The public utilities cannot furnish 
service at less than it costs. Regulation may bankrupt 
some utilities, but it cannot, in the long run, obtain 
service for less than it costs, and as a part of that cost 
there must be reckoned the cost of the money. 



Vol. 65, No. 1 

The prompt recognition of these propositions is to 
the interest of the public as much as it is to the interest 
of the utilities. The enormous investment in these 
utilities is the investment of the public ; it represents 
the savings of the public; its protection is the protec- 
tion of the public. And there is another equally im- 

portant public interest. The public requires efficient 
service available to all. Such service cannot be rendered 
by a public utility which is not receiving adequate com- 
pensation. It would be a short-sighted public policy, 
that could only result in failure, which attempted to 
secure this service for less. 

Future Prospects of the Electrical Export Business 

By M. A. Oudin* 

AN analysis of our electrical exports, as far as the 
rather unscientific method of classification per- 
mits of such examination, discloses the fact that 
the United States holds a most important position in re- 
spect to the exports of apparatus of large capacity, and 
especially of electrotechnical machinery which demands 
engineering and designing talent of a high order in 
its production. In Japan, India, South America, Mex- 
ico and Canada — in fact, all countries but those of 
Europe where water-power development has been a 
striking industrial feature — American hydroelectric 
machinery will be found to be generally preferred to 
similar apparatus of other countries. 

America Outdistanced by England and Germany 

On the other hand, the record shows that the United 
States is far outdistanced by both England and Ger- 
many in the export of small apparatus and electrical de- 
vices. The proportion of exports of such electrical ap- 
pliances and energy-consuming apparatus to machinery 
of large capacity is in an inverse ratio to the employ- 
ment of these two general classes of electrical products 
in the United States. 

The inference to be drawn from this aspect of the 
electrical trade, foreign and domestic, is that the 
former is largely carried on by manufacturers 
who by means of their resources have advanced the 
art and design of electrical manufactures and estab- 
lished effective selling organizations abroad, and in con- 
sequence have been enabled in the world's markets to 
overcome partially the competition of other great manu- 
facturing nations. Another and more important in- 
ference is that the future development of the export 
trade in electrical machinery and supplies, on any great 
and comprehensive scale, depends upon the extent to 
which the very numerous small manufacturers will 
recognize the necessity for a broader export market for 
their goods and will apply themselves to the task of 
winning it. 

So long as the war lasts, and probably for some time 
after its close, American export trade in all lines of 
manufacture, save those for which the war has pro- 
duced a direct demand on the part of the belligei 
will more or less languish, following the trend of inter- 
national trade. The reasons for this arc well known, 
principally the diminished purchasing power of 
neutral countries and the paralysis of business activi- 
ties as a result of the war. The future prospects of the 
electrical business after the war is over particularly 
concern us, and they will be briefly considered. 

Conditions When tin- War Is Over 

Regardless of the duration of the war and of th< 

tent of Its devastation and of the financial exhaustion 

produced I It, o long ■ the phj ileal properties and 

plants of our principal competitors are not 

nanufacturing pn will nol be 

I and their competition, potentially and 
ill remain most formidable. Both sides will 

i mpany, ind 

emerge from the wreck and ruin of the war with a 
keener desire for foreign trade and a corresponding skill 
and alertness and a greater determination than ever to 
win it. But both sides may not then be in a position to 
compete on the same footing as before, either with 
each other or with the United States, because of the 
conditions which the victors may possibly impose upon 
the vanquished. The future foreign trade of the United 
States may be greatly affected by the outcome of the 

Should the dual alliance finally win, a number of im- 
portant markets which have been shared by England 
with the whole world would be hard to hold. It is con- 
ceivable that our most formidable Continental trade 
rival might become industrially so powerful as to make 
competitive and commercial opposition very difficult. 
The expansion of our business abroad would then be 
attempted under a greater handicap than any which 
now exists. 

The greater opportunity of the United States lies in an 
international condition which will maintain the world's 
markets as free and as open as they are to-day. It 
seems to be evident that on account of racial feelings, 
unfortunately aroused by the war, the countries at 
war with Germany, their colonies and some neutral 
countries will either cease to purchase German goods 
or will greatly lessen their dealings with that country. 
Germany will then be partially eliminated, for a more or 
less indefinite time, from participation in the trade of 
a number of countries which have been large purchas- 
ers of her. The contest for this trade will be largely 
between England and the United States. To-day Eng- 
land is making a most effective campaign to capture 
the trade Germany has hitherto enjoyed. In addition 
to the war now waged by means of her armaments on 
land and sea, she is making a most vigorous war on 
German trade. To this end the English government is 
taking a very active part. 

Energy and Resourcefulness Needed 

The present is a time when the energy and resource- 
fulness of American manufacturers must bo put forth 
in an effort to capture foreign markets, with at least 
the same intensity that has been shown in the develop- 
ment of our industries at home. We should first of all 
address ourselves to reducing the cosl of production. 
Generally speaking, our selling prices in the world's 
markets arc too high. We should adopt a new attitude 
toward foreign credits and financing foreign enter- 

. remembering thai a very large percentage of the 
export manufactures of England and Germany is the 

result of their having invested their savings in the 
enterprises of other countries. We should adopt as far 
as applicable to our industrial organization the meth- 
i selling abroad employed by our competitors. We 
should invoke government assistance as far as is con- 

it with our domestic problems. Especially would 

it pay us to give particular attention to the activities 
now being displayed by England in the commercial war 
upon her greatest competitor. 

Another very important point for consideration is the 

January 2, l!)lf> 


obstacles to the extension of our foreign trade arising 
from the existence of certain federal laws upon our 
statute books. In the first place our antiquated marine 
laws impose burdens and conditions on steamships fly- 
ing the American flag so that they cannot be operated 
economically or in competition with ships of foreign 
registry- The laws distinctly discourage any increase 
in our merchant marine. Again, the anti-trust laws, 
while passed for the protection of the American con- 
sumer, so read as to tie the hands of American export- 
ers and prevent their competing with the foreigner on 
the same terms. 

There should, of course, be no restriction upon the 
proper and reasonable enterprise of American manu- 
facturers, whose aim is to increase the foreign trade of 
the United States by united effort. Yet export associa- 
tions and combinations to this end are prohibited by the 
present laws. The removal of this handicap will enable 
small manufacturers to seek in a competitive manner 

foreign markets from which they are now expressly pro- 

Factors Which Govern Electrical Export Trade 

The factors governing the export trade in electrical 
products are the same as those which influence the trade 
in other lines of manufactures. Consequently the gen- 
eral conclusions to be drawn from this brief survey of 
the export situation are applicable to the electrical in- 
dustry. We may conclude that the future prospects 
for the American manufacturer of electrical machinery 
and supplies are bright. An increase of any conse- 
quence in electrical exports cannot be expected at the 
present time. We can confidently look forward to real- 
izing in the future broader export markets for electrical 
machinery and supplies, provided always, however, that 
the present is devoted diligently and intelligently to in- 
vestigation and adequate preparation, with this object 
steadily in view. 

Results of the War for Public Service Commissions 

to Consider 

By Henry Floy* 

TO the casual reader of the above title there would 
seem to be no connection between the European 
war and the regulation of our public utilities in 
America. But to one who weighs the matter it will be 
seen that not only must the war affect the practices of 
public regulating bodies but that it has' already begun 
to have such an influence. 

Within a few months the European war has shown 
what would ordinarily have taken years to demonstrate 
clearly, namely, that the regulations and decisions of 
our public utility commissions are but ephemeral and 
must be revised from time to time. It has shown that 
questions answered by public regulating bodies with the 
best light available and with more or less assurance that 
permanent solutions have been reached cannot be con- 
sidered as finally settled, but must rather be held to 
have been answered for only the time being, and will 
always require amending and re-settling, depending 
upon shifting conditions and fluctuating financial mar- 

The professional philanthropist has been accustomed 
to argue that once regulation became effective the rates 
of any corporation could be so fixed as to permit earn- 
ings that should provide an exact and minimum so-called 
fair return on the property used, and that under such 
circumstances there would be no need for further con- 
sideration of the subject, except possibly to order re- 
ductions in rates from time to time as inventions, im- 
provements or increased business allowed increasingly 
larger earnings to be realized. 

Higher Interest Rates 

Interest rates are likely to continue higher than in the 
recent past, owing not alone to the conditions which have 
prevailed since the war was started but also to the in- 
evitable after-effect of greater demands for capital for 
reconstruction and the re-creation of property lost and 
wasted. In common with other corporations, utilities 
have felt the results of the general public demand for re- 
duction in the profits of corporate properties ; and many 
utilities operating under public regulation have found 
that the cost of money is too high now to permit them 
to make additional capital investments with assurance 
that public regulating bodies would permit the 

•Consulting engineer. New York. 

higher rewards demanded at present by capital. Con- 
sequently new construction has been curtailed to the 
minimum, and expenditures for improvements that were 
absolutely necessary have been financed through short- 
time notes or similar obligations. 

Almost uniformly the precedents and decisions of 
state commissions and courts have held thus far that, 
while it was necessary to provide for operating expenses, 
an allowance for depreciation and a return on the value 
of the property, nothing at all, or at least no special al- 
lowance, was required to cover exigencies or contingen- 
cies. The result is that utilities generally have been 
forced to pay out all of their earnings to maintain their 
standing and conserve the market value of their securi- 
ties. Now that the European war has created unusual 
demands for money and that capital is insisting upon 
increased rewards, prevailing rates for services in all 
the markets of the world must be increased if public 
utility corporations are to be enabled to secure the addi- 
tional capital required for their constantly growing 

One Reason for Public Utility Troubles 

Aside from the war, the primary reason for the 
pinched position in which some of the public utilities 
find themselves is the failure of the individuals on some 
of the state public service commissions to adopt a 
statesmanlike attitude toward the problems brought be- 
fore them. When it is possible for men who have never 
shown any particularly great business sagacity or engi- 
neering ability, mediocre lawyers and individuals whose 
chief recommendation has been activity in behalf of 
municipal ownership or increase in the number of 
federal, state or municipal employees, to be selected as 
public service commissioners, the policy of regulation is 
in serious danger. 

Executives and managers in charge of public util- 
ity properties, having devoted their time and en- 
ergies from youth up to the construction and operation 
of such properties, usually have won their present posi- 
tions, paying as much as $25,000, $50,000 or even higher 
salaries per year, as a result of competition and proved 
qualifications. In some states public service commis- 
sioners receiving $2,500 to $5,000 a year are passing on 
business matters involving $100,000,000, although these 
men have never evinced ability to originate or partici- 


Vol. 65, No. 1 

pate or co-operate in any large business enterprise. 
Such men cannot be expected to understand and ap- 
preciate — and, as a matter of fact and common knowl- 
edge, they do not — the necessity for scope, flexibility 
and allowance for some freedom of action in large 
affairs. Sometimes men are appointed to membership on 
commissions who have the ability to grow, and they en- 
large their viewpoint so that after a few years of serv- 
ice they develop the proper judicial attitude and render 
decisions that are constructive, liberal and fair to both 
the public and the companies. The result of the Euro- 
pean war upon these public servants must be to make 
them appreciate that rates for capital will vary with 
money conditions; that while commissions may be able 
to force reduction of rates, they cannot compel invest- 
ors to put their free capital into unattractive or unre- 
munerative enterprises. Rates for capital must be made 
attractive and comparable with returns allowed in other 
and equally risky enterprises, or no money will be forth- 

coming to provide the necessary additional extensions 
of property required by utilities. 


The European war has therefore hastened recogni- 
tion and appreciation of the facts that: 

First — Rates of return allowed public utilities are 
controlled primarily by current demands and rates for 
money, without regard to regulating or law-making 

Second — Decisions of commissions made at a speci- 
fied time under a particular set of conditions may have 
to be revised promptly when these conditions are 

Third — The limitation of rates of return to 6, 7 or 8 
per cent, as has been held fair by public authorities 
under past conditions, must be increased under existing 
and probable future conditions if utilities are to secure 
the additional capital they require. 

Large Questions of Public Policy Before the 
Electrical Industry 

By W. W. Freeman' 

ONE of the problems confronting the industry at 
the present time is that of educating the public 
to the importance of stabilizing the earnings of 
public service companies as a matter of advantage to the 

For several years the public policy committee of the 
National Electric Light Association has devoted much 
time and effort in urging upon the industry the im- 
portance of recognizing and practising the most modern 
ideas as to the obligations of public service companies 
to the communities which they undertake to serve. 
The "humanizing" of the industry lias been the burden 
of several reports and recommendations which have been 
cordially received and generally followed. While this 
educational work among ourselves has been timely and 
useful, it may not lie amiss to consider whether there 
is not special justification and necessity just now to 
point out the duty which the public owes to itself to 
enable the public service companies to serve the public 
satisfactorily and adequately. There is possible dan- 
ger that the liberality of companies toward their em- 
ld their customers may lie misinterpreted as 
indicating unusual prosperity, and that the very mani- 
festation nt efficiency and liberality may invite unjust 
ml attack. 

Fundamental Facta 

There are certain fundamental fad affecting i he re- 
lation of the utilities companies and the public that 

before the public. It should 
be better ui ban it appeal to be generall] that 

all public service companies t arc properly perform- 
ing their functions are doing a real and necessary 

If it were nol ompanie . I h 

would have to provide the capital and perform the 

In man., it not this WOUld be impos- 

Where private capital pri the 

municipality Is nol only relieved of all Anancial burden 
and ri k but additional revenue is provided tin 

on of the company. This is a twofold advantage 

to the public, provided, of course, that the service fur- 

i Itj Itself would 


be able to supply. To those who are in position to know 
the facts no proof on this point is necessary. 

In enlisting the service of a public utility company for 
its people the municipality should be principally inter- 
ested in seeing that the service provided is adequate and 
first-class in every particular. 

The rates charged should be reasonable, but they 
should be high enough to earn and secure a proper 
standard of service. As between low rates and poor 
service, on the one hand, and reasonable rates and good 
service, on the other hand, the public will generally 
choose the latter, if it really understands the situation. 
The trouble in some cases is that the ignorant or prej- 
udiced are misled into thinking that the company would 
like to charge the highest rates obtainable for the poor- 
est possible service. 

The time has come for the intelligent people in everj 
community to realize and preach that the public owe it 
to their servants, the utility companies, to recognize 
their services at their face value, and not expect to re- 
ceive loyalty and efficiency in the inverse ratio of the 
distrust and abuse meted out to them. 

What Profll Reallj N 

When the proper relationship between the quality and 

the i"l of the service has been established the other 

e comparatively easy of adjustment. Even 

the question of profit otters no real difficulty when it is 

appreciated that the company merelj seeks the measure 
of profit necessary to provide proper and adequate 
ice, What is called profll is in realitj an unavoid- 
able element of expense. It is the wage the Company 
must pay for the capital employed in the liusiness, just 
as it must paj wages to its employees. If the w 
paid are inadequate, the employees will seek work • 

where, and similarly if the ware, to capital, or the divi- 
dends, are below the prevailing standards, the companv 

will be unable either to retain its full present capital, 

because of shrinkage in market value, or to obtain the 
additional capital which a public Bervice company must 

Continually have to further the development of its 


If in a private business the enterprise is unable to 
its CUStomen, that business al. i as the 

•■■ elsewhere for then- n Is, but in 

January 2, 1915 



the case of a public service company with an entire com- 
munity depending upon it the people are as much the 
losers by reason of poor and insufficient service as are 
the stockholders of the company. 

It is strange how many sincere persons think that the 
profits earned by utility companies are very large, 
whereas the same people would not be satisfied in their 
own business with several times the rate of return 
which is received by the investors in public utility 

Possibly the best proof of the sincerity and good in- 
tent of utilities companies generally is the fact that the 
rates have not been materially affected by reason of the 
drastic regulation of rates and methods which has been 
applied throughout the country in recent years. While 
rates have been reduced in some places, they have been 
ordered raised in others, and it is safe to say that such 
forced reductions as have been secured have been no 
more radical than the purely voluntary reductions in 
former years. 

In short, regulation by the public has served more to 
emphasize than to change the policies of the industry. 
This is a fact that we are justified in making known as 
entitling our companies to receive the good will of the 

"Service First" Should Be the Actuating Motive 

The slogan "Safety first" has recently been used very 
effectively, in our industry and others, in arousing inter- 
est in the important object of accident prevention. 
Possibly the words "Service first" may be used to ex- 
press the underlying thought that should actuate both 
the public and the utility companies in their mutual 
relations. If service in its fullest sense be considered 
the first requisite, there can be no excuse for refusal 
or unwillingness to grant to any companies an earning 
capacity which should be sufficient at all times, and 
under all recurring conditions of ease or stress, to ren- 
der a service uniformly good and correspondingly valua- 
ble to the public. 

The Art of Rate-Making 

By Alex Dow 

WHEN an electric-light company was only a light- 
ing company, selling light at night in competi- 
tion with gas and trying hard to sell enough 
energy to pay for the coal used on the day run, rate- 
making by guess was fairly safe and was likely to be 
equitable. People who bought electricity for lighting 
were paying for a novelty, an advertisement or a lux- 
ury. People who bought electricity for motor service 
were paying for convenience and knew it. And the 
highest price obtainable was in most of the early ven- 
tures too low to be profitable. 

Now that electricity supply has established itself as 
a public service in the broadest sense, when the smallest 
apartment and the largest industry are alike dependent 
upon the central station, when at one end of the rate 
schedule the service must compete with that given by 
highly efficient steam plants and at the other end must 
be within the reach of the workman's family, the mak- 
ing of rates is an art guided by rules which are shaping 
themselves into a science. 

Rate-Making an Art 

Rate-making will continue to be an art, because rates 
are made for the future. Science can show exactly 
whether last year's rates were fair or unfair, adequate 
or inadequate last year. It needs art, and skill in the 
art, to estimate the undeterminable factors that will 
control costs and sales next year and in years there- 

What is given below is based upon twenty-five years 
of personal experience. For the first seven years of 
that period my rate-making was empirical — not to say 
haphazard. For the last eighteen years it has been in- 
creasingly methodical, following rules which I have held 
to be in accordance with the underlying equities. These 
rules are given here, not as a code of the law or the 
equities, neither as a challenge to discussion, but for 
what they may be worth to others studying the same 
problems. In my case they have served their purpose, 
apparently to the complete satisfaction of everyone con- 

A rate schedule must, when applied to the total serv- 
ice to be dealt with — that is to say, the total business of 
the company for any given period — provide for the pay- 
ment of all the costs of performing all the service and 
in addition thereto must provide a reasonable return, 

•President Edison Illuminating Company of Detroit. 

for that period, upon the total investment devoted to 
the service. 

Reasonable Return Upon Investment 

It is convenient for our present purpose to consider 
the reasonable return upon investment as something 
separate from the cost of performing the service. But 
the reasonable return is truly part of cost. It is the 
cost of the necessary capital. A reasonable return is 
that return which will bring freely the necessary capital 
into the service — neither less, else the capital will not 
come, nor more, else an excess of capital will be in- 

The cost of service includes the maintenance of the 
operating efficiency of the plant and also the mainte- 
nance unimpaired of the invested capital. These main- 
tenance costs must be collected as they accrue, not as 
they fall in. Else future service will have to pay part 
of the cost of past service, which is unjust. Therefore 
a depreciation reserve, or other acceptable method of 
insurance against coming impairment of efficiency or 
impairment of capital, must be taken into the reckoning 
in rate-making. 

Each Class Shall Pay Its Cost 

If a rate schedule provides for classification of serv- 
ice — as practically every schedule does — the respective 
class rates must be such that each class shall pay its 
own costs. Otherwise one class must pay the cost of 
service to another, which would be unjust. This may 
be put concisely thus : No class of service may be per- 
formed at a loss. It would be well that no single cus- 
tomer should be served at a loss, but that would require 
a meticulous exactness of rate-making and of account- 
ing impossible in public service. The law disregards 
trifles. Public service may well do likewise when as- 
sured of their triviality. 

The converse to the requirement that no class of serv- 
ice may be performed at a loss is: The rate schedule 
must not require from any class an excessive return 
upon investment. Between these limits — that no serv- 
ice done at a loss and that none must be called' 
upon to pay an excessive return — the adjustment of the 
rate is a matter for business judgment. 

Value of the Service 
Here the much-discussed factor of value of the serv- 
ice enters into rate-making, and here only does it enter.. 



Vol. 65, No. 1 

Simultaneously and equally there is required consider- 
ation of the value of prospective business to the estab- 
lished business in giving a broader basis for the bur- 
den of costs. It is permissible to take business at a 
rate which merely repays to the utility the costs (in- 
cluding capital costs) incurred by the addition of this 
business. But it is not desirable to do so. Low incre- 
ment cost is an index of desirability, but to make the 
business desirable it must not only pay its increment of 
cost but must contribute to the good of the utility as a 
whole. That term, the utility as a whole, means that it 
takes customers as well as investors and organization 
and plant and management to establish a complete 

The interest of customers in new business is that by 
increasing the use of an existing investment, or by 
sharing in overhead expense, it will reduce the costs to 
be borne by existing business and thereby tend to re- 
duce rates. The interest of investors in new business 
is that it tends to greater stability or greater rate of 

The value of service to the customer is the upper 
limit of any possible rate. The increment of cost 
is the permitted but undesirable lower limit. The value 
of accepted business to the utility as a whole — the new 
customer and the old customers as well as the company 
— is the measure of skill in rate-making. 

The Determination of Class Costs 

Obviously the determination of class costs calls for 
an analysis of expense over and above that contained in 
any state or association classification of accounts. The 
principles of such an analysis have been published many 
times. The differences in practice are many and the 
possible refinements are legion. But a comparatively 
simple analysis will serve for the making of an equi- 
table rate schedule and will prevent any business being 
taken at a loss or any being asked to pay an unreason- 
able profit. The first essential is a separation of all 
costs (including capital costs) into the three basic cost 
classes — costs varying with the number of customers 
served, costs varying with demand, and costs varying 
with the use of energy; that is to say, with the kilowatt- 
hours sold. 

The second step is to assign these separated costs 
properly to each class of service to which is offered a 
different rate, according to the number of customers, 
the class demand and the energy used by each class. 
Every company knows how many customers there are in 
a class and how many kilowatt-hours are billed, but few 
companies have measured or estimated the demand 
chargeable to each class. A close estimate can usually 
be made and will serve for a first analysis. 

Iiistrilmtion of Depreciation Reserve 
Be it noted that depreciation reserve (or whatever 
substitute therefor is adopted) must be distributed to 
all three of the cost classes. Some items of deprecia- 
tion, notably on meters and service connections, vary 
with the number of customers and must be assigned 
accordingly. The depreciation of certain other parts is 
a function of their use — that is to say, it varies with 
the kilowatt-hours sold and must be reckoned accord 
ingly: but this pi lly minor. The major part 

depreciation Charge is naturally assignable to the 

i d column. 

i .ii-ity, and thus the capital Cl 

with demand; but it must not be overlooked (as already 

noted) that meters, service connections, and so mi. vary 
with tin' number of customers and little or not at all 
with demand, and their capital costs must be assigned 
accord ; 

What the Completed Analysis Will Show- 
Having thus separated and redistributed the costs 
and set costs opposite earnings for each class of service, 
the completed analysis will show many things. It will 
show whether any class is failing to pull its share of the 
load, or whether it is carrying the burden of other 
classes. It will show where a lower rate is earned and 
where any claim for a lower rate ought to be resisted. 
It will show what any proposed service would have cost 
last year, and so guide the management in judging its 
prospective value to the utility. It goes without saying 
that it will prove the Hopkinson and Wright dicta 
(which no longer need proof) as to the comparative 
costs of long-hour and short-hour business. But it also 
will prove other things less well known, or even denied 
— for instance, that the energy costs are almost negli- 
gible in the total cost of serving the average residential 
customer while the service or customer costs may be 
one-half of the total ; that the customer costs are almost 
negligible in average commercial service, and entirely 
so in industrial power service; that in a metropolitan 
city served by efficient steam-electric plants, where 
taxes are high and real estate brings big prices, and 
all mains and services are underground, the cost of cap- 
ital may be the greater part of the cost and that it may 
equally be so in a village served by a transmission sys- 
tem from a water-power. 

Discrimination Disguised as Classification 

For the study of an existing rate schedule, analysis 
according to existing rate classes is sufficient. For the 
making of a new rate schedule or for the study of some 
particular service additional classification may be 
needed. Classification may lie insufficient or may be 
excessive. It is insufficient if it throws into the same 
class divers groups of customers whose group costs are 
essentially different. It is excessive if it selects one 
or a few customers to form a favored class in recogni- 
tion solely of the superior trading ability of these cus- 
tomers. Excessive classification in this manner is the 
fault for which the railroads of the United States have 
been most bitterly assailed and most severely punished. 
As to the justice or the injustice of the accusation and 
punishment, I have nothing to say here. What I have 
to say is that discrimination, disguised as classification, 
is unsafe as well as unjust. 

Feature of Adequate Classification 
An adequate classification, then, will separate serv- 
ices having essentially different cost characteristics — 
such as lighting service requiring close regulation and 
maximum reliability, industrial power where the cost of 
exact regulation is unnecessary and reliability is I 
tive, wholesale delivery of servii bral points, 

retail deliver] scattered here and there ever a county, 
residential service with its deferred peak and its char- 
acteristic time difference between the individual maxi- 
mum demand and the class maximum demand, and com- 
mercial lighting where the class and individual maxima 
are coincident. Individual differences in load-factor do 
•nit ion by classification and are better 
taken care of by a Hopkinson or Wright form of rate. 
'I'he rule i- thai the classification must be based upon 

trail-defined class characteristics, the definition to be 

dear enOUgfa to leave no doubt as to the class in which 

any customer belongs. 

To conclude, these are the principal rules which I 
have followed in making rates. Of minor rules and of 
minor preferences there la no space heir t.> write and 
there is in them the making of many bunks from which 
1 pray to b< 

January 2, 1915 



Recent Developments in Prime Movers 

By W. F. Durand* 

THE insistent and unchanging demands in the field 
of central-station engineering are economy and 
reliability, and the activities of the central-station 
engineer are continually to be judged with reference to 
these two fundamental demands. 

The past year has been one of unremitting effort 
toward advancement along these lines of progress, 
though without results of a spectacular or epoch- 
making type. It is perhaps not too much to say that so 
long as thermal-power engineering has to deal with the 
present known methods of heat liberation and trans- 
formation no further great advances will be possible. 
So well developed have been the possibilities of our 
present accepted methods that further improvement 
must of necessity deal with the outlying margin of loss 
which we have not yet learned to control. In fact, in so 
far as economy is concerned, the work of the power en- 
gineer is now primarily concerned with the diminution 
and prevention of a series of losses more or less sec- 
ondary in character with reference to the main problem 
of power development. 

Boilers and Fuels 

Thus in the boiler room the available fuels remain, 
as hitherto, coal and oil, with occasional use of gas 
(natural or producer) where special conditions permit. 
The principles of ordinary combustion are well under- 
stood and the further work of the power-plant engineer 
is concerned chiefly with the attempt to realize, as closely 
as practicable, physically perfect conditions. Some 
progress has been realized through the year in a wider 
understanding of these principles and in a better ap- 
preciation of the part which indicating and measuring 
instruments may play in determining the actual condi- 
tions of operation. Thus flue-gas analyses with flue and 
stack temperature recorders are more and more de- 
pended on to furnish the indications on which an intelli- 
gent study of loss control must depend. In certain large 
stations which have recently come under the reviewer's 
notice the leading firemen have been provided with flue- 
gas analysis outfits and are instructed in their use, 
quite empirically and with no real understanding of the 
chemical principles involved. They are taught simply to 
make observations and to control the fuel and air sup- 
ply in accordance with the results. In other cases, in 
increasing numbers, automatic flue-gas analyzers are 
provided and the graphic results indicate similarly the 
proper control of fuel and air supply. 

Saving in the Fireroom 

This all indicates a widening appreciation of the pos- 
sibilities of saving in the fireroom and in connection 
with the fundamental problem of heat liberation. In a 
broad way boiler economies of 80 per cent or a little bet- 
ter are now realized. The remaining 20 per cent escapes 
primarily by way of the stack. There are here two 
large and important problems which confront the power 
engineer. These are the raising of the best boiler effi- 
ciency and the raising of the average with reference to 
the best. With reference to the first of these, certain 
hopeful possibilities were held out some few years ago 
by the work of Professor Bone, of Manchester, England, 
through the method of surface combustion. This 
method seems not yet to have reached the stage of prac- 
tical application on a large scale, though we may hope 
for such development as a result of continued study. As 
a matter of national conservation it is undoubtedly far 

more important to raise the average of boiler efficiency 
well up toward 80 per cent than it is to demonstrate in 
individual and detached cases efficiencies of 85 per cent 
or thereabouts. Such an advance in the average effi- 
ciency of boilers throughout the country would mean 
enormous savings in fuel and a corresponding economy 
in the use of a limited natural resource. 

As an incident in the struggle for higher boiler effi- 
ciencies with oil fuel, reference may be made to the 
continued search toward improvement in methods- of 
atomization. The whole program of atomization and 
introduction into the furnace is fundamentally one of 
preparation of fuel, and as such it stands as a charge 
against the steam produced. With steam or air as an 
atomizing agent, the toll in terms of steam is about 3 
per cent under good average conditions. With mechanical 
atomization by means of jet orifices of various forms, 
the cost in terms of steam may be reduced to about 1 
per cent. It remains as an outstanding fact, however, 
that the thermal efficiency of the boiler with steam or air 
atomization seems a shade better than with mechanical 
atomization so that the final result is somewhat inconclu- 
sive. The general subject of mechanical atomization 
for oil fuel is, however, attracting keen attention on the 
part of engineers and inventors, and we may confi- 
dently look for such improvements as shall raise the 
thermal efficiency of the boiler to an equality with that 
realized in steam or air atomization, thus leaving a 
margin of 1 or 2 per cent saving in over-all fuel ex- 

Some attention has also been given to automatic time- 
indicating devices for controlling the firing program 
with large batteries of boilers. Time-controlled firing 
has long been a feature of marine service, and with a 
reasonably steady load there should be an excellent op- 
portunity to apply this method to central-station work. 

Smoke Prevention 

The subject of smoke prevention or smoke combus- 
tion continues to attract serious attention in some of the 
large manufacturing centers, and a number of special 
furnaces have been brought forward for use in the 
campaign for smokeless combustion. The principle of 
these furnaces involves generally some method of mix- 
ing the smoke in the furnace, after formation, with 
sufficient air for combustion and of then passing the 
mixture through some form of combustion chamber 
where the temperature is above the point of ignition. 
Thus all the conditions for combustion are realized, the 
carbon is consumed, and the gases pass on smoke-free. 

Some interest has been noted in the oft-tried problem 
of the economical combustion of pulverized coal. Coal 
in this form burns readily with an intense heat, and the 
method, if reduced to a thoroughly practical basis, 
would open up enormous supplies of low-grade or refuse 
fuels. The control of the temperature presents difficul- 
ties, and this feature together with troubles of detail 
with the pulverizing and feeding apparatus renders the 
present over-all economy somewhat problematical. The 
time will doubtless come, however, when this general 
method or some other equivalent one will be required to 
make available the enormous deposits of low-grade fuels 
which so far we have been able to discard. 

Some progress should be noted in boiler design for 
high-pressure steam. One new design has been re- 
ported on during the year, representing the results of 
several years of investigation and intended to provide 
steam at working pressures up to 600 lb. and with 300 
deg. of superheat. Thus far these boilers have only 


Vol. 65, No. I 

been built in small sizes, but hopeful indications are re- 
ported looking toward a combination of such a type of 
boiler with engines of the una-fiow type, promising still 
higher economies for the steam-driven prime mover of 
the reciprocating form. 

Steam Turbines 

The steam turbine remains, as during the past few 
years, supreme in the field of large central-station work. 
There has been some progress in structural details and 
some advance in the size of units. The 30,000-kw unit 
may be said to have arrived and the 50,000-kw unit has 
at least entered into the field of the designer's computa- 
tions and plans. 

A report to the American Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers in June last, reported in abstract in the Electrical 
World of July 4, gives an excellent resume of the pres- 
ent status with special reference to large central-station 
practice. In the report the thermal efficiency is recom- 
mended as the only just criterion, a point which has 
often been insisted upon in these columns. Reference 
is further made to the economic performance under 
standard conditions of 175 lb. pressure, 100 deg. super- 
heat, and 28.5 in. vacuum expressed in terms of a water 
rate. From these results it appears that a rate of 14 
lb. per kw-hr. is passed at an output rating of about 
5000 kw. while a rate of 13 lb. is reached only at an out- 
put of about 30,000 kw. This indicates the wide range 
of capacity over which the rate changes but slightly, and 
by inference, also, the comparatively small further im- 
provement in economy to be anticipated from advancing 

A recent development of interest with some of the 
largest-sized turbine units shows a combination of two 
or more elements with motors at different speeds, taking 
steam in series ; as, for example, a high-pressure single- 
flow element at 1500 r.p.m. combined with a double-flow 
low-pressure element at 750 r.p.m. In this manner full 
advantage is taken of the best rotative speed for each 
element, and the gain is considered more than to counter- 
balance any small loss due to the subdivision of the 

In medium sizes and small sizes no great advance has 
been made in the turbine so far as efficiency is con- 
cerned, and in small sizes it remains distinctly inferior 
to the reciprocating engine of the more economical 
forms. In this field of work the use of the turbine will 
be justified nol by any advantage in efficiency but rather 
by considerations of first cost or of availability for high 
rotative speeds, or by some combination of the two. 

In this connection n aid be made to a well- 

defined downward tendency in the cost of turbine and 
turbo-generator units in relation to rated output. As a 
result of this tendency the turbine is the better holding 
its own in competition with high-economy prime movers 
of the internal-combustion type, of which the firsl cost 
is necessarily high. 

The Reciprocating Steam Engine 

The chief interest during the year in prime mi 
of tip ng steam-engine type has been in 

ucb as the una-tlow or loco- 
mobill I in' conventional and standard form of 

rocating enj sen improved and standard- 

i ms hardly possible to 
nsiderable further impi n this 

rial prime n 

The "una-flow" attracting Berious attention 

in the United states, and in Europe it is displacing com 
pound e Several lead 

log engine builders In the United States are now bulld- 
his type, with a umption of 

from 1 1 lb. or 12 It, per hp-hr. for high pros 111 

:n\ condensing operal Ion upward to 20 lb. or I 

about for more moderate pressures, saturated steam and 
non-condensing operation. The significant fact which 
seems to have been demonstrated by this engine is that 
the characteristic economy of the compound or multi- 
stage engine can be closely approached or substantially 
realized by a single cylinder acting on the "una-flow" 
principle. This development in the reciprocating en- 
gine has now assumed important proportions, and no 
power-plant engineer who is concerned with a problem 
involving small units with the need for high economy can 
afford to overlook the possibilities offered by this type 
of prime mover. 

Mixed-Flow Turbines 

Combinations of reciprocating engines with turbines 
continue to occupy the attention of engineers and seem 
admirably adapted to the requirements of certain special 
cases. This combination has found its ordinary appli- 
cation in the case of extensions to existing stations 
already equipped with reliable prime movers of the 
reciprocating type. Many such have been noted from 
time to time, one of the more recent as well as one of the 
largest being the Commerce Street station in Milwau- 
kee, with a total equipment rating of 61,900 kw. In 
other cases of new design where power for industrial 
purposes is required and where the mechanical charac- 
teristics of the reciprocating engine may be of value 
the mixed system offers peculiar advantages and has 
met with a measure of favor. 

Internal-Comhu-lion Engines 

The tendencies which recent years have shown in the 
development of this form of prime mover have continued 
with increasing emphasis during the past year. So far 
as central-station practice is concerned, the use of 
internal-combustion engines is limited to those of small 
size and where small units will meet the conditions. In 
a few cases large power is developed with a large num- 
ber of units of moderate size, but only in the case of a 
supply of fuel practically as a waste product could such 
installation be justified. 

There are two well-marked types of internal-combus- 
tion engine competing with other forms of prime mover 
for small or moderate unit service the gas engine using 
producer gas of some form and the Diesel engine using 
liquid fuel. Activity with each v\ these types has been 

An interesting method of increasing the permissible 
output of gas engines which has been brought forward 
during the year consists in special provision for 
scavenging out the burned gases and then introducing 
the fresh charge under pressure. This secures the in- 
troduction of an increased amount of fuel in relation to 
cylinder volume and a corresponding increase in output. 
Interesting combinations have been worked out 
whereby the work of compression of the charge is fur- 
nished bj steam generated by heat from the exhaust of 
the engine, thus securing a direct saving and an in< p 
in over all economy. A limit to the application of this 
d will, of course, be found in the rising pressures 
at the end of compression and in the limit at which 
nition is liable to occur. Within this limit the 
i would seem to offer hopeful possibilil 

With tin' Diesel engine there continues to be marked 

•v and some extension in the field of application. 
In the mind of many engineers there remain residual 
doubts regarding reliability oxer long-time operation and 
with heavy gravity oil of asphalt um base. First ■ 

uluiue high, and thus the quest i tself 

into the weighing of low fuel coal against high fixed 
chargi ome uncertainty as to costs «( upkeep 

ime doubt regarding general reliability. The gen- 
eral conclu drawn from the trend of recent 

plainly, however, that an increasing 

January 2, 1915 



number of engineers are becoming satisfied as to the 
over-all advantage offered by this type of prime mover 
within certain limits as to sizes and conditions of opera- 
tion. For small stations of capacity up to 1000 kw or 
perhaps 2000 kw the possibilities of the Diesel engine 
are such as to merit the most careful study and com- 
parison with other methods of design. In the matter of 
size record may be made of a 600-hp four-cylinder Diesel 
engine of American make recently completed for pump- 
ing service in the Hawaiian Islands. This is the largest 
engine of this type yet constructed in the United States. 
This engine was furthermore built and has been 
accepted on a guarantee of continuous operation for 710 
hours out of 720 hours per month on California 
asphaltum-base fuel oil of gravity 14 deg. to 18 deg. 

A recent development of oil-burning engines in mod- 
erate sizes of the hot-bulb ignition type may be noted. 
These engines are attracting wide and favorable atten- 
tion, especially in Europe. The compression pressures 
are moderate, not exceeding 200 lb., and the engine is 
simple in construction and moderate in first cost. While 
not equal to the Diesel engine in economy, the more 
ready adaptation to small sizes, the lower first cost in 

relation to power and the greater simplicity all repre- 
sent advantages which may well justify their increas- 
ing use for many types of service. 

In central-station design generally increasing recog- 
nition may be noted of the possibility of over-all econ- 
omies by combining various thermal programs in series 
and rejecting the final residue of heat always at the 
lowest possible temperature. Thus if steam is required 
for heating or industrial purposes, such steam should 
be passed through a prime mover down to the pressure 
at which it is required and then tapped out. If all the 
steam passing through a prime mover could be so used, 
then the heat charge against power would be only the 
heat equivalent of the power generated. Again, where 
practicable internal-combustion exhausts may with ad- 
vantage be utilized for heating water, making steam for 
heating or industrial use, keeping boilers warm, or even 
for generating power by low-pressure turbines. In 
brief, no stream of heat should be allowed to escape 
from a power house unless it is at a temperature too 
low to represent any possible salvage. This principle 
is gaining clearer recognition, and many illustrative 
applications have been noted in recent central-station 

The Energy Transmission Work of 1914 

By Louis Bell* 

ON account of the impossibility of separating from 
the total mass of work that which is to be credited 
to a particular twelvemonth, one is able merely 
to run over the ground and make note of certain ten- 
dencies which have become more or less prominent dur- 
ing the period under consideration. For example, the 
tendency of transmission voltages has been clearly up- 
ward, although no actual sensational advances have been 
made. The top records belong to a group of three 
plants rated at from 140,000 volts to 150,000 volts. This 
range has hardly been more than touched experi- 
mentally, the full pressures not yet being required by 
the conditions of service. A larger group, above a 
score, operates at rated voltages of from 100,000 to 130,- 
000. It is doubtful whether more than a dozen of these 
are worked day in and day out at above 100,000 volts, 
although all are ready to operate at their rated voltage 
when required. 

An interesting feature in high-tension transmission 
is the diversity of practice with regard to transformer 
connections. Of some thirty plants, American and 
foreign, rated at 100,000 volts and over, more than one- 
half use the delta-delta connection and nearly all the 
rest the delta connection at one end and star at the 
other. Very few use the star-star connection which was 
once rather popular, but these few are rather im- 
portant. The results seem to indicate that any of the 
connections is satisfactory in practice when properly 

As to distances of transmission now accomplished, it is 
not easy to make a proper classification. Three systems 
operating at the very highest voltage carry energy ap- 
proximately 240 miles over practically straight-away 
transmission lines. However, when one considers the 
actual distances covered, the distance just named is 
often exceeded in the connected links of a network. For 
instance, one Southern network reaches practically 
from the Atlantic to the Mississippi, over a distance of 
roughly 1000 miles. As a physical network its range is 
thus prodigious, but from an electrical standpoint the 
network is fed with energy from several plants operated 

•Consulting engineer, Boston, Mass. 

with a certain degree of independence. In other words, 
in this and similar cases of less extent, one does not en- 
counter the typical line conditions pertaining to con- 
tinuous conductors of the length described. There are 
several or many stations connected to the same network, 
energy is used in large amounts at many points, and the 
operating conditions are those of plants interconnected 
temporarily or permanently to assist each other in 
emergency. It is this condition which makes operation 
comparatively easy and greatly simplifies the problems 
of regulation. 

The Big Creek System 

One of the striking pieces of work in connection with 
regulation is the installation of a very large syn- 
chronous-condenser equipment at the receiving end of 
the Big Creek system, to control the 240-mile line. The 
plan of using variable excitation on a synchronous ma- 
chine to control the voltage and the power-factor is an 
old one, dating indeed from the very first use of three- 
phase synchronous motors a score of years ago. But 
in the lengths of line ordinarily used acute conditions 
of capacity rise of voltage do not exist, an extreme case 
like that of the Big Creek system being required to make 
the scheme worth considering as a general method of 
automatic regulation. With 240 miles of line to deal 
with, the charging conditions are formidable and the 
terminal voltage is at times a matter of concern. With 
a pair of 15,000-kva machines floating on the line, in- 
ductance or capacity can be added at will, and in fact 
automatically, so that the voltage and the power-factor 
are under good control. The scheme is a costly one, as 
the capacity of the machine indicates, and whether the 
game is really worth the candle remains to be seen. In 
the Southern Sierras system of about the same length 
use is made of reactors at the receiving end to control 
the charging and light-load difficulties and obtain regu- 
lation in the ordinary ways. Certainly it would seem 
worth while to load the machines usefully if possible, 
unless the conditions are so severe as to call for the 
extremest efforts in regulation, which conditions exist 
only on lines far longer than either of the above. 

Fortunately, no straight-away line not carrying in- 



Vol. 65, No. 1 

termediate loads has a length anywhere near the quar- 
ter-wave-length distance, so that the best method of 
dealing with a line of this length is as yet chiefly of 
academic interest. Usually loads at various points 
greatly modify the reactance and conductance condi- 
tions, so that the theoretical side of the case drops out of 
sight and is replaced by a symptomatic treatment 
based on things as they are. 

Line Construction on Extensive Systems 

Concerning line construction on long systems, there is 
to-day fair agreement as to sound standards. No line 
worked at 100,000 volts or more is carried on anything 
but suspension insulators, from five to ten disks being 
used as the pressure reaches or exceeds 100,000 volts. 
The conductors are always carried on steel towers usu- 
ally 50 ft. to 70 ft. in height with spans averaging 
about 600 ft. and spacing generally from 8 ft. to 10 ft. 
The conductors are commonly of stranded copper, al- 
though it should be noted that in several very recent 
and important plants use is made of steel-cored alumi- 
num cable, which seems to give excellent results. 

One of the notable tendencies in practice is in connec- 
tion with switching and substation work. Of late there 
have been installed many outdoor substations and nu- 
merous outdoor switches. In fact, in Southern and Coast 
plants this practice is almost usual. The high cost of oil 
switches for very high tension and the recognition of 
the fact that high-tension switches are opened under 
load only at rare intervals have encouraged the use of 
the simpler apparatus. That such a plan is theoretically 
open to criticism admits of no dispute, but it seems to 
give satisfaction to the users who have to deal with the 
practical conditions of operation. 

As regards the very important matter of protection 
against lightning, the story of the year is one of regu- 
lar installation of ground wires along the system and 
of aluminum arresters at the important points, with a 
few horn-gap arresters for the more moderate voltages. 
However, it is noteworthy that at least two large sys- 
tems are operated practically without lightning protec- 
tion, perhaps on the theory that the protective devices 

are as hard to keep in order as are the lines them- 
selves. Anyhow, not much has been heard during the 
year of serious trouble from lightning, so that the pres- 
ent methods may be considered to be reasonably 

Experimenting with Frequency 

There has been little tendency of late to experiment 
with frequency. Sixty cycles per second is practically 
the standard as in the past, although one of the largest 
plants uses a frequency of fifty and another twenty- 
five. The last-named is that of the Lehigh Navigation 
Electric Company, very notable as being designed for 
the use of otherwise unmarketable coal. Starting off 
with some 50,000 hp in turbo-generators and transmit- 
ting energy at 110,000 volts, it comes nearer to the reali- 
zation of the dream of "energy directly from the coal 
mine" than any enterprise yet inaugurated. The fre- 
quency selected in this case fitted conveniently the tur- 
bine design and permitted the economical use of direct- 
current motors at the receiving end of the line. In spite 
of the large amount of evidence showing that a well- 
organized steam plant on a large scale can actually fur- 
nish energy at a lower cost than most hydroelectric 
plants, capital seems shy about going into independent 
enterprises of this sort. The one here mentioned 
should soon be the forerunner of many another. 

To summarize the transmission situation, it may 
be said that the year has been one of steady and healthy 
growth in electrical energy transmission, unmarked by 
anything sensational. In fact, there has been little of 
the sensational in the art since the introduction of the 
suspension insulator and the aluminum lightning arres- 
ter. Practice has fallen into sound lines, and with few 
exceptions the plants installed have been operated under 
circumstances which give promise of success from both 
the technical and the financial point of view. Perhaps 
the best tendency in the art is the increasing inclination 
to look upon a transmission plant as a conservative en- 
terprise to be installed solely with a view to permanent 
dividends. The few failures which have occurred have 
been attributable to the neglect to take this sound and 
apparently self-evident view of the situation. 

Developments in Illumination During 1914 

By Preston S. Millar* 


N chronicling the events of 1914 in the field of 
illumination, the development and improvement of 
illuminants must receive first place. 

The gas-filled tungsten lamp was announced in the 
autumn of L9l3. Widely heralded aa a half-watt lamp 
all the simplicity and convenience of the in- 
candescent lamp type, it created an instantaneous de- 
mand from rs which the manufacturers 
found it difficult t<> meet. During 1911 it entered into 
commercial use, although at the end .if the year [t 

ei emerged from the developmental stage. The 
high temperatures at which mi the pre 

of an inert gas in the bulb have occasioned difficulties in 

the manufacture, testing and USe ol tin' lamp which 

have introduced problems not previously experienced 

with -it lamps ami requiring time for lolu 

he available lizes of the gas tilled lamps there 

idded durin I and 800 watt 

multiple I.' imps of 60 cp, 10 cp ami 82 

in w itli an auto 
I Upon a 15 amp circuit Lamps I 

from a specific consumption of about 0.63 watt per mean 
spherical candle-power for the 1000-cp series lamp of 
20 amp to about L.25 watts per mean spherical candle- 
power for the 32-cp series lamp of ?.."> amp. In the 
multiple type the specific consumptions lie between the 
extremes of 0.72 watt per mean spherical candle-power 
for the 1000-watt size and I. US watts per mean spherical 
candle-power for the 200-watt Bize. The average gas- 
filled lamp as manufactured at the close of 1914 prob- 
ably operates at a specific consumption approximating 
0.9 watt per mean spherical candle power, or at an out- 
put of II lumens per watt, this figure, of course, apply- 
ing to a new bare lamp. This represents an increase in 

efficiency of about io per cent over the vacuum type of 

tungsten lamp of the same size available at the end 
of L913. While the gas-tilled lamp is BUpplanting 

vacuum-type tungsten lamps in the smaller street i 

it is of interest particularly as a competitor of the 

arc lamp. 

tanong modern an- lamps the long-burning flame in 

unit and the magnet ite-tv pe arc unit are chielh to lie 
considered. During I hi i improve 

ment in the long-burning flame-arc lamp has been re- 
ported, though there have been improvements in 

January 2, 1915 



electrodes and doubtless in minor details of construc- 
tion bettering operation. In the magnetite type 
of lamp there have been improvements and exten- 
sions of the system. New electrodes have been pro- 
duced by means of which the efficiency is increased 
something like 50 per cent over that of the standard 
type of electrode heretofore used. Moreover, the con- 
struction of the lamp has been modified somewhat, and 
a refractor has been made available by means of which 
a larger proportion of the light from the arc may be 
utilized. At the same time the available systems at 
4 amp and 6.6 amp have been supplemented by a new 
system for operation at 5 amp. It is reasonable to say 
that the improvement in the magnetite-arc lamp during 
the past year parallels in time and extent the improve- 
ment in tungsten lamps due to the use of an inert gas 
in the bulb. 

In the vacuum type of tungsten lamp improvements 
in manufacture have made possible an increase of about 
10 per cent in efficiency during the past year. 

The use of metallized-carbon lamps is diminishing 
rapidly, and plain carbon-filament lamps have practically 
disappeared from the demand. 

No improvements have been reported during the year 
in commercial mercury-vapor lamps of either the low- 
pressure glass type or the high-pressure quartz type. 
Other forms of the tube lamps remain as before. Some 
interest was aroused last summer in the announcement 
of a "targon" lamp, this being a large incandescent 
lamp having a metal filament operating in an atmos- 
phere of inert gas. However, there have been no com- 
mercial developments in this connection. 

Considerable impetus has been given to the artificial- 
daylight movement by the development of the gas- 
filled tungsten lamp. Artificial daylight equipments are 
now available in the form of the Moore tube, intensified 
carbon-arc lamp with color filters, and gas-filled lamp 
with color filters. In all of these equipments the effi- 
ciency is very low and the lighting is so costly that it 
is practicable to employ it only for the illumination of 
small areas. Other approximation equipments are 
available for producing from gas-filled lamps a light 
which approaches daylight closely enough for some pur- 
poses at an efficiency which is not prohibitively low 
when the lighting of large areas is contemplated. 

Lighting Auxiliaries 

The year has witnessed a continued growth in the 
variety and use of lighting accessories. Sufficient time 
has elapsed since the earlier discussions of direct, semi- 
indirect and indirect lighting equipments to allow mis- 
conception to be righted, and it is now evident that all 
three forms of lighting have a place, but that in most 
cases extremes in any one of the three types are to be 
avoided. Hence modern forms of these three kinds of 
lighting have been designed with more or less the same 
principles in view and tend more than did the earlier 
examples to embody the same purposes to such an ex- 
tent that the separation of lighting equipments into 
the three classes is no longer significant. Stock fix- 
tures and glassware produced during 1914 probably at- 
tained higher merit than ever before with correspond- 
ing advantage in new lighting installations. Very lit- 
tle has been accomplished, however, in the remodeling 
of older installations other than those of a commer- 
cial nature where sales effectiveness is concerned, or 
of an industrial nature where production efficiency is 

The gas-filled tungsten lamp has introduced its own 
problems in lighting auxiliaries. The filament bright- 
ness is so high as to make use of some form of diffusing 
medium essential. It has created at the same time a 
demand for a ventilated fixture to keep down tempera- 

tures of the lamp itself in order to secure best life per- 
formance. For outdoor service these fixtures must be 
weatherproof as well. 

Perhaps the most notable development in lighting 
auxiliaries has been the production of the prismatic re- 
fractor, applying the principles of prismatic glassware 
design to street lighting by constructing the globe with 
directing prisms and diffusing ribbings within a sealed 
chamber and presenting smooth exterior surfaces which 
do not promote the collection of dust or introduce diffi- 
culties in cleaning. 

Lighting Practice 

In comprehension of lighting fundamentals the prin- 
cipal advance during the past year has been in growth 
of knowledge with regard to contrast limitations. 
Avoidance of excessive brightness has been one of the 
leading tenets of illuminating engineering for a num- 
ber of years, but a new appreciation of the importance 
of regulating brightness contrasts, even after excessively 
bright sources have been concealed, has been brought 
about by added experience and by the use of portable 
photometers in brightness studies. 

Two significant developments in lighting practice 
during the year are "flood lighting" of buildings and 
the lighting for recreation purposes of outdoor places 
such as tennis courts, portions of golf links, etc. Both 
are made practicable by the availability of the higher- 
efficiency illuminants. 

In street lighting the upward tendencies in intensities 
continue to manifest themselves, though in some cities 
the increase is considerably less marked than the in- 
creasing efficiency of illuminants would appear to war- 
rant. Cluster lighting for "white ways" appears to have 
seen its greatest growth, single illuminants being em- 
ployed in many of the more recent installations. The 
"ornamental" type of arc lamp has mcde notable prog- 
ress, and the large globe installations in the city of 
Washington are especially noteworthy. 

Central-Station Lamp Policies 

Information from several sources including conven- 
tion discussions makes it appear that in the modern view 
of most central-station men the control of lamps sup- 
plied to central-station customers should be in the hands 
of the central station. While there are notable excep- 
tions to this general view, it is becoming increasingly 
apparent that no other course is consistent with the 
best lighting results and therefore with the best devel- 
opment of the companies' lighting business. In some 
cases tungsten lamps are being sold at list price, in 
other cases at cost price, and in some of the largest 
cities tungsten lamps of 60 watts and above are given 
in free renewals. It has been shown possible in various 
localities to control the supply of lamps by each of the 
methods indicated. That the central station should 
control the supply by some means is clearly indicated. 

The three principal developments of the year in 
photometry are progress in the production of color 
niters for heterochromatic photometry, progress toward 
the adoption of a flux rating instead of a candle-power 
for lamps, and increasing use of portable photometers 
in the study of illumination. 

The gas-filled lamp has introduced problems not 
previously encountered in photometry. The simple 
solution of some of these problems requires a flux 
rating. For purposes of comparison with arc lamps the 
same requirement exists. Lamp manufacturers and 
users, as well as the technical societies, are rapidly 
coming to the view that nothing less than a flux rating 
will serve. 

Standardization of heterochromatic photometry is in 



Vol. 65, No. 1 

a fair way of being accomplished, at least upon some 
arbitrary basis. It is understood that several labora- 
tories, including the Bureau of Standards, are at work 
upon this problem and that the Illuminating Engineer- 
ing Society is continuing the efforts begun in 1910 to 
facilitate the adoption of some form of standardiza- 

Engineering Societies and Research 
For the first time in 1914 the Illuminating Engineer- 
ing Society received more able papers than its Transac- 
tions could accommodate and was compelled to post- 
pone the acceptance of some papers until a later date. 
It is further interesting to note an excess of scientific 
and research papers among those offered to the so- 
ciety. Both are indications of an excellent state of 
affairs in the field of illumination and augur well for 
further development in the near future. As the Illumi- 
nating Engineering Society is the official exponent 
of proper lighting practice in this country, it affords a 
means of testing the strength of the constructive forces 
in the field. The society's annual report indicates 
greatly extended activity along educational and research 

lines as well as intensified interest on the part of exist- 
ing members. It fails to record an increase in member- 
ship which its activities and the general interest in the 
subject would appear to warrant. Its progress appears 
to be derived from the expanded activities of a mem- 
bership of 1500, which has remained stationary for the 
past three or four years. 

There are now four or five laboratories in the coun- 
try engaged in organized research in the field of 
illumination. Numerous individuals are conducting less 
completely organized investigations. All work thus ac- 
complished tends to find an outlet through the Trans- 
actions of the Illuminating Engineering Society. These 
Transactions include as well practically all that is sig- 
nificant in advance in lighting practice and are accord- 
ingly becoming more valuable and extensive year by 

The United States national committee of the Interna- 
tional Commission on Illumination has organized for 
effective work. As all international effort has had to be 
suspended temporarily, but little further progress has 
been made. 

The Incandescent Lamp Industry 

By S. E. Doane* 

THE policies of retrenchment and conservation of 
resources so generally adopted throughout this 
country upon the outbreak of hostilities abroad 
caused sales of incandescent lamps for this year to fall 
somewhat below the expected value. The reduction in 
sales has been due principally, I believe, to the reduction 
of lamp stocks in consumers' hands and to the fact that 
lamp consumers have allowed their lighting installations 
to deteriorate to a point somewhat below the normal 
level. Burn-outs are not replaced as quickly in many 
instances as heretofore, the change-over from carbon to 
tungsten lamps has been retarded, and lamps are 
allowed to remain in service longer than has been cus- 

I have discovered in conversation with many central- 
station nun that throughout this period there has been 
a very considerable increase in connected load without 

a corresponding increase in maximum demand or out- 
put. This would possibly indicate a restriction of the 
use of light in certain industries or businesses which 
have been forced to operate under their normal rate. 

While all this has reduced the demand for lamps dur- 
ing the past few months, a large part of the apparent 
loss will be made up as conditions assume their normal 
state and as lamp stocks are again replenished and 
lighting installations overhauled. The rate at which 
new sockets are being added at present will assist in 
rapidly bringing up the lamp demand with further im- 
provements in general conditions. 

The lamp industry is storing up. as it were, a vast 
amount of potential business energy, which will be con- 
verted into the kinetic energy of actual sales just as booh 
as the present temporary restriction on its outlet is 

Electrochemistry in 1914 

By E. F. Roebert 

THE work of the electrochemist is directed toward 
two aims. One is the production of electrical 
energy from chemical energy — that is, the field 
of the primary battery and the storage battery. The 
other is the production of chemicals and of chemical 
effects by electrical means, the storage of electrical 
energy in chemicals for "chemical energy transmis- 

There is not much t<> be said about primary batteries 
anil storage batteries. In the past year, as for a long 
time, no radically new or revolutionary advance has 
been made in this field, but the battery industry has 

in quite a satisfactory condition, and. as is natural in 

l which has become more and mere standard 

i made quietlj along the tinea of per 
etl of applical 

been i i to be attributed 
to the electrical engineer rather than to the el© 
chen phasizea the fact thai the old 


problem of the "carbon cell" is still unsolved. In view 
of its importance a concise statement of the problem 
may not be amiss here. Commercial primary batteries 
an' essentially baaed on the use of zinc as "fuel." Rut 
there is not the slightest chemical reason why this 
should lie BO. As a matter of fact, cells with iron as 
"fuel" can be built and have been built. But the favor- 
ite visionary problem of electrochemists has been to 
substitute carbon for zinc and devise a carbon cell. An 
analogy exists in the ordinary Daniel! cell. The chemi- 
cal reaction utilized in it is the reaction between zinc 
and copper sulphate, yielding zinc sulphate and copper. 
This reaction could be brought about by placing 
tine directly in the copper sulphate. The reaction 
then proceeds, but all of the reaction energ) 
ra in the form of heat, in the Daniel) cell 

an entirely different arrangement is used. The 

sine is not placed direct l\ in copper sulphate, bu1 
the utmost can la taken to keep the two away from 
each other. Zinc is used as one electrode and o 
sulphate is placed around the other electrode, so that 





the reaction between the two is not direct, but, as 
Ostwald calls it, a "chemical action into the distance" 
through the intermediary of ionic migration. The re- 
sult is that when the reaction proceeds the reaction en- 
ergy is obtained not as heat but as electrical energy. 

Consider now the analogous problem for the combus- 
tion of carbon. At present coal is burned under boilers 
used in connection with steam engines and generators 
to produce electrical energy by a roundabout method 
with a low efficiency. There would be no corresponding 
limitation with a carbon cell, in which the combination 
of the carbon with the oxygen would be brought about 
not by direct contact and therefore without produc- 
duction of heat, but with direct production of elec- 
trical energy. The trouble is that a cell arrange- 
ment which would represent the carbon analogy 
to the zinc cell has not been discovered. The carbon 
cell is still a dream. Theorists and practical men have 
attempted the solution of the problem, but have failed 
equally here and abroad. It seems appropriate here to 
emphasize that if this problem has a solution its dis- 
covery would mean the greatest revolution possible by 
electrochemistry not only in electrical engineering but 
in the whole industrial system of the world. 

Chemical Production by Electricity 

From this, the greatest disappointment which must 
be recorded in the past development of electrochemistry, 
we may well turn to the other problem of producing 
chemicals and chemical effects by electrical means. In 
this field the last two decades have witnessed an un- 
broken series of glorious successes; of all American 
chemical industries none is more specifically American, 
made and born in the United States, than the American 
electrochemical industry. There are very few imported 
processes in it. As a monument to this activity are the 
large and firmly established industries of aluminum 
and sodium, artificial abrasives, artificial graphite, cal- 
cium carbide and chlorine, electrolytic copper refining, 
etc. During the past year all of them made quite 
steady effective progress along conservative lines until 
the European war broke out. None of these industries 
has been shaken in any fundamental point by the war. 
although the general commercial situation created by 

the war has affected some of them more or less, espe- 
cially by cutting off the export trade. Most notably 
affected has been electrolytic copper refining, like the 
whole copper industry, because with an export trade 
equal to the home consumption it has been necessary to 
cut the production in half. On the other hand, electro- 
lytic caustic soda and chlorine plants have profited by 
the cutting off of imports of bleach from Europe, and 
the sole American manufacturer of calcium cyanamide, 
who formerly sold the cyanamide exclusively for fer- 
tilizing purposes, is now erecting a plant for the pro- 
duction of other chemicals from cyanamide as the start- 
ing material. 

Developments Along New Lines 

Electrochemical developments along two distinctly 
new lines deserve at least brief mention. While not 
many years ago the hydrometallurgy of copper was re- 
garded with suspicion, now the tables are turned and 
some of the best talent in the country is engaged in 
experimental work on the leaching of low-grade copper 
ores and tailings, with reasonable prospects of success. 
As to the precipitation of copper from solutions, opinions 
seem to differ most. Electrolysis, hydrogen sulphide 
and metallic iron are the three precipitating agents thus 
far proposed and used. One of the largest undertakings 
of this kind is the plant under erection by the Chile Ex- 
ploration Company, in which electrolytic precipitation 
will be employed with magnetite electrodes. 

The second interesting development is in connection 
with industrial applications of electrostatic principles. 
To electrostatic ore separation has been added the elec- 
trostatic precipitation of dust or any solid or liquid 
particles from gases. While originally designed for 
cleaning obnoxious smelter fumes, the Cottrell process 
is finding application in a much wider field. Only a 
few instances may be mentioned — the precipitation of 
sulphuric acid mist, the collection of abrasive dust, 
cement dust, etc., the recovery of gold and silver par- 
ticles from the fumes of slime furnaces in copper re- 
fineries, the detarring of illuminating gas and producer 
gas, etc. 

Again it may be pointed out that these two new broad 
and important developments are distinctly American. 

Review of the Electric-Vehicle Field 

By William P. Kennedy* 

UNDER the conditions that have prevailed in the 
business world during the past year progress in 
the introduction of electric vehicles has naturally 
been somewhat restricted. The restriction has been 
less pronounced in the passenger-vehicle field than in 
that of the commercial car ; as a matter of fact, the 
progress made with the former type of machine has 
afforded considerable encouragement in a situation 
which would otherwise have undoubtedly presented 
many hardships. 

Trial periods of this character enforce severe tests 
upon the stability of any industry, and it is particularly 
interesting to observe that the electric-vehicle business 
is so conservatively organized that it can adjust itself 
to sub-normal conditions following a term of somewhat 
unusual expansion. Another assurance toward larger 
development following the present reduced activity is 
that, notwithstanding the immediate low returns, there 
has been considerable preparation of an organizing and 
constructive character to broaden the missionary efforts 
very evidently necessary to make the public recognize 

•Consulting transportation engineer. New York. 

the superior advantages of this type of machine in busi- 
ness or personal service. 

The extension of the Electric Vehicle Association of 
America is particularly significant. It has more than 
doubled its membership and has established sections in 
every important center of the country. The activity 
thus generated in widely separated localities which 
have heretofore been dormant on the subject of electric- 
vehicle expansion is certain to have a great cumulative 
effect upon the industry. Co-operating along similar 
lines are the National Electric Light Association, the 
Society for Electrical Development, Inc., the Ohio Elec- 
tric Light Association and the Southwestern Electrical 
and Gas Association, which are exerting a particular and 
valuable effort to enkindle interest and broaden the 
sphere of influence in the general project of increasing 
the use o.f electrically driven conveyances. 
Vehicle Development 

The progressive development of the vehicle has not 
abated in the least. During the year efforts were exert- 
ed by many manufacturers to put upon the market new 
models of both passenger and commercial machines 



Vol. 65, No. 1 

which would specifically meet requirements indicated by 
the demand in new directions. With passenger vehicles 
there are new designs particularly serviceable for men's 
use, as against the closed-carriage designs preferred by 
women. Some reductions have been made in the weight 
and price of closed carriages without seriously curtail- 
ing the luxurious equipment still desired by those who 
prefer elegance and refinement. With the downward 
trend of the price of gasoline passenger cars the electric 
carriage is becoming more distinctively exclusive and is 
likely to satisfy the permanent demands of that great 
proportion of our communities who have the ability and 
inclination to select the more refined types of any con- 
venience in general use. The majority of experienced 
manufacturers therefore continue to exploit their busi- 
ness in the direction of the high-priced car, instead of 
pursuing the phantom demand in the opposite direction, 
to which much attention has been directed during the 
past year. Much has been said as to prospective accom- 
plishments with the low-priced passenger cars, but there 
are so many obstructions to manufacturing or market- 
ing the quantities necessary to make this a profitable 
reality that no serious effort has been made in such a 

With commercial machines the conditions are some- 
what different, as the market is assured by economic 
considerations, and the production of low-priced cars is 
becoming more and more feasible with the growth of the 
automobile industry at large. As a matter of fact, some 
actual progress has been made during the year in this 
direction and the volume of business secured seems to 
accelerate rapidly as the project advances. 

As to the modification or improvement of electrical or 
mechanical equipment in general, little change has 
taken place. The worm type of driving gear has gained 
a little in both the commercial and passenger field, by 
virtue of a desire for smooth, quiet operation and in- 
closed mechanism rather than from any necessity or 
from any scope for marked improvement. Body designs 
in the commercial types, particularly in the lighter sizes, 
are gradually assuming a distinctly artistic appearance. 
Refinements of this kind, easily possible with electric 
delivery vehicles, render them increasingly popular 
among the better class merchants, who consider the 
appearance and performance of their delivery equip- 
ment an advantageous means of business extension. 

Manufacturing Methods 

Among manufacturers the question of more complete 
standardization of equipment and parts has recently 
been under consideration in a very energetic manner. 
Many of the unnecessary irregularities can be elim- 
inated with material advantage to both the maker and 
the user. Limitation in the variety of wheel sizes is 
already a recommended practice. This alone will have 
a marked influence on tire price and tire operating ex- 
pense. Standardized practices will very shortly be 
applied to the number of cells in batteries employed in 
both types of machines, with such grouping of these 
in trays as to provide for a wide range of inter- 
changeability which will lie of particular advantage in 
large commercial installations. Lack of this inter- 
changeability results in considers investment 

in spar iiiipment. and anything which may bt 

ducive to lowering the operating cosi of large installs- 
will tend materially to expedite the more extensive 

i Iperatlni < oats 

inusual activity during tin' year to 
information concerning the operating 
mercial machines. Thi for authen- 

ticated data arranged in such form ■> to be lerviceable 

for comparative purposes has become so accentuated 
that several agencies are at work making compilations 
which will acquaint the user with his own operating ex- 
pense as well as render the results developed available 
for promotion purposes. Many owners have been made 
to realize that their system of accounting is inade- 
quate, and many who have properly recorded their ex- 
pense but who have been reluctant to make it available 
beyond the limitations of their own organizations have 
been persuaded to assume a broader attitude. They have 
begun to realize that in this field, as in others, a mani- 
festation of the experience of many in the cost of oper- 
ating industrial equipment usually results in develop- 
ments which have, retroactively, an advantage to those 
who aid in such movements. Consequently, the time is 
not far distant when the cost of operating each size of 
electric vehicle will be well known and universally 

Low Rates 

There has been a steady decline in the rates for elec- 
trical energy, the decrease being about 25 per cent gen- 
erally throughout the country. This fact constitutes a 
strong inducement toward the use of electric vehicles, 
because the tendency of the price of fuel for gasoline 
machines is in the opposite direction. In New York 
City the minimum purchase of energy necessary to se- 
cure the low rate has been reduced from $25 to $10 per 
month, thereby practically opening the door of electric- 
vehicle use and economy to the owner of small trans- 
portation equipment. An associated move has been the 
persuasion of livery-stable keepers to furnish accom- 
modation for small vehicles, with individually metered 
energy supply, thereby permitting the small butcher or 
baker to use electric delivery cars at such cost as has 
heretofore been possible only in large installations. 
.Municipal Service 

For municipal employment, and particularly in street- 
cleaning service, the electric vehicle is beginning to re- 
ceive serious consideration, and one may expect within 
the near future some developments which will be inter- 
esting and profitable. European cities have been in the 
advance in this direction, and the economy obtained has 
finally induced consideration of similar applications 
here. New York is taking the lead in a large way by 
setting aside a sufficient appropriation to equip com- 
pletely one section of the city with practically all electric 
motor-vehicle apparatus. As this proceeds it will prob- 
ably be well advertised and will attract such attention 
from other cities that similar apparatus will be em- 
ployed in many other localities. 

Parcel Post 

It may be said that in the parcel post service there is 
a large potential opportunity which if industriously pur- 
sued will yield a considerable number of quantity instal- 
lations and which should lie of advantage alike to the 
manufacturers of vehicles and the central stations in 
cities in which such applications could he effected. 

I luring the earlier pari of the year a comprehensive 
campaign was instituted in a very general way to ac- 
quaint those associated with parcel-posl operation in 
the various departments of the government, as well as 
the central stations, concerning the man; advantages of 
trie-vehicle employment, and to urge co-operation 

between the government and the central stations 1 ■'. -. 
planatory literature which was prepared and distributed 
ted in a general expression of willingness to pro- 
mote the employment of this type of machine wherever 

it might be feasible to do BO. 

The earlier operation of parcel posl developed the 
fact that many of the practices in use with mail matter 

would require change before a smooth co-operative 

January 2, 1915 



working of the system could be effected. One of these 
is the method of securing vehicular service for the dif- 
ferent forms of transportation required in cities, and 
this has recently had consideration with recommenda- 
tions for such modification in the proposals of con- 
tractors as will combine all vehicle service to be ren- 
dered under one contract. Heretofore separate 
contracts have been made for each separate division of 
transportation. The combination service will eliminate 
certain losses. 

Invitations to bid upon this new character of vehicle 
service are at present being printed and will shortly be 
issued, covering the requirements for some thirty cities, 
in which the present service will terminate on June 30, 
1915. This is a rare opportunity for those who are 
really interested in the project, and success will depend 
upon the degree of intelligence exerted to solve the prob- 
lems involved. Opportunity for change of vehicle equip- 
ment comes only once a year, and unless prompt action 
is taken at this time by those interested the chance to 
do something effective disappears for a long interval, 
during which interest in the project is likely to lag. 

Industrial Trucks 

Increasing progress is being made in the substitution 
of small electric vehicles for manual labor at docks, ter- 
minals and warehouses, where little improvement in the 
methods employed has ever before been shown. The 
margin for reduction of existing expense is very large, 
as those who have already made use of the new equip- 
ment will willingly testify. It stands to reason, there- 
fore, that as the missionary efforts of those engaged in 
this field become more extended the rate of increase in 
this specific application will become more pronounced. 

The General Prospect 

There need be no particular apprehension as to the 
ability of the passenger vehicle to continue to secure a 
fair amount of patronage from those who prefer it for 
its own inherent advantages, aside from any competitive 
consideration as compared with the gasoline type of pas- 

senger car. The volume of business which has been 
secured in the past may continue and will probably in- 
crease, but competition against the gasoline car is be- 
coming more and more difficult as the refinement of the 
latter lessens the margin of advantage which the elec- 
tric vehicle has enjoyed. 

Competition of the Gasoline Truck 

The immediate situation with the commercial car is 
more serious on account of the decline of the demand for 
any kind of motor truck in this country due to general 
business conditions. There has been produced in the 
electric commercial field a state of suspended animation 
and no one can foretell under what conditions resuscita- 
tion will take place. One serious competitive change is 
certain. The gasoline-truck manufacturers are gaining 
an experience in the interval which places them on a bet- 
ter footing than ever before. Until very recently they 
did not receive such large quantity orders as the elec- 
tric-vehicle manufacturer enjoyed. The quantity 
orders placed during the last few months by foreign 
governments with our gasoline-truck manufacturers 
give them an enormous advantage. Many of them are 
clearing their factories of all stock which they have had 
on hand, and the new experience gained in actually pro- 
ducing large lots on single orders will put them in pos- 
session of information they have not previously had. 
The net result to be expected is the lowering of prices 
all along the line and a new eagerness to secure the 
quantity business for which their appetites have been 
whetted, so to speak. The electric-vehicle manufactur- 
ers may thus be more seriously handicapped than ever, 
and it will require some extraordinary effort to keep the 
business from becoming decadent. 

Merchandise transportation in the large cities will be 
handled completely by motor vehicles within ten years. 
It has taken less time than this to bring about the 
almost complete change now accomplished in passenger 
transportation. During the next few years the relative 
position of the two competing types of machines for this 
service will be determined. 

Radiotelegraphy and Radiotelephony 

By J. L. Hogan, Jr.* 

DURING the year 1914 the development in radio 
transmission seems to have been in the direction 
of extending the application of well-known funda- 
mentals of practice, rather than in the adoption of any 
radically new methods or apparatus. Marked advances 
in the technique of long-distance radiotelegraphy have 
been made, and even in the less important instruments 
used normal and satisfactory progress in design has 
been shown. As would seem natural, the great Euro- 
pean conflict has already forced the completion of valu- 
able service improvements, but it has also put an end 
to equally or more valuable researches into many radio 

Safety at Sea 
The lives of nearly 1000 persons saved from some 
ten merchant vessels by radio-directed rescue forces 
may be added to the already long list to the credit of 
this potent factor in increasing safety at sea. The 
value of federal licensing and inspection of radio sta- 
tions has been further demonstrated by the discovery 
of a number of violations of the existent "wireless" laws 
and prosecution of the offenders, who often are not only 
guilty of legal misdemeanors but also of infractions of 
a common moral duty toward passengers aboard their 

•Chief research engineer National Electric Signaling Company. 

vessels. Notable progress has been made in the adop- 
tion of well-designed auxiliary radio transmitters, sup- 
plied with power by special installations of storage cells 
and capable of sending distress signals some 200 miles 
under usual daylight conditions, to take the place of the 
feeble induction-coil plain-aerial emergency senders 
which were almost universal a year ago. Many ships, 
however, have insufficient storage-battery equipment, or 
even none at all. Any of these may at any time increase 
the number of vessels which have sunk "before the S. O. 
S. call could be sent out," since as soon as the engine 
room is flooded power from the dynamos is cut off and 
the radio equipment is most effectively gagged. 

Radio Signaling on Trains, Submarines and Aircraft 

In its application to signaling to, from and between 
moving trains, radio has found another field of useful- 
ness. During the past year it has been demonstrated 
that a small power transmitter installed in an ordinary 
railway coach and using a low horizontal aerial of wires 
strung along the roofs of adjoining cars can be relied 
upon to telegraph some 50 miles. The installations 
which have been made, however, have not been operated 
continuously, perhaps since the expense of maintaining 
a trained telegrapher for each train more than offsets 
the convenience of such equipment. Elimination of the 



Vol. 65, No. 1 

"fixed charge" in operator's salary may be the result of 
some experiments in wireless telephony to and from 
trains which are now being planned, since if speech can 
he satisfactorily transmitted and if the apparatus prove 
reasonably rugged in service, the train crew can be de- 
pended upon for handling messages. 

Similarly, the use of radiotelegraphy upon sub- 
marines and aircraft is growing from day to day. The 
large Zeppelins are said to be equipped with instruments 
giving possible operating ranges of several hundred 
miles, and aeroplane installations capable of signaling 
some 50 miles are not thought unusual. The distances 
reached from submarine boats are of this same order, 
and for exchange of messages under some conditions 
when wire aerials could not be erected submarines have 
used as antennas jets of salt water pumped vertically 
into the air and "insulated" from the sea by passing 
through spiral tubing forming the coupling coil. 

Long-Distance Communication 

In competition with and as a substitute for line and 
cable telegraphy over long and short stretches of sea, 
radio has become of still greater importance. Early in 
the year the cable to Nassau, in the Bahamas, was in- 
terrupted; and since excellent service to that island has 
been given from the wireless station at Miami, it is an- 
ticipated that the cable will not be replaced. Radio 
transmission over this short link of about 180 miles is 
not, however, to be compared to the wireless communica- 
tion direct between the United States and Germany, 
some 4000 miles, which has existed to some useful de- 
gree ever since the cutting of the Emden cable near the 
Azores, and which now permits regular exchange of 
commercial messages by way of Tuckerton, N. J., and 
Eilvese, near Hanover. At the time of enforced cessa- 
tion of cable service direct with Germany these two 
plants had just about completed their experimental 
transmission tests and were preparing to open for the 
sending of paid messages. Some complications of title 
and censorship then made it desirable for the federal 
government to take over the operation of the Tuckerton 
station, and public service in competition with the in- 
direct cable routes was begun. The radio service was 
interrupted by an unfortunate accident to the Tucker- 
ton radio-frequency alternator, and although temporary 
communication was obtained by the successive installa- 
tion of two arc generators of the type in use for signal- 
ing between San Francisco and Honolulu, regular serv- 
■ 'ild not be had until a new alternator received 
from Germany was put in operation early in December. 

During the same period of several months good trans- 
mission was had from the powerful station at Naiion. 
near Berlin, to Sayville, L. I., by the use of continuous 
waves, though the Sayville -park sender proved too 
feebli Germany reliably. It is stated thai the 

Sayville plant is now being equipped with a sustained- 
wave generator similar in size and principle of operation 
to that at Nauen, and therefore there probably will soon 
be two pair- of radio stations linking the United States 
and Germany. The fact that reasonably good inter- 
change of i effected at the present time, hen 
ever, must nol be considered an assurance that the com- 
munication will extend through the summer months of 
tui mce i' . <'■■•■ erthi le 
- ce In radio practice to operate an actual 
men I ne 1000 mil< 

erful duplex spark tele 

graph Installations at New I N\ J., and 

viiles apart. Is of in'' 

for the handling 

of public n • Welsh plant Is held bj the 

ted "ii good aut' 

that messages are interchanged with such ease that they 
may be phonographically recorded at high speeds. A 
pair of similar stations at Koko Head, Hawaii, and near 
San Francisco are in operation and compete for public 
messages with the Pacific cables and the sustained-wave 
arc-generator radio service which was established sev- 
eral years ago over this span of approximately 2000 
miles. The Clifden-Glace Bay service between Ireland 
and Nova Scotia has been duplexed, and although some- 
what limited in operation by reason of strict govern- 
ment supervision, seems to be working satisfactorily. 

In seeking the solution of problems involving long- 
distance transmission through severe interference from 
"static" and from external stations, engineers are stead- 
ily working toward sustained-wave generation by arc 
or machine alternator combined with receivers depend- 
ing upon the "beats" or heterodyne principle. Several 
types of high-powered generators of sustained radio- 
frequency alternating current are in use, but each ap- 
pears to have definite commercial disadvantages. It is 
hoped that these defects will be overcome during the 
next few years, and work is proceeding with that end in 
view. The musical-tone persistence-selecting receiver 
involving the production of oscillations at the receiving 
station and their combination with the incoming signals 
to cause amplified responses has become generally 
known only recently, but is already largely used for 
long-distance working. During the past twelve months 
the varied phenomena of gas conduction have been ap- 
plied to an interesting group of amplifiers and low- 
powered oscillation generators, and the several gaseous 
detectors have found wider use than in previous years. 
It must constantly be borne in mind, however, that noth- 
ing is to be gained by unduly increasing the sensitive- 
ness of receiving instruments, since their responsiveness 
to atmospherics (the real bane of the long-distance 
radiotelegrapher) is likely to become disproportionately 

The Patent Situation 

A large number of radiotelegraph and radiotelephone 
patents were issued in 1014. but by far the majority of 
them appear to have been granted on early applications 
for improvements in detail which have little if any cur- 
rent value. Patent litigation has been quite general; 
basic claims of Marconi and Fessenden have been 
broadly upheld and injunctions issued. It appears that 
for a time the federal courts will lie kept busier than 
ever, since a number of new and unlitigated patents 
have recently been thrown into the group which are 
'I to be infringed. The criminal courts have not 
been called upon to consider any further eases involving 
fraudulent stock manipulation and the like, so it max 
he considered that the earlier convictions have acted as 
a warning to those who delighted in exploiting the pub- 
nsity to invest in romantic and mysterious 

The problem of radintelcphony is still to devise in- 
struments eajiable of impressing vocal modulation upon 
large amounts of radio-f rei|iienc\ power. The 

tained waves necessary for long-distance wireless speech 
transmission can be generated with comparative ■ 
but no controlling apparatus has been demonstrated. 

Short-distance telephony using substantially continuous 

wave, generated by sparks occurring at group frequen- 

little attention, but is limited in application by n 
pendence upon microphones for modulation. Until 
dei Ices for the imp' the si 

wave curve" upon the high frequency radia- 

tion can be produced there is little hope 
radiotelephony or, in fact, even reliable voice signaling 
over moderate disti 

January 2, 1915 


High- Voltage Transmission at High Altitude— I 

The Chile Exploration Company's 110,000-Volt Installation at Chuquicamata in the Andes, 
Reaching an Elevation of 10,000 Ft. 

By Percy H. Thomas 

ONE of the most notable of the large engineering 
enterprises now being actively developed is the 
huge copper reduction plant of the Chile Explora- 
tion Company at Chuquicamata, Chile. This installa- 
tion is situated high in the Andes Mountains, at an 
elevation of over 9000 ft., in a district practically a des- 
ert for many miles around. Here the company pos- 
sesses an enormous deposit of low-grade copper ore 
which is to be treated on an unusually large scale. The 
Chuquicamata ore is of such a nature that it may be 
treated with acid or "leached" without previous roast- 
ing or smelting. The recovery of the copper from the 
resulting solution is accomplished by electrolysis, which 
operation serves at the same time to purify the product. 
It is expected that the copper thus electrolytically pro- 
duced will have an electrical conductivity exceeding 100 
per cent as compared with the Matthiessen standard. 
Obviously, for the electrolyte process there must be pro- 
vided a large amount of electric energy in the form of 
direct current. It has been estimated that to deposit 
the copper contained in 10,000 tons of ore to be mined 
each day will require approximately from 60,000 amp 
to 70,000 amp at 235 volts with the equipment operat- 
ing continuously for twenty-four hours daily. 

There being no reasonably cheap fuel in that part of 

LI? *'? "a - 

L2? x2? x,k 

13 { 4' x 6'J"> 


n' L 3 * 3 "S .. 

3tol na 

L2fxZ ? x,% 


•l 2 X 


Chile, the most satisfactory and reliable source of 
energy has been found to be fuel oil burned under boil- 
ers at the seacoast. Electric energy generated there- 
from by steam turbo-generators is to be transmitted 
over a 110,000-volt line to the mine. The purpose of the 

•Consulting electrical engineer. 

present article is to describe some of the more interest- 
ing features of this transmission line. 

The generating station at Tocopilla on the seacoast is 
distant by 87 miles from the mine substation at Chuqui- 
camata, the altitude of which is approximately 9000 ft. 
The generating station and substation and the appa- 
ratus in the stations were designed, built and installed 
by the Siemen-Schuckertwerke of Berlin. The gen- 
erating station contains four 10,000-kva, 5000-volt, fifty- 
cycle turbo-generators and four three-phase, 10,000-kva 
transformers to raise the pressure to 110,000 volts. The 
normal load on the line will be approximately 30,000 
kva. During the initial development stage it has been 
decided to install only a single three-wire circuit, which 


is sufficient for transmitting this amount of power with 
about 7.5 per cent loss. Later there will be installed a 
second circuit carried on a second line of towers. 
In the substation are seven 2500-kw motor-generator 
sets, three being equipped with synchronous motors and 
four with induction motors. Each motor drives two 
direct-current generators, each having a maximum cur- 
rent rating of 6000 amp. 

The transmission line is unique in passing from sea 
level to an elevation of 10,000 ft. Moreover, it traverses 
for its full length a country utterly barren of all vege- 
tation or animal life. That is the "nitrate district" of 
Chile, and the line passes in the neighborhood of some 
of the present workings. While the barrenness elimi- 
nates certain difficulties in operation such as the falling 
of limbs of trees across the line and malicious interfer- 
ence, it leaves the line unprotected from the free sweep 
of high winds and exposed to dust deposits. 
Physical Structure of the Line 

Use is made of galvanized-steel towers with a stand- 
ard span of 200 m (656 ft.), giving five towers to the 
kilometer, or about eight towers to the mile. The three 
conductors of No. 000 seven-strand medium hard-drawn 
copper cable, lie in a horizontal plane and are separated 
by 12 ft. 11 in. Two 3 s-in. galvanized Siemens-Martin 



Vol. 65, No. 1 

steel cable ground wires are used. The arrangements of 
conductors and ground wire, together with the appear- 
ance of the face of the tower, are shown in Fig. 1. The 
side view may be seen in Fig. 2. 

In laying out the line there was assumed a maximum 
wind pressure of 30 lb. per sq. ft. on flat surfaces, cor- 
responding to a velocity of 87 miles an hour actual and 

The line insulator used is of the Locke No. 3266 
type, a new two-piece suspension insulator with a 10.5- 
in. outside diameter and a 6-ft. spacing. Seven units 
are employed in the suspension string. The insulator 
string is shown in Fig. 3 and the single unit in Fig. 4. 
Eight units are employed "in strain" where the line is 

The regular or "standard" towers are 47 ft. high to the 
ground wire and 43 ft. 9 in. to the cross-arm. The base 
is 13 ft. by 16 ft. The towers are guyed at regular in- 
tervals on tangents and wherever desirable on angles. 
As far as practicable the tower construction has been 
made strong enough to stand without guys under any 
ordinary conditions of service, the guys being relied 
upon only for safety in case of extraordinary stresses. 
The line is transposed by a one-third turn at five points, 
there being two complete revolutions of the conductors. 


As the most important link in a transmission line, 
next to the conductors and the towers themselves, the 



ever 110 miles indicated. The assumed range of tem- 
perature was from — 5 to + 55 deg. C. As Chuqui- 
camata is just under the Tropic of Capricorn and rain 
is practically unknown, no allowance was made for sleet. 
The stress permitted in the conductor with the maxi- 
mum wind pressure on the cable as noted above is 2700 
lb. at the tempeiature of — 5 deg. C, giving a sag 
of 3 per cent in the standard span of 200 m with a tem- 
perature of 55 deg. without wind. The elastic limit, as 
determined by tests on sample of the actual cable, is 
4000 lb., so that there is a margin of 50 per cent over 
2700 lb., which is sufficient to take care of injuries, 
joints and other variations without exceeding the elastic 
limit of the material. The ultimate strength of the 
cable is 7000 lb., corresponding to 53,000 lb. per sq. in. 
The ground-wire cable is stressed to 3000 lb. under 
the most severe conditions outlined above, giving 36,000 
lb. per sq. in. The elastic limit of the cable was 4400 
Hi. or 53,000 lb. per sq. in. by test, and the ultimate 
strength was 9000 lb. or 108,000 lb. per sq. in. Thus 


the line conductor has a factor i two 

and one-half and the ground wire a factor 
nearly threi These values Bhould be compared with 
the fa of two often used. The extra mar- 

gin in the design is ible on account of the 

. output involved ami tin mm ual importan 
continuity in operation. 

£ 200 


FIG. 6- 

2 4 6 8 



insulators require careful attention. The Chile Explor- 
ation Company's insulators embody a Dumber of inter- 
esting features. Experience with suspension-type 
insulators during the last five years has brought out 

certain salient characteristics. As compared with the 

pin insulator, the suspension typ< possibility 

of a larger margin of safety in insulation and permits 

the use of a far higher line voltage. Moreover, the BUS- 

n t\ pe offers several times tin' mechanical strength 

of the usual pin insulator and permits at least doubling 
the length of span. On the other hand, the suspension 

type has the great handicap of permitting the line to 

swiiur in any horizontal direction, As a result of this 

bined with the necessity of supporting the 

Insulator from above there is required a higher, wider 
and considerably more expensive tower than need be 
used with a pin-t\ pe insulator 

January 2, 1915 


The disadvantage of mechanical swinging and excess 
tower cost attributable to the suspension insulator does 
not exist when the insulator is used as a strain unit, that 
is, with the axis of the insulator string in line with the 
cable. When such strain insulators are used the tower 
would differ little from that used with the pin-type in- 
sulator, although the greater mechanical strength of 
the suspension insulator would permit proportionally 
longer spans and heavier towers. However, the strain 
arrangement necessitates the use of two insulator 
strings at each point of support. In heavily construct- 
ed lines it would not be possible to use towers of as low 
a weight with insulators placed in the strain position 
as with insulators in the suspension position, on account 
of the partial relieving of the stress on a tower by the 
side deflection of the insulator string in case a wire be- 
comes broken. 

It has been stated that disk insulators in the strain 
position are more likely to fail electrically than when in 
the suspension position. It is very doubtful, however, 
whether a good porcelain insulator, properly designed 
and used, with a sufficient mechanical factor of safety, 
will have any less electrical strength in the strain than 
in the suspension position. However, on account of the 
disadvantage under which the insulator skirts act in 
the up-turned position of the strain insulator another 
unit is often added to the suspension string. 

In the Chile Exploration Company's line use is made 
of the usual arrangement of suspension insulators for 
normal tangent portions that are reasonably level, but 
strain insulators are employed for dead-ending when 
any occasion therefor arises. The same type of insul- 
ator units are used in both positions, seven in suspen- 
sion strings and eight in strains. The length of the 
suspension string, while greater than is often used, is 
short considering the unusually high puncture and sur- 
face resistance provided. The short length of string is 
greatly to the advantage of the tower mechanically, 
both in keeping down its physical dimensions and in 
reducing the amplitude of swinging of the conductors, 
thereby lessening the stresses and reducing the tendency 
of wires to come in contact. 

Selection of Insulators 

An outline of the conditions upon which was based 
the selection of the insulators for the Chile Exploration 
Company's line may be of interest. In the first place, 
the importance of the line and the great premium put 
upon continuity of service made reliability, and not in- 
sulator cost, the chief consideration. However, there 
is not so great a difference between the cost of the best 
and of inferior insulators as might be supposed. Had 
the cheapest insulator that could have been permitted 
from the most lenient point of view been adopted for 
this line, the actual saving in cost would have been from 
$5,000 to $7,000. 

Mechanical and electrical ruggedness was made the 
prime requisite for the insulators. Mechanical relia- 
bility was insured by providing an unusually large 
factor of safety and by choosing the simplest and most 
favorable mechanical shapes. The two shells of which 
the insulator is made have no double or auxiliary petti- 
coats and their outlines are smooth curves with very 
moderate maximum dimensions. The maximum me- 
chanical stress expected on the insulator is 2700 lb. The 
insulator is guaranteed by the manufacturer for 10,000 
lb., and the tests showed a strength averaging in the 
neighborhood of 12,000 lb. Manufacturing difficulties 
were reduced by not selecting shapes and proportions 
for the porcelain shells regarded as difficult or unde- 
sirable from the point of view of fabrication. It is to 
be noted that there are no thin edges or flanges on the 
insulators, the skirts being very heavy and strong. In 

order to reduce as far as possible any bursting effect 
from temperature expansion in the pin the cement re- 
ceived its initial set in an atmosphere of steam. 

Electrical ruggedness was sought first and foremost 
by requiring a large factor of safety in the puncture re- 
sistance of the insulator over its flash-over voltage. In 
the actual insulator this factor was shown to exceed two 
as determined by the puncture test under oil as de- 
scribed below. Electrical reliability was sought by the 
use of a two-piece insulator, with the idea in view that 
if one of the shells should contain a defect not discov- 
ered in the routine factory tests the other shell would 
contain no such defect and the insulator would still be 
able to resist puncture at the flash-over voltage. Pre- 
cautions were taken by inspection and tests as far as 
possible to insure careful firing and uniformity in the 
product. For this purpose special tests were made on 
selected lots of insulators from time to time as de- 
scribed below during the actual course of the manufac- 
ture to check the quality of the insulators actually com- 
ing through the factory. 

It is believed that the above outlined method of select- 
ing a high-tension insulator is more likely to lead to 
satisfactory results than the formal competitive test in 
which the principal stress is laid upon high flash-over 
voltage, upon the economical use of porcelain or upon 
corona phenomena. 

The Chile Exploration Company's insulator is mod- 
eled after the well-known two-piece insulator used by 
the Southern Power Company and several other com- 
panies, but is so modified in its proportions as to have 
quite different characteristics. To prevent arcs that 
may result from flash-overs on the insulators from 
cracking the skirt of the lower insulator unit or burn- 
ing the conductor, an arcing horn (shown in Fig. 5) is 
attached to the cable clamp, thereby offering a dis- 
charge gap about 1.5 in. shorter than the jumping dis- 
tance from the ground to the insulator pin. This is be- 
lieved to be a very helpful expedient, as many insulators 
capable of resisting puncture have been destroyed by 
arcing over. 

The following factory tests were made on the Chile 
Exploration Company's insulators: 

Routine Tests. — (a) On all shells as they came from 
the kiln and again on all cemented insulators voltage suf- 
ficient to produce occasional flash-overs (not oftener 
than once in two seconds) was applied for a period of 
two or three minutes, and the voltage was then raised 
somewhat to produce a practically steady succession of 
flash-overs, this latter adjustment being continued for 
one-half minute. The purpose of the two-minute period 
was to submit the porcelain to continuous sixty-cycle 
stress and the purpose of the one-half-minute period to 
produce an impact or "high-frequency" effect. The in- 
sulators stood up very well under the routine tests dur- 
ing manufacture. The percentage of electrical failures 
in the routine factory tests was unusually low, being 
0.5 per cent on the small shell and 2 per cent on the large 
shell before cementing and 2.2 per cent on the finished 
insulator. The very small percentages were attribut- 
able, no doubt, in part to the high factor of safety in the 

(b) All insulators were subjected for five seconds to 
a mechanical pull of 3000 lb., or 10 per cent in excess of 
the maximum strain expected in service. The mechan- 
ical pull was set far below the real strength of the in- 
sulator to avoid the possibility of injuring mechanically 
the insulators that were to go into actual service. It is 
believed, however, from some of the tests reported be- 
low, that at least double the above stress, or 6000 lb., 
might safely have been applied to the insulators. Not 
one insulator in the 18,000 tested failed under the 3000- 
1b. test. 


Vol. 65, No. 1 

Design Tests. — The curve of flash-over voltage, dry 
(shown in Fig. 6), was obtained in the usual manner 
by means of the manufacturers' test apparatus, reliance 
being placed on a needle-point gap to measure the volt- 
age. Xo special attempt was made to insure the use 
of a sine voltage wave in this test. 

In Fig. 6 is shown a curve of wet flash-over voltage 
obtained under the artificial condition of the rain test. 
which usually means little. Failure under the wet test 
is an uncertain and indeterminate phenomenon; it starts 
as a leakage of current and finally becomes a "power" 

sulators on account of rain. This statement is appli- 
cable to rain, but it must be clearly understood that it 
has no bearing upon the effect of dust or salt deposits 
and fog, which may sometimes be very serious. As 
there is no known method of even roughly approximat- 
ing in the laboratory the dust and fog conditions along 
any particular transmission lines, no attempt was made 
to predetermine the effect of the climatic conditions in 

Uniformity Test. — The uniformity test originally 
proposed by Mr. F. W. Peek, Jr.. as incorporated in the 

m. Z00 ° 

>s"' Pc 


wer House 



















70 ? 
K m. 







rm 25 




Length of 11* 
} Phases. 50 'Cue 

line S5.B Miles or 138 Ki 
les. No. % Cables (Oa.1 
?r 593. 1cm. in horizonte 
'olculation Peeks Form 



IS em.). Spacing It-ll' 

I plane 



p,,' t,xm.*nti ~,.0S5fbr 

7 Stranded 

O ' S0~. r= OUtcrr- 9cm. 





no. 7 

MO 115 12 


arc with no definite or reproducible point of break-down 
between. The production of such a power arc requires 
an abnormally high voltage sustained i rtain 

period. Only under th ditions can such a 

tained high voltage be produced on a ti n line 

the other limitations of the laboratory 
rain I i thai of the variation 

in purity i ductivity of the " 

perience little or no trouble 
is encountered Is • over on line in- 

high-tension test specifications presented at the recent 
annual convention of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers, was applied t ■ » the insulators at four 
different times during the progress of the work with 

nteresting results. For carrying out t hi 
twenty two insulatcr units were selected at random from 

ilatora thai had passed all routine l 
These were punctured under oil, the puncture voltage 
being carefully noted. The manufacturer was then 
permitted to cast out any two of the results and the re- 

January 2, 1915 


maining twenty were averaged. The maximum varia- 
tion of puncture voltage between the highest and the 
lowest of the twenty remaining results was then not 
allowed to exceed 20 per cent of the average. 

The reason that the manufacturer is permitted to 
cast out two of the twenty-two puncture values is that 
this test is intended to check the uniformity of the clay 
mixture and of the burning, and not to detect the occa- 
sional weak insulator. 

In making the puncture tests the rate at which the 
voltage is raised is of the greatest importance, since the 
porcelain itself under an electric stress near the punc- 
ture point heats up very rapidly, the puncture 
resistance of the material being greatly reduced 
thereby. Since the high puncture resistance is de- 
sired chiefly against transient stresses which can- 
not last for a time sufficient to produce heating, 
the test voltage should be raised as quickly as is 
consistent with reliable readings. In the first uniform- 
ity test the test voltage was raised at the rate of 
approximately 1000 volts per second; in the later tests 
approximately six seconds were allowed to elapse from 
the time of passing from 30 per cent of puncture voltage 
to the full puncture voltage, the rate of increase being 
about 20,000 volts per second, although a little lower 
rate was used toward the puncture point. The results 
of the four uniformity tests were as shown in Table I. 


Mean puncture voltage 

i puncture voltage . 

i puncture voltage . . 

variation, per cent 

















The above puncture values are to be compared with the 
flash-over voltage of a single insulator, namely, 90,000 
volts. The puncture tests were made on the regular 
testing apparatus of the manufacturer, and the voltage 
values were checked by the use of a needle-point gap. 
No claim is made to a sine voltage. 

Impact Test. — Several impact or "high-frequency" 
tests were made on the unit insulators. Some of these 
tests were made in New York and others at the insu- 
lator factory. The tests were substantially like the test 
described before the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers in a paper by Messrs. P. H. Thomas and L. 
E. Imlay in December, 1912. A large air condenser was 
caused to discharge across a considerable series gap 
onto the insulator under test, thereby providing an elec- 
tric impact shock of the same nature as lightning. 

The series gap in these tests was 20.5 in., equivalent 
to 200,000 volts, requiring for the discharge a trans- 
former emf of 300,000 volts. The area of each con- 
denser plate varied from 40 sq. ft. to 60 sq. ft., with a 
separation of plates of approximately 3 ft. No induct- 
ance other than that of the few feet of connecting wire 
was introduced in the discharge path from the con- 
denser to the insulator. 

Tests were made by applying single discharges or 
groups of discharges to the insulator with intervals of 
rest between to prevent the heating of the material of 
the insulator, this test being intended to be purely an 
impact test and not to involve the element of heating of 
the porcelain by repeated or sustained high-frequency 
stresses. The results of the test are shown in Table II. 
The last insulator was heated considerably during the 
repeated tests and the puncture may have been caused 
by the heating. 

The impact test, which is new, is believed to give a 
good indication of the effect of transient or "high- 
frequency" voltages caused by lightning, which are so 
apt to puncture insulators. The insulators tested stood 
up well under the exacting test. 

Mechanical Pull Test. — Several insulators were me- 
chanically pulled to destruction, the stress as shown by 





No. of Shocks 


No. 1 


No damage 

No. 2 


No damage 

No. 3 


No damage 

No. 4 



shell punctured; had very 
slight blistering) 

a dynamometer being as follows: No. 1, 12,730 lb.; 
No. 2, 14,000 lb. ; No. 3, 12,990 lb. ; No. 4, 12,670 lb. ; No. 
5, 11,800 lb.; No. 6, 11,530 lb.; No. 7, 11,080 lb.; No. 8, 
11,660 lb.; No. 9, 9590 lb.; No. 10, 9350 lb.; No. 11, 
9490 lb.; No. 12, 11,060 lb. 

Insulators Nos. 9 to 12 failed by the pulling out of 
the pin; the cement had been set for only two days. 
Insulators Nos. 5 to 8 had previously been punctured 
and oil-soaked. 

Omitting those in which the cement had set for only 
two days, the average stress at destruction was 12,310 
lb. The noteworthy uniformity of the mechanical 
strength shown in these tests corresponds with the uni- 
formity in puncture strength shown by the tests under 

Simultaneous Mechanical and Electrical Tests. — Sev- 
eral insulators were pulled to destruction mechanically 
while an electrical potential approximately flash-over 
voltage was simultaneously impressed on the insulators. 
Under these conditions the insulators will fail electric- 
ally as soon as any part of the insulator is injured by 
the mechanical strain. Under a test of this sort some 
types of insulators have been known to fail electrically 
after the application of perhaps one-third of their ulti- 
mate mechanical strength. The results obtained are 
given in Table III. These tests show that, at least for 


No. of Insulators 



such mechanical stresses as were applied, the electrical 
strength is not greatly affected by mechanical stress. 

Temperature-Expansion Tests. — In order to ascertain 
whether the design of insulator selected was able to 
resist considerable changes in temperature without 
cracking, two insulators were packed in snow for two 
hours and then immersed in cold water, which was grad- 
ually heated until the temperature reached approxi- 
mately the boiling point. The insulators showed no 
signs of weakness after this treatment. 

These insulators were packed three or four in a 
crate and were shipped without additional precautions 
other than the use of extra heavy crates with iron hoops 
on the ends. No breakage during shipments has been 



Vol. 65, No. 1 

As the Chile Exploration Company's line reaches an 
altitude of approximately 10,000 ft. and operates at 
from 100,000 volts to 110,000 volts, the corona loss must 
be most carefully considered. A study was made of 
the existing data on the subject, and calculations were 
finally made by means of the formula derived by Mr. 
F. \V. Peek. The results were then compared with the 
published results on the Central Colorado Company's 
line, which is very similar thereto in many features. 
(See Mr. G. Faccioli's A. I. E. E. paper.) ' The Peek 
formula values are plotted in Fig. 7 covering the whole 
line under various conditions of temperature and line 
voltages. From these curves it is seen that the size of 
wire chosen, No. 000, is about as small as could be safely 

The great influence of atmospheric temperature on 
the corona loss is readily seen from the curves. This 
effect of temperature is not always recognized in spite 
of its importance. On the other hand, the importance 
of keeping the line voltage below the critical corona 
voltage is often over-estimated. The loss under what 
Mr. Peek calls "storm" conditions also is shown: this 
term refers particularly to precipitation. 

The conditions on this line are especially favorable 
for low corona loss on account of the wide spacing and 
the horizontal arrangement of the conductors. It is 
interesting to note that the horizontal arrangement as 
compared with the delta arrangement shows a lower 
corona loss, just as it shows a reduction of about 4 per 
cent in the capacity of the line. The lesser corona loss 
and lower capacity result from the fact that the two 
outside wires considered as a pair are twice as far apart 
as are the other pairs. 

Electricity for Sterilizing Purposes 

By W. B. Underwood 
New uses for electricity in hospitals are continually 
being found, but only within the past three or four 
years have any successful attempts been made to heat 

hi, I BATTI hi 01 I I i -i nUI STERILIZERS 

stean . tricitj . Electri< 

llisei ally well adapted for use m Institutions 

■uch isylums, en perating depart 

menta of Industrial p te operating 

apparatus ih mi 
quently employed, Thej are also useful In hospitals 
> limited amount available. 

Steam sterilizers may be heated by a central-boiler 
system, electricity, gas, kerosene, gasoline or alcohol. 
The latter three fuels are in the emergency class and 
are never used if any other fuel is available. Gas is ob- 
jectionable because of unavoidable fumes and dirt and 
because of the danger of the water in the sterilizer 
evaporating and therefore destroying the apparatus 

, — : — i — i — 1 

__ir L - J 

f— — 

\ ; i 




i ' ' 



V— n 



It is said that, with some types of apparatus, gas at $1 
per 1000 cu. ft. is equivalent to electricity at 1.5 cents 
per kw-hr. It is probable that this comparison approx- 
imately holds good on new apparatus when the efficiency 
of the gas heaters is a maximum. As the apparatus 
grows old, however, lime and sediment deposits seri- 
ously retard the passage of heat, and as a result it is 
not unusual to find that the time for heating a sterilizer 
after a year or more of service is more than doubled. 

In the accompanying illustration is shown the elec- 
trically heated sterilizing equipment recently placed in 
the De Graff Memorial Hospital, North Tonawanda, N. 
Y. This is a typical installation, and the total rating is 
27 kw, although usually a maximum of only 12 kw is 
taken. The apparatus consists of an instrument ster- 
ilizer, a utensil sterilizer, a pair of water sterilizers and 
a dressing sterilizer. 

The instrument sterilizer consists of an electrically 
heated reservoir for boiling water. The surgeon's in- 
struments are kept in this water for fifteen minutes be- 
fore using. The device takes from 8 kw to t> kw. The 
utensil sterilizer is made up of a larger reservoir than 
that used with the Instrument steriliser and Is used for 

pans, basins, etc. It takes from 6 kw to 12 kw. The 

water sterilizers consist of two reservoirs, one being 

used for cold water and the other for hot water. To 
sterilize the water it is subjected to B temperature 
which corresponds to B steam pressure of 1 •"> lb. to IS \\< 
per Bq. in. The maximum rating Of each reservoir is 

:: kw to 18 kw. The dressing Bterilizer is a steam-jack- 
eted cylindrical chamber for steriliiing bandages, dn 
ings, etc. These materials usuallj are subjected to moist 
steam at a pressure of approximately i"> lb. per sq. in. 
for a period of about twenty-five minutes. The maxi- 
mum rating of this device is :'. kw to 12 kw. 

In each of these Bterillsers the process Is purely one 
of heating water. The hMting units are interchange- 
able. The accompanying diagram shows the average 

dail] energ] consumption in s hospital equipped with 
from fifty to Beventy beds 

January 2, 1915 




Generators, Motors and Transformers 
Synchronous Motor-Generator Versus Rotary Con- 
verter. — Hugo Ring. — The author discusses the ques- 
tion whether the increasing tendency to favor the syn- 
chronous converter as a substitute for the synchronous 
motor-generator is justified. He first emphasizes that 
a synchronous motor-generator can easily be operated 
with other direct-current generators; moreover, the 
power-factor is adjustable and, independently of this, 
the direct-current voltage is also adjustable without any 
further auxiliary devices. For the same purposes the 
synchronous converter requires the use of various auxil- 
iaries. With a synchronous converter it is necessary 
to know far more accurately in advance the detailed 
conditions of operation than with synchronous motor- 
generators. When installing a synchronous converter 
it would be fatal to hope that any defects may be rem- 
edied later by means of a choking coil or an auxiliary 
compound winding. In this case wattless current plays 
a role in the operation and the synchronous converter 
may be subjected to an overload for which it was not 
designed.— Elek. Zeit., Nov. 5, 1914. 

Lamps and Lighting 
Train Lighting. — Emil Dick. — The first part of an 
illustrated article on the electric lighting of passenger 
trains by the simplified Dick system. The illumination 
is somewhat higher when the train is running than when 
it is at rest. It was found that with metallic-filament 
lamps the storage batteries could be operated at surpris- 
ingly low voltages. These facts make it possible to use 
an arrangement in which the lamps are connected in 
parallel with the battery and the dynamo, the voltage of 
which is adjusted by a special regulator. There are no 
energy-consuming resistors in series with the lamps 
and the batteries, no lamp regulators, no iron-wire re- 
sistors, relays or other complications. In the present 
instalment the author describes the results of tests on the 
charging of storage batteries. The general results are as 
follows, for batteries in good normal condition: The 
charging emf should be not more than 2.4 volts per cell, 
if damage is to be avoided. For a full charge of the 
battery a charging emf of 2.25 volts per cell is just suf- 
ficient. The ratio of the charging ampere-hours to the 
discharging ampere-hours is always higher than unity 
if the charging has been continued for a sufficiently long 
time and charging pressures above 2.25 volts per cell 
have been used. The battery may be maintained in 
operation for long periods with relatively low charging 
voltages without danger of damage. As the initial 
charging current is rather high, charging of the bat- 
tery at constant voltage is unsuitable. The charging of 
the battery should not start with constant voltage, even 
if only 2.25 volts per cell is used, but the charging volt- 
age at start should be automatically adjusted to a lower 
value, the more the battery has been discharged, if 
melting of the fuses and overloading of the generators 
and the apparatus are to be avoided. The author begins 
to discuss the method of regulation and the characteris- 
tics which the generator must have. The article is to 
be concluded.— Elek. Zeit., Nov. 26, 1914. 

Generation, Transmission and Distribution 

Refuse Destructor. — J. Festner. — An article on the 
garbage incinerator in the city of Barmen, Germany, 
which has 172,000 inhabitants. It was erected in 1907 
and has proved quite satisfactory. The garbage is 
burned to a slag which is later ground into sand used for 
brick and building purposes. The gases resulting from 

the burning of the garbage have a temperature from 
1200 deg. to 1500 deg. C. and are used for raising steam 
under boilers in connection with a 400-kw turbo-genera- 
tor. The electricity is sold at vs cent per kw-hr. to the 
municipal electric station, which sells it at 2.75 cents. 
One ton of garbage yields 0.5 ton of slag and 77 kw-hr. 
of energy. During one year 22,000 tons of garbage is 
burned, yielding 11,000 tons of sand and 1,700,000 
kw-hr. of energy. — Science, Dec. 18, 1914. 


Alternating-Current Traction. — A fully illustrated 
description of the single-phase motor cars used on the 
Loetschberg mountain railway operated at 15,000 volts. 
—Elek. Zeit., Nov. 26, 1914. 

Installations, Systems and Appliances 

Crane Controllers. — H. H. Broughton. — A fully illus- 
trated article on magnet-switch crane controllers. In 
this article the author describes the construction, opera- 
tion, arrangement and connections of remote-control 
systems, and shows how these are applied to heavy 
cranes. Speed control, dynamic braking and automatic 
acceleration are dealt with, and a number of typical 
magnet-switch control systems applied to the several 
motions of a crane are described. — London Electrician, 
Nov. 27 and Dec. 4, 1914. 

Protective Gear. — Kenelm Edgcumbe. — The first 
part of an illustrated article on over-voltage protective 
gear for high-tension circuits. In the present instal- 
ment protection against disturbances due to external 
causes is discussed. The article is to be continued. — 
London Elec. Review, Nov. 27, 1914. 

Cooking Installation. — An illustrated description of 
a military electric cooking equipment recently installed 
by a London central station. — London Elec. Review, 
Nov. 27, 1914. 

British Central Station. — A fully illustrated descrip- 
tion of the large new extension of the Hackney munici- 
pal electric station. The plant was opened thirteen years 
ago with a direct-current supply, but for the extension 
a three-phase system at 6000 volts and fifty cycles and 
distribution from substations has been adopted. The 
substations feed energy to the existing direct-current 
network, except in the case of very large consumers. 
who are supplied with energy directly from the high- 
tension alternating-current system. For the three- 
phase generating plant one 3000-kw turbo-alternator 
has been installed and a 5000-kw set has been ordered 
Each of the three substations contains two 500-kw 
Lacour converters. — London Elec. Review, Dec. 4. 1914. 

Wires, Wiring and Conduits 

Testing High-Tension Cables by Direct Current. — An 
account of the discussion which followed the reading of 
the paper of Lichtenstein, recently abstracted in the 
Digest, on the use of the Velon system for testing alter- 
nating-current cables by means of high-tension direct 
current. Apt asked about the size of the testing ma- 
chine, since a certain minimum of capacity serves to 
break a cable down. He also asked as to the connections 
of the cable to the positive or the negative poles of the 
machine, since there should be a difference in these two 
cases on account of osmosis. In reply to the later ques- 
tion, Lichtenstein said that no special pains had been 
taken to investigate the polarity of the connections, so 
that probably each conductor had been connected as 
often to the positive pole as to the negative pole. No 
particular difference had been observed. Riidenberg and 



Vol. 65, No. l 

Bercovitz also participated in the discussion. As to the 
capacity of the testing plant, Lichtenstein said that the 
Delon rectifier of the Siemens & Halske company was of 
10-kva rating. The power consumption in the test de- 
pends primarily on the current passing in continuous 
operation through the cable insulation. Let it be as- 
sumed that the insulation resistance of a fault in course 
of formation is 12,000,000 ohms. At 150,000 volts there 
is then a fault current of 0.0125 amp, which is super- 
posed on the normal insulation current. If the testing 
plant can supply this current without an appreciable 
drop of voltage, the Joulean heat at the fault is 1875 
watts, or 1.875 kw. Under these conditions the fault re- 
sistance will soon be reduced to zero, so that it is pos- 
sible to locate it. The Delon rectifier of the Siemens & 
Halske company has a sufficient capacity to supply the 
necessary current without considerable voltage drop. — 
Elek. Zeit., Nov. 5, 1914. 

Cable Laying. — An illustrated description of the 
methods employed in laying the cables from the Tysse- 
dal Power Plant on the Hardanger Fjords to the carbide 
factory in Odda. On account of the mountainous char- 
acter of the country the laying of the cables was 
rather difficult. Two parallel cables, each of 3 X 120 sq. 
mm., for 1250 volts are employed.— £7e/c. Zeit., Nov. 
5, 1914. 

Electrophysics and Magnetism 

The Electrical Resistance of Thin Metallic Films and 
a Theory of the Mechanism of Conduction in Such 
Films.— W. F. G. Swann.— The theory which attributes 
electrical conduction to the presence of free electrons 
requires, in order that the variation of the resistance of 
a metal with the temperature T shall be explained, that 
the mean free path of an electron shall vary as T~\ 
The original object of the present work was to test this 
fact by direct experiment. Patterson has shown that 
the specific resistance of a very thin film is abnormally 
high, and, moreover, that it increases very rapidly as 
the thickness diminishes below a certain critical value. 
Sir J. J. Thomson has shown that a rapid increase of 
this kind can be explained as due to the fact that when 
the dimensions of the film get comparable with the 
mean free path of an electron, those electrons which at 
any instant are moving in a direction inclined to the 
plane of the film do not get a chance of traveling for 
their complete mean free path, so that the electric field 
does not produce in them the full velocity which it would 
produce if the true mean free paths were described. 
From this theory and the 7" law it would follow that 
when a film is cooled down to liquid-air temperature 
there should be a distinct displacement of the distance 
of the bend of the curve from the origin of thickness. 
It was found that no such displacement of the bend took 
place, and apart from certain relatively small variations 
of the resistance of the films with temperature, the 
curves at the two temperatures were practically coinci- 
dent, at any rate in the neighborhood of the bend. The 
experiments are not taken as necessarily proving that 
the free path does not vary as 7", but rather as show- 
ing that the explanation of the sharp bend is to be 
found from another standpoint than that which explains 
it as due to the thickness Of the film comparable with 
the mean free path, The author gives a new theo- 
retical explanation. — Phttoa. Mag., October, 191 l. 

Tht from Mercury Vapor in mi Electric 

D. Child, The vapor rising from a mer- 
cury are is luminous and the relative Intensity Of the 

different lines in the spectrum of the light can be modi 
tied by an electric Held. This may be done by changing 
the potential difl i red by the mean free path 

of the electrons. The greater this potential difference 
the more prominent the green line as compared with the 

yellow ones. This may be explained by assuming that 
certain lines are produced by the union of electrons with 
positive ions which lack one electron, while other lines 
are produced by the combination of electrons with posi- 
tive ions lacking more than one electron. — Phys. Rev., 
October, 1914. 

Units, Measurements and Instruments 

Measuring High Vacuums. — J. W. Woodrow. — A de- 
scription of a very sensitive Knudsen absolute mano- 
meter. The gage is shown in Figs. 1 and 2 and the 
electrical circuits in Fig. 3. The glass rods GG serve 
as supports for the metallic parts of the gage. All the 
internal electrical connections and adjustments, with 
the exception of the final leveling, are made before the 
outer glass wall OO is sealed on at SS. The suspen- 
sion W is a phosphor-bronze ribbon. The movable van 
VV consists of a rectangular frame of aluminum. The 
heating plates PP are platinum strips. The deflections 
of the movable vane are obtained in the usual way by 
the reflection of a beam of light from the mirror M. 
The phosphor-bronze suspension is connected at both 

FIGS. 1 AND 2- 


ends by threading through three small holes drilled 
into the flattened extremities of the platinum and alum- 
inum wires respectively. The small loops DD are so 
placed that they support the movable vane V except 
when the gage is leveled for taking readings. This 
makes the gage readily portable. The moving system 
BCtrically connected through the suspension to that 
terminal of the heating strips which was grounded, the 
whole being screened from external electrical disturb- 
ances by an earthed silver coating on the outside of the 
glass walls. A small electromagnet, shown at E in Fig. 
1. is employed In bringing the moving vane to rest. 
The temperature of the heating strips is determined by 
the method shown in Fig. .'?. The potentiometer leads 
77' are elcvt rieally welded to the very extremities of 
the platinum heating vanes PP. The heating current 
is regulated by the resistor of variable resista: 
and its value [| read on the ammeter A. The resistance 

r, is kept constant at 10,000 ohms and r varied to ob- 
tain a balance of the sensitive galvanometer O, The 

potentiometer battery (' consists of a carefully cali- 
brated Weston Standard cell, This arrangement gives 
an accurate method of measuring the resistance of the 

January 2, 1915 



platinum strips PP, plus the heavy platinum wire ab. 
According to the theory of Knudsen, the gas pressure 

within the gage is P 

, where K is the uni- 

y/TJT t — V 

form pressure in dynes on each square centimeter of 
the movable vane and T 1 and T 2 are the absolute temper- 
atures of the heating strips and of the moving vane 
respectively. If the difference in temperature is small 
as compared to the absolute temperature, the formula 

may be written P = AK,= ^ . This formula is inde- 
pendent of the nature of the gas or vapor to be meas- 
ured. For the dimensions of the author's instrument 

the formula becomes P = 2.2 X 10" ^ — ^ " mm °f Hg> 

where d is the deflection in milimeters on a scale at a 

mM/T^{a)— ji 

P B Kl 


distance of 1 m from the mirror. As it is easily possi- 
ble to obtain a temperature difference of 100 deg. C, 
and since a deflection of 0.5 mm can be observed, the 
gage will measure a pressure as low as 3X10" 8 mm of 
Hg. Radiation pressure has no appreciable effect. 
Some notes are added to the article which deal with the 
production of very low vacuums. — Physical Review, De- 
cember, 1914. 

Ohmmeter with Several Scales. — H. A. W. Kline- 
hamer. — While many firms build ohmmeters, their use 
is not very extended, probably because they are mostly 
designed for one single scale. The simplest ohmmeter 
consists of an ammeter in series with the resistance to 
be measured and a source of constant emf. The am- 
meter may then be empirically calibrated in ohms. The 
author discusses the problem how it is possible to de- 
sign an ohmmeter so that by a simple turn of a switch 
the scale divisions represent 10 or 100 times greater 
values. If the relation between the unknown resist- 
ance x and the current i is given by the equation x = 
cf(i), the problem is that, by simply operating a switch, 
c be changed from 1 to 10 or 100, etc. The author dis- 
cusses the very general case of a network with con- 
stant electromotive forces containing in different 
branches the ammeter, the battery and the resistance x 
to be measured, and shows that if the deflections a of 
the ammeter are proportional to the current through 
the ammeter, then the general relation holds true that 


a - 

, where x is the resistance to be measured, 

W the total resistance of the network without the re- 
sistance x, and a the deflection of the ammeter when 
the resistance x is inserted. a is the deflection of the 
ammeter for the resistance x = and a 00 the deflection 
of the ammeter when the resistance x is infinitely large. 
Evidently a and a 00 are the end marks of the scale. Ac- 

cording to the above formula the unknown resistance x 
is found when the ratio of the distances of the posi- 
tion of the ammeter needle from the two end marks of 
the scale is multiplied by the total resistance W of the 
whole network. This result is independent of the spe- 
cial arrangement of the connections. It follows that 
the scales of all ohmmeters must be similar, whatever 
their connections. They differ only in the position of 
the end marks and in the value of the constant W. If 
the end marks are fixed (that is, if i and i 00 are main- 
tained constant), a change of the total resistance W 
of the network will change the constant of the propor- 
tionality. Many solutions are possible, but not all are 
equally good in practice. The problem is greatly sim- 
plified if the resistance to be measured is connected 
either in series or in parallel with the battery and am- 
meter.' For the series connection i uu = 0, where the prob- 
lem is to find an arrangement by which the total re- 
sistance of the network can be changed without chang- 
ing t | the simplest arrangement is the Wheatstone 
bridge as shown in Fig. 4. The ammeter in series with 
the resistance x to be measured is in one side branch 
of the bridge. The bridge is so adjusted that with the re- 


sistance z short-circuited there is equilibrium. This 
equilibrium will not be disturbed and the current i in 
the ammeter will not be changed (as long as resistance 
x is short-circuited) if the resistance of the diagonal 
branch of the bridge is varied by the movement of a 
switch as indicated in the diagram. But the total re- 
sistance of the network may be greatly changed there- 
by. In this way it is possible to let the constant W as- 
sume the values of 10, 100, etc., the arrangement being 
very suitable for an ohmmeter.— Elek. Zeit., Nov. 26, 

Telegraphy, Telephony and Signals 
Quenched-Spark Transmitter. — Emil J. Simon AND 
Lester L. Israel. — A paper read before the Institute 
of Radio Engineers on the operating characteristics of 
a three-phase, 500-cycle quenched-spark transmitter. 
The attempt to produce a nearly continuous radiation 
of energy and high-tone frequencies by the use of poly- 
phase transmitters is historically considered. The work 
of Eisenstein and Seibt is described. Experiments 
were made with two-phase and three-phase transmit- 
ters. It was found that the wave trains produced by 
successive discharges in adjacent phases overlapped in 
the antenna, thereby causing unmusical tones in the re- 
ceiver and a diminution of transmitter efficiency. This 
decrease in efficiency is attributable to the increased 
reaction of the antenna on the closed oscillating circuits 
and the consequent disturbance of the regularly spaced 
spark discharges of the transmitter of each phase. By 
increasing the antenna damping, thereby lessening the 
overlapping of successive wave trains, the musical qual- 
ity of the tone was improved and the transmitter effi- 
ciency markedly increased. Tests on dummy antennas 
and actual long-distance tests were made. The produc- 
tion of practically sustained radiation, susceptible of 
reception by the use of the ticker or analogous devices. 



Vol. 65, No. 1 

and produced by polyphase transmitters, is favorably 
considered. The limitation of quenched transmitter 
efficiency by the overlapping of rapidly successive wave 
trains is discussed.- — Proceedings, Institute of Radio 
Engineers, September, 1914. 


Svnss Exhibition. — ERNST WINKLER-BUSCHER. — The 
conclusion of his report on the Swiss exhibition in Bern. 
The author gives an account of exhibits of various Swiss 
manufacturers in the Machine and Apparatus Building 
and then describes the Transportation Building and the 
Hydroelectric Building. An indication of the size of 
the exhibition is the fact that on a weekday there were 
43,000 visitors without any crowding being noticed. — 
. Zeit., Nov. 5, 1914. 
British Electrical Engineers and the War. — THOMAS 
Roles. — His address, as chairman, to the Yorkshire 
Section of the (.British; Institution of Electrical Engi- 
neers. He first discusses the conditions under which 
electrical engineers should go to the front. He empha- 
sizes that many members, to do their duty, must per- 
force remain to control and run their undertakings, 
however martial may be their spirits. "Those who are 
actually engaged on work required for military pur- 
poses should at this crisis remember that much, very 
much, may depend on the work of the humblest worker, 
and that time is the essence of the contract just now." 
He then takes up the question how employers should 
handle the situation, and suggests that those of the 
members who have not up to the present arranged to 
do so should set aside regularly during the period of the 
war, and as long as necessary after, a definite percent- 
age of their incomes weekly or monthly for the benefit 
of relief funds formed to assist persons affected by the 
war. The motto, "Business as usual during the war," 
is a good one, but one that can be acted upon only to a 
limited extent. He refers to the capture and retention 
of foreign and colonial trade from Germany and 
Austria, and emphasizes "the tremendous extent to 
which the British industry has relied on foreigners for 
the design and supply of electrical and even mechanical 
apparatus." To change matters he suggests that meth- 
ods of technical education in Great Britain should be 
changed. "Better results might be obtained if the 
higher branches of electrical and mechanical engineer- 
ing were taught at a few extremely well-equipped cen- 
ters in this country by well-paid professors having the 
very highest technical qualifications, instead of each 
town of any size endeavoring to provide such facilities 
at technical schools." — London Electrician, Nov. 13. 

British Technical Education.— RoEER"! \V. PAUL.— 
["he author thinks that the average British electrical 
student who applies for employment in the factory lias 
been trained neither to work strenuously nor to think 
and plan clearly. His ideas of first principles anil prac 
tical requirements are hazy. "If the teaching authori- 
ties fail to appreciate the fad thai narrow but thor 
ouffh vocational training must be the basis for t h<- 
future culture of the majority ol lads, the manufactur 
ingly or jointly, will be forced (in fact, arc being 
. ,i , to pro i ducation ti n with 

their factories." The author thinks thai the British 
manufacture] are no! to be blamed. His point Is thai 
the present electrical training In Greal Britain > ; no1 
the beal adapted to develop British trade nor di 

the manufacturers, London EUc- 
L91 I. 
Electrical I • •■ i many. An arl icli 

a statistical table and a diagram of t> ■ ; elec 

my to other European 
• to 1918 n.L. Zeit., Nov. 12, I'.M i 

Book Reviews 

Installations Electriques de Force et Lumiere. By 
Adr. Curchod. Paris: H. Dunod and E. Pinat. 
222 pages, 80 illus. Price, 7.5 francs. 
This book contains a useful collection of connection 
diagrams in direct-current and alternating-current en- 
gineering. There are forty diagrams relating to direct- 
current systems, twenty-three relating to alternating- 
current systems, and seventeen to miscellaneous sys- 
tems. From a practical standpoint the book might be 
improved if opposite to each diagram were printed the 
explanatory text pertaining to it. As the volume is 
arranged the explanatory text is collected by itself in 
the first section of forty-five pages, and then come the 
plates by themselves, occupying eighty double pages, 
each being alternately a blank and a diagram. Con- 
sequently the reader has to oscillate between a diagram 
and its text. The diagrams are well executed, detailed 
and carefully worked out. The book will recommend it- 
self to electrical engineers and students of circuits gen- 
erally, especially those interested in European practice. 

Cours d'Electricite Theorique. Vol. I. By J. B. 
Pomey. Paris: Gauthier - Villars et Cie. 396 
pages, 90 illus. Price, 13 francs. 
This is an interesting volume on the theory of elec- 
tricity and magnetism, drawn up in the form of a 
college textbook by an engineer. It is seldom that an 
engineer devotes himself to the mathematical theory of 
electromagnetics on what might be called the purely 
theoretical and mathematical side. He more frequently 
devotes himself to the side of applications. The book is 
divided into nine chapters, relating to the following re- 
spective subjects: Electrostatics, electrokinetics, mag- 
netism, elements of vector algebra, electrodynamics, 
theory of induction, general equations of the electro- 
magnetic field, the theory of Lorentz, the propagation 
of electromagnetic waves. Despite the strictly theoret- 
ical character of the work, which resembles that of Mas- 
cart and Joubert, the treatment leans somewhat toward 
the concrete, as, for instance, in the orientation of co- 
ordinates eastward, southward and upward. Several 
problems of a concrete character are also discussed. The 
book will recommend itself to students of electromag- 
netic theory interested in the presentation of this won- 
derful subject by French scholars. 

La Telephonie et les Autres Moyens "'Intercom- 
munication dans l'Industrie des Mines et des 
CHEMINS DE Fer. By P. Maurer. Paris: H. 
Dunod & E. Pinat. 282 pages, L15 illus. Price, 
9 francs. 
A good practical treatise on electric signaling, with 
particular reference to wire telephony in industrial, 
mining and railroad service. It is addressed to those 

who are Interested in the installation or maintenance 

UCh Sy8tems, and especially to those who have some 
knowledge Of electric mechanisms but are not engi- 
neers. The chapters deal with the following subjects: 
Electric generators; acoustic signals; optical signals: 
telephony; automatic telephony: transmitters; Indica- 
tors; mine signals; telephone and telegraphy; railway 

telegraphs; aerial lines; subterranean lines, installa- 
tions, faults and tests; telephone gj stems; intercom 
municating systems. The book is well illustrated, and 

the variou ' apparatus are explained in sim- 

ple terms with no mathematics beyond arithmetic. The 

volume will Interest those who desire to become In- 
formed concerning the elements of electric signaling, 
lall] in Europe 




Flower Bed to Beautify Station Interior 

When a new electric-lighting station was erected at 
Downs, Kan., a portion of the power-house floor, later to 
be occupied by an additional prime mover, was left un- 
finished. In that condition it presented an unsightly 
appearance compared with the clean concrete floor in all 
other parts of the engine room. As a temporary and in- 
expensive means of hiding the ugly hole the engineers 
have planted a flower garden on the spot where a future 
engine unit will stand. 

Electric Pumping Plant 

A motor-driven pumping installation presenting sev- 
eral interesting features has recently been installed by 
the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad at Villa Grove, 
111. The equipment is designed to supply water for 
passenger and freight trains, locomotives and the rail- 
road roundhouses and shops at this place. The plant 
consists of three 5-in. double-suction, split-shell, in- 
closed-impeller, motor-driven, centrifugal pumps, made 
by the American Well Works, Aurora, 111. The instal- 
lation is in a pit extending 6 ft. below the station floor 
level. Water is taken from the Embarras River, which 
is about 100 ft. distant. The pump shown at the far 
end of the accompanying illustration takes water from 
the river and delivers it at the rate of 500 gal. per 
minute against a total head of 21 ft. into a surface 
reservoir and settling basin of several acres area, near 
the pumping station. The discharge pipe from this 
pump passes through a side wall of the pit and is sub- 
merged in the reservoir. 

The other two pumping units are duplicates and are 
automatically controlled by pressure governors. These 
pumps operate separately, and deliver water from the 
reservoirs to a 100,000-gal. elevated tank situated 1200 
ft. distant, near the railroad shops. A pump starts 
when the tank is half emptied and delivers an average 
of 750 gal. per minute until the tank is full. The pump 
then stops and remains inactive until the tank is again 
half emptied. 

The low-head pump operates continuously for several 


days, or until the reservoir is filled. The pipe is so ar- 
ranged that the low-head pump can deliver from the 
river to the reservoir while the other pumps are either 
idle or delivering to the tank, singly or in parallel, one 
automatically and one manually controlled. The mid- 
dle pumping unit is designed to deliver from the river 

to the reservoir, from the river to the tank, or from the 
river to an auxiliary reservoir, through the long pipe 
shown at the top of the illustration. The motors are 
designed for three-phase, sixty-cycle, 440-volt operation. 
The low-head motor is rated at 5 hp and operates at 
570 r.p.m., while each of the others is rated at 25 hp and 
operates at 1740 r.p.m. 

Improved Tripping Mechanism for Oil Switch 

The tripping mechanism of a certain well-known type 
of oil switch proved unreliable when installed in isolated 
stations of the Washington Water Power Company, of 
Spokane, especially in cases where the mechanism had 

trip full lir. 

Rod Old Trip Chain 

lien trip chain 


not operated for months after it had been adjusted in 
localities where there is considerable range of tem- 
perature, or dust in the air, or when the weather is 
damp and foggy. 

The operating factor was too low to overcome the 
effects caused by these elements on the mechanism, 
which tended to corrode, rust and bind it. 

In the original arrangement, a spring 14 operated a 
hammer 10 to break the main toggle 12 and permit the 
switch to open. When the center joint of the main 
toggle was set far enough below the center line of its 
end bearings to permit the closing of the switch, how- 
ever, it was supposed that it could still be tripped by the 
blow of the hammer 10 acting under the force of the 
spring 14, but after the switch had been set for weeks 
or months under severe weather conditions it was 
found impossible to knock the switch out with this ham- 
mer blow. 

On increasing the strength of the spring 14 to 
strengthen this hammer blow, greater force was put on 
the small toggle 11 and trouble was experienced in hold- 
ing or breaking this toggle with the force of series re- 
lays. Recourse was then had to an arm and adjustable 
weight 5, this arm being pinned solid with the hammer 
10 to a shaft. 

It will be seen that in the closed position of the 
switch, the force holding the small toggle 11 is very 
slight, allowing it to be broken easily, thus permitting 
the arm and weight 5 to drop to the right, and strike 
toggle 12 with hammer 10 a blow of great force. 

On experimenting with the redesigned mechanism it 
was found that the small toggle 11 could be broken with 
considerably less force than in the old arrangement. 
The large toggle 12 can also be easily broken when set 
V4 in. below the center line of its end bearings, with 
the main torsion springs set up to the limit. Nearly 
all the switches of the Washington Water Power Com- 
pany have been equipped with this device for over one 
year, and there have been no failures with it. 


Vol. 65, No. 1 

Fans Employed to Extinguish Fire in Underground 

Ventilating fans were employed recently at Cleveland, 
Ohio, to force a fire-extinguishing compound through 
underground ducts containing burning cables. Exhaust 
fans were installed at the opposite end of the duct run 
to remove the highly inflammable gases which were pro- 
duced by the volatilization of the rubber and paraffin 
insulation. It was not until after the cables had burned 
several hours, however, that this novel use of electric 
fans could be made, as the burning gases issuing from 
the conduits prevented men entering the manholes. 
While the underground cables were being replaced 
emergency service was furnished through temporarily 
installed aerial conductors. 

Rack and Switchboard for Life Tests on Series 
Incandescent Lamp 

The Electric Testing Laboratories, New York City, 
has recently installed equipment for conducting life 
tests on any type of series incandescent lamp. The ap- 
paratus consists of three racks supporting six electric- 
ally distinct circuits of 192 sockets and a bench-type 
switchboard for feeding each circuit separately and 
simultaneously or in any combination. Each rack con- 
sists of vertical iron pipes supporting eight offset hori- 
zontal rails made of asbestos board. On the lower side 
of each rail are fastened eight series-type sockets which 
will accommodate any incandescent lamp now made. On 
the upper side of the rails above each socket and con- 
nected to the terminals thereof are spring lips. Be- 
tween the lips can be inserted film cut-outs which short- 
circuit the lamp sockets when a lamp is removed or 


burned out The lip i ted in series by bran 

to the asbestos board. A fiber duct 

fnvm which a longitudinal strip has been removed li em- 
ployed to cover the upper Bide of each rail, thereby pre- 

venting accidental contact with the lips and connectors. 
Wires feeding each group of sockets are conveyed to the 
rails through the metal uprights and thence through 
asbestos blocks to the end sockets. It is planned to in- 
crease the total number of sockets supported on the 
racks to 328 by installing additional rails between those 


now used, but offset so as not to interfere with the lamp 

Any single rack or group of circuits can be supplied 
with constant-value current of 4, 5.5, 6.6, 7.5, 9.6 or 20 
amp by inserting plugs in receptacles on the front of the 
upper panels of the control board. The current in each 
circuit can be varied by turning switch handles on the 
lower panels and can be measured by ammeters on the 
horizontal part of the switchboard. The wiring connec- 
tions on the control board are indicated in the diagram 
shown herewith. The terminals of each rack circuit are 
connected with the vertical busbars. Crossing these 
bars but insulated therefrom are six pairs of constant- 
current busbars in which the values of current given 
above can be maintained. On the front of the panels 
opposite the points where the busbars cross are recep- 
tor screw-tip, arc -circuit-type plugs which are 
used to connect the rack circuits in series with the de- 
sired feeding busbars. For instance, if it is necessary 
to supply 4 amp to rack No. 1 plugs are inserted in the 
holes over the intersection of the lamp and No. 1 rack 
busbars. If several racks are to be supplied with the 
same current, they are connected in series by inserting 
plugs in the upper holes marked with the rack numbers 
and also in the reeeptaelea over the intersection of the 
terminal and feeding busbars. 

The horizontal busbars ;ire connected as shown to five 
auto transformers joined in series with the secondary 
of s Blngle constant-currenl transformer. The auto 
transformers are rated at i. 5.5, 7.6, 9.6 and 20 amp. the 
imp unit being designed to feed the 6.6-amp and 
7. .Vamp busbars and the !».6-amp unit either 9.6-amp or 
10 amp circuits. A variation of 2 or .'? per cent can be 
made in the value of the currents supplied to each cir- 
cuit by means of switches which connect the busbars 

January 2, 1915 



to different taps on the auto-transformers. The am- 
meters are rated at 7.5, 10 and 25 amp, the first being 
employed on the 4-amp circuits, the second on 5.5, 6.6 
and 7.5-amp circuits, and the third on 20-amp circuits. 
Switches operated from the front of the board permit 
connecting these meters in the circuits without break- 
ing the continuity thereof. Another selector switch 
allows the connection of any one of the ammeters in 
series with a standard instrument for the purpose of 
checking readings during operation. Cut-out plugs 
operated from the lower panels permit short-circuiting 
the auto-transformers when they are not in service, 
thereby eliminating their iron and copper losses. 

Explosive Gases Generated in Transformer 

.Recently a large transformer in South Africa broke 
down, and a chief electrician with three assistants 
started to disconnect the defective transformer and 
empty out the oil preparatory to lifting the core out of 
the case. It was considered necessary first to empty 
the expansion tank above the transformer, and although 
a gage glass showed the level of the liquid in the tank, 
one of the men held a lighted match over a pipe hole to 
discover the contents. A severe explosion occurred and 
all were killed or badly burned. The tank was burst, 
and the oil scattered in all directions, setting fire to 
everything inflammable in the transformer chamber. 
The oil in the tank is not hotter than about 34 deg. C, 
and as its flashing point had been proved to be about 
140 deg. C, the explosive gas could not have been mere 
oil vapor. Experiments were conducted with extra 
high-tension discharge on the transformer oil, and a 
sample of the resulting gas was collected. On analysis, 
this proved to contain at least 62 per cent hydrogen, 
showing that transformer oil tanks, and in fact all 
tanks used for oil switches, etc., should be considered as 
possibly containing explosive gas. If the transformer 
and switch tanks are unventilated, it would be prudent in 
view of the above accident not to approach either with 
a naked flame. 

Cable-Laying Plow 

A considerable part of the money invested in under- 
ground distribution systems has usually been expended 
in installing the cable. To reduce the expense of laying 

drum and drawing in a cable from a reel supported on 
large-diameter wheels. A closer view of the plow is 
given in Fig. 2. The frame of the plow consists of two 
channels fastened back to back but several inches apart. 
Between them at each end is a wide-faced roller for sup- 
porting the plow on the surface of the earth. Just back 


of the front roller and attached to the under side of the 
channels is a knife-edged steel roller disk for cutting the 
sod in front of the plowshare. Fastened to the channels 
in front of the rear roller is the plowshare or knife- 
edged plate. The plate is shaped so that it merely cuts 
a groove and does not throw out any earth. After the 
cable is installed it is only necessary to tamp the top of 
the groove. The cable being drawn into a groove is 
fastened to an eye in the rear lower corner of the plow- 
share. This machine has been used for a number of 
installations and has proved very satisfactory in cutting 
down the labor and time of completing a job. 

Large Water Rheostats 

For making an overload test on a 13,200-volt, 3000- 
kw steam turbine set the engineers of the Washington 

I4 Suspension 

,4 Gusset Plate 

13200 VLine 
Ins. Wood Pin 


FIG. 1- 

5-0 -- 

7-1 " 



cable in the bare earth the construction department of 
the Philadelphia (Fa.) Electric Company has developed a 
special plow for cutting a deep groove in the ground and 
drawing in the cable at the same time. Fig. 1 shows the 
plow being pulled by a portable gasoline-engine-driven 

Water Power Company employed an iron-pipe rheostat 
in the Spokane River alongside of its steam station. 
Three 6-in. pipes, 4 ft. long, placed in a triangle were 
suspended on insulators from a framework arranged to 
be raised and lowered along a fixed guide by means of 



Vol. 65, No. 1 

a cable fastened to a hand winch. This arrangement 
dissipated 2600 kw when immersed 42 in., as shown by 
Fig. 1. The temperature of the water in the river at 
the time was about 55 deg. Fahr. To increase the 
carrying capacity of the rheostat, 8-in. pipes, 4 ft. long, 
were slipped over the 6-in. pipes and when this rheo- 
stat was fully immersed almost 6000 kw was carried 

T1> : ^ 







lectrodes:6"Pipe 4 
Spaced 5' on A 






ciprocating steam engines are used. The accompanying 
illustration shows a coal crusher which this company 
has converted from direct steam drive to motor belt 
drive. This change became necessary as car couplings 
and pieces of steel frequently passed into the crusher 
along with the coal, stopping the rolls and reciprocating 
engine almost instantly and subjecting the parts to ex- 
cessive stresses. With the present equipment the 
crusher or motor cannot be subjected to very great 
stresses as sufficient slack is left in the belt to allow it 
to slip in case the crusher becomes clogged. 

Manhole Equipment for Pulling Cables 

When constructing manholes it is advisable to pro- 
vide facilities for drawing cables through ducts so that 
special guide supports do not have to be used. The ac- 

10 30 50 70 90 110 



€yC Sol t sreec Fcftei*c 

PlATC SrctL 

in a very steady manner with a separation of 40 in. 
The location chosen in the river was opposite the dis- 
charge tunnel for the circulating water used in the 
condenser. The addition of this warm water raised the 
natural river temperature at this spot to 55 deg. Fahr. 


companying illustration shows how the manholes in the 
underground distribution system of the Pittsburgh 
Crucible Steel Company's plant at Midvale, Pa., are 
equipped for this purpose. In the wall opposite and 
about 12 in. below each duct entrance is an eye-bolt 
which extends through the wall and is bent over on the 
end to bear on an iron plate which reduces the unit 

Belt-Drive Preferable for Coal Crushers 

A number of central-station operators consider it more 
economical to drive station auxiliaries by steam, as the 
exhaust therefrom may be employed in heating boiler- 
feed water or in driving low-pressure turbines. In 
operating coal crushers, however, the Edison Electric 

_-_ " 

pbmmbi • 

One bolt A to be placed opposite 
C.L of Conduit a ton elevation to 
clear bottom of conduit opening 
by at least 12" 

■.■: •■■•■■' *'■,•''-■' 


Illuminating Company of Brooklyn, N. Y.. has found 
it better ti the plant efficiency obtained by 

• .1 use motor drive With belt trans- 
mission, us any obstruction in the crusher will either 
throw otT the belt or open the motor circuit-breaker in- 
of breaking p;irts of the machinery as when re 

D »«auMrr. 12 Soil Pipe 

l \. n PTAT1 I \i'-i r i n im; 

pressure on the manhole wall. This eye-bolt may be em- 
ployed to Bupporl ■ guide block during the usual installa- 
tion of cable or it may be connected to a Mock and tackle 
when it is necessary to draw a cable into place for 
splicing in cases where suffkienl length has not been 

left for this operation. 

January 2, 1915 



Electric Christmas-Tree Lanes at Ottumwa, la. 

The holiday decorations installed by the merchants of 
Ottumwa, la., took a new form this year. Evergreen 
trees were installed throughout the business district, 
and on the branches of these trees miniature incan- 
descent electric lamps were mounted to be lighted during 
the evening hours. By sprinkling the trees with water 
during freezing weather icicles were formed which 
added to the holiday aspect of these unusual decorations. 
Coincidentally with the display, the local electrical sup- 
ply dealers and the Ottumwa Railway & Light Company 
co-operated in an electrical exposition to stimulate the 
sale of household devices. 

A Christmas Check from the Electric Light Company 

The several thousand customers of the Light & De- 
velopment Company, of St. Louis, in more than twenty 
Middle Western cities received a non-negotiable check 
for $1 as a Christmas gift from "Bill Smith." In every- 






Where purchase, of clectru- appliances of more than $3.00 is made 


»._;...•»» TSJ&LtZe- 


day life Bill Smith is Mr. W. A. Smith, vice-president 
of the Light & Development Company, but to the com- 
pany's patrons who read its human-interest advertising 
he is just "Bill Smith." With each check there came a 
letter, one paragraph of which suggested that any one of 
several electric appliances named would be an ac- 
ceptable Christmas gift. The letter stated that the in- 
closed check was a Christmas token and closed by wish- 
ing the customer a merry Christmas and a happy, pros- 
perous New Year. 

Building Contractor Favors Electric Hoists Over 

Mr. D. P. Duncan, construction engineer for the 
L. W. Dumas Construction Company, Columbia, Mo., 
used electric motor-driven equipment wherever power 
applications were practicable in building a ten-story 
office structure at Springfield, Mo. A 0.5-yd. concrete 
mixer driven by a 10-hp motor, a concrete hoist driven 
by a 22-hp motor, a double-platform hoist driven by an 
8-hp motor and a general-utility saw driven by a 5-hp 
motor were chief among the labor-saving and time- 
saving electrically operated machines. Electricity for 
the motor was taken from the 220-volt, sixty-cycle, 
three-phase mains of the Springfield Gas & Electric 

The average cost of operating these motors was only 
about $1 a day. In summing up his reasons for adopt- 
ing electric drive, Mr. Duncan says that electricity is 
cheaper than steam, it is more convenient, and no time 
is lost in "firing up" in the mornings, reasons which 
are convincing to him. 

The "Electric" as a Man's Car 

No factor has so interfered with the rightful develop- 
ment of the electric vehicle as the impression which has 
become general that it is a woman's car, said Mr. D. E. 
Whipple, Anderson Electric Car Company, Chicago, in a 
recent talk before the Chicago Section of the Electric 
Vehicle Association of America. For the business and 
professional man's use no car is so convenient and prac- 
tical as the electric, but regrettably the tendency of 
many manufacturers and salesmen has been to encour- 
age the idea that the battery-driven vehicle is distinctly 
a woman's equipage. To offset this impression Mr. 
Whipple urged a campaign of advertising designed to 
establish the status of the "electric" as the car for the 
business man and for the whole family. If the em- 
phasis can be laid on the utility of the vehicle for the 
man's use primarily, a much wider usefulness of the 
car will result. 

Sales Arguments for Electrically Heated Japanning 

Before the convention of the committee on new- 
business co-operation of the Ohio Electric Light Asso- 
ciation, Cincinnati, lately, Mr. Dexter Rollins, of the 
Simplex Electric Heating Company, presented in- 
structive data for central-station men to use in discuss- 
ing industrial electric heating with prospective 
customers. Referring particularly to japanning ovens 
as a desirable class of business, Mr. Rollins said: 

"The prospective customer wants accurate data on 
first cost and maintenance. High first cost is not gen- 
erally a serious obstacle, but operation and main- 
tenance charges need careful consideration. Ten cents 
expended for the several common fuels will produce 
more pound-Fahrenheit heat units than the same 
amount expended for electricity. The electrical heat, 
however, can be used more efficiently. 

"Suppose a customer complains of having trouble 
with gas ovens used for lacquering metal. He says he 
can't get uniform heat. The quality of the work pro- 
duced is poor, making it necessary to rebake from 15 
per cent to 50 per cent of his product. This customer 
can be promised a number of things if he takes electric 
service. Guarantee to increase the production, to raise 
the quality and increase the uniformity of his product, 
to better the working conditions of his plant and to save 
him dollars at the end of the year. He is willing to be 
shown, he informs you, but thinks that the cost will be 
prohibitive. Upon examination the customer is found 
to be operating a metal oven, probably with very poor 
insulation, heated by an open gas flame working at less 
than 40 per cent efficiency and using the other 60 per 
cent to heat the surrounding air, the workmen, and 
everything, in fact, but the japan on his metal product. 
To save a portion of the first cost electric heaters may 
be installed in his present ovens, but that method is not 
consistent with an attempt to save him money by in- 
creased efficiency. Recommend new ovens. 

"Assume that it is desired to bake japan on 800 lb. 
of metal, and that the truck holding this material is 
also of metal and weighs 200 lb. In the customer's 
present ovens there is a weight merely in the oven itself 
of 2000 lb., or 3000 lb. of metal altogether. All this 
metal must be heated, with the walls of the ovens radi- 
ating and conducting heat uselessly, to the outside. In 
this case recommend an oven constructed of insulating 
brick, plastered on the outside. If the truck runs on a 



Vol. 65, No. I, 

track, the inside need not be lined with sheet steel, for 
the latter is costly to heat and the metal in the product 
is of sufficient weight for heat-storage purposes. An 
oven of this construction, with 4-in. walls, will have a 
heat conductivity of not more than four heat units per 
square foot per degree difference in temperature per 
twenty-four hours. In the case of the customer's old 
metal oven, however, most of the heat is radiated 
through the walls. The cost of building such an oven 
will average $50 per 1000 for 4-in. brick, $1.50 to $3 
per kw for heaters, and the labor of installing. An 
existing installation of nine ovens, 8 ft. by 8 ft. by 3 ft., 
cost only $3,000, including elaborate control apparatus. 
"With the ovens constructed as suggested, 25 kw is 
sufficient to bring the temperature to 400 deg. Fahr. in 
one hour, and, allowing for differences in ventilating, 
from 5 kw to 7 kw will maintain this temperature. 
Computed on a kilowatt-hour basis the cost of this 
service will probably amount to more than the gas bill, 
but compared with gas the electric way has many more 
convincing points to offer. In the ovens an even heat, 
varying not more than 10 deg., can be maintained. It 
will be possible to turn out more bakes in a specified 
time, and at least 98 per cent of the product turned out 
of the new ovens will be of a high-quality finish, 
whereas only 60 per cent would be of this quality by the 
old method and the rest would have to be baked a sec- 
ond time. An absolute case is recalled in which the 
production was increased in quantity 20 per cent in the 
same period of operation, while the quality of finish 
was of much higher grade. Another feature favoring 
electricity is the ease of control. There are standard 
panelboards on the market, built especially for this 
work. They are equipped with pyrometers, contactors 
and relays, which all go toward making a complete in- 
stallation and a satisfied customer." 

Electric Lighting of Studio Entrance 

A fine example of the adaptability of electric light- 
ing to artistic service is shown in the accompanying 
illustration take at the front of the Louis Fabian Bach- 
rach photographic studio in Worcester, Mass. The en- 
trance of the studio is beneath a pergola flanked by two 
Colonial photograph display cabinets, each of which is 


1 !t. 8 in. hiph. ".", in. wide and 1.". In. dwp. TWO OTD1 

mental columns at the endi carry C>o watt tm 
lamps, g ft. fi in. above the ground, in translucent 
globes 12 in. in diameter, Bach cabinet la Illuminated 
by two J"> watt tubular lamps mounted in a concealed 
Frink horizontal reflector :it the top of tin- cabinet, The 
back and bottom "f each cabinet an- finished in rreen, 

the sides being painted white. The cabinets and 
standards are controlled by a key switch mounted in 
the rear of one of the former, and energy is supplied 
through a 110-volt circuit run in %-in. underground 
pipe conduit from the station side of the studio meter 
through the yard to the cases. Service is furnished at 
a flat rate of approximately $4 per month by the Worces- 
ter Electric Light Company, which provides a patrolman 
who switches the display into operation at dusk and 
cuts it out of service at 11 p. m. daily. 

Inclosed Shelves Keep Brass from Discoloring 

Many electrical contractors save money by buying dis- 
sembled fixtures and assembling the parts in their own 
shops. Sometimes the brassware of these fixtures be- 


comes discolored because it is exposed to the sunlight. 
Mr. J. T. Coon, manager of the Electrical Equipment 
Company, Springfield, Mo., avoids the expense of clean- 
ing tarnished brass by keeping all brassware on shelves 
fitted with swinging doors. The shelves are built against 
the wall and standard 2-ft. 8-in. by 6-ft. 8-in. white-pine 
paneled doors attached to vertical jambs are used to 
shut out the light. All doors swing in the same direc- 

Public's Demand Is for Utility Electrical Appliances 

The tendency toward personal economy and thrift 
which is noticed generally as a result of the recent 
depressed condition of business is well reflected in the 
character of sales of electrical appliances, according 
to the manager of a metropolitan company carrying a 
very large stock of electrical devices and catering chiefly 
to the more discriminating classes of customers. Peo- 
ple are now buying utility appliances rather than mere 
novelties, he reports. The expensive art lamps, for ex- 
ample, are moving slowly, but the gain in the sale of 
electric irons, washing machines, cooking devices, etc., 
has more than made up for the loss in the more esthetic 

Advertising to the Landlord 

Among the many "catchy" phrases used in the adver- 
tising campaigns of the Topeka (Kan.) Edison Com- 
pany is one which is deemed particularly effective. 
This phrase is "The For-Rent Sign Comes Out Where 
Our Electric Light Goes In." On the street ears, in the 
newspapers ami everywhere a landlord is likely to look 
in Topeka he sees this sign, and if his house lacks ten- 
ants the hint is timely, 

rhoSC who live in rented houses also see these signs, 
and it has been found that tenants who want electric 
light are excellent new-business solicitors for the elec- 
ervice company. Hence the advertisement ad- 
■ d directly to the landlord sometimes reaches him 
directly and sometimes Indirectly. The ultimate result 
in both instances is generally the same; the tenant gets 
alectrk light and the company >rcts a new customer. 

fANUARY 2, 1915 

Free Electricity with Each Appliance 

During the week of Dee. 12 to 19 the electrical con- 
tactors of Shreveport, La., co-operating with the local 
staff of the Southwestern Gas & Electric Company, 
vhich furnishes electric service in Shreveport, put on 
in electrical show similar to the one held the preceding 
rear. A feature of the appliance sales made from the 
:ontractors' booths was the donation of free electric 
service with each device. The appliances were tagged 
vith coupons good at the electric company's office for a 
jiven number of kilowatt-hours, the quantity in each in- 
stance depending upon the cost and energy consumption 
)f the apparatus. This energy was donated by the elec- 
;ric company to stimulate the sale of electric appliances 
n the city. 



Combination of Lamp Outlets with Warm-Air 
Diff users 

In laying out the lighting of the offices of the Evan- 
iton Railway Company, Evanston, 111., use was made of 
;he metal diffusing boxes which admit warm air to the 
room from the building heating system as supports 


from which to suspend the electric fixtures. The latter, 
as shown in the accompanying illustrations, are of both 
the direct and semi-indirect type. The diffusers serve 
as outlets for a Sturtevant hot-air system, and each 
sheet-metal boxing measures'20 in. in diameter and 6 in. 

In the case of the indirect fixture the bowl, which 
contains four 60-watt lamps, is hung comparatively low 
so that the light is well diffused over a wide area of 
ceiling area and the efficiency of reflection is not im- 
paired. The direct fixture contains a single 100-watt 
lamp. The rubber-covered fixture wires are inclosed in 
conduit where they pass through the diffuser and pip- 
ing, and as the heated air leaving the diffuser does not 
exceed 80 deg. to 85 deg. Fahr. in temperature, no spe- 
cial provision is made to protect the wires against the 
heat. One diffuser suffices for a room 16 ft. by 16 ft., 
while two are required for another room measuring 16 
ft. by 32 ft. 

Free Wiring Offer Proves Good Investment at 
Leavenworth, Kan. 

Some time ago the Leavenworth (Kan.) Light, Heat 
& Power Company offered to install free of charge four 
single outlets with cords for drop lamps in any unwired 
house. In case more than four outlets were desired the 
first four were installed free and a charge was made for 
the additional labor and material. The central station's 
workmen did some of the wiring, but the larger jobs 
were turned over to electrical contractors. All material 
was purchased through the contractors. After this 
plan had been in operation a few months it was found 
that 238 homes had been wired with an average of five 
and one-half outlets per house. Data compiled at the 
same time showed that it had cost the central-station 
company $3.83 per house to secure this business, includ- 
ing total sales expense and wiring costs. Of course, this 
does not mean that the company was able to give away 
and install four outlets for $3.83, for there was a cer- 
tain amount of profit on jobs in which more than four 
outlets were installed, and this reduced the average cost. 

Attractive and Clear Reports Assist in Displacing 
Private Plants 

The success of any attempt to induce consumers of 
private-plant energy to use central-station service de- 
pends to a considerable extent on the manner in which 
the comparative report regarding both systems of oper- 
ation is presented. In the reports submitted to pros- 
pective consumers by the Edison Electric Illuminating 
Company of Brooklyn, N. Y., the estimated costs of 
operation with both systems are computed and printed 
in detail and reasons for any assumptions made therein 
carefully set forth. Instead of stating that so many 
pounds of coal must be burned to produce so many kil- 
owatt-hours of energy at the switchboard, this company 
explains the intermediate steps by which it arrives at 
conclusions, so that no one can argue that energy can 
be produced more economically in the particular private 
plant referred to in the report without pointing out the 
conditions which would have to exist. With the facts 
printed in black and white, arguments for private plants 
can generally be answered in favor of central-station 
service. In the reports as prepared by this company 
the costs of operating with each system are given in 
detail first and followed by a recapitulated report which 
can be employed more conveniently in finally closing the 

Reports to owners of installations larger than 50 hp 
are bound in flexible morocco-leather covers bearing the 
names of the prospective consumer and the electric- 
service company. Being submitted in an attractive and 
permanent form, these reports will be kept by the pros- 
pective consumers even if they do not sign for service 
immediately. The name of the electric-service com- 
pany will therefore be brought to the private-plant 
owner's attention every time he has occasion to inspect 
the report and may eventually cause him to consult it 
again with a change of service in view. 

Copies of these reports are kept by the industrial 
engineering department and filed with reports of inter- 
views with owners of private plants, setting forth also 
the ultimate outcome of the campaign. Whether a con- 
tract for service is or is not closed with the owner, the 
information contained in the office report may be of 
considerable value to new-business solicitors in nego- 
tiating with persons engaged in similar industries. If 
a contract is not closed, a solicitor is usually instructed 
to visit the prospective consumer again after some time 
has elapsed. With the information regarding previous 



Vol. 65, No. 1 

interviews available the solicitor may be able to shape 
subsequent campaigns so that the prospective consumer 
is induced to make a change. While the leather-bound 
reports are rather costly to prepare, it is declared that 
the expense is warranted as the cover has considerable 
advertising value. 

New Year's Advertisements Urge Mutual Faith 

Reproduced herewith is the copy which was employed 
by all Byllesby public utility properties in their news- 
paper advertisements on or about New Year's Day. 

Prosperity in 1915 Depends Upon 
Faith in Our Country 

GjOur Nation is being penalized by a crisis of 
European methods and ideals. 

1 We cannot escape entirely the bitter fruits of a war founded 
in governmental systems where Monarchy, Paternalis 
Public Ownership and Autocracy go hand i 

(| Now as never before we have opportunity to compare 
American ideals and methods with those practiced in Europe 
and to measure what American systems and institutions 
have gained for humanity. 

<1 Probably we will learn more and more each day of the 
coming year to appreciate "all we have and are," to regard 
our citizenship in a more precious light to see our problems 
more clearly, more tolerantly. 

The war has made materia! pro- 
gress difficult throughout the 
United States. It has added to the 
obstacles of financing construc- 
tive effort. It hasenforced econ- 
omies upon the large and small, 
has laid on the shelf plans for 
many desirable things. 

Prosperity in this country during 
the coming year demands above 
everything else faith in our Re- 
public and faith between man and 
man. It cannot be had in suspi- 

If this military calamity teaches 
us a deeper and more useful pa- 
monsm; if it serves lo advance 
understanding among us of one 
another's rights and wrongs; if it 
removes prejudice and strikes 
down distrust - — then this war 
will not be without benefit to the 
cilizens of the United States. 

We hope for prosperity the com- 
ing year. To have it will require 
hard work, courage and faith 

(Name of Company) 

(Name of Manager) 


The text points out that America's future prosperity 
depends upon faith not only in our country and in its 
institutions but between man and man. The burden of 
the plea is for useful patriotism and removal of preju- 
dice and distrust. 

Price Cutting 

At a recent dinner given by the Edison Electric Illumi- 
nating Company of Boston, Mass., to electrical con- 
tractors of Boston Mr. R. S. Hale addressed those pres- 
ent upon the subject of "Price Cutting." Referring to 
the wiring campaign conducted by the company by 
which residences and stores are equipped on a unit- 
price basis (see Electrical World, Sept. 5, 1914, page 
457), the speaker pointed out that, although Borne > con- 
tractors think the Edison price list low, the price really 
saves the contractor some of the expense of estimating 
and selling, besides all the expense of collecting, bad 
bills, and some interest on the contractor's money; but 
that no matter how low the Edison price may be, it is 
not price-cutting if the contractor sticks to these prices. 
The price-cutting that hurts business Is when one COD 

tractor make a price, the nexl contractor shades it. 

the next one cuts a little more, and io Ml until tin' job 
i Then each contractor who Losl Hie job says, "I 

must cut a little more next time." while the contractor 

who yet tin- |ob says, "I must skimp on this job and 
I must catch a sucker next time." 

Fixed prices such as those of the Edison list are not 
price cutting, even if they are so low that the con- 
tractor loses money. The contractors who do work at 
too low a fixed price will finally drop out, as they should, 
and those who insist on a higher fixed price and stick to 
it will be all right. The harm is done when the con- 
tractor first tries to get a high price and then cuts to 
a lower one, and then tries to get more profit on the 
next job, and keeps shifting all the time. The Edison 
prices apply to only a certain class of work, and scores 
of contractors are doing that kind of work and making 
money. These prices are perhaps too low for another 
class of work in nice houses with hard-wood floors and 
special wall papers; but the contractor should name his 
price for that class of work to give himself a fair profit 
only, and then if he sticks to the price and does not cut, 
he will get that kind of business at a fair price. If the 
contractor cuts on one job only, he is hurting the busi- 
ness. Closing, Mr. Hale said: 

"To-day you yourselves wouldn't deal with a grocer or 
department store that was not on a one-price fixed- 
price basis. Only the smallest, cheapest stores will 
dicker with you over a can of tomatoes or a piece of 
cloth, and this is true, though the high-class stores 
have one fixed price and the second-class and third-class 
stores others. Nearly all the fixed-price stores make 
money, and only the little storekeeper who spends his 
time dickering on price is a failure. Let us put the 
wiring business on the same high basis." 

Electric Vehicles in Independence, Kan. 

It has been seven years since the first electric vehicle 
was sold in Independence, Kan., and during the inter- 
vening period orders have been placed for a total of 
thirty-eight others, all of which are now in service. 
Considering the fact that the population of the city 
numbers only 11,000, the above record is notable. Still 
more unusual, however, is the high percentage of home 
garaging, for only five owners among the entire thirty- 


nine do not keep their cars at home and do their own 

Several circumstances seem to have combined to make 
Independence an electric-vehicle city. In the first place, 
there are 27 miles of brick-paved streets in Independ 
ence. Mr. \v. K. Murrow, manager of the local central 

m. who sold the first vehicle, has always been an 
ardent advocate <>f the "electric." 

January 2, 1915 




Electric Hand-Lamp 

A small lamp which can be attached to an ordinary 
dry cell is illustrated herewith. It is provided with a 
handle as shown so that it can be easily carried from 
place to place. Use is made of a tungsten lamp, and a 
2-in. "bull's-eye" reflector is employed. The lamp can 


be tilted at various angles as desired. It has recently 
been developed by the Metal Specialties Manufacturing 
Company, 736 West Monroe Street, Chicago, 111. 

Steel-Tower Outdoor Substation 

Herewith is shown an outdoor substation of the 
double-throw or selector type designed for 66,000-volt 
service. The station has an initial rating of 100 kw 
and an ultimate rating of 1000 kw. In order that the 
three-phase transformer used with the equipment may 


be energized from either of two sources of energy, a 
standard transmission tower is set off the right-of-way, 
directly opposite the line tower shown in the illustra- 
tion. One set of three-phase line conductors is carried 
to the right-hand tower, thus "splitting" the system 

and offering a ready means for carrying taps to the sub- 
station without crossing the line wires. The switches 
are of the interlocked selector type. Protection is se- 
cured by means of choke coils, horn-gaps and carbon- 
tetrachloride fuses on the high-tension side. The low- 
tension side is controlled by an automatic 2200-volt oil 
switch in a small cement house at the base of the sub- 
station. Meters, spare parts, distribution switches. 
etc., are also in this house. The transformer rests on 
a transfer table. The 2200-volt secondary leads are 
carried under the transformer platform into the cement 
house, and then pass through conduit to the overhead 
secondary or town distribution. The three-phase trans- 
former used in this installation was manufactured by 
the Packard Electric Company, Warren, Ohio, the re- 
mainder of the equipment being made by the Delta- 
Star Electric Company, Chicago, 111. 

Electric Manifold Plug 

An electrically heated plug for use in the manifold 
of an automobile engine, through which gasoline from 
the priming cup on the dashboard is passed before 
cranking the engine, has been developed by the Inter- 
state Electric Company, New Orleans, La. The gaso- 
line from the priming cup passes through the plug, and 
it is not only sprayed, the manufacturers declare, but 
actually boiled and vaporized into the manifold. As the 



^S^^*;-^-' % \Z^ ^/t 


sj^^i **?§^cr 

-vf i 


.. km 


engine is cranked over, a charge of hot vaporized gaso- 
line rushes into the cylinders. The device is designed 
to make the starting operation of gasoline engines 
easier in cold weather. The plug may be connected to 
either dry cells or storage battery. In the accompany- 
ing sketch is shown how the plug is attached to the 
manifold and connected to the priming cup. 

Tubular Woven Fabric 

Various kinds of material can be woven in tubular 
form by looms made by the Chernack Manufacturing 
Company, Pawtucket, R. I., the fabric being used to 
cover cable, hose, etc. The weave may be compact so 
that when saturated it is almost metallic, or it may be 
of an open texture similar to that of a basket weave, or 
the weave may vary in texture between those of the two 
above types. The following advantages are claimed for 
a woven cover: Each end of the warp increases the 
tensile strength ; with a tensile pull the walls do not 
collapse; the thickness of the wall is governed only by 
the size of yarn used ; the warp and filler both used un- 
der tension make it possible in using the tube as a cover 



Vol. 65, No. 1 

to apply it as tightly as desired without impairing its 
flexibility. Successful weaving has been accomplished 
with cotton, cotton and paper, cotton and wire, jute, 
jute with marline, jute with wire, marline, marline with 
wire, asbestos yarns, asbestos yarns with wire inser- 
tion, linen yarn and wire. 

Rectifier Operated by Synchronous Motor 

A rectifier of the commutator type driven by a syn- 
chronous motor has just been developed by the Standard 
Metal Manufacturing Company, Newark, N. J. The 
rectifying commutator consists of as many conductor 
segments as there are field poles in the motor and just 


as many non-conductor segments. It is keyed to the 
armature shaft in such a way that the centers of the 
conductor segments line up with the centers of the field 
poles when the line voltage is at a maximum and they are 
centrally located between the pole pieces when the volt- 
age is at its zero value. The rectifier brushes are so placed 
that they bear upon the center of the conductor seg- 
ments when the voltage is at a maximum and on the 
center of the non ■ aductor segments when the voltage 
is at zero. The mm conductor segments are of such size 
that the voltage at the time the conductor segments 
come in contact with the brushes and also when the 
brushes leave the segment is the same as that of the 

B vertical-shafl single-phase machine 
and is started by connect ing I he commutator to the bat- 
tery ami operating it aa a direct current machine. The 
speed i- adjusted bj mean oi the Held rheostat wheel 
shown in the accompanying illustration until it re* 

nchronous value as indicated by the synchronizing 

lamp shown at the top of the switchboard. Then by 
pushing the button shown in the center of the rheostat 
wheel the direct-current brushes are withdrawn from 
the commutator and the synchronizing lamp is short- 
circuited. The charging switch being closed, the sup- 
ply of alternating-current energy is adjusted by means 
of an auto-transformer to obtain the current desired in 
the battery. 

A circuit-breaker of the double-pole overload type 
having a trip coil attached is provided. The trip coil 
is connected to a relay at the rear of the board. The 
magnet of the relay is in series with the line circuit of 
the motor, and in case the circuit is opened the trip coil 
will be energized and the circuit-breaker will open. The 
trip coil is so arranged that it will open the circuit- 
breaker when the charge is complete. The trip coil can 
also be arranged to open the breaker at any time de- 
sired. A governor on the end of the shaft short-cir- 
cuits the field rheostat when the motor is at rest, thus 
making it impossible to start the motor with a weak- 
ened field. The short-circuit is removed by a device 
operating by means of centrifugal force after the motor 
has attained a speed of approximately 500 r.p.m. The 
efficiency of the outfit varies from 74 per cent to 93.5 
per cent, depending upon the lead, and the weight of 
the 5-kw set is 40 lb. 

Expanded-Truss Steel Pole 

The pole shown in the accompanying sketch utilizes 
the principle of the expanded steel truss, the flanges, 
webs and lacing pieces being all formed from a single 
piece of steel. In preparing the material beams of suit- 
able form are first sheared cold at intervals along the 
web. The metal is then heated and placed in a machine 
which grips the outer members along their entire 
lengths and by the application of tension draws out the 
bar laterally, thus separating the sheared members and 
throwing the central members into the zigzag form of a 
trussed structure. 

According to the owner of the patents, the Bates Ex- 
panded Steel Truss Company, 208 South LaSalle Street, 


Chicago, an expanded-truss pole of the same size and 

strength as a '2:2-i't. fabricated steel pole made up of 
ftftj one different pieces weighs to? lb. less than the 
built up pole, representing a saving of 40 per cent in 
hi The cost of the new form of steel pole is said 
to be about one-third that of the built-up structure. 





Pendent Switch 

In the accompanying illustration is shown a switch of 
the pendent type, which, the manufacturers declare, is 
provided with quick, positive action. The spring con- 


tacts are of phosphor bronze metal. The switch is be- 
ing made by the Union Electric Company, Hamilton 
Avenue, Trenton, N. J. 

Inclosed Service Switch and Meter Protective Device 

An inclosed three-pole service switch recently devel- 
oped by the Metropolitan Engineering Company, Forty- 
second Street Building, New York, is shown in the ac- 
companying illustrations. The device consists of a 
switch cut-out equipped with standard plug fuses and 
is inclosed in a metallic box which can be sealed if de- 
sired. The switch mechanism is of the double-break 
plunger type and is actuated by springs. The fuses and 
all accessible energy-carrying parts are dead when ex- 
posed, and the danger of shock when installing fuses is 
consequently eliminated. The switch mechanism may 
be sealed in the "closed" or "open" position. The box 
in which the unit is mounted is equipped with inter- 
changeable conduit openings at each end and at both 
sides, so that several sizes of conduit may be employed 


if desired. Suitable openings are also provided on the 
house side of the switch for open wiring. Provision is 
made on the end of the switch box to fasten a metallic 
meter-protecting device, called an adapter, the device 
being made to conform to the shape of the watt-hour 
meter used. The adapter protects all the conductors. 

Nitrogen-Filled Automobile Head-Lamp 

A nitrogen-filled bulb designed for use with automo- 
bile head-lamps is being made by the H. J. Jaeger Com- 
pany, 68 Hudson Street, Hoboken, N. J. The filament 


of this high-efficiency lamp is made of drawn-tungsten 
wire coiled into a helix and mounted within a very small 
space, concentrating the light. The lamp is in two 
sizes. In the illustration is shown a full-size draw- 
ing of the larger lamp. The lamps operate on from 
6-volt to 14-volt circuits, giving 24 cp and 32 cp for 
the larger lamp and 15 cp and 21 cp for the smaller. 
The average specific consumption of either lamp is 
0.5 watt per cp. 

Removable Bracket 

The bracket shown herewith is designed particularly 
for use in hotel sample rooms and is provided with a 
receptacle from which it can be removed at will. The 
receptacles are of the disappearing door type and are 
equipped with eyelets to receive the hooks of the bracket. 
Each receptacle accommodates one bracket. The recep- 
tacles can be entirely covered if desired by a hinged 
section of a picture molding. With such equipment it 


is possible to transform the sample room to an ordinary 
living room or bedroom. With one of these receptacles 
placed near the head of the bed, the bracket can be used 
in connection with a bed reading lamp. The bracket is 
being placed on the market by the Bryant Electric Com- 
pany, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Large-Sized Washing Machine 

Vol. 65, No. 1 

An electric washer designed for use in laundries, hos- 
pitals, hotels, etc.. is shown in the accompanying illus- 
tration. The machine is of steel throughout, and every 
part is non-corrosive. The outer cylinder is of ^-in. 
forged steel and the inner cylinder of 1/16-in. steel 
plate, with the inside covered with porcelain enamel. 


The inner cylinder rotates on ball bearings and is pro- 
vided with over 10,000 holes to produce a powerful suc- 
tion. One lever is used to control the moving of the 
machine forward and backward and for stopping it. 
This lever is also employed to operate a brake for 
emergency stop. An automatic timing device provided 
with a quick-reading dial, 15 in. in diameter, is pro- 
vided for timing different kinds of washing. With this 
device the wash wheel can be reversed automatically 
from a half revolution up to twelve revolutions each way. 
The machine is equipped with steam valve, cold-water 
valve, hot-water valve and discharge valve. Two 42-in. 
compartments are provided and their contents are 56.9 
cu. ft. Either belt or direct drive may be used, and the 
motor may be mounted vertically, as shown in the ac- 
companying illustration, or horizontally if desired. The 
total weight of the machine is 4000 lb. The washer is 
being made by the Henrici Laundry Company, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

Tap Block 

A block designed for use with so-called pipe "taplets" 
is shown in Fig. 1. This tap block, the manufacturers 
declare, eliminates the necessity for soldering either of 
branch wires to the main wire or of tap wires for fit- 
tings. The main wires are bared for % in. and arc 





'.•■,1 to the bindin of the tap block. The 

tap or branch wii bened to the i innet ; ins bind- 

ing ci used with 5 in. <•> 

The block if bring made by the 11. T. P 
i ompany, Philadelphia, Pa., for which the Hart & Hege 
man Manufacturing Company, Hartford, Conn., is the 
selling agent. 

Motor-Generator Set for Charging Batteries 

A small motor-generator set designed for charging 
storage batteries for use with gasoline automobiles is 
shown in the accompanying illustration. The alternat- 
ing-current motor and the direct-current generator are 
mounted within the same frame. The motor is designed 
to operate at 110 volts and sixty cycles. The generator 


is rated at 10 amp, and it can charge one or two 6-volt 
batteries or one 12-volt battery. Its emf can be regu- 
lated from 6.3 volts to 12.6 volts by means of a field 
rheostat. The generator is wound so that its voltage 
rises automatically at the end of the charge and each 
cell receives 2.5 volts. The length of the apparatus is 19 
in., width 7.75 in. and height 8.375 in. The total 
weight is 140 lb. The set is being made by the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company, East Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

Electric Crane Trolley 

Certain improvements have been made in the type "E" 
electric crane trolley made by the Northern Engineer- 
ing Works, Detroit, Mich. The machine has been made 
stronger and the gears and other moving parts more 
accessible. The moving parts are completely inclosed, 
and they run in an oil bath. The machine is so designed 
that the covers of the gear cases must be in place before 
they can be operated. Each train of back gears -is 
mounted on a single frame. The hoisting-gear train 
from armature to drum gear is inclosed in one casting. 
As the gear covers are castings, joints of the inclosed 
gear cases are planed so as to make a perfectly tight 
construction, thus preventing the leakage and dripping 
of oil. By lifting the cover of either gear case the cap 
is removed, and any gear with its shaft can be quickly 
lifted out without disturbing other parts. Large man- 
holes are provided in each cover so that it is not neces- 
sary to remove the gear covers I'm- the purpose of in- 


gpecting or oiling the gearing. The hoisting-gear be* is 
an integral part of the main trolley frame, and thus, 
it is declared, the alignment of all gears and their 
shafts is secured. A double-brake system is employed 
on this trolley. The wiring for the trolley is inclosed 
in iteel conduit. Trolleys with ratings of from 2 tons 
■ tons are being made. 



Wire Grip 

A wire clamp or grip designed for handling plain or 
stranded wire or cables up to a diameter of 0.75 in. is 
being placed on the market by Mathias Klein & Sons, 
562 West Van Buren Street, Chicago. Use is made of a 


swing latch which engages with a stud on the lower jaw, 
thus centralizing the pressure on the cross-bolt, which 
is of machine steel. The body and handle of the clamp 
are made of steel forging and the eccentric of hard- 
ened tool steel. 

Motorless Flasher 

A flasher consisting of solenoid-operated switches, the 
pilot circuits of which are controlled by a thermo- 
stat, is being placed on the market by the M. C. Ryan 
Company, Phoenix, N. Y. The thermostat is connected 
across the line. From one to four switches are used, 
operated simultaneously or alternately. Arcing at the 
contact points is reduced to a minimum, it is claimed. 


by an induced magnetic field. The points are made from 
a composition metal which, the manufacturers declare, 
will neither weld nor corrode and will last several 
years when used on rated loads. The flasher is 
mounted in a No. 16 U. S. gage steel cabinet. The 
size of a one-switch flasher is 12 in. by 9.5 in. by 4.25 
in., and its weight is 15 lb. ; the size of the two-switch 

flasher is 12 in. by 11.25 in. by 4.25 in., and the weight 
is 20 lb.; the size of the three-switch and four-switch 
flashers is 14 in. by 16.25 in. by 4.25 in., and the weight 
complete is 30 lb. A two-switch flasher is shown in the 
accompanying illustration. 

Electric Range with Glass-Front Oven 

The electric stove shown in the accompanying illus- 
tration is equipped with two luminous-disk heaters and 
two aluminum-lined ovens. One oven has a full glass 
front in the doors and is used for quick baking, roasting 
and toasting, while the other oven is a perpendicular 
compartment with "water-seal" cover. Each gear is pro- 
tected by fuses, and a separate switch is used in case 
it is desired to operate the stove with or without an au- 


tomatic clock regulator. The range is made of gun- 
metal and has nickel-plated trimmings. Provision is 
made for ventilation in the oven so that the glass in the 
door will not be covered with condensation vapor. The 
range is being placed on the market by the Standard 
Electric Stove Company, Toledo, Ohio. 

Malleable-Iron Hickey 

In the accompanying illustration is shown a malle- 
able-iron hickey which has been passed by the Under- 


writers* Laboratories. The hickey is used with insu- 
lating joints and the iron utilized in making it shows 
an average tensile strength of over 37,000 lb. per sq. in. 
The device is tapped to Briggs' standard gage and has 
been developed by the Pittsburgh Valve & Fittings 
Company. Barberton, Ohio. 

Remote-Control Device for Knife Switches 

A device designed for the remote control of knife 
switches of any size or any number of poles has been 
developed by H. S. Tittle, 245 Minna Street, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. The device will operate on either alternating 
current or direct current at pressures of 110 volts or 
220 volts. If the device is used with a three-wire, 220- 
110-volt system and either side of the circuit is open. 



Vol. 65, No. 1 

the energy supplied to the system will be cut off. In the 
illustration the switch is shown closed; on being en- 
ergized the plunger pulls the hook away from the switch 
and releases it, thereby opening the circuit. The de- 


vice is adaptable to use in buildings where ordinances 
require that a switch for opening the circuit shall be 
placed near the entrance of the building. 

Electric Timing Device for Elevators 

The motor-driven timing device shown herewith rings 
a bell at intervals of a few seconds, serving as a guide 
for the elevator "starter" in maintaining the schedules 
of the cars under his supervision. In other cases the 
attendant is wholly dispensed with and the timing de- 
vice alone is depended upon to give the signals for the 
elevator operators. 

A small motor drives a commutator wheel through re- 


duction gearing and a friction transmission. By ad- 
justment of the friction disk between the center and 
periphery of the disk, the interval of the contact-making 
mechanism can be varied from ten seconds to ninety 
seconds. In another type of timing device made by the 
same company, the Elevator Supply & Repair Company, 
561 West .Monroe Street, Chicago, the adjustment of 
time interval is made by introducing resistance in series 
multiple with the motor armature, thus securing the 
speed control electrically instead of mechanically. 

Connector for Tying Wire 

The tool shown in the accompanying illustration has 
been designed for tying two wires together. The tool 
can be used with No. 8, No. 10. No. L2 and No. M wire.-. 

tool is spring-tempered and is provided with a joint 
which is also hardened and tempered. The connector is 
being made by Smith & Heminway Company. 146 Cham- 
bers Street, New York. 

TOOL l ol: TYING wire 

The 0] tool in one hand and twists the 

wire with the other. For use w ith large wire 
special openings are provided, The tools can also be 
used with Maclntyre waterproof joint-. Koltzer-Cabol 
i American Fuse Company joints. The 

Motion-Picture Machine 

In the accompanying illustration is shown a machine 
for projecting motion pictures. With this projector 
the flicker is eliminated, the manufacturers declare, by 
increasing the picture impression on the eye of the ob- 
server. The film-handling mechanism is inclosed in a 
box with a glazed door cover. All gears are placed in a 


gear case. The film tension members are long, hardened- 
steel runners, which bear lightly against the film. The 
reels are supported in the base of the machine itself, and 
with a single screw a vertical adjustment of the line of 
projection, for high or low screen is accomplished. 

The switches and rheostats are inclosed in the hollow 
pedestal. The rheostat is used when a motor-generator 
3e1 i- not employed. A three-lens condenser system is 
used, there being one meniscus lens and two convex 
lenses. A lever handle on the left of the pedestal near 
the top of the machine closes and opens the main switch, 
and the lever on the right is used to adjust the rheostat. 

A three-electrode lamp is used with this machine, the 
arrangement of the electrodes being shown in Fig. 2. 


Two 0.25-in. electrodes are connected to the negative 
lead ami a 0.5-in. electrode to the positive side of the 

line. The small electrodes are placed at angles of about 
L20 dee. on either side of the positive electrode. This 
arrangement is used to present the largest possible area 

of the so-called "incandescent spot" to the condensing 

lenses without permitting the negative electrode to cast 
too large a shadow on the screen. With the electrodes 
in this position, the two hot arcs attract each other and 
bring the incandescent spot on the end of the positive 

electrodi and therefore in the exact focus of the con- 

ni! lens. The electrode- are mounted horizontally. 

The motion-picture machine described above is being 
placed on the market by the Phantoscope Manufacturing 
Company, Washington. D. I 

January 2, 1915 




Mayor of Seattle Arraigns City's Lighting Policy 

In vetoing a bill appropriating $10,000 from the light- 
ing fund for extending the city's lighting system to 
Tukwila, Foster and Riverton, Mayor Hiram C. Gill of 
Seattle, Wash., sent with his veto a communication in 
which he scathingly arraigned the measure, the City 
Council and the entire lighting policy as conducted dur- 
ing the last three years. In denouncing the plan, Mayor 
Gill gave voice to the following sentiments : 

"To say that the Seattle lighting plant is a money- 
making concern in the sense that it earns money for 
the general purpose of reducing taxation is wrong. 
From its inception the lighting plant has controlled the 
rates of this city. It has saved our business men, tax- 
payers and residences many millions of dollars and will 
continue to do so unless it is brought into disrepute and 
made a political plaything. 

"Under this theory of outside extensions there is no 
reason why the city of Seattle should not engage in any 
other commercial business and conduct grocery stores, 
dry-goods stores, and other profit-making concerns. If 
I believed in this theory, I believe I should have the 
courage of my convictions and announce myself to be 
a socialist, pure and simple. All there is embodied in 
this bill is pure socialism and opportunity given to set- 
tle the grudges of certain persons arising from real or 
imaginary grievances against a private corporation. 

"Contrary to the statements of Councilman Erickson, 
the lighting plant was not built from the proceeds of 
the plant, but from the' proceeds of federal bond issues 
which are a lien against every foot of property in Seat- 
tle. Even though the lighting fund has paid the inter- 
est on these bonds up to the present time, there is no as- 
surance that its earnings will continue to do so, par- 
ticularly in view of the fact that the fund at the present 
time owes the general fund several hundred thousand 
dollars. The financial condition of our lighting depart- 
ment at the present time is due to gross financial mis- 
management by the councilmanic body for the past 
three years. The Council refused to comply with the 
recommendation of former Chief of Police Austin E. 
Griffiths and myself and light down-town alleys, giving 
as a reason that it had no money, although it is now 
proposing to become 'wet nurse' for suburban districts 
outside the city limits, notwithstanding that it is far 
worse off financially now than then. 

"I always have maintained that the plant should seek 
a fair return on the money invested, and the amount so 
earned be expended within the city of Seattle, to the 
end that all our people should have light at the lowest 
cost consistent with good business management. The 
tax rates of the city during the past few years have in- 
creased at a highly unprecedented rate, and we have 
nothing to show therefor except a street-car line which 
was not intended to accommodate the public and which 
did not even accomplish the purpose of its principal pro- 
moters of harassing a private concern, and upon this 
we are now losing thousands of dollars each month. 
As a matter of fact, there is no money in the light fund. 
The appropriation attempted is an illegal one and has 
been from its inception." 

After denouncing the Councilmen for squandering the 
city's money, the Mayor concluded as follows: 

"Not in any spirit of tumult or defiance, but in order 

that the people affected by this bill may not be disap- 
pointed, I desire to say to your honorable body that I 
recognize your right by ordinance to direct the actions 
of the light superintendent. However, though it may be 
unfortunate from the standpoint of the world uplift, 
your jurisdiction does not extend to Tukwila, Foster or 
anywhere else outside the limits of the city, and so long 
as I occupy my present position the departments of the 
city shall confine their operations within the limits of 
the city of Seattle." 

The Federal Trade Commission 

President Wilson is expected to send to the Senate 
any clay the names of the appointees to the Federal 
Trade Commission. No less than 350 names were pre- 
sented to the President from all the States. The facts 
in regard to all of these men were gone over by the 

Among the men most likely to be named are the fol- 
lowing: Messrs. Joseph E. Davies, Commissioner of 
Corporations; Albert D. Nortoni, a St. Louis lawyer 
and former Progressive candidate for Governor of Mis- 
souri; Henry J. Waters, president of the Kansas State 
Agricultural College; George F. Peabody, a New York 
banker and business man; Edward N. Hurley, of Chi- 
cago, president of the Hurley Machine Company and of 
the Illinois Manufacturers' Association ; Thomas S. Fel- 
der, of Georgia, formerly Attorney-General of that 
State; former Governor Ansel of South Carolina, and 
Governors West of Oregon and Hodges of Kansas. 

Commissioner of Corporations Davies of the Depart- 
ment of Commerce, whose bureau, under the Federal 
Trade Commission act, is to be merged with the commis- 
sion, has not prepared any statement of policy for the 
bureau for the ensuing year in his annual report, made 
public in Washington on Dec. 28, but has instead in- 
corporated an analysis of the powers and duties of the 

American Telephone & Telegraph Company Offers 
Stock to Employees 

The American Telephone & Telegraph Company has 
made arrangements by which employees of the Bell Sys- 
tem who have been in the service two years or more 
may purchase stock of the company at 110 on easy terms 
of payment. No employee can purchase more than one 
share for each $300 of annual wages he receives, or 
more than ten shares whatever his wages. The terms of 
payment will be $2 per share per month beginning with 
March, 1915, and the quarterly dividends will go toward 
paying for it after the deduction of interest at 4 per 
cent per annum on the unpaid balances. 

The company has paid 8 per cent dividends for seven 
years, and it is calculated that dividends at this rate 
and the $2 per share per month payments by employees 
will pay for the stock in full by November, 1918. After 
March 1, 1917, but not before, any employee who so de- 
sires may pay the balance on his stock and receive his 
certificate. Should an employee leave the service or die 
before his stock is fully paid, the amount he has paid in 
plus the accumulated dividends ( less 4 per cent interest) 
will be paid back. The company in its offer to its 



Vol. 65, No. 1 

employees makes it plain that none of them is un- 
der any obligation to buy stock, but it is believed that a 
considerable number of employees will take advantage 
of this opportunity to save and invest. The company 
has 160,000 employees. 

Joint Meeting of Physical Society and Association 
for Advancement of Science 

There was held during the present week in the city 
of Philadelphia a joint meeting of the American Physi- 
cal Society and the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. The meeting was the sixty-sixth 
of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, and its sessions were held in Weightman Hall, 
Gymnasium of the University of Pennsylvania. The 
meeting was the seventy-fifth one of the American 
Physical Society, and all of its sessions were held in 
Randall-Morgan Laboratory of Physics of the University 
of Pennsylvania. Section B of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science met in joint ses- 
sion with the American Physical Society. The follow- 
ing papers and addresses were scheduled for the week: 

Tuesday Morning. — "An Alternating-Current Bridge 
for the Measurement of the Dielectric Loss and Dielec- 
tric Constant at High Voltages and Low Frequencies," 
by Mr. Chester A. Butman, research department, West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. ; "Influence of the Concentration of Electro- 
lyte upon Electrode Potentials," by Mr. Arthur W. 
Ewell, Worcester Polytechnic Institute ; "A New Method 
of Obtaining a Hysteresis Loop," by Mr. W. N. Fen- 
ninger, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; "On Rotation 
and Magnetization," by Mr. S. J. Barnett, Ohio State 
University ; "Note on Thermo Emfs in Which the Re- 
sultant Peltier Effect Is Zero," by Mr. H. C. Barker, 
University of Pennsylvania ; "Linear Resistance Change 
with Temperature of Certain Molten Metals," by Mr. 
E. F. Northrup, Princeton University; "The Effect of 
Temperature on the Dielectric Strength, the Dielectric 
Loss and the Dielectric Constant of Paraffine Oil," by 
Mr. Chester A. Butman, research department, Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company, Pittsburgh, 
Pa.; "A Preliminary Note on the Variation of Stray 
Power Losses in a Dynamo," by Mr. W. N. Fenninger. 
Pratt Institute. 

Tuesday Afternoon. — Address of Vice-president A. D. 
Cole before Section B on "Recent Evidence for the Ex- 
istence of the Nucleus Atom" ; address of President 
Ernest Merritt before the American Physical Society, 
on "Luminescence." 

Tuesday Evening. — Public lecture by Prof. Dayton C. 
Miller on "The Science of Musical Sounds." 

Wednesday Morning. — "Relation Between the Energy 
of the Cathode Rays and the Frequency of the X-Rays 
Produced by Them," by Mr. William Duane, Harvard 
Medical School; "Thermionic Currents from a Wehnelt 
Cathode," by Mr. W. Wilson, research labors 
American Telephone & Telegraph Company and West* rn 
Electric Company, New York City; "Mobility of Ions 
at Different Temperature and Constant Gas I tensity." 
by Mr. Henry A. Erikson, University of Minnesota; 
"The Radioactive Content of Certain Minnesota Soils." 
by Mr. James C. Sanderson, University of Minn. 

"Conducting Gas Layer at a Metallic Surface." DJ Mr, 

G. W. Stewart, state University of [owa; "X-Rays from 
the Electrical I 1 \ii Elizabeth R. Laird, 

Mount Solyoke College; "X-Rays Produced by slow 
athode Rays," by Miss Elizabeth R. Laird. 

Mount l|o| 

Wednesday ifternoon. Symposium on the use of di 

ional equations, led by Mr. E. Buckingham, Bu- 

reau of Standards, Washington; "Light Due to Recom- 
bination of Ions," by Mr. C. D. Child, Colgate Univer- 
sity ; "Electric Furnace Evidence on the Relation of 
Spectrum Lines Having Constant Differences in Wave- 
Number," by Mr. Arthur S. King, Mount Wilson Solar 
Observatory; "The Mechanical Equivalent of Light," by 
Messrs. H. E. Ives, W. W. Coblentz and E. F. Kings- 
bury. United Gas Improvement Company, Philadelphia, 
Pa.; "Fluorescence of the Uranyl Salts under X-Ray 
Excitation," by Miss Frances G. Wick, Vassar College, 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Thursday Morning. — "The Efficiency of Energy 
Transformation in the Corona Method of Precipitating 
Fumes," by Mr. W. W. Strong, Mechanicsburg, Pa.; 
"Leakage of Gases Through Quartz Tubes," by Mr. E. 
C. Mayer, Cornell University; "A New Method for 
Measuring Gravity at Sea, with Some Transpacific Ob- 
servations," by Mr. Lyman J. Briggs, United States Bu- 
reau of Plant Industry, Washington; "The Oxidation of 
Nitrogen," by Mr. W. W. Strong, Mechanicsburg, Pa.; 
"The Alleged Dissymmetrical Broadening of the D Lines 
of Sodium," by Mr. E. A. Eckhardt, University of Penn- 
sylvania ; "Exhibit of Mechanical Models Illustrating, 
( a ) Subdivision of Alternating Current between Two 
Branches in Parallel, (b) the Alternating-Current 
Transformer, (,c) Coupled Circuits in Wireless Teleg- 
raphy," by Mr. W. S. Franklin, Lehigh University; 
"Some Causes of Variation in the Sensitivity of Moving 
Coil Galvanometers," by Mr. Paul E. Klopsteg, Uni- 
versity of Minnesota (presented by Mr. A. Zeleny) ; "A 
New Standard Phone and Phonometer for any Pitch," 
by Mr. A. G. Webster, Clark University; "The Excep- 
tions to the Law of DuLong and Petit." by Mr. J. E. 
Siebel, Chicago, 111. 

Thursday Afternoon. — "A New Form of Radiation 
Pyrometer," by Mr. S. Leroy Brown, University of 
Texas; "The Doppler Effect in X-Ray Spectra and Ap- 
plication to the Kinetic Theory of Solids." by Messrs. L. 
Gilchrist and D. A. Keys, University of Toronto; "On 
Acoustic Impedance, and an Approximate Theory of 
Conical Horns," by Mr. A. G. Webster, Clark Univer- 
sity; "Vapors with Positive Specific Heat in Energy 
Conversion," by Mr. J. E. Siebel, Chicago. 111. 

Senate Committee Told Water-Power Bill Would 
Retard Development 

In addition to the testimony before the committee on 
public lands of the United States Senate on the water- 
power bill which has been published in recent issues, 
other views have been given. Abstracts of other testi- 
mony follow : 

Mr. \\ . V. N. Powelson 

Mr. Powelson, consulting engineer, of New York, said 
that the proposed legislation should accomplish three 
main purposes — first, the delivery of power to the pub- 
lic on the lowest possible terms; second, delivery under 
conditions that insure the greatest reliability of service; 
third, delivery of power in the greatest volume that the 
market can absorb, that is to say, cheap power, good 
power and all the power that any one can use. If the 
legislation accomplishes those three main purposes, it 
has done all that the public interest could expect or re- 
quire. Senator Clark asked whether there should lie 
Some obligation upon the government to grant the per 

mit if the regulations were fulfilled by an applicant, 

Mr. Powelson said that he was absolutely in accord with 

that proposition because he thought thai it would make 
money less expensive. Anything that makes financing 
expensive will increase the cost ot energy. Between 

so and 90 per cent of the cost of generating water- 

January 2, 1915 



power is made up of fixed charges. Operating ex- 
penses are therefore substantially negligible. The pro- 
posed prohibition to limit the amount of energy to be 
sold to any one customer to 50 per cent of the total out- 
put would tend to retard development. 

Mr. H. L. Cooper 

Mr. Cooper, consulting engineer, of New York, said 
that the water-power business in general has suffered 
greatly in respect to profit from two very great oppos- 
ing natural difficulties. The first is that the water- 
power business, as applied to hydroelectric work, is a 
new art, being scarcely over twenty years of age. In 
the last ten or twelve years plants with a capacity of 
more than 600,000 hp built upon navigable streams and 
upon public-land permits have been absolute financial 
failures to the extent that the investors therein cannot 
be appealed to again for the support of similar invest- 
ments. In general, the water-power investments have 
not been a success up to date. The list of plants given 
by Mr. Cooper is shown in the accompanying table. 

partial list of water-power developments which 

have either been through receiverships 

or proved bad investments 


Hudson River, Spiers' Falls. N. Y., Mechanicsville, X. Y. . 52,000 
Michigan Lake Superior Power Company. Sault Ste. Marie. 

Mich 23,000 

Great Shoshone & Twin Falls Water Power Company. 

Pocatello, Idaho 10,000 

Animas Power & Lighting Company, Durango, Col 4,500 

Central Colorado Power Company, Denver, Col 40,000 

Wisconsin Railway, Lighting & Power Company, Hatfield, 

Wis 8,000 

McCall's Ferry Power Company. MeCalTs Ferry, Pa 80,000 

Hantord Irrigation & Power Company. Priest Rapids, 

Wash 4,000 

Y'adkin River Power Company. Rockingham, N. C 25,000 

Hauser Lake (Mont.) Power Company 15,000 

Chattanooga & Tennessee River Power Company. Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn 40,000 

St. Lawrence River Power Company, Massena, X. Y 60,000 

Austin Dam. Texas 

Stanislaus Electric Power Company. San Francisco 50,000 

Whitney plant, on Y'adkin River 20,000 

Miscellaneous small water-powers 50.000 

Alabama Power Company 70,000 

Appalachian Power Company 40,000 

Total 616.500 

Hydroelectric securities are very unpopular in the 
American market. A large amount of hydroelectric se- 
curities have been sold in Europe, but the war has closed 
this field completely. Practically all of the $16,000,000 
bonds for the Keokuk (la.) enterprise w-ere placed 
abroad. The next difficulty in the way of w T ater-power 
investment is the very serious one of competition from 
steam. The water-power engineer has met everyw-here 
each six months some new invention to bring down the 
cost of steam power. When Mr. Cooper first went into the 
business $125 was a good, fair estimate of the capital 
cost per horse-power for a complete steam plant, and 
to-day it is $40. The steam engineers have not been 
content in reducing the cost on the capital side but have 
increased the efficiency of their steam units so that the 
amount of coal consumption per horse-power is less than 
one-half what it was fifteen or twenty years ago. The 
steam generating stations of to-day require much less 
repair, much less oil, much less labor than used to be 
the case. Steam power with all charges paid does not 
cost more than 40 per cent of the cost fifteen or 
twenty years ago. The water-powers of the United 
States that have to compete against the steam energy 
have been constructed at an average cost of about $160 
per hp. Mr. Cooper emphasized the fact that he meant 
real dollars instead of stocks or bonds. 

The present cost of the Keokuk plant is about $175 
per hp. When the present possible output is all sold 
and the rest of the power is developed the cost will be 
about $120 per hp. The average cost per horse-power 
at Niagara Falls is about $110. Some recent extensions 
there have brought the average cost down. Mr. Cooper 
said that the average cost by steam in the vicinity of 
the Keokuk plant would be $24 or $25 per hp. The 
energy is sold in St. Louis at $18 per hp per year. Mr. 
Cooper presented a table showing that since March 2, 
1909, new water-power plants constructed and operated 
on national forests and founded upon revocable permits 
have aggregated 15,520 hp. Outside of the public do- 
main since 1909 plants with a rating of over 700,000 hp 
have been built. 

Mr. John H. Finney 

Mr. Finney, a director of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers and manager of the Washington 
office of the Aluminum Company of America, in order 
to show what a modern hydroelectric system comprises, 
described the Southern Power Company, Charlotte, N. 
C. With a connected load of about 100,000 hp, this 
company had to put in steam plants so as to have a re- 
liable supply for the entire system. Mr. Finney said 
that the bill would prevent the sale of energy to a dis- 
tributing system which would actually be the principal 
source of business for a hydroelectric company. By 
prohibiting the sale of more than 50 per cent of the 
energy to any one user it would take away the market 
for the large consumer. Mr. Finney said he did not 
know how, under these two sections, a hydroelectric 
company could get its business. The bill would not 
permit the development of a single important hydro- 
electric system in the United States. The term of fifty 
years is not too long and in a great many cases it is too 
short to develop a given water-power. 

Mr. George Otis Smith 

Mr. Smith, director of the United States Geological 
Survey, said that if the law strikes the mean between 
what will invite capital and what will protect the con- 
sumer it will be workable. Mr. Smith discussed the 
issues arising from the proposal to construct a hydro- 
electric plant on the Green River to provide for irriga- 
tion and for the electrification of part of the Denver & 
Rio Grande Railroad. 

A statement regarding this project was made by Mr. 
S. Z. Mitchell, president of the Electric Bond & Share 
Company, who was attending the hearing. He said that 
it was proposed to supply the energy for the Denver 
& Rio Grande Railroad from several projects, including 
the Utah Power & Light Company and the Green River 
projected plant. In the winter time, Mr. Mitchell said, 
there was a very large amount of power which could not 
possibly be used for irrigation that w T as absolutely 
wasted and it was this that was wanted. 

Mr. Walter L. Fisher 

Mr. Fisher, ex-Secretary of the Interior, said that it 
would be in the nature of a public calamity to the 
country as a whole, and especially to the West, if the 
opportunity to pass a fair and reasonable w T ater-power 
bill should fail either through the unwillingness of cer- 
tain of the power interests to accept what seem to be 
not only right but inevitable provisions in the public 
interest or through any failure of the Senate or the 
House to understand the view of those who have been 
attempting to advocate that sort of public protection. 
The fact that the transmission of hydroelectric energy 
over long distances has now progressed to such a point 
that this business is tied up and has become largely in- 
terstate in character cannot be changed by any legisla- 



Vol. 65, No. 1 

tion. It can only be recognized and dealt with by legis- 
lation. It is exactly the same as the situation has been 
in the railroad world. It is an inevitable economic de- 

Mr. Fisher expressed the opinion that this bill, if 
enacted and accepted by the power people in good faith 
and administered as it will be in good faith, will be of 
incalculable financial advantage to them and will permit 
development and investment. If things that are really 
in the public interest are not inserted in the law, there 
will be public dissatisfaction and unrest until they are 
put in. The assurance of stability in the enterprises on 
a fair basis is of far more importance to the investor 
than any of the reservations in the bill. If the power 
people will cease to oppose those things which are in 
the public interest and direct the attention of the public 
to such things as the importance of obsolescence, how 
the investments are required to be replaced and the un- 
certainty of the market, and matters of that kind, all of 
which affect the question of compensation to be exacted 
and the question of how far the rates should be lowered 
by regulation, they will protect their interest far better 
than by raising questions about matters which, on cor- 
rect theory, ought to be in the grant. 

Commenting on the statement of Mr. Fisher, Mr. S. 
Z. Mitchell said that the most important matter is to 
get the capital. If the money cannot be obtained, all of 
the other points are of no avail. Stability is of very 
much more importance than yield. It is vital to have a 
law under which the people feel that the government 
has some solicitude, not as to how much will be obtained 
on the value of the securities but on the machinery that 
goes into the property. With this cloak of government 
solicitude around it people will have confidence in it, 
and then the monev can be obtained more easily and at 
a much lower rate. Mr. Mitchell asked Mr. Fisher if 
the policy of the city of Chicago in its franchise nego- 
tiations with electric railways had not created confi- 
dence and been effective. Mr. Fisher replied that it had. 
Mr. Mitchell said that the law ought to be so designed 
in the first place that the investor would be perfectly 
safe in feeling that nobody would confiscate the invest- 
ment at the time of acquisition. The statute ought to 
make this so clear that there should be no question 
about it. Every possible safeguard ought to be thrown 
about the proposition so that, because provision has 
been made for obsolescence and other charges, the in- 
vestor will be certain to get his principal. There is a 
good deal of question as to whether if the investor were 
not able to amortize the investment and provide for 
obsolescence during the last four or five years he would 
get his money back. Mr. Mitchell said that in case 
of acquisition of the electric railways in Chicago the 
purchaser would assume the outstanding bonds. Mr. 
Fisher said that such a provision ought to be included 
in the water-power bill. 

Mr. Mitchell said that nothing of that sort wa in 
the bill. Of course, the clearer the security is the 
cheaper is the capital cost. 

Mr. Dennis T. Plynn 

Mr. Plynn, a banker of Oklahoma City. Okla., testified 

from the standpoint of one who has been interested in 

electrical propertie and who has purchased for his own 

use and boo. •tit .electrical M this bill as it 

bhe llousr should go on the statute 
it would mean oi bureaucracy, more 

j n v, n, Million- of more hard earned 

(joflj mm who undertake to make development 

by compelling many a lonely pilgrimage to the brine oi 
the Departmenl of the interior. The committee should 
not pass a bill applyirig only to interstate corporations 

that deal with government proper) <. and leave til 

poration that is doing an interstate electric business on 
private property free from Congressional regulation. 

Mr. Flynn took up the provision that "leases for the 
development of power by municipal corporations solely 
for municipal use shall be issued without rental charge." 
He said that the language should be more specific in 
defining "municipal use." He is interested in a com- 
pany that furnishes electrical energy generated by 
steam. The opinion prevailed among many people who 
were not dissatisfied with the company that they wanted 
a municipal plant. They built a dam and a small power 
plant which furnished the energy for the city and took 
the best of the market in the business district. The 
consequence is that the company lost $30,000 in the 
operation of its plant and the city lost in the operation 
of its plant. Unfortunately the city does not keep its 
books as the company does. When it has not sufficient 
money the difference is lost in the general taxes. Mr. 
Flynn declared that cities ought not to be encouraged to 
vote bonds unless for municipal public use and that 
Congress ought not to authorize a city to take rights 
free as against an individual and by public taxation to 
make up a deficit. 

In states where there is a public service commission 
the report made to that commission should be accepted 
by the Secretary of the Interior. 

Mr. Clarence M. Clark 
Mr. Clark, of Messrs. E. W. Clark & Company, Phila- 
delphia, said that unless the bill is so drawn as to at- 
tract capital it will absolutely defeat its own purpose. 
Procedure has been had upon incorrect premises, one 
of which is that there exists in the country a great 
water-power trust, sometimes called an electric trust. 
The evidence of this is given in the shape of interlock- 
ing directorates, and very inaccurate testimony has 
been submitted before the committee which has con- 
sidered this question and in magazines and other public 
prints. Mr. Clark said that for the twenty years that 
he had been in this business and the longer period that 
his firm had been in it he had never known of any such 
trust. The evidence which has been submitted to demon- 
strate that such a trust exists is absolutely incorrect. 
Men are chosen for directors because of their knowledge 
of the business and their ability to be of service and 
their intelligence in that line of business. 

In view of what he had said in regard to the appre- 
hension that such a trust exists in the country, Mr. 
Clark thinks that the bill is drawn to prevent operation 
under it by existing corporations and with the idea that 
additional capital and new men can be induced to take 
up this line of development. The experience of the last 
few years has shown that the actual construction cost 
of water-power has been much more than was contem- 
plated by the original conceivers of the enterprises. 
The cost of coal-generated and steam-generated power 
is constantly decreasing at a really remarkable rate. 
As an evidence of that Mr. Clark said that he had re- 
fused in the last few weeks to consider a proposition in 
the center of one of the greatest markets in an Eastern 
-late because a steam-generated power plant can fur- 
nish power cheaper and better than a hydroelectric plant 
or a number of hydroelectric plants. The enterprise 
was one which would have cost $8,000,000 to (10,000, 


The value oi water -powers developed on public lands 
• presented by what they can get for their output. 
The price which they can get for their output depends 
upon the price at which a similar output developed by 
hydroelectric plants not situated upon the publ 
main can be obtained and the price at which a similar 
output can be purchased when generated by steam. 
The development of hydroelectric plants as a separate 


distinct enterprise without an established market or 
without connection with a market is almost invariably 
a failure. In this country not one large hydroelectric 
plant that has been put in operation within the last year 
or two has earned 6 per cent interest on its actual cost. 
There is a very great misapprehension in regard to the 
value of the plants. There has never been a time in 
the history of the country when the details and condi- 
tions of new construction enterprises have been scruti- 
nized so carefully and closely as they are to-day. The 
regulatory measures which have been passed have great- 
ly reduced or largely eliminated the profit in the public 
utility business and the banker who is going to invest 
money will consider that element very carefully. The 
money which has been lost in the depreciation of the se- 
curities of public utility companies as a whole through- 
out the country amounts to hundreds and hundreds of 
millions of dollars. 

The reasons which Mr. Clark outlined demonstrate 
the necessity for legislation free from unnecessary re- 
strictions in order to induce the investment of capital 
in the development of the enterprises. Financing by 
bonds and the issue of stock as a bonus has been largely 
or almost entirely superseded in this country by con- 
servative methods. To enable the bankers of an en- 
terprise to obtain the capital there must be long tenure 
of title. 

The building up of the water powers of the West is 
desirable for three reasons — first, to conserve the coal 
and oil resources of the country which when used up 
are exhausted; second, to assist in bringing manu- 
facturing enterprises to the Western country; third, to 
supply the requirements of public utility companies 
which are so intimately connected with the progress and 
upbuilding of the Western States. 


Lighting Company Must Protect Its Service 
Against Lightning 

The Supreme Court of Georgia in the case of the 
Columbus Railroad Company versus Kitchens (83 S.E., 
529) affirmed the judgment given by the Superior 
Court against the defendant and held that where an 
electric-light company maintains overhead wires to 
supply light to a residence it must employ such ap- 
proved apparatus as is reasonably necessary to prevent 
injury from electricity generated by a thunderstorm. 

The action was brought against the company for per- 
sonal injuries due to a shock received by the plaintiff 
when lightning struck the apparatus used by defendant 
in conducting the electricity to plaintiff's residence. A 
demurrer filed by the lighting company complained that 
no cause of action was set forth in that the petitioner 
did not allege (a) any breach of duty to petitioner, 
(b) or that the defendant was not in exercise of all 
ordinary care and diligence due the plaintiff, (c) or any 
fact showing that the wires were not in a safe condi- 
tion, (d) or specifically any acts of negligence or de- 
finitely how or in what manner the defendant was negli- 
gent. Other grounds of demurrer were that it appeared 
from the allegations of the petition that the injury was 
a result of an unavoidable accident and that it was the 
result of a stroke of lightning ; that there were no alle- 
gations that the injury would have been averted by any 
kind of installation, ground wires or lightning arrest- 
ers, and that it was not alleged that the wires running 
into the plaintiff's residence were not properly insu- 
lated, nor was it alleged what it takes to constitute 
proper installation. The court ruled that a petition in 
an action against an electric-light company for personal 
injuries due to a shock received by the plaintiff when 

lightning struck the apparatus used by defendant in 
conducting the electricity to plaintiff's residence was 
not demurrable for failure to state a cause of action. 

St. Louis Company Refunds Customers' Deposits 

Announcement was made on Dec. 14 that the Union 
Electric Light & Power Company, St. Louis, Mo., would 
not thereafter require the customary $5 deposit from 
applicants for residence service and would refund all 
such deposits then on hand with interest at 6 per cent. 
The total amount to be thus refunded was about $10,000. 
Coming at the holiday season, the money returned 
seemed almost like a Christmas present to many of the 
recipients who had made their deposits several years 
ago and had partly forgotten the matter. 

In speaking of the company's determination to assume 
without a guarantee deposit the risk entailed in cus- 
tomers' accounts, Mr. A. C. Einstein, vice-president and 
general manager of the electric company, said that the 
average bill of residence customers was only $2 a month 
and that the smallness of the bills and the general hon- 
esty of the patrons rendered it unnecessary to require 
a deposit. 

Reports on Municipal Controversy at Saginaw, Mich. 

Reports on the suggested municipal electric plant and 
the proposal of the Saginaw Power Company, of Sagi- 
naw, Mich., have been made by Messrs. R. F. Johnson, 
commissioner of light, water and sewers, and Herman 
H. Eymer, city engineer, and Prof. M. E. Cooley, of 
Ann Arbor, Mich. Mr. Eymer says that it is deemed 
possible for the city to obtain energy from some power 
company at wholesale, delivered at the switchboard at a 
rate less that that at which the city can produce it 
Therefore it would be unwise to construct a power sta- 
tion for the purpose of generating energy before it is 
determined whether or not the energy can be purchased 
at a less unit cost than that at which the city could 
produce it. There is a further possibility of govern- 
ment ownership of hydroelectric plants. 

In investigating the plans and estimates of Mr 
Eymer, Professor Cooley availed himself of the servicer 
of Prof. H. C. Anderson and Prof. C. H. Fessenden, of 
the University of Michigan. After study of the figures- 
of cost, which included for power house, power equip- 
ment and distribution system 8 per cent for con- 
tingencies, 5 per cent for engineering, supervision and 
inspection, and 2V2 per cent for insurance and taxes, 
and for lamps 10 per cent for contingencies, engineer- 
ing, supervision and inspection and 2% per cent for in- 
surance and taxes, they recommended that there be 
added the following additional percentages: Organiza- 
tion, administration and legal expenses, 2 17 2 per cent; 
interest during construction, 4 per cent. The one great 
chance, he said, for misunderstanding in estimates of 
the costs of public utility plants arises in connection 
with the overhead charges. With the possible excep- 
tion of a few items, costs of construction and putting 
into successful operation a utility plant are the same 
whether the plant be built and owned by a private cor 
poration or by a municipality. The superior credit of a 
municipality ordinarily results in reduced costs of financ- 
ing and lower bond interest, and there may be some other 
saving due to the more friendly attitude of the people 
toward what they themselves own. But offsetting these 
are sources of possible losses in operation which those 
best acquainted with municipally owned plants are fa- 
miliar with. The lack of incentive to save often results in 
placing the municipally owned plant at a disadvantage 


Vol. (55, No. 1 

when compared with a privately owned plant. City 
taxes, paid by a private corporation, must also be paid 
by the publicly owned plant, if not directly then by an 
equal amount spread on the tax roll. The cost to run the 
city has not necessarily been decreased. Likewise there 
must be at hand the necessary stores and supplies to 
keep the plant running and a sufficient working capital 
to meet the pay roll and current obligations and to make 
necessary repairs. Then, too, there is the cost of 
establishing the business. The early losses are usually 
referred to as the cost of establishing the business or 
the cost of procuring a going concern. There are other 
costs of establishing the business, such, for instance, as 
are involved in securing patronage. 

Professor Cooley also raised a point regarding the 
advisability from an economic standpoint of duplicating 
capital already in the field. The plant proposed will do 
a part or the whole of the work now being done by the 
present privately owned plant. Only one plant is neces- 
sary. Would it not then be a wise precaution, before 
making this duplication, to exhaust to the very end every 
possibility of getting together? If no satisfactory 
agreement is found possible, would it not then be bet- 
ter to try first to buy the existing plant outright or such 
part of it as may be needed to carry out the city's plans? 
The whole thought is the saving of several hundred 
thousand dollars at a time when a waste of money ought 
not to be afforded. 

Professor Cooley also suggested that the Railroad 
Commission, if it has not the power now, no doubt will 
after the next Legislature has met have the power 
to adjust just such differences as confront the city and 
the company. A year's delay with such a possibility in 
prospect ought to be worth considering. His estimates 
of cost are as follows: Power house, $226,527; distri- 
bution system, $378,692; lamps, $159,095; total, $764,- 
314; office furniture and fixtures, $1,686; horses, 
vehicles, etc., $10,000; stores and supplies, $20,000; 
working capital, $40,000; total, $836,000. 

Maine Public Utilities Act 

At the recent general election in Maine the public 
utilities act passed by the 1913 Legislature was 
accepted by a referendum vote. The statute provides 
for the appointment by the Governor of a board of three 
members to be designated the Public Utilities Commis- 
sion, the chairman having a salary of $5,000 per year 
and the other two commissioners $4,500 each. The 
chairman first appointed is to have a term of seven 
years and the other members five and three years re- 
spectively, subsequent appointments being for seven 
1 years. The clerk is to receive $2,500. The office is to 
be at the Capitol in Augusta. The right to employ ex- 
pert assistance is accorded. 

Power is given to the commission to inquire into the 
management of all public utilities, including common 
carriers, gas, electric, telephone, telegraph and water 
companies, wharfingers and warehousemen. The board 
or its representative receives power to inspect books, 
papers, etc., to require the production of these, to in- 
vestigate any neglect or violations of law by public util- 
ities or their em] ad agents, reporting all viola 
tions to the Attorney-General, who, with county attor 
neys, is required to aid the commission. 

All rates are to be reasonable and just, taking into 
account the value of the property with a fair return 
thei ••■■ ate and plant as a going concern, busi- 

ness risk and depreciation. ire to be kept in 

the manner and form prescribed by the board, consider 
ation being given by the latter to sj 
by federal law, commissions or departments, and any 

system authorized by a national association of utilities. 
The board may order separate accounts for subsidiary 
business. Utilities having no property within the 
State other than is employed there in transit are ex- 
empted from keeping accounts in the manner pre- 
scribed by the commission, but are required to appoint 
a resident agent. Accounts other than those prescribed 
or approved for use by the commission are expressly 

Copies of rate schedules must be on file in every sta- 
tion and office of each utility and open to the public. Ex- 
tended provisions are made against rebates or other 
preferential rates, although carriers may grant free or 
reduced rate transportation as provided by Congress 
and utilities may make special rates to employees or in 
emergencies and, on approval of the board, reduced 
rates for benevolent purposes. The commission is re- 
quired to provide a comprehensive classification of serv- 
ice for each utility, which may take into account quan- 
tity, time of use, purpose, etc. 

Provision is made against the furnishing of service 
by newly organized corporations without consent of the 
commission in places where a similar service is being 
provided. Fatal accidents must be reported by wire. 
The commission is required to make early investigation 
of accidents and in its discretion to investigate acci- 
dents resulting in personal injury or property damage. 
Power to value property is given, and the issue of se- 
curities is placed under the board's jurisdiction. No 
order authorizing the issue of securities shall limit 
rate-making powers. Notes for less than one year may 
be issued without reference to the board. The commis- 
sion may order physical connections, joint rates and 
the joint use of equipment for a prescribed compensa- 

Complaints in writing signed by ten parties against 
rates, service, regulations, etc., require action by the 
board if it is satisfied that the petitioners are responsi- 
ble. No order can be issued without a public hearing 
after at least ten days' notice to the utility. Full power 
to fix rates and regulate service is vested in the board, 
which may investigate upon its own motion and enforce 
its orders. 

Appeals from decisions may be taken to the Supreme 
Court. The burden of proof is placed upon parties ad- 
verse to the commission and upon advocates of rate in- 
creases. The act abolishes the Railroad Commission and 
State Water Storage Commission and vests their 
powers, duties and privileges in the newly created 
Public Utilities Commission. 

Governor Haines of Maine has appointed members of 
the commission as follows : Messrs. Benjamin F. 
Cleaves, Biddeford; William B. 1). Skelton, Lewiston. 
and Samuel W. Gould, Skowhegan 

Model School Room Lighting at Springfield, Mass. 

In the new High School of Commerce at Springfield, 
Mass., the electric-lighting installation will be selected 
Oil the basis of competitive installations of fixtures in 
so-called model rooms, each of which will represent the 
best efforts of a single manufacturer. The city prop- 
erty committee has arranged with a number of firms 
for the equipment of several rooms with combinations 
of indirect ami direct lighting, and the trial installs 
tionfi will lie made in a very short time. The city an 

thorities have been making extensive studies of school- 
room lighting during the past year with a view toward 
reducing eyi md obtaining more efficient illumi- 

nation for a given energy expenditure. The service is 
generally supplied by the United Electric Light I 

January 2, 1915 



Daylight-Saving Movement at Chicago 

The Chicago Association of Commerce has instituted 
a campaign to give Chicago Eastern time in an effort to 
start the local business day an hour earlier, thus adding 
an hour of natural daylight at the close of the working 
period and reducing the use of artificial illumination. 
At a meeting of bankers, business men, manufacturers, 
railroad executives, merchants and others, held at the 
LaSalle Hotel Dec. 7, the advantages and disadvantages 
of the plan were discussed by a number of speakers. 

Trade Prospects in South America 

That the European war has opened the way to manu- 
facturers of this country for the establishment of per- 
manent business relations in South American countries 
is the opinion of officials of the National Lamp Works in 
Cleveland. They believe that merely to make arrange- 
ments to take orders for the present and supply mer- 
chandise that has heretofore been purchased in Europe 
would be of little benefit. Possibilities in those coun- 
tries must be cultivated and the first buyers must be 
made customers, so that they will not use our manufac- 
tures only as a makeshift until the factories of Europe 
are opened, but will look to them for the future. 

The manufacturer who will establish himself in 
Latin-American countries in such a manner as to give 
the service that goes with his business in this country 
will succeed, they believe. Up to this time nothing 
seems to have been done but to take orders and deliver 
merchandise, with the exception of providing financial 
accommodations for customers; but if American corpo- 
rations would give the service there that they give here 
they would be far ahead of any Europeans in the es- 
timation of customers. This service would make per- 
manent customers and would hold them in competition 
against other countries. 

It is possible, they believe, that American banking 
facilities would be extended to those countries if indus- 
trial concerns should develop business that would war- 
rant such a step. Bankers might be willing to estab- 
lish themselves and grow with the extension of other 
lines of business. The Germans have owned most of the 
banks for some years, and they were established to take 
care of the business of German exporters. It would be 
impossible for them to meet the demands of business 
from American or other exporters and, from the stand- 
point of the American business man, this would prob- 
ably not be desirable. 

Business should be established in a conservative way, 
and development should take place as rapidly as condi- 
tions warrant. Germany has built up its business in 
those countries as a result of most careful preparation. 
Its consuls are trained. They are taught their duties 
carefully and study the way business is done in the 
countries to which they are to be sent, the articles pro- 
duced there, the cost of production, the merchandise 
imported and where it is secured, the cost and quality 
of such articles or merchandise, and many other par- 
ticulars that will aid them in developing business for 
the manufacturers and exporters of their own country. 
A constant supply of information is thus going forward 
and is used not only in the improvement of the manu- 
factured goods and handling of merchandise, but in 
opening new avenues and developing new articles. 

Several languages have been taught in the German 
schools. This knowledge is very important to those who 
are engaged in foreign countries and in offices at home 
where extensive correspondence is conducted. School 
children gain some idea of people and countries through 
the study of languages and are better prepared for du- 

ties which thev mav be called upon to discharge in later 

Some of the universities and schools of Germany 
have made a practice of sending students on tours of 
various countries. They are thus imbued in their for- 
mative years with the idea of extending business over 
the world and secure knowledge that they could not 
get in any other way. When their student days are 
ended they are in position to enter upon work that 
would be difficult or perhaps impossible to the ordinary 
college-trained man here. 

Business methods have not been developed along these 
lines in this country to the extent of the progress in 
Germany, but there is little doubt that with co-opera- 
tion between business interests and the government sur- 
prising results could be achieved. 

Utah Franchise Situation Settled 

The officers of the Utah Light & Traction Company 
and the City Commission after more than two months 
of negotiations have reached an agreement with refer- 
ence to consolidating the franchises of the Utah Light 
& Railway Company and the Merchants' Light & Power 
Company, both of which have been acquired by the Utah 
Light & Traction Company. In consideration of the 
transfer of these franchise rights to the new company 
substantial reductions in rates are made to the citizens 
of Salt Lake City amounting to as much as 20 per cent 
in the case of certain customers, the minimum reduction 
being 10 per cent and the average about 12 per cent. 
Under the ordinance as passed by the City Commission- 
ers on Dec. 21, the company agrees to furnish the stan- 
dard 4-amp luminous-arc lamp at a price not to exceed 
$4.75 per lamp per month when fed from underground 
circuit and $4.50 per lamp per month when fed from 
overhead lines. 

Standard multiple-arc lamps for commercial purposes 
are to be furnished at a rate not to exceed $8 per lamp 
per month for all-night service, $5 per lamp per month 
for midnight service and $4 per lamp per month for 10 
o'clock service. The base rate for incandescent lighting 
service by meter is reduced from 10 cents per kw-hr. 
to 9 cents per kw-hr. and a minimum charge of $1 per 
month is provided, also a discount of 10 per cent if bills 
are paid within seven days from date. The company 
agrees to furnish the city with twenty-five standard arc 
lamps free, and also to furnish free electrical energy for 
lighting purposes up to any amount not exceeding 400,- 
000 kw-hr. per annum. The furnishing of this free 
service, however, is conditioned upon the company re- 
ceiving and having the contract to furnish the municipal 
street lighting. The company further agrees to fur- 
nish the city with 62% hp of electrical energy free for 
motor purposes and to furnish such additional energy as 
the city may require for pumping and other municipal 
purposes up to 125 hp at a price not to exceed 1 cent per 
kw-hr. for service twenty-four hours a day, provided 
that none of the energy purchased or obtained is used 
for lighting purposes. From Jan. 1, 1915, to Aug. 24, 
1937, the company must pay an income tax at the rate 
of one-quarter of 1 per cent upon the gross revenues of 
the company derived from the sale of electrical energy 
for lighting purposes. For the remaining period of the 
franchise the tax is increased to one-half of 1 per cent 
upon the gross revenues from electric lighting. 

It is further provided that should the volume of the 
company's business increase to an extent that will re- 
duce the cost of furnishing electricity the city and the 
company shall jointly appoint an arbitration commit- 
tee to determine an equitable rate, such rate to be 
accepted by the company. 



Vol. tin 


Miscellaneous News Notes 

Proposed Change in Patent Law. — The American Patent 
Law Association has prepared a bill for presentation to 
Congress which provides for the temporary extension of 
the time of filing applications for letters patent and regis- 
tration in the Patent Office and fees therefor. 

Efforts to Bond Electrical Contractors in Michigan. — 
Upon the recommendation of the Michigan Builders and 
Traders' Exchange, a law will be proposed that will compel 
all electrical contractors to give a bond where the amount 
of a contract totals $2,000 or over. This is said to be for 
the purpose of eliminating the unreliable contractor. 

Special Street Lighting for San Diego. — Plans for pro- 
viding arches of electric lamps over two of the principal 
streets in San Diego (Cal.) have been favored in an ordi- 
nance recently passed by the City Council. The special 
street illumination is intended for the exposition. Energy 
will be supplied by the San Diego Consolidated Gas & 
Electric Company. 

Gas and Electric Club for Louisville Company Employees. 
— Manager Donald McDonald, of the Louisville (Ky.) Gas 
& Electric Company, has appointed a committee to organ- 
ize a gas and electric club for the employees of the com- 
pany. It is planned to broaden the objects of the commer- 
cial meetings which have been held every Saturday after- 
noon so that every employee will be interested. Accident 
prevention will be included in the scope of the club. 

Single Residence Requires 171 Hp. — The late Charles G. 
Gates' residence at Minneapolis, Minn., has one of the 
largest connected electrical loads of any home in this 
country. The lighting load alone is over 90 kw and the 
motor load is about 50 hp. Among the purposes for which 
electricity is used are the following: Ventilation, operating 
elevators, driving laundry and refrigerating machinery, 
and pumping air for a pipe organ. The interior illumina- 
tion is very elaborate. 

Keeping Food Hot in Electric Delivery Wagons. — Elec- 
tric delivery wagons equipped with electrically heated com- 
partments are being used in Germany for conveying hot 
foods from bakeries, caterers, municipal kitchens, etc., to 
customers' premises. The foods are kept in pots, cans or 
other suitable containers and are warmed by electric heat- 
ers while they are being transported. Large institutions, 
such as hospitals having several scattered buildings, can 
thus avoid maintaining small kitchens in each building by 
employing electric delivery wagons equipped with electric 
heaters. Delivery wagons so equipped also enable caterers 
to supply hot food for banquets without setting up tempo- 
rary kitchens at the serving place. 

Examination for Junior Telegraph and Telephone Engi- 
neer. — An open competitive examination for junior tele- 
graph and telephone engineers will be held by the United 
States Civil Service Commission on Jan. 20, for positions in 
the Interstate Commerce Commission. The salary for grade 
No. 1 is $1,200 to $1,680 per annum; grade No. 2, $720 to 
$1,080 per annum. Competitors will be examined in the 
theory and practice of telegraph and telephone engineering, 
including overhead and underground construction, office 
equipment, systems of operation, and in mathematics used 
in this branch of engineering not including calculus. Those 
interested should apply for Form 20.19 for the examination 
for junior telegraph and telephone engineer. United States 
Civil Service Commission, Washington, D. C. 

Temporary Electric Danger Signals. — Cicero, Ind., is not 
a Latin village but a very wide-awake Hoosier town in 
which sand heaps, brick stacks and lumber piles occupying 
the streets in front of buildi - construction are 

designated at night by electric lamps incased in red cover- 
ings. The smoky oil lai I by a fragment of 
discarded re rrom Cicero, and when 
the workmen leave work for the day they have but to turn 
a snap switch placed in a bos on . ■ 
that the wra i will not present a menace to the 
street traffic in the night. Energj foi operating 
lamps come from the ition of the Nobli 
(Ind.) Heat, Light A Power Company, about 6.6 mile 
distant, and is sold thi tributing system owned 
by a citizen ..f Cicero. 

Telegraph and Telephone Inspector. — The United States 
Civil Service Commission has announced an open competi- 
tive examination for telegraph and telephone inspector for 
Jan. 12. As a result of this examination three registers of 
eligibles will be established with salaries ranging from 
$1,200 to $1,800 per annum. It is desirable for eligibles to 
have had general experience in the construction, mainte- 
nance and operation of telegraph and telephone plants and to 
be qualified to enumerate and to determine the quantities 
and the class or grade of materials used in such construc- 
tion and the quantity, character and cost of the labor re- 
quired in the installation thereof. Applications should be 
made to the Civil Service Commission, Washington, D. C, 
for Form 1800 for the examination for telegraph and tele- 
phone inspector. 

Research Fellowships at the University of Illinois. — At 
the close of the current academic year there will be avail- 
able four research fellowships in the engineering experi- 
ment station of the University of Illinois. These fellow- 
ships, for which there is an annual stipend of $500, are 
open to graduates of approved American and foreign uni- 
versities and technical schools. Nominations are based 
upon the character, scholastic attainments and promise of 
success in the principal line of study or research to which 
the candidate proposes to devote himself. Application 
should be made not later than Feb. 1. Preference is given 
to those applicants who have had some practical engineer- 
ing experience following their undergraduate work. Addi- 
tional information may be obtained from the Director 
Engineering Experiment Station, University of Illinois 
Urbana, 111. 

Kentucky Municipalities Sue on Street -Lighting Con- 
tracts. — Two Kentucky municipalities are at odds with the 
electric-lighting companies which have been serving them, 
and both have brought suit for reparation for alleged over- 
charges. In both cases there is involved the question of 
whether lamps that do not give the candle-power specified 
in the contract fulfil that contract. One overcharge claim, 
that of Frankfort against the Kentucky Public Service 
Company, is for approximately $52,000, the city alleging 
that this amount has been overpaid to its predecessor, the 
Capital Gas & Electric Light Company. The other case is 
that of the city of Princeton against the Princeton Electric 
Light & Power Company for about $7,000. In the latter 
case it is asserted that though the contract has called for 
2000-cp lamps at $72 per annum for the last five years 
the city has been getting only 400 cp. for that price. 

Happy Termination of a Rate War. — In a certain little 
Kansas city having a population of less than 1000 there 
are two electric-light plants. One is owned by the city 
and the other by private interests, and for some time a 
vigorous and aggressive rate war has been waged, bring- 
ing prices down to 2 cents per kw-hr. and less. With such 
rates prevailing there was, of course, little probability that 
either plant would make ends meet. It seemed fair t.i 
suppose that one if not both would soon be bankrupt, but a 
compromise has so far postponed the day of double default, 
for now each of the plants is taking its turn at serving tfle 
entire number of electric-service customers in the com- 
munity. The municipal plant operates twelve hours a day 
carrying all of its own and the other company's customers, 
and the privately owned plant takes the load for the next 
twelve-hour shift. 

What Is a Kilowatt? — In plain language the Greenville 
(Tenn.) Sun offers its readers the following explanation of 
the method of figuring one's electric-lighting bill. First, 
"multiply the current by the conscience of the proprietor 
of the electric-light plant, divide this by the meter on the 
Wall, and add whatever you can't multiply. The answer 
will come in dollars and cents. Just divide these by the 
price you pay per kilowatt and multiply again and find 
out what a kilowatt is. It is something you can't see, that 
you pay for according to what some one tells you wh( 
'! know what be is talking about, and he proves it by 
the meter that runs by guess and by thunder and is at- 
tached to the wall by a hired man with machine grease on 
his nose. You know just how many kilowatts you hav« 
had, just what they cost you apiece, but you don't know 
what they are, what they look like, who made them, or what 

ihape they are." 

January 2, 1915 



Associations and Societies 

Utah Electric Club Lunch. — The regular luncheon of the 
Utah Electric Club at the Commercial Club, Salt Lake 
City, Dec. 24, was given over to "high jinks." A musical 
program was furnished by the Fred C. Graham Lyceum 
Bureau, consisting of popular songs, in which the members 
joined. Mr. "Hy" Dunbar, the popular comedian of the 
line and service department of the Utah Light & Traction 
Company, furnished one of his characteristic monologues 
containing numerous hits and take-offs on local electrical 

American Institute of Consulting Engineers. — The an- 
nual meeting of the American Institute of Consulting En- 
gineers, Inc., will be held Jan. 19 at the City Club, New 
York City. Three members of the Council will be elected, 
reports of the Council and of special committees will be 
presented, and ballots will be canvassed for the adoption of 
amended constitution and by-laws as prepared by the special 
committee appointed at the last annual meeting. The 
meeting will be preceded by an informal dinner of the 
members of the Institute at the same place. Mr. Eugene 
W. Stern, 101 Park Avenue, New York, is secretary. 

Woes of the Electric Garage Man. — Some of the troubles 
of the electric garage owner who attempts to give his cus- 
tomers on-the-minute service at any time of the day or 
night were narrated by Mr. Harry Salvat at a recent 
meeting of Chicago electric-vehicle men. About 1 o'clock 
one rainy night a woman customer living two miles away 
telephoned for her electric car, requesting that the boy 
who delivered it ring her doorbell on his arrival. As the 
night was a bad one and the nearby railroad crossing was 
without a watchman after midnight, the proprietor deter- 
mined to go himself. Upon ringing the doorbell as re- 
quested, a dime and a stamped letter were thrust into his 
hand with the request, "Here, boy, mail this, and then go 
oack to the garage." On the return trip the garage man 
had ample opportunity to reflect on the cost to him of the 
dlowatt-hours consumed, re-washing of the car, and the 
time of one man, incidental to the mailing of that letter. 
Another woman who had let her car become nearly dis- 
charged drove to the garage one afternoon, bringing with' 
her a big jug. As she could wait only a few minutes on 
account of social engagements, she requested that the at- 
tendant put the rest of the charge in the jug so that she 
ould take it home with her. 

Pooling of Prospective Truck Customers. — A plan for in- 
erchanging among competing electric-truck salesmen the 
names of prospective purchasers was proposed by Mr. J. W. 
McDowell, chairman of the Chicago Section of the Electric 
Vehicle Association, at a recent meeting of the section, and 
aroused some interesting discussion. Mr. McDowell declared 
that when one electric-truck salesman endeavors to make a 
truck sale to a customer, in competition with fifteen or 
twenty gasoline-truck salesmen, the overwhelming compe- 
tion often serves to discredit the electric truck in the mind 
of the "prospect." The number of gasoline-car represent- 
atives in any city field is usually so many times the number 
of electric-vehicle salesmen that the prospective customer 
is likely to gain the impression that the electric car is of 
minor importance. Consequently the electric vehicle suffers 
from the outset. But if the customer in the market for a 
truck receives calls from a number of electric-vehicle men 
he is sure to acquire a more substantial regard for the bat- 
tery-driven car. Mr. McDowell therefore proposed that any 
electric-vehicle salesman getting information of a "prospect" 
should not only call on the customer himself but also turn 
the name in to the local Electric Vehicle Association section 
secretary, who could distribute it to all the local firms in- 
terested. As the result of the succession of calls by electric- 
car representatives which would follow, the customer would 
!>e much more likely to buy an electric type of machine than 
if he had been confronted only with the selling arguments 
of the first salesman. Each succeeding visitor would pre- 
sent new sales arguments for the electric vehicle, reinforc- 
ing the efforts of the original representative. Mr. McDow- 
ell declared that his own experience had been that the 
prospective customer invariably made his selection and pur- 
chase more quickly when a number of competing salesmen 
were interested in the case. 

Public Service Commission News 

New York Commissions 

The Second District commission has decided the West- 
chester Lighting Company cases, these being complaints of 
residents of White Plains, Port Chester, Tarrytown and 
North Tarrytown, Irvington and East Chester against the 
Westchester Lighting Company. The opinion is by Com- 
missioner Martin S. Decker. The decision holds that the 
maximum electric rate of 15 cents per kw-hr. in the districts 
affected is excessive, unreasonable and unjust and that for 
the future the rate should not exceed 12 cents, and also that 
the minimum monthly rate of $1 is excessive and should 
be reduced to 75 cents. 

As to the gas rates in these districts, the commission 
holds that, upon the valuation record as made, the com- 
pany's income does not afford a rate of return which can 
be reduced by lawful order in these proceedings. But the 
commission strongly recommends the company to reduce 
its gas rate in these districts to $1.25 per 1000 cu. ft. as a 
general rate and establish even lower rates in the thickly 
settled portions of the Port Chester, White Plains and 
Tarrytown districts. 

The company's figures of valuation for its gas and elec- 
tric properties in the Port Chester, Tarrytown and White 
Plains districts and in East Chester were $6,800,000. The 
commission in determining the amount on which the com- 
pany was entitled to return reduced this to $4,300,000, a re- 
duction of $2,500,000. 

The gas rate in East Chester is treated separately, and it 
is recommended that some material reduction be made in 
the East Chester gas rate. The present rates in the several 
districts are: Port Chester, $1.40 per 1000 cu. ft., and $1.25 
for fuel; White Plains, $1.40 for both light and fuel; Tarry- 
town, $1.50 for light and $1.25 for fuel when prompt pay- 
ment is made; East Chester, $1.50 for both light and fuel. 

The commission says that the Westchester company has 
extended many of its gas mains out from the villages proper 
into thinly populated territory, comparatively speaking, 
thereby making unprofitable capital investment for the 
present and for some time in the future, and in taking all 
of its property together in these districts as the basis for 
a return there is some substantial disregard of the property 
and its return in the more densely populated, and therefore 
the better paying, parts of these districts. 

The commission, without taking it into account as limiting 
its decision, also says it is greatly to be regretted that the 
company's enormous interest charges, arising out of securi- 
ties having little, if any, relation to the actual property 
account, tend to force the company to secure every penny 
possible in gross earnings and limit the margin with which 
it might freely undertake gas-rate reductions that would 
place its large business in some districts upon a basis of 
rates whereby customers would have some greater induce- 
ment to indulge in much freer use of gas for fuel purposes 
and also for light. The commission also points out that gas 
is competitive with coal and that the impression made upon 
the customer by these high gas rates is doubtless continu- 
ous and becomes stronger monthly as the bills are paid. 

In the electric department the commission finds that the 
business is profitable. The commission says there is fair 
reason to believe that in the reasonably near future re- 
spondent should contemplate seriously still further reduc- 
tion of its maximum electric rate as applying over its whole 
territory, though it points out that the rates in Mount Ver- 
non and New Rochelle are not embraced in these proceed- 

The company's operating income covering its entire ter- 
ritory, both for electric and gas service, was greater in 
1913 than in 1909 by $71,954, but deductions from that in- 
come increased during the four years to the extent of over 
$314,000. With such deductions from income it had a book 
deficit in 1913 of $188,000, using round figures. The com- 
mission points out, however, that the great bulk of the in- 
terest charge increase during the four years results from 
the increase in the interest rate on New York & Westches- 
ter Lighting Company outstanding mortgage bonds of $10,- 
000,000. The interest on these bonds has increased under 
the terms of the mortgage from 1% per cent in 1908 to 4 
per cent in 1914. This mortgage of $10,000,000, together 
with debenture bonds of $2,500,000, was placed on the prop- 



Vol. 65, No. 1 

erty in 1904 in carrying out a plan for transfer of the con- 
trol of the property, and the commission is unable to find 
that such bonds represent any actual expenditure of money 
upon the property. These bonds and the interest thereon 
are guaranteed by the Consolidated Gas Company of New 
York, which owns all of the stock of the Westchester Light- 
ing Company. Control of the property was deemed of great 
consequence to the Consolidated company since the West- 
chester company was in possession of franchises capable of 
being used in the city of New York and in adjoining West- 
chester County territory. 

Respondent's total valuation figures for the gas and elec- 
tric property in its Port Chester, Tarrytown and White 
Plains districts and East Chester for gas amounted to more 
than $6,800,000. This is cut down by the commission to 
something over $4,300,000, a reduction of $2,500,000. The 
reduction in valuation made by the commission amounts 
to $1,300,000 on gas and $1,167,000 on electricity. 

Wisconsin Railroad Commission 

The first part of the annual report of the Wisconsin Rail- 
road Commission for the year ended June 30, 1914, has 
been completed. 

A total of 541 electric, heating, water and gas utilities re- 
ported to the commission during the year, a gain of 120 
since 1910. Of this number 278 were electric utilities. The 
commission heard a total of 644 cases, or an increase of 171 
over the year previous. Of this number 237 were utility 
cases. A total of 100 formal decisions on utility cases were 
issued; 1840 complaints were received, an increase of 535 
over the year ended June 30, 1913. 

Authority was granted by the commission for the issue 
of $552,563,414 securities, as follows: Stock, $5,148,214; 
bonds, $546,047,200; equipment trust certificates, $1,280,000; 
gold bond certificates, $80,000; notes, $8,000. 

The report notes a substantial increase in all utility busi- 
ness. In the electric utility business the operating reve- 
nues increased 11.29 per cent over a year ago. Gas utilities 
showed an increase of 5.2 per cent; heating utilities, 16.61 
per cent. The new construction during the year showed an 
increase of 11.75 per cent for the electric utilities and 6.8 
per cent for the gas utilities. The water utilities showed a 
decrease of 26 per cent. 

Attention is called to the fact that since 1910 there has 
been an increase in the ratio of operating expenses to oper- 
ating revenues for all utilities except electric lighting and 
gas. In the electric railway business the operating ratio 
increased from 68.9 per cent in 1910 to 72.88 per cent in 
1914. The heating utilities show an increase from 79.86 per 
cent in 1910 to 87.68 per cent in 1914. In the case of the 
electric-lighting utility the ratio has remained practically 
constant at 65.5 with a tendency toward a decrease. 

A certificate of convenience and necessity has been grant- 
ed to the Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company to 
operate a second electric utility in the town of Delafield to 
furnish energy for light, heat and power. It developed at 
the hearing that the existing plant is not able to furnish 
adequate service at reasonable rates. 

Massachusetts Commission 

The Gas and Electric Light Commission has dismissed the 
petition of consumers of the Boston Consolidated Gas Com- 
pany for a reduction in prices, on the ground that the slid- 
ing-scale act (Chap. 422, Acts of 1906), under which the 
company supplies gas in Boston, was not repealed by the 
consolidation of laws affecting gas and electric companies 
embodied in Chap. 742, Acts of 1914. Under the terms of 
the sliding-scale act, the company's dividend rate was stan- 
dardized at 7 per cent, with the allowance of an increase 
of 0.2 per cent in the rate for every 1 cent of reduction in 
the maximum net price below the standard of 90 cents per 
1000 cu. ft. The petitioners claimed that the sliding-scale 
act was repealed by Chap. 742, Acts of 1914, on account 
of the inconsistency of the former with the latter. The 
boards holds that the Legislature of 1914 had no intention 
of superseding by the act above named all inconsistent pro- 
visions of special laws relating to gas and electric com- 
panies and to municipal lighting plants and. while refusing 
to express any opinion upon the merits of the sliding-scale 
plan, the reasonableness of the prices involved or thi 
duct of the company's affairs, it dismissed the complaint 


Mr. Richard Sachse has been appointed chief engineer 
of the Railroad Commission of California. 

Mr. F. S. Armstrong, district superintendent at Macomb, 
111., of the Central Illinois Public Service Company, has 
been engaged as manager of the plant at Brookfield, Mo. 
Mr. Armstrong succeeds Mr. Louis D. Kelsey, who has re- 
signed as manager of the Brookfield Light & Gas Company 
to accept the position in Oklahoma. 

Mr. C. E. Groesbeck has been appointed vice-president 
and general manager of the Utah Power & Light Company, 
with headquarters at Salt Lake City, as successor to Mr. 
P. B. Sawyer, who has resigned. Mr. Groesbeck has been 
connected with the Electric Bond & Share Company for 
some time past and prior to that was about eight years in 
the organization of H. M. Byllesby & Company, princi- 
pally with their Pacific Coast properties. He has spent 
the last two months in Salt Lake City familiarizing him- 
self with the organization and operation of the company 
preparatory to assuming the duties of this important posi- 

Mr. R. L. Fitzgerald, an electrical engineer and a 1912 
graduate of Purdue University, has been appointed busi- 
ness manager of Winnetka, 111., a Chicago North Shore 
residential suburb with a population of about 5000. Under 
the new plan of town management just inaugurated by the 
local board of trustees, the manager will have full charge 
of municipal affairs under the supervision of the board. 
His appointment continues during good behavior and he is 
paid a salary of $2,400 per year. The town will continue 
to operate its 200-kw municipal electric plant. Mr. Fitz- 
gerald has had experience in both engineering and ap- 
praisal work. He was formerly employed by a firm of 
consulting engineers at Madison, Wis., and by the Gary 
(Ind.) Light, Heat & Water Company, of which his brother. 
Mr. Leonard Fitzgerald, is vice-president and manager. 

Mr. Kempster B. Miller, who, as announced in these 
columns on Dec. 5, was appointed chief engineer for the 
receivers of the Central Union Telephone Company, is 
president of the engineering corporation of McMeen & 
Miller, of Chicago. Mr. Mil- 
ler, who is one of the best- 
known telephone engineers in 
the country, was born in Bos- 
ton Aug. 14, 1870. While he 
was still young his parents 
went to Washington, where 
he entered the Washington 
High School. From high 
school he entered Cornell 
University, taking the course 
in electrical engineering, 
from which he graduated in 
1893. During college vaca- 
tions he was employed at the 
Thomson-Houston works at 
Lynn, Mass. For two years 
after his graduation Mr. Mil- K. B. MILLER 

ler was employed as as- 
sistant examiner in the electrical division of the United 
States Patent Office at Washington, and from 1894 to 1896 
he had charge of telephone patent applications. Mr. Miller, 
an incorrect portrait of whom was published by mistake 
in the Dec. 5 number, is widely known as the author of 
"American Telephone Practice" and also collaborated with 
his partner, Mr. McMeen, on the "Telephony" series of 
papers on telephone engineering subjects. On leaving the 
service of the government, Mr. Miller first took employ- 
ment with the Westinghouso company, and from 1896 to 
1898 he acted as chief electrician of the Western Tele- 
phone Construction Company of Chicago, later becoming 
engineer for the Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Company 
of Chicago. Mr. Miller's work for the last ten years has 
been chiefly in the telephone field, although more recently 
his practice has become more diversified, including also 
street-railway, lighting and hydroelectric work. He is a 
member "f the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. 
the Engineers' Club of New York, the Engineers' Club of 
Chicago and the Union League Club of Chicago. 

January 2, 1915 



0. R. JONES 

Mr. Owen R. Jones, for the past twelve years chief elec- 
trician at the plant of the Youngstown (Ohio) Sheet & 
Tube Company, resigned re- 
cently to accept the position 
of electrical superintendent 
of the new open-hearth plant 
of the Youngstown Iron & 
Steel Company, now under 
construction at Lowellville. 
As an expression of their 
good will toward their for- 
mer chief, the members of 
the electrical department of 
the Youngstown Sheet & 
Tube Company presented 
Mr. Jones with a gold watch, 
chain and charm in addition 
to a fountain pen. Mr. 
Jones, who was at one time 
connected with the Youngs- 
town Gas & Electric Com- 
pany, was recently elected president of the Association of 
Iron & Steel Electrical Engineers. 

Mr. John Joseph Carty, chief engineer of the American 
Telephone & Telegraph Company and one of the foremost 
figures in telephone development in the world, was born in 
Cambridge, Mass., April 14, 1861. Because of difficulty 
with his eyesight he was 
obliged to forego a college 
training, and at the age of 
eighteen entered the old Bos- 
ton Exchange as a telephone 
operator. For thirty-five 
years he has been connected 
with the Bell system, and he 
has worked assiduously in 
behalf of its growth and de- 
velopment. In 1887 he was 
placed in charge of the cable 
department of the Western 
Electric Company in the 
East, with headquarters in 
New York City. He studied 
cable manufacture as well as 
cable laying and introduced 
many improvements in meth- 
ods. One of his engineering developments resulted in cut- 
ting the cost of cable manufacture in half. His work in 
this respect as well as what he did in Boston, where he de- 
signed and installed the first metallic-circuit multiple 
switchboard to go into regular service, afforded early proof 
of his ability to master any subject on which he put his 
mind. In each department of telephone work he found 
some field for improvement and then provided the im- 
provement. A short time after he took charge of the cable 
department of the Western Electric Company the switch- 
board deparment was also intrusted to him. Under his 
direction were installed most of the large switchboards of 
that period, among which was the original Cortlandt Street 
multiple board. He also made a number of important im- 
provements in switchboards, which have since become stand- 
ard equipment. Mr. Carty was the first to demonstrate 
practically how to operate two or more telephone circuits 
connected directly with a common battery. About 1888 he 
installed for the supply of operators' telephones common- 
battery systems in a number of central offices. From these 
early experiments has grown the modern system generally 
employed. While his work has been that of an engineer, 
Mr. Carty has followed wherever the path of research has 
led him in his work along the line of telephone improve- 
ments. The result of his investigation into the nature of 
the disturbances to which telephone lines are subject was 
set forth in a paper entitled "A New View of Telephone In- 
duction," which was read before the Electric Club, Nov. 
21, 1889. On March 17, 1891, Mr. Carty made additional 
contributions to the general knowledge of this subject in 
a paper read before the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers on "Inductive Disturbances in Telephone Cir- 
cuits," in which he explained for the first time why twist- 
ing or transposing telephone wires renders them free from 
inductive disturbances. When the Metropolitan Telephone 


& Telegraph Company (now the New York Telephone Com- 
pany) recognized the necessity for reorganizing its entire 
service Mr. Carty was called upon to undertake the task. 
In 1889 he reorganized all of the technical departments of 
the company, built up its staff and reconstructed the entire 
plant, converting it from overhead grounded circuits and 
series switchboard to metallic circuits placed underground 
and to the then new bridging switchboards. In carrying out 
this work he selected and trained a large staff of young 
men fresh from college, many of whom have since attained 
positions of prominence in the te.ephone field. In solving 
a problem presented by the New York Central Railroad Mr. 
Carty devised what is known ts the "bridging bell," where- 
by any number of stations might be placed upon a line 
without in any way impairing the transmission of speech. 
This made possible the farmers' telephone. For his work 
on the bridging bell Mr. Carty had conferred upon him 
the Edward Longstreth medal of merit by the Franklin 
Institute. Mr. Carty's work in connection with the devel- 
opment of the plant of the New York Telephone Company 
has been most successful and far-reaching in its conse- 
quences. To a large extent what he has done for the tele- 
phone in the United States has contributed to the pre-emi- 
nent standing which the American telephone industry holds 
in all foreign countries. In recognition of his achievement 
as an engineer and in view of the service he rendered the 
Japanese government he was decorated by the Emperor of 
Japan with the Order of the Rising Sun. More recently 
he was created a member of the Order of the Sacred Treas- 
ure by the Emperor of Japan. As chief engineer of the 
American Telephone & Telegraph Company, Mr. Carty is 
responsible for the standardizing of methods of construction 
and operation of the vast plants of that company, which 
extends into almost every community of the United States, 
and through its long-distance wires into Canada and Mexico 
At the meeting of the International Conference of Euro- 
pean Telephone and Telegraph Administrations, held at 
Paris in September, 1910, Mr. Carty was one of the invited 
guests, and he represented the United States in the pres- 
entation of a splendid review of the features of manual and 
automatic handling of telephone circuits and connections 
with an explanation of the ideas upon which the great en- 
gineering plans of the corporation with which he is con- 
nected are based. Mr. Carty is a fellow of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, a past-president of the 
New York Electrical Society, a member of the Franklin 
Institute, a member of the Society of Arts, an honorary 
member of the American Electro-Therapeutic Association, 
the Telephone Society of Philadelphia, the Telephone So- 
ciety of New England and the Telephone Society of New 
York. He belongs to the Engineers', Electric and Railroad 
clubs of New York and to the Baltusrol and Casino crabs 
of Short Hills, N. J. 

Mr. Paul B. Sawyer has resigned his position as vice- 
president and general manager of the Utah Power & Light 
Company of Salt Lake City. Mr. Sawyer has held the 
position as general manager of this company since its 
organization a little over two 
years ago, when the Electric 
Bond & Share Company ac- 
quired the control of many 
of the electrical properties 
in the State of Utah and in 
Southern Idaho and merged 
them to form the Utah 
Power & Light Company 
The task of welding together 
the numerous separate and 
/ 'n dissimilar properties with 

m it their great difference in 

operating conditions and com- 
" ¥ mercial policies and rates 

devolved largely upon Mr 
Sawyer, and the results 
- P. B. sawyer secured, considering the busi- 

ness and financial conditions 
which have obtained during this period, are a strong testi- 
monial to his forcefulness and ability. He resigned to 
accept a position in the organization of Mr. Harrison 
Williams, of New York City, with offices at 60 Broadway. 
Mr. Sawyer was born in Lafayette, Ind., on May 8, 1879, 



5 No l 

was graduated from Purdue University in 1900, and took 
a post-graduate course in electrical engineering at the 
-ami institution. He then entered the employ of the Des 
Moines (la.) Electric Company and worked his way up to 
the general managership, which he attained in 1907. On 
Jan. 1, 1912, Mr. .Sawyer became general manager of the 
Union Electric Company, of Dubuque, la., where he had 
charge of the street-railway and electric-service interests. 
He took an active interest in the affairs of the Iowa Elec- 
trical Association for several years and in 1912 was elected 
to the presidency of that body. Mr. C. E. Groesbeck has 
been appointed to succeed him 


Edwin H. Farr, chief electrician of the Northern Con- 
necticut Light & Power Coampny, Thompsonville, Conn., 
died at his home on Dec. 24 after a long illness. He had 
been engaged in local central-station work for twenty- 
four years and was a native of Bridgeburg, Pa. For a 
number of years he had held the position of superintendent 
of fire alarms in the Thompsonville fire district. 

John Jacob Myer, widely known in New England elec- 
trical circles as "Bill Myer," died suddenly on Dec. 13 of 
pneumonia at his apartments in Boston, Mass. Mr. Myer 
was born in Maryland about fifty years ago, and his early 
business experience included a term of service as the Texas 
representative of the Columbia Lamp Company. For the 
last nine years he had been New England sales representa- 
tive of the American Circular Loom Company, with head- 
pjarters at 45 Milk Street, Boston. He was unmarried. 
Funeral services were held on Dec. 15 at St. Cecilia's 
Church, Boston. 

Fred A. Nash, formerly president of the Omaha (Neb.) 
Electric Light & Power Company and president of the 
Citizens' Gas & Electric Company of Council Bluffs, died at 
his home in Omaha Dec. 11. Mr. Nash became president 
if the Thomson-Houston Electric Light Company in 1890 
and in 1903 became president of the successor company, the 
present Omaha Electric Light & Power Company. This 
position he held until Oct. 20 of this year, when he resigned 
because of ill health. He was elected chairman of the 
board of directors, and the presidency of the company was 
given to Gen. George H. Harries, whose headquarters are 
at Louisville, Ky. 

Charles Martin Hall, inventor of the electrolytic process 
for the manufacture of aluminum and vice-president of the 
Aluminum Company of America, died on Dec. 27 in Day- 
tona, Fla. Mr. Hall was born in Thompson, Ohio, Dec 6, 
1863, and was graduated 
from Oberlin College in 1885. 
He became interested in the 
manufacture of aluminum 
through an old textbook 
which told of its commercial 
possibilities if the cost of 
manufacture could be re- 
duced. At that time alum- 
inum was worth about $25 
per lb. He began his ex- 
periments in 1885, and a 
year later discovered the 
process which materially re- 
duced the cost of manufac- 
turing it and is now univer 
sally used. He began to 
produce aluminum in his own 
factory at Kensington, near 
Pittsburgh, later erecting larger factories at Niagara I 
Priority was conceded to the Hall patent in IS'.):;. Mr. Hall 
received the honorary degree of LL.D From Oberlin College 
in 1910, and the following year he wa - awarded the Sir 
William Perkin gold medal. He was a member of the 
University Club of New York, the University Club of 
Buffalo, the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, the Institution of Electrical Engineers at G 
Britain, the American Philosophical Society, the Franklin 
Institute of Philadelphia and the American Electrochemical 
Society. Mr. Hall made his home at Niagara Fall II 
was a bachelor. 


Corporate and Financial 

Fort Worth Power & Light Bonds. — Harris, Forbes & 
Company of New York are offering first mortgage 5 per 
cent gold bonds of the Fort Worth (Tex.) Power & Light 
Company, at 94. 

American Gas iV Electric Bonds. — Moyer & Company, of 
Philadelphia, Pa., are offering at a price to yield about 
6 per cent American Gas & Electric Company gold collateral 
trust 5 per cent bonds due Feb. 1, 2007. 

Comparative Worth of Public Utility Bonds. — E. F. Hut- 
ton & Company of New York have prepared an interesting 
booklet on the comparative worth of public utility bonds. 
Public utility bonds are compared with railroad, industrial 
and municipal bonds. 

Rockland Light & Power Bonds.— The Rockland (N. Y.) 
Light & Power Company has been authorized to use the 
proceeds from a sale of $100,000 of 5 per cent mortgage 
bonds approved in August, 1911, for improvements to its 
gas and electric service. The sale of the bonds will net 

Sidney Electric Authorized to Issue Securities. — The Pub 
lie Utilities Commission of Ohio has authorized the Sidney 
Electric Company to issue $42,500 common stock and $60,- 
000 of 6 per cent mortgage bonds at not less than 85. The 
proceeds are to be used for the acquisition of the Sidne\ 
Electric Light Company. 

Washington Water Power Dividend Reduced. — A quarterly 
dividend of 1% per cent has been declared on the stock of 
the Washington Water Power Company, Spokane, Wash., 
payable on Jan. 2, 1915. The quarterly dividends from 
April, 1911, to July, 1914, inclusive were 2 per cent and 
the dividend last October was 1% per cent. 

Western States Gas & Electric Notes. — William P. Bon 
bright & Company, of New York, and H. M. Byllesby & 
Company of Chicago are offering $588,500 of three-year 
6 per cent coupon notes of the Western States Gas & Elec- 
tric Company of California at 97 ! 4 and interest. The pro- 
ceeds will be used to retire floating debt and for additional 

Texas Power & Light Bond Offering. — Harris, Forbes & 
Company of New York are offering at 91 Texas Power & 
Light Company first mortgage 5 per cent gold bonds. The 
mortgage provides for a sinking fund of the following 
amounts: 1915 to 1917 inclusive, 1 per cent of the bonds 
outstanding; 1918 to 1920 inclusive. 1% per cent, and 192! 
to 1936, 2 per cent. 

Hannawa Falls Water-Power Authorized to Issue Bonds. 
— The New York Public Service Commission, Second Dis- 
trict, has approved an issue of the 5 per cent first and 
refunding mortgage collateral trust thirty-year gold bonds 
of the Hannawa Falls Water Power Company used for the 
purchase of machinery and equipment. The bonds are to tie 
sold at not less than 80 and should net $44,880. 

Midland Counties Public Service Corporation to Renew 
Notes. — The California Railroad Commission has issued a 
supplemental order authorizing the Midland Counties Pub- 
lic "Service Corporation to renew two notes held by the 
United States Aluminum Company for $78,000 at not to ex 
ceed 7 per cent interest. The company was previously given 
permission to renew these notes at 6 per cent. 

Tulare County Power Reduced Stock Liability. — By buy 
ing 1500 shares of its common stock which had been de- 
linquent in assessment payment, the Tulare County (Cal.) 
Power Company has reduced its stock liability to approxi 
mately $400,000. The fixed capital of the company as passed 
upon by the California Commission is now $767,579. An 
issue of $1,000,000 bonds has been authorized, and when 
financial conditions improve $500,000 will be sold. The 
proceeds from this sale will be us,.,! for the payment of 
current obligations, for extensions and improvements. 

United Illuminating New Financing. — The United Illunn 
nating Company of New Haven. Conn., is offering to stock 

holders of record on Dec. II. 1914, the right to subscribe fd 
6000 shares of stock at par, at the rate of one new share 
for every three and one-half now held by them. The right 
in subscribe "ill expire at the close of business on Jan. 15 
1916, Payment is to be as follows: $20 per share on Feb 
15, June 16 and Oct 16, 1916, and April 15 and Oct. 15. I91fi 




The new stock is to participate in dividends on Jan. 15, 
in] 7, and thereafter. 

New England Power Note Offering. — Baker, Ayling & 
Company of Boston, Mass., are offering $600,000 New Eng- 
land Power Company's 6 per cent guaranteed gold coupon 
three-year notes, dated Nov. 1, 1914, and due Nov. 1, 1917. 
These notes are part of an authorized issue of $700,000, and 
the proceeds will be used to reimburse the company for im- 
provements, additions and extensions and also for the 
acquirement of 6 per cent notes of allied companies, with 
which the company is closely affiliated in the generation and 
distribution of electrical energy. The notes are being of- 
fered at 97% and interest. 

Valley Power Company Bonds. — L. H. Cook & Company, 
of New York, have underwritten and are offering for sale 
$200,000 of Valley Power Company 6 per cent first mort- 
gage sinking-fund gold bonds at 87 and interest. The com- 
pany owns a hydroelectric plant on the Shenandoah River, 
Virginia, and expects to be able to install machinery within 
a month or two after the frost is over. The company has 
many contracts in this region, which contains large copper 
mines, hardwood forests and large quarries. The capital 
stock of the company is $100,000, and it is owned by Mr. 

E. J. Thayer, of J. E. Kerr & Company, Ltd. 
International Power Assets. — The probable assets of the 

International Power Company of New Jersey were given 
as $200,000 in an involuntary petition in bankruptcy filed 
against the company in the United States District Court. 
The creditor is Mr. Alfred M. Hoadley, on an assigned 
claim by Mr. Joseph H. Hoadley, formerly president of the 
company, for $55,465. On Dec. 11 Mr. Wilbur F. Sadler, 
Jr., was appointed receiver in equity. Notwithstanding that 
an appeal has been taken to the Court of Appeals against 
the appointment of a receiver, Chancellor Walker has issued 
an order permitting the receiver to continue winding up the 
affairs except as to the sale of the company's properties. 

East St. Louis & Suburban Note Issue. — Smith, Moore & 
Company, St. Louis, Mo., are offering $450,000 East St. 
Louis (111.) & Suburban Company's one-year 6 per cent 
collateral gold notes, dated Dec. 15, 1914, at 100 and in- 
terest. The proceeds will reimburse the company for money 
advanced to the East St. Louis (111.) Light & Power Com- 
pany and spent by it in the construction of a large power 
house on the Mississippi River just above Alton, 111., and a 
high-tension transmission line from that point to East St. 
Louis. The growing demand for electricity has necessitated 
the purchase of energy generated at Keokuk. The notes 
are secured by the deposit of $600,000 East St. Louis Light 
& Power Company first mortgage 5 per cent gold bonds. 

Interstate Public Service Corporation Purchases Proper- 
ties. — The Interstate Public Service Corporation of Dela- 
ware has recently purchased the electric light and power 
properties at Kane, Pa., Johnsonburg, Pa., and Ridgway, 
Pa. Mr. J. G. Kaelber, president of the company, states 
that negotiations are pending for the acquisition of several 
other properties. The total capital stock as authorized is 
$2,000,000, of which $1,500,00 is common stock and $500,000 
preferred stock. Only $750,000 of the common stock is 
authorized to be issued at this time. The officers of the 
company are Messrs. J. George Kaelber, president; Charles 
W. Smith, vice-president; F. W. Zoller, treasurer, and Carl 

F. W. Kaelber, secretary. In addition to the officers, Messrs. 
T. J. Swanton of Rochester, N. Y., and Selyn S. Blake of 
Providence, R. I., are members of the board of directors. 

Nevada-California Electric Corporation. — Mr. Delos A. 
Chappell, president of the Nevada-California Power Com- 
pany, writes that "The Nevada-California Electric Corpora- 
tion, whose charter was filed recently in Delaware, is an 
organization primarily for the purpose of refinancing the 
following companies: The Nevada-California Power Com- 
pany of Denver, Col.; the Southern Sierras Power Com- 
pany of Denver, Col.; the Corona (Cal.) Gas & Electric 
Light Company, Bishop (Cal.) Light & Power Company, 
Hillside Water Company, and Interstate Telegraph Com- 
pany. Eventually all of the bonds and all of the stocks 
of all of these companies will be sold to the Nevada-Cali- 
fornia Electric Corporation, which in turn will issue its first 
lien obligations, with all of the underlying bonds and stocks 
of these companies as security. Only a small portion of 
the holding company's bonds will be offered for sale during 
the coming year." 

Westinghouse Companies to Be Merged. — Stockholders 
of the Westinghouse Machine Company have been notified 
that they may exchange their holdings until Jan. 26, 1915, 
for stock of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacuring 
Company on the basis of three shares of the machine com- 
pany's stock for one share of the electric company stock. 
The step was brought about by Messrs. Charles H. Terry, 
Walter D. Uptegraff and H. Herman Westinghouse, execu- 
tors of the estate of the late George Westinghouse, who of- 
fered their holdings in the machine company to the electric 
company on the basis stated, provided that the other stock- 
holders should receive the same permission. The executors 
of the Westinghouse estate took this step because the busi- 
ness of the machine company could not be carried on profit- 
ably without a substantial amount of additional capital, 
which it has been impracticable to procure under present 
financial conditions and the large mortgage debt of the 
compafiy. The outstanding stock of the machine company 
amounts to $7,500,000, which if all exchanged would increase 
the outstanding stock of the electric company from $36,700,- 
000 to $39,200,000. The outstanding funded debt of the 
machine company is approximately equal to its outstanding 

German Company's Ante-Bellum Report. — The annual re 
port of the Allgemeine Elektricitats Gesellschaft covering 
the year ended June 30, 1914, states that, despite the de- 
pressing conditions that existed for some time previous to 
the war, the company did a larger business than in the 
previous year. On account of the war, however, the busi- 
ness of the company has already been seriously affected, 
and in some foreign countries almost entirely destroyed — 
especially Argentina, Mexico and South Africa. In view 
of the foregoing considerations, the directors decided that 
out of the net earnings of $4,723,160 there should be paid 
a dividend of only 10 per cent on the capitalization of 
$38,750,000. The output in machinery and transformers 
comprised 123,162 pieces with a combined rating of 1,840,- 
273 kw. This compared with 122,456 pieces and 1,973,987 
kw for the previous year. The rated capacity of turbines 
increased from 569,908 kw to 564,033 kw, the largest unit 
having a 22,500-kva capacity. The business in aeroplane 
and searchlamp apparatus was exceptionally good. The 
company found it necessary to install more equipment for 
the manufacture of its insulating material. Progress is 
also reported in the manufacture of the half-watt lamp, 
especially in smaller sizes. The company's business in self- 
propelled cars is now devoted almost exclusively to military 
vehicles. Among the contracts in hand are transmission 
lines for 50,000 volts, 80,000 volts and even 100,000 volts 

New Company's Bond Offer. — N. M. Seabrease & Com- 
pany of Philadelphia, Pa., are offering $400,000 Logan 
County Light & Power Company first mortgage 6 per cent 
sinking fund gold bonds. The company, which was incor- 
porated recently in West Virginia, to supply energy to coal 
mines in Logan County, has already contracts for over 6000 
hp. It has also taken over the property of the Logan Light 
Company and will supply energy to a population estimated 
at 28,000. The authorized capitalization of the new com- 
pany is $3,500,000, of which $1,650,000 is non-outstanding, 
including the present bond issue; $100,000 additional bonds 
are held in the treasury and can be issued when needed 
only after the plant is completed and in successful opera- 
tion. The remaining $1,500,000 bonds can be issued only at 
85 per cent of the actual cost of necessary additions and 
extensions when the net earnings for the preceding twelve 
months have been at least one and one-half times the 
fixed charges on bonds issued and to be issued. Seven 
per cent preferred stock to the amount of $2,500,000 which 
becomes cumulative after Sept. 1, 1915, has been sold for 
cash. From Nov. 1, 1917, to Nov. 1, 1925, a sinking fund 
will be maintained equal to 1% per cent of the outstanding 
bonds, and from Nov. 1, 1925, to Nov. 1, 1934, the amount 
will be 2 per cent. All bonds purchased or drawn for the 
sinking fund will be kept alive for the benefit of the fund 
This is in addition to a reserve fund of 2 per cent of the 
gross income per annum commencing Oct. 1, 1915, kept 
separate from reserve and depreciation charges and avail- 
able only for emergencies. The General Utilities & Operat- 
ing Company of Baltimore, Md. ( which controls the Logan 
County Light & Power Company through ownership of 
common stock, has agreed that the plant should be in suc- 
cessful operation by Nov. 1, 1915. 



Vol. 65. No. i 

Manufacturing and Industrial 

Ernest J. Andrews. Chicago, 111., patent attorney, has 
changed his address from 539 Monadnock Block to 1616 
Monadnock Block. 

C. G. Robin. 4s Warren Street, New York, dealer in elec- 
trical specialties, is the name of the firm formerly known 
as Charles G. Robinowitch. 

The Electric Tachometer Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 
has transferred its offices from Board and Spring Garden 
Streets to the Perry Building. The factory of the company 
is at 435 North Broad Street. 

The Keystone Electrical Instrument Company, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., has changed its address from Ninth Street and 
Montgomery Avenue to Wayne Avenue and Windrim 

The Riley Electric Company, Kansas City, Mo., has 
opened offices at 503 Midland Building. F. H. M. Riley, 
formerly with the Kansas City Electric Light Company, is 
the founder of the company. 

Mr. E. E. Wallace, for the past five years in charge of 
the electric division of the service department, New Eng- 
land district, General Vehicle Company, has been promoted 
to a position in the sales department. 

The American Manufacturers' Agency, Inc., Ill West 
Monroe Street, Chicago, of which William H. McKinlock 
is president, has taken the agency for the Burnley Battery 
& Manufacturing Company, Northeast, Pa., manufacturer 
of soldering salts, sticks and paste. 

Tool-Manufacturing Business Picking Up. — T. J. Cope, 
of Philadelphia, Pa., manufacturer of underground electrical 
construction tools, reports that during the past sixty days 
business has materially improved, and judging from inquir- 
ies being received he feels that the coming year is going 
to be a good one from every standpoint. 

The Electric Supply Company, Worcester, Mass., has been 
formed to do a jobbing business and is connected with the 
C. C. Coghlin-Wilson Electric Company, which is engaged 
in the contracting business. The officers of the Electric 
Supply Company are as follows: C. C. Coghlin, president; 
W. R. McLoughlin, vice-president; A. W. Wilson, clerk; E. F. 
Coghlin, treasurer. 

Electric Furnaces for Making Steel. — The United Steel 
Company, Canton, Ohio, manufacturer of vanadium steel 
for automobile parts, has installed in its plant two 6-ton 
electric furnaces for the making of steel. Six hours are 
required for a single charge and the furnaces are operated 
continuously. Each unit takes 1000 kw at the start of a 
run and 600 kw after the metal has melted. Energy is 
being obtained from the Canton Electric Company. 

Arc-Lamp Controllers for Panama Exposition. — Eight 
controllers for motion-picture arc lamps have been ordered 
from the Speed Controller Company, 257 William Street, 
New York, for use at the Panama-Pacific Exposition. The 
controller was described in the Electrical World of Oct. 
24, 1914. This device has been meeting with considerable 
success and is being used in a number of the motion-picture 
theaters in New York City and vicinity. Among these are 
the Strand Theater, the Vitagraph Theater and the Broad- 
way Theater. 

Business in Recording Instruments Good. — The Roller- 
Smith Company, 203 Broadway, New York, is noting quite 
a demand for its recording meters. The business in its 
automobile instruments is especially good, and on account 
of the elimination of German competition the company's 
wireless apparatus is also faring well. The Roller-Smith 
Company is agent for llartman & Braun, Frankfort, Gel 
many, who manufacture vibrating-reed frequency mi 
variation alarm systems and relays. Shipments have beer 
irregular for obvious reasons, but an improvement in this 
respect is expected in the future. 

The Marsden Electric Company, 67 Center Street, Rul 
land, Vt., recently formed, with principal office at Rutland 
and branch v, Yt., and Fair Haven. Vt., 

is engaged in a general wiring business and the sale of 
fixtures, lamps and appliances, covering the territory in and 

about Rutland. Mr. A. B. Marsden is president of the con- 
cern, Mr. L. C. Davis vice-president, and Mr. R. L. Marsden 
secretary and treasurer. Mr. A. B. Marsden has been super- 
intendent of the Manchester Light & Power Company at 
Manchester, Vt., for the past ten years, and Mr. Davis has 
been engaged in the wiring business at Manchester for a 
similar period. 

Manufacturer of Flexible Conduit Working Day and 
Night. — The Tubular Woven Fabric Company, Pawtucket, 
R. I., maker of a non-metallic flexible conduit called "dura- 
duct," it is reported, is working its plant several nights a 
week to keep up with orders. The company is shipping the 
conduit in a special case, which was described in the Elec- 
trical World of May 30, 1914, page 1273. This method of 
making shipments, it is claimed, has been very successful 
and has helped materially to increase the company's busi- 
ness. The conduit is of woven fabric, which is manufac- 
tured with looms made by the Chernack Manufacturing 
Company, of Pawtucket. 

Wide Usage for Commutator Truing Device. — Jordan 
Brothers, Inc., 74 Beekman Street, New York, manufac- 
turers of a device for truing commutators which does not 
necessitate the removal of the armature from the generator 
or motor, report a wide demand for this device. Among 
the companies using it are the following: The Hartford 
(Conn.) Electric Light Company, the Northern Ohio Trac- 
tion & Light Company, Akron, Ohio; the Locomobile Com- 
pany of America, Bridgeport, Conn.; the Amicable Life In- 
surance Company, Waco, Tex.; the Dayton (Ohio) Power 
& Light Company, the Tennessee Coal & Iron Railroad 
Company, the Long Island Railroad Company, the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company, and the New York Central 
& Hudson River Railroad Company. Besides selling the 
machine, Jordan Brothers, Inc., use it to repair commuta- 
tors for various companies. This repair business, espe- 
cially in New York City, is quite extensive. Recently the 
concern trued the commutators of six motors used in one 
of the New York post offices. 

Prepared to Make Gas Mantles on Large Scale. — As was 

reported in these columns some time ago, because of the 
cutting off of imports from Germany as a result of the 
European war, the gas-mantle industry has been seriously 
affected. Prior to Aug. 1, the Lindsay Light Company, 
Chicago, 111., manufacturer of gas mantles, was importing 
its thorium nitrate and cerium nitrate from Germany, but 
since that time it has undertaken to make the above 
nitrates itself from monazite sand imported from Brazil. 
The company is also securing from China ramie or China 
grass, which is used in the manufacture of inverted mantles. 
This product was formerly degummed, spun and twisted in 
Germany; these processes, however, are now being per- 
formed in the United States. President C. R. Lindsay as- 
serts that his company is prepared to make more than 15,- 
000,000 of the 70,000,000 mantles used annually in this 
country. The Lindsay Light Company is also manufactur- 
ing inverted magnesia mantle rings and fire-polished air- 
hole glassware, which were formerly imported. 

Orders for Turbine Units and Accessories. — The Westing- 
house Machine Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa., has recently 
received a number of important contracts, among them be- 
ing one for two 20,000-kw turbine units and two large sur- 
face condensers from the United Electric Light & Power 
Company, New York. Two large surface condensers were 
also recently sold to the Public Service Corporation of New 
Jersey, Newark, N. J. A 20,000-kw unit made by the West- 
inghouse company has just been installed in a station of 
the Pennsylvania Tunnel & Terminal Railroad Company at 
Long Island City, N. Y. Another turbine unit of the same 
rating, together with condenser equipment, will shortly In- 
installed in the Edison Electric Illuminating Company 1 
station at Bay Ridge, N. Y. Three 30,000-kw turbo-genera- 
tor units manufactured by the Westinghouse company are 
now being installed for the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company, New York, one of which will be ready for service 
in a lew days. The business in medium-sized turbines and 
condensers is fair considering general conditions. The 
\\ i iinghouse Machine Company is noting a slight improve- 
ment in the industrial situation and is expecting to see bet- 
ter times in the near future. 

January 2, 1915 



Mr. R. O. Bright, who has been appointed president of 
the American Rotary Valve Company, Anderson, Ind.. 
manufacturer of Jenny type motors and stationary vacuum- 
cleaning machines, was formerly general sales manager 
of the Root & Vandervoort Engineering Company, Moline, 
111., having been appointed to that position after first serv- 
ing as manager of the company's Minneapolis office. From 
1902 to 1908 Mr. Bright was associated with the Racine- 
Sattley Company and with its predecessor, the Racine 
Wagon & Carriage Company, beginning with shop experi- 
ence, followed by advertising and sales work. From 190G 
to 1908 he acted as assistant to the sales manager of the 
central district. 

Mr. Francis V. McGinness, sales engineer of the Edison 
Storage Battery Company, Orange, N. J., has been ap- 
pointed assistant manager of the railway department, 
taking the position of Mr. William F. Bauer, who was re- 
cently made manager of the company's Chicago office. Mr. 
McGinness is a graduate of Columbia University's Schools 
of Applied Science, class of 1910, and before graduation 
had considerable practical experience with the New York 
& New Jersey Telephone Company. After a few months 
in the engineering department of the New York & Queens 
Electric Light & Power Company, Long Island City, he 
joined the sales force of the Edison Storage Battery Com- 
pany. For the past two years he has been identified with 
the railway department, where he has formed many friend- 
ships with car-lighting engineers. 

Riley Stoker Test in Toronto. — In a test made recently 
at the Scott Street steam station of the Toronto Electric 
Light Company, at Toronto, Can., a 554-hp Babcock & 
Wilcox boiler, equipped with a Riley stoker, was brought 
up to 354 per cent of its rating in seven minutes. The plant 
is used as a reserve for hydroelectric plants at Niagara 
Falls. The station contains four 554-hp Babcock & Wilcox 
boilers, each of which is equipped with a six-retort Riley 
self dumping underfeed stoker. Before starting the test 
the boiler was on a live bank, that is, the boiler pressure 
was just below the normal pressure of 150 lb. per sq. in., 
and sufficient coal was being fed to maintain this condi- 
tion. The steam pressure at the start of the test was 5 lb. 
per sq. in. below normal. The load on the boilers was 
figured from the number of kilowatts recorded at the 
switchboard. Five minutes after the test began the output 
was 900 kw, which was equivalent to 95 per cent of boiler 
rating. A few seconds later the output was 1700 kw, 
which was equivalent to 201 per cent of boiler rating. At 
seven minutes after the stoker and fan started the output 
was 3000 kw, or 354 per cent of boiler rating. 

Orders for Electrical Apparatus. — The following orders 
have recently been received by the Westinghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa.: The city 
of Buffalo, for the Massachusetts Avenue pumping station, 
one 125-kva motor-generator set and one 100-kw, 125-volt 
direct-current turbo-generator set with one switchboard; 
the Central New York Gas & Electric Company, for ship- 
ment to Geneva, N. Y., three 1000-kva, sixty-cycle oil- 
insulated, self-cooled outdoor transformers, three 165-kva, 
sixty-cycle, oil-insulated, self-cooled transformers, one 500- 
kw rotary converter, together with switchboard; the Hock- 
ing Sunday Creek Traction Company, for shipment to 
Nelsonville, Ohio, one 400-kw, 1200-volt rotary-converter set 
consisting of two machines on common bedplates, each hav- 
ing a rating of 200 kw, and three 135-kva oil-insulated, self- 
cooled transformers with one switchboard; the Steubenville 
& East Liverpool Railway & Light Company, for shipment 
to Steubenville, Ohio, one outdoor transformer substation 
consisting of two 1500-kva oil-insulated, water-cooled, three- 
phase, sixty-cycle outdoor radiator-type transformers, one 
set steel work and tow T ers, and outdoor switching equip- 
ment. For the Steubenville substation of the Steubenville 
& East Liverpool Railway & Light Company orders have 
been received for three 500-kva transformers, six 24-kva, 
single-phase automatic induction regulators with accesso- 
ries, one 500-kw, sixty-cycle six-phase rotary converter, 
one 550-kva, sixty-cycle, three-phase oil-insulated, self- 
cooled transformer, and two 330-kva, three-phase, sixty- 
cycle oil-insulated, self-cooled transformers with switching 
apparatus. For the latter company's substation at Toronto, 
Ohio, two 24-kva automatic induction feeder voltage regula- 
tors with accessories and one switchboard have been ordered. 

New Industrial Companies 

The Maximum Power Transmission Company, of Port- 
land, Maine, has been chartered with a capital stock of 
$25,000 to manufacture and deal in motor cars, trucks, trac- 
tion engines, etc. A. F. Jones is president, and T. L. Cro- 
teau, treasurer, both of Portland. 

The Ross Electro-Therapeutic Manufacturing Company, 
of New York, N. Y., has been incorporated by S. B. Hunck- 
ley, C. M. Nichols and W. Ford, of New York, N. Y. The 
company is capitalized at $25,000 and proposes to manu- 
facture electro-therapeutic appliances, etc. 

The U-H Magneto Company, of Harrington Park, N. J., 
has been incorporated with a capital stock of $100,000 to 
manufacture magnetos, machinery, etc. The incorporators 
are C. Bergner, of Harrington Park; J. Scherer, of West 
Norwood, and E. Sandman, of New York, N. Y. 

The A. W. R. Electric Manufacturing Company, of New 
York, N. Y., has been incorporated with a capital stock of 
$100,000 for the purpose of manufacturing all kinds of elec- 
trical designs. The incorporators are A. Roesener, M. Roes- 
ener, of New York, N. Y., a-nd W. H. Bauer, of Danton, N. Y. 
The Tubrim Manufacturing Company, of New York, 
N. Y., has been incorporated with a capital stock of $50,000 
for the purpose of manufacturing hardware, electric cut-out 
boxes, machinery, motors, etc. The incorporators are L. 
B. Brodsky, D. Greenbaum, of Brooklyn, and L. R. Feine, 
of the Bronx. 

The Engineering Products Company, of New York, N. Y., 
has been incorporated with a capital stock of $12,000 by 
G. Tiernan, R. G. Redlefsen and F. H. Parcells. The com- 
pany proposes to manufacture all kinds of electrical ma- 
chinery, foundry and factory supplies, etc. Beardsley, Hem- 
mens & Taylor, 50 Wall Street, are attorneys. 

The Edward S. Engel Company, of New York, N. Y., has 
been incorporated with a capital stock of $2,000 to manu- 
facture metal articles and to carry on an electrical and 
mechanical engineering business. The incorporators are E. 
E. Engel W. Kerruisch and Meyer Liebman; Gettner, Simon 
& Asher, 299 Broadway, New York, N. Y., are attorneys. 

The Storms Electric Car Company, of Detroit, Mich., has 
been organized with a capital stock of $5,000 for the pur- 
pose of manufacturing a low-priced electric automobile de- 
signed by William E. Storms, who is president and manager 
of the company. Ferdinand H. Zillisch, of Milwaukee, Wis., 
is vice-president, and Fred T. King is secretary and treas- 

The Electro Chemico Corporation has filed articles of in- 
corporation under the laws of the State of Delaware. The 
company is capitalized at $5,000,000 and proposes to carry 
on the business of purification and sterilization of water, 
sewage and other substances. The incorporators are W. 
J. Maloney, H. E. Latter and O. J. Reichard, of Wilming- 
ton, Del. 

The Van Vechten Machine Company, of New York, N. Y.. 
has been incorporated with a capital stock of $10,000 by W. 
Martin, George Satler and E. J. Coughlan. The company 
proposes to manufacture mill supplies, machinery and to 
do a general contracting and mechanical and electrical engi- 
neering business. Hunt, Hill & Betts, 165 Broadway, are 

The Julian-Beggs Signal Company, of Portland, Maine, 
has been chartered with a capital stock of $10,000,000 for 
the purpose of manufacturing and dealing in mechanical, 
electrical, pneumatic, automatic or any mode of signaling, 
train-controlling and safety appliances for railroads. A. F. 
Jones is president of the company and T. L. Croteau is 
treasurer, both of Portland. 

The Kentucky Revivo Battery Company, of Louisville, Ky.. 
was recently organized with a capital stock of $200,000 and 
will manufacture the "Revivo" battery under license of the 
Cook Railway Signal Company of Denver, Col. The com- 
pany intends to distribute its products in Indiana, Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas and Florida. R. 
M. Kelly, Jr., is president of the company, O. M. Billing- 
vice-president and J. T. Guthright secretary and treasurer. 
The directorate includes the three above officers and J. C. 
Paker and C. H. Parker. 


Vol. 65, No. 1 

Trade Publications 

Toaster Stove. — "Triangle Lektrik Toaster Stove" is the 
title of a folder sent out by the Western Electric Company, 
New York. 

Boiler-Tube Cleaners.— The Lagonda Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Springfield, Ohio, has recently issued a bulletin 
entitled "Lagonda Boiler Tube Cleaners." 

Insulating Joints. — The Yost Electric Manufacturing 
Company, Toledo, Ohio, has prepared a booklet which 
describes several types of insulating joints. 

Electric Washer. — The Grinnell Washing Machine Com 
pany, Grinnell, la., is sending out a folder which describes 
and illustrates some of its latest types of washers. 

Automobile Signal Lamp. — The Auto Signalite Company, 
735 Seventh Avenue, New York, has issued a booklet de- 
scribing its combination tail-lamp and signal lamp. 

Historical Outline. — "Thirty Years of Progress" is the 
subject of an attractively illustrated book being sent out 
by Pawling & Harnischfeger Company, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Nitrogen-Filled Automobile Lamps. — Bulletin No. 5, 
issued by the H. J. Jaeger Company, Hoboken, N. J., con- 
tains information on a nitrogen-filled automobile headlamp. 

Electric Crane Trolley. — The Northern Engineering 
Works, Detroit, Mich., are sending out an illustrated folder 
which contains information on its type "E" electric crane 

Hair Drier. — Bulletin No. 12-C issued by the Victor Elec- 
tric Company, Jackson Boulevard and Robey Street, Chi- 
cago, 111., contains information on an electrically operated 
hair drier. 

Portable Electric Drills. — The Standard Electric Tool 
Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, has recently issued a folder 
which describes and illustrates several types of electrically 
operated drills. 

Rectifier for Motion-Picture Service. — "For Better Pro- 
jection" is the title of Folder No. 4205-A, which describes 
the Westinghouse-Cooper Hewitt rectifiers for moving- 
picture service. 

Cranes.— Bulletins No. 500, No. 503, No. 504, No. 505, 
Mo. 506, recently issued by Maris Brothers, Philadelphia, 
Pa., contain information on electrically operated and hand- 
operated cranes. 

Electric Stoves. — The Standard Electric Stove Company, 
Toledo, Ohio, is sending out an illustrated catalog containing 
illustrations and descriptions of electric ranges and other 
coking equipment. 

Color-Matching Outfit. — Apparatus consisting of a conical 
hood, a colored-glass screen and an arc lamp is described 
in a folder being sent out by the General Electric Company, 
Schenectady, N. Y. 

Watt-Hour Meters. — Folder No. 4292, published by the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, East 
Pittsburgh, Pa., contains information on and illustrations 
if watt-hour meters. 

Large-Sized Electric Washer. — The Henrici Laundry Ma- 
chinery Company, Boston, Mass., has published a folder 
which describes its electric washer designed for use in 
laundries and hotels. 

Automobile Lighting Generator. — The Carlton Company, 
170 Summer Street, Boston, Mass., has issued a leaflet 
describing its No. 68 generator equipped with "porcupine 
drive," as it is called. 

Motor-Generator Sets. — Bulletin No. 1090 issued by the 
Mlia-Chalmera Manufacturing Company, Milwaukee, W i . 

una information on and illustrations of variou 
of motor-generator sets. 

Lightning Arresters. — Bulletin No. 45,602 sent out by 
the General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., con- 
tains information on and illustrations of lightning at 
ers for aeries-lighting eircuil . 

Mtachmenl for Pull Sockets. -The Empire Engii ring & 

tnpany, 227 Fulton Street, New York, has pub 
lished a leaflet containing information on a pull socket at 
tachment which lift< the chain and train off the 


Lighting Fixtures.— -Bulletin No. 23 sent out by the Faries 
Manufacturing Company, Decatur, 111., lists a number of fix- 
tures for nitrogen-filled lamps. 

Time Switches. — The Empire Engineering & Supply Com- 
pany, 227 Fulton Street, New York, has issued a bulletin de- 
rriptive of its automatic time switches. 

Battery Lamp Attachment. — The Burchwell Manufactur- 
ing Company, St. Louis, Mo., has issued a leaflet which de- 
scribes a lamp which can be fastened to an ordinary dry cell. 

High-Frequency Generators. — The Eastern Electric Com- 
pany, 21 Pine Street, San Francisco, Cal., has issued a book- 
let which describes and illustrates several types of high-fre- 
quency machines. 

Electrical Devices for Automobiles. — The Interstate Elec- 
tric Company, New Orleans, La., is sending out a booklet 
which contains descriptions of an electric steer warmer and 
an electrically heated manifold plug. 

Electric Mine Lamp. — The Hirsch Electric Mine Lamp 
Company, 314 North Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Pa., has 
published several folders which describe and illustrate its 
miner's "safety" lamp and hand lamp. 

Alternating-Current Motors. — Pocket Catalog No. 11, 
published by the Advance Electric Company, St. Louis, 
Mo., contains information on alternating-current motors 
varying in rating from 0.125 hp to 7.5 hp. 

Electric Water Heater. — "Boiling Hot Water Instantly" is 
the subject of a leaflet recently issued by the Mosteller Nov- 
elty Company, 229 West Illinois Street, Chicago, 111., which 
contains information on an electric water heater. 

Small Motors. — A folder designated as No. 21 and en- 
titled "The Advantages of Westinghouse Electric Small 
Motors" has just been issued by the Westinghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Electric Trucks. — "Truck Talk" is the subject of Catalog 
No. 5, recently issued by the General Motors Truck Com- 
pany, Pontiac, Mich, which contains information on a num- 
ber of different types of electrically operated trucks. 

Conduit Boxes and Fittings. — Pamphlet No. 442, issued 
by the Sprague Electric Works of the General Electric 
Company, 527 West Thirty-fourth Street, contains informa- 
tion on various types of conduit boxes and accessory 

Transportation with Electric Vehicles. — "Efficient Motor 
Transportation with G.V. Electrics" is the title of an at- 
tractively illustrated thirty-two-page catalog recently pub- 
lished by the General Vehicle Company, Long Island City, 
New York. 

Bakers' and Confectioners' Machinery. — "Motor-Driven 
Bakers' and Confectioners' Machinery" is the title of Cata- 
log 3002-A, Section 3141, recently published by the West 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, East Pitts 
burgh, Pa. 

Instrument Manufacturers' Plant. — The Brown Instru 
ment Company and the Keystone Electrical Instrument 
Company, Philadelphia, Pa., have recently issued a folder 
containing illustrations of their new plant at Wayne June 
tion, Philadelphia. 

Electric Automobiles. — "Through Sixty Years" is the sub 
ject of an attractively illustrated catalog issued by the 
Rauch & Lang Carriage Company, 2180 West Twenty-fifth 
Street, Cleveland, Ohio, which contains information on 
several electrically operated passenger cars. 

Electrical Apparatus. — The Western Electric Company, 
New York, has recently issued folders which contain in 
formation on adjustable telephone brackets, "emeralite" 
reading lamps, "all nite lite" miniature transformers, two 
ball, [amp-cord adjusters and enameled sheet-steel cut-out 

Electrical Apparatus. — The following publications have 
recently been issued by the Westinghouse Klectrtc & Man- 
ufacturing Company, Pittsburgh, Pa.: Leaflet No. 2485-A. 
ii lie |n. mi. turbines; Leaflet No. 3523, on a commit 
tating-pole motor designated as No. 328; Leaflet No. 3519-A. 
on direct current motors for group drive of sewing ma- 
chines; Leaflet No. 3781, on large slip-ring induction mo 
tin ; Leaflet No. 3707, on direct current motors for driving 
job printing presses, and Leaflet No. :'.7S3. on lightning 

protection for cars. 



Construction News 

New England 

BANGoK, MAINE. — Contracts have been 
awarded by the Water Board for two ver- 
tical 125-hp turbine waterwheels and a gen- 
erator, to be installed at the pumping sta- 
tion. The S. Morgan Smith Co., of York, 
Pa., was awarded the contract for turbines 
and the General Electric Co. will furnish 
the electrical equipment, including gener- 
ator, switchboard, wiring, etc. 

BROOKFIELD, CONN. — A movement has 
been started to secure electrical service for 
Brookfield. It is proposed to ask the New 
Milford El. Lt. Co. to extend its transmis- 
sion lines to furnish electricity here. 

Middle Atlantic 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. — The Interstate 
Pub. Ser. Corpn, Granite Building, Roches- 
ter, has recently purchased the electric 
properties in Kane, Pa., Johnsonburg, Pa., 
and Ridgway, Pa., and negotiations are 
pending for the acquisition of several other 
properties. The corporation contemplates 
large extensions to the plants as soon as 
the weather permits, including the erection 
of transmission lines, etc. J. George Kael- 
ber is president and Charles W. Smith is 
vice-president and treasurer, both of 

UTICA, N. Y. — The Public Service Com- 
mission has granted the Utica Gas & El. 
Co. permission to issue $500,000 in bonds, to 
be sold at not less than 90, to provide for 
extensions and improvements. 

will be received by William B. Osgood 
Field, president of the board of managers 
of the New York State Training School for 
Boys, No. 2 West Forty-fifth Street, New 
York, until Jan. 12 for construction, heating, 
plumbing and electric work for seven cot- 
tages ; for construction work of power 
house and coal pocket (this does not in- 
clude boiler plant, plumbing or electric 
work) and for water supply system for the 
New State Training School for Boys. Y'ork- 
town Heights. Drawings and specifications 
may be consulted at the New Y'ork office of 
the Department of Architecture, Room 12 2 4, 
Woolworth Building, and at the Department 
of Architecture, Capitol, Albany. Drawings 
and specifications and blank forms of pro- 
posals may be obtained at the Department 
of Architecture, Capitol, Albany, for which 
a deposit of $10 will be required, to be re- 
funded upon return of same. 

FRANCONIA, PA. — Application has been 
made to Governor Tener by H. R. Fehr, 
Charles N. Wagner and A. H. S. Cantlin 
for a charter for a corporation to be known 
as the Franconia Township El. Lt. & Pwr 
Co. to supply electricity for lamps, heaters 
and motors in the township of Franconia. 

GETTYSBURG, PA. — In reply to a ques- 
tion raised by the Gettysburg Ltg. Co. 
against the proposal of the town of Gettys- 
burg to light its own streets, the Public 
Service Commission has handed down a 
decision that a municipality has the right 
to construct and operate an electric-light 
plant without consulting the commission. 

HARMONY, PA. — The Public Service 
Commission has approved the contract of 
the Harmony El. Co., of Harmony, for 
supplying electricity for lighting the streets 
of Koppel. 

IRWIN, PA. — The entire plant of the 
Penn El. & Mfg. Co., of Irwin, was 
destroved bv fire on Dec. 24, causing a loss 
of about $40,000. D. M. Wagoner, of 
irwin, is one of the owners of the plant. 

LANSFORD, PA. — The Panther Valley 

Lt.. Ht. & Pwr. Co.. of Lansford. has 

I a contract for the construction of 

a. substation (to cost $10,000) to Andrew 

Breslin, of Summit Hill. 

CAMDEN, N. J. — The Victor Talking 
.Machine Co., it is reported, has asked for 
bids for the erection of a power plant, to 
cost about $150,000. The new building will 
be situated on Cooper Street near Front 
Street. Ballinger & Perrot, of Philadelphia, 
are architects and engineers. 

NEWTON, N. J. — The State Board of 

Public Utilities Commissioners has issued 

an order authorizing the Newton Gas <fc E! 

make certain improvements to its 


PATERSON, N. J. — Plans are being con- 
sidered by Mayor Robert H. Fordyce for 
the installation of an electric-lighting plant 
in the destructor plant to supply electricity 
for lighting the streets of the city. 

WILMINGTON, DEL. — A committee, con- 
sisting of Councilman Weller E 

chairman, and Messrs. Kane and 
has been appointed by the Council to confer 
with the Board of Water Commissioners 
relative to installing machinery whereby 
the water-power of Brandywine Creek 
could be utilized to generate electricity for 
the new municipal and county building. 

GLASGOW, VA. — Bids will be received 
by the city of Glasgow until Jan. 29 for 
sale of franchise to construct and operate 
an electric-light and power plant in Glas- 

RICHMOND, VA. — The Administrative 
Board has adopted a resolution authorizing 
E. W. Trafford, superintendent of the mu- 
nicipal electric-light plant, to make investi- 
gations as to the feasibility of supplying 
electricity for lamps and motors to the gen- 
eral public from the municipal electric-light 

WASHINGTON, D. C. — Bids will be re- 
ceived at the office of the chief signal offi- 
cer, War Department, Washington, D. o., 
until Jan. 4 for furnishing the Signal Corps 
with 10,000 ft. paper-insulated aerial cable, 
type 401, in 1000-ft. reels, specificationa 
197-C and 334-C. For further information 
address Charles S. Wallace, captain Signal 
Corps, United States Army. 

WASHINGTON, D. C. — Foreign trade op- 
portunities as announced by the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce in the 
Daily Consular and Trade Reports : No. 
1 4,ST 1 — A representative of public garages 
in a Canadian city has informed an Ameri- 
can consular officer that the local authori- 
ties intend to require taxicabs to use taxi- 
meters, and that he desires to communicate 
with manufacturers of or dealers in taxi- 
meters. No. 14,^72 — An American consular 
officer in Europe reports that a company 
in his district has filed an application for a 
franchise to build an electric tramway. The 
railway is to be 31 miles in length. Nit. 14,- 
S76 — An American consular officer in Asia 
Minor reports that a commission in his dis- 
trict desires to place orders for electrical 
supplies of all kinds, including 
lamps and bulbs, electric motors and dyna- 
mos, oil and water pumps, horizontal and 
vertical Diesel engines, gas pipes and high- 
pressure pipes. It is explained that the firm 
does not require credit ami wishes to es- 
tablish relations with manufacturers of the 
highest-class goods. Correspondence should 
be in Russian, German or French, and 
prices should be c.i.f. destination. No. 14.- 
ss.'i — A manufacturer in Russia informs an 
American consular officer that he is desirous 
of importing brass tubes, bra 

filament Catalogs, 

price lists ami discount shei 
Prices should be c.i.f. destination if pos- 
sible. Correspondence should be in Russian 
or German. No. II.- ll reports 

that an importing firm is desirous of pur- 
chasing arc-lamp globes, eld 
electric-light accessories. Illustrations of 
arc-lamp globes desired accompanied the 
report and may he examined at the Bureau 
ign and Domestic Commerce and its 
branch offices. No 14. 895 — A firm in 
Europe has asked an American consular 
officer to put it in touch with \ 
manufacturers and exporters of machinery 
of all kinds. References are given. Cor- 
respondence should be in Italian oi 
No. 14.SS9 — An American consular officer in 
Asia Minor reports the names and addresses 
of dealers in his district who are in the 
market for electric household appliances, 
such as fans, irons, heaters, table and hang- 
ing lamps, brackets, bulbs, wire, sockets. 
etc. No. 14.S91 — An American consular 
officer in Italy advises that a firm in his 
district desires to receive catalogs, etc. 
from American manufacturers of service, 
combustion, pressure and temperature re- 
corders and other like devices. Correspond- 
ence may be in English. No. 14.mi4 — A 
commission firm in Russia informs an 
American consular officer that it desires to 
establish direct relations with American 
manufacturers of hardware, tools and im- 
plements, petroleum kitchen and heating 
stoves and electrical supplies and lamps. 
Correspondence should be in Russian, 
French or German. No. 14.S12 — The man- 
ager of a municipal electric plant in Europe 
desires to be placed in communication with 
manufacturers of electrical sup: 
fittings, including lamps. Further informa- 
tion mav be obtained on application to the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 
Department of Commerce. Washington, D 
C, or to the following branch offices : 
Room 409, United States Custom House. 
New York. N. Y. : R29 Federal Building. 
Chicago. 111. ; Association of Commerce 
Building. New Orleans. La.: 310 United 
States Custom House. San Francisco, Cal. : 
521 Post Office Building. Atlanta, Ga. : 1207 
Alaska Building. Seattle, Wash., and 752 
nih-er Building, Boston. Mass 

North Central 

DETROIT, MICH. — The general contract 
tor the construction of three substations 
for the Public Lighting Commission has 
been awarded to Corrick Brothers. 

FREMONT. MICH. — A special election 
will be held Jan. 4 to submit to the voters 
the proposal of selling the municipal dis- 
tribution system of $13,000 to the Grand 
Rapids-Muskegon Pwr. Co. and granting 
the company a lighting franchise. 

JACKSON, MICH. — The present arc 
lamp lighting system in the business district 
will be replaced with ornamental lamps 
The city will own the lamps but will secure 
electricity to maintain them from the Com- 
monwealth Pwr. Co. The contract is for a 
period of three years, beginning Jan. 1. 

RED JACKET, MICH. — The installation 
of an ornamental street-lighting system in 
the business district is under consideration 
The Houghton County El. Lt. Co. furnishes 
the street-lighting service here. 

BUCY'RUS, OHIO. — Plans are being pre 
pared by the Bucyrus Lt. & Pwr. Co. for 
doubling the output of its plant in the 
spring. The company also contemplates ex 
tensions to its rural transmission lines. 

CLEVELAND, OHIO. — Bids will be re 
ceived at the office of the commissioner of 
purchases and supplies. Room oil, Cit> 
Hall. Cleveland, until Jan. 7 for piping 
power house and tunnel at the City Hospi- 
tal, in accordance with specifications which 
mav he obtained at the office of the secre- 
tarv to the director of public welfare. Room 
209, City Hall. 

CLEVELAND, OHIO. — Bids will be re- 
ceived at the office of the commissioner of 
purchases and supplies, Room 511, City 
Hall, Cleveland, until Jan. 8 for electric- 
light poles, paper-insulated, lead-covered 
cable and service switches for the munici- 
pal electric-light department, in accordance 
with specifications which may be obtained 
at the office of the commissioner of light 
and heat division, 1443 East Third Street 
A R. Callow is commissioner of purchases 
ami supplies. 

UII.I.SBORO, OHIO — The proposal of the 
Hillsboro Lt. & Fuel Co. for street lighting 
has been rejected by the voters. Plans are 
now being considered by the Council for 
lighting the town, one of which is the in- 
stallation of new fixtures. A municipal 
plant has also been suggested. 

LIMA. OHIO. — The merchants on West 
Street have submitted a proposal 
to the City Council offering to install an 
ornamental lighting system on that thor 
oughfare, provided that the city will pay 
fur electricity to maintain the lamps. The 
tor 43 standards carrying 
five-lamp clusters. 

YOUNGSToWN. OHIO.— Work, it is un 
d, will start immediately on the con- 
struction of the new electric light, heat and 
power plant of the Mahoning County Lt. Co 
pany was recently granted permis- 
the State Utilities Commission to 
issue $fi00,000 in bonds, to be sold at not 
less than 90, and $400,000 in capital stock at 
par. Harry Engle is secretary and treas 

GARY, IND — Bids will be received at the 
the supervising architect, Treasury 
Department, Washington, D. C, until Jan 
15, for the construction, including mechan- 
ical equipment, interior lighting fixtures and 
approaches, of the United States post office 
at Gary, Ind. Drawings and specificationa 
may be obtained from the above office or 
from the custodian of site at Gary. O 
oth is supervising architect. 
MONTPEL1ER, IND. — The Public Serv- 
ice Commission has granted the Montpelier 
Utilities Co. permission to issue $28,500 in 
bonds. John P. Boyd is manager. 

TERRE HAUTE, IND. — Bids will be re 
ceived at the office of the supervising archi- 
isurv Department, Washington, D 
C., until Jan. 22, for repairs to plumbing, a 
conduit and wiring system, lighting fixtures. 
.-tc nt the United States post office at Terre 
Haute, Ind. For details see proposal col 

ELGIN, ILL — The proposal to issue 
in bonds for the installation of a 
municipal electric-light plant, it is reported 
will be submitted to the voters. 

LEWTSTOWN, ILL. — The property of the 
Lewistown El. Co. has been bought by W 
H Parlin. of Canton, 111. A transmission 
line is now being erected from the station in 
Lewistown to a point 3>4 miles east to serve 
the farmers along the line. C. D. Ingersoll 
is general manager. 

STERLING, ILL. — The Illinois Northern 
Utilities Co., of Dixon, has accepted the 
ordinance recently passed by the City Coun- 
cil granting the company permission to 
erect its high-tension transmission line 
through Sterling. 

DELAFIELD, WIS. — The Wisconsin 
Railroad Commission has granted the Mil- 


Vol. 65, No. 1 

i . Ht. ft Trac Co . of .Milwaukee, 
a certificate of convenience and necessity 

ite a second electric utility in the 
Delafleld to furnish electricity for 
lamps, heaters and motors 

I [.AIRE, WIS Vll bids for the in- 
stallation of the ornamental lighting sys- 
tem, it is reported, nave been rejected. 

LAKE GENEVA. U IS Bids will be re- 
■eived by John S. Allen, manager of the 
Equitable El. L leneva, it is re- 

ported, until Jan. 5 fi one 150-hp strain 
engine and steam pipe with pipe covering. 

MILWAUKEE, WIS— bids will be re- 
I the office of the supervising archi- 
tect, Treasurj Department, Washington, D. 
C, until the installation, com- 
iii electric freight elevator in the 
United 3 at Mil- 

waukee, Wis. For details see proposal col- 

DULUTH, MINN.— At a special 
to be held Jan. 19 three proposals will be 
submitted to the voters as follows 
jndum on ordinance appropriating 

ruction of first unit of municipal 
plant . initiative ordit. 

inter in; contract with the Du- 

for 6-cent rate, and alterna- 
tive ordinance providing for 4-cent rate. 

ELK KIVEK, MINX— The Council, it is 
. has awarded F. D. Waterman a 
franchise to furnish electricity for lamps 
and motors in Elk River, and also a con- 
tract for street-lighting. Under the terms 
of the contract 50 street lamps are to be 
installed at once. 

FARIBAULT, MINN.— The Consumers' 
Pwr. Co., of Faribault, has just completed 
a 12-mile extension of its 13,200-volt sys- 
tem to the village of Kenyon, where it will 
supply electricity to the local company for 
distribution throughout the village and op- 
erating a flour mill. The company is also 
completing an extension of its 33,000-volt 
transmission line (about 40 miles long), 
which will connect Northfleld and St Paul 
This line will serve the villages of Farm- 
lngton and St. Paul and other small vil- 
lages along the line B. W. Cowperthwait is 

GILBERT, MINN— The installation of 
an ornamental street-lighting system in 
Gilbert is reported to be under considera- 

LAMBERTON, MINN.— The local elec- 
tric plant has been purchased by R. F. 
Wherland. of Redwood Falls, and H. L. 
Wherland, of Faribault. The new owners, 
it is understood, will make some radical 
changes in the operation of the plant. 

ST PAUL. MINN.— The A. H. Stem Co.. 
if St Paul, has been engaged as ari hitect 
for the new club house of the St. Paul Ath- 
letic i 'lull, the .ust <,t which is estimated 
II W Terry, con- 
sulting elei i rical engineer of the Stem 

work in the proposed building. 

COLLINS, IA.— The Maxwell El. Lt ft 
Pwr. Co., it is reported, has applied to the 
City Council for a franchise to supply elec- 
r lamps and motors in Collins. 

STORM LAKE, IA.— The Storm Lake El. 
Lt. & Pwr. Co. has just installed a new 
200-hp Murray engine anil a 125-kw, three- 
wire generator and switchboard. Edgar E. 
Mack is president and manager. 

SPRINGS, Mil -Plans are being 
considered by the Commercial Club for the 
Installation of an ornamental street-lighting 
system on Main Street. 

EDGERTON, sin The McComas Hydro- 
Electric Pwr. Co., of Edgerton, it is re- 
ported. Hi.' construction of a 
ros: i 'latte River and the Installation 

of a h power plant. It is cx- 

that work will be started on the 

■ ..I ly in 1 !H 6, 
ST. LOUIS, MO.- Ii on handed 


.1.111 ft Pwi 
given the rigl 

111 the City Of St LOUlS outside i.f the so 

called underground district The di 

I will perm.* ompanles 


SLATER, M'i Within the I 

rig unit in the muniei 

Is supi 

.i. r con 
,uncll has 

NEBRASKA CITY, NEB.— The Board of 
Education has adopted a resolution requir- 
ing all school buildings to be lighted by 

TRENTON, NEB. — The installation of an 
electric-lighting system in the town of Tren- 
i-ui is under consideration. 

CHANUTE, KAN -Mids will be received 
at the office of the supervising ai 
Treasury Department, Washington, D. C, 
until Jan. 29 for the construction complete, 
including mechanical equipment, lighting 
of the United 
States post office at Chanute. Drawings 
and specifications may be obtained at the 
above oil- the custodian of site 

at Chanute. < I. Wenderoth is supervising 

DOWNS, KAN— The Downs El. Lt. & 
Pwr. Co. is installing a series street-lighting 
system, consisting of 57 lamps: material for 
system has already been purchased. A. G. 
Blankensky is manager. 

HORTON, KAN -A 250-kva Allis-Chal- 

. .erating unit (directly connected) 

is being installed in the municipal water and 

light plant. W W, Wood is superintendent. 

WINFIELD. KAN. — The City Council 
has authorized the Electric Light and Water 
Commission to advertise for bids for an 
additional 500-kw electric generating unit 
with auxiliaries. Plans and specifications 
will be completed within the next 
at which time bids will be called for W J 
Welfelt is superintendent. 

Southern States 

WHITEVILLE, N. C— The City Council 
is reported to have granted a franchise to 
H. D. MacNair, of Maxton, to construct 
and operate an electric-light plant in White- 
ville. Mr, MacNair was also given a con- 
tract for street lighting for a period of ten 

WILMINGTON, N. C.— Bids will be re- 
ceived at the office of the supervising archi- 
tect. Treasury Department, Washington, 
D. C, until Jan. 14. for the construction 
complete, including mechanical equipment, 
of medical officers' quarters at the United 
States .Marine Hospital, Wilmington, N. C. 
- and specifications may be ob- 
tained at the above office or from the cus- 
todian of site at Wilmington. O. Wen- 
deroth is supervising architect. 

ALLENDALE, S. C. — Contracts have 

been awarded for the construction of an 

electric-light plant and water-works system 

in Allendale, for which bonds to the amount 

been voted. 

MACON, GA— The Macon Ry. & Lt. Co. 
is planning to replace the present arc-lamp 
street-lighting system in East Macon with 
new arc lamps of 1700 cp. It is understood 
that equipment has been ordered. 

ROCKMART, GA. — Contracts have been 
awarded by the City Council for new ma- 
chinery for the municipal electric-light 
plant. The Ames Iron Works, of i IswegO, 
N. V., will furnish the boilers and the Allis- 
i'.i. hi Milwaukee, Wis, the gen- 
eraton A 24-hour service will be estab- 
lished as soon as improvements are com- 

WADI.EV, GA.— The contract for the 

:.on of the municipal electric-light 

or which bonds were recently voted) 

has been awarded to the Singleton-Smith 

Co., "i Mai mi, Ga. s. W Ovastreet is city 


council has granted h a 

act and 
■-in plan! m Tarpon 

KNOXVILLE, TENN Plans are being 
red for replacing the present orna- 
mental lighting system on Gay street with 
nitrogen filled lamps The presei 
lighting contract expires in Octobel 

.1 \' IKS! IN, MISS provid- 

bonds for 

" Introduced in thi 

. .1, ha \ I 

Building, Oklahoma City, for the 

•lit plant and water 

DO in bonds •■ 
will I.. 

i tallas Tel I 


■ r addi 

• • Lull will begin 

from $500,000 to 51,000,000, it is reported, 
are contemplated by the Texas Pwr. & Lt. 
Co., of Dallas, to its properties in Texas 
The work will include the construction of a 
plant in Paris, to cost about $300,000 and 
the erection of the transmission line to sup- 
ply energy to the Texas Trac. Co., at a cost 
of about $150,000. It is also proposed to 
begin work on the large plant at Waco, the 
cost of which is estimated at $1,000,000. 
The cost of the transmission line for the 
Texas Trac. Co. to Jenkins Station, north of 
Dallas, from the plant at Norwood, and the 
outlay for the electric plant at Paris with 
extensions and feeders will cost about $500,- 

ENNIS. TEN — Bids will be received at 
the othce of the supervising architect. 
Treasury Department, Washington, D. C. 
until Jan. 2.". for the construction complete, 
including mechanical equipment, lighting 
and approaches, of the United 
States post office at Ennis. Drawings and 
specifications may be obtained at the above 
office or from the custodian of site at Ennis 
O. Wenderoth is supervising architect 

GALVESTi IN, TEX— Bids will be re- 
ceived by the Board of City Commissioners 
Galveston, until Jan. 7 for electric wiring 
and elevators for the new combined city 
hall and auditorium. 

LONGVIEW, TEX —The capital stock 
of the Longview Ice & Lt. Co. has been in- 
creased from $50,000 to $75,000. 

UVALDE. TEX. — Bids will be received al 
the office of the supervising architect. Treas 
ury Department, Washington. D. C, until 
Jan. 22 for the construction, including me- 
chanical equipment, interior lighting fixtures 
and approaches, of the United States post 
office at Uvalde. Drawings and specifica- 
tions may be obtained at the above office 
or at the office of custodian of site at 
O. Wenderoth is supervising archi 

Pacific States 

TACOMA, WASH— The City Council has 
authorized the installation of a new system 
of lamps on C and other streets, according 
to specifications prepared by the city engi- 
neer. The plans provide for metal 
standards mounted with a single lamp, to 
cost $17,2(1. 

GRANT'S PASS, ORE.— The Rogue Rivei 
Pub. Ser. Corpn. has submitted a proposition 
to the City Council to furnish energy on a 
wholesale basis, the city to install a dis- 
tributing svstcm and operate the same 
George W. Swansor is secretary of the com- 

ALHAMBRA, CAL — A committee has 

pointed by the City Council to make 

lions in regard to establishing 

a municipal electrical distributing system in 

Alhambra. E. L. McCormack is a member 

of the committee. 

ESCONDIDO. CAL. — Bids will be re- 
ceived by the Board of Supervisors of Sai 
Diego County until Feb. 3 for the sale of a 
franchise to construct and operate electric 
transmission lines under and over the pub- 
lic highways in Township 10 for a period of 
.'•0 years Application for the franchise was 
made by the Escondido Wtr. Co. 

FRESNO, CAL.— The City Council has 
adopted a single-lamp standard for the city 
electrolier lighting system The standard 
will be either all cast iron or post with 
bases and tops of cast iron and shafts of 
pressed steel 

has passed an ordinance authorizing the 
mslallatioii of ornamental (cast-iron) lamp 
da on the principal business streets 
iv, also providing for plai 
electric wires underground In the city, the 
work to begin not later than July 1, 191". 
WCKI.ES. .' \i. Surveys are be- 
ing made by the Engineering Department of 
tin- route for the proposed franchise for 
street railway extension from Nortl 

i Pritchard Street through Scmiet- 
,-en Park nid H.-rmon District to South 
Pasadena City limits. 

MOORPARK, CAL Steps have beer. 

• Commerce to m 

It is proposed 

ii aid. to extend its transmission lines to 

M. hi ■■ 

S \\ I'll. in. C\I. The City Council, it 

is reported, will soon ask for informal bids 

Of I 

.md on Fifth Stt 
illumination during exposition year. 


trlc-llghting fixtures for the 

Newhous. II.. i warded to the 

Salt Lake El. Blip, Co. 

mi. i. IN' IS, Mi 'N'T Work will i ■• 

■ ..w,r house (to 

Monta C na te pw r n ro°'l h Broadway) "t the 

£l f " he J rOU \ d? ' a -' ^Vmpariv Sufr* 
sume work 9 n the erection of he high-ten 
son transmission line, connect,"! w?th the 
vf.le ""at'Var'k Ci'u US " V" ^>'°'^tone e 
F^mLr| t a nd r joHet 3 ; "" 1 « tent,i ^ to 
CULBERTSON, MONT. — An electric 
light plant, it is reported, will be installed in 
Donaldson Brothers' garage ivhich ,1 
supply electricity for tht citv V1 " 

GLASGOW, MOXT.— Plans are being con- 
sidered for the installation of a muSctoa 
electr.c-hght plant during the coming velr 

Th?°inS?,? , K ' N e M - (not a P° st office).- 
the installation of an electric-light plant 
and ice factory in Holbrook is under con- 
Gaflun Fl T^°," iS S n Frith, manager of ?he 
^allup El. Lt. <_o., Gallup, is reported to be 
interested in the project. 

WORLA.XD. WTO— Arrangements are 
being made by the Worland Lt & Pwr Co 

J e S t r r e o b y U edV t nre Plam ' WhiCh WaS TeCen ^ 
SILVER CITY. X M.— Work on the con- 



el'?c 5 ,'r f0r f Which wi " 1« furnished by an 
electric transmission line, running from 
Hanover, the main camp of the Em D ?re 
companj empire 


SSn e t r of°5- P0Wer '. )UI 'l>oses l The proposed 
point of diversion is approximately 3 miles 
from the junction of the Moose arid Fraslr 
Rnrers, at the foot of the first fa Is It Is 
proposed to build four dams. The offices of 
the company are at 415 Winch Building 
Vancouver. u!llg ' 



Directory of Electrical Associations 


he submitted to the ratepayers authorizing 
extensions and improvements to the mu- 
nicipal telephone system, to cost about 

WELLAND, ONT.-A by-law authoriz- 
ing a bond issue of $5,000 for the installa- 
tion of an electric fire-alarm system will be 
submitted to the ratepayers in" Januarv 


PANAMA. — Bids will be received at the 
office ot the general purchasing officer, the 
Panama Canal, Washington, D. C , until 
Jan. ,, for furnishing electric cable, 
wrought iron or steel pipe, coal shovels, etc 
Blanks and general information relating to 
this circular (No. 887) may be obtained 

;«S^= he above , offlce or tne offlces of the 
assistant purchasing agents, 24 State 
street. New York. X. Y. ; 614 Whitney 

Pomt' n #tV N t W i"' 1 ™,"*' La " and 10S6 Nort h 
Point Street, San Francisco, Cal. Major 
*. C. Boggs is general purchasing officer 

Alabama Light and Traction awhi-,, 
tion Secretary-treasurer H j H^son" 
Mobile Gas Co., Mobile, Ala. "anson, 

American Association tor the Advanob 
S E Howar S d CI § NC ?i, Pe 'manent ^S^t 
mgSSr!) c ' Instltutio ". Wash!: 

American Electric Railway Associa 
3^St. Se x r e e w a %rk E ' * BurrI "' ^^ 

American Electrochemical Societt 

laik Ave., Xew York City. 

American Institute of' Electrical En- 
gineers. Secretary, F. L Hutchinson M 
West 39th St., New' York Board of direc 
n'thT'princin?, 111 '?'- , S - ec V ons and SaSSE. 
SrtttelSSKS eleCtnCal centers throu Sh- 

American Phtsical Society. Secretarv 
nTbusV O^hio 0016 " ° hi ° State D««?S: 

Nassau St., New York Citv. ' a4 

American Society for Testing Materi- 
als. Secretary-treasurer. Edgar MarbuTe 
University of Ppimsviv^V, i?,'Y, ',. a _r. Du r&. 

Universi.Y- Af r> , e1, Ei ogar Marbui 

university of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 

timti^T Society of Heating and Yen- 

S3T3 W^Sst.^ew^rk^^ * 

„,r AR 4 CANSAS Association of Public Utili- 

Dtt.? P R R o A c rArk. SeCretarJ -' W " J - Th -P. 

Association of Edison Illuminating 

companies. Assistant secretary Walte? 

To"™ ' ing PlaCe and 15th St .New 

Association of Iron and Steel Electri- 

S&223TKL S6Cretary ' W " T E S L ny C aer, 

Association of Railway Electrtcat b„ 

EZT& Secretary-treasurer SsT In" 

Chicago 1 ' ChlCag ° & Northwestern RSilwiy, 

Association of Railway Telegraph Sn 

perintendents. Secretary, P W grfw 

112 West Adams St., Chicago. ' 

so?i^ T To N NrA « ELE( r rEICAI ^ OXTRACTO «s' As- 
Canadian Electrical Association Affil 

Colorado Electric Light. Power and 

r F W £In AS H S0CIA £ 0N - Secretary-treasurer" 
r. F. Kennedy, 900 15th St., Denver, Col 

Commercial Section, x. e. L A Seere- 
ary. J. F. Becker. 1170 Broadway/ NY 

Eastern Xew York Section. X E L \ 
Secretary, c. S. Van Dyck. Sch'enectad'y, 

Electrical Contractors' Association of 
Iassachusetts. Secretarv. H D Temple 
10 Foster St., Worcester. Mass. lemple ' 
CE^Tr^l?^ Contractors- Association of 
el jj °*£ w A J E -,o S , ec /etary. Geo. W. Rus- 
ei. Jr.. .., West 4 2d St., Xew York 

x E i E< ? R '? r AI - Contractors' Association of 
.tate of Missouri. Secretary. A. J. Burns 
18 West Tenth St., Kansas Citv. Mo 
r ;t";CTRicAi. Contractors' Association of 
MMuErt Secretary. Albert PetermanrT 
leetini. 5 A f i St -- , Mlln T a ul<ee. Wis. Annual 
Milwaukee, Jan. 18-21. 

Electrical Salesmen's Association 

I^cKca^'ia Raymond - 125 Mich ^ 

Electrical Supply Jobbers' Association 
general secretary, Franklin Overbagh 4li 
South Clinton St., Chicago, 111. ' 

Electrical Trades Association of Can- 
ada. Secretary. William R. Stavelv, Roval 
Insurance Building, Montreal. Can 

Electrical Trades Association of the 
AC 'h C \ OAST „ Secretary, Albert H. Elli- 
ott, Harding Building. 34 Ellis St.. San 

FJ^TZZ CaI - J / eet ing. San Fraricisco. 
second Thursday of each month. 

Electric Vehicle Association of Amer- 
ica. Executive secretary, A, Jackson Mar- 
shall 29 West 39th St., New York. Sections 
i i . \" rk ', New England. Chicago. Phila- 
delphia. Washington and Los Angeles. 

Empire State Gas and Electric Asso- 
ciation. Secretary, Charles H. B Chanin 
29 West 39th St, Xew York. «- na Pin. 

Gas, Electric and Street Railway As- 
sociation of Oklahoma. Secretary-treas- 
urer. Prof. H. V. Bozell. Norman, Okla 

Georgia Electrical Contractors' iaso- 
ciation. Secretary. J. M. Clayton, Atlanta, 

Illinois State Electrical Association 
Secretary. H. E. Chubbuck. Peoria. 111. 

Illuminating Engineering Society 
S™ secretary C. A. Littlefield, 29 West 
■jytn fet., New York. 

Independent Telephone Association of 
, J" :, n'\.-, Secretary, W. S. Vivian. 19 South 
St, ( Imago. Annual meeting. Min- 
neapolis. Minn.. Jan. 19-21. 

Indiana Electric Light Association 
Secretary. Thomas Donahue. Lafayette, Ind. 

Indiana State Electrical Contractors' 

i.f.f^'TV*' t Secretary, George Skilman, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Institute of Operating Engineers Sec- 

York y ' HoumiI1 er. 29 West 39th St.. New 

Institute of Radio Engineers. Secre- 
tary, E. J. Simon, 71 Broadway, Xew York. 

Internal Combustion Engineers' Asso- 
ciation. President. Charles Kratsch. 416 
West Indiana St., Chicago. Meeting second 
Friday of each month at Lewis Institute. 

International Association of Munici- 
Ho L us K o, E l T Tex AN8 ' Secretarj ' C - R George. 

International Engineering Congress. 
R 6 ^^7" Q eaSU 5 e J' W - A ' Cattell, Foxcroft 
Building. San Francisco. Cal. Congress, 
San Francisco, September. 

International Electrotechnical Com- 
mission (international body representing 
rtV^ S nat l? n a' electrical engineering so? 

secre e t S ar? n r bU > t i n V° ^ su ?P° rt) - Genera ' 
secretarj. C. le Maistre. 28 Victoria St., 
Westminster. London, S. W., England 
Meeting at San Francisco. Sept. 9-11 
witi!\- ^I^fTP-'CAL Association. Affiliated 
^n rV' \,^- A r Secretary. W. H. Thom- 
son, Des Moines, la. 

Iowa Electrical Contractors' Associa- 
tion Secretary, M. T. Humphrey. Water- 
loo, la. 

Iowa Street and Interurban Railway 
export""!' ' X Secr etary, H. E. Weeks, Dav- 

Hnmer AN p 5- RDER - ^ Jupiter (president). 
Homer E. Xiesz. Chicago. Ill ■ Mercurv 
gHSpi) E T - C, Bennett. Syndicate Trust 
Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Kansas Gas. Water. Electric Light and 
Street Railway Association. Secretary- 

wIchUaTkan" Tl " J '" aS ' 2 " *° Uth Main St " 

socSor A S E e^ R A C . AL J C T TR Z A ifgie R r S ' & 
?T b °D W ,V Meeting every Wednesday. Au 
dubon Building, Xew Orleans. 

Maine Electric Association. Secretarv 
treasurer, Walter S. Wyman, Waterville 

Michigan Electric Association. Affili- 
ated with N. a L. A. Secretary, Herbert 
troit 6 Mich Washington Boulevard. De- 

Minnesota Electric Association. Sec- 

f € ii a h?'"^ reasurer ' R A """• st Paul Gas 
Light Company. St. Paul. Minn Annual 
meeting. St. Paul, March 23-J5. Annual 

Mississippi Electric Association Affih 
ated with the Xational Electric Light Asso 
ciation Secretary-treasurer. 11. K. Wheelei 
Hattiesburg, Miss. Xext annual meeting 
Hattiesburg, April 12-14. 

Missouri Electric, Gas, Street Railw a1 
and Water Works Association. Se,-ivtar\ 
treasurer, F. D. Beardslee, Union Electri, 
Light & Power Co., St. Louis. 

.National Arm, Pin and Bracket Asso 
In A l TI0N ' Secretar y- J - B - Magers, Madison 

National Association of Electrical In 
spectors. Secretary-treasurer, Wm L 
.smith. Concord, Mass. 

National District Heating Association 
Secretary, D. L. Gaskill, Greenville. Ohio. 

National Electric Light Association 
Executive secretary, T. C. Martin Engl 
neering Societies Building, 33 West 39th St 
New York. Annual meeting, San Francisco' 
June .-11 

National Electrical Contractors' As 


tary, George H. Duffleld. 41 Martin Build- 
ing, Utica, N. Y. Annual meeting, San 
Francisco, July 1S-24. 

Xational Electrical Credit Associa 
tion. Secretary, Frederic P. Vose 134 3 
Marquette Building, Chicago. 

National Fire Protection Association 
Secretary of electrical committee, Ralph 
Sweetland. 141 Milk St.. Boston, Mass 
Open meeting, Xew York, March 

Xational Independent Telephove Asso 
ciation Secretary-treasurer, J. B. Earle 
vv aco, Tex. 

Nebraska Section. X*. E. L A Secre 
tary-treasurer, S. J. Bell, David City, Neb 

Xew England Electrical Credit Asso- 
ciation. Secretary, Alton F. Tupper 60 
State St., Boston, Mass. 

Xew England Section. Electric Vehi 
cle Association of America. Secretarv 
L. L. Edgar, 39 Boylston St., Boston, Mass' 

Xew England Section. X. E L A Sec- 
retary. Miss O. E. Bursiel. 149 Tremont St 
Boston. .Mass 

-New York Electric Railway Associa 
o!°?- o Secretary, Charles C. Dietz, 365 East 
21st St., Brooklyn, X. Y. 

Xorthwest Section. X. E L A Secre 
&e%ash. Br ° Cke "' Pi0neer kuildins 

Northern White Cedar Association 
Secretary. R. X. Boucher. 743 Lumber Ex- 
change, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Ohio Electric Light Association Sec 
retary, D. L. Gaskill, Greenville. Ohio. 

Ohio Society of Mechanical, Electri 
cal and Steam Engineers. Secretarv 
Prof. F. E. Sanborn, Ohio State Universitv 
Columbus. Ohio. 

Oregon Electrical Contractors' Asso 
ciation. Secretary-treasurer. J W Oher 
ender, Portland, Ore. 


\ ox (55. No. 1 

Pennsylvania Electric ASSOCIATION 
(State Section N. E. I.. A.). Secretary- 
treasurer, H. N. Muller, Pittsburgh 

Railway Signal Association. Secre- 
lary-treasurer. C. E. Rosenberg, Times 
Building, Bethlehem, Pa. 

Society for Electrical Development, 
Inc. General manager, .T. M. Wakeman, 29 
West 39th St., New York. 

Society for the Promotion op Enoi- 
veertng Education. Secretary, Dean F. L. 

Bishop, University of Pittsburgh, Pitts- 

burgh. Pa. Annual meeting, Ames la.. 
June 22-25 

.Southeastern Section. N. E. L. A. 
Secretary-treasurer, Geo. H. Wygant, 
Tampa, Fla. 

Southwestern Electrical and Gas As- 
sociation. Secretary, H. S. Cooper, 405 
Slaughter Building, Dallas, Tex. 

Vermont Electrical Association. Sec- 
retary-treasurer, C. H. West. Rutland, Vt. 

Western Ass"> iatio.n of Electrical In- 
spectors. Secretary, W. S. Boyd, 76 West 
Monroe St., Chicago, 111. Annual meeting. 
Minneapolis, Minn.. Jan. 26-28. 

Western Society of Engineers. Elec- 
trical Section. Secretary, J. H. Warder. 
1737 Monadnock Block, Chicago. 

Wisconsin Electrical Association. Sec- 
retary, George Allison, 1410 First National 
Bank Building, Milwaukee, Wis. Annual 
meeting, Milwaukee, Jan. 18-20. 

Weekly Record of Electrical Patents 


DEC. 22. 1914. 
I Prepared by Robert Starr Allyn, 16 Ex- 
change Place, New York, N. Y.J 

1,121,601. Electrical Conductor; T. B. 
Allen and 1.. B. Coulter, Niagara Falls, 
N. Y. App. filed Nov. 21, 1911. Silicon 
carbide impregnated with fine graphite. 

1,121,607. Hanger for Trolley Wires; 
G. H. Bolus, Mansfield, Ohio. App. filed 
Feb. 9, 1912. Quick, detachable, catenary 
type ; made of sheet metal. 

1,121,619. Method of Making Valves: 
R. L. Ellerv, Toledo, Ohio. App. filed 
Feb. 10, 1914. Welding tungsten-steel 
valve heads to carbon-steel shanks. 

1.121.625. Swivel Arrangement for Elec- 
tric Terminal Plugs; M. Herskovitz, 
Chicago, 111. App. filed July 12, 1913. 
Two-part, separable swivel attachment 

1.121.626. Means for Measuring the Fre- 
quency of an Alternating Current; 
C. E. Hiatt, East Orange, N. J. App. 
filed Feb. 21, 1911. Has a measuring 
capacity ranging from only a few cycles 
to hundreds of thousands per second. 

1.121,635. Controller for Heating Sys- 
tems ; F. T. Kitchen, West New Brigh- 
ton, N. Y. App. filed June 7, 1913. For 
railway cars. 

1.121,649. Elevator Signal; C. A. Mcln- 
tyre, Philadelphia, Pa. App. filed June 
11, 1913. Opening of door bleaks circuits 
through signals previously shown. 

1,121,664. Pi. i hazka, Detroit, 

Mich. App. filed Feb. 13, 1914. Can be 
quickly engaged with and positively 
locked in the socket, 

1,121,666. AUTOMATIC Telephone Ex- 
change : F. N. Reeves, Newark, N. J., 
and A. E. Lundell, New York, N. Y. App 
riled July 5, 1912. Multi-office "satellite 

1,121,674. Rheostat-Resistance Car 

Heater ; J. T. Skinner, Lawrence, Kan. 
App. filed Feb. 7. 1914. The control re- 
• ■ supplies tin- heat for the car. 

1,121,725. Electromagnetic Brake-Oper- 
ating Mechanism: G. E. Hindlev. Pari. 
Ridge. X. J. App. filed Mai h 
tun - of electromagnets. 

i TOLL-LINE System 
F. A. Lundquist, Chicago, ill App. Bled 
Nov. li, 1912. Central office is apprised 
of the denominations of the coins de 
posited by subscriber. 

1,121,71:: Heati 

orating, Volatilizing or Distilling 
Liqi ids B i Elhctricit? : T. Mc( llella nd, 
Jr.. Glasgow, Scotland. App. filed Nov 
30, 1912 
a iner. 

1,121,750. El I hanging 

Switch; T. I; Miller, Seattle, Wash. 
App filed Sept li, 1912 Applied to tun 
Ing roil of wireless-telegraph bj 

1 ,121,754 \ ■ I a i. ; F. 

Pastor, Hero 
1914 Turnli « heel iieM^- 

"i ear. 
1.121. 7(1 I Mii i rrrs FOR 

Recti i 

li i Is nd, ■ >hlo \pp Bled 

ance i r, Law 

I'm.' 16, I'M I 

i witii ventilating openings 

died Dec newable 


num. Ipp Bled .Inn. 

1 , l 909 Rei 

I . V M 1 N A - 

.1 W III own. 

I, i ihio \ •;. I'M 2 


1.121.79S. Drum-Armature Winding Ma- 
chine ; P. E. Chapman, St. Louis, Mo. 
App. filed March 19, 1908. Adjustable 
to take various sizes and styles of arma- 

1,121,802. Method of Coating Projector 
Lamps with Reflecting Surfaces : E. 
L. Clark, Lakewood, Ohio. App. filed 
Jan. 11, 1913. Condenses a vapor of the 
coating material on the interior of the 

1,121,823. Time-Announcing System ; M. 
F. Geer, Rochester, N. Y. App. filed 
March 1, 1912. For railway-dispatch 
telephone systems. 

1.121.834. Electrical Measuring Appar- 
atus; C. E. Hiatt, Philadelphia, Pa. App. 
filed May 25, 1909. Frequency meter 
having a thermo-junction. 

1.121.835. Comparator; C. E. Hiatt. Phila- 
delphia, Pa. App. filed May 25, 1909. For 
comparing two electromotive forces or 

1,121,859. Composite Magnetizable Mate- 
rial; E. H. Messiter, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
App. filed Nov. S, 1912. Pole piece or the 
like made up of a bundle of magnetizable 
wires brazed together. 

1,121,874. Zinc Furnace; O. E. Runoff, 
Madison, Wis. App. filed March 26, 1914. 
Electric ; handles the cheaper ones and 
effects recovery of metals other than the 

1,121,876. Rechargeable ELECTRIC Fuse 
A. Schippcr. Ogdeii, ('tab. App. filed Jan 
16, 1914. Ventilated-fuse strip clamped 
by the terminal screw caps. 

1,121,754— Automobile Lamp Signal 

i,i2i,s77. Elect rii u M Scott, 

or, Pa. : .1 H. w yatt, Philadelphia, 
Pa., and T. \v, Greathead, Mortar, Pa, 

\i" mi. i i :.. 1912. Terminal has a 

ed bj He- laminas of 
the movable switch member. 

. : si stem : C. 
i; Beach, Binghamton, N v. Vpp. filed 
cally controlli i 

Relay; E B. Craft, H ickensack. 

N. .1. App. Bled Sepl 23, 1913. S lal 

mei h construction, 

System ; 

mpson, Swamscott, Mass App. filed 

Bled Feb i .. 1912 Records length of 

i tiling hi i Instrument is 


m . i . . i i : i Same ; w i : 
W'bii m tady, N v l.pp. filed 

:in incorporated lubricant contaii 
phur and molybdenum, 

H I 

Bail, hii fli Id, m ■ 

, . ,1 , , , . 

■ tady, \ \ Mm 

HI.-, I Oct !"•. 1913 for resistance fur 

i CUITS ; A. S. < "i 1 1 . 1 1 1 . Si i>- 

I, L90S For 

1,121,986. Subaqueous Audible Signaling 
Apparatus ; S. M. Davison, London, Eng 
App. filed April 13, 1914. Transmitter is 
out of high conductive connection with 
hull of vessel, and receiving medium con- 
sists of paraffin wax in inductive connec- 
tion with the water. 

1.121.996. Electrical Circuit-Breaker. 
E. Gassmann, Brooklyn, N. Y. App. filed 
Oct. 31, 1913. For ignition devices. 

1.121.997. Electrical Cut-Out; E. G. Gil- 
son, Schenectady, N. Y. App. filed Feb 
1, 1912. Metallic plates consisting largely 
of lead and an interposed layer containing 
graphite, a metal of the tungsten group 
and a binder. 

1,122,001. Ignition System for Internal- 
Combustion Engines ; J. O. Heinze, De- 
troit, Mich. App. filed May 22, 1914. In 
eludes an interrupter and a vibratoi 
which can be rendered inoperative. 

1.122,010. Lock Circuit-Closer: J. F 
Lesko, Chicago. 111. App. filed May 20. 
1914. Causes alarm to be given when the 
lock bolts of a door are withdrawn. 

l,122.nii. Process and Apparatus for 
Producing Roentgen Rays; J. E. Lilien- 
feld, Leipzig. Germany. App. filed Oct. 2. 
1912. Uses a heating element. 

1,122,016. Portable Protecting Appar- 
atus: E. L. Maltby, Brooklyn, N. Y. App 
filed I i.e. n, 1909. Burglar alarm for 
chest containing valuables. 

Electric Switch: E. B. Mer- 
riam, Schenectady. N. Y. App. filed Aug 
15, 1912. Tendency of the arc to blow 
the oil away from the contacts is effect 
ively resisted. 

1,122,021. Safety Chest: L. Mvers. New 
ark. X. J. App. filed Oct. 10, 1910 
the chest gives alarm 
when chest is disturbed. 

1,122,027. Method of Tuning Alternat- 
ing-Current Circuits; M. Osnos, Ber- 
lin, Germany. App. filed June 6, 1913 
By regulating the magnetic condition of 
the electrical apparatus included in the 

ii ' IECT0R ; F. I: 

go, m \pi> filed Nov. ' 

dently holding one or 
several wires. 

>\- Insulator Eye 
holt: J, A. Sanford, Jr.. E 
Ohio. App Bled Jan. 21, 1912, Has :i 
corrugated shank secured in cement 

KBT : H. l-\ Sargent 
and T Koch, Schenectady, N. Y App 
tiled July 8, P.' 12. Details of chain 
guide and spindle support. 

I ikiuit-Closer ; J. F 
Scheuer, Two Rivers, Wis. App. filed 
Jan. 26, 1914. fusible for elect! 

naling apparatus. 

I Bt Stanley, 

and H, P, Pill. 
Pittsfleld, Mi-- \ pp Bled Nov. I, 1912 
For ranges of the heat-storage type. 

Switch; F. L. Tem- 
ple. Cedar Grove, N. .1. App. tiled net 
2i. i9ii Rotary-type; maintains one 

branch nit closed while the 

switch Is "pen. 

Apparatus . C 

lam App filed I >ee 
:>. 1906 Has a subsidiary positive elec- 

pun. Support; b. a. Behrend 
. . Wl Vpn Bli 

nd turns of the 

1,122,19 - ■ :OUPI.INO : .1 

Ingeles, Cal app. tiled July 21 
Combined with thi 

coupling of a train 

Lamps i ! W Drake, Chicago, 111 app 

filed 1 >as flutet 

Older has inwaiilh pro 

ribs engaging the ridg, - 

I .1 22,21 2. A.DJU8TA1 

mo- Electric Machines . E, Mattn 
wood, Ohio. App hi,, 1 

111, ding lb.- se 

curing bolts pel mil the neo 


The consolidation of Electrical World and Engineer and American Electrician. 
Published by McGraw Publishing Company, Inc. 

Vol. 65 


No. 2 

Our Power and Operating Section 

IN this issue we begin a new departure in the in- 
terests of our readers. We publish a larger number 
than usual of articles relating to the generation and 
industrial utilization of electrical energy as well as to 
the installation and operation of electrical machinery of 
all kinds, grouped in a department designated as the 
"Power and Operating Section." These articles will 
be found particularly interesting to the engineers and 
operators in power plants who wish to acquire the 
latest information concerning the practical and more or 
less technical phases of their work. They will prove 
interesting and instructive also to men in charge of 
electrical installations in industrial plants, such as the 
engineers and electricians in manufacturing establish- 
ments, large office buildings and hotels as well as in 
the generating stations, substations and reserve plants 
associated with the large interconnected electrical dis- 
tributing systems. The "Power and Operating Sec- 
tion," which will be published in each week's issue of 
the Electrical World, will appear in greatly enlarged 
form in the second issue of each month. 

The Thermophone 

AN appliance of exceptional scientific interest, based 
on thermal action, was described in a recent paper 
before the Royal Society. As our readers are well 
aware, thermal action as a feature of certain telephonic 
apparatus has been known for a good many years. In 
fact, it was utilized in the days of Hughes and his con- 
temporaries, and has been employed more recently in 
some of the forms of receiver used in connection with 
wireless telephony. The thermophone apparatus de- 
scribed in the Digest in this issue acts not by indirec- 
tion but in immediate response to the varying heat 
supplied to a very small inclosed body of air by a 
platinum wire of extremely small diameter. It is, in 
fact, essentially a loop of platinum wire of 0.002 ram; 
or a little more, in diameter, inclosed in a small cavity 
under a tiny thin cover, the receptacle acting as a 
resonator for the variations in air pressure produced 
by the heating and cooling of the wire when receiving 
the telephonic variations of current. The whole re- 
ceiver for telephonic purposes may be slipped into the 
orifice of the ear, and from all reports operates ex- 
ceedingly well in spite of its small dimensions. The 
general theory of the instrument has not been worked 
out at all accurately, but it is known that the acoustic 
effect varies approximately as the square of the cur- 
rent strength and the variations of heating take place 
isochronously with the vibrations in the transmitting 

microphone. It is a beautifully simple application of 
thermal action to telephony, and while the principle is 
by no means new, it has been applied in the present 
instrument in a very striking and efficient fashion. 

Damage by Short-Circuit 

A SHORT-CIRCUIT in a cable is not an uncommon 
-**- happening in every-day electric service. On 
Wednesday of this week the splendid rapid transit sub- 
way system of New York with its daily traffic of over a 
million was completely shut down from such a cause. 
Many passengers were overcome by the fumes of burn- 
ing insulation, and as a consequence suggestions have 
been made that some form of fireproof insulation be de- 
manded. The cables damaged by the short-circuit were 
insulated in accordance with standard practice, and 
like the rest of the Interborough system were main- 
tained in good shape. However, no insulation can with- 
stand a short-circuit maintained by generators capable 
of supplying many hundred thousand kilowatts to it. 
The temperature of such an arc is high enough to melt 
asbestos, stone, porcelain or any other substance having 
any insulating value whatsoever. It is apparent, how- 
ever, that no cable vault or manhole subject to such mis- 
haps should open or communicate in any way with a 
subway of such importance. Separate and distinct en- 
trances will without doubt be provided hereafter for 
such manholes. 

New York Commissions 

THE subway fire in New York this week has given 
an unexpected momentum to the movement of 
the Republicans for reorganization of the Public Serv- 
ice Commissions. Since Mr. Whitman was elected 
Governor there have been reports that the Republican 
party plans a new law abolishing the two present com- 
missions and creating in their place one commission 
with authority throughout the State. The first definite 
public act confirming these reports is the introduction 
of a resolution in the Legislature on the day of the sub- 
way fire providing for an investigation of that occur- 
rence and of the commissions. Undoubtedly the causes 
of the fire will be investigated, but it is the commis- 
sions that are the real target. Governor Whitman and 
his party are undertaking a grave responsibility, and it 
is highly important that their action shall be for the 
best interests of the State as a whole, and not for the 
advancement of political fortunes. The first appoint- 
ments made by Governor Hughes to the commission in 
1907 were free from political taint. Succeeding Gover- 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

nors appointed politicians for political reasons. The 
public interest needs able, competent and impartial men 
having the public good as their sole aim. Political ap- 
pointments to a public utility regulating commission, 
if persisted in, are sure to cause the ruin of the policy 
of regulation to which the country is committed. Gov- 
ernor Whitman is in duty bound to see to it that regu- 
lation in New York is taken out and kept out of politics. 

A New Illuminometer 

Within the last few years the requirements of illumi- 
nating engineering have produced a considerable num- 
ber of illuminometers, or more precisely portable 
photometers adapted to illumination measurements. In 
an article in the current issue is described the latest of 
these, the Macbeth instrument, the result of consider- 
able study on the part of an experienced illuminating 
engineer, and as such a welcome addition to the line 
of portable instruments. All portable photometers con- 
sist essentially of three elements, a standard of light, 
a means for varying the intensity of the illumination 
derived from that standard, and a photometer screen 
enabling the instrumental illumination to be balanced 
against that received from the outside. Speaking in 
general terms, the only serious difficulty resides in the 
portable standard of light. No trouble whatever is ex- 
perienced in obtaining a good photometric screen, any 
one of many well-known forms of photometer screen 
being capable of sufficient accuracy for all illumination 
measurements. This part of an illumination photometer 
may therefore be considered as involving no technical 
difficulties when reducing the instrument to a portable 
form. Likewise there are divers thoroughly practicable 
means for varying the illumination on the instrumental 
side of the screen. 

The Macbeth instrument represents the result of a 
commendable attempt to solve the problem of developing 
an accurate portable photometer. It consists essentially 
of a Lummer-Brodhun prism used as a photometer 
screen, a working standard operating by varying the 
distance from the instrumental screen, and a standard 
lamp held at constant value by means of adjustable re- 
sistances, used in connection with a storage battery. 
Like other instruments of its class, it may be used either 
with an attached or a detached test plate as circum- 
stances may make desirable. Its notably unusual fea- 
ture is the provision of a primary standard lamp fur- 
nishing light to a test plate with which the working 
standard can be compared from time to time, a feature 
of obvious convenience. Such a device is useful in 
reducing the personal equation which results from dif- 
ferent habits of balance, since the observer uses the 
primary standard by the method of substitution in the 
field. In cannot, of course, eliminate the personal equa- 
tion resulting from color difference any more than 
would be possible in a photometer room calibration by 
imc observer; however, a set of screens for deal- 
ing with color difference is provided to reduce trouble 
from this source. Altogether, it looks like a very 
useful addition to portable photometric equipment 

Difficulties with all such instruments reside in the 
necessary complications in obtaining suitable values for 
the working standard. Attempts have been made in 
several foreign illuminometers to reduce these by 
eliminating the measuring instrument and depending 
on the constancy of voltage of the storage battery 
which furnishes current during the period in which the 
photometer is in use. This procedure is sufficiently suc- 
cessful, provided that the instrument is regularly so 
employed that the storage battery is always kept in its 
best working condition. Under these circumstances an 
instrument may be used for an evening without ap- 
preciable error, but if used only occasionally it is safe to 
assume that the storage battery will not be in prime 
condition, and there is a likelihood of introducing con- 
siderable errors. The device for calibrating the Mac- 
beth instrument in the field by means of a subsidiary 
primary standard appears to be very useful when the 
illuminometer is to be employed for periods of some 
length, and it really constitutes its distinctive feature. 

Protection Against Over-Pressure 

In an important article abstracted in the Digest in 
this issue Mr. Kenelm Edgcumbe discusses at length 
protective gear for dealing with the abnormal pressures, 
whether of external or internal origin, which occur in 
high-tension circuits. Such disturbances he divides into 
two classes — first, those due to causes external to the 
system and including so-called static discharges and 
those associated in one way or another with lightning, 
and, second, abnormal rises of potential due to direct 
resonance, to the violent electromagnetic disturbances 
occurring at sudden changes of load and the miscella- 
neous group associated with partial stationary waves at 
points of electro-dynamic discontinuity, and similar 
phenomena. The essential difference between them, as 
he points out, is that the external disturbances, and 
particularly the severe ones associated with lightning, 
are very sudden, involving extremely steep-fronted 
waves and sometimes high frequencies. It used to be 
believed that lightning was ordinarily a high-frequency 
disturbance, but more recent studies have led to the 
conclusion that the dimensional limitations imposed by 
the capacities and resistances involved in lightning dis- 
charges are such that one usually deals with a discharge 
which may be regarded as of high frequency only in vir- 
tue of its having a very steep front, and such high- 
frequency oscillatory action as may be noted is usually 
of very minor magnitude. Internal disturbances, on 
the other hand, although sometimes of most formidable 
character, do not cause enormously steep wave-fronts. 
l>ut rather those corresponding to the moderate frequen- 
cies of the system. Hence the means adopted for deal- 
ing with these two classes of phenomena are necessa- 
rily somewhat different. 

Mr. Edgcumbe analyzes the performance of various 
(lasses of apparatus designed to protect against exter- 
nal disturbances. Both in theory and in experience 
grounded win- commonly used aa a protective device is 
useful, but it is a palliative rather than a cure, and the 

January 9, 1915 


protection of apparatus must still be insured by other 
devices. As is well known, lightning discharges have a 
strong tendency to puncture the external turns in 
transformer windings and the like, and may produce 
very serious damage. Of the various devices used for 
protection Mr. Edgcumbe has no very flattering opin- 
ion, with the exception of the choking coil, which he 
aptly compares to the removal of the external turns of 
a transformer and their establishment in such form that 
they cannot readily be damaged and will provide for 
discharge to earth. Of the discharging devices he is 
rather inclined to rely on the horn-gap in series with a 
carbon-powder resistor. He has a good word, however, 
to say for the aluminum lightning arrester which is so 
largely used in this country, his only objection to it be- 
ing based on the care required, which renders it suit- 
able for station work rather than for general applica- 
tion. Resistance rods and liquid resistors he holds in 
very small esteem. With respect to "static," another 
well-known form of external disturbance, Mr. Edgcumbe 
pins his faith on a permanent high-inductive resistance 
to earth as the best remedy, a device not yet widely 
used, at least in our own country. Obviously it is 
capable of carrying off a purely static rise of potential, 
but we are inclined to think that what is commonly 
known as "static" is often of a different character and 
may be handled by the ordinary protective devices. 

With respect to the internal disturbances the situa- 
tion is different. The discharges produced are less sud- 
den, but the amount of energy to be dealt with is often 
very large. Resonance of the fundamental frequency, 
except under particular circumstances on very long 
cables, is extremely unusual, but resonance of the har- 
monics may easily occur and lead to serious results. He 
specially mentions the harmonics of considerable ampli- 
tude which may arise when a short-circuit occurs on one 
branch of a three-phase line with resulting resonance 
in the other phases. Another group of troubles from 
over-pressure is familiar as arising from sudden 
switching on or off of circuits containing inductance 
or inductance and capacity, and formidable voltage rises 
now and then occur too on an unloaded line from 
cumulative reflected waves. Fault between lines or line 
and earth may lead to over-pressure in a way analogous 
to switching operations, and in most plants the danger 
from the inside is considerably greater than the danger 
from the outside. The amount of energy to be dealt 
with is commonly quite too great for the apparatus 
installed readily to endure, and every one with experi- 
ence in such matters can recall instances where devices 
installed for protective purposes have been literally 
blown to pieces by the concentration of energy upon 
them in the discharge. Mr. Edgcumbe advocates the 
use of the horn-gap with a suitable carbon-powder resis- 
tor as, on the whole, the most reliable and generally effi- 
cient means of protection. He does not at all share 
the fear of many engineers that breaking the arc at a 
horn-gap may produce considerable disturbance on its 
own account, basing his opinion on various oscillographic 
determinations of the conditions. We are hardly in- 
clined to agree broadly with his view of the case as con- 

siderable evidence to the contrary has been accumulated 
in this country. Yet the horn-gap has elements of de- 
pendability that have brought it into large use. Our 
own view is that a good deal remains to be done in pro- 
tection against surges, the horn-gap advocates to the 
contrary notwithstanding. 

The protection of systems including both cables and 
overhead lines affords the most serious problems in rela- 
tion to both internal and external disturbances, and 
although many palliative measures have been somewhat 
successful, every operating engineer can call to mind a 
long series of apparently inexplicable failures, some of 
them producing results of extreme gravity. Only long 
and patient study of the conditions, with frequent help 
of the oscillograph, is likely to clear up the difficult ques- 
tion of protection. We earnestly advise, however, a 
careful reading of Mr. Edgcumbe's article, as it gives 
a capital presentation of the phenomena in their gen- 
eral relations. 

The Rumford Falls Power Station 

The hydroelectric plant on the Androscoggin River at 
Rumford, Maine, represents a capital example of the 
reorganization of an old plant for higher efficiency and 
greater output. The hydraulic site was utilized long 
ago, on one of the most reliable streams in the East, 
the Androscoggin River being the outlet of the great 
Rangeley Lake group, in which the flow is well regu- 
lated. Rumford is largely a town of paper mills; in 
fact, it is one of the most important centers of this 
industry in New England. Hence a large part of the 
power developed is devoted to the paper industry. 
Originally of modest output with belted units, the plant 
has been improved from time to time and has now 
undergone an important reconstruction. By a dam 
some 400 yd. above the station the river is diverted into 
a canal which provides a working head of approximately 
100 ft. for water for three turbines, two of 5000 hp 
each and one of 2700 hp. As a protection against the 
cold weather the penstocks, which are of steel, are 
sheathed with inch boards, this protection being in- 
creased near the station by felt and asbestos roofing. 

The energy supplied by the plant is in part sold at the 
station to the local central-station organization but in 
the main is delivered to the large paper mills in the 
town. Energy is distributed at 11,000 volts in order 
economically to reach the scattered paper mills. These 
are supplied through 2300-volt substations. A part of 
the energy in the various mills is delivered in the form 
of 220-volt direct current from motor-generators for 
operating the variable-speed motors necessary in driv- 
ing some of the machinery. Much of the load extends 
over the whole twenty-four hours, so that the plant has 
an abnormally high load-factor, reaching in fact the 
probably unique figure of 90 per cent. The total yearly 
output for this reason is astonishingly great for a plant 
of its magnitude, reaching 40,000,000 kw-hr. annually. 
The present plant is the result of intelligent evolution, 
and the changes made in it have greatly increased both 
the output and the efficiency. 



Vol. 65, No. 2 


Safer and Cheaper Wiring Systems 

To the Editor of the Electrical World: 

Sir: — That there is a demand for cheaper wiring 
methods no one can doubt; the suggestion of using a 
bare concentric grounded system should bring about the 
desired result. I have long advocated the mandatory 
grounding of secondary alternating-current systems, 
and I believe that the use of the bare concentric sys- 
tem will hasten the day of universal grounding. I am 
interested in this subject primarily because of the addi- 
tional safety which its use insures and also because of 
the lower cost of installation. When this system is 
properly installed and when polarity extension plugs 
are used it will be an absolute impossibility for a per- 
son using electric light to receive an accidental shock 
of any kind. Not only will it be impossible for him to 
get a high-potential shock but he cannot get a shock at 
110 volts unless he does it deliberately by putting a 
screwdriver into the center of the lamp socket while 
holding on to the outside of the socket or by other sim- 
ilar means. 

If such a system can make electric-lighting cir- 
cuits perfectly safe and at the same time reduce the 
cost of installation, then there is every good reason 
why it should be encouraged. The demand for in- 
creased safety and for cheaper construction comes 
directly from the electric-lighting companies and no 
manufacturing interest is in any way responsible for 
it. I am informed that the patent situation is such 
that any manufacturer in this country is free to make 
the wire. Detail patents on the fittings can be and 
probably will be obtained by the different manufactur- 
ers, but the field is open, and all wishing to enter have 
an equal show. 

The sub-committee of the National Fire Protection 
Association, of which I am chairman, has made a first 
draft of rules covering the installation of the system, 
and a revised set of rules undoubtedly will be brought 
out in the very near future. The committee's final 
draft will be printed in the "Bulletin" sent out by the 
N. F. P. A., will be distributed broadcast and will be 
considered at the March meeting when other proposed 
changes in the Code will also be considered. I feel 
personally that honest criticism at this time is most 
desirable and should be welcomed by all interests. If 
the concentric wiring system has merit, it will undoubt- 
edly be adopted; if there are serious objections, these 
objections will be brought out. There are no interests 
more vitally concerned in safe wiring than the central- 
station companies, and if this proposed system is to add 
any hazard the electric-lighting companies will be the 
first ones to demand that the system be set aside. 

From the account which I read in the Electrical 
World it would seem that the electrical manufacturers, 
jobbers and contractors who met in New York on Dec. 
22 feared that the use of this system might be author- 
ized before the electrical interests would have time to 
adjust themselves to the change. On this subject I 
would say that no action will be taken on the matter 
until March, 1915. If the rules as presented by the 
sub-committee of the National Fire Protection Associa- 
tion carry, the use of the grounded concentric system 
will not be mandatory but will be permissive and sub- 
ject to the "approval of the inspection departments hav- 
ing jurisdiction." There will be no desire on the part 
member of my committee, I am sure, to force the 
immediate use of this system, and a delay of six or nine 
months, or even ;i year, might very properly be made to 
allow manufacturers and jobbers time in which to dis- 

pose of their present stocks. It will take the manufac- 
turers, I am informed, six months or more to get out 
any appreciable amount of wire or to develop lines of 
fittings which would be applicable to this system. This 
whole matter, I believe, is in the line of progress and 
will tend greatly to increase the business of manufac- 
turers, jobbers and contractors. I had personally feared 
that it might temporarily decrease the sale of the 
smaller sizes of conduit and of metal molding, but one 
of the largest jobbers in the country assures me that he 
fears nothing of the kind and thinks that his business 
will be materially increased and that the sale of lamps, 
sockets, heating devices, electric fans, etc., will be stim- 

Any step which can be taken to popularize the use of 
electric lighting will not only be of advantage to the 
central stations, the manufacturers, the jobbers and the 
contractors, but will also meet the approval of the 
Underwriters and be appreciated by the general public. 
If the grounded concentric wiring system is a good 
thing, let us do everything we can to make its use per- 
missive; if it has any dangerous aspects, let us find out 
what they are and see that they are eliminated before 
the system is allowed to come into general use. 

Boston, Mass. W. H. Blood, Jr. 

Cheaper House Wiring 

To the Editor of the Electrical World : 

Sir: — In connection with the article in your issue 
dated Dec. 12, 1914, entitled "Cheap House Wiring," by 
Mr. W. H. Blood, Jr., N. E. L. A. insurance expert, 
attention should be called to patents Nos. 645,011 to 
645,015, issued on March 6, 1900, to Messrs. Warren 
B. Reed and Lyman C. Reed. Their patents cover not 
only a system of interior wiring such as described by 
Mr. Blood but also the detailed methods for distributing 
the energy from the generator to the appliances. 

To those who fifteen years ago solved the problems 
involved, it is gratifying to learn, even at this late date, 
that the engineers of the National Electric Light Asso- 
ciation are considering this distributing system seri- 
ously, although we labored in vain for its acceptance 
by those wielding the destinies of the insurance hazards 
in this country. 

The writer suggests that all engineers now having 
the matter under consideration obtain copies of the 
above-mentioned patents, which contain much informa- 
tion concerning the entire field of electrical distribution. 

Neio Orleans, La. Warren B. Reed. 

[Of the five patents issued on March 6, 1900, to 
Messrs. W. B. and L. C. Reed, the first in date of 
application (Sept. 13, 1899) related to an under- 
ground system of electrical distribution in which the 
neutral conductor cable of a three-wire system of dis- 
tribution is dispensed with and the metallic sheathing 
of the cable is utilized in its stead. The sections of 
sheathings are permanently bonded and grounded at 
all available points of the system, thereby producing a 
neutral equal in practical effect to one of infinite cross- 
section. The second patent related to the application 
of this principle to overhead wires, the third to the 
series-arc system of electrical distribution, the fourth 
to alternating-current transmission and distribution, 
and the fifth to electric-railway feeders. In the latter 
the sheathing, which is insulated from the interior 
conductor, is grounded at every available point and con- 
nected to the rails wherever practicable. — ED.l 

January 9, 1915 



Concentric Wiring 

To the Editor of the Electrical World : 

Sir: — Referring to the article on "Cheaper House 
Wiring" and its discussion at the meeting of manufac- 
turers and contractors at the Hotel Biltmore, New York 
City, on Dec. 21 (see Electrical World, Dec. 26, 
1914), it is a matter of great regret to the writer 
that Mr. Luther Stierenger, who had so much to do 
with the development of safety methods and devices 
for incandescent wiring, could not have been present 
at the meeting to have told us something of the earlier 
development in methods, devices and safeguards which 
it is now proposed to "chuck overboard," apparently 
with very slight consideration. One of the speakers 
at the meeting mentioned stated that the changes pro- 
posed would mean going back twelve or fifteen years. 
Possibly the speaker's experience did not enable him to 
tell the entire truth, which is that it would be going 
back about thirty years or more. The Mills Building 
in New York was the first building of importance wired 
for incandescent lighting during the construction of 
the building. This work was done in 1881-1882. At the 
same time numbers of old buildings in the old Edison- 
Pearl Street district, in New York City, were being 

At this time only single-pole fuses and single-pole 
switches had been designed. Switches and fuses were 
placed on one side of the two-wire system throughout, 
beginning with the central-station switchboard. This 
arrangement made it possible to test and keep one side 
clear of grounds, locating the grounds which occurred 
by disconnecting sections at the fuses and switches. 
Therefore we had practically a grounded system, as 
little effort was necessary to keep the continuous line 
free from grounds. 

Insulating joints had not been thought of, or at 
least had not been made. It is worth while to com- 
pare the material, the methods and the workmanship 
which have been developed to-day in incandescent light- 
ing with the lack of perfection found in the early style 
of work. 

It seems like a curious bit of inverted logic to speak 
of using grounded circuits or earth return for incan- 
descent lighting to-day. In every kind of electrical 
distribution grounded circuits and earth return have 
been attempted, invariably with inferior results. For 
a generation at least earth return has been used on all 
telegraphic lines. To-day metallic circuit is used for 
telegraphing, at least for the more important lines. 
Early telephone work was all done with grounded cir- 
cuits. To-day only a small portion of this remains, 
practically all telephoning being done with continuously 
insulated metallic conductors. On all of the earlier 
electric-railway systems earth-and-rail return was em- 
ployed. The troubles resulting from each were so 
numerous and so serious that every effort has been 
made to get away from the grounded circuit, some cities, 
for instance Cincinnati, forbidding absolutely the use 
of earth return, in spite of the great difficulties involved 
in the use of complete metallic circuit in connection 
with a moving contact. 

Iron ships appeared to offer an ideal opportunity 
for the one-wire system by using the steel skin of the 
ship for return, and many ships have been wired in 
this way. I am not really posted on the history of 
ship wiring, but believe that the one-wire system has 
been practically abandoned in favor of the completely 
insulated metallic copper circuit, and I have no doubt 
that the cause of this would be found in the frequency 
with which faults would develop where only a single 
thickness of insulation interposed between the ground 
return and the copper conductor. A ship is not the 

place to take the risk of fire. We are told that with 
the concentric conductor exposed wiring may be per- 
mitted, and that the concentric wire with bare copper 
conductor outside can be run on the wall and ceiling 
and papered over, etc. Now there is no doubt that 
this arrangement can be made to work very nicely for 
a while, but those of us who have been in the incan- 
descent-lighting business for more than a few years 
have a realizing sense of the time element. Many 
things which work very beautifully for a short while 
subsequently work very badly, and one of the insidious 
troubles which develop at times in geometric ratio is 
electrolysis. Dampness is encountered everywhere, in- 
cidental, accidental, varying with weather, with time 
and with local accidents. The concentric two-wire con- 
ductor, with conducting copper exterior, will suffer 
from continual electrolysis, even with a very slight de- 
gree of dampness and even though the insulation on 
the inside wire is perfect. Wherever current flows 
there is a voltage drop from point to point. This dif- 
ference will be slight but certain in the interior of a 
single building. It will be certain, and not so slight, 
between different points in a large distributing system. 
The concentric wire, which is so neatly concealed by 
the paper-hanger, will develop various kinds and de- 
grees of discoloration, according to the degree of damp- 
ness and the material present for the current to work 
upon. The discoloring in electrolysis will mean actual 
metallic corrosion, and this may in time lead to the 
severing of the outside conductor and to heating and 
arcing, which in some situations would mean a serious 
fire risk, even though the insulation of the central con- 
ductor had not suffered in the least. 

I do not think it has been pointed out that with a 
single insulating sheath a larger quantity of insula- 
tion would be required actually than with two separate 
insulating sheaths. It has not been proposed, so far 
as I know, to lower the voltage in connection with a 
grounded concentric wiring system. Therefore, with 
the same voltage as before the same thickness of in- 
sulation on the wire will be needed in order to pre- 
vent an undue number of failures. As cross-sectional 
area and weight vary with the square of the radius, 
the single wire, with double thickness of insulation, 
will require an additional weight of insulation. The 
expense of the added insulating material will be worth 

It seems pertinent to ask why American electrical 
engineers should go to Europe for improvement in 
incandescent lighting applications. Many good things 
in the way of scientific development and new discov- 
eries have come from Europe, but in the electrical dis- 
tribution of energy the United States is so far ahead 
that we feel a sort of pity for the European lighting 
engineers when we see how badly they do many things ; 
most of all, when we see how badly they do interior 
wiring. We are certainly many years in advance of 
Italy, France and England in methods and material for 
interior wiring. It is true that we build our houses 
to burn up, whereas most European buildings are rea- 
sonably safe from danger of fire. Still, it is a fact that 
in our most modern and perfectly fireproof office build- 
ings and public buildings we have not found it desira- 
ble or necessary to be less particular in regard to wiring 
devices and methods. In fact, in our large buildings, 
which we claim contain not enough wood to make a 
lead pencil, the wiring will be found to be as con- 
scientiously done according to fire insurance rules as 
in cheaper and poorer buildings. 

The irritation produced by the red tape and fussy 
methods of our fire insurance wiring rules is largely 
cured by an inspection of wiring methods in Italy and 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

Engku where no such rigid authority exists and 
where such rules and inspection as are made are of gov- 
ernmental origin and enforcement. In England the 
concentric wiring system of Andrews has been care- 
fully developed but has not been largely used, probably 
on account of the difficulty in making joints and con- 
nections. It would seem to have been very perfectly 
worked out in detail and ought to be satisfactory in 
use if installed by skilled workmen. 

The writer feels like urging very strongly caution in 
making sweeping changes in our present wiring 
methods. We have arrived at a high degree of excel- 
lence by going slowly and taking short steps and by 
trying out each improvement before demanding change. 
We have the very great advantage of central authority 
over the whole United States, as compared with local 

The work of the Underwriters' Laboratories has been 
of great educational value to both the manufacturers 
and the contractors. We should like to see the com- 
mittee on rules of the National Board of Fire Under- 
writers and the skill and facilities of the Underwriters' 
Laboratories broadened and strengthened until they 
would command the confidence of every educated engi- 
neer. This result would be hindered by any bad mis- 
take, such as the promulgating of hastily considered 

Philadelphia, Pa. Charles Wirt. 

The Photometry of Gas-Filled Lamps 

To the Editor of the Electrical World : 

Sir: — Coincident with the commercial success of the 
high-efficiency tungsten lamps new difficulties have been 
presented to the science of photometry. In consequence 
of the adoption of this lamp for standard illumination 
practice it has become necessary to make standards 
with which to compare the commercial product. In 
studying the general principles which were employed in 
the construction of these lamps when first placed on the 
market, I realized that certain difficulties would arise 
when it became necessary to obtain their photometric 
constants for the purpose of making standards for com- 
parison. The photometrical difficulties which will be 
encountered in making these standards and in the sub- 
sequent comparison with the commercial product are, I 
believe, not generally recognized. 

It is common practice in photometrical laboratories 
to measure the constants of a lamp while it is rotating, 
the speed of rotation varying from approximately 80 to 
120 r.p.m. When a high-efficiency lamp is burned in a 
stationary position there are definite constants for cur- 
rent, voltage and candle-power which will satisfy the 
operating equation for any given lamp. (Owing to the 
distortion of the filament, from its expansion on heat- 
ing, the constants of the lamp are not absolute, and 
changes in the current and the candle-power in a par- 
ticular direction, will not be uncommon. By careful se- 
lection of lamps and proper orientation this difficulty 
may be partly overcome.) When the lamp is rotated 
two primary opposing phenomena take place, and per- 
haps several secondary phenomena, to affeel the con- 
tfl of a lamp more or less perceptibly. The filament 
changes in n i tance because of its mechanical con- 
struction. The filament of the lamp is made up Of several 
loops of a helical spring of tungsten wire. When an 
angular velocity of u> is imparted to the filament a force 

dF equal to r is imparted to an elementary parti 

cle (if the filament. The direction of this force is such 
as to cause the filament to lengthen in direct proportion 

to the square of the angular velocity for limited values 


of o). The ratio -^- approaches infinity as a limit for 

comparatively large values of co (dl is the change in 
length of the filament due to the force dF). Owing to 
this stretching action of the filament when rotated, 
there is attained a condition the characteristics of 
which is expressed by the general curve shown in Fig. 1. 
As the angular velocity increases the values of the re- 
sistance become asymptotic to a limiting resistance R x . 
Such a phenomenon would cause the current character- 
istic of a high-efficiency lamp to assume the conditions 
shown by the general curve of Fig. 2, where 1 is the 
value of the current when the lamp is stationary. The 
current becomes asymptotic to the value l x for increased 
values of co. 

The counter primary phenomenon is the increased 
cooling effect on the filament due to the rotation of the 
lamp. This cooling effect would be produced by the 
action of the air external to the bulb on the periphery 
of the bulb. This action would accelerate the dissipa- 


tion of heat from the glass surface, and consequently 
the filament, approximately as to ,/S . The convexion cur- 
rents within the bulb would suffer little change due to 
the low viscosity of nitrogen and the low values of u> 
used in practice. 

Thus two primary effects are produced by rotation 
of the lamp. For the first phenomenon the current 

would vary approximately as -j and for the second 

primary phenomenon the current would vary approxi- 
mately as u) ,/s . It is evident that there will be a critical 
value of io for which the current will equal the statio- 
nary value /„. 

The combined effect of the two primary opposing 
phenomena would lead to different values for the criti- 
cal value of a), depending on whether the lamp is rotated 
with its tip up or tip down, due to the change in the 
conduction constants of the lamp in the two different 

On account of the lack of suitable apparatus, an ex- 
tended study has not been attempted by the writer. It 
is hoped, however, that by calling attention to the above 
principles interest may be awakened to such an extent 
that some of the well-equipped photometrical labora- 
tories will undertake a research which will develop 
equations connecting the constants of a high-efficiency 
lamp with the speed of rotation and determine analyti- 
cally and experimentally the exact nature of the reac- 
tions that take place to produce the variations in the 
constants of a high-efficiency lamp when operated at va- 
rious speeds of rotation. 

Washington, D. C. Davis H. Tuck. 

| The manuscript for the above discussion reached us 
practically simultaneously with the manuscript of the 
article by Messrs. (J. W. Middlekauff and .1. P. Skog- 
land relating to the same subject, published in the ELEC- 
TRICAL WORLD dated Dec. 26, 1914, but could not be used 
in that issue on account of the extra time required for 
preparing the illustration. — Ed.] 


Hydroelectric Development at Rumford, Maine 

Utilization of Flowage of Androscoggin River at Falls — Central-Station Energy 
for Paper-Making and Chemical Plants 

THE electrification of the Androscoggin River at 
Rumford, Maine, affords an interesting example 
of water-power utilization. As the outlet of the 
famous Rangeley Lakes this stream is an exceptionally 
reliable power producer, with a minimum flow con- 
served by the Aziscohos dam in the lake region, built 
a few years ago through the co-operation of the Rum- 
ford Falls Power Company, the Union Water Power 
Company, the Berlin Mills Company and the Interna- 
tional Paper Company, all users of power on the river 
in New Hampshire or Maine. Rumford, a thriving in- 
dustrial town of 7000 inhabitants, is one of the chief 
paper-making centers in Maine. Here are situated 
mills of the International Paper Company, the Oxford 
Paper Company, the Continental Paper Bag Company, 
the Maine Coated Paper Company and the Fort Hill 
Chemical Company, all being substantial power users. 
With the exception of the first-named concern, all are 
customers of the Rumford Falls Power Company, whose 
general hydraulic development is illustrated in the head- 
piece on this page. 

The station has passed through an evolution in which 
belted units have yielded to directly connected outfits ; 
the head utilized has been increased to 100 ft. and the 
station rebuilt along modern lines which give little 
evidence of the changes effected from time to time. As 
the flow of the river exceeds that necessary to the pres- 
ent development, and as the latter has reached its maxi- 
mum with the present station, 9750 kw, the power com- 
pany plans ultimately to build a new station a short 

distance downstream, with a total rating of 24,000 kw 
in six generating units. 

About 1200 ft. above the station the river is diverted 
by a timber and rock-fiilled dam 250 ft. long, which 
backs up the water for 8 miles. Approximately at 
right angles to the dam a retaining wall 60 ft. from 
the cliff forms with the cliff wall a canal about 100 ft. 
long and 18 ft. deep. At the lower end of the canal 
double sets of racks are provided, and behind these is a 
narrow forebay with two sluicegates on the river side 
and two main gates on the downstream side, with con- 
nections to two steel penstocks leading to the power 
house. The gates were built by the Holyoke Machine 
Company, Worcester, Mass., and are shortly to be 
equipped with motor drive, hand operation at present 
being employed. Vent ducts are provided in the con- 
crete wall carrying the gates, and provision is made in 
the shape of vertical pipes surmounted by funnels 
through which hot water can be poured to keep the 
vents free from ice. Galvanized iron guards are in- 
stalled over all gearing to prevent ice formation. 

Station Equipment 

In the generating plant are one 2700-hp and two 
5000-hp Holyoke horizontal turbines directly connected 
to the main generators, all of which are Westinghouse 
2300-volt, three-phase, revolving-field alternators, mak- 
ing 400 revolutions per minute and delivering sixty- 
cycle energy to the switchboard through cables carried 
in floor ducts. To the smaller turbine are directly con- 





■ 'iV 




Vol. 65, No. 2 

nected three generators of 400-kw, 550-kw and 800-kw 
rating respectively, these machines having been used in 
the earlier station construction and being equipped with 
shaft couplings, with a 10-kw directly connected and a 
45-kw belt-driven exciter running at 900 r.p.ra. The 
two larger wheels each drive a 4000-kw generator, one 
being equipped with an 85-kw belt-driven exciter run- 
ning 725 r.p.m. Between the larger units and the 
smaller set is a 100-kw exciter directly driven by an 
independent waterwheel. These machines are mounted 
in a row in an operating room 200 ft. long by 30 ft. 
wide and 17 ft. high. The station is of brick and con- 
crete construction, the penstocks being brought down 
to the roof and carried vertically to the wheels as 
shown in the illustrations. 

One penstock is 13 ft. in diameter and is carried 
through to the 4000-kw unit nearest the downstream 
end of the station. The other is 14 ft. in diameter, 
being carried through in this size to the second 4000-kw 

cold weather by woolen felt and asbestos roofing. The 
Holyoke Machine Company's "Improved" governor is 
used, and the gate openings on each wheel are recorded 
on Barrett and Lincoln hydro-chronographs. 

System Control 

The main switchboard consists of twenty-one marble 
panels mounted on the floor of the operating room near 
the northern end of the station, machine cables being 
run to it in floor ducts, with generator oil switches of 
the hand-operated type at the rear of the panels. All 
the energy sold by the local central-station organiza- 
tion, the Rumford Light & Water Company, is metered 
at this board and the distribution is by 2300-volt, three- 
phase circuits run down the valley on a wooden frame 
pole line. A No. 6 arc circuit is also run from the sta- 
tion, supplying 6.6-amp alternating-current inclosed-arc 
lamps, but a trial installation of nitrogen-filled lamps is 
being made for street illumination, with the prospect of 


unit, with a 10-ft. branch leading to the 1750-kw three- 
generator unit and a 3-ft. branch supplying the inde- 
pendently driven exciter. Double-draft tubes lead from 
the wheel casings to the tailrace. The penstocks are 
supported on masonry piers, and each of the main pipe 
lines is provided with a full-diameter branch leading 
to a relief outlet carried in the middle of a concrete 
inclosing structure provided with steps and runways 
for the discharge of the spilled-over water into the 
river without damage. 

Below the station a canal is utilized by the Inter- 
national Paper and Fort Hill Chemical companies, the 
discharge from local wheels in these mills being con- 
ducted to a second or lower canal utilized by the Oxford 
company, with final discharge into the river below the 
town. A total fall of 180 ft. is utilized in the town, 
including that of the power company's plant. The 
penstocks are covered with 1-in. wooden sheathing at 
present throughout a large part oi their lengths, the 
runs close to the station being further protected from 

its early extension. All switchboard panels are provided 
with knife switches at the top, by which they may be 
disconnected from the buses when necessary. A single 
set of buses is installed, and the feeder oil switches are 
mounted in a fireproof compartment on the roof. A 
noteworthy feature of the board is the extended use of 
recording instruments, both Bristol and Westinghouse 
outfits being installed. 

A separate panel is provided for the station heaters, 
the entire plant heating being by electrical energy. 
For this service twelve Simplex grid-type heaters are 
installed, each consuming 7.2 kw at 110 volts and being 
controlled by a separate switch on the heater panel. 
Graphic ammeters are used on the circuits supplying 
the light and water company, on the outgoing power 
lines and on the station auxiliary service lines and 
totalizing panel, graphic wattmeters being used on the 
Light and Water service and on the generator totalizing 
panel. Graphic power-factor and frequency meters are 
used on the totalizing generator panel. The synchro- 

January 9, 1915 





scope, power-factor indicator and voltmeters on the 
usual bracket at the end of the board are illuminated 
by two 25-watt tubular lamps carried in horizontal re- 
flectors concealing the lamps from the floor level. Re- 
cording wattmeters are also provided along the usual 
lines of practice. 

The station lighting is by twenty-nine units hung 
15 ft. above the floor of the operating room, each con- 

sisting of an Alba globe 14 in. in diameter containing 
four 40-watt lamps. The station is provided with a 
tile floor, pressed-brick walls and smoothly finished con- 
crete ceiling. The heaters are carried on angle-irons 
with 14-in. by 18-in. arms from 1 in. to 3 in. thick and 
attached to the wall by a %-in. bolt at the top of the 
angle in each case, the heater being mounted 10 in. 
above the floor and usually under the window. No 

FIG. 6 — 100-KW EXCITER 



Vol. 65, No. 2 



steam heat is employed in the building, and the vitiated 
air is removed by two motor-driven fans controlled by 
starting boxes on the main switchboard. A small ma- 
chine shop is installed just outside the operating room, 
and the chief operating engineer's office, which is 
reached by a winding stairway leading from the shop, 
and the walls are utilized for the storage of supplies 
of small size, steel shelves and racks with unit sections 
having been provided for this purpose. On account of 
the arrangement of the penstocks, the station has no 
fixed traveling crane, but machinery is handled by a 
traveling hoist which is assembled upon a frame of 

10-in. and 12-in. steel I-beams when work of this nature 
has to be done, the capacity of the hoist being 5 tons. 
When not in use the members of the frame are stored 
under a shelf at the side of the operating room. 

Distribution System 
The outgoing feeders are dead-ended by turnbuckle 
connections and strain insulators in a wire tower shown 
in the general view of the station, each line being pro- 
vided with a choke coil and lightning arrester connec- 
tions carried on a wooden and steel frame about 10 ft. 
above the floor. An insulating section cut into each 



January 9, 1915 




line terminates at each end in a short tap leading to the 
choke coil. Three 75-kva station service transformers 
are mounted in this tower, with two tub transformers 
for street lighting. The generator field rheostats are 
also placed here, on a concrete platform illustrated in 
the accompanying photograph. The approach to the 
station is by a handsome concrete stairway running 
along the river bank, this being illuminated by five Mott 
iron standards carrying five 16-cp incandescent lamps 
each above the balustrade. 

The 11,000-volt lines which supply energy to the 
mills, and incidentally to Dixville, cross the river near 
the dam, where a substation has been built to raise the 
pressure from 2300 volts as received from the station 
proper for the short transmission to the principal users. 





^B^J \ 

-**"*• iw SS VL 

The substation contains three 2500-kw Allis-Chalmers 
water-cooled transformers, with lightning arresters for 
incoming and outgoing lines, two 0.8 hp motor-driven 
centrifugal circulating pumps and disconnecting 
switches for the entering and departing lines. The 
lightning arresters are of the Westinghouse low-equiva- 
lent type on the 2300-volt side and of the General Elec- 
tric aluminum-cell type on the outgoing-line side of the 
substation. The main plant is connected with the sub- 
station by three three-phase circuits, each leg consist- 
ing of two 300,000-circ. mil cables in parallel. 

The 11,000-volt wiring is arranged so that if desired 
the choke coils and lightning arresters can be cut out 
by disconnecting switches carried on the higher tension 
framework, and a disconnecting switch is provided for 





Vol. 65, No. 2 

FIG. 17- 


each leg of the incoming 2300-volt lines. The outgoing 
lines are dead-ended on strain insulators carried on a 
steel frame on each side of the river, as shown, the span 
being 375 ft. The line is carried on 30-ft. to 60-ft. 
cedar poles set in a right-of-way about 125 ft. apart. 
The Dixville line is tapped off one circuit through Delta- 
Star pole switches, and Burke horn-gap switches are 
employed in the line just outside the substation of the 
Oxford Mills. The Dixville line is equipped with "wish- 
bone" cross-arms carrying insulators spaced on a 30-in. 
equilateral-triangle, cedar poles from 30 ft. to 35 ft. 
long being used. The 11,000-volt lines are all of No. 00 
copper and are designed for ultimate operation at 
22,000 volts. 

Industrial Applications 
The various mills are supplied with energy at 2300 
volts from two substations, one containing three 300-kw 
transformers and the other three 2500-kva units. The 
former supplies the Continental Bag, Maine Coated 
Paper and Fort Hill companies, the last-named having a 


twenty-four-hour demand in the manufacture of chlo- 
rate of potash. In the Maine Coated Paper plant local 
distribution is at 550 volts from a private substation, 
with a 250-volt direct-current service for variable-speed 
motors derived from a 200-kw synchronous motor-gen- 
erator set. The contract provides a bonus to the user 
dependent upon the power-factor of the installation, 
which ranges between 90 and 95 per cent. Besides two 
lighting transformers of 15-kw rating each, the plant is 
operated by three 15-hp induction motors driving six 
coating machines and carriers, three 75-hp variable- 
speed direct-current motors driving calenders, and va- 
rious smaller motors driving cutting machines, a box 
department, screen, air-pump, elevators and small tools. 
The calender drive is new in the use of a hand control 
associated with the variable-speed feature which enables 
the speed of the paper at joints and other places to be 
closely regulated. 

The Oxford Mills consume about 80 per cent of the 
output of the Rumford Falls Power Company, having a 

fig. ik ir 


January 9, 1915 



large twenty-four-hour demand. The local substation 
for the plant supplies eighteen beaters driven by motors 
rated at from 100 hp to 450 hp, with rope and belt 
drive, with three refining engines driven by independent 
motors rated from 100 hp to 150 hp, an electric bleach 
plant supplied with 220-volt direct current from five 
325-kw motor-generator sets, and other paper machin- 
ery. The motor-generators were built by the Western 
Electric Company and the motors in the plant include 
Allis-Chalmers, Westinghouse and General Electric 
equipment. An interesting combination drive is that 
of a constant-speed shaft run by a steam engine and 
belted to a 180-kw generator wired to a 240-hp variable- 
speed motor directly connected to another shaft requir- 
ing a speed range of from 60 to 360 r.p.m. The mer- 
cury-cell electric-bleach process is employed. The line 
feeding the mill substation is carried on Coombs steel 
towers. A 125-hp municipal pumping load is a feature 
of the local central-station service, and the output of 
the hydroelectric plant averages about 40,000,000 kw-hr. 
per year, the station load-factor being approximately 90 
per cent. 

Mr. Charles A. Mixer is the chief mechanical 
and hydraulic engineer of the Rumford Falls Power 


Portable Equipment for Determining Natural or Artificial 
Illumination Values Easily and Accurately 

By C. S. Redding 

A PORTABLE photometric equipment complete in 
all details essential for making the desirable 
determinations of illumination values in light- 
ing installations, either natural or artificial, is shown 
in the accompanying illustration. By means of this 
equipment measurements of illumination or of surface 
brightness within the range of the eye can be made 
conveniently, easily and with a high degree of photo- 
metric accuracy. The usual color difficulties have 
been largely overcome and intensities up to many 
thousands of foot-candles have been brought within 
the range of convenient measurement. 

A complete illuminometer weighing, including carry- 
ing case, from 14 lb. to 18 lb., depending upon the 
kind and size of battery used, surely answers the first 
requirement of portability. 

The equipment shown in Fig. 1 consists of three 
main parts and various accessories. 

The illuminometer proper (Fig. 2), weighing only 
20 ounces, may be described as a vest-pocket edition 
of a modified Weber photometer. A Lummer-Brodhun 
cube with circular concentric fields is mounted in the 
head. The tungsten working standard lamp is fixed 
in a diaphragmed carriage which is moved up and 
down in the aluminum-tube body. The square brass 
rod projecting from the lower end is rigidly fastened 
to the lamp carriage and is operated with a substan- 
tial rack and pinion by either the right-hand or left- 
hand knurled handles at the end of the tube. The scale 
engraved upon the square rod is convenient for ob- 
servation and is graduated to read directly from 1 ft.- 
candle to 25 ft.-candles. This scale follows the in- 
verse square law and is theoretically correct and not 
experimentally determined for each instrument. The 
range may be considerably extended above 25 ft.- 
candles or below 1 ft. -candle, over a range of 100,000 
to 1 if desired, by means of neutral absorbing screens 
of various densities, the actual ratio being practically 
limited only by the necessities of the operator. Special 
color screens have also been developed for use where 
great color differences exist, such as measurements 

with daylight, or where incandescent gas-mantle lamps, 
gas-filled tungsten lamps, flame-arc lamps, Moore tubes 
or mercury-vapor lamps are installed. 

The controller, which is an addition to the usual 
portable photometer but a part of this equipment, is 
shown in the center of Fig. 1. This unit contains the 
battery, a Weston mil-ammeter with knife-edge pointer, 
two close-regulating rheostats and a reversing switch 


as well as substantial connections for the various plug 

The third main part is the reference standard, shown 
diagrammatically in Fig. 3. This device provides a 
direct and simple means for each operator to stand- 
ardize the working standard lamp within the illumino- 
meter at any time or place. This convenience of stand- 
ardization does away with all uncertainty as to the 
every-day condition of the working standard lamp, the 
dark room and auxiliary photometric apparatus, and, 
of still greater importance, it eliminates the personal 
factor which depends upon each operator's idea of a 
photometric balance. An operator is not given a cur- 
rent value for the working standard lamp, the light 
output of which will change throughout a compara- 
tively short life, but is furnished with a certified cur- 


rent value for this reference standard which will be 
used for only a few hours a year. The reference 
standard delivers a definite intensity of illumination in 
foot-candles on the test plate used with the equip- 
ment. The operator's personal peculiarities in relation 
to a photometric balance are considered thus in estab- 
lishing the current value for the working standard 
lamp. Standardizing against a known illumination in- 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

tensity steps over the well-known personal differences 
of various photometric observers. 

The illuminometer may be used in the usual manner, 
attached horizontally to a tripod with a rotating horn 
covered by a translucent test plate, the body of the 
operator being below the test plane, or measurements 
may be made as shown in Fig. 4, the operator standing 
in an easy, natural position and observing the bright- 
ness of the test plate, attached to a light-weight tripod. 

Particular attention has been given to brightness 
measurements, a field of considerable importance which 
is receiving increased attention. By a simple change 
in calibration of the working standard lamp, consider- 
ing the "apparent foot-candles 1 emitted" from the test 
plate with the reference standard, brightness measure- 
ments of all surfaces where the color differences are 
not prohibitive may be conveniently made by merely 
looking through the instrument toward the surface. 
This method renders the regular foot-candles scale di- 
rect reading without the use of factors for multiplying 
or dividing the scale values excepting where results 
are desired in terms of candle-power per square inch, 
per square foot, per square centimeter or per square 
meter. That part of the prism taking in the outside 
field is very small — about 3 32-in. diameter — and the 
angle subtended is also small. The distance between 
the observer and the surface is not a factor, however, 
so long as the surface is of uniform brightness over an 
area having a diameter of approximately one-tenth the 
distance. A surface 10 ft. in diameter will fill the 


photometric field when observed from any distance up 
to 100 ft. 

A white glass with a special light diffusing finish is 
used for the test plates. This material and its sur- 
facing were the result of an extended investigation. 
In the use of all ordinary test plates errors are in- 
variably introduced as the angles of incidence of the 
light on the test plate or from the test plate to the 
illuminometer become greater with respect to the line 
perpendicular with the plate. The character of the 
test plate should be such that its coefficient of reflec- 
tion is as nearly as possible independent of the angle 
of incidence of the lijrlit falling upon it or the position 
from which it is observed. With a given illumination 
a perfect plate would be of equal brightness when 
viewed from all directions. Such a Burface has not 
been secured. An important advance, however, has 
been made beyond previou practice. 

As is well known, the reflecting characteristics of 
surfaces vary with different materials and also with 
different surface conditions Of the same material. Fig. 

5 shows curves of four different materials from among 
a large number tested. Curve A represents the results 
obtained from a surface of smooth fresh-set plaster of 
paris. At an angle of incidence of 20 deg. there is 
an error of over 2 per cent. Curve B represents the 
results from block magnesium carbonate. This mate- 
rial gives good results up to an angle of 20 deg. but 


poor beyond that point. Moreover, it is not a practical 
material to use for test plates. Curve D, which was re- 
produced directly from a paper by Edwards and Harri- 
son 5 , relates to the usual test plate heretofore in use. 
Curve C, representing the material adopted for the 
test plate in the illuminometer described herein, shows 
practically no error up to an angle of 25 deg., and from 
that point the error is much less than with the other 
materials indicated. 

The plate selected may, if care is used, be washed 
with soap and water without danger of changing the 
character of the surface. It is preferable, however, to 
clean the test plate with a dilute acid solution in 










. i s 


order to remove any traces of grease from the surface. 
The above-described photometric equipment, known 
as the Macbeth illuminometer, is the result of nearly 
four years of development work by Mr. Norman Mac- 
beth, illuminating engineer. New York, and by mem- 
bers of the staff of the development laboratory of the 
Leeds & Northrup Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

I / 8 Vol B, par 

January 9, 1915 



High- Voltage Transmission at High Altitude— II 

Conclusion of the Description of the Chile Exploration Company's 110,000-Volt Installation 
in the Andes— Details of Line and Tower Construction 

By Percy H. Thomas, Consulting Engineer 

AS a guide to the operating force in making effective 
use of the line, a chart of curves was plotted for 
the operator in the generating station to show 
the voltage, current, power-factor, kilovolt-amperes and 
kilowatts at the far end of the line, as well as the line 
efficiency for any given combination of current, voltage 
and power-factor. A similar curve chart was made for 
use in the substation. 

The curve sheet designed for use in the generating 
station is reproduced in Fig. 10, and that for use in the 



l^ 5 


" IUJ 







j - 











J^— — 








■;■'. HIHB 








substation in Fig. 11. From these curves it will be seen 
that the line is unusual in two or three features. First, 
its efficiency is very high for the load of 25,000 kw or 
thereabouts which it will be called upon to deliver. In 
the second place, the line almost perfectly balances, 
since the "leading power" effect of its electro- 
static capacity nearly equals the "lagging power" 
effect of the line inductance at full load. Under non- 
inductive full load the line will operate at approximately 
unity power-factor throughout. The three synchronous 
motor-generators have sufficient capacity to raise the 
total power-factor to 95 per cent lagging. As a result 
of this condition the line drop is only a little in excess 
of that due to its ohmic resistance alone, which adjust- 
ment is the most efficient possible. 

Stringing and Sagging of Cables 
The field curves for stringing the conductor cable and 
showing the effect of temperature on sag for various 
spans are reproduced in Fig. 8. These curves have 
been calculated on the assumption that the cable is to 
be so drawn that in any span the stress would become 
2700 lb. in case the conditions should change to the 
maximum wind at — 5 deg. C. already selected as the 
worst condition. These relations are plotted in a new 
form, which is more convenient, since the stress in the 
cable is the main feature of interest in fixing the sag. 
The determining of sag by temperature alone is uncer- 
tain since small errors in the temperature make large 
differences in the sag. It will be noticed that in this 
particular line, for temperatures between 30 deg. C. and 
40 deg. C, the tension to which the cable should be 
stressed is nearly the same regardless of the length of 

span. It should be noted also that for very short spans 
the stress in the cable is the same regardless of whether 
the wind pressure exists or not. This is an interesting 
theoretical point and seems to involve an inconsistency. 
The correctness of the chart becomes clear, however, 
when it is remembered that the infinitesimal stretching 
that will be caused by the addition of wind pressure 
in a perfectly tight span to relieve the extra strain will 
not materially change the stress on the conductor, 
which has already been stretched to 70 per cent of its 
elastic limit. On the other hand, in very long spans the 
stress on the wire is practically directly proportional to 
the resultant loading and is almost entirely independent 
of temperature, because the sag is so great in the long 
spans as not to be largely affected by small changes in 

Sag and Stress Calculations 

All sag and stress calculations for the cables were 
made by the graphical method described by the writer 
at the annual convention of the A. I. E. E., Chicago, 
1911. As compared with other methods this method 
represents a great saving of labor. The results were 
frequently checked by other methods. 

Special approximate curves were derived for deter- 
mining clearances between the line wires and the ground 
where adjacent towers were not on the same level. 
These curves are shown in Fig. 9, where each curve is 
drawn to represent the curve taken by a conductor in 
some assumed span when given such a sag at + 55 deg 
C. as will cause a stress of 2700 lb. when the conditions 
change to — 5 deg. C. with the maximum wind. These 
curves were plotted on tracing cloth to the same scale 
as the profile of the line. To determine the clearance 
on any span the transparent curve sheet was laid over 
the profile with the point A on the curves directly over 
the position of attachment of the insulator on the high 
tower and with the axes of X exactly parallel on the 
curve sheet and on the profile. The profile of the 

— — ^ — — ■ 




XN^ T+- 











ground between towers was then seen through the trans- 
parent cloth on which the curve was plotted, and one 
could readily see along what curve the conductor must 
lie to give the necessary clearance and determine at 
what points the second tower can be placed to hold the 
conductor at the proper height. Where the high tower 
is on the left instead of the right, as shown, the tracing 
was turned over, although, of course, the same curves 
might have been plotted reversed on another sheet. In- 



Vol. 65, No. 2 



i Currtnl 

j I no Load 




( 110 KV. 



I 20,000 

12000 16000 20.000 24.000 28000 




56.000 40.000 

January 9, 1915 













(100 KV. BUS-BAR) 

(110 KV BUS-BAR) 

l«X» ZO0OO 240OO Z8.000 




Vol. 65, No. 2 

terpolation between curves may be resorted to. This 
arrangement of span curves on transparent cloth, which 
was devised by Mr. Walter Dickson, was found 
very convenient. The results obtained with it are, of 
course, only approximately correct, since the assumption 
has to be made that the change in the sag due to the 
change in temperature from + 55 deg. C. to — 5 deg. C. 

Conductor, *2 

•ing rod *l f~ s ^"il s ^ 


FIG. 12- 


occurs in the full-length span, which, of course, is not 
the case. It is believed, however, that the clearances 
determined by this method are always on the side of 


The method of making transpositions in the line is 
shown in Fig. 12. The transpositions are made on one 
side of and close to a dead-end tower. At all points 
two strings of insulators lie between any two line 
wires, and a minimum clearance of 6 ft. is main- 
tained between the lines. The transposition was made 
close to the tower in order to avoid the crossing of one 
wire over another in the middle of a long span. The 
arrangement is such that one side of the tower is free 
for the installation of sectionalizing switches and an 
operating platform whenever necessity may arise. 

Tower Tests 

The tower designs were arrived at as follows: Tenders 

were called for to meet a certain specification in which 

a general tower outline and no structural details were 

o, but in which a specified loading was set down. 

When the best tender with detail design had been 

elected a single tower was built and tested, and a 

slightly modified design was adopted as a resull of this 

According to the original specifications, any three of 
the five cablet on one tower could be assumed broken 
with a " nit, nit pull of iToii lb. on each of the insulator 
I he conductor wa umed broken and 
2500 lb. on each ground-wire lupporl where the ground 
wire was assumed broken. This condition was to !"• 
withstood simultaneous!} with a wind pressure ol BO 
Hi. per q ft, mi flal urfaci ( he line, a i rans- 

pull "i BOO lb. on each insulator Buppori and 

lb. on each ground-wire support representing the wind 
pressure in the cables, together with a pressure of 1000 
lb. downward on each insulator support to represent the 
dead weight of the cables and the downward component 
of the pressure on vertical angles. The test tower was 
mounted on rigid foundations, since it was hardly feasi- 
ble to establish proper competitive conditions on towers 
placed on field foundations ; moreover, the soil conditions 
along the actual route of the line were not at that time 

When loaded in accordance with the specification the 
tower showed no distress. The load was made greater 
by increasing first the transverse and then the longi- 
tudinal stresses until the tower finally failed by buck- 
ling of one main leg, under which conditions the trans- 
verse load was double the specification load and the 
longitudinal load was 30 per cent in excess of the speci- 
fication load. 

Additional tests were made by stressing each insula- 
tor support separately to 3000 lb. and each ground wire 
connection to 5000 lb. without signs of distress. 

Tower Foundations 

A great deal of care was taken with the tower founda- 
tions. Obviously, no tower, however strong or well de- 
signed, will give good results unless each and every 
foundation supporting point is properly placed and 
maintained. The displacement of one of the four 
points of support by only an inch will produce very con- 
siderable internal stresses in the towers. The accuracy 
of the setting of the four points of support depends 
almost wholly on the care exercised in the field, but 
where steel foundation stub angles are used to support 
the tower weakness may be inadvertently introduced in 

4x-fx,{ L s 


SxSX^l ; 2x2* f-^L 


the tower structure even when the four foundation stubs 

are placed in exactly the COrrecl relative positions. 

Whatever horizontal pull, either longitudinal or trans- 
verse, exists (in the tower must be resisted by a hori- 
i lone at the top of the foundation stub angles, 
and the overturning moment of the force on the tower 

be balanced by an upward thrust on the near stubs 

January 9, 1915 



and a downward pull on the far stubs. Unless the re- 
sultant of the upward (or the downward) and the 
horizontal thrust lies along the axis of the stub angle, a 
bending movement will be produced on the stub. There 
is nothing to resist the bending of the tops of the stub 
other than its natural strength except the resistance of 
the earth, which resistance is small near the surface of 


the ground. Consequently a foot or more of the top of 
the stub may be largely unsupported and hence may be 
required to resist bending like a cantilever beam. To 
reduce the stress in the stub produced by such forces 
use was made of two sets of shear plates located about 
8 in. below the surface of the ground to support the 
stubs, both across the line and with the line. The shear 
plates resisting the transverse stresses were mounted 
above the other shear plates because the transverse 
bending stresses were exerted far higher than the longi- 
tudinal bending stresses in the towers. 

Bending Stresses in the Stubs 

Since a tower is by no means a perfectly rigid struc- 
ture and the horizontal thrusts are not divided between 
all four stub angles equally but are largely concen- 
trated on two of the stubs, the bending stresses in the 
stubs are high. The horizontal thrust is transmitted 
to the bottom of the tower legs by the tower diagonals, 
and these are much more rigid in tension than in com- 
pression, so that the stubs to which the tension diag- 
onals are attached are subjected to the greatest stress 
of all. 

In the Chile Exploration Company's towers ( see Figs. 
1 and 2) longitudinal stresses produce very little bend- 
ing moment in the stubs, while transverse stresses on 
the tower cause very material bending stresses in the 
stubs. A resultant longitudinal stress applied at the 
peak of the tower in Fig. 2 would develop stresses on 
the tower legs directly along these members without 
exerting a bending component. Now, the actual re- 
sultant longitudinal stresses in service are applied 
closely enough at the peak so that no material bend- 
ing is produced. However, a transverse force at the 
apex of the tower in Fig. 1 will be seen to cause 
a force on the stubs (which are vertical in this 
plane) having a very considerable bending com- 
ponent on the top of the stub. This bending moment 
was counteracted, as already explained, by mounting an 
8-in. by 12-in. shear plate a few inches below the sur- 
face of the ground. 

Special bases or extensions were used on towers 
higher than standard erected on tangents, and to the 
legs of the extensions was given a slant in both direc- 
tions at such an angle as practically to eliminate the 
bending moment in the stubs across the line as well as 
with the line. 

In angle towers, in which the stress across the line 

is considerably greater than the transverse stress in 
the standard tower, use was made of a braced stub, as 
shown in Fig. 3, or the foundations were made of con- 
crete, on which, of course, the bending moment would 
have no effect. 

Overhead Ground Wire 

The overhead ground wire has two functions, to guard 
against lightning and to act as a mechanical support in 
case of the failure of a main member in a tower. From 
an electrical point of view there is nothing particularly 
novel in the Chile Exploration Company's ground wires 
except that an unusually wide separation between these 
wires and the conductors is provided at the tower and 
a still greater separation is secured in the middle of the 
span in order to maintain a large discharge distance for 
lightning between the ground wires and the conductors. 
Of course, a much wider distance is required in the 
center of the span than at the tower, since the tower 
acts as a ground connection to discharge any electricity 
accumulating on the ground wire. 

The duty of the ground wire and the ground-wire 
clamp, as a mechanical support, in a tower line is an 
exacting one. While laying out the specification and the 
tests of the Chile Exploration Company's towers it was 
assumed that the ground wire offers no support to a 
tower, although in fact when a tower is stressed longitu- 
dinally beyond its elastic limit and some part of it or of 
its foundation fails partially, the top of the tower will 
yield toward the stress and very quickly tighten up the 
ground wires and no further yielding will be possible 
without breaking the ground wires, which have suffi- 
cient strength to resist very heavy stresses. A com- 
plete failure of the tower will thus often be prevented 
by the ground wires, and the tower may afterward be 
replaced at leisure. In order to serve as a reserve in 
such a case, the ground-wire cable must be clamped to 
the tower so securely as not to slip under stress, at 
least up to the elastic limit of the cable, and preferably 
not to slip even when the cable is actually pulled apart. 
Moreover, the clamping should be accomplished without 
injury to the cable, and the clamp must hold the cable 
without causing it to be injured by swinging in the 

For use on the Chile Exploration Company's line there 


was developed a new clamp which meets this condition 
and will hold the cable without injuring the strands. This 
clamp is shown in Fig. 14. The cable, which is of seven 
strands, lies in a 60 deg. groove in the lower of two cast- 
ings, the upper casting being bolted down onto the cable. 



The adjacent surfaces of the two castings, with the cen- 
ter line of the grooves, are curved similarly and in such 
a way that a depression or valley runs across the mid- 
dle of the clamp at right angles to the cable, as indi- 
cated by the dotted line in the upper part of the cut. 
When a tension exceeding the elastic limit is applied on 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

the cable to the right of the clamp, for example, the cable 
will stretch and thus reduce its diameter, but will merely 
draw deeper into the V groove at the right of the valley. 
It will still be held by the V groove at this point with 
such force that the stress remaining to be taken up by 
the portion of the clamp at the left of the valley will be 
less than the elastic limit, and hence this part of the 
cable will not scratch and slip. 

The test of the clamps showed that, while a marked 
point on the cable on the stressed side of the clamp 
pulled some 0.5 in. before the cable broke (outside the 
clamp), the cable on the slack side of the clamp had not 
moved. Thus the 0.5-in. motion of the cable under the 
stresses was the stretch of that portion of the cable 
within the clamp lying to the right of the valley. 

An advantageous characteristic of this clamp is 
the relatively long distance that separates the cable 
groove and the third bolt, which introduces a cer- 
tain amount of spring in the casting and takes care of 
temperature changes. The castings are of galvanized 
steel. The bolts (% in. in diameter) must be drawn 
very tight to hold a %-in. galvanized cable stressed up 
to 9000 lb., its ultimate limit. On account of the shape 
of the clamp the cable is absolutely uninjured by the 
pressure except for the scratching of the layer of gal- 

The advantage of the 60-deg. V groove can be seen 
from Fig. 15, showing two positions of the cable in the 
clamp, while Fig. 16 shows the grip on the cable in the 
ordinary shallow groove clamp. In Fig. 15 the middle 
strand of the cable is firmly gripped, while in Fig. 16 
the cable may be crushed through the movement of the 
middle strand or the spreading of the top and bottom 
pairs of strands. The various features of the line that 
have been described include most of those of general 
interest. In other respects the transmission line fol- 
lows pretty closely the usual types of construction. 

The entire development of the Chile Exploration Com- 
pany's property is in charge of Mr. Pope Yeatman as 
consulting engineer, Mr. E. S. Berry and Mr. George P. 
Bartholemew being assistant consulting engineers. The 
metallurgical process is under the supervision of Mr. E. 
A. Cappelin Smith, who has developed it in detail. The 
general manager of the property is Mr. Fred Hellmann, 
who is stationed in Chile. The transmission line was 
designed by Mr. Percy H. Thomas, consulting electrical 
engineer. The erection of the transmission line is in 
charge of Mr. Norman Rowe. 

Factors Hindering Production of High-Rated 
Internal-Combustion Engines 

A prominent English engineer says that three funda- 
mental factors are chiefly responsible for the difficulties 
which are encountered in designing internal-combustion 
engines of existing types and especially those having 
high ratings. These factors are: that the heat per unit 
of surface radiated by the flame to the cylinder walls in- 
creases with the size of the cylinder while the thickness 
of metal through which the heat has to reach the cooling 
im also increases; that the weight per horse-power 
increases with the size of the cylinder, and that forces 
are called into play which are useless because they are 
either stationary and do no work or even produce nega- 
tive work. 

Among the causes of useless forces are: pressure on 
the cylinder covers which must transmit their stresses 
to the engine frame, negative work during the compres- 
sion stroke which in Blngle-acting engines produces re- 

■ d stresses in the crank shaft, and inertia fop I 

suiting from lack of balance and Imperfecl cushioning. 


Companies in Atlantic States Show Gain of 1.6 Per Cent 
in Income and 2.2 Per Cent in Output 

Statistics of central-station companies of the Atlantic 
States for October, 1914, according to the returns re- 
ceived by the Electrical World, indicate a gain in that 


Income Derived prom Sale of 

Energy OrTPUT in 









February (64 

per rent of in- 






12 6 

March (60 per 
cent of indus- 







April (65 per 
cent of indus- 



10 3 



3 7 

May (68 per 

cent of indus- 



14 5 




June (70 per 
cent of indus- 







July (70 per 
cent of indus- 







August (71 per 
cent of indus- 







September (71 
per cent of in- 






7 :l 

October (83 per 
cent of indus- 



1 6 



2 2 

section over October, 1913, of approximately $135,000 in 
gross and over 8,500,000 kw-hr. output. The figures are 
based on the returns from companies which produce 83 
per cent of the output in that section and are shown 
in Table I. A comparative estimate of the operations 


Incohi Dhutid PBOU Sale or 

I'm. RQ1 

Energy Oittit in 




i '.-ni 














; a 
8 i 

3 7 

11! B 


2 8 

ii 1,894,808 

Ms 171. Mill 



1 i 

4 2 
7 2 
3 8 

5 7 
1 7 

during the first three months of the war and the cor- 
responding three months of the previous year, based on 
these returns, shows an average monthly increase in 
gross of roughly $400,000. In the months preceding the 
war the monthly gain in gross was roughly $600,000, or 

January 9, 1915 



one and one-third times the average gain during the 
early months of the war. In output the average gain 
for August, September and October was somewhat over 
24,000,000 kw-hr., while during the previous three 
months it was approximately 35,000,000 kw-hr. 

Figures for companies of large, medium and small 
earnings have been compiled. The increase in in- 
come for the large companies was 9.7 per cent in July, 
7.5 per cent in August, 4.3 per cent in September and 
1.1 per cent in October, while the gain in output for the 
corresponding months was, respectively, 9.7 per cent, 
8.3 per cent, 2.8 per cent and 2 per cent. The companies 
of medium size showed a gain in income of 10.7 per cent 
in July, 7.6 per cent in August, 8 per cent in September 
and 6.3 per cent in October and in output of 16 per cent 
in July, 15.7 per cent in August, 13.2 per cent in Sep- 
tember and 11.5 per cent in October. The small com- 
panies showed gains in income of 16.4 per cent, 18.7 
per cent, 9.7 per cent and 7.7 per cent and in output of 
9.3 per cent, 19 per cent, 13.4 per cent and 10.9 per 
cent for the respective months. 


Main Figures for Four of the Branches of the Electrical 

A forthcoming report on the electrical industries by 
the Bureau of the Census will contain many statistics 
which amplify the data contained in Bulletin No. 124 on 
the census of 1912. The report was prepared under the 
supervision of Mr. William M. Steuart, chief statistician 
for manufactures. Statistics published earlier by the 
Bureau of the Census were mentioned in articles pub- 
lished in the Electrical World of Jan. 10 and March 
14, 1914. 

The 1912 census of electrical industries covers five 
distinct industries, which were designated as follows : 
(1) central electric light and power stations; (2) street 
and electric railways; (3) telephones; (4) telegraphs; 
(5) municipal electric fire-alarm and police-patrol sig- 
naling systems. The first of the large reports to be is- 
sued by the bureau will contain the statistics for the 
central electric light and power stations and street and 
electric railways. The other groups will be covered in 
a separate report. A table published herewith shows 
the main statistics for the first four of the industries 
named. Statistics of this character are not available for 
the municipal electric fire-alarm and police-patrol sig- 
naling systems because they are not operated commer- 

The capitalization stated for central electric light and 
power stations compares with $1,096,913,622 in 1907 
and $504,740,352 in 1902. The percentage of increase 
in capitalization during the period of five years ended 
with 1912 is shown to have been greater than the rate 
of increase in either gross income, expenses or net in- 
come. The percentage rates of increase in gross and 
net income and expenses are very close together. The 
percentage rate of increase in expenses during the 
period of ten years ended with 1912 was less than the 
gain in gross or net income. During the period of five 
years ended with 1912, however, the expenses gained at 
a rate a little greater than the increase in gross and net 

The statistics indicate a capitalization of $7.20 per 
$1 of gross income for central electric light and power 
stations, $8.13 for street and electric railways, $3.89 in 
the telephone industry and $3.49 for land and ocean 

Isolated electric plants are mentioned in the report. 
The time and means available did not make a thorough 

canvass of all isolated plants practicable. However, re- 
ports were collected by special agents engaged in the 
field work from a few isolated plants and were supple- 
mented by additional returns obtained by mail. The 
figures for 121 plants of this character show the follow- 
ing: Total primary horse-power, 102,187; kilowatt ca- 
pacity of dynamos, 68,466; estimated number of lamps 
wired for service, all varieties, 152,958. 

The returns of central electric stations include those 
of a number of electric-railway companies which have 
special departments for the sale of electrical energy and 
therefore made separate reports. There were, however, 
169 electric railways which operate electrical plants and 
sell energy that were unable to make full separate re- 
ports corresponding to the regular reports. The total 
income in the light and power departments of these com- 
panies in 1912 was $31,515,582, an increase of $25,045,- 
856 over 1902. In addition, a number of companies 
which were not able to furnish statistics of electric ser- 
vice, even of the brief character given by the 169 com- 
panies, reported an income from the sale of energy of 

The rate of increase in central electric station devel- 
opment has been much greater than that of gas plants. 
A comparison of the returns of central electric stations 
for 1902, 1907 and 1912 with the returns from the gas 
plants for 1899, 1904 and 1909 shows the rapid develop- 
ment of the former class of properties. The combined 
gross income of the two industries for the earliest years 
stated was divided between 54.8 per cent for the electri- 


Electric Light 

and Power 

Street and 



(Land aDd 


Number of companies, sta- 

Employees, salaries and 

; ruber 
Salaries and wages 


Per cent of increases . 

Per cent of increase' • 

m as 


12,176 678,261 

98 3 

tt$302, 115,599 

24! 3 
71 7 


260 8 
63 3 




104 .0 
24 7 


35 7 

145 7 

$8 1.425.74S 

69 8 



193 8 
44 4 

50 4 





38 9 



Percent of n - 

Per cent of increase" 

Expenses — Total, includ- 
ing salaries and wages, 
interest, taxes and fixed 

58 2 


Percent of increase? ■ 
Per cent of increase" 

88 6 


Per cent of increase** . 

It — 36 

'Not including municipal electric fire-alarm and police-patrol signaling systems. 

tExclu- : orting an annual income of less than $5,000. 

{Includes the Commercial Cable Company of Cuba. 

' I nsl of construction and equipment. 

51912 c. ■ 
"1912 o- ' 

ttln addition. $36,300,030 was reported by street and electric railway companies as income 
from sale of electric energy for light and power, or from sale of energy to other public-service 
tt A minus sign ( — ) denotes decrease. 

cal industry and 45.2 per cent for the gas industry. For 
the latest years named the percentages were respective- 
ly 67.4 and 32.6. From 1899 to 1909 the gross income 
of the gas plants gained 120.3 per cent; from 1902 to 
1912 central electric station gross income gained 252.5 
per cent. 

The tendency toward the corporate form of ownership 
for commercial central electric stations is indicated by 
the figures. The small extent of the properties con- 
trolled otherwise than by incorporated companies is 
shown by the relative figures of gross earnings in 1912, 
as follows: Incorporated, $274,389,808; firm, $1,575,- 
096; individual, $2,931,706. 


Vol. 65, No. 2 


Generators, Motors and Transformers 

The Magnetic Field of the Three-Phase Induction 
Motor. — F. T. Chapman. — The saturation of the teeth 
of stator and rotor introduces harmonics into the rotat- 
ing flux wave of the induction motor. Some effects of 
the third harmonic are illustrated, and some causes are 
indicated which tend toward the suppression of this and 
the other harmonics in certain cases. Although the 
main flux wave of the induction motor may contain im- 
portant harmonics, notably a third, only the fundamen- 
tal contributes to the effective back emf of the motor. 
The third harmonic causes a considerable distortion of 
the currents in the stator windings of a delta-connected 
motor, which leads to an appreciable reduction of this 
harmonic. In a loaded squirrel-cage motor the slip 
causes currents in the rotor windings, which go far 
to suppress the third and other harmonics altogether. 
The reluctance of the teeth can be calculated as though 
it were constant at the value it would have with a mean 
air-gap density equal to 1.36«p//S where 9 is the total 
number of lines of force per pole in the fundamental 
wave and S the polar area of the air-gap path. — London 
Electrician, Dec. 11, 1914. 

Stresses in Rotor Bindings. — ARTHUR Morley. — A 
mathematical article in which the author develops 
formulas for the stress set up in the binding wires on 
the rotors of electric generators. The centrifugal 
forces induce in part an increase of tension in the bind- 
ing and in part a diminution in the compression of 
the rotor, which compression initially balances the ten- 
sion of the binding. The calculation of the stresses is 
illustrated by the simple case, of which there are occa- 
sionally practical examples, for easy removal of a thin, 
hollow bronze hub, containing uniformly distributed 
loose, free mases, the hub being bound with a layer of 
thin steel wire and rotated at high speed. A numerical 
example is added. — London Engineering, Dec. 18, 1914. 

Limitations in the Construction of High-Tension 
Direct-Current Machines. — A. Scherbius. — An illus- 
trated English translation in abstract of his German 
paper on this subject abstracted some time ago in the 
Digest. — -London Electrician, Dec. 18, 1914. 

Generation, Transmission and Distribution 

Protection of High-Tension Circuits Against Dan- 
gerously High Voltages.— Kenelm Edgcumbe. — A long 
illustrated article in which the author reaches the fol- 
lowing conclusions: As a protection against static 
charges, all long overhead lines in exposed positions 
should be provided with "permanent leak" inductive re- 
sistances. On all overhead systems the plant should be 
protected by line-choking coils. As a protection against 
steep-fronted waves due to lightning, condensers can be 
used, but they are expensive and are of no use as a 
protection against any other form of disturbance, 
whether on overhead or underground systems. 1 
quently, if condensers are used at all they must in all 

be supplemented by some form of discharge gap 

capable of dealing with other forms of disturbance. 

targe gaps installed in conjunction with line- 

choking coils are quite capable of dealing with disturb 

of both kinds, so thai the extra cost of installing 
condensers is seldom justified, The discharge gap 
nin t not break the circuit too suddenly and should be 
sufficiently robust to allow of its being connected di- 
rectlj to the line without the interposition of a fuse. 
The horn disch fulfils these requirements. 

When acting, the discharger mu 1 nol con titute b dead 
earth or short circuit and mu it, therefore, have a limit- 

ing resistor in series. The limiting resistor should be 
robust, non-inflammable, unaffected by heat or frost, 
not liable to deterioration under long or recurring dis- 
charges, and should require no attention over long 
periods. The Brazil form of carbon-powder resistor 
best fulfils these requirements. The resistance of the 



resistor must be high enough to prevent undue disturb- 
ances to the system and low enough to afford relief to the 
line. One ohm per volt for cable systems and 0.1 ohm per 
volt for overhead systems has been found to meet prac- 
tical conditions in every way. For lines subject to atmos- 
pheric disturbances the path to earth should be as 
straight as possible, and even for cable systems it 
should be reasonably non-inductive. With properly pro- 
portioned protective gear internal surge discharge gaps 
may be set as low as 50 per cent, and atmospheric dis- 
turbance gaps from 100 per cent to 200 per cent, above 
the line pressure. On the insulated systems internal 
disturbances normally arise between lines, and the dis- 



chargers should be connected accordingly. At the same 
time it is best nol to dispense with the earthed arrester 
on this account. Discharge indicators, with or without 
graphic attachments, should be installed at various 
points on the system. Fig. 1 shows the connections for 
a complete set of protective gear for an overhead system 

January 9, 1915 


or one partly overhead and partly underground. Fig. 
2 gives the connections for an entirely underground 
system with insulated neutral. The three earthed ar- 
resters may in this case be omitted, although this is 
not recommended. If the neutral point of the gen- 
erator is earthed, the dischargers between lines can be 
dispensed with. — London Elec. Review, Nov. 27, Dec. 4, 
11, 18, 1914. 


Economics of Electric Railway Distribution. — 
Horace Field Parshall. — An abstract of a paper read 
before the (British) Institution of Civil Engineers. 
The author gives curves showing the relation of eco- 
nomical substation spacing to traffic density for differ- 
ent voltages. Other curves show the reduction in an- 
nual substation and track equipment cost with increased 
voltage. Another diagram shows the relation of most 
economical substation spacing to traffic tensity for 
single-phase systems at 5000 volts and 10,000 volts and 
for a three-phase system of 5000 volts. — London Elec- 
trician, Dec. 11, 1914. 

Austrian Electric Railway. — E. E. Seefehlner. — The 
conclusion of his illustrated article on the electric rail- 
way from Vienna to Pressburg. The author describes 
the telegraph, telephone and signal system and gives de- 
tails of the equipment of the rolling stock. — Elek. it. 
Masch. (Vienna), Nov. 29, 1914. 

Installations, Systems and Appliances 

General Meeting of Association of Austrian and 
Hungarian Central Stations. — A report of the proceed- 
ings of the last general meeting held in June in Cra- 
cow. The association comprises 113 stations. Various 
legal matters were discussed as well as regulations, 
standardization rules, etc. A committee was appointed 
to provide measures to prevent the commercial position 
of the central stations from being hurt by the introduc- 
tion of the half-watt lamp. The same committee is to 
consider also the tariff problem and means for using 
electrical energy for other purposes. J. Riedl presented 
a report on protective devices in high-tension installa- 
tions against dangerous rises of voltage. Lunzer dis- 
cussed electricity supply by a flat-rate tariff with the 
use of power-limiting devices. Other discussions re- 
lated to oil switches, boilers, and the use of the Diesel 
engines in central stations. Papers were presented by 
Lederer on new developments in electric lighting and 
the use of vacuum tubes, filled with noble gases, at 
220 volts, by Kesseldorfer on the theory and construc- 
tion of the mercury motor meter, by von Winkler on 
the operation of hydraulic plants in ice and snow, and 
by Reiner on the damage done by stray currents from 
tramways to gas and water pipes. — Elek. u. Masch. 
(Vienna), Nov. 29, 1914. 

Bradford Central Station Account. — An abstract of 
last year's financial account of the Bradford municipal 
electric central station. The generation expense per 
kw-hr. sold was 0.670 cent (against 0.690 cent a year 
before) ; distribution expense, 0.104 cent (against 0.110 
cent) ; management expense, 0.142 cent (against 0.146 
cent). The total cost including capital charges was 
2.210 cents (against 2.382 cents) ; the total revenue per 
kw-hr. was 2.466 cents (against 2.548 cents) ; the bal- 
ance was therefore 0.256 cent (against 0.166 cent). 
The output was just over 28,000,000 kw-hr. The year 
was a record year. Considerable progress was made 
toward popularizing the use of electric-cooking appa- 
ratus. — London Electrician, Dec. 18, 1914. 

Elect rophysics and Magnetism 

Distribution of the Active Deposit of Radium in 
Electric Fields. — H. P. Walmsley. — The distribution 
of the active deposit of radium between the electrodes 

in an electric field is independent of the concentration 
of the emanation for small quantities but depends upon 
the dimensions of the apparatus. No negatively 
charged active deposit exists. Radium A is first posi- 
tively charged and is then subjected to recombination 
like any other positive ions. Such neutralized active 
matter then diffuses to the metal surfaces irrespective 
of their potentials. From a comparison with the dis- 
tribution in the case of actinium, it is shown that the 
anode activity consists of two parts — first, the active 
matter neutralized by recombination, and, second, a 
constant activity due to uncharged deposit which is in- 
dependent of the field and only varies with the dimen- 
sions of the apparatus. The constant anode activity is 
not due to absorbed emanation or to a surface con- 
densation of emanation on the electrode. It is sug- 
gested that radium A, which is responsible for this 
constant activity, is capable of forming a partition be- 
tween the metal surfaces and the space in the appa- 
ratus, at ordinary temperatures. — Philos. Mag., Octo- 
ber, 1914. 

Absorption Coefficients of X-Rays. — W. H. Bragg 
AND S. E. Peirce. — A paper in which a general formula 
for the relation between wave-length and absorption 
coefficient is developed. — Philos. Mag., October, 1914. 

Resistance of Irregular Shape of Conductors. — J. F. 
H. Douglas. — A mathematical article in which the 
author gives a new method for determining approxi- 
mately the resistance of two-dimensional conductors of 
irregular contour. — Phys. Rev., October, 1914. 

Thermoelectricity and Magnetostriction of Heusler 
Alloys. — L. O. Grondahl. — An account of an experi- 
mental investigation of various Heusler alloys. The 
general results are as follows: The magnetostriction 
curves up to a field of 1600 gausses show no maximum 
and are always positive. Some of the curves showing 
the effect of the magnetic field on the thermoelectro- 
motive force pass through a maximum negative value 
and reverse. The magnetostriction decreases as the 
temperature rises and disappears as the substance 
passes through the transformation range. The effect 
of the magnetic field on the thermoelectromotive force 
changes but does not disappear even at temperatures 
considerably above the transformation range. Hence 
the two effects seem to be entirely independent of one 
another. Although the effect of the magnetic field on 
the thermoelectromotive force in these alloys is very 
pronounced, Professor Ingersoll has found that they 
show no Kerr effect. — Phys. Rev., October, 1914. 

Units, Measurements and Instruments 

Permeameter. — Charles W. Burrows. — An account 
of a careful investigation of the accuracy and reliability 
of the Koepsel permeameter. This instrument is based 
on the action upon a coil carrying a known current of an 
electromagnet, made up of the iron to be tested with a 
known applied magnetomotive force. After a descrip- 
tion of the construction of the instrument, various tests 
are described, and the results are summed up as fol- 
lows: The Koepsel permeameter has several valuable 
characteristics. It gives direct readings of the mag- 
netizing force and the magnetic induction, both for 
normal induction and for hysteresis data. It is easy of 
manipulation and does not require greater care than the 
usual deflection instruments. It repeats its readings as 
consistently as could be desired. The readings may be 
very useful in indicating relative values of different 
materials or the degree of non-uniformity of similar 
materials. The fact that the observed values of the 
magnetizing force may differ by as much as 100 per cent 
from the true values does not destroy the value of this 
instrument for purposes of comparison. From the ex- 
perimental consideration of the different factors which 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

may affect the accuracy of the readings the following 
detailed conclusions were drawn: U) Readings on the 
two sides of the zero of the instrument may differ con- 
siderably, but the mean of the two values thus obtained 
show satisfactory consistence on repetition. (2) 
Shearing curves for different grades of material show 
that the correction to be applied to the observed mag- 
netizing force is not constant for a given induction but 
depends upon the nature of the test specimen. This cor- 
rection is usually subtractive for points below the knee 
of the induction curve and additive for points above the 
knee. (3) An increase in the cross-section of the test 
specimen tends to increase the observed values of the 
magnetizing force for points below the knee of the in- 
duction curve and to decrease the observed values for 
points above the knee. (4) The length of the specimen 
projecting beyond the yokes produces no noticeable 
effect for points below the knee of the induction curve. 
For points above the knee the projecting ends increase 
the observed value of the magnetizing force. (5) If 
the bushings are not pushed all the way into their proper 
position, a higher apparent value of the magnetizing 
force is observed, due to the increased length of the 
portion of the bar under test. (6) Hysteresis loops 
obtained by the Koepsel permeameter always show a 
low observed residual induction and a high observed 
coercive force. (7) A theoretical and experimental 
study of the distribution of the magnetic fluxes through 
different parts of the magnetic circuit shows that shear- 
ing curves of the form observed are to be expected. If 
the apparatus is to be used for the determination of the 
absolute values of the magnetic quantities, it is necessary 
to apply a correction to the readings. Since the appa- 
ratus gives consistent results on repetition, the whole 
error may be charged to errors in the correction or 
shearing curve. As this shearing curve varies with the 
dimensions and quality of the specimen, it is essential 
that shearing curves be prepared for each size and 
quality of specimen to be tested. With extreme care and 
the use of proper shearing curves the apparatus is able 
to give quantitative results within 5 per cent of the 
true value of the magnetizing force for a given induction. 
Uncorrected hysteresis data for hard steels show values 
of the residual induction that are too small; the error 
may be as great as 10 per cent. Values obtained of the 
coercive force are systematically too large ; the error may 
be as much as 40 per cent. — Scientific Papers, Bureau of 
Standards, No. 228. 

Telegraphy, Telephony and Signals 
Thermal Telephone. — M. de Lange. — An abstract of 
a Royal Society paper and a description of his new 
thermal telephone. The first thermophones were in- 
vented thirty-six years ago by T. Wiesendanger and 
two years later by Sir William Preece, the variations 
in the length of a platinum wire due to changes of 
temperatures being transmitted to a diaphragm. In the 
de Lange instrument there is no diaphragm. "The wire 
speaks without a diaphragm." While in open air the 
sound of the wire is very weak, yet when it is placed in 
a cover with one or several small openings the sound 
becomes clear and distinct. The cover acts as a resona- 
tor. The arrangement is shown in Fig. 3. The Wollas- 
ton wire (treated with acid according to Gwozdz's 
method i is seen at A, attached to two small brass half- 
circular Mocks H, from which there project two small 
pins. These inns lit Into a small socket, embedded in 
ebonite, to form the complete receiver. The metal cap, 
with a very small opening at the top, is slipped over 
the terminal blocks H and forms a resonator. An ebo- 
nite cap completes the whole. If a larger receivi 

ed, such as can be placed against the ear in the 
ordinary way, half a dozen platinum wires are arranged 

in parallel. The platinum wire, which may be as small 
as 2 microns (0.002 mm), is, of course, actually much 
finer than the lines in the diagram, being invisible. 
The illustration shows the thermophone in full size for 
direct insertion in the ear. This receiver is intended 
to be worked simply in series with the transmitter, and 
therefore the usual transformers would be omitted. Mr. 
de Lange is confident that long lengths of line can be 
worked in this simple way. There should, therefore, be 
a cheapening of line material. In regard to the cost of 
the receiver itself it is obvious that it must be very 
much cheaper than the usual electromagnetic type. As 
to the theory of the instrument, it is simply said that 
the decrease and increase of heat on the platinum wire 
of the telephone takes place isochronously with the vi- 
brations in the microphone. The air surrounding the 



platinum wire is thereby immediately heated or cooled 
in accordance with the increase and decrease of heat in 
the wire, and, if that air is retained within a close com- 
pass of the cover, the expansions and reactions are no- 
ticed as sound. — London Electrician, Dec. 18, 1914. 

Book Reviews 

The Science and Practice of Management. By A. 
Hamilton Church. New York: The Engineering 
Magazine Company. 536 pages. Price, $2. 
Persistent efforts are being made to reduce to system 
and law the management of large organizations. Most 
of these efforts spring from the very laudable impulse 
of trying to subject certain processes to rule and for- 
mula. The book before us furnishes an example of such 
effort. To reduce the problems of organization and 
operation to elementary axioms and doctrines would 
seem to most people to be a very wearisome, if not a 
futile, task. While trying to find general rules, the prob- 
lems change, the personnel is altered, new conditions 
arise, and the laboriously built-up theory may become 
of little value. The book, none the less, is interesting. 

Konstruktion, Bau und Betrieb von Funkeninduk- 
toren. Vol. I, Funkeninduktoren. By Ernst 
Ruhmer. Berlin: Der Mechaniker. 232 pages, 
328 illus. Price, 6.5 marks. 
An elementary treatise on the spark coil giving promi- 
nence to the design, construction and operation of such 
coils. The book is excellently and abundantly illustrated. 
The mathematics are simple and prepared from the 
technical rather than the physical point of view. The 
twelve chapters of the book relate to the following sub- 
jects: Introduction, mathematical principles, physio- 
logical induct ion coils, small spark coils, large spark coils, 
direct-current and alternating-current interrupters, fre- 
quency measures, sources of energy, auxiliary appa- 
ratus, assembling apparatus, additional methods of 
operation, experiments with spark coils. The book will 
be of service to all who are interested in the construc- 
tion and use of induction coils, especially large coils, as 
distinguished from spark coils. 

January 9, 1915 



Improvements in Auxiliaries 

COINCIDENT with the increase in output rating 
and the accompanying improvement in the effi- 
ciency of steam turbines there have been corresponding 
changes in the output and efficiency of the auxiliaries, 
the most important of which is the condenser. By rea- 
son of refinements as well as improvements in design 
of both the turbines and the condensers turbo-units 
rated at 30,000 kw are now being adopted, whereas 
20,000 kw was considered the maximum possible rating 
several years ago. The steam consumption in the mean- 
while has been reduced from 13 lb. to 11 lb. per kw-hr., 
a saving of more than 15 per cent. Credit for the re- 
duction in steam consumption is usually given to the 
turbo-generator, but sight should not be lost of the fact 
that without adequate refinements in the design of the 
condensers and other auxiliaries required for main- 
taining those conditions under which the turbine oper- 
ates with the best efficiency the reduction noted would 
have been impossible. It is of prime importance that 
improvements in condensers have kept pace with those 
in turbines and generators. 

Uniform Boiler Specifications 

IN all probability uniform specifications for steam- 
boiler construction will soon be a reality in the 
United States. The long-continued and much-discussed 
report of the boiler code committee of the American So- 
ciety of Mechanical Engineers is approaching its end, 
and the construction code is rapidly assuming form. 
The society is to be congratulated on this work, in which 
its own committee and an advisory committee repre- 
senting all organizations interested in boiler practice in 
any form have been long engaged. It would be too much 
to expect perfection of a code that represents com- 
promises, yet there can be no doubt that such a code 
will suffice for legislative purposes. The particular fea- 
ture of the movement in which we are most interested, 
however, is that national professional bodies are slowly 
realizing their obligations in guiding legislation for 

r which they are eminently fitted and the aim of which is 
neither mercenary nor selfish but the protection of 
society considered as a whole. 

What Is "Low Tension"? 

IF an old-time operator — one who used to attach a 
rope to a 1000-volt switch and get behind a friendly 
station partition to open the breaker — were to visit cer- 
tain modern hydroelectric plants and observe the offhand 
manner in which the operators speak of 13,200-volt ap- 
paratus as "low tension," he would no doubt question 

the sanity of the younger men. A few years ago any 
potential below 2300 volts — more specifically, 110 volts 
or 550 volts — was spoken of as low-tension, but with the 
coming of transmission circuits of 100,000 volts and over, 
and with 13,200-volt distribution lines being carried into 
transformer banks of industrial plants, as is now fre- 
quently done, the comparative expression "low tension" 
has taken on a pretty broad application. Owing to the 
increased number and effectiveness of protective devices, 
it is probably true that the operator of to-day is safer 
while handling lines carrying 13,200-volt energy than 
was the pioneer who attempted to work with potentials 
of 1000 volts. Nevertheless, for the sake of the utmost 
safety and to avoid acquiring that contempt which famil- 
iarity is likely to breed, we should encourage the selec- 
tion of language more accurately describing 13,200-volt 
energy than the words "low tension," as now commonly 
applied by those whose idea of "high tension" is perhaps 
110,000 volts and whose duties bring them, through re- 
mote control, in daily contact, so to speak, with the lower 

Operating Features of Centrifugal Pumps 

CENTRIFUGAL pumps have come into extensive use, 
owing to the simplicity of their parts. The cen- 
trifugal pump is ordinarily devoid of valves or opening 
and closing ports. It consists essentially of an inverted- 
action water turbine. A rotary impeller receives the 
water through a suction pipe, at a certain internal di- 
ameter, and delivers it at a larger external diameter 
and velocity. The energy of motion absorbed by the 
rotating impeller is delivered to the water in terms of 
the head. In order that such a pump may operate with- 
out undue energy loss, the geometrical forms given to 
the blades of the impeller must be such as will cause the 
rotary energy to be absorbed by the water smoothly and 
without shock. This can occur only when the angular 
velocity and the total head of delivery just satisfy the 
required conditions. Any one pump may be able to work 
over a wide range of speeds and heads, but in order to 
work at the best efficiency, suited to its proper design, 
there is only one proper driving speed and one total head. 
In general, therefore, a change in head or a change in 
the rate of water delivery calls for a change in speed of 
driving, if approximately the best efficiency is to be se- 
cured. Otherwise, if the speed is to be kept constant, a 
change must be made in the design proportions of the 
pump. When centrifugal pumps are driven by electric 
motors; and particularly by alternating-current motors, 
the speed is fixed within fairly narrow limits. This 
makes it difficult for the centrifugal pump designer to 
meet wide ranges of demand in delivery of water quan- 
tity and head. It is manifestly most economical to con- 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

struct as few designs and types of pump as possible, and 
yet, if the demand for a certain rate of pumping up to a 
certain lift happens to fall between the speeds for which 
motors are available, a new design of pump may be 
specially demanded. 

Steam-Plant Efficiency 

Many steam plants at the present time are installed 
with provision for bonus or penalty in case the contrac- 
tor exceeds or fails on the specification undertaken. In 
other words, it is not unusual at the present time, and 
particularly abroad, to buy a plant on a specification 
which requires a very exact test to determine the final 
payment. Under these conditions tests which are not 
accurate to the highest feasible degree are likely to 
work injustice. It is quite easy to test a plant to with- 
in 3 or 4 per cent and extremely difficult to test it to 
1 per cent, yet when one considers the amount of money 
involved in 1 per cent of needless error he realizes that 
something more than approximate methods are neces- 
sary. One point which has often been mentioned in 
the Electrical World is the advantage of boiler and 
furnace design with relation to the fuel used. In a 
paper presented recently before the (British) Institu- 
tion of Electrical Engineers, Mr. W. M. Selvey empha- 
sized the fact that a boiler and furnace does its best 
work on a particular grade of fuel. Fuel better or 
worse than this standard of excellence handicaps a plant 
so that it may even happen that an admirable boiler and 
furnace will do rather badly on a lot of coal which from 
its analysis and general properties might be expected 
to give first-class results. On the electrical side of the 
problem the suggestion that efficiency tests should be 
conducted under conditions insuring unity power-factor 
whenever practicable is one to be taken rather seri- 
ously. There are cases in which, for one reason or an- 
other, tests at some other power-factor have to be made, 
but it is usually decidedly preferable to operate as near 
as possible to unity power-factor merely to facilitate 
precision in the electrical measurements. To be certain 
of high precision when measuring energy at a low 
power-factor requires an enormous amount of care. 
It is a safe general rule in testing of every kind to 
eliminate variables as far as possible and to make the 
correction factors as small as possible. In most cases 
they cannot be dropped out of sight entirely, but they 
can be brought to a point where the outstanding errors 
of measurement will not be serious. 

Mr, Selvey made a sensible suggestion concerning the 
design of the condenser system. There is a tendency to 
operate condensers too near the limit in the interest of 
low first cost. If a condenser ia to be depended on to 
operate at the highest efficiency, it la nol safe to run it 
BO close to (lie limit that a small hut perfectly possible 
change in the temperature of the water or in the sus- 
pended matter it carries may seriously damage the 
vacuum. Turbo-generator plants in particular depend 
for high economy on exceptionally good condenser per 
formance, and we quite agree with Mr. Selvey thai 
money invested in a < OUgh to run 

for long periods without exceptional trouble in clean- 
ing is well spent. The author made note of the fact 
that turbo-generators in particular should carry their 
commercial load for some little time before being tested 
because some turbines have shown at least a 5 per cent 
better efficiency shortly after installation than at a later 
period. Hence it seems desirable to subject the machine 
to real service for some little time and then test it, after 
ample opportunity has been given to inspect the ma- 
chine to make sure that it is in suitable working con- 

The Seattle Steam Auxiliary 

Elsewhere in this section is printed a description of 
the admirably designed new steam station of the Seattle 
City Lighting Department, which has been installed as 
an auxiliary to its water-power plants. The present 
station is adjacent to the small water-power plant and 
operates in parallel with it. In fact, the hydraulic equip- 
ment is controlled from the switchboard in the steam 
station. The first unit of the new plant was placed in 
operation a few months ago. It represents advanced 
practice in several interesting particulars. In the first 
place, the boiler equipment is in four units, each of 
nearly 1500 actual horse-power. The furnaces as at 
present used are provided with complete oil-burning 
equipment, although room is left in the boiler setting 
to install automatic stokers in case it should be desired 
to use coal at some later time. The boiler equipment 
feeds steam to a single turbine with a nominal generator 
rating of 7500 kw, but deliberately designed to carry 
from 10,000 kva to 12,000 kva under emergency condi- 

The design of the turbine is such as to give maximum 
economy at 7500 kw, and above that point the load can 
be forced at the peak by admitting high-pressure steam 
to the intermediate stages of the turbine. The boilers 
are able to generate the necessary steam. In fact, the 
three boilers now in use have gone to 8100 kw without 
an excessive temperature rise. An attempt has been 
made in this equipment deliberately to push the gen- 
erating equipment far over its normal rated output at 
times of peak — in fact, as far as the safe temperature 
conditions will permit, losing a little in efficiency if 
necessary, but yet giving good economy under rated 
load conditions. At full load the turbo-generator is 
guaranteed for 12.95 lb. of steam per kw-hr., a very 
good record for a unit of this size. 

The generator is of the two-phase, instead of the more 
usual three-phase, type, much of the distribution being 
by single-phase feeders. The main water-power supply 
of the city is thus relieved by the steam plant, which is 
able to carry the heavy winter peak; in fact, during the 
first month of operation Of tlie steam plant a period of 
extremely low water well proved its value. The present 
Bingle unit can even carry the full load of the system in 
case of accident to the water-power, and the increasing 
load lenders it likely that its equipment will be en- 
larged to serve as B complement to the pending increase 
in the main hydroelectric plant. 

January 9, 1915 


Oil-Burning Steam Station in Seattle, Wash. 

Auxiliary Turbine Plant of the Seattle City Lighting Department on Lake Union — 
Station Wall Area Almost All Glass 

THE first unit of the new 7500-kw auxiliary steam 
generating station of the Seattle City Lighting 
Department was placed in operation Sept. 6, 
1914. The station is on the east shore of Lake Union 
between Fairview and Eastlake Avenues at the foot of 
Nelson Place. The site is adjacent to the Lake Union 
water-power auxiliary of the Lighting Department 


built in 1911 and is near the geographic center of Seat- 
tle. Lake Union furnishes an unlimited supply of 
water for boiler-feed and circulating purposes. With 
the completion of the Lake Washington canal oil or coal 
may be brought directly to the plant by steamer. At 
present the plant receives fuel by oil truck and by the 
Lake Union belt-line railway. A first-class apartment 
and residence district is on the hill above the plant, 
while along the lake shore are factories which may be 
supplied with steam for heating and industrial use. 

Station Building' 

The building is of reinforced concrete, designed and 
built by the Department of Buildings of the city of 
Seattle. Its most striking feature is the open, day- 
light appearance inside, due to the fact that all the space 
between columns is occupied by windows. The building 
is 98 ft. 6 in. by 89 ft. with basement floor 19 ft. 3 in. 
below the Eastlake Avenue sidewalk, main floor at the 
sidewalk level and roof 45 ft. above the main floor. 
The generating unit, carried on a foundation entirely 
independent of the building, is installed on the Eastlake 
Avenue side of the building, on the main floor. The 
boilers occupy the Lake Union side of the same floor, 
while the condenser and auxiliaries, with the transform- 
ers and oil switches, are placed in the basement. The 
footings of the building rest on piles driven 30 ft. into 
the clay and gravel which forms the subsoil in this dis- 
trict. A concrete retaining wall extending 23 ft. below 
the street and containing 810 cu. yd. protects the build- 
ing from possible sliding of the hill above Eastlake 
Avenue. All floors are designed for a load of 600 lb. to 
the square foot except the firing aisle, which is designed 
for 300 lb. The roof is of thin concrete steel slabs 
supported on steel roof trusses. The cornice is con- 
crete with red paving brick inset for ornament. Prac- 
tically all of the wall area is glass. An idea of its 
extent may be gained from the fact that 2.5 tons of 

putty were required to fasten it to the steel sash. A 
Whiting crane of 25 tons capacity and 30-ft. span is 
placed over the turbine room. The northwest floor 
panel of this room is provided with a removable steel 
floor plate so that apparatus may be lowered into the 
basement by the crane. 

Boiler Room Equipment 

Three 822.6-hp Stirling boilers, guaranteed for con- 
tinuous operation at 180 per cent of normal load, or 
1480 hp, are installed. These boilers operate at 77 per 
cent efficiency at full load. The fourth boiler is to be 
added immediately. The boilers are placed two in a 
bank, and each bank has a 90-in. steel stack extending 
170 ft. above the boiler-room floor. Oil-burning equip- 
ment is installed with Lehigh burners. The boilers are 
set high enough to permit stokers to be inserted in case 
it is desired to burn coal, and the stoker tracks are in- 
stalled. Room is left in the basement for ash hoppers 
and cars, so that the coal-burning equipment may be 
put in with a minimum of expense. 

Oil-storage tanks have been erected on the lot next 
to the boiler room and behind the water-power station 
referred to above. They consist of two horizontal 15,- 
000-gal. cylindrical steel tanks — the maximum allowed 
by city ordinance — and one cylindrical service tank 
7 ft. in diameter by 24 ft. long, divided into two sec- 
tions by an oil-tight diaphragm. These tanks are placed 
in a concrete inclosure and separated by a concrete 
wall and are buried under 4 ft. of earth. Connection 


is made from each tank to each of two motor-driven, 
double-acting, duplex, inside-packed oil pumps made by 
the Fairbanks-Morse Company, rated at 16,000 gal. per 
hour and installed in the basement under the boilers, 
directly opposite the tanks. An 8-in. suction header is 
installed with the piping arranged for pumping oil from 
the oil truck on Eastlake or Fairview Avenue, or from 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

oil barge or tank car. For the accurate measurement 
of oil scales will be installed on which a tank wagon 
may be weighed before and after unloading or on 
which a tank may be placed for receiving oil from a 
barge or a tank car. Oil is drawn from the service 
tanks by burner-oil pumps on the boiler-room floor back 
of the boilers, where also are placed the oil heaters. 
Uehling carbon-dioxide recorders are being installed 
with chart in the turbine room and with indicator in 
the fire room, to enable the fireman to regulate his 
burners to the most efficient and smokeless flame. The 
plant is designed especially for a complete system of 
records, and recording as well as indicating instruments 
are supplied for the measurement of CO, gas, tempera- 
ture of flue gases, temperature of superheat and feed 
water, steam flow, feed-water flow and everything from 
the oil to switchboard feeders. 

Water Supply 

Feed and circulating water is taken from the lake 
through a 30-in. intake extending 120 ft. out into the 
lake and leading through a concrete screen box at the 
west side of the building to the cold well at the end 

maximum economy at full load, or 7500 kw, at which 
point an auxiliary valve admits high-pressure steam 
directly to the intermediate stage of the turbine. Lu- 
brication is insured by a circulating-oil system which 
is mounted on the turbine itself. 

A Wheeler rectangular jet condenser is suspended 
directly beneath the turbine. This condenser gives 
28% in. vacuum referred to a 30-in. barometer when 
condensing 97,500 lb. of steam per hour. Circulating 
water is supplied through an 18-in. inlet from the cold 
well. The circulating and air pumps are mounted on 
the same shaft directly beneath the condenser and are 
driven by a 225-hp Terry steam turbine. The air pump 
is a Wheeler turbo-air pump of the new rotary 
hydraulic type. Circulating water is drawn in by the 
vacuum and discharged by the centrifugal circulating 
pump. In starting, a jet of water from the city mains 
is used to condense the steam and start the vacuum. 
City water is also piped to the feed-water heater for 
boiler use if desired and is piped wherever needed 
throughout the building. A service pump of 400 gal. 
per minute rating, driven by a Terry turbine, supplies 
water to the feed-water heater from the hot well, which 


of the condenser, whence the circulating water is drawn. 
A Cochran 2500-hp heater with V-notch recorder is 
placed in the basement of the turbine room next to the 
boiler-feed pumps. The boiler-feed pumps, in dupli- 
cate, are multi-stage centrifugal units made by the 
Piatt Iron Works, each driven by a 100-hp Terry steam 
turbine. The boilers are designed for 200 lb. pressure, 
and Foster superheaters are placed between the first 
and second banks of tubes to give 125 deg. superheat. 
The boilers are connected to a 12-in. superheated steam 
header, whence a 10-in. tap is taken to the turbine. 
The header is on a platform in the basement under the 
back of the boilers, and the turbine tap runs under the 
floor. General Electric indicating steam-flow meters 
are installed on each boiler, and a recording meter of 
the same type records the steam supplied to the turbine. 

Steam Equipment 

The generating unit consists of an Allis-Chalmers- 

operating on L90 lb. pressure al L25 

directly connected to an Allis-Chalmers 

p.m., two-phase generator. 

This set is i ~>0-deg. rise in temperature and is 

guaranteed (or continuous operation at 11,720 leva at 

SO per cent tor with 66 deg. rise. The tui 

bine is guaranteed for .-i steam consumption of 12.96 

U>. per kw-hr. at 7600 kw output, it is designed for 


is a concrete tunnel 4 ft. wide by 10 ft. deep, dis- 
charging through a 30-in. cast-iron pipe at the west 
wall of the building. 

All auxiliaries at present operate from a 4-in. auxil- 
iary header but are made for superheat if it is desired 
so to connect them later. This system was chosen 
from the standpoint of reliable service rather than ex- 
treme efficiency. The same idea was followed through- 
out the plant. The plant is expected to give 245 kw- 
hr. per barrel of oil of 6,216,000 lb. Fahr. thermal units 
per barrel in the tests soon to be conducted. 

Electrical Equipment 

The generator is of the revolving-field type, totally 
inclosed and ventilated by forced circulation of air, 
which is drawn through a duct from outside the build- 
ing into the machine from below and discharged into 
the turbine room from the top of the machine. Exci- 
tation is furnished at L26 volts bj a 2500-r.p.m. Allis- 
Chalmers turbine-driven exciter of 60 kw rating, which 
is installed in the turbine room next to the main set. 
The generator lias eighl resistance elements placed in 
the slots back of the coils, which are connected to a 
resistance thermometer on the switchboard so that the 
operator may know the exact temperature of the hot- 
it of i he generator a1 all times. 

The generator is installed with the expectation that 

January 9, 1915 



it will deliver 10,000 kw. On the three boilers now in- 
stalled it delivers 8100 kw maximum with a tempera- 
ture rise of less than 20 deg. over peaks. An attempt 
was made to rate the machine on the total tempera- 
ture allowable, which was established at 90 deg. C, 
and the resistance coils placed in the hottest parts of 
generator coils were to determine this temperature, 
which the resistance thermometer on the switchboard 
will not be allowed to exceed. The carrying capacity 
of the generator will now depend on the temperature 
of the incoming air, and the air duct is carried out of 
the building to the coolest point available. It is the in- 
tention of the department to adopt this system of rating 
and temperature control on all machines in future, since 
the output of a machine is what it will deliver and not 
what it is rated at. The generator is connected through 

oil switches, with concrete cells and bus structure, 
are to be installed in the same room. Provision is also 
made for feeder regulators for the 2500-volt feeders, 
and for the necessary disconnecting switches and in- 
strument transformers. This electrical apparatus will 
be separated from the ash-handling equipment and 
the steam piping by a concrete wall. Lightning ar- 
resters for the 15,000-volt lines will be installed in 
the space back of the water-power station over the 
oil tanks. 

The switchboard, of Monson slate, 32 ft. long and 
7.5 ft. high, is placed in the turbine room parallel to 
Eastlake Avenue. All apparatus is remotely con- 
trolled, and 125 volts is the maximum potential on the 
switchboard. Control for both the water-power plant 
and the steam plant is placed on this board so that 
both plants are under one operator. 

Purpose of the Steam Plant 

The steam plant is intended as an auxiliary to the 
water-power station at Cedar Falls. It will be used to 
help carry the heavy winter peaks, which now are 
above the present capacity of the Cedar Falls plant, 
and to help supply energy through a possible low- 
water season, as well as to be ready to take its full load 
any instant in case of accident to the water-power 
plant or transmission system. It thus serves as a gen- 
eral safeguard and guarantee of the city's service as 
well as an addition to the system. Although danger 
from low water is not anticipated on account of the 
completion of the new Cedar River dam, the steam 
plant has already proved its value as an auxiliary. The 
water in Cedar Lake during September was abnormally 
low, and but for the timely completion of the steam 
station the water plant would have been overtaxed. 
The building was begun on April 28 and the station 
was delivering energy on Sept. 6. Its cost to date has 
been $241,000. There will be some additional expense, 
but the cost properly chargeable to the steam plant, it 
is said, will be less than $300,000. 

So rapidly has the load on the city plant grown that 
a new concrete dam has been built at Cedar Falls at 
a cost of $1,500,000, which increases the storage so as to 
admit of a final development of 40,000 kw. It is planned 
to install the first 10,000-kw unit of this new develop- 
ment in the near future. Mr. J. D. Ross, superinten- 
dent of lighting, is in charge of the Seattle municipal 


reactance coils in each phase. These coils are made by 
the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 
and give 5 per cent reactance drop on full load. They 
are mounted in the concrete pier on which the genera- 
tor rests. 

The station will be used both as a generating and a 
distributing station and operates in parallel with the 
water-power station adjacent to it. This water-power 
station has already been described in the columns of 
the Electrical World. It delivers 1500 kw to 1800 
kw from the overflow of the Seattle water system and 
will be controlled from the steam plant switchboard. 
Provision is made for four 15,000-volt lines from the 
station and two two-phase and six single-phase, 2500- 
volt feeders, besides two 2500-volt, two-phase tie lines 
connecting with the main substation at Seventh Ave- 
nue and Yesler Way. The step-up transformers are 
of the Allis-Chalmers water-cooled type in welded 
boiler-iron cases. They are rated at 9400 kva per bank 
of two and guaranteed for 14,100 kva per bank for two 
hours. One bank of two is installed, with one spare 
transformer. They are installed in the basement on 
the lake side, and the generator, transformer and line 

Presence of Salt Indication of Other Impurities in 
Boiler Water 

At one of the large generating stations in New York 
City where salt water is employed to cool the conden- 
sers condensate is tested every hour to determine 
whether any salt is present. If any is found, it indicates 
that the condensers are leaking and must be immediately 
attended to or all of the boiler water will be contami- 
nated. The test is also valuable in that it forewarns 
when additional feed-water compound may be required 
to precipitate impurities which are carried into the 
boilers along with the salt. Not only is the condensate 
tested but also the boiler's contents. This, however, is 
done only once a day as leakage of scale-forming com- 
pounds into the feed-water system is usually noted by 
analysis of water from the condensers. The standard 
titration test of adding silver nitrate to the water is em- 
ployed. This is much simpler than testing for the pres- 
ence of other impurities. To remove scale-forming im- 
purities from the water it is treated by adding sodium 
carbonate and the precipitate is removed by blowing 
off the boilers when the fires are banked. 



Vol. 65, No. 2 


Convenient Device for Locating Faults in Motors and 

The accompanying illustration shows a simple and re- 
liable polarity tester used by the British Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company on the test floor. 
An ordinary search coil, preferably with a small iron 
core and completely insulated on the outside, is used. 
The coil is fastened to the end of a wooden handle and 

filrc Di-. Clued in flace 


Hoodrn Handle 

600 Turns 032 Di 


flexible wires connect the ends of the coil to the ter- 
minals of a direct-current millivoltmeter. If the coil is 
moved toward a magnet, a certain electromotive force 
is induced in the coil and the needle of the millivolt- 
meter shows a momentary deflection. A greater deflec- 
tion can generally be obtained if the coil after being care- 
fully brought quite near to the pole is quickly with- 
drawn. Naturally, the direction in which the needle 
moves depends on the polarity of the magnet from which 
the coil is withdrawn. If it is withdrawn from a north 
pole, the needle will move say to the right, and if with- 
drawn from a south pole, to the left. Thus, by testing 
all the poles in rotation, it is possible to ascertain 
whether the connections have been made correctly or in- 

If the armature of a six-pole generator is rotating in 
a clockwise direction, then the commutating pole which 
stands in the position corresponding to the 11 o'clock 
mark of the clock should have the same polarity as the 
main pole corresponding to the 12 o'clock mark and so 
on all the way round. On the other hand, each commu- 
tating pole of a motor should have the same polarity as 
the main pole preceding it in the direction of rotation. 

With a six-pole motor running in a clockwise direc- 
tion, the commutating pole in the 11 o'clock position 
should have the same polarity as the main pole in the 
10 o'clock position. Perfectly satisfactory results are 
•obtained by keeping the search coil to a part on the poles 
near the yoke where there is no danger of accidental 
contact with the rotating part, but care must, of course, 
be exercised to see that no part of the flexible cord 
touches any part of the rotating machine. Sometimes 
the commutating poles of a machine show correct polar- 
ity when there is a good load on the machine but be- 
have irregularly on light loads, and this may be due to 
slight irregularities in the mechanical construction of 
the machines. If a commutating pole is not in the cen- 
ter ni it- neighboring poles, but is nearer, say, to the 
main north pole than to the main south pole, then the 
commutating-pole tip will show south polarity without 
any current going through its windings, and therefore, 
with a very light load, the current passing through the 
commutating-pole winding, and tending to make the 
pole, say, a north pole may not he strong enough to over- 
come the polarity caused by the unequal setting. The 
thing will occur if the air-gap between the arma- 
ture and north pole is smaller than that between the 
armature and south pole. 

The search coil is of considerable assistance in making 
accurate magnetic adjustments, which is. of course, nec- 
essary in order to secure good commutation. It ill 

ers the reasons for imperfect commutation in a simple 
and convenient way, and should prove very useful to 
those who have to locate faults in electrical machines. 
The search coil gives in many cases quite reliable results 
even with the machine not running, the residual mag- 
netism being strong enough to cause with quick move- 
ment of the coil a small but distinct reading on the milli- 
voltmeter scale. For instance, in an interpole railway 
motor, with the armature removed, the polarity not only 
of the main poles but also of the commutating poles 
could be determined. If the last direction of rotation is 
known, the polarity of the interpole gives a clear indica- 
tion of whether the machine was last run as a motor or 
as a dynamo, and this may in certain cases serve to clear 
up points in connection with railway accidents. 

When winding a search coil of given size it is advis- 
able to take a wire of such diameter that the total re- 
sistance of the search coil corresponds approximately 
with that of the millivoltmeter, which is usually from 1 
ohm to 2 ohms. For the test in the Westinghouse works 
a coil has been used with an outside diameter of 1.75 in., 
inside diameter of 0.75 in. and 2 in. long, the core con- 
sisting of a 0.5-in. iron rod 2.50 in. long. The spool is 
wound with 580 turns of single cotton-covered wire, 
0.032 in. in diameter and giving a total resistance of 
approximately 1.5 ohms. If a thinner wire had been 
used, the advantage gained by increasing the number 
of turns would not have outweighed the disadvantage of 
increasing the resistance. But, after all, the disadvan- 
tage of high resistance simply means that the deflection 
of the needle is reduced. Quite useful results can be 
obtained with a wide range of coil resistance. If no 
millivoltmeter is at hand, then a moving coil ammeter 
with the shunt disconnected may be employed. A low- 
reading voltmeter — 1 volt or 3 volts — may also give dis- 
tinct readings, but in this case the search coil must be 
wound with many turns of the thinnest wire, because 
the internal resistance of a 1-volt or 3-volt instrument 
is several hundred ohms. A very suitable instrument 
to use is a Weston galvanometer, which is very sensitive. 
In some cases a search coil with an outside diameter of 
1.75 in. may be too large to reach every pole, but if a 
millivoltmeter or Weston galvanometer is at hand, a 
smaller coil may be employed. 

Diesel Efficiency for Steady and Fluctuating Loads 

The accompanying curves compare the fuel consump- 
tion of a 225-hp Busch-Sulzer Diesel engine under con- 
ditions of steady and fluctuating loads. The tests were 
made by Dr. A. C. Scott. Dallas. Tex., at the plant of the 
Hugo i()kla.> Ice & Light Company, where the engine 


— | — 

~ . ~r , 


J L 


















is employed to drive a 200-kva alternator. The fuel con- 
sumed contained lit, 000 lb.-Fahr. heat units per pound 
of oil and cost 2.9 cents per gallon. 

The solid curve traces values obtained under steady- 
load conditions, the engine being operated for three 
hours at each of the loadings indicated by the circum- 

January 9, 1915 



scribed points, viz., 58.2 hp, 116.7 hp, 168.6 hp, 228.5 hp 
and 254 hp. 

For the second set of tests, the results of which are 
shown by the dotted line, the engine was started with a 
load of 36.2 kw, which at the end of the first half-hour 
period had been gradually increased to 62.4 kw. Similar 
load increases were made during each following thirty- 
minute period until a load of 170.4 kw was reached. At 
average full load the fuel consumption was at the rate 
of 0.425 lb. per net brake-hp-hr., or about 5.98 gal. per 
100 net brake-hp-hr. At the price paid for oil. the fuel 
cost therefore represented only 1.75 mills ($0.00175) 
per brake-hp-hr. 


Its Effect Upon the Temperature of Furnace Gases and the 
Efficiency of Fuel Combustion 

By R. T. Strohm. 

If the grate of a steam boiler had no other object 
than to serve as a support for the fuel, a firebrick floor 
resting directly upon the earth would probably answer 
the purpose; but in order that there may be efficient 
combustion, the combustible must be brought into inti- 
mate contact with oxygen, and this is most easily ac- 
complished by causing air to pass upward through the 
bed of fuel. For this reason grates are made with 
openings instead of with unbroken surfaces. Again, 
the openings in the grate allow the ashes to drop out 
of the fire, thus keeping the fire clean. 

As the principal purpose of the grate is to support 
the fuel, the air spaces must be of such size as to pre- 
vent the fuel from dropping through ; or, in other 
words, the width of the air spaces must be determined 
by the nature of the fuel used. The coarser the fuel, 
the larger may be the openings for air. 

At first thought it would seem as though the air 
spaces should form as great a proportion of the grate 
surface as possible, so that the amount of air admitted 
to the fuel bed might be large, to insure an ample sup- 


Kind of Coal 


ItlTKR < 

r Ring 


tre Mesh 



7 1K 





ply of oxygen. But the greater the area of the air 
space, the width of the spaces remaining the same, 
the narrower must be the metal parts of the grate, and 
these cannot be made too thin without inviting trouble. 

In the first place, it is difficult to cast grate bars if 
the thickness of the metal is made very small. The 
sand that forms the air openings is apt to bake and 
crack and thus allow fins to span the air spaces; also, 
in cooling, the thin metal parts are very apt to break 
away from the heavier parts of the bar. 

As a consequence, it has not been found wise to at- 
tempt to make the metal sections very thin. A thick- 
ness of V± in. at the fire surface is probably the usual 
lower limit. To make the pattern draw easily from 
the sand, the webs are made thinner at the bottom; 
but these thinner parts are not exposed to the direct 
action of the hot fuel. Another objection to the use 
of very thin webs is the trouble that may ensue through 
warping under the effect of heat. 

The sizes of anthracite used for steam-boiler fuel are 
pea, buckwheat, rice and barley. The actual sizes of 
these grades, however, depend on the nature of the 
screens through which they are run. The accompany- 
ing table gives the approximate sizes of the several 
kinds. In other words, the buckwheat size will pass 
over a screen having 7/16-in. round holes and through 
one having 5 s-in. round holes. The same size will pass 
through a 7/16-in. square mesh, but over a %-in. square 

Anthracite is a fuel that contains a very small per- 
centage of volatile matter, and to insure successful com- 
bustion the pieces should be of approximately the same 
size, as the air can then most easily pass through the 
voids. It is for this reason that coal is sized by 

In selecting a grate to burn any one of these sizes 
of anthracite, therefore, the width of air openings 
should be less than the diameter of the screen opening 
through which that size of coal will pass. This is nec- 
essary in order to prevent waste of unburned fuel. The 
ratio of air space to grate area, however, is not fixed 
by any arbitrary rule. As a usual thing, the width of 
the air space and the thickness of metal in the grate 
bar are made equal, so that practically half of the grate 
area represents air-opening area. In some types of 
grates the percentage of air space is even greater than 
50 per cent. 

It is well to bear in mind the fact that a large per- 
centage of air space is not an absolute necessity, and 
that instead of serving to increase the efficiency of com- 
bustion, it may operate to produce the opposite effect. 
This is explainable on the grounds of excess air ad- 
mitted to the furnace. 

One of the most common faults in the firing of 
steam boilers is the admission of too much air, with the 
result that the temperature of the furnace gases is 
lowered and their quantity is greatly increased, caus- 
ing a loss of heat. By reducing the amount of open- 
ing through which air can enter the furnace, as by 
decreasing the width of air spaces in the grates, the fur- 
nace temperature is raised, the gases are in contact 
with the boiler for a longer period, and a greater per- 
centage of the heat generated is utilized in making 

The extent to which cutting down of the air space 
may be carried is limited by the nature of the draft. 
With natural draft considerable area is required to ad- 
mit the necessary air supply. With forced draft it may 
be possible to reduce the air-space area to a small frac- 
tion of the grate area. One writer, in describing the 
use of low-grade anthracite with a forced draft of from 
3 in. to 5 in. of water, states that grates containing as 
low as 5 per cent of air space are in use. This means, 
of course, that the velocity of air through the grates is 
correspondingly large. 

It is extremely doubtful whether bituminous coal 
could be burned properly under such conditions. The 
volatile matter is given off during the early stages of 
combustion of the green fuel, and to insure efficient 
burning it must be thoroughly mixed with air before 
it is cooled to a temperature below the igniting point. 
This necessitates the admission of air above the grate 
in addition to that which enters through the grate. 

Now, in certain tests of boilers using bituminous and 
semi-bituminous coal, it has been found that a reduc- 
tion of the air space in the grate has been followed by 
increased efficiency of combustion. The reason for the 
better performance may have been the cutting down 
the air supply from a previously excessive and waste- 
ful amount to a more nearly normal amount; or possi- 
bly the restriction of flow through the grate caused a 
greater amount of air to be drawn in above the grate, 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

where it would be of greater value in burning the gases. 
Air could enter above the grate by passing through the 
openings in the firedoors and boiler front, past the 
joints of the doors, and through the brick setting of 
the boiler. 

Automatically Maintaining Constant Ratio Between 
Air and Coal Supplied to Furnaces 

In the Gold Street generating station of the Edison 
Electric Illuminating Company of Brooklyn there is ap- 
paratus for automatically maintaining a constant ratio 
between the coal and air supplied to the furnaces under 
all loads. This is done by changing the speeds of the 
turbine-driven blowers and mechanically operated stok- 
ers simultaneously with fluctuations in steam pressure. 
As two sets of blower units are installed at each end of 
the firing aisle and as separate stoker engines are em- 
ployed with each set of eight boilers, it is necessary to 
control the driving units from a shaft extending the 
full length of the boiler room. This shaft is operated 
by a hydraulic piston the position of which is deter- 
mined by a diaphragm connected with the main steam 

The arrangement and connections of the equipment 
are shown in the accompanying illustration and line 
drawing. To prevent live steam reaching the pressure 
diaphragm the pipe leading to it is bent in the shape of 
a long U which is kept full of water. The diaphragm 
acts directly on a lever which bears against a knife 
edge at one end and is counterweighted at the other. 
Attached to the lever is a rod which operates a pilot 
valve admitting water to hydraulic apparatus operating 
the control shaft. This in turn is connected with the 

turns the blowers and stokers decrease in speed until the 
pressure drops to normal, when the pressure valve pre- 
vents further movement of the hydraulic piston. A 
drop in steam pressure causes the reverse action to that 
described. An abrupt change in steam pressure causes 
the hydraulic piston to move more quickly, thereby 


throttles of the stoker engines, the shunt-field rheostats 
of the stoker reserve motors, and the regulating valves 
of the blower turbines. 

When the steam pressure rises water is admitted to 
the lower end of the hydraulic cylinder and that in the 
other end is allowed to discharge. As the control shaft 

Rod operating 
Control Shaft 

Water Supply 
_J < Water Discharge 

\Yu-tube to steam header 


changing the blower and stoker speeds more rapidly. 
This apparatus has been in use for some time, and it 
is reported that the boiler-room efficiency has been main- 
tained very satisfactorily thereby. 

Advantages of Large Steam Condensers 

According to a prominent English engineer the effect 
of vacuum on turbines is so great that a given weight 
expended on the condenser end is far more profitable in 
power production that a similar weight expended at the 
boiler end. The aims of an efficient condenser are to 
have the maximum of heat transferred from the steam 
to the circulating water — that is, a minimum difference 
between the temperature due to the vacuum and the 
temperature of the circulating water leaving the con- 
denser — and also to deliver the condensate to the hot-well 
as near the temperature due to the vacuum as possible. 
And here it is important to consider the steam consump- 
tion of the auxiliaries and the air-withdrawal arrange- 
ments, which comprise air pumps in some form, to- 
gether with the withdrawal of the condensate from the 
condenser. As the driving power of air pumps is at 
most only about 1 per cent of the power of the turbine 
at full load, and in general much less, the importance 
of the steam used per unit of power required for driv- 
ing an air pump is negligible compared with its vacuum- 
producing qualities. The steam required by the circu- 
lating pumps depends on the steam consumption in 
pounds per water horse-power-hour of the engine driv- 
ing the circulating pumps, the ratio of the circulating 
water to the steam condensed, and the total head on the 

Without allowing for condensation it may be said that 
in this case the temperature of the feed, after it has 
condensed the steam from the circulating pump, is 
largely independent of the quantity of circulating water, 
and this has to be considered in making up the final bal- 
ance sheet, which alone enables the most difficult prob- 
lem of the best vacuum to be solved. 

January i), 1915 


Electric Motor Drive of a Large Flour Mill 

Method of Interlocking Machines for Simultaneous Operation in the New Plant 
of the Commercial Milling Company, Detroit, Mich. 

THE new flour mill of the Commercial Milling 
Company, Detroit, Mich., which is one of the 
largest and most up-to-date installations in the 
country, is now operating entirely with electrical energy 
generated in the company's private steam plant. A 
single turbo-generator is relied on to furnish energy 
for the entire mill, there being no emergency gener- 
ating apparatus or throw-over connection with the cen- 
tral-station company. The present mill is interesting 
because it is one of the first in this country to be 
equipped throughout with motor-driven apparatus. 
While most manufacturers have responded quite 
readily to the movement toward electrification of fac- 
tories, owners of flour mills until now have been back- 
ward in adopting motor drive because of conditions 
which, inherent in the industry, have limited the exten- 
sive application of electric motors. 

One objection to group motor drive in flour mills has 
been that all flour-making machinery must operate 
simultaneously, since otherwise the wheat in one of the 
stages of milling may choke up the entire system. 
Another objection has been that sparks at electrical con- 
tacts may cause an explosion of the flour dust which is 
generally present inside such a mill. The latter objec- 
tion has been removed by using combination wound- 
rotor and squirrel-cage induction motors and by em- 
ploying dust collectors wherever necessary. The first 
objection, which is really the most vital one in this in- 

dustry, has been eliminated at the Detroit mills by elec- 
trically interlocking all group-drive motors connected to 
a consecutive set of milling machines. By installing 
motors near the machinery which they drive this com- 
pany has avoided the use of long belt transmissions and 
countershafting, which are usually required in large 
steam-engine-driven mills unless several prime-movers 
are distributed about the building, as may be done 
easily with the motors. 

All of the operations in this mill, including the un- 
loading of grain boats, moving of boats, spotting of 
freight cars on private sidings, distribution of grain 
among elevators, milling and packing, are performed 
by motor-driven apparatus. 

General Description 

The flour mill, which is designed for an ultimate out- 
put of 2500 bbl. per day, occupies a structure built en- 
tirely of reinforced concrete and is 50 ft. wide, 353 ft. 
long and has a maximum height of ten floors. Milling 
machinery for producing only 1200 bbl. a day is in- 
stalled now in one half of the building, the other half 
being reserved for future equipment. The mill is situ- 
ated on the northern bank of the Detroit River, where 
grain can be unloaded directly from the Great Lake 
boats into the grain reservoirs, of which there are six- 
teen cylindrical-shaped and ten diamond-shaped, hav- 
ing altogether a total content of 275,000 bushels. 




Vol. 65, No. 2 

A mammoth electric sign advertising the brand of 
flour manufactured is placed on top of the building on 
the river-front side so that persons on passing vessels 
and ferries as well as those on the Canadian shore can 
see it. 

The boiler room contains a double-setting of 350 hp 
Edge Moor boilers equipped with steam-driven Jones 
underfeed stokers and Foster superheaters. From the 
storage space coal is conveyed to a 200-ton overhead 
hopper in the boiler room by an endless belt and a bucket 
elevator driven by a 15-hp induction motor. The latter 
also operates a crusher. 

Connected with the boilers is a 7-in. header feeding 
three take-offs — one for the turbo-generator, the second 
for the auxiliaries and the third for steam heating. 
Steam from the auxiliary header is also used for drying 
and heating grain in the elevators. 

Engine Room 

In the room adjoining the boilers there are installed 
a 600-kw General Electric horizontal turbo-generator, a 
six-panel motor-feeder switchboard and several auxil- 
iary engines. The turbine unit operates on 175-lb. pres- 
sure and exhausts into an Alberger Spiroflo condenser in 
the basement. Energy is generated at 480 volts and 
sixty cycles and distributed at the same pressure to 
some twenty-one motors having a total rating of about 
930 hp. For the lamp circuits the generated pressure 
is stepped down to 220/110 volts by three 15-kva trans- 

The switchboard in addition to having generator and 
exciter panels contains four motor-feeder panels, one 
of which supports the feeder oil switch connected to the 
motors, which must be operated simultaneously. The 
accompanying diagram shows the scheme of interlock- 
ing the motors, which can be extended at any time to 
include more units. If one motor oil switch in the 
interlocked system opens owing to an overload or energy 
interruption all the rest will do likewise. This oper- 
ation is effected by reconnecting the no-voltage relays 
and contacts on the feeder oil switch and on each motor 
compensator as shown. A, B and C represent the con- 

tactor upon opening will thus trip the no-voltage relays 
on the other motors, either directly or indirectly, by first 
tripping the main oil switch. 

Distribution System 

All wires in motor and lamp circuits are inclosed 
in conduits which are run exposed along the ceilings, 


passing around the girders in most cases rather than 
through them. Porcelain clamp insulators are used ex- 
clusively for supporting the conduits. Metal distribut- 
ing cabinets are employed, and where circuits enter 
them the holes are fitted with porcelain bushings to 
segregate the conduits and prevent the metal of cabi- 
nets from becoming energized by an accidental con- 
nection between a conductor and a conduit. The dis- 
tributing panels are made of slate and all distributing 
switches are of the knife type. 

Grain Unloading 

The apparatus for unloading the grain boats consists 
of an endless-chain bucket elevator supported vertically 
at the end of a movable cantilever beam so that its lower 
end may be lowered into the vessel's hatchway. The 
arm supporting the unloading apparatus is hinged at 



ductora of the three-phase motor circuit. Across one 
phase i- connected a series circuit consisting of all the 
relay contactors, a scries resistance ami the no-voltage 

relay COil Of the main feeder switch. The no-voltage 

coll "ii each motor cunt ml oil switch is connected in 

Willi a definite resistance as shown, while the 

overload coils are connected as usual. An\ relay con- 

its lower end so that it may be folded up into a con- 
crete tower at one end of the building. One 50-hp in- 
duction motor operates the grain-unloading elevator and 
also raises the cantilever beam, the former through a 
wire cable drive and the latter by a cable wound on a 
drum. The motor may be connected to drive either by 
shifting a clutch lever. Although the weight of the 

January 9, 1915 



bucket elevator automatically lowers the supporting 
arm as the vessel's cargo is removed, men are employed 
to see that the lower end of the elevator is always sur- 
rounded with grain. The buckets scoop up the grain in 
the ship's hold and as they tip over at the top of their 
travel deliver the grain to a gravity chute (emptying 
into an automatic weighing hopper) which discharges 

/Grain hoppe, 



into an endless-belt conveyor running beneath the grain- 
storage tanks. 

Belt Conveyors 

There are two endless-belt conveyors in the building, 
the one just mentioned below the storage tanks which 
receives grain from the ships or freight cars by gravity 
chutes and another above the tanks which distributes the 
grain among the tanks. When grain is shipped by rail 
it is unloaded from the cars by motor-driven grain 
shovels and dumped into the gravity chutes discharg- 
ing on the lower conveyor. A 5-hp motor operates the 
shovels, while the receiving conveyor is driven by a 
15-hp motor. The latter transfers its charge to bucket 
elevators (belt-driven by a 100-hp motor) which deliver 
the grain to a hopper at the top of the building. From 
this hopper the wheat is fed into the distributing con- 
veyor which removes the dust, chaff, etc., and then dumps 

shown in the accompanying diagram. The belt is driven 
by a 10-hp motor geared to the smaller end-pulley. 
Grain is delivered on the upper run of the conveyor 
belt at the large-pulley end, and as the belt passes 
around the small pulley in the carriage the grain is 
thrown into the carriage hopper by its momentum, 
while the chaff which is lighter follows the belt tempo- 
rarily and drops off into a separate compartment. The 
distributing carriage runs on a narrow-gage track 
over the tanks, and two chutes attached to the carriage 
at right angles to the track discharge the grain into 
the tanks below. The distributing carriage is moved 
along the track by transmitting the power delivered by 
the moving belt to the drive wheels through friction 

As the grain is required for milling it is drawn off 
at the bottom of the tanks and delivered to a number 
of small bucket elevators which convey it to the top 
floor of the "cleaning" section of the building, where 
it is started in the process of cleaning. The purifying 
apparatus is grouped on different floors so that gravity 
can be employed to carry the grain through the ma- 
chines in the proper order. 

Distributed through the grain-cleaning section of the 
building are magnetic separators which remove any par- 
ticles of iron or steel which may have collected in the 
grain. The latter then passes through oat separators, 
scouring machines, mustard-seed separators and other 
cleaning and purifying machinery. After passing 
through any machinery which loosens chaff or dust the 
grain is cleaned by a blast of air which deposits its bur- 
den in a dust collector. These dust collectors are con- 
spicuous throughout the building. 

After being cleaned the grain passes through auto- 
matic recording weighing hoppers and thence to gover- 
nors which regulate the rate at which the grain is fed 
to the milling machines by small bucket elevators. 
There are sixty-three of these elevators, including those 
serving the cleaning section of the building. The grain 
to be milled is also conveyed to the top of the building 
by elevators after being cleaned and is delivered by 
gravity to the milling machines, which are arranged in 



the clean grain into any one of the twenty-six grain- 
storage tanks. 

The distributing conveyor is shown in operation in 
an accompanying illustration. The conveyor belt ex- 
tends the full length of the tank compartment, passing 
around pulleys of different diameter at each end and 
over two small pulleys in the distributing carriage as 

the proper descending sequence. Among the machines 
through which the grain passes before it finally becomes 
flour are dividers, wheat heaters, bolters, purifiers, reels, 
graders, scrolls, bran and shorts dusters, mixers, rolls 
and packers. 

The several grades of flour in their finished form are 
packed by motor-driven packing machines which weigh 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

which they are supplied, and the machines which they 
drive. All of the motors are of the 440-volt, sixty-cycle, 
three-phase induction type. The 300-hp, 200-hp and 
100-hp sizes have wound rotors, whereas the others have 
squirrel-cage secondaries. The circuits to each motor 
are entirely inclosed in conduit, and the slip-rings on 



the flour and automatically shut off the flour chute un- the three larger motors are short-circuited to prevent 
til the next package is in place to be filled. sparking when operating at full speed. Each motor is 
. supplied from its individual distributing box, the 
quipmen squirrel-cage type being equipped with oil-switch corn- 
Very few pieces of machinery in the building are pensators and the wound-rotor type with an oil-switch 
driven by individual motors, as on each floor there are and starting controller. The 300-hp and 200-hp motors 


Boiler Roon 

37V- »* — 

Turbine Room 

Basement Plan Cleaning Machinery Dept 


Grain Storage Tanks 

• Bracket Lights 

<=» Circuit Panels & Switches 

— • Wires 

— Feeder • 

• Risers 

— Feeder Wires to Power Pond Bo/res 

or Motors 

• Risers to Power Panel Boxes or Motors 


several machines which perform the same operation and 
can consequently be driven economically in a group by 
one motor. The motors are placed so as to drive these 
groups with the least possible amount of shafting and 
belting. The accompanying table gives a list of some 
of the motors, their rating, the feeder circuits from 

which drive through wire cables are also equipped with 
elaborate cable tighteners. 

Mill Illumination 

The equivalent of 650 25-watt tungsten lamps are in- 
stalled in the new building. Bracket supports are used 

January 9, 1915 



in some parts of the building, while Holophane steel 
reflectors supported about 6 in. below the ceiling are 
used over the shipping platform. The ninth floor of 
the building will be devoted to office rooms and will 
be lighted more elaborately. All lamps under the scale 
pits, in the boiler room and outside the building are pro- 
tected by cages. The large electric sign advertising 
Henkel's flour, which is supported on top of the concrete 
tower at the river end of the building, contains 600 10- 
watt lamps. About 250 25-watt lamps are yet to be in- 
stalled in the old mill. 


Motor Rating 

Machine Driven 











To be 

ed later 



2 Milling separators 

26 Allis rolls 

1 Scourer 

2 Prinz dust collectors 

1 Automatic weighing machine 

9 Invincible flour packers 

1 Grain conveyor 

3 Invincible magnetic separators 

2 Prinz dust collectors 
7 Fraser dividers 

11 Fraser bolters 

One Double-rotor suction fan 

2 Prinz wheat scourers 
1 Hock wheat heater 

1 Fraser aspirator 

3 Prinz dust collectors 
14 Fraser purifiers 

2 "Little Wonder" reels 

1 Prinz four-reel wheat grader 

1 Prinz oat grader 

2 Fraser aspirators 
:i McFrrly scrolls 

2 Niagara bran dusters 

1 Niagara shorts duster 

One Double-rotor suction fan 

1 Prinz mustard and flax separ. 
5 Prinz dust collectors 

2 Frasrr feeder mixers 
63 Burmeister elevators 


1 Grain elevator 

1 Otis elevator 

4 Allis reels 

1 Mustard separator 

1 Attraction mill 

Coal and ash handling 

Pancake flour machinery 

1 Belt conveyor 

2 3-tou car pullers 

5 "Little Wonder" bolters 

Grain shovels 
4 Mixers 

Man elevators 

Base, to 
top of 

to hop- 


A 15-kw, 110-volt direct-current generator directly 
connected to a Westinghouse gasoline engine which was 
installed in the old building has been transferred to the 
new mill to be used as an emergency lighting set. 
Data for Five Weeks' Operation 

Over a period of five weeks' operation the following 
data were collected: With a 28-in. vacuum the turbine 
generated 1 kw-hr. of energy per 17.1 lb. of steam. West 
Virginia pea, nut and slack coal, costing $2.10 per ton, 
is used. The usual day load is about 700 amp at 480 
volts. An average of 1200 bbl. of flour has been milled 
and packed with a consumption of 18,450 lb. of coal. 
The mill operates night and day. 

The plant was designed by the Fraser Company, Mil- 
waukee, Wis., the electrical apparatus was supplied by 
the General Electric Company, and the electrical work 
was done under the supervision of Mr. William C. Blag- 
den. Mr. F. H. June is chief engineer of the plant. 
The officers of the Commercial Milling Company are: 
President, Mr. Robert Henkel; vice-president, Mr. Will- 
iam V. Brace; secretary and treasurer, Mr. F. G. Em- 
mons; superintendent, Mr. John Holtorf. 

i the circuits denoted by letters in Column 1 may be interlocked 

Effect of Air Leakage on Jet Condensers 

Unless special care is taken to remove air which may 
leak into exhaust mains leading to condensers, the 
vacuum may be considerably reduced. In a paper pre- 
sented before the Engineers 1 Society of Western Penn- 
sylvania, Mr. C. L. W. Trinks pointed out that the 
vacuum produced by one jet condenser tested dropped 
from 28.5 in. to 23.2 in. when air weighing 1.4 per cent 
of the steam entering was admitted. With two other 
types of condensers only 1 per cent of air by weight re- 
duced the vacuum considerably. Sometimes injection 
water cbntains as much as 2 per cent air by volume or 
0.125 per cent of the weight of the steam. Air may 
also leak into the exhaust-steam mains. Mr. Trinks de- 
clared that there need be no drop in the vacuum due to 
the leakage of a small amount of air if the air pumps 
are designed to remove the correct amount. 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

Individual Motor Drive in Pen and Pencil Factory 

The plant of W. S. Hicks & Sons, 235 Greenwich 
Street, New York, manufacturers of gold and platinum 
pens and pencils, has until recently been operated by 
one large motor, and a complicated system of line and 
counter shafts was employed. With the shafting many 

stalled. The motors were installed by the C. C. Bohn 
Electric Company, of New York. Energy is obtained 
from the New York Edison Company. 


belts had to be used, and the workrooms were neces- 
sarily noisy and dusty. In order to eliminate the 
overhead shafting and belting individual belted-motor 
drive has been adopted throughout the plant, except in 
what is known as the pen shop, where a 0.5-hp motor is 
used for local drive. A number of small high-speed 
turning lathes are used in this establishment ; the 
motors which operate them are provided with speed- 
regulating and reversing devices, and foot-treadle 
switches are used to control the machines. Separate 
motors are also provided for the draw-benches, furnace 
blast and polishing machines. The motors for the draw- 
benches and furnace blast are operated by remote- 
control push-button switches, placed at points along the 
machines convenient to the operator. The motors oper- 


ate on 220 volts and were made by the Robbii 

U er Company. There are sixteen 0.12-Vhp motors. 
tWO 0.25-hp motor,, tw.. 0.6 hp motors, one 1 li ] ' motor 

;uicl one 7-hp motor. A 2000-watl plating generator la 

in the plant. Pigs. I and 2 show the plant 
with the old shaft and bell arrangement and the plant 

as it appeared after individual motor drive had been in- 

Steam Versus Electricity in a Corset Factory 

A New England central station recently investigated 
the comparative cost of steam and electrical operation 
in a corset factory, with the result that the owner was 
convinced that the motor drive offered sufficient ad- 
vantage in running expense and convenience of service 
to warrant early installation. The plant had a friction 


Coal $l,S00.0i> 

Labor 1,000.00 

Gas and maintenance 522.00 

Water 10.",. no 

Interest on boiler plant at 5 per cent 75.m> 

Depreciation on boiler plant at 10 per cent 150.00 

Electric lighting 80.00 

Repairs and supplies 90.00 

Total (steam) J3.S22.0O 

load of 37.2 hp, the average load on the 100-hp engine 
in service being only 40.1 hp. This excessive loss in 
transmission, combined with a poor engine load-factor, 
made the demonstration of superior economy by the use 
of central-station service comparatively easy. 

With the proposed electric drive twenty-two three- 
phase, 440-volt induction motors aggregating 49 hp are 
required, the range of the motors being from 2 hp 
to 6 hp. In the new layout a 2-hp motor is provided 
for each sewing machine table, there being twenty 
machines per table; two 6-hp motors are called for in 
connection with the elevator service, and three tape 
winders are provided with a 1-hp motor in each case. 
A 3-hp motor is to drive a cutter and a 1-hp motor 
will operate a grindstone. The power layout provides 
for placing the motors under the tables with a silent- 
chain drive to the machine countershaft, the chains and 
sprockets being inclosed to avoid accidents and greasing 
the material handled by the employees. Switches are to 
be placed either under the tables or on the walls and 
inclosed in fireproof boxes to guard against contact. 
The installation of sixteen 650-watt electric irons in 
place of an equal number of gas irons was figured in 
the operating cost, supplying the irons on the power 
rate. The necessary lighting installation was found to 


Coal for heating, 136 tens at $i v. <• 

' lays .o S2 10 


Interest on boiler plant, 6 per cent 

Di ilation on boiler plant, 5 percent (steam heating) 

Repairs 10. oo 


int. i . i Ipment, 10 pet 

Central-station energy, total Input, 1416 kw-hr. per month 1,674 04 

i (electric) $3,103.79 

total 7 kw connected load, the usual unit being a 100- 
watt lamp equipped with an enameled-steel reflector and 
plai 'il directly over the machine. 

The installation cost of the motor-driven service was 

found to he $2,800, including wiring for motors, lamps 

and irons, a lighting transformer of aboul 7 ' g-kw rating. 
twenty-two motors, silent chains and housings, lamps, 
irons and all machine work necessary to equip the ele- 
vators and other apparatus in the plant. From the 
tables herewith it will lie seen that the net estimated 

saving in operation by electricity is $718.21 a year, or 
25.7 percent on cost of installing central-station service. 

January 9, 1915 


Operating Cost Analysis in an Underwear Factory 

In a study of energy costs recently made in an under- 
wear factory in New England the engineers of the local 
central station found that with mechanical drive about 
60 hp was required to run the installation. The esti- 
mated yearly operating costs of the plant as a whole, 
on the steam-engine basis and with electric motors, are 
given in the tables. They show a saving in operating 
cost by electricity of $546.60. 


Coal. 250 tons at $5 $2,250.00 

Labor in plant 1,040.00 

Water 64.80 

Oil, waste, etc 45.00 

Repairs 50.00 

Removal of ashes 28.00 

Total $3,477.S0 

The survey showed that with electric drive an 
average load of only 31.6 hp, with a maximum of 42 hp, 
would be required, including an allowance for energy 
used in lighting and in the operation of an elevator 
pump and deducting the power lost in shafting, hangers 
and belts. The cost of the electrical installation, in- 
cluding individual motor drive, was estimated at about 
$3,000, so that, even allowing 10 or 12 per cent for 
depreciation, insurance and taxes, there would still be 
a saving in the electrical service of this factory. 

The power report advocated the use of motors under 
the machine tables, with silent chain drives guarded 
from contact by employees, and pointed out that the 


Coal, heating only, 150 tons at $5 $750.00 

Water 10.00 

Supplies 10.00 

Repairs 20.00 

Fireman 168.00 

Electrical energy purchased 1,663.20 

Removal of ashes 10.00 

Total $2,931.20 

adoption of electric service would not only assist in 
the better routing of the material and insure great 
cleanliness in departments at present subjected to stock 
damage from lint, dust and oil thrown by belts, but 
would get rid of five countershafts, sixty-five hangers 
and thirtv-nine belts. 

Electric Motors in the Portland Cement Industry 

Data on a local cement mill recorded under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Gordon Weaver, "power-sales" manager of 
the Kansas City (Mo.) Electric Light Company, over a 
period of one year and four months, show that in this 
plant an average of 20.05 kw-hr. of energy is used to 
manufacture a barrel of cement. The number of kilo- 
watt-hours used per month per horse-power connected 
was for the same period 309. The rating of the plant 
is 2000 bbl. of cement a day, and the average daily 
plant output during the year ended Aug. 1, 1914, was 
1924 bbl., thus showing that the plant after reaching 
its stride had operated near its full rating at all times. 
One hundred and sixty men are employed at the cement 
factory, which operates twenty-four hours a day and 
365 days a year. Exclusive of the lighting the con- 
nected load at the mill is 3668 hp and the maximum de- 
mand is 2500 kw. The load-factor on a 720-hour-a- 
month basis is 65 per cent. All of the motors are of the 
Wagner induction three-phase, twenty-five-cycle, 440- 
volt type, and an effort has been made to obtain inter- 
changeability by purchasing as nearly as possible all 
motors of the same speed, 750 r.p.m. Most of the large 
motors are started on reduced voltage. Electrical en- 

ergy is delivered from the central station to the cement 
plant over a double transmission line operating at 33,- 
000 volts and terminating in a bank of three single- 
phase, 750-kva transformers. 








per Bbl. 

per hp 

per Bbl.. 







1. HI. 000 


1,318, i 


692. 6S0 










1, 159,360 

138, 180 

129, S40 













17 17 
19 37 

17 60 


16 74 

18 32 
21 59 

Id 38 
is 46 

17 53 

16 64 
16 67 





19 29 

Id oii 
21 95 

20 18 




November ... 







ii, 95 

1!) 57 

20 98 
22 2g 

21 95 
21 05 
21 32 
19 65 



Average. . 


1,129. (Kill 

16,870,640 |2,233.240J901,803 
1.051.000 139,300 56,250 



321 03 

When the former steam installation at the mill was 
abandoned for electric drive, Griffin mills were dis- 
carded and tube mills and "slypeb" mills were installed. 
Other new equipment was also added. Of the old steam 


\'(. Hp R p " 

7.M i 

l.'n-. tube mill. 
Finish tube mill. 
Raw comminutor mill. 
Finish comminutor mill. 
B3 Ipeb" mill. 

750 Rook crusher (7 5 lustin) 

750 Span- motor. 

75(1 Blower. 

75(1 Hoist 

750 Spare. 

750 Rock drier. 

375 Kiln: variable speed motor- 

750 Clinker cooler. 

750 Tube mill elevator and conveyor (raw). 

7511 Drier, blower 

Comminutor elevator and Ci 

Tube mill elevator and conveyor (finish). 

Screv conveyi ir -' >ck hou 

Gypsum and coal bell conveyor. 

( loaJ crusher. 

Mam rock belt and elevator. 


Packing-house conveyor ' 
Ri ick elevator. 

"Sylpeb" elevator 

Clinker belt (finish) 
Rook, pan conveyor. 
Pump motor. 
Shovel "- 

I -hop 

Winder, electric repair shop. 
Quarry, blacksmith shop. 
Clinker elevator. 

Single phase; iabi ratory. 

New rock crusher 

Synchronous; direct to Sullivan" 1 5' 

Westinghou i ullii an 1500 ft. i 

Commimutor coal mill 
Elevator, coal mill. 

Conveyor, coal mill 
Conveyor, coal mil!. 

* Installed since July 1. Consumption not included in data. 

installation one 300-hp Oil City boiler was retained, and 
it is now used for heating the office in winter and for 
supplying steam to atomize oil burned under two driers 
in the plant. Coal is burned in four kilns. 

75' I 



751 1 





Vol. 65, No. 2 

Operating Kinks 

Locking Steam Valves to Prevent Accidents 

To protect its employees from being scalded by steam 
while working in boilers or repairing prime movers, the 
Edison Electric Illuminating Company of Brooklyn, 
N. Y., has established the practice of locking steam 



blow-offs, drain and feeder valves with a padlock and 
chain, as shown in the accompanying illustration. By 
doing this and requiring all employees to get permis- 
sion from the engineer on watch before opening any 
valves accidents have been prevented which might 
otherwise have occurred. In locking a valve a chain is 
wound around the rim and spoke of the hand wheel and 
locked to the yoke. All of the padlocks can be opened 
by one key which is kept by a man who is fully ac- 
quainted with any repair work that may be going on in 
the station. 

It has been found to be especially desirable to lock 
valves in pipes leading to prime movers which are 
being repaired or in boiler headers to prevent any acci- 
dental opening of valves and thus allow steam to leak 
into a unit which is being repaired or is having the 
boiler scale removed or the grate bars renewed. 

Boilers Permanently Equipped with Soot Blowers 

All boilers in the 201st Street Station of the United 
Electric Light & Power Company, New York City, are 
equipped with soot blowers so that deposits on the water 
tubes can be removed every twenty-four hours. The 
blower equipment of each boiler consists of seven hori- 
zontal pipes equally spaced above the upper row of water 
tubes. Each of these pipes is equipped with twenty- 
one nozzles which arc inclined so that they will blow 
diagonally through the nest of tubes. The nozzle head- 
ers are connected with a common supply header above 
the boiler by vertical pipes. As the soot blowers are ex- 

l to intense heat they had to be protected from 
melting by allowing air to circulate through the supply 
pipes and nozzles during the normal operation of the 
boiler. As a partial vacuum is maintained over the 
grates anyway, il ble to obtain the desired air 

ition by installing a ball valve in the Bupph pipe 
leading to the nozzles. Tins valve allows cool air to be 

" into the blower pipe bj the vacuum in the fur- 
nace but does not allow a reverse current when com- 
pressed air is supplied to the nozzle for removing 
from the tubes. 

Drying Wipers by Generating Room Exhaust 

At the hydroelectric generating plant of the Rumford 
Falls (Maine) Power Company wiping cloths used in- 
stead of waste in cleaning machinery are dried after 


being put through an electric washing outfit by exposing 
them to warm air discharged from the operating room, 
as shown in the accompanying photograph. To the dis- 
charge duct leading above the roof is attached a home- 
made lateral galvanized-iron box 4 ft. high, 2 ft. 7 in. 
deep and 3 ft. 10 in. wide, with eighteen louvers 5% in- 
wide each, hung on wires terminating in bent ends on the 
sides of the chamber. The cloths are pinned to a line 
fastened to a %-in. pipe frame carried outward in front 
of the louvers, and a small fan motor in the further side 
of the chamber forces air through the louvers and facili- 
tates rapid drying. The louvers are of the swinging 
type to prevent back drafts and the entrance of rain or 
snow, in case the motor is not in use. Cloths have been 
used eighteen times by utilizing this outfit, a combina- 
tion of the electric washer and of cleaning powder hav- 
ing done away entirely with the use of waste. The 
plant is heated electrically throughout. 

Portable Equipment for Soldering 

When it is impossible to employ gasoline blow torches 
in heating metal which has to be soldered a small motor 


may be used to drive a rotary pump delivering air to 
a blowpipe burner. So that the equipment may be 
portable Hie pump and motor should be mounted on a 
common base provided with casters. To avoid aligning 

January 9, 1915 



the shafts of the units they can be connected with flexi- 
ble or universal couplings. Energy can be supplied to 
the motor through flexible conductors. The method of 
connecting the equipment is represented in the accom- 
panying drawing. 

Wiring Safeguards in Sterling (111.) Station 

To make it impossible for an operator in the hydro- 
electric station of the Illinois Northern Utilities Com- 
pany at Sterling, 111., to close oil switches on the 2300- 


volt switchboard without first knowing that the ap- 
paratus he is connecting is in synchronism, the 125-volt 
circuits actuating the switches are connected through 
the synchronizing sockets. If the synchronizing plug 
is not in place, the oil-switch control circuit is open, and 
therefore an operator's first action when he wants to 
throw a switch must be to put the synchronizing plug in 

The 2300-volt board in this station is also equipped 
with a relay bus arranged near the top of the switch- 
board framework. Disconnecting switches mounted in 
neat alignment beneath this bus may be thrown upward 
to make connections through the relay bus and thus de- 
energize the oil switches, instrument transformers and 
wiring, so that men may work on any apparatus near 
the lower part of the board without fear of receiving a 

As a part of the 33,000-volt equipment, the larger dis- 
connect switches have been arranged with back posi- 
tions so that energy may leave the station without pass- 
ing through the high-tension oil switches. The latter 
units, therefore, may be inspected or repaired without 
danger at any time. The illustrations herewith show 
the 750-kva transformers and 2300-volt board on the 
first floor and the high-tension equipment in one of the 
upper galleries of the station. 


the socket provided for it. While this action makes the 
oil switch operative, it also connects the synchroscope 
and lamps in the circuit and calls attention to the fact 
that synchronism either does or does not exist. 

Old Condenser Serves New Turbine with Increased 

When a 5000-kw vertical turbine in the power house 
of the Metropolitan Street Railway Company, Kansas 
City, Mo., was recently replaced by a 10,000-kva, 6600- 
volt, twenty-five-cycle, three-phase horizontal turbo-gen- 
erator the condenser which had served the old machine 
was used with the new unit. The condenser is a three- 
pass unit with 20,000 sq. ft. of cooling surface, and it 
is estimated that it can easily maintain sufficient vacu- 
um, since the steam guarantee on the old machine was 
21 lb. per kw-hr. and the guarantee on the new machine 
is about 14 lb. per kw-hr. 

Heating of Water Tanks in Winter 

In the operation of a small power plant it frequently 
happened that an insufficient supply of steam was deliv- 
ered to the various points at which this was to be used. 
This was due to a minor though vital method of opera- 

It was the practice of the engineer on extremely cold 
days to open the valve on a 1%-in. high-pressure steam 
line which discharged into an exposed water tank. This 
was done in order to prevent freezing of the tank water. 
The amount of steam that can be supplied by a 1%-in. 
line blowing directly into a body of water is enormous, 
and it was sufficient in this case to cripple the service 
at other points. As the service was already over- 
burdened and subject to varying demands, it was only 
after repeated occurrences that the difficulty was traced 
to its source. 

The supply of steam to the tank could have been lim- 
ited by the throttling of the supply valve, but this would 
have meant more or less supervision with the possibility 
of the water freezing in the meantime. 

A better method for such a condition is to install a 
14-in. or V 2 -in. steam line connected to such a tank and 
arranged to deliver steam continuously from the start 
of winter, by which means the temperature of the water 
may be maintained at such a point that sudden demands 
for steam on the colder days would be unnecessary. In 
other words, it is better to supply steam continuously 
to a tank in small quantities than to attempt to supply 
a large "amount in a short period, unless the capacity of 
the station is arranged for such emergencies, which is 
usually not advisable. In the latter event the tank 
should have a direct connection from the tank to the 
steam header in the boiler room, and not be connected 
to piping that is used for other purposes. 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

Extracts and Abstracts 

Preventing Bursting of Flywheels 

Statistics show that the percentage of flywheels 
which burst is larger than the percentage of boilers 
which explode. It appears, therefore, that conditions 
causing the bursting of flywheels should be as carefully 
studied and prevented as those producing boiler explo- 
sions. According to the monthly bulletin of the 
Fidelity & Casualty Company of New York, flywheels 
in themselves have not been found to be defective very 
often but some accident to or disarrangement of the 
speed-governing mechanism allows the engine to race 
and thereby burst the flywheel. By giving attention 
to governing apparatus accidents may therefore be pre- 

Peat as a Source of Power 

In a paper on "Sources of Power" read at the Lenox 
(Mass.) convention of the National Association of Cot- 
ton Manufacturers, Mr. F. W. Dean, consulting engineer, 
Boston, Mass., commented upon the value of peat as a 
fuel in power development. Peat is widely deposited, 
occurring in shallow, wet depressions. It is estimated 
that there are 13,000,000,000 tons of it in the United 
States, exclusive of Alaska, and that its potential value 
is about $3 per ton. Peat is always wet and contains 
from 85 to 95 per cent of water, necessitating aid-drying 
before use. If exposed to the atmosphere, water is im- 
mediately re-absorbed. Atmospheric drying for a few 
days reduces its weight 50 per cent, and continued dry- 
ing in sun and wind will reduce its weight from 8 to 25 
per cent. It must be compressed for use commercially, 
as air-dried peat requires from eight to eighteen times 
the space of good coal and when fired in boilers calls for 
almost continuous shoveling. The heating value varies 
from 5200 to 9300 lb.-Fahr. heat units per lb., surpass- 
ing wood and lignites. Peat burns with a clear flame, 
forming a hot, responsive fire, a small amount of ash and 
no clinkers. Producer gas from peat contains from 132 
to 175 lb.-Fahr. heat units per cu. ft., compared with 
144 to 156 from coal. 

Prevention of Boiler Scale and Corrosion 

The prevention of boiler scale and corrosion does not 
depend so much upon the compound employed appar- 
ently as on the method of using it. At a meeting of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers held re- 
cently in San Francisco Mr. A. H. Babcock described the 
method used for preventing boiler-tube trouble in the 
Fruitvale (Cal.) power plant of the Southern Pacific 
Company. The compound employed consisted of anhy- 
drous sodium carbonate, 76 per cent; tri-sodium phos- 
phate, 10 per cent; starch, 1 per cent; tannic acid. :! 
per cent, and water, 10 per cent. The constituents were 
dissolved in hot water and added to the boiler-feed 
water in such quantities as always to maintain a con- 
central ion of :! per cent normal alkaline strength. In 
order to maintain a uniform concentration it was q< 

Bary to treat each boiler individually, as it was found 

to add a certain number of pounds of 

ompound per pound of coal burned or per gallon of 

feed water supplied to the boilers. Instead, a chemical 

analysis of each boiler's content was made before pre- 
determining the amount and to be added. The 

water had to be ' da- in order to make up for 

deficiency in alkalinity, as some compound was re- 
moved when (lie boilers Were Mown oil and some was 
lost by combination with impurities in the teed water. 

In practice the percentage of alkalinity of the water 
was determined by multiplying by 0.002 the number of 
cubic centimeters of one-tenth normal sulphuric acid re- 
quired to neutralize 50 cu. cm of the boiler water. 
Methyl orange and phenolphtalein were used as indi- 

The effectiveness of this boiler compound is shown by 
the following figures. Before boiler-water treatment 
was employed tubes were being replaced at the rate of 
1400 a year, while in the three months following the use 
of the compound tube replacement was rapidly de- 
creased to zero. The treatment costs less than $100 a 
month as compared with $10,000 a year, the former ex- 
pense of replacing tubes. 

Besides preventing pitting due to the presence of 
sodium carbonate, the compound also prevents the for- 
mation of scale as solid particles are kept in suspen- 
sion until the boilers are blown off. All salts are pre- 
cipitated in colloidal form as the tannic acid prevents 
crystallization. Priming is minimized by the tri- 
sodium phosphate. When the compound is first used 
it loosens the rust and may start leaks. To remove solid 
matter the boiler should be washed frequently. 

At the Fruitvale plant it is usually necessary to add 
from 4 lb. to 20 lb. of compound to each boiler during 
a watch. For treating the water employed in the loco- 
motives operated by the Southern Pacific Company it 
has been customary to add 3 lb. of compound per 1000 
gal. of feed water. In some localities it may not be pos- 
sible to maintain a concentration of 3 per cent because 
of priming, in which case corrosions may be consider- 
ably retarded with boiler water averaging as low as 
0.5 per cent alkalinity. 

A. S. M. E. Boiler Report Receives Considerable 

The importance of the problem that has arisen in the 
formulation of the Boiler Code was emphasized by the 
attention that was given to the report of the boiler 
specifications committee of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers at its recent annual meeting. Six 
separate sessions having an aggregate duration of 
twenty hours were devoted exclusively to the discus- 
sion of the Boiler Code and the work of the committee. 

At the first session Mr. John A. Stevens, chairman of 
the Boston specification committee, called attention to 
the need for a boiler code, outlined the progress of the 
committee considering this code, and explained how pro- 
visions have been made for receiving further sugges- 
tions or criticisms of the report. During the discussion 
which followed a number raised objections to the 
method of procedure employed by the committee, and 
others expressed themselves against including legis- 
lative requirements in the code, saying that it should 
concentrate upon technical rulings and engineering fea- 
tures only. The majority of those attending the meet- 
ing, however, favored the general plan and commended 
the committee for its work. 

The safety-valve requirements which had been ap- 
proved at a conference of safety-valve manufacturers 
and the boiler committee, and had been considered an 
important advance in this direction, were not well re- 
ceived by practical men. Those who had had actual 

experience in inspecting boilers criticised the require- 

m. n:s on the ground that they were too complicated 
and cumbersome for convenient use and also because the 
method of basing the steam producing ability on the 
heating value of the coal would in certain cases re- 
quire a larger safety valve to be applied if boilers were 
moved to states where different fuels would be em- 
ployed. As the criticism on the modified requirement 

January 9, 1915 


of this section was so strong, it was decided to refer the 
entire problem back to the safety-valve conference at 
which the requirements were proposed. / 

Owing to a diversified opinion on the welding of shell 
joints, this section of the report was slightly modified. 
The materials specifications in their present form are 
acceptable to the society, but where they differ slightly 
from those of the American Society for Testing Mate- 
rials it is probable that the specifications of the latter 
will be made to agree with those of the American So- 
ciety of Mechanical Engineers. Amplification of speci- 
fications to cover iron rivets, staybolt steel, bar iron 
and bar steel was referred to the committee representa- 
tives of steel manufacturers with instructions to select 
specifications from the standards of the American So- 
ciety for Testing Materials to cover the requirements. 
The new tube specification which was the result of the 
first complete conference of boiler-tube manufacturers 
of America was favorably commented upon. 

The quality of steel for various parts of boilers was 
considered more thoroughly than it has ever been be- 
fore, with the result that the section relating to it was 
completely modified and settled to the satisfaction of all 
In general, the ruling now stands that furnaces, shells, 
combustion chambers, or any part of boilers under pres- 
sure and exposed to the products of combustion, have to 
be made of firebox-grade steel. It was suggested that 
the specifications for heating boilers be separated from 
those for power boilers so that the particular require- 
ments of each class of boilers can be adequately treated. 
This matter was referred to a representative commit- 
tee of heating-boiler manufacturers for further study. 
Various requirements unintentionally limiting the size 
of boilers or enforcing unnecessary hardships on manu- 
facturers received careful attention at this time. The 
clause limiting the length of longitudinal joints was 
stricken out and that referring to the process of form- 
ing butt-straps radically modified. 

Questions of factor of safety and age limit were 
referred to a committee consisting of Profs. A. M. 
Greene, Jr., and William Kent and Messrs. Frederick 
Sargent, F. H. Clark, Thomas E. Durban and H. G. 
Stott. A motion was made and carried that a new set of 
tables on the efficiencies of riveted joints be prepared, 
using a tensile strength of 55,000 lb. only and the new 
revised shearing-strength values for rivets. A motion 
was also made that the code be re-drafted so as to elimi- 
nate all legislative requirements and to include techni- 
cal rulings and engineering features only. 

Factor of Safety for Boilers 

For high-pressure boilers a factor of safety of five 
is none too high. During service they are subjected to 
intermittent stresses due to expansion and contraction 
caused by alternate heating and cooling. Varying 
stresses are also set up by a "breathing action" caused 
by the irregular rate at which steam is supplied to re- 
ciprocating engines. The Fidelity & Casualty Company 
of New York advises increasing the factor of safety 
with length of service as intermittent stresses gradu- 
ally fatigue metal. The factor includes a true factor of 
safety and also a factor of ignorance. The latter allows 
for non-uniformity of strength in material, deteriora- 
tion resulting from abuse during construction, and 
varying qualities of workmanship. The true factor of 
safety takes into consideration changes in load and the 
yield point of the material. If the factor is based on the 
ultimate strength of the material, the actual margin of 
safety is considerably lower than it would be if the 
yield point or elastic limit were considered as the basis 
for estimating. 

Questions and Answers 

Ball Bearings for Meters 

Is there any relatively inexpensive, reliable and frictionless 
substitute for diamond bearings in meters? P. M. A. 

One of the large central-station companies is equip- 
ping all of its direct-current meters with ball bearings. 
These have been found practically equivalent to steel 
points bearing on diamond cups so far as friction is con- 
cerned. Ball bearings last practically indefinitely, and 
are less expensive than diamonds. 

"Phasing Out" Transformers 
Frequently we are required to interconnect different designs of 
single-phase transformer to furnish three-phase service. Please 
describe a simple method of determining their relative polarities. 

A. G. K. 

In a single-phase transformer the high-tension and 
low-tension voltages must be either in phase or in op- 
position, therefore it is a simple matter to determine the 
relative polarity of the terminals. Assuming that A 
and B are the high-voltage terminals and C and D the 
low-tension taps, connect B and C and apply a low volt- 
age to A and B. If the voltage across AD is greater 
than that applied to AB, the primary and secondary 
pressures act additively. If the pressure across AD is 
less than that across AB, the primary and secondary 
voltages are opposed to each other. All transformers 
giving the increased voltage reading with this test may 
have their corresponding terminals marked with oppo- 
site signs. If the over-all voltage is less than that ap- 
plied, corresponding terminals may be marked with 
similar signs. These signs will indicate how the trans- 
formers should be connected. For instance, if the pri- 
maries are to be connected in Y, all primary terminals 
of one sign are connected together and those marked op- 
positely connected to the three supply wires. Similarly 
if the secondaries are to be connected in delta, the posi- 
tive terminal on each transformer should be connected 
to the negative tap on the next. 

Rate of Water Flow to Cool Transformers 
What is the most economical rate at which water should be 
circulated through transformer cooling coils? H. G. P>. 

Water of ordinary temperature should be circulated 
through transformer cooling coils at the rate of 0.25 gal. 
per minute per kilowatt loss. As 1 kw will raise the 
temperature of 3.8 gal. of water 1 deg. C. in one minute, 
the temperature difference between water inlet and out- 
let should be about 15 deg. C, provided that the sepa- 
rating medium is a good conductor. Increasing the rate 
of flow will decrease the temperature rise of water in 
inverse ratio, while the temperature of the windings is 
lowered approximately one-half the amount by which 
the temperature of the water is lowered. On the other 
hand, decreasing the water rate increases the tempera- 
ture rise in inverse proportion and the temperature of 
the windings is raised about one-half the amount that 
the water temperature is increased. For example, if 
the rate is increased from 0.25 gal. to 0.375 gal. per 
minute per kilowatt loss, the difference between water 
inlet and outlet temperatures will be reduced from 15 
deg. C. to 10 deg. C, making the average temperature of 
the water 2.5 deg. lower for the higher rate, and the 
winding temperature will be correspondingly lower. 
Therefore it can be seen that no great gain is made by 
increasing the water rate. If, however, a heavy over- 
load is placed on the transformer, it will be advisable to 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

increase the rate of flow. The initial temperature of 
the water will, of course, have to be taken into consider- 

turbo-generator units and reciprocating-engine units of 
either the low-speed or the high-speed type can be oper- 
ated in parallel provided that proper adjustment is 
made in the load-speed characteristics. 

Simultaneous Operation of Three-Wire Generators and 

Balancer Sets 

Can balancer sets and three-wire generators be operated on the 
same system? O. B. H. 

Balancer sets and three-wire generators cannot be 
operated on the same system at the same time as the 
compensator used with the latter will make a short- 
circuit across the balancer set. If both types of ma- 
chines must be operated together, the neutral of the 
compensator must be disconnected and all load unbalanc- 
ing taken care of by the balancer sets. The latter will 
allow shifting of the neutral while three-wire generators 
will not. 

Advantages of Turbine-Driven Centrifugal Boiler-Feed 

What advantages are possessed by centrifugal boiler-feed water 
pumps which make their installation so common nowadays? 

W. S. C. 

Centrifugal pumps operate with very little attention, 
have a minimum of maintenance charge, and rating for 
rating occupy much less space than a reciprocating 
pump. Automatic control, while desirable, is not neces- 
sary, because if the pump be left running with all of 
the boiler-feed valves shut tight it merely churns up the 
water in its casing without injury. Being a rotary 
pump and operating at high speeds, it is especially suit- 
able for connection to steam turbines or electric motors. 
Usually steam turbines are employed in preference to 
electric motors because the condensate from the turbine 
can be used for heating the feed water. Besides, the 
condensate does not contain contaminations in the shape 
of oil. 

Division of Load Between Engines 

In a certain generating station containing a 75-kw, sixty-cycle, 
three-phase unit driven by a Corliss engine and a 150-kw, sixty- 
cycle, three-phase unit driven by a high-speed reciprocating engine, 
it has been found that, although the units can be synchronized, 
they will not operate properly together. When the load increases 
the equilibrium is upset and the Corliss unit comes almost to a 
standstill, and the attendant must open the circuit to prevent the 
cross-current between the units from blowing the fuses. What can 
be done to cause the units to operate satisfactorily in parallel? 

D. F. F. 

Doubtless the trouble encountered in operating the 
generators in parallel has been caused by the lack of 
similarity of the load-speed characteristics of the two 
engines. In order for the two generators to divide the 
load in proportion to their rat,ed output, the two engine 
governors must be so adjusted that under load condi- 
tions the drop in the speed of the one acting alone is 
identical with the drop in speed of the other acting alone 
carrying the same percentage of its full load as the 
other engine. Unless there is an appreciable drop in 
speed under load, the division of load between the units 
in parallel will be unstable. Moreover, if the impulses 
of the engine occur at time periods corresponding to 
the vibratory periods of the two generators when con- 
nected together electrically, then the units will "hunt." 
That is, first one and then the other will take the load 
with an accompanying interchange of large croa 
rents between the generators, until Anally the two units 
will be thrown out of step and the currents will increase 
to th' lui Bj equipping the govern- 

ors with dash-pots and adjusting them to give equal 
"dropping" load-speed characteristics the trouble can 
i • ome, provided thai I in- ret istance of 
the interconnecting circuits is sufficiently low. Steam 

Analysis of Cable Faults 

Please describe how conditions in faulty cables may be de- 
termined and how fault resistance may be reduced prior to locat- 
ing the defects. X. E. L. 

For the analysis of cable faults prior to their actual 
location the following equipment may be employed: 
Some form of bridge capable of measuring 0.1 ohm to 
300 ohms, a sensitive voltmeter having a resistance of 
200 ohms to 500 ohms per volt, and a direct-current 
source and a 32-cp lamp of the same voltage. It is ad- 
visable to provide at each cable terminal short flexible 
conductors for connecting feeders or grounding them. 
If three-conductor cables are used extensively the con- 
nectors may consist of three conductors joined to a 
common lead for grounding and equipped with clips for 
clamping to the cable conductors. The preliminary ex- 
periments consist of testing for continuity, crosses and 
ground. The cable conductors should be tagged and 
numbered and a chart made on which results of the test 
can be noted. In cables containing more than one con- 
ductor ruptures are usually accompanied by crosses and 
ground. With both ends of the faulty cable clear and 
other than test connections removed the far end of a 
conductor and one side of the energy supply should be 
grounded and the other side connected with the near 
end of the conductor through the lamp to see if it burns 
with the usual intensity. If there is any doubt, the 
bridge should be employed to measure the conductor re- 
sistance, which should be compared with the value as 
computed from the length and size of the cable. In this 
test the return circuit should be completed through a 
good conductor to determine the resistance of the 
"open" if there is one. Each conductor should then be 
tested separately for insulation resistance by the well- 
known series method employing the voltmeter. If any 
conductor shows low resistance to ground the insulation 
should then be measured with a bridge. Conductors 
having a similar insulation resistance should be tested 
in pairs for crosses by grounding one conductor and 
seeing whether the insulation resistance is considerably 
diminished. This should be done first by the series 
method, then with the bridge. If the tests indicate 
that any of the faults have more than 100 ohms resist- 
ance, it should be reduced before proceeding with the 
tests. The apparatus necessary for breaking down 
faults depends largely on the size of the system. If high 
voltage is required, the apparatus should be capable of 
carrying the charging current. It is not necessary to 
form a metallic connection at the fault, nor is it often 
possible. The object should be to carbonize the paper 
insulation at faults so that localizing tests can be con- 
ducted. It is best to assume the paper wet or damp 
and to dry it with 3 amp to 5 amp for about ten minutes 
before carbonizing. Dry paper will carbonize in from 
five to ten minutes with 1 amp flowing, giving a path of 
10 ohms resistance, which is practically stable for test 
currents of a few amperes. In any case a current-limit- 
ing device should be inserted in the circuit to prevent a 
surge. When special apparatus has to be provided for 
break-down the most satisfactory results will usually be 
obtained with a single-phase transformer supplied from 
a low-tension system through a water rheostat. What- 
ever scheme is followed, ammeters, voltmeters and watt- 
meters should be employed for following fault condi- 
tions and a direet-eurrent voltmeter should be connected 
in series with the conductor for quickly checking the 
fault resistance at frequent intervals. 

January 9, 1915 




New York Appliance Salesroom Attracted Many 
Christmas Shoppers 

Crowds of Christmas shoppers visited the appliance 
salesroom of the United Electric Light & Power Com- 
pany, New York City, during the first three weeks in 
December. While the purpose of the appliance-sales de- 
partment is primarily to increase the load on the com- 

f GIVE , 

A GIFTS s> 9 

Ui»-'£.' U112 Make this an Electrical Xmas 




136 HamiltonPlace \ 
Amsterdam Ave 4 H3rd St 



pany's own lines, it is reported that over 30 per cent of 
the articles sold during the last holiday season were sent 
to other parts of the country. Sales ran especially high 
on portable lamps and were also large on irons, toast- 
ers, percolators and chafing dishes. The attention of 
the public was attracted to the company's display of 
electrical devices by the window displays and the il- 
luminated signboard shown herewith, by appropriately 
decorated signs on delivery wagons, and by holly-dec- 
orated mailing folders representing Santa Claus point- 
ing to a number of devices suitable for Christmas gifts. 
Across the top of the folder were printed the words 
" 'I'll stand by any United Electric gift!' says wise old 
Santa." For the convenience of persons who were un- 
able to call at the salesroom the company offered to send 
appliance demonstrators on request. Also printed on 
the folder were the words "The gift electrical, the kind 
that always has a use." 

All articles sold during the holiday season were 
wrapped in holly-decorated tissue and wrapping paper, 
bound with green tinsel cord and sealed with Christ- 
mas stickers. Each purchaser was also provided with 
a Christmas card on which his name was artistically 
inscribed by an expert penman engaged by the com- 

The display windows were too shallow for elaborate 
decorations, so the one on the left in the accompany- 
ing illustration was ingeniously extended as follows: 
At the front of the window was erected a wide flat- 
topped frame arch, from which shirred bands of red 
and green cloth were stretched to a very small frame 
several feet back of the window to form an appropriate 

with Christmas colors and cotton flannel sprinkled with 
artificial snow. The tapered ceiling had the effect of 
making the window look considerably deeper than it 
actually was. In the foreground were placed a num- 
ber of well-worded signs such as "Gifts that please," 
"Make a sensible gift this Christmas," etc. A small 
image of Santa Claus was placed in a holly wreath in 
the center of the foreground. 

The two remaining windows had no backgrounds so 
that the passers-by might be attracted by the interior 
decorations as well as the articles displayed in the win- 
dows. A miniature electric locomotive and train was 
kept in operation in one of the windows to attract chil- 
dren's attention. In the window was also a miniature 
lamp-letter sign worded "This Christmas give some- 
thing electrical." Inside the salesroom where it could 
be seen from the street was a large evergreen tree dec- 
orated with electrical ornaments. Other interior dec- 
orations and methods of displaying stock are shown in 
the third illustration. 

As this display room occupies space in an apartment- 


house building in the residence portion of the city and 
was never wired for extensive electrical decoration, the 
results which were obtained should be of interest to 
dealers similarly handicapped. 


ceiling and background. At the apex of the cone thus 
formed was placed a tungsten lamp concealed by a 
translucent disk bearing the company's seal. This 
source furnished enough light to illuminate household 
appliances and small portable lamps displayed in the 
window. The electrical devices were set on steps draped 

How 700 Houses Were Wired in One Year at 
Topeka, Kan. 

Without employing a single new-business solicitor the 
Topeka (Kan.) Edison Company has made a net gain of 
700 wired houses during the last year. By the use of 
posters, street-car and newspaper advertising, persistent 
circularization of a well-kept list of 5000 prospective 
customers and the able aid of seven electrical contrac- 
tors, the company's service and the 40-cent minimum 
bill were kept constantly before the public. To show 
absolute fairness and to aid the contractors in every 
way the electric-service company keeps an information 
card handy at all times to answer the often-repeated 
question, "Who can do a good job of wiring for me?" 
This card, both sides of which are reproduced herewith, 
on one side tells something of the company's service, the 
prevailing prices of lamps and the net rates. On the 
opposite side it carries the names of the seven electrical 
contractors co-operating with the company, together 



Vol. 65, No. 2 


with their addresses and telephone numbers, 
cards may also be used as envelope stiffeners. 

Practically all of the 700 customers gained during the 
last year at Topeka were connected to existing distribu- 
tion lines, very few extensions being made. Although 
the efforts of the new-business department in using 



ELECTRICITY HuMEoi MORI-... Simplj pha 
or call at our office, and your order will 

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. i uti Discount for pr..n , ■ 
allowed if paid by 10th of month following. 
Minimum bill, 10c per month 
Residence lighting, 9c per lOOO watt noun 
Commercial light inc. it to 9c per 1"00 watt hour*. 
■-.' for Everything in the 
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Office, 808 Kansas Avenue 

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judicious advertising and circular letters have been 
quite successful, the early worth of house-wiring solici- 
tors, who first educated the public electrically, is not 

water-front loft buildings, transportation and freight 
rates, labor costs, and all other essentials which go to 
make up a successful manufacturing location. We offer 
to supply this information with absolutely no obligation 
on your part. Our object in doing this is, first, to see 
you locate in one of the most progressive industrial cen- 
ters in America, and, second, to supply you with electric 
current from our mains for the complete operation of 
your plant. Will you please give us your opinion of this 
offer and let us know what data you would be interested 
in receiving?" 

By assisting manufacturers to find a desirable site 
the company gains their confidence and increases its op- 
portunities to close a contract for electric service. A 
card-index system is employed to keep track of the cor- 
respondence held with each prospective consumer and 
of the ultimate outcome of the company's efforts to 
secure his business. 

Tungsten White-Way Lighting Supplants Arc 
Lamps at Arkansas City, Kan. 

Ninety five-lamp ornamental lighting standards car- 
rying one 100-watt and four 60-watt multiple tungsten 
lamps were recently installed to illuminate fourteen 
blocks in Arkansas City's business district. The resi- 
dential streets are also lighted, 250 7.5-amp high- 
efficiency series-tungsten lamps being used for this pur- 
pose. Lamps on the multiple circuits are controlled by 
five time switches which light the entire installation at 
dusk and extinguish all but the top lamps at 11 p. m. 
The top lamps are extinguished at daylight. Situated 
as it is on top of a hill surrounded on all sides by broad 
valleys, the town may now be seen for many miles at 

Energy for operating the street-lighting system is 
supplied by the Arkansas City Gas & Electric Light 

Utilizing Newspaper Clippings to Extend New- 
Business Field 

It is considerably less difficult to persuade an indus- 
trial organization which is just preparing to build a 
factory to use central-station energy than it is to dis- 
place a private plant. The Edison Electric Illuminating 
Company of Brooklyn has therefore subscribed to news- 
paper-clipping bureaus for the purpose of informing it- 
self of persons who are searching for manufacturing 
sites. To these persons the company sends letters and 
data pointing out the benefits of locating in Brooklyn 
and incidentally calls attention to the service it fur- 

Not only are clippings collected regarding the ex- 
pressed intention of changes in location, but also 
articles relating to new incorporations and to destruc- 
tion of factories by fire, flood and hurricane, etc. In 
fact, any information is utilized regarding manufactui 
ers who may of necessity or choice be waiting for an 
opportunity to locate where shipping, receiving, labor 
and manufacturing conditions are more desirable, 

A copy of one of the first letters sent to manufa< 
hirers who may be forced to seek a new location because 
of lire follows: 

"We have learned from a reliable source that a lire 

curred ir factory. This may prove 

:i good opportunity for you to consider a change in loca 
tion, and we are writing with the view of inducini 
to locate in the borough of Brooklyn, New Yorl i 
in an enterprise such as yours the cosl oi power is an 
impoi deration, and we believe thai the low 

■power' r.ii offering hould play an important 

pari in inducing you to locate in Brooklyn. Owing to 

data on Ale In this office, we are in a po 
to give you invaluable information on factor] 


Company, of which Mr. A. L. Newman is secretary, 
treasurer and manager. The city pays for the energy 

at a llat rate of $.'5 a post per month, under the terms of 
a ten -\ear contract. Before the lighting system was 
rehabilitated arc lamps with overhead wiring were used, 
but the present installation is served by a three-con- 
ductor lead covered cable laid in fiber conduit. 

January 9, 1915 



Voluntary Refund by Central-Station Company 

The Minneapolis General Electric Company has noti- 
fied the municipal authorities that it will refund more 
than $1,000 on bills rendered for electric service in fire- 
engine houses and other municipal buildings during the 
past year. This refund is the fulfilment of a promise 
by the central-station company to allow the city a dis- 
count on all except street-lighting bills, as the munici- 
pality is a large consumer in the aggregate. Account- 
ants who are checking the monthly bills for electric 
service have reported through General Manager R. F. 
Pack that the refund will exceed $1,000 and may 
reach $1,200. 

If a series of layouts is presented, the prospective 
customer can have his choice of the layout above and the 
layout below the salesman's recommendations, and thus 
the customer is spared the feeling that something is 
being sold to him in which he has no voice. 

Desirability of National Electrical Code 

From the fire insurance man's point of view the elec- 
trical code and careful inspection of electrical installa- 
tions are altogether desirable, and at the same time, 
though these requirements may sometimes seem irk- 
some, they are aids to electrical contractors' success, 
according to Mr. YV. D. Gilsdorf, who recently addressed 
a joint meeting of the Louisville (Ky.) Electrical Clear- 
ing House and the Jovians, held in the assembly room 
of the Louisville Gas & Electric Company. It is the 
careful supervision of things electrical that has kept 
fires of electrical origin down to 2% per cent, he said, 
while fires from other classes of causes run to as high 
a figure as 10 per cent. One effect is to make the 
electrical contractor's business a better business. 

Less Frequent Billing for Small Customers 

In discussing the problem of so popularizing the use 
of electricity that central-station service might be sup- 
plied to every household, however humble, Mr. Peter 
Junkersfeld, assistant to the vice-president of the Com- 
monwealth Edison Company, Chicago, remarked at a 
recent joint meeting of the Chicago engineering socie- 
ties that his company now has more than 250,000 cus- 
tomers. Among these a large percentage are small cus- 
tomers, and to continue to extend the service to such 
patrons, who for the time being do not return a profit, 
outside investors must be attracted. To attract this 
capital in the future, plans will have to be devised to 
decrease present high fixed charges. Mr. Junkersfeld 
suggested as possible solutions of this problem reduction 
in the frequency of billing, the increase of the customer 
density, and increased use of appliances by present cus- 

Preparation of Motor-Service Layouts 

In speaking on "Vital Points in Motor-Service Sale- " 
before a convention of new-business solicitors in Ohio, 
Mr. R. A. MacGregor, Toledo, commented upon th? 
necessity of carefully balancing investment cost against 
cost of operation. 

A good way to strike an economic balance, he said, is 
to lay out a plant with a motor for every machine, figure 
the total investment for motors, wiring and installation, 
then estimate the amount of energy necessary to run 
such an installation, and thus arrive at the cost of oper- 
ation. The same operation should then be gone through 
from a one-motor standpoint. This should give respect- 
ively the lowest and highest values for energy cost and 
the highest and lowest values for the investment. Dif- 
ferent arrangements of grouping can then be laid out 
between these two extremes and a means determined 
which will give the largest percentage of saving on the 
investment for the money the prospective customer can 
be induced to spend. 

General Overhead Allowance 21 Per Cent. 

Too often the electrical contractor who has had his 
early training with pliers and soldering torch, rather 
than as a business man, overlooks the necessity for 
making adequate provision for the "overhead costs" of 
doing business when scheduling the prices of supplies 
and appliances which he installs or puts on his counter 
for sale. Figuring closely, he is likely to fix selling prices 
which do not include any allowance for rent, light, 
heat, store attendance, office accounting, and the other 
numerous costs of doing business — let alone any pro- 
vision for profit on the transaction. A successful elec- 
trical contractor in a Wisconsin city of 30,000 has made 
it a point to include in all cost prices of supplies an 
allowance of at least 21 per cent to cover "overhead," 
before the item of profit is added. This figure of 21 
per cent is applied to all wiring supplies, devices, etc., 
but even this amount has been found insufficient in the 
case of reflectors and glassware, where it has been 
proved necessary to charge at least 25 per cent on ac- 
count of breakage and damage incurred in handling. 

The Basis of Establishing Credit Limits 

Speaking before the recent meeting of the Electrical 
Credit Association of Chicago on the subject of credit 
limits as viewed from the standpoint of the wholesale 
dealer in electrical supplies, Mr. Thomas I. Stacy, Elec- 
tric Appliance Company, Chicago, remarked that in 
some offices a credit limit is placed on the customer's 
account as soon as it is opened and becomes almost as 
much a part of the account as the name itself and 
almost as unchangeable. 

The man who pays when his account is due, said Mr. 
Stacy, soon establishes unlimited credit, while, on the 
other hand, the customer from whom collections are 
made with difficulty will soon have his credit with- 
drawn. If a credit limit is to be established in the case 
of any customer, said the speaker, it should be only 
tentative and its use should be chiefly that of a warn- 
ing signal in the event that the value assigned is much 

In many lines of general business the rule has been 
that the credit allowance of a customer should not ex- 
ceed 30 per cent of his net worth. But this propor- 
tion cannot apply in the electrical business, said Mr. 
Stacy, for some customers, as, for example, electrical 
contractors, have doubtless carried credit favors 
amounting to more than even their entire tangible 
assets. Every fact which bears on the customer's char- 
acter should receive consideration. Particular caution 
must be exercised in the case of the over-ambitious 
customer who wants to run before he has learned to 
walk. On the other hand, the manufacturer or jobber 
can afford to increase to the limit the credit allowed on 
the account of the conservative man whose business is 

Mr. Alex. Klein, of M. Klein & Sons Company, Chi- 
cago, declared that any deficiency in the moral char- 
acter of the customer makes him a dangerous risk as a 
creditor. If the candidate for credit is reckless in his 
business methods, he is not entitled to credit. One rule 
suggested by Mr. Klein for the assignment of credit 
i'mits was that 10 per cent be considered a fair value. 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

Integrating Sphere Equipped for Testing Gas-Filled 

Some photometrists have objected to rating gas-filled 
lamps on their total flux per watt required on the 
ground that it is impossible to use an integrating sphere 
rapidly. At the Electrical Testing Laboratories, New 



York City, an integrating sphere has been equipped so 
that lamps can be rapidly inserted or removed without 
danger of breaking the bulbs. From one side of the 
sphere a rectangular section has been removed and a 
panel supporting a lamp bracket and socket has been 


hinged to the exterior of the sphere so it can be swung 
ird for inserting or removing the lamp and can be 
i 'luring the teat to prevent leakage of light 
through the opening. The roust nut inn of the panel 
and lamp bracket la dearly shown In the accompanying 
illustration and drawing The lamp bracket, lamp 

leads and concave surface of the panel are coated with a 
substance similar to that used on the interior of the 
sphere so that no errors will be introduced in the test 
results by the conversion of the flux-measuring appa- 
ratus. When the panel is swung outward it opens a 
switch in the lamp circuit, thereby extinguishing the 
lamp. The panel is held in its extreme outward posi- 
tion by a notched lever. Energy is conveyed to the lamp 
socket through a flexible cable. When the panel is 
closed it automatically closes the lamp-circuit switch 
so that the photometrist has very little to do besides 
taking measurements. 

Marshall Field Electric Trucks Save 40 Per Cent 

Marshall Field & Company, Chicago, operate a fleet 
of more than 200 electric trucks and delivery wagons. 
After experience with both gasoline and electric trucks 
for haulage and delivery work, Mr. Stanley Field, first 
vice-president of the company, recently made the com- 
ment that with electric trucks operated at an expense 
of $8 per day Marshall Field & Company are able to 
perform delivery service which cost $13 per day with 
gasoline trucks. 

Keeping Wired Houses Connected 

Men sent out by the Topeka (Kan.) Edison Company 
to carry out disconnect orders are provided with tags, 
both sides of which are printed with the inscription 
in the illustration herewith. The tags are tied to elec- 




25, 40 and 60 Watt Mazda Lamps. 25 Cents Each 





trie fixtures in conspicuous places so that the attention 
of a prospective renter or a new tenant will be attracted. 
"By thus calling attention to the company's prompt serv- 
ice and the 40-cent minimum bill," says Mr. B. J. Long, 
contract agent, "the tags are instrumental in securing 
without solicitation many reconnections in wired houses 
occupied by renters." 

Municipal Competition in Electric Merchandising 

Hannibal, Mo., has a population of 18,341 and owns 
its electric plant. The electric plant is under the direc- 
tion of a municipal board of public works appointed by 
the Mayor to serve six years at annual salaries of $100. 
To encourage day service a municipal supply store was 
installed in the office of the Board of Public Works in 
the city hall. The store carries a full line of supplies, 
has a clerk on hand all the time to wait upon customers 
and to demonstrate the appliances, and makes sales at 
cost plua 5 per cent for profit The price feature, how- 
ever, is not the only item through which the municipal 
store competes with local equipment stores, for the mu- 
nicipal board advertises liberally in the daily papers in 
competition with the retail merchants, the displays 
emphasizing the conveniences and economy of elec- 
tricity and thus stimulating the business generally. 

January 9, 1915 




Automatic Reverse-Current Circuit-Breaker 

An automatic reverse-current circuit-breaker designed 
for use with small storage-battery lighting plants has 
been developed by the Gray Electric Company, Spring- 
field, Ohio. When the engine is run at normal speed this 


circuit-breaker automatically connects together the bat- 
tery, dynamo and lamps, so that the battery is properly 
charged and the energy for the lighting circuit is taken 
direct from the dynamo. If the engine should slow- 
down or stop, the circuit-breaker automatically discon- 
nects the d\ namo from the battery and the lamps and 
connects the battery to the lamps. A 15-amp circuit- 
breaker is shown in the accompanying illustration. No 
springs or resistors, it is declared, are used in the con- 
struction of this device. 

Primary Cut-Out 

Several expulsion-type primary cut-outs with rat- 
ings of 15 amp at 6600 volts, 75 amp at 6600 volts and 
100 amp at 2500 volts, designed for outdoor use, have 
recently been developed by the General Electric Com- 
pany, Schenectady, N. Y. When the door of the de- 
vice is opened the fuse holder is automatically dis- 
connected from the circuit. The ring bolt and latch 
with which the door is fitted are separated from all 


live metal parts. The box is of well-seasoned ash, 
which is oil-impregnated, and is coated on the outside 
with black japan. On the bottom of the box is an in- 
dicator in the form of a brass card receiver which is 
placed under the gas outlet of the expulsion fuse. Into 
this receiver can be slipped a white card, a piece of 

oiled paper or a very thin sheet of white celluloid, 
which forms a white target against the black back- 
ground of the box and which can be readily seen from 
the ground. The blowing of the fuse causes a dis- 
charge of gas which dislodges the card from its re- 
ceiver. This feature obviates the necessity of climb- 
ing the pole on which the cut-out is placed to ascertain 
the condition of the fuse. 

Vehicle Battery-Charging Outfit 

To meet the demand for low-cost easily operated bat- 
tery-charging apparatus, adaptable for use in private 
garages, the Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 
has developed the small motor-generator set shown in 
the illustration herewith. The motor is a single-phase, 
four-pole, squirrel-cage machine, and it drives a com- 
pound-wound interpolar generator. Connected to the 
set by a six-wire cable is a control cabinet which con- 
tains a four-pole knife switch and a field rheostat. The 
two middle switch poles are equipped with extra clips, 
to which are attached the terminals of the shunt field, in 


the circuit of which is the rheostat. The set is started 
from the battery. 

When the switch is closed the two clips connected to 
the generator field are engaged, and therefore the shunt 
field is excited ; then the battery is thrown across the 
armature and starts the generator as a motor. When 
the set is brought up to speed the alternating-current 
circuit is closed and the generator starts to charge the 
battery. The generator is so compounded, the manu- 
facturers declare, as to give practically constant-poten- 
tial charging, thus providing automatically the tapering 
charge with a low finishing rate which is essential to 
the long life of the battery. Guide marks are provided 
on the field rheostat so that each set may be arranged 
for any four combinations of cells, such as thirty, thirty- 
two, thirty-five and thirty-six cells or thirty-eight, forty, 
forty-two and forty-four cells. A rheostat handle with 
a limited travel is provided so that the field strength 
may be varied in order to regulate the finishing rate of 


Vol. 65, No. 2 

the battery from 3 amp to 7 amp. In case the energy 
supply is cut off, the set continues to run, the generator 
acting- as a direct-current motor fed from the battery; 
when the alternating-current supply is restored the gen- 
erator resumes the charging operation. 

Automatic-Resistance Horn-Type Arrester 

The function of a lightning arrester is to offer instan- 
taneous relief from abnormal voltages and to prevent 
the flow of dynamic or generator current, after 


the abnormal voltage has been relieved, without pro- 
ducing any disturbances on the system which it pro- 

The automatic-resistance horn arrester recently 
placed on the market by Schweitzer & Conrad, 1770 
Wilson Avenue, Chicago, for use on circuits of from 
11,000 volts to 66,000 volts, is an ingenious device for 
accomplishing the above function. As seen in the il- 
lustration, the arrester consists essentially of a horn- 
gap and a number of resistance units so arranged that 
as the arc rises up the horn's resistance is automatically 
cut in, step by step, into the circuit. Thus, without 
any moving parts, the current is rapidly reduced so that 
the arc breaks easily and without any serious voltage 
rise. A sphere-gap is also inserted in pai-allel with the 
horn-gap to assist the dissipation of very high fre- 
quency waves such as occur from charging an adjacent 
line, switching and other similar causes. 

The chief difficulty experienced with simple horn- 
gaps has been that of breaking the arc rapidly and 
permanently, without setting up oscillations and dan- 
gerous pressure rises. The current is often so large 
that the arc is slow to break, and when it does finally 
break the rupture comes so suddenly that a high volt- 
age rise occurs, which may cause the arc to start across 
the bottom of the horn again. 

The height of the gap illustrated is comparatively 
small for a given voltage. Unlike most horn-gaps, the 
sides of these horns riBe parallel to each other until the 
resistance units are passed, above which the horns di- 
verge. As the dynamic current rises up the horn! 

'it down in value ae the increasing resistance 
comes effective and the strength of the arc is weakened 
accordingly. When the divergent portions of the horn 
are reached the thermo-dynamic and electro-dynamic 
forces co-ad to drive the arc, or what remains of it. 
up the horns to iction. It should also be 

noticed that while the dischargi 
the horn or sphere-gap to earth, the dynamic current, 

after the first instant, will, owing to the arc's ten- 
dency to rise upward, necessarily go to ground through 

When an arc exists in a circuit containing inductance 
and capacity, oscillations tend to be set up. Such os- 
cillations can, however, be prevented and the oscillation 
dampened out if a resistance equal to, or greater than, 
the critical resistance be connected in series. This the 
arrester described accomplishes automatically. 

Adjustment for different operating voltages is made 
by decreasing or increasing the horn-gap, a matter of 
loosening two screws. The resistance units are strong, 
of ample carrying capacity, and unaffected by weather. 

The arrester, it is explained, has a very large dis- 
charge capacity and thus is not only able to discharge 
large quantities of lightning but can take care of both 
continuous and recurrent discharges with ease. It is 
also sensitive to voltage rises and hence is recom- 
mended as efficacious for the protection of equipment 
and for installation at entries to stations and substa- 
tions, whether of the indoor or outdoor type. For the 
latter class of stations, where the arrester may be iso- 
lated and forgotten after being once installed, the sub- 
stantial construction, the absence of moving parts, and 
the fact that the device described needs no regular at- 
tention, makes it particularly desirable. The insulators 
used on these arresters are so chosen that the spill- 
over voltage is several times that of the arrester. The 
insulators are thus able to withstand successfully the 
piling up of steep-front traveling waves of such poten- 
tial as the arrester is designed to discharge. 

The arrester is securely mounted on a substantial 
steel channel frame. It is low in first cost and in- 
volves no subsequent expense for maintenance. 

Automatic Cut-In and Cut-Out Switch 

An automatic switch designed for use on low-voltage 
switchboards of small lighting plants is shown in the 
accompanying illustration. It is placed between the 
generator and battery and automatically connects the 
generator to the line when the voltage reaches a pre- 
determined value, usually 38 volts. In the same way it 
automatically breaks the circuit when the battery volt- 
age exceeds that of the generator, or, in other words, 
when there is a reversal of current. The moving con- 

I [i SVi I ii ii FOR SM Ml l IGHT1NG I'l INTS 

tact is in the form of a disk which is cupped and slotted 

to insure a tight, even contact. The disk is 
weighted and cup-shaped to prevent sticking and conse- 
quent burning of contact points. The device is being 

made by the llartman Bled rical Manufacturing Com- 
Mansiield, Ohio. 

January 9, 1915 




For regulating the exciting current of large genera- 
tors two regulators of the rectangular and the face-plate 
or circular type have been designed by the General Elec- 
tric Company, Ltd., London, England. A recently devel- 
oped rectangular regulator is shown in the accompany- 
ing illustration, the resistor of which consists of strips. 
If the size of the generator permits, the resistor is 
made of wires. A framework of steel is employed to 
provide for the expansion and contraction of the strips. 
Means have also been provided for adjusting the strip 


tension to eliminate the sag of the strip, and instead of 
one adjustment for the whole length of the strip, an in- 
dividual adjustment is provided for each turn of the 
strip. By means of two sets of screws the pressure on 
the contact brushes and the position of the brushes can 
be adjusted independently. The regulator shown in 
the illustration is designed for use with a 5000-kw turbo- 

Guards for Portable Lamps 

Two types of non-detachable guards for portable 
lamps are shown in the accompanying illustrations, that 
illustrated in Fig. 1 being equipped with an open end 
and that in Fig. 2 with a closed end. The open-end 
guard is designed chiefly for pit work. In the closed- 
end guard the end piece is hinged to the cage by means 
of a rivet to allow for replacement of the lamp. A 
thumb nut is employed to hold the end piece fast. The 
open-end guard is equipped with a side hook as shown 
in the illustration. The cage is of steel and the wires 
are electrically welded. The closed-end guard is 15 in. 
long, including hook and handle, and weighs approxi- 
mately 25 ounces. The open-end lamp guard is 10 in. 


long over all, including handle, and weighs 20 ounces. 
Both guards are substantial in construction and are 
designed for use with circuits, with pressures up to 600 
volts. The guards are being placed on the market by the 
Electric Service Supplies Company, Seventeenth Street 
and Cambria Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Electric Breast Drill 

The electric drill shown herewith operates on bc'.h 
alternating current and direct current, and the spindle 
speed is regulated automatically by the amount of pres- 
sure the operator places back of the drill. The switch 
is operated by the lever outside of the switch cover and 
is used to start, stop and reverse the motor. The lever 
is spring-seated on the off or neutral position, and by 
throwing it to either extreme position the motor is run 
forward or in the reverse direction, according to which 
direction the lever is turned. The motor can be reversed 


no matter whether it is running at full speed or not. 
The drill is being manufactured by the Temco Electric 
Motor Company, Leipsic, Ohio. 

Feed-Water Regulator 

A thermostatically controlled feed-water regulator 
made by the McDonough Automatic Regulator Company, 
Detroit, Mich., is illustrated herewith. It consists of a 
feed valve, two headers and two expansion tubes, which 
are connected in parallel through links to the feed-valve 


stem. Adjustment of the valve is provided by the turn- 
buckle shown, and a pointer indicator shows the position 
of the valve while the regulator is in operation. The 
regulator is installed in an inclined position and is sup- 
ported by the feed pipe with the connections made to the 
water column as illustrated. When in operation the 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

lower ends of the tubes are filled with water and the 
upper with steam. As the water falls or rises in the 
boiler it moves up and clown a corresponding distance 
in the regulator tubes, thereby presenting a greater or 
less area in the tube surface to the hot steam, causing 
the tubes to expand or contract accordingly. 

A vacuum greater than 29 in. ( referred to a baro- 
metric pressure of 30 in.) has been maintained at full 
load, and the hot-well temperatures closely approach 
those of the entering steam. In the accompanying ta- 

Large-Sized Surface Condenser 

What is said to be the largest surface condenser ever 
built was recently installed in the Waterside station of 
the New York Edison Company to serve a 30,000-kw 
General Electric tandem-compound turbine. The con- 
denser is of the radial-flow type and was made by the 
Westinghouse Machine Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa. 

The unit has a condensing surface of 50,000 sq. ft., 
and the solutions of some new and difficult problems are 
represented in its design. Long or restricted passages 
for the steam are avoided in order to keep the pressure 
drop as low as possible. The nest of tubes is placed non- 
concentric to the condenser shell so that steam enters 
around the whole periphery. Such an arrangement is 
said practically to double the area for the admission 


Output of turbine in kw 19,000 30,000 

Vacuum at turbine exhaust i in. ) 29.20 29.07 

Vacuum at air pump (in.) 29.23 29.09 

Injection temperature (deg. Fahr. ) 54 53 

Discharge temperature ((leg. Fahr.) 60 64 

Hotwell tempeiature (deg. Fahr.) 75 SI 

of steam and hence produces a velocity one-half that of 
smaller-sized units in which the shell and nest of tubes 
are concentric. The air offtake consists of two parallel 
plates extending the entire length of the condenser, and 
the air is removed, it is asserted, when the temperature 
is the lowest and its density is the greatest. 

In Fig. 1 the condenser is illustrated with the end 
plate removed prior to its installation. The water en- 
ters the condenser at the side, passes through the central 
section and returns through the outer annular section. 
Heat removal is thus facilitated because the tempera- 


ture difference or "heat head" between the steam and 
water remains more nearh constant throughout the con- 
I he two small openings on the side of the up- 
pei hall of the shell are for the air-pump connections. 
A Westinghouse Leblanc air pump is employed with the 



ble are given some data of tests, including those ob- 
tained with the turbine, giving its full-rated output of 
30,000 kw and also an output of 19,000 kw. 

Measuring High Temperatures by Melting of 
Metallic Salts 

A method for measuring high temperatures, which 
has just been developed by the Carl Nehls Alloy Com- 
pany, Detroit, Mich., is based on the principle that when 
various kinds of metallic salts are mixed in different 
proportions they will melt at different temperatures. 
The method can be employed in place of pyrometers and 
temperatures varying between 425 deg. Fahr. and 242"i 
deg. Fahr. can be determined. By melting the salts in 
this manner pyrometers may also be checked. The 
salts may be kept in solid cylinders, 7/16 in. in diam- 
eter and % in. long, similar to those shown standing in 
the accompanying illustration. 

El ^ \ 




The cylinders shown wrapped up are marked with 
numbers which designate the temperature at which they 
will melt. For all temperatures below 932 deg. Fahr, 

the "Sentinel" pyrometers, as they are called, can lie 
used in air-tight glass tubes, similar to the one shown 
standing up in the accompanying illustration, and the 

January 9, 1915 



salts can be used over and over again. By means of the 
porcelain saucer shown the salts are not wasted. 

The salts are also made up in the form of a paste. 
Enough paste is inclosed in one of the tins shown in the 
illustration to make two or three hundred determina- 
tions. Pastes with various melting temperatures can be 
placed on a steel bar and inserted into furnaces, ovens, 
retorts, flues, gas mains, steam pipes, etc., to deter- 
mine the temperature at which they are operating. The 
salts that melt down and those that remain solid will 
indicate the difference in temperature between the two 

Field Rheostat for Small Generators and Motors 

A field rheostat for small generators and motors 
which is equipped with eighteen control steps is being 
made by the Ward Leonard Electric Company, Bronx- 


ville, N. Y. The device is 6 in. in diameter and is fin- 
ished in enamel. The rheostat can be mounted on thj 
front or back of the board and can be quickly changed 
from one kind to the other. A hand-wheel is provided 
when the device is attached to the back of the board. 

Motors for Mane-and-Tail Hauling System 

Large-sized motors designed for hauling purposes in 
coal mines have been developed by the General Electric 
Company, Ltd., London. England. In the accompanying 
illustration is shown a 600-hp motor directly conn 
to a large mane-and-tail outfit designed to draw its loaxl 
at a mean rope speed of 10 miles an hour. The moU 
operates on a 3000-volt, forty-cycle, three-phase supr 

Improved Motor-Driven Pipe-Bending Machine 

The problem of bending pipes and tubing for power- 
house installations and various conduit systems, for 
which many kinds of bends are employed, often neces- 


sitates considerable thought and attention, especially if 
the process is done by hand. Some twenty-two types of 
machines for bending pipe cold without filling, ranging 
in size Irani a small portable bench machine suitable for 
electricians or plumbers to large motor-driven and hy- 
draulic machines which will not only bend pipe but chan- 
nel beams. I-beams, etc., as well, are being made by the 
•I. Fillmore (ox Engineering & Tube Bending Machine 
Company, Bayonne, X. J. 

In Fig. 1 is shown a recently developed machine of the 
semi-automatic quick-change type driven by a 5.5-hp 
variable-speed, reversible General Electric motor. The 
machine is equipped with an automatic degree stopping 
device, emergency lever and safety clutch. It is also pro- 



and runs at a speed of 400 r.p.m. It is equipped with 
slip-rings which are inclosed in flame-proof covers. The 
gearing between the motor and the drums is of steel. 
Rolls 6 in. in diameter are employed, the length between 
flanges being 3 ft. and the diameter of the flanges being 
9 ft. The drum shaft is 12 in. in diameter. 

vided with a quick-setting arrangement and a special 
duplicating device. 

A U-bend with 18-in. centers can be made by this ma- 
chine on a 4-in. steel or iron pipe which is threaded at 
both ends, the manufacturers claim, in one minute. The 
apparatus is designed to bend pipe into conical helices. 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

open or closed coils, or radical or die bends. In Fig. 2 
are shown some typical bends made for power-station re- 
quirements. The pipes are of various materials and 
range in size from 1 in. in diameter to 6 in. The radii 
of the bends are from 3 in. to 3 ft. and the time taken 
for each operation was from 0.5 minute to 2.5 minutes. 

Gear-Tooth Turbine Driving Portable Electric 
Lighting Outfit 

A turbo-generator set which will operate on any 
steam pressure between 30 lb. and 50 lb. is being man- 
ufactured by the M. M. Manufacturing Company, In- 
dependence, Kan., for use in lighting oil-well drilling 
outfits and small coal mines and for night work about 
threshing machines, on steam shovels and in quarries. 
The moving elements in the turbine consist only of 
two gears, which revolve with minimum clearance in 
iron housings. Steam enters the turbine on a hori- 
zontal line, striking the gears at the point where they 
are in mesh, and emerges at the opposite side of the ma- 
chine as the gear teeth turn, permitting intermittent 
flow of the vapor. The 110-volt, 0.5-kw compound- 
wound generator which is direct-connected to one of 
the gears is driven at 2000 r.p.m. A muffler similar to 
the type used with gasoline engines is attached to the 
turbine exhaust to reduce the howling noise produced 
by the intermittent flow of steam through the gears. 

In equipping the outfit to withstand rough handling 
it has been arranged so that the turbo-generator need 
not be taken from the box. Steam-pipe connections can 
be made from the outside, and plug-socket connections 
are provided for all lamps, so that no knowledge of wir- 
ing is necessary. Ordinary 100-watt tungsten lamps 
are used in the projectors, it being the common prac- 
tice to set these reflectors in a position adjacent to the 
work so that they throw a flood of light on the area 
of operation. 

Inclosed Oil-Break Switches 

Fully inclosed oil-break switches for three-phase ser- 
vice are shown in the accompanying illustrations. The 
switching apparatus is mounted on a sliding carriage 
and is connected to the busbars or cables through plugs. 
When the carriage is withdrawn the circuit is broken. 
Two types of switches are being made, that shown in 
Fig. 1 being designated by the manufacturers as the 
"O Jl" type and that illustrated in Fig. 3 as the "O J2" 
model. The former has a rating of 120 amp with 
pressures up to 650 volts and of 50 amp with pressures 
of from 2200 volts to 3300 volts. The rating of the lat- 
ter is 500 amp for pressures up to 650 volts and 120 
amp for emfs of from 2200 volts to 3300 volts. 

On withdrawing the switch and removing the oil tank, 
the contact-delaying devices, overload-adjusting devices 
and low-tension fuses are made accessible, and by re- 
moving four screws the entire switching apparatus may 
be removed in one piece, when every part is fully ex- 
posed. Access to the connecting chamber is obtained 
by removing a large cover plate at the back and cover 
plates on the sides or top and bottom where exposed. 

The handles are interlocked so that it is impossible to 
withdraw or close the contact unless the oil switch is 
in the off position. The box cannot be opened and the 
oil tank cannot be removed unless the circuit is open. 
The cover must be first closed before the circuit can be 
closed, and it is impossible to close the switch acci- 
dentally without first replacing the oil tank. Catches 
prevent the switching part being removed entirely. 

The switch is closed by means of a handle at the side. 
All live switch parts above the oil level are insulated 
with porcelain. The tripping device is delayed by means 
of a self-aligning plunger in a small dash-pot. Large 
flange joints are provided between the castings to in- 
sure good ground connection throughout the frame. The 
switches are being made by the British Thomson-Hous- 
ton Company, Ltd., Rugby. England. 


FIG. 2 BWITI H \tl< ll VN1SM FOB 
i u«;i- switch in OPEN POSI- 

I ins 

KIN':! wit ;\\\\. COVER OPENED 


January 9, 1915 



Electric Roadster 

A 1915-model light-weight electric car designed 
chiefly for business men is shown in the illustration 
herewith. The car has a wheel base of 92 in. and is 


worm-driven. Steering is accomplished by means of a 
side lever. The tires are 33 in. by 4.5 in. The battery 
equipment consists of 41 "Exide" cells. The car is 
being placed on the market by the Rauch & Lang Car- 
riage Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Electric Silver-Burnishing Machine 

The machine shown in the accompanying illustration 
consists of a wooden cylinder, which is three-quarters 
filled with smoothly polished steel balls, varying in size 
from about 0.25 in. in diameter to about the size of a 
very small pinhead, and smooth blunt plugs, and is used 
to polish silverware. Steel plates divide the cylinder 
into several compartments for different classes of mate- 
rial. The silverware is placed in the cylinder and is cov- 
ered with hot soapsuds. The pieces of silver are moved 


to the center by centrifugal force, and the steel balls and 
slugs roll over and around them. The machine has re- 
cently been placed on the market by the Tahara Com- 
Ipany of America, Glenwood Avenue and Second Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa., and is operated by a motor made by 
:he Bobbins & Myers Company, Springfield, Ohio. 

Test Runs with Electric Passenger Cars 

Test runs were recently made in Louisville, Ky. ( with 
two Rauch & Lang electric passenger vehicles, one car 
being a 1911 model brougham and the other a 1911 






Sp 1. Miles 

per Hour 










IS. 45 





24 . 65 









84 65 




94 25 




model coupe. Each car was equipped with a forty-cell 
"Revivo" battery, made by the Cook Railway Signal 
Company, Denver, Col., a description of which appeared 
in the Electrical World of Jan. 4, 1913. 

Before the test with the brougham its battery was 
charged for ten hours at a 15-amp-hr. rate, the charg- 




Speed. Miles 





1" i Hour 















34 6 





1 1 




1 1 






1 1 














05 .. 


96 6 




103. 1 




10 i ! 




ing emf being 96 volts and the standing emf 88 volts. 
In Table I are shown voltages at various periods of the 
run and other data. In Table II are shown the results 
obtained on a test run with the coupe. A total mileage 
of 105.1 miles was obtained with the coupe and 94.3 
miles with the brougham. 

Automatic Voltage Regulators 

By W. H. Acker 
The voltage regulation of lamp and motor feeders is 
a phase of central-station operation that is being recog- 
nized more and more as one of the essential factors of 
successful operation. Perhaps no feature of the service 
more easily creates dissatisfaction among customers 
than do wide fluctuations in voltage. The amount of 
compensation required to maintain constant potential at 
the individual lamp is different in every feeder, depend- 
ing upon the length of the feeder and the amount and 
duration of the load. It is evident, therefore, that the 
only satisfactory method of obtaining good regulation 
on any system is by the independent regulation of each 
feeder. The exceptionally good voltage regulation which 
forms a part of the service rendered its customers by 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

the Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light Company 
in the city of Youngstown, Ohio, and vicinity, is due 
primarily to the use made of automatic induction regu- 

At the North Avenue power station there are installed 
sixteen large motor-driven automatic induction feeder 
regulators, together with primary and secondary relays, 
shunt and series instrument transformers and line- 


drop compensators. The regulators are positive in 
action and are free from the detrimental effects due to 
"overrunning" or "hunting," which are eliminated by 
the use of a quick-acting magnet brake and of com- 
pounding coils in the primary relay. Normally the brake 
is locked against the drum on the shaft of the motor by 
a strong spring, but at the instant current is applied 
to the operating motor circuit the brake is magnetically 

energized and holds the contacts firmly closed until the 
voltage of the line has changed to within a certain defi- 
nite percentage of the normal relay setting. 

The degree of refinement of the voltage regulation ob- 
tained at the center of distribution, which in some in- 
stances is two or three miles from the station, is well 
shown by the two graphic meter records reproduced 
herewith. These records, covering a period of two days, 
were taken at the same time and are placed side by side, 
in order to show more clearly the actual conditions. The 
ammeter chart shows accurately the load in amperes at 
approximately 2200 volts on a certain single-phase 
feeder supplying energy to both lamps and single-phase 
motors and by connection with another feeder, to two- 
phase motors. The day load consists principally of mo- 
tors placed in service about 6 a.m. and taken off about 
5 p.m., with a slight drop in load for approximately 
thirty minutes at noon hour. The night load consists 
principally of lighting, which begins to come on at 
about 6 p.m., reaches a maximum around 8 o'clock and 
then gradually falls off until midnight, when it becomes 
very small and continues so until about G a.m. It is 
readily seen from the chart that the feeders are carry- 
ing an average load of approximately 150 amp for 
eighteen hours per day, this being the usual load for 
six days per week. It will also lie noted that for about 
five hours during the afternoon the regulator is oper- 
ated at approximately ?»:'. per cent overload, the normal 
rating being 150 amp. 

The voltmeter chart was taken at a customer's lamp 
socket near the center of distribution of this particu- 
lar feeder, which is approximately three-fourths of a 
mile from the station. The voltage regulation, as indi- 
cated by the graphic record, is exceptionally good con- 
sidering the large proportion of day-motor load carried. 
In connection with this chart it should be noted that the 
regulators require approximately sixteen seconds to 
travel from the position of maximum "buck" to the 
position of maximum "boost." 

One of the noteworthy features of this installation is 
its compactness and accessibility, as may be seen from 
Fig. 2. The regulators, which are mounted on a gallery 
having a width of only 50 in., are so arranged that each 
one can be entirely disconnected from the feeder circuit 
in a few seconds, the feeder then receiving energy di- 
rectly from the busbar. 

The relays are placed on the wall at the back of the 
regulators, while the transformers and auto-transform- 
ers are mounted on the ceiling directly above. This ar- 
rangement minimizes the space required without 
impairing the accessibility "( the apparatus, the entire 
installation having a neat and uniform appearance. Con 
siderable ingenuity was required to install the sixteen 


llowing t hi' motor to start quickly and with 
(lie minimum starting current. Chattering Of the pri- 
mary relay, which is one cause of "hunting," is elimi 
nated by thi use ol compounding coils, These roils arc 
connected In series with the relay circuit, bo that when 
the contacts close in a certain direction the coil bei 

regulators and accessories, as no provision had been 

made originally for such equipment 

The regulators and auxiliary apparatus described 

in this article were built by the Westinghousfl 

Electrii & Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, 

January 9, 1915 



Conference on Concentric Wiring Rules 

The special committee appointed at the meeting of 
electrical interests on Dec. 22 in the Biltmore Hotel, 
New York, to confer with the sub-committee of the 
National Fire Protection Association on rules regarding 
concentric wiring for interior work met with that com- 
mittee in the rooms of the National Electric Light 
Association in New York on Jan. 1. Mr. W. H. Blood, 
Jr., of Boston, presided as chairman of the Under- 
writers' sub-committee having the matter in charge. 
Others in attendance included Messrs. G. S. Lawler, 
Washington Devereaux, J. C. Forsyth, A. M. Paddon, 
J. R. Strong and Dana Pierce, of the National Fire Pro- 
tection Association's committee; R. K. Sheppard, C. E. 
Corrigan and H. B. Crouse, of the special committee 
appointed by the electrical interests, and R. S. Hale and 
H. R. Sargent, of the committee on the wiring of exist- 
ing buildings appointed by the National Electric Light 

Mr. Sheppard presented the case of the electrical in- 
terests and dwelt at length on the various sides of the 
question at issue especially as brought out in the Bilt- 
more Hotel meeting of the previous week. Both he and 
Mr. Crouse asked for delay in the promulgation of any 
rules which would permit the installation of concentric 
wires by inspection boards having jurisdiction as covered 
in the preamble of the proposed report of the sub-com- 
mittee of the National Fire Protection Association. The 
Underwriters, on the other hand, felt that trial installa- 
tions of the system would have to be made in order that 
the necessary field experience could be obtained, yet they 
were willing to meet the wishes of the manufacturers 
and contractors if the latter could suggest some other 
way in which the field experience could be acquired. The 
tentative rules, Mr. Blood said, were devised for the 
guidance of manufacturers and others who desired to 
delve into the matter, and while the use of concentric 
wire would enable the lighting companies to reduce the 
cost of wiring, the fact that such a wire possesses other 
features of merit besides cheapness, notably in that it 
permits a safer electrical installation, was sufficient rea- 
son for the Underwriters to look upon its use favorably. 
Mr. Pierce intimated that it would not be long before the 
"safety first" movement would compel more radical 
changes in wiring methods than that involved in the 
adoption of a concentric wiring system. 

Mr. Sheppard and Mr. Crouse both brought out, in 
urging delay, that manufacturers have devoted their en- 
ergies toward the improvement of systems already in 
use and that the inventive genius of the country is con- 
strained to work along standard lines. It was suggested 
that if time were given this American inventive genius 
would doubtless produce something better than the 
Stannos wire or Kuhlos wire of Europe. 

The Underwriters' committee thanked Mr. Sheppard 
and the members of his committee for their painstaking 
presentation of the matter and for the moderation of 
their requests. Tentative changes were made in the 
preamble of Mr. Blood's committee's report which met 
the approval of Mr. Sheppard's committee and it was 
agreed that differences of phraseology could be settled by 
correspondence. There was no doubt in the minds of 
any present as to the desirability of some less expensive 
wiring system than those at present in vogue ; the ques- 

tion at issue had to do with the time when such systems 
would be indorsed by the Underwriters for universal use. 
All that the manufacturers desired was to have time 
given them to adjust themselves to any radical change. 
Mr. Crouse said that since the meeting of Dec. 22 many 
manufacturers have put their inventive forces to work 
on the problem. 

Accident to Cleveland Municipal Plant 

A break in a cable of the municipal electric-light plant 
at Cleveland made a large part of the West Side and 
South Side dark on the evening of Dec. 31. The break 
occurred in an overhead cable near the West Forty-first 
Street substation. Three hospitals, several theaters and 
a number of places where New Year's Eve celebrations 
were being held had no light and the streets in a large 
district were dark. Mr. F. W. Ballard, commissioner 
and chief engineer of the division of light and heat, de- 
nied a report that the cable had been cut, but said that 
the cause of the break was a mystery. 

Serious Interruption to New York Subway Traffic 

The longest interruption to subway traffic in the his- 
tory of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New 
York City, occurred Jan. 6 during the morning rush 
hour following the burn-out of a number of cables 
supplying energy to the system. The cause of the burn- 
out has not been determined, but the following official 
statement was given to the press: 

'About 8:10 o'clock this (Wednesday) morning a 
short-circuit was established on the cables in the man- 
holes at Fifty-third Street. These manholes are on 
either side of the subway and the cables in them come 
from the substation in Fifty-third Street, east of 
Eighth Avenue. 

"An examination of two manholes shows that prac- 
tically all the cables have been short-circuited and de- 
stroyed. These short-circuits made a tremendous arc 
and created considerable gases and smoke from the 
burning insulation and the molten metal. The short- 
circuits automatically tripped circuit-breakers in the 
substation, which cut off the power. This automatically 
took the power away from the third-rail and the trains 

As a result no trains could be moved in the section 
fed by these cables, tying up local and express trains 
running in both directions. As the cable burn-outs oc- 
curred in compartments opening into the tunnel soon 
after 8 a. m., when several hundred thousand persons 
were hurrying to business, the accident was of more 
than usual significance. Not only were these persons 
imprisoned in cars in the tunnel between stations and 
delayed in reaching their destinations, but several hun- 
dred were overcome by the suffocating fumes caused 
by the burning insulation and had to be removed 
through manholes and gratings in the street. About 
200 were injured in the panic, but only one fatality was 
reported. Simultaneously with the task of transferring 
people to the street, attention was given by the Inter- 
borough company to restoration of service. Damaged 
cables were located and burn-outs pr weakened sections 



Vol. 65, No. I 

replaced. By 4 p. m. the system was repaired suffi- 
ciently to operate local trains. These, however, were 
not run at scheduled speed for fear of overtaxing the 
cables. Normal service was re-established by 2 a. m. 
Thursday morning. 

The Engineering Foundation 

On Jan. 25, in the auditorium of the Engineering 
Societies Building, New York, there will be held the 
inauguration of the "Engineering Foundation," which 
is the name given to a fund to be administered "for the 
advancement of the arts and sciences connected with 
engineering and the benefit of mankind," the basis of 
which is the initial gift of a considerable sum by a noted 
engineer for this purpose. The American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers, the American Society of Civil 
Engineers, the American Institute of Mining Engineers 
and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers are 
to be represented equally in the administrative board of 
the Engineering Foundation by election by the board of 
trustees of the United Engineering Society, which has 
been made the custodian of the fund. The inaugural 
ceremonies will be open to all members and friends of 
the engineering profession. 

Electric Cars and Accessories at New York Auto- 
mobile Show 

The wider use of the battery for ignition, the prac- 
tically universal adoption of electric starting and light- 
ing, improvements in electric gear-shifting mechanisms 
and the introduction of electric transmission systems 
were features of electrical interest at the fifteenth an- 
nual National Automobile Show held in New York, 
Jan. 2-9. The total number of exhibits was 336, and, 
among the manufacturers of passenger vehicles repre- 
sented, eighty-one were makers of gasoline cars and six 
of electric automobiles. There were also 236 exhibits 
of accessories and thirteen of motorcycles. The lowest 
price asked for a car was $295 and the highest $7,000. 

The development of electric accessories for 1914, as 
evidenced by various devices shown, has been directed 
chiefly toward greater simplicity and wherever possible 
a reduction in weight. This has been particularly the 
case with magnetos. Among the starting apparatus 
there were a variable-speed compound-wound machine 
of improved type and several new devices for starting 
Ford cars. With lighting systems the lamps have been 
made simpler in appearance. Many devices were also 
shown for dimming the brilliance of headlamps. 

Holding Company Must Keep Up Properly 

Judge Stewart filed an opinion in Easton, Pa., last 
week in the case of the Edison Illuminating Company 
versus the Eastern Pennsylvania Power Company and 
Pennsylvania Utilities Company. It appears that the 
Edison Illuminating Company leased its plant to the 
i Power Company on Feb. 1, 1900. The Easton 
Power ' lompany was the predecessor in title of the pres- 
ent defendants. They were to pay $30,000 a year rental 
and to maintain the general efficiency of the plant. The 
Edison Illuminating Companj admitted that it had re- 
ceived the rent each year, but alleged that the defend 
ants had abandoned the plant and allowed it to deteri- 
The evidence was taken Wei hit the late Judge 
Stott and was that the plant had deteriorated at the 
time of the trial to the amount of $98,105.16. The de- 
fendants claimed that the BdlBOn Illuminating Company 

had acquiesced in the changes and that there was too 
great delay in asserting its rights. Judge Stewart 
overruled these objections and directed that the defend- 
ant companies should restore the plant to the condition 
in which it was on Feb. 1, 1900, within six months from 
date, and directed that the defendant should pay the 

Dr. Humphreys Declares Commissions Extend Powers 
from Regulation to Control 

Dr. A. C. Humphreys, president of the Stevens Insti- 
tute of Technology, of Hoboken, N. J., made an address 
in connection with the 150th anniversary exercises of 
Brown University, Providence, R. I., on Jan. 4, in which 
he discussed commission regulation. He declared that 
the tendency of the Interstate Commerce Commission 
and of the state public utilities commissions has been 
to extend their powers from regulation to general con- 
trol of business enterprises. While the commissions 
have instituted some much needed reforms, they have 
done much which has been unnecessarily injurious to 
the industrial and commercial life of the nation. 

"One of the most apparent defects in the operation of 
commission control, state and federal," said Dr. Hum- 
phreys, "is the inability of the commissioners to master 
the technicalities involved in the grave and complex 
questions which, lawfully or unlawfully, are found in 
their hands for settlement. Questions of engineering 
and industrial management are involved in the great 
majority of these questions, while the personnel of the 
boards is made up generally of lawyers and theoretical 
economists conspicuously deficient in practical experi- 

Progress in Federal Trade Commission Appointments 

Some doubt is expressed in Washington as to the 
prospect that the Federal Trade Commission will begin 
its work soon. The situation has been complicated by a 
difference of opinion between the President and the 
Senate as to their respective rights in appointments. 
This and other conditions, notably the disinclination of 
Congress to pass the ship purchase bill, may bring about 
an extra session of Congress after the present session 
ends by statutory limitation on March 4. 

Senator Cummins and others have given notice that 
the discussion of appointees will be prolonged and thor- 
ough. Notwithstanding the fact that Congress has been 
in session for a month, not one of the appropriation 
bills has been passed. On Jan. 5 the President hinted 
in his conference with newspaper men on duty at the 
White House that an extra session of Congress might 
be necessary. 

It is understood that the President is not making the 
progress he would like in his selections for the commis- 
sion. He would like to nominate Mr. George Foster 
Peabody, the New York banker, but Mr. Peabody has 
been averse to leaving his business. 

Progressive senators and representatives, headed by 
Senators ('lapp and Poindexter and Representatives 
Chandler of New York, Bryan and Falconer of Wash- 
ington, and Kelly of Pennsylvania, have united on 
Mr. Hugh Gordon Miller, of Norfolk, Va., for a place on 
the commission, and are urging his candidacy. For the 
last eight years Mr. Miller has been a practising attor- 
ney of New York. He had been a republican but left 
the party with Colonel Roosevelt. Other Progressive 
senators and representatives are urging Mr. A. D. Nor- 
toni, Progressive candidate for Governor of Missouri in 

Senators Smith and Hardwick of Georgia are urging 
that the President appoint Mr. T. S. Felder, former 

January 9, 1915 


Attorney-General of Georgia. The President has him 
under consideration. The name of Mr. Edward N. Hur- 
ley, president of the Hurley Machine Company and 
of the Illinois Manufacturers' Association, is in favor 
with the President. His work as trade commissioner 
to the Latin-American republics received the high ap- 
proval of the President. 

Organization of the New Utilities Bureau 

Trustees of the new Utilities Bureau held their first 
meeting at the University Club, Philadelphia, on Dec. 
30. The following trustees were present: Messrs. Louis 
D. Brandeis, Frederick A. Cleveland, Samuel S. Fels, 
Charles F. Jenkins and Fred W. Taylor and Dr. Charles 
R. Van Hise. 

Officers were elected as follows : President, Dr. 
Charles R. Van Hise, president of the University of 
Wisconsin; secretary, Dr. Clyde L. King, University of 
Pennsylvania; treasurer, Mr. Samuel S. Fels, manufac- 
turer, of Philadelphia. Mr. Morris L. Cooke, director 
of public works of Philadelphia, was made acting direc- 
tor of the bureau. 

The bureau has been established as an agency for 
municipalities in their dealings with public utility com- 
panies. It was started in connection with the confer- 
ence of mayors, held in Philadelphia on Nov. 12 to 14, 
and reported in the Electrical World of Nov. 21, 1914. 

Testimony on Water-Power Bill 

Abstracts of testimony on the water-power bill in 
addition to that mentioned in recent issues of the Elec- 
trical World, given before the committee on public 
lands of the United States Senate, follow. 

Mr. Gifford Pinchot 

Mr. Pinchot, president of the National Conservation 
Association, declared that if water-power development 
has been checked in the United States the water-power 
interests are directly responsible. What the water- 
power men have been fighting for is to have the enor- 
mously valuable water-power grants given to them for 
ever and for nothing. They were willing enough to 
have the law changed for their benefit but refused to 
permit any corresponding concessions to the public. 
Rather than accept anything else than a free and per- 
petual gift of public property they have kept the pres- 
ent law in force. Of late years the principal efforts of 
the water-power interests have not been to develop 
water-power sites but to acquire and hold them unde- 

Mr. Pinchot expressed himself as being strongly im- 
pressed with the necessity for power development. He 
agreed that it would be very much better, if it were pos- 
sible, to issue non-revocable permits, but said that nev- 
ertheless the permits in force now in national forests 
are such that the water-power development in these for- 
ests in 1914 was more than double what it was in 1913. 
In 1911 the ten greatest groups of water-power inter- 
ests had developed and under construction 1,821,000 hp. 
In 1913 they had 2,711,000 hp, an increase of 890,000 
hp. In 1911 the ten greatest interests held undevel- 
oped 1,450,000 hp, which had risen to 3,500,000 hp in 
1913, an increase of 2,050,000 hp in two years. These 
figures show that in the last two years the great power 
interests have increased their control of power held un- 
developed more than twice as fast as they have in- 
creased their control of developed power. In 1908 the 
total developed water in the United States was 5,400,000 
hp, and in 1913 it was 7,000,000 hp, an increase of 

about 33 per cent. In 1908 the thirteen greatest groups 
of interest controlled a total of 1,800,000 hp developed 
and undeveloped, while in 1913 a smaller number — ten — 
of the greatest groups controlled a total of 6,300,000 hp 
developed and undeveloped, an increase of 240 per cent. 
Thus concentration in ownership of water-power in the 
United States has increased in the last five years about 
seven times faster than power development. These fig- 
ures were quoted by Mr. Pinchot to show that, instead 
of spending their money to develop the power sites they 
have, the great water-power interests have been spend- 
ing money to acquire and hold power sites undeveloped 
to meet not a present but a future demand. 

Mr. Pinchot suggested that the control of water- 
powers in the national forests be left in charge of the 
United States Forest Service. 

Mr. Paul M. Lincoln 

Mr. Lincoln, president of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers, filed the suggestions made by the 
public-policy committee of the Institute before the 
House committee in May, 1914. Mr. Lincoln called 
attention to the popular fallacy that the cost of water- 
power is usually very much less than the cost of com- 
peting power generated by steam. An engineer advised 
the installation of a steam plant in the city of Buffalo 
for the purpose of assisting the plant of the Niagara 
Falls Power Company. The latter plant was to take 
the best part of the load and the steam plant the daily 
peak load. 

There is no question, Mr. Lincoln thought, that a 
combination of that kind can be worked out to make the 
total cost of power cheaper than the cost of power from 
the Niagara Falls Power Company. With Pennsyl- 
vania coal costing, as it does, about $2.50 a ton in Buf- 
falo and the Buffalo load-factor as it is, power can be 
supplied from Niagara Falls cheaper than the cost of 
development by steam in Buffalo. The selling price of 
Niagara energy is approximately $20 per kw per year. 
The price per kilowatt-hour is considerably less than 1 
cent and probably would come much closer to V 4 cent, 
but Mr. Lincoln could not give the exact figures. 

Philadelphia Street-Lighting Contract Renewed 

The contract between the city of Philadelphia and 
the Philadelphia Electric Company for arc street light- 
ing during 1915 has been renewed at the rate which 
prevailed in 1914, about $89 per lamp per annum. 

Mr. Joseph B. McCall, president of the company, said 
that the prices, terms and conditions are those named 
in the proposal made to the city by the company in 
June, 1914. The contract contains a clause that its 
execution shall not prevent either party from contend- 
ing before the State Public Service Commission that the 
terms may be modified. If, on the presentation of the 
facts, the commission shall determine that any changes 
are essential, the changes authorized are to become 
effective as of Jan. 1, 1915. Mr. McCall said that, in 
accordance with the agreement made at the last hear- 
ing before the commission, an effort was made to reach 
an understanding with the city officials, but after sev- 
eral conferences it was impossible to agree upon 
mutually satisfactory terms. 

Mayor Blankenburg of Philadelphia has written to 
Mr. Nathan T. Folwell, president of the Keystone Tele- 
phone Company, stating that investigations of the city 
indicate that under existing circumstances a city-owned 
and city-operated plant for street lighting affords not 
only the most economical method but will also insure 
efficient and satisfactory service. He quotes the decision 
of the Public Service Commission of Pennsylvania in 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

the case of the Gettysburg Light Company versus 
Gettysburg as removing any obstacles to full considera- 
tion of a municipal electric-lighting plant for Philadel- 
phia. Mayor Blankenburg requested Mr. Folwell to 
appoint some person to discuss terms with the city for 
the use of the conduits. He asked for an option and 
declared that, barring the terms to be agreed upon for 
use of the conduits, the city's estimates are complete. 

Upon request of the Philadelphia Electric Company, 
the Public Service Commission has postponed the ad- 
journed hearing on city lighting rates in Philadelphia 
from Jan. 7 to Jan. 20. 

Panama-Pacific Exposition Illumination Scheme 

The engineers and workmen who are installing the 
illumination system of the Panama-Pacific Exposition 
have virtually completed work on it. Nightly tests in- 
dicate that the success of this department of the Exposi- 
tion work will meet all expectations of the engineers. 

The lighting of the interior of Festival Hall, which 
is accomplished by the use of a deep light well beneath 
the floor of the building, has been tested, as has the 
illumination of the Palace of Horticulture. In Festival 
Hall a battery of searchlamps at the bottom of the light 
well sent up a flood of varicolored light, through a dif- 
fusing glass, which filled the huge dome with a soft 
radiance the source of which could not be seen. The 
task of hanging 100,000 jewels on the Tower of Jewels 
was completed Dec. 22. 

Mr. W. D'A. Ryan, who was loaned to the Exposition, 
with a staff of illumination experts, to plan and install 
the illumination system, said that the lighting effects, 
so far as they had been tested, had not fallen short in a 
single detail. 

The only salient feature of the system which yet 
awaits completion is the battery of forty-eight pro- 
jectors, known as scintillators, installed on Morro 
Castle, on the west wall of the yacht harbor. These 
giant reflectors will be used in the creation of wonder- 
ful pyrotechnic effects on the clouds above the Exposi- 
tion site, the fog banks rolling in through the Golden 
Gate and upon artificially created banks of steam. 

Contest for Business in Northern Idaho 

The long-expected power war that promises to involve 
northern Idaho and its great mining interests for an 
uncertain period was started before the Public Utilities 
Commission when the Washington Water Power Com- 
pany, of Spokane, made application to that body for an 
injunction directed against the Montana Water Power 
Company, the Thompson Falls Power Company, the 
Federal Mining & Smelting Company and the Tamarack 
& Custer Consolidated Mining Company, to prevent the 
two named electrical companies from delivering elec- 
trical energy to the mining companies. 

The application raises a new issue before the com- 
mission. All three of the electrical companies are non- 
resident corporations. Ever since electrical energy 
has been used to any extent in the mining regions of 
the Coeur d'Alene district and in the towns and cities 
there the Washington Water Power Company has fur- 
nished it and has had exclusive control of the territory. 

The Montana Power Company negotiated for con- 
with some of the larger mining companies. These 
companies are now customers of the Washington Water 
Power Company. As in previous cases, the commis- 
sion has refused to permit competition in territory 
where another company had an investment and was giv- 

ing satisfactory regulated service. The Montana Power 
Company, it is alleged, decided not to ask for the right 
to enter the northern Idaho mining field, but instead 
made arrangements with the Federal and Tamarack 
companies by which it built its transmission lines in 
Montana to the Idaho line. The mining companies 
built lines from their property to the boundary, and a 
connection will be made. 

The Washington Water Power Company classes this 
as a conspiracy to rob it of valuable business and a sub- 
terfuge to enter Idaho without complying with the pro- 
visions of the public utilities act requiring a certificate 
of public convenience and necessity to be issued before 
construction by a public utility can be begun. 

Spectacular Illumination of Woolworth Building 

At midnight on Dec. 31 the new system of decorative 
lighting installed on the Woolworth Building in New 
York, the tallest office building in the world, received its 
initial trial. At 11 o'clock the first floor of the building 
was lighted, and every two minutes thereafter another 
floor flashed into light. Just at midnight, when the din 
attending the passing of the old year and the welcoming 
of the new was at its height, the light of the topmost 
pinnacle flared out. Seen from any angle the huge shaft 


made an imposing appearance. Specially designed re- 
flectors are employed to direct the light against the 
structure so as to bring out all the beauty of its Gothic 
spires. Nitrogen-filled lamps are used throughout, and 
these are supplied with energy from the power plant in 
the basement. 

January 9, 1915 


Miscellaneous News Notes 

Time Off with Pay for Education. — The educational com- 
mittee of the Edison Electric Illuminating Company of Bos- 
ton is arranging details of plans whereby employees of the 
company will be allowed to devote a certain number of their 
regular office hours to studies which will benefit them in 
their work. No reduction in pay will be made for time thus 

Large Wholesale Grocery Employs Battery Trucks in 
Building. — Austin, Nichols & Company, Brooklyn, N. Y., one 
of the largest wholesale grocery concerns in the world, is 
employing more than a dozen 4000-lb. storage battery 
trucks to transfer raw produce from lighterage or freight 
cars to the receiving department as well as to move crated 
goods about the building. Electricity is being supplied to 
this company by the Edison Electric Illuminating Company 
of Brooklyn. 

Night Courses in Electricity. — The Washington University 
has announced two courses in electricity, commencing Jan. 
18, to continue for eighteen weeks, and to cover the "prin- 
ciples of direct-current and alternating-current machinery" 
and "general electrical engineering practice." The courses 
will be open to students of more than eighteen years of age. 
The first course requires a knowledge of algebra, while the 
second course requires the applicant to have a general 
knowledge of arithmetic. 

"White Way" for Hot Springs, Ark. — The Board of Alder- 
men of Hot Springs, Ark., has passed an ordinance author- 
izing the Board of Public Affairs to enter into a contract 
with the Citizens' Electric Company of that city for the 
purpose of lighting certain streets under the system known 
as the "white way." The contract will cover a period of 
ten years and provide for the erection by the electric-light 
company of 100 or more steel poles with four-lamp orna- 
mental brackets and fifteen standards with one lamp. Each 
of the four-lamp clusters will burn from dusk until mid- 
night, and one of the lamps will be kept burning from 
midnight until dawn. The lamp in the one-lamp fixture 
will burn from dusk until dawn. The company will receive 
$5 a month for lighting each of the four-lamp clusters and 
$2 a month for lighting each of the single-lamp standards, 
the lamps in each case being rated at 50 cp. 

Use of the Telegraph in Great Britain. — The annual re- 
port of the Postmaster-General of Great Britain for the 
year ended March 31, 1914, records the number of telegraph 
offices as 14,152, and the number of telegrams transmitted as 
over 87,000,000. Improvements are being made with high- 
speed apparatus. The Gell perforator and the Creed reper- 
forator and printer are being more extensively used; a new 
Siemens instrument is being tested, sextuple working has 
been applied to the Baudot apparatus between London and 
Birmingham, and quadruple duplex sets are to be installed 
between London and Liverpool and between London and 
Glasgow. A new form of Murray multiplex apparatus is 
also being worked experimentally between London and 
Manchester. The lines from London to the landing places 
of the French, Belgian, Dutch and German cables are now 
all underground. 

Electric Shot-Firing Systems in Oklahoma Mining. — 

Secretary Lane of the Interior Department approved the 
recommendation of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and 
the Director of the Bureau of Mines that the order of May 
4, 1914, requiring the use of permissible explosives in the 
coal and asphalt mines on the segregated coal and asphalt 
lands belonging to the Choctaw and Chickasha Nations in 
Oklahoma or, in lieu thereof, the use of an electric shot- 
firing system operated from without the mine, should go 
into effect on Jan. 1, 1915. The Bureau of Mines conducted 
demonstrations in twelve typical coal-mining operations out 
of the forty-four coal mines on segregated lands, and made 
an exhaustive study of electric shot-firing systems. A lib- 
eral postponement will be allowed in individual cases so 
that no undue hardship will be imposed. The depressed 
financial condition makes it difficult for coal companies to 
raise any extensive amount of money at present in order 
to install mining machines. Electrical energy is not avail- 
able at the present time to a considerable number of 

Associations and Societies 

New York Section, I. E. S. — At the next meeting of the 
New York Section of the Illuminating Engineering Society, 
to be held Jan. 14, Mr. M. Luckiesh will present a paper en- 
titled "The Application of the Tungsten Lamp to Photog- 
raphy," and Mr. R. F. Pierce will discuss gas lamps for 
photography. Mr. John B. Taylor, of the General Electric 
Company, Schenectady, N. Y., will give a demonstration of 
color photography. At a meeting to be held on Feb. 11 
papers will be presented by Mr. W. H. Rolinson on "The 
Gas-Filled Lamp for Street Lighting," and by Mr. C. A. B. 
Halvorson, Jr., on "The Magnetite Lamp for Street Light- 

New York Electrical Society. — On Wednesday, Jan. 13, 
Mr. William A. Blonck will deliver a lecture before the 
New York Electrical Society on "European Boiler Room 
Practice and Boiler Efficiency Methods in the United States, 
with Reference to Electric Light and Power Plants." Mr. 
Blonck will discuss the construction and performance of 
high-duty boilers, as used in electric plants of Europe. He 
will also take up the practical question of the more rational 
and economical use of coal in the boiler rooms of electric 
power plants by means of definite indications of the com- 
bustion process which are simple and comprehensible to the 
firemen, so that guesswork and waste shall be entirely elim- 

The Cottrell Dinner. — The American Institute of Mining 
Engineers, the American Electrochemical Society and the 
Mining and Metallurgical Society of America will give a 
complimentary dinner on Friday, Jan. 15, at the Hotel 
Plaza to Dr. Frederick Gardner Cottrell, of the Bureau of 
Mines, in recognition of his contributions to research. It 
is well known that Dr. Cottrell assigned the patents for 
his process of electrostatic precipitation of fumes to the Re- 
search Corporation, the receipts from licenses to be used 
for the furtherance of research. As a result of this gift 
the Research Corporation is now in a flourishing condition. 
The speakers at the dinner will be Mr. W. L. Saunders for 
the American Institute of Mining Engineers, Mr. Walter R. 
Ingalls for the Mining and Metallurgical Society of America, 
and Mr. F. A. Lidbury for the American Electrochemical 

Electric Trucks in Winter Time. — "Operating Electric 
Trucks Under Winter Conditions" was the subject of dis- 
cussion at the monthly meeting of the New York Section of 
the Electric Vehicle Association of America on Dec. 30. 
The need of preparation before inclement winter weather 
sets in and the importance of properly educating the 
operators and garage men as to the problems peculiar to 
winter time were emphasized by all the speakers. Mr. 
F. N. Carle told of the efforts of central stations and 
manufacturers in New York City to warn the owners of 
electrical vehicles beforehand of unusually severe operating 
conditions that are likely to take place in winter time. 
Mr. E. A. Graham spoke of cold-weather operating condi- 
tions in Winnipeg, Canada, and how the electric truck was 
able to hold its own with the gasoline car, and in some 
respects even to surpass it. Mr. W. A. Donkin, chairman 
of the Pittsburgh Section, stated that on account of the 
hills in Pittsburgh skid devices are used throughout the 
year and that during severe snowstorms the electric truck 
gives exceptionally good service. 

Western Association of Electrical Inspectors. — The tenth 
national convention of the Western Association of Electrical 
Inspectors will be held at the Hotel Radisson, Minneapolis, 
Minn., Jan. 26 to 28. The sessions will be opened Tuesday 
morning with an address of welcome by Mayor Nye of 
Minneapolis. Mr. Waldemar Michaelson, former city elec- 
trician of Omaha, Neb., is scheduled to respond. At the 
afternoon session the following papers will be presented: 
"Elevator Motor Controllers," Mr. J. H. Miller, general 
superintendent Otis Elevator Company, Chicago; "Fire- 
Alarm Systems," Mr. Frank F. Stover, Star Electric Com- 
pany, Binghamton, N. Y. Reports from the committee on 
induction motors, Mr. K. W. Adkins chairman, and the 
committee on signal systems, Mr. J. R. Morrisey chairman, 
will be presented. On Wednesday morning the program 
will be: Report of committee on underground systems, 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

Mr. Guy W. See chairman; address, "Electric, Steam and 
Water Power in a Modern Flour Mill," Mr. Charles A. 
Lang, superintendent Northwestern Consolidated Milling 
Company, Minneapolis; report of committee on electric 
traction systems, Mr. Frank R. Daniel chairman; address, 
"Electrolysis, Its Detection and Mitigation," Mr. Burton 
McCullom, electrical engineer Bureau of Standards, Wash- 
ington, D. C. Thursday morning: Report of committee 
on laws and ordinances, Mr. W. S. Boyd, Chicago, chair- 
man; address, "Approved Fittings and the Label Service," 
Mr. J. E. Latta, Underwriters' Laboratories, Chicago; report 
of committee on the National Electrical Code, Mr. F. D. 
Varnam chairman; address, "How to Deal with the Public," 
Mr. John S. Taylor. Thursday afternoon: Report of com- 
mittee on rubber-covered wire, Mr. Victor H. Tousley 
chairman; address, "The Manufacture of Rubber-Covered 
Wire," Mr. Everett Morse, engineer Simplex Wire & Cable 
Company, Boston, Mass. The association banquet will be 
held on Wednesday evening with Mr. W. I. Gray as toast- 
master. On Thursday evening the association will hold a 
joint dinner with the Minnesota Section, A. I. E. E., after 
which Mr. Charles L. Pillsbury, consulting engineer, Minne- 
apolis, will speak on "Principles Entering into the Valuation 
of Public Utilities and Rate Making." In celebration of this, 
the tenth or "tin wedding" meeting of the association, a 
special invitation to attend has been extended to the wives 
of members, and the local entertainment committee, Mr. 
Emil Anderson chairman, has provided an elaborate enter- 
tainment program for both members and guests. Mr. Ben 
W. Clark, Detroit, Mich., is president of the association, 
and Mr. William S. Boyd, 175 West Jackson Boulevard, Chi- 
cago, is secretary. 

Wisconsin Electrical Association. — The Wisconsin Elec- 
trical Association will hold a joint convention with the Wis- 
consin Gas Association at Milwaukee Jan. 20 to 22. The 
sessions of Jan. 20 will be devoted to gas topics, those of 
Jan. 21 to subjects of common interest to both the gas and 
electric-lighting industries, and those of Jan. 22 to topics 
of interest to electric-railway and electric-utility men. A 
paper on "The Wisconsin Railroad Commission's Method of 
Rate Making" is listed on the advance program, and there 
will be other papers on the subjects of financing utility 
properties, operation, office efficiency and public-service cor- 
poration regulation. Mr. P. H. Korst, Janesville, Wis., is 
president, and Mr. George Allison, Stephenson Building, 
Milwaukee, Wis., is secretary-treasurer. Following is the 
program for the electrical sessions: Thursday, Jan. 21, 
morning: "Financing of Public Utility Properties," by Mr. 
Andrew Cooke, consulting financial expert, Chicago, formerly 
vice-president Harris Trust & Savings Bank, Chicago; "The 
Continuous Meter-Reading and Discount System," by Mr. 
F. J. Maxwell, auditor Eastern Wisconsin Railway & Light 
Company, Fond du Lac, Wis.; "Advertising Influence of 
Public Service Employees," by Mr. R. O. Jasperson, adver- 
tising agent Milwaukee Gas Light Company. Afternoon: 
"The Wisconsin Railroad Commission's Method of Rate 
Making," by a member of the Wisconsin Railroad Commis- 
sion, Madison, Wis.; "Practical Effect of the Workmen's 
Compensation Act," by Mr. Carl Muskat, attorney, Milwau- 
kee; "Increased Taxation in Wisconsin and Its Effect on 
Public Service Companies," by Mr. Edwin Gruhl, Water- 
town Gas & Electric Company, Watertown, Wis. Friday, 
Jan. 22. morning: "One-Man Electric Car Operation in a 
Small City," by Mr. R. M. Howard, general manager Minne- 
sota Division Wisconsin Railway, Light & Power Company, 
Winona, Wis.; "Latent Water-Powers and Difficulties of 
Development Under tlio Now Wisconsin Water-Power 
■ by Mr. Daniel W. Mead, Madison, Wis.; "Latest Ten- 
dencies and Developments in Street Lighting and Incnn- 
nt Lamps," by Mr. S. L. E. Rose, General Electric 
n my, Schenectady, N. V. Afternoon: "How to Overcome 
Operating Difficulties of Small Utilities," by Messrs. 
J. N. Cadby and ('. B, Hayden, electa tailroad 

Commission of Wisconsin, Madison; "Experience and 9ug- 
.■ the New-Business Departments of a Small 
tility," by Mr. C. M. Oxford, commercial deparl 
men! Wisconsin Public Service Company, Green Bay, Wis.; 
for Increasing the Efficiency of 
Small Stem,, Electric Plant ." by Mr. William F. Lathrop, 
,,f the Wisconsin Gas & Electric Company, of Racine, 

Public Service Commission News 

New York Commissions 

Plans of Governor Whitman and the Republican party for 
an investigation and reorganization of the New York Pub- 
lic Service Commissions have been brought to a head by 
the fire in the subway on Jan. 6. After conferences with 
the leaders in the Legislature Governor Whitman stated 
that he expected to see definite steps taken to start an in- 
quiry preliminary to a general reconstruction of the com- 
missions within a short time. The general plan now under 
discussion is to have an investigation made by a committee 
of the Legislature. In case action is not taken by the Legis- 
lature and a committee, it is stated that the Governor will 
act independently under the Moreland law and appoint a 
commissioner himself to make an investigation. 

A resolution was offered in the Senate on Jan. 6 by Sen- 
ator William M. Bennett, providing for an investigation of 
the fire in the subway as well as of the two commissions. It 
provides for the appointment of five members of the Assem- 
bly by the Speaker and three Senators by the Lieutenant- 
Governor. An appropriation of $25,000 is made. The im- 
mediate adoption of the resolution was urged by Senator 
Bennett, but as a general agreement had been made that the 
Senate should do nothing more than organize and receive 
the Governor's message on the opening day, the resolution 
was laid on the table. 

The Second District commission has adopted the first 
changes in its rules of procedure since its organization 
in 1907, designed to provide for the new functions imposed 
on the commission by the Legislature when such activities 
as those of the telegraph and telephone companies, auto- 
bus lines, the steam corporations and the baggage transfer 
companies were put under its jurisdiction. 

Ohio Commission 

In its annual report, made to Governor Cox on Dec. 31, 
the commission suggested that railroads and public utilities 
should be required to notify the commission immediately 
of any change in the personnel of their responsible officers. 
It was suggested that a law be enacted authorizing the 
commission to order the refund of illegal or unreasonable 
charges by railroads or utilities. The members also wish to 
be exempt from testifying in civil cases that grow out of 
matters that have been investigated officially. 

The report states that the commission has initiated many 
physical valuations at the request of city councils. In 
most instances, the report assumes, these valuations were 
desired in rate-making. The new uniform classification of 
accounts went into effect on Jan. 1. 

The commission desires power to suspend rates or sched- 
ules pending investigations. Under the present law it can- 
not initiate investigations of such rates or schedules until 
they have gone into effect. It asks that utilities be required 
to give thirty days' notice of changes made in rates or 

The Youngstown & Sharon Street Railway Company has 
secured permission to intervene in the case of the Mahoning 
Light & Power Company, which was granted permission 
recently to purchase a small private company in Youngs- 
town and issue securities. When the order is ready to be 
issued, the company will enter objections and ask for a 
rehearing. Failing in this, it will carry the case to the 
Stale Supreme Court. It bases its objections on the ground 
that ito service is satisfactory and sufficient for the terri- 
tory served. 

New Jersey Commission 

The Board of Public Utility Commissioners has dismissed 

I he complaint of Mr. J, F. Davison against the Lakewood 
Water, I.iirht & Power Company, based upon his refusal to 
permit the company to teBl his water meter and a Subse- 
quent refusal of the company to render service. The board 
holds that it is not only a right but a duty of a company to 

ill meters and to examine and test them whenever 

iry. Referring to the contention that a charge for 

the meter made it the property of the consumer, the board 

thai the actual ownership of the meter does not affect 
the company's control over it, the fact that a patron is re- 
quired to pay for the meter being one affecting only the 
rates charged for service and not the company's control. 

January 9, 1915 



The following committee of the Legislature has been 
appointed to study the rate-making powers of the Board 
of Public Utility Commissioners: Senators Rathbun, Gaunt 
and Hutchinson and Assemblymen Runyon, Randall, Wolver- 
ton, Barrendale and Stevens. 

Michigan Commission 

The Railroad Commission has ordered the appraisal of 
the property of the electric light and power companies con- 
trolled by the Commonwealth Power Company interests. 
The appraisal will be made by Prof. M. E. Cooley, of the 
University of Michigan, and his assistants. The appraisal 
is made in connection with the application of the Consumers' 
Power Company of Maine to be admitted to Michigan. 

Pennsylvania Commission 

Gas and electric light and power companies have been noti- 
fied by the commission that when a company names a period 
in which a discount will be allowed on bills the discount 
period must be observed rigidly, and all bills not paid by the 
«xpiration of the last discount day must be paid in full. 

Idaho Commission 

Retention of the Public Utilities Commission as a means 
of offsetting federal control of Idaho's resources is advocated 
by Senator Borah in a letter just received from him by Mr. 
C. F. Koelsch, Representative-elect from Ada County. Sena- 
tor Borah points to pending national legislation and shows 
why a public utilities commission will be necessary for the 
State if such legislation is to be passed in order that the 
State may combat a radical conservation policy. His letter 

"I am much opposed to the leasing system covering, as it is 
now intended to do, all of our natural resources, not only 
because in my judgment it will retard the development of the 
State, withholding from taxation a vast amount of property 
which ought to be taxed, but because the royalties which 
will be collected will ultimately be passed over and charged 
up to the citizens of the State and will constitute in the final 
effect a new tax and a new burden laid specially and alone 
upon the public land states. But I am of the opinion that 
such a system is going to be tried and that these bills will 
be ultimately passed, and I feel quite certain that we will 
find a public utilities law and an efficient public utilities 
commission of very great service to us under such circum- 

"There is another feature of the controversy, and that is 
as to the legal right of the national government to fix rates 
to be charged for power where the power is used wholly 
within the State. I do not believe it can attach to the leasing 
of its public lands any provision which will take away from 
the State its right to regulate and control its domestic 
affairs. But one thing is quite certain, that unless we had 
some means and some method by which to test the question 
we should not be in a position to challenge the authority 
of the national government. Moreover, I believe the State 
would not want these public service corporations to go with- 
out any regulation and control whatever, and unless we had 
an efficient public utilities law they would prefer federal 
regulation rather than no regulation at all." 

An answer has been filed with the Public Utilities Com- 
mission to the complaint of the Attorney-General against 
the Idaho-Oregon Light & Power Company. In his com- 
plaint the Attorney-General asserted that the company was 
discriminating in rates, and that it was not following the 
schedules filed with the commission. These charges are de- 
nied by Mr. W. J. Ferris, receiver for the company, who ex- 
plains that the company is furnishing energy in accordance 
"with certain special contracts and oral agreements outside 
its regular rates, but says that not only are all these con- 
tracts on file with the commission, but that they show no 
unreasonable difference in rates and no failure to observe 
the rules of the commission. 

Missouri Commission 

On application of the Springfield (Mo.) Gas & Electric 
Company the United States District Court for the Western 
District of Missouri has granted a preliminary injunction 
restraining the Public Service Commission of Missouri from 
enforcing the order recently made by it reducing electrical 


Mr. Howard A. Huey has been appointed assistant man- 
ager of the Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company, Oklahoma 
City, Okla. 

Mr. I. M. Stover has been appointed manager of the Key 
West (Fla.) Electric Company as successor to Mr. B. L. 
Grooms, who has been transferred to Savannah. 

Mr. J. Harry Pieper, assistant general agent of the 
Southern California Edison Company, Los Angeles, Cal., 
has been elected president of the Los Angeles Advertising 

Mr. Peter J. Beisel has been appointed city electrician of 
Allentown, Pa. He will have supervision over the fire and 
police call systems and all other electrical activities entered 
into by the city. 

Mr. Timothy C. O'Hearn, for the past eleven years city 
electrician of Cambridge, Mass., has sent in his resignation 
to Mayor Good, to take effect April 1, 1915. He is an in- 
structor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Mr. B. L. Grooms, recently manager of the Key West 
(Fla.) Electric Company and for some years chief inspector 
of the Savannah (Ga.) Electric Company, has been trans- 
ferred to Savannah, where he will become superintendent 
of transportation of the company. 

Ex-Gov. Samuel W. Pennypacker, a member of the Public 
Service Commission of Pennsylvania, has been appointed 
chairman of that body to fill the uncompleted term of the 
late Nathaniel Ewing. By this action the term of each of 
the commissioners is advanced one year. 

Mr. J. S. Hendrie, for some time a member of the Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission of Ontario, and at present 
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of Ontario, has been 
elected a director of the Canadian General Electric Com- 
pany, succeeding the late Senator Jaffray. 

Mr. Thomas T. Logie, for the past three years manager 
of the Westfield (Mass.) municipal lighting department, 
has resigned to enter private business. Mr. Logie was 
formerly assistant superintendent of the South Norwalk 
(Conn.) division of the United Electric Light & Water 

Mr. J. D. Ross has been reappointed superintendent of the 
Seattle City Lighting Department by Mayor Gill for three 
years at a salary of $5,000. In reappointing Mr. Ross the 
Mayor referred to him as an indefatigable worker and a 
man of ability. The best proof of his merit, he said, was 
the fact that Mr. Ross has managed the municipal plant 
successfully in spite of many obstacles and against strenu- 
ous opposition. 

Mr. Walter H. Gaither, of Pittsburgh, Pa., has been 
appointed a member of the Public Service Commission of 
Pennsylvania by Governor Tener for a term of two and 
one-half years, beginning on Jan. 19, 1915. The newly 
appointed commissioner was born in Foxburg, Clarion 
County, Pa., forty-five years ago, and was engaged in news- 
paper work in Pittsburgh for several years. He was secre- 
tary to Governor Tener during his term as Congressman, 
and has served in the same capacity since Mr. Tener became 

Mr. Thomas P. Riley, judge of the Maiden (Mass.) Dis- 
trict Court, has been appointed a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Gas and Electric Light Commission to fill the 
vacancy created by the advancement of Mr. Alonzo R. Weed 
to the chairmanship, following the death of the late chair- 
man, Forrest E. Barker. The new nominee was born at 
Medford, Mass., in 1875, and after being educated at Boston 
Univeristy Law School was admitted to the Massachusetts 
bar in 1901. He has served a number of terms in the 
Legislature and was appointed associate judge of the Maiden 
Court in 1911. For two years he was chairman of the 
Democratic State Committee and served as Assistant At- 
torney-General of Massachusetts until the expiration of the 
recent term. 

Mr. T. C. Martin, secretary of the National Electric Light 
Association, will proceed from New York on Jan. 14 to San 
Francisco to confer with the committees there and help 
consummate the local arrangements for the next annual 
convention, to be held there during the first week in June. 
Other points on the Pacific Coast will also be visited in 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

this connection. Mr. Martin is also to give attention to 
company section work in the cities passed through on his 
return route. He will be accompanied to San Francisco by 
Mr. George W. Elliott, master of transportation, who is 
now organizing four special tours to the convention, and 
has to settle many points in regard to them at the other 
end of the line. They will be engaged on this work until 
early in February. 

Mr. Philip E. Hart, mechanical and electrical engineer 
and associate member of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers, is now in England and expects to leave 
for the front shortly, having received orders to join his 
regiment (artillery), in which he has received a commis- 
sion. Mr. Hart received his training at the London Uni- 
versity and joined the testing department of the General 
Electric Company in Schenectady. He has been connected 
with the West Kootenay Power & Light Company, Ross- 
land, B. C; the Allis-Chalmers-Bullock Company, the 
Pacific Gas & Electric Company, and the Dorada Railway 
(ropeway extension), Colombia, South America. Mr. Hart 
was acting as resident engineer for this last company when 
war broke out. He left for England in October. 

Mr. Rodolfo Roth, formerly manager of the machinery 
business of Buxton, Cassini & Company, of Buenos Aires, 
Argentina, and now a consulting engineer in that city and 
a professor in the National University of La Plata and 
secretary of the Argentine Association of Electrical Engi- 
neers, is spending a few weeks in the United States making 
a special investigation for the Argentine National Board of 
Sanitary Works. At the same time he is studying matters 
connected with the business relations existing between the 
United States and Argentina. Mr. Roth was graduated from 
Cornell University some years ago in the course in electrical 
engineering, and at about the middle of the course he went 
into business for about three years in Mexico. He was an 
engineer with Braschi & Company in Mexico City and 
assistant manager of the Aguas Calientes Electric Light & 
Power Company of Mexico. In Argentina he has also been 
superintendent of the Compania General de Illuminacion y 
Ornato. He expects to return to Argentina in February. 

Mr. John J. Gibson has been appointed manager of the 
detail and supply department of the Westinghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing Company at East Pittsburgh, to succeed 
Mr. G. B. Griffin. Mr. Gibson was born in York, Pa., and 
after attending the Collegiate 
Institute at that place entered 
Lehigh University at Bethle- 
hem, Pa. After graduation 
he entered the employ of the 
Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company and 
was engaged in work on 
meters, arc lamps and switch- 
boards. From 1896 to 1900 
Mr. Gibson was employed by 
the American Telephone & 
Telegraph Company as in- 
spector, and later as district 
manager at Norfolk, Va. In 
1900 he re-entered the em- 
ploy of the Westinghouse 
company as chief corre- 
spondent of the Chicago of- j. j. gibson 
fice, and later as salesman 

in the same office. Mr. Gibson was transferred in 1905 to 
the Philadelphia sales office, in which capacity he remained 
until his appointment as district manager in 1906. 

Mr. Joseph B. Eastman, of Boston, has been appointed 
a member of the Massachusetts Public Service Commission, 
succeeding Mr. George W. Anderson, resigned. Mr. East- 
man has been secretary of the Public Franchise League 
of Boston since 1905. He was born in 1882 at Katonah, 
N. Y., and was graduated from Amherst College in 1904, 
when he received a fellowship which permitted him to study 
I and political condition for B time at the South End 
House, Boston. After becoming associated with the Public 
Franchise League, Mr. Eastman handled the rate petition 
of that body relative to the Edison Electric Illuminating 
Company of Boston before the Gas and Electric Light Com- 
mission about five years ago and was active in regard to the 
adoption of the sliding scale of rates by gas companies, 

besides appearing upon other matters. In 1912 he helped 
draft the bill which became the public utilities act of 1913, 
and he has given much time to work as counsel for labor 
organizations in the electric railway and lighting fields. 

Mr. H. W. Cope, formerly assistant manager of the indus- 
trial and power department at East Pittsburgh, has been 
appointed director of the Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company's exhibit for the Panama-Pacific Inter- 
national Exposition, and is 
now stationed in San Fran- 
cisco. Mr. Cope was born in 
North Vernon, Ind., and is a 
graduate of Purdue Univer- 
sity. Prior to his attending 
the university he was en- 
gaged in electrical construc- 
tion and sales work. In 
^l^^fc September, 1898, following 

j^K ^^^^^ his graduation, he became 

$S , ( ^H associated with the Westing- 

»\ f ^ jfl house Electric & Manufac- 

Sfcl jfl turing Company at East 

Sji jfl Pittsburgh, with which com- 

pany he has remained ever 
since. Mr. Cope took the ap- 
prenticeship course and was 
H. W. COPE engaged in the engineering 

department in connection 
with the design of alternating-current switchboards, the 
layout of power houses and substations, and in 1905 he was 
made the head of the alternating-current correspondence 
department. A short time after this he was made assistant 
manager of the industrial and power department. 

Mr. G. Brewer Griffin, formerly manager of the detail and 
supply department of the Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company, has been appointed manager of the 
automobile equipment department. Mr. Griffin has been 
connected with the electrical 
business for some years, hav- 
ing started in 1889 with the 
Thomson-Houston Company, 
at Lynn, with which company 
he remained until 1894, when 
he became associated with the 
Narragansett Electric Com- 
pany at Providence, R. I. 
While with this company he 
aided in entirely rebuilding 
and rearranging its distrib- 
uting system. In 1896 he 
went to Elmira, N. Y., and 
became manager of the job- 
bing and contracting and 
new-business departments of 
the Municipal Improvement 
Company, which was engaged 
in a general construction sup- 
ply business in connection with the water, street-railway 
and electric-light plants. In 1900 Mr. Griffin became con- 
nected with the Manhattan General Construction Company 
of New York as special representative, opening an office 
in Boston as New England manager one year later, which 
position he held until the company was absorbed by the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. In 1902 
he went to East Pittsburgh as assistant manager of the 
retail and supply department, succeeding to the position 
of manager in 1909. 



John Henry Clark, for many years connected with the 
power and mining sales department of the General Electric 
Company at Schenectady, N. Y., died Jan. 3. Mr. Clark 
was born in Cornwall, England, in 1859. He became con- 
I with the Thomson-Houston Company in 1890, and 
with the General Electric Company when that company took 
over the former company a few years later. He was a mem- 
ber of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the 
Boston Engineers' Club and the Engineers' Club of New 

January 9, 1915 



Corporate and Financial 

Corning Light & Power Initial Dividend. — The Corning 
(N. Y.) Light & Power Corporation has declared an initial 
dividend of 1 per cent on the $375,000 stock. 

Midland Counties Public Service to Renew Notes. — The 

Railroad Commission of California has authorized the Mid- 
land Counties Public Service Corporation to renew $24,796 

Philadelphia Electric Company Election. — Mr. Sidney F. 
Tyler has been elected a director of the Philadelphia Elec- 
tric Company to fill the vacancy caused by the death of 
Thomas Dolan. 

Portsmouth Street Railroad & Light Company's First 
Mortgage Bonds. — Baker, Ayling & Company, of Boston, are 
offering $500,000 of 6 per cent first mortgage gold bonds of 
the Portsmouth Street Railroad & Light Company. 

Listings on New York Exchange in 1914. — According 
to the Wall Street Journal, $20,913,000 of 5 per cent elec- 
tric utility bonds and $42,267,600 of stock, a total of $63,- 
180,600, were listed on the New York Stock Exchange dur- 
ing 1914. 

Western States Gas & Electric to Issue Bonds in Lieu of 
Notes. — The Western States Gas & Electric Company has 
been authorized by the California Railroad Commission to 
issue $101,000 of 5 per cent bonds at not less than 82% 
and interest in lieu of $142,700 of the three-year 6 per cent 
notes previously authorized. 

Great Western Power to Renew Notes. — The Railroad 
Commission of California has issued a supplemental order 
authorizing the Great Western Power Company to renew 
a note for $150,000 in favor of the Old Colony Trust Com- 
pany of Boston. This note is secured by a pledge of $225,- 
000 of first mortgage bonds. 

Rodeo Land & Water Company Properties to Be Sold. — 

The Rodeo Land & Water Company has been authorized 
by the California Commission to sell its water, gas and 
electric systems to the Beverly Hills Utilities Company of 
Los Angeles, which is authorized to issue 100 shares of 
capital stock at par in payment for the property. 

Electrical Securities Corporation Bond Offering. — Jackson 
& Curtis, of New York and Boston, are offering at 98 and 
interest $500,000 collateral-trust sinking fund gold 5 per 
cent bonds of the Electrical Securities Corporation, due 
Feb. 1, 1943. The common stock of the company is owned 
by the General Electric Company, of Schenectady, N. Y. 

Dayton Power & Light to Purchase Cedarville Plant. — 

The Dayton (Ohio) Power & Light Company has been 
granted authority to purchase the plant and business of the 
Cedarvilie (Ohio) Light & Power Company for $20,000. 
The Cedarville company has a water-power plant at Clifton, 
Ohio, and a steam plant at Cedarville. These will be 
operated in conjunction with the Dayton company's plant. 

Empire Gas & Electric to Purchase Weedsport Company. 

— The Empire Gas & Electric Company, Auburn, N. Y., has 
been authorized by the New York Public Service Commis- 
sion, Second District, to purchase the $15,000 stock of the 
Weedsport (N. Y.) Electric Light Company for not more 
than $19,000. The order provides that the Empire company 
must amortize the stock at the rate of $500 for 1915 and 
$1,000 for each succeeding year until it is carried on the 
books in 1920 at $13,500. 

Alabama Traction, Light & Power Option. — Holders of 
certificates of option to purchase at $15 shares of the 
Alabama Traction, Light & Power Company were given 
the privilege to extend the option from Dec. 31, 1914, to 
Dec. 31, 1915, on the payment of 10 shillings per share. As 
an alternative, the holder may extend the option until 
twelve months after the conclusion of peace, or on the 
expiration of the court's acts of 1914, whichever is sooner, 
by the payment of £2 per share. 

Montpelier & Barre Light & Power Capital Increase. — 

The Montpelier & Barre Light & Power Company of Bos- 
ton, Mass., has increased its authorized capital stock from 
$2,131,000 to $4,810,000. Mr. A. B. Tenney, president of 
the company, writes that this issue is necessary owing to the 
conversion privilege in an issue of $2,500,000 convertible 

bonds authorized. The bonds are issued for funding and 
refunding outstanding indebtedness and to provide for ex- 
tensions and future needs under conservative restrictions. 

Associated Gas & Electric to Acquire More Stock of Sub- 
sidiaries. — The New York Public Service Commission, Sec- 
ond District, has authorized the Associated Gas & Electric 
Company to buy at par $22,400 stock of the Homer & Cort- 
land Gas Light Company to be issued under the authority 
of an order of the commission granted in August, 1913, and 
also to acquire $36,600 outstanding stock of the Norwich 
Gas & Electric Company and $33,400 additional stock of 
the Norwich company to be issued under an order of the 
commission dated Dec. 9, 1914. 

New York Receiver for International Power. — Upon ap- 
plication of Mr. George W. Hoadley, Supreme Court Justice 
Hendrick appointed Mr. Charles H. Ridder receiver of the 
International Power Company. The action was taken to 
prevent Mr. Sadler, the New Jersey receiver, from removing 
the assets of the company from New York to New Jersey. 
The suit was brought in behalf of a subsidiary company, 
the American & British Manufacturing Company, of Bridge- 
port, Conn., of which Mr. Hoadley is president, which com- 
pany claims that $100,000 is due it for loans to the Inter- 
national Power Company and moneys paid out at its re- 

San Joaquin Light & Power to Acquire Other Properties. 

— The Selma Water Works, Madera Water Works, Madera 
Light & Power Company, Lemoore Light & Power Corpora- 
tion and Bakersfield Gas & Electric Light Company have 
been authorized by the California Railroad Commission to 
transfer their properties to the San Joaquin Light & Power 
Corporation. The San Joaquin company is to cancel all of 
the capital stock of the companies with the exception of 
the Bakersfield Gas & Electric Company. This company 
has an outstanding bond issue and, with the exception of 
sufficient shares to qualify directors, all of its stock will be 

Boston Edison Company Prosperous. — New business con- 
tracted for during the calendar year 1914 by the Edison 
Electric Illuminating Company of Boston, Mass., exceeded 
all previous records and surpassed that booked in 1913 by 
25 per cent. The output for the week ended Christmas 
Day was 7 per cent ahead of the corresponding week a year 
ago, the peak load of the year being 65,342 kw, compared 
with 63,131 kw last year, a gain of 3.5 per cent. The 
largest daily output in the company's history was on Dec. 
21, when 777,000 kw-hr. was generated. Little evidence of 
retrenchment in the use of electricity for lighting and 
motor service appears in the 700 square miles of the com- 
pany's territory. 

New Company Formed in Maine. — The Maine Railways, 
Light & Power Company, which was formed in Maine in 
June, 1914, owns 86 per cent of the outstanding shares of 
the Rockland, Thomaston & Camden Street Railway and 
the entire stock of the Norway & Paris Street Railway. In 
addition, it operates two miles of electric road connecting 
the towns of Norway and Paris, owns and operates a gas 
plant in the city of Rockland and furni-hes electric service 
in Rockland, Camden, Rockport, Warren, Norway and Paris. 
The company has a long-term contract with the Central 
Maine Power Company for hydroelectric energy. The 
directors of the company are Messrs. W. T. Cobb, R. C. 
Bradford, H. J. Chisolm, E. W. Cox, C. G. Allen, W. Petten- 
gill, E. W. Clark, A. L. Bird, M. S. Bird, and S. B. Larrabee. 

Hodenpyl, Hardy & Company Incorporated. — Hodenpyl, 
Hardy & Company, of New York, have been incorporated 
with a capitalization of $2,000,000 to manage public utilities 
and do a stock and bond business. There will be no change 
in policy or practice from the old partnership firm. The 
new company will continue the management of the con- 
trolled properties and the financing of the same. The prin- 
cipal property managed by the company is the Common- 
wealth Power, Railway & Light Company, which serves 
communities in Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and Wis- 
consin. This property is operated jointly with E. W. Clarke 
& Company. The officers of the company are: Messrs. A. G. 
Hodenpyl, presdent; G. E. Hardy, B. C. Cobb, J. C. Weadock, 
W. S. Barthold and A. H. Johnson, vice-presidents, and 
Jacob Heckma, secretary and treasurer. 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

Manufacturing and Industrial 

The Condensite Company of America has moved from 
Glen Ridge, N. J., to Bloomfield, N. J. 

Balcom & Darrow, engineers, have moved their offices to 
10 East Forty-seventh Street, New York. 

The New York Insulated Wire Company, 114 Liberty 
Street, New York, has appointed Mr. L. O. Brewster general 

The American Manufacturers' Agency, 111 Monroe Street. 
Chicago, 111., has taken the agency for the Novelty Incan- 
descent Lamp Company, of Emporium, Pa. 

The Multi-Lux Company, 0712 Union Avenue, Cleveland, 
Ohio, is the name of the concern formerly known as Pease 
& Smith and before the adoption of that name as the Multi- 
Lux Illuminating Company. 

The Partrick & Wilkins Company, 51 North Seventh 
Street, Philadelphia, Pa., has purchased all the assets of the 
Partrick, Carter & Wilkins Company, formerly manufactur- 
ers of needle annunciators and electrical house goods. 

The Bearings Company of America, 250 West Fifty- 
fourth Street, New York City, is the successor to J. S. 
Bretz Company, New York, Fitchel & Sachs, Lancaster, Pa., 
and the Star Ball Retainer Company, Lancaster, Pa. 

The Electrical Alloy Company, Morristown, N. J., has 
opened an office at 180 North Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111., 
which is in charge of L. L. Fleig & Company, who have 
been appointed the Western representatives of the company. 

The Wagner Electric Manufacturing Company, St. Louis, 
Mo., has opened a sales office in the Pioneer Building, St. 
Paul, Minn., which is in charge of Mr. C. K. Hillman, who 
for some time has been identified with the sales of Wagner 
apparatus in this territory. 

Condition of Flashlamp Company in England Normal. — 
According to Mr. F. F. Phillips, export manager of the 
American Ever-Ready Works, 304 Hudson Street? New 
York, the concern's establishment in London is operating 
normally and is in a position adequately to supply the needs 
of the English market. 

The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, 
East Pittsburgh, Pa., has organized a separate department 
for the production and sale of automobile accessories, to be 
known as the automobile equipment department. Mr. G. B. 
Griffin, formerly manager of the company's detail and sup- 
ply department, is manager of the new department. 

Off Season for Decorative Chains. — The Owen Walsh 
Manufacturing Company, 525 West Twenty-sixth Street, 
New York, maker of decorative chains and lighting fixtures, 
is noting a decrease in the demand for its products, which 
it is declared will continue throughout January, as this 
month and June are off months for the business. 

Business in Wiring Devices Slow. — On account of the 
curtailment in building operations there is not a great de- 
mand for wiring devices. According to one manufacturer 
there is no immediate prospect of an improvement, and even 
though the building business should pick up, it will be some 
time before the buildings reach the state of completion 
where such material would be required. 

No Complaint to Make. — Mr. A. L. Eustice, treasurer of 
the Economy Fuse & Manufacturing Company, Chicago, III.. 
wrote to the Electrical World that his company had no 
cause for complaint regarding the amount of business which 
had been secured during the last year. In general, he de- 
clared, the Economy Fuse & Manufacturing Company is 
expecting a decided improvement in the business situation, 
Nothing Wrong with Business Conditions. — Fundament- 
ally there is nothing wrong with business conditions, Mr. 
L. I.. Brastow of tin Trumbull Electric Manufacturing Com 
pany, Plainville, i rted in a recent letter to the 

Lie ,M. World. "When things do start," he remarked, 
"they will start heavily. We certainly believe that the com- 
ing year will be a bet! year than the one just 
I. Still, we do not think it will be so good as the 

1918, although we hope o." 
Steel Boxea Selling Well According to Mr. \- . \. Cleary, 
,,f the i Ilei trie Op Bush Terminal, B 

lyn, N. Y., there i quit for hi ompany's tee! 

Among recent purchasers are the following: L & 

Comstock & Company for the Rosenbaum Building in Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., and the Albany (N. Y.) Main Telephone Build- 
ing; the Western Electric Company, the Sprague Electric 
Works of the General Electric Company, the Safety Car 
Heating & Lighting Company, Elliot Lewis, Philadelphia, 
and the H. I. Sackett Electric Company, Buffalo. 

The Coil Manufacturing & Repair Company, Cleveland, 
Ohio, is the name of the concern formerly known as the 
Cleveland Coil & Manufacturing Company. The new com- 
pany took charge of the business on Dec. 31, and will be 
engaged in making armatures, field and induction-motor 
coils and a general rewinding and repairing business. Until 
about three years ago the business which the above com- 
pany has assumed was conducted by the electrical depart- 
ment of the Van Dorn & Dutton Company. The principal 
owner and manager of the Coil Manufacturing & Repair 
Company is Mr. H. A. Kuehle, formerly with the Cleveland 
Switchboard Company and the Electric Wiring Company, of 

Electric Appliances Selling Well in Kansas City. — Mr. 
C. H. Talmage, sales manager for the Kansas City (Mo.) 
office of the Western Electric Company, states that the 
sales of ranges and other appliances for cooking in his 
territory has been very large. The increase is said to be 
about 1000 per cent over that of other years. Mr. Talmage 
feels that the time is close at hand when electricity for 
heating and cooking will come into its own, although in 
Kansas City, on account of the low cost of gas, the com- 
petition is keen where the cost element is considered. Mr. 
Talmage is very optimistic regarding the future and expects 
the business of the Kansas City office to be even better 
than that of the banner year of 1914. 

Developments in Washing Machines. — The Capital Elec- 
tric Company, 231 Insurance Exchange Building, Chicago, 
111., manufacturer of washing machines, is working on two 
models of electric washers, which will soon be ready for 
the market. The company has also improved the machine 
described in the Electrical World of April 18, 1914, by the 
addition of a handle to the cylinder so that the latter can 
be easily lifted from the tub or raised above the water line. 
The arrangement is such that when the machine is in 
operation the handle does not impede the motion of the 
cylinder. According to Mr. H. D. Payne, sales manager 
of the Capital Electric Company, the recent general de- 
pression has not appreciably affected the business of the 

Big Year for Northern Equipment Company. — The annual 
report of the Northern Equipment Company, Erie, Pa., 
manufacturer of the "Copes" boiler-feed water regulator 
and pump governor, shows that 1914 was the greatest year 
in the history of its business, the amount of sales exceeding 
that of the next best year by 9.5 per cent. The above com- 
pany has combined with the Erie Pump & Engine Works, 
and Mr. J. H. Dougherty, formerly with the International 
Steam Pump Company, will be placed in the charge of 
centrifugal pump design. The new combination will he 
known as the Erie Pump & Equipment Company. The 
officers of the new company arc: President and treasurer, 
E. VV. Nick; vice-president, D. H. DuMond; secretary, V. V. 

Record Output of Domestic Lead. — According to prelimi- 
nary figures compiled by the United States Geological Sur- 
vey, there was an increase of nearly 100,000 tons in the 
production of lead in the United States for 1914 over that 
of any preceding year. There was a heavy decrease in 
the tonnage of lead of foreign origin treated in the United 
States, and for the flrsl time in years, it is declared, a 
great increase in tin- quantity of domestic lead exported to 
European countries was noted. At the same time the 
average price of lead in the United States was the lowesl 
since 1 S: IS. The production of retined lead, desilverized 
and soft, from domestic and foreign ores in 191 1 was ap 
proximately 537,079 short tons, worth at the average New 
York puce $41,892,162, compared with 462,460 tons, worth 
$40,696,480, In 1913, and with 480,894 tons in 1912. The 
total production of lead, desilverized and soft, from do- 
li ores, was about 511,784 tons, almost 100,000 tons 
than in any previous year and 25,000 tons more than 
the total output of the country from both domestic and 
foreign sources in any previous year. 

January 9, 1915 



Motor-Driven-Appliance Exhibit in Department Store. — 

The Crocker-Wheeler Company, Ampere, N. J., will place 
on display a number of its motors at the "Made in Newark" 
exposition to take place in the L. Bamberger department 
store, Newark, N. J., Feb. 23-27. The company will main- 
tain four model rooms — a laundry, kitchen, dining room 
and business office. A number of different appliances will 
be shown in connection with the exhibit. It is the intention 
of the Crocker-Wheeler Company to make the display as va- 
ried as possible, and it is endeavoring to interest a num- 
ber of manufacturers in the show. 

Manufacturers' Prosperity Depends on Ability of Public 
Service Companies to Sell Securities. — In a letter to the 
Electrical World Mr. C. L. Matthews, vice-president and 
secretary of W. N. Matthews & Brother, St. Louis, Mo., de- 
clared that many people do not seem to realize that pros- 
perity cannot exist with the manufacturers who supply the 
needs of the public service corporations unless the latter 
can properly dispose of their securities. "Those who have 
studied financial cycles," he writes, "know that the sale of 
securities invariably follows an increase in banking funds 
in this country to some extent, but more particularly in the 
Bank of France. It does not seem that regular 'boom 
times' are due until after the end of the war and after the 
holding funds in the Bank of France get well above normal. 
So far as I can find from a search of the past, prosperous 
times in this country have not existed when the Bank of 
France has been extended. This is owing to the fact that 
the greater part of our securities are floated in France and 
to a lesser degree in other European countries. I believe 
we are going to see a gradual improvement in the electrical 
business. In fact, I may say that our business has shown 
an upward trend since the first of November." 

Gas-Electric Vehicle Patents. — In recent years the gas- 
electric transmission for the propulsion of heavy vehicles 
both upon roads and rails has slowly but steadily grown in 
favor. It has shown itself particularly advantageous as 
regards reliability and the cost of maintenance, and the 
value of these two factors is now being appreciated for the 
first time. In the present European war the motor-driven 
vehicle has been a most important factor and frequent ref- 
erence has been made to what is known as the "four-wheel 
drive and steer." Many of the desirable features of gas- 
electric transmission, one of which is the "four-wheel drive 
and steer," seem to be covered in a group of four patents 
issued on Dec. 15, 1914, to Mr. H. Ward Leonard based on 
applications filed in the Patent Office more than ten years 
ago. In these patents, which relate especially to the prob- 
lems of heavy road vehicles, are disclosed means for elimi- 
nating many of the most serious difficulties of the "straight 
gasoline" type of vehicle, with especial reference to the con- 
trol problems which become serious as the weight of the 
vehicle increases when use is made of change gears, clutches, 
etc. Although the "gas-electric" vehicle weighs somewhat 
more and costs somewhat more than the "straight gasoline" 
type, yet it is claimed that for heavy service it is better. 

Orders for Electric Equipment. — The Hershey Transit 
Company, of Hershey, Pa., has just purchased several four- 
motor equipments and control apparatus from the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, 
Pa. These equipments will be used on cars operating from 
Hershey to Hummelstown and Campbellstown, connecting 
with the Harrisburg Railway Company at the former point. 
The apparatus just ordered is to be an addition to Westing- 
house equipment already installed. The Detroit United 
Railways Company has placed an order with the Westing- 
house company for a 50-ton Baldwin Westinghouse locomo- 
tive. This machine is to be used between Royal Oaks, just 
outside the city limits of Detroit, and Flint, a distance of 
about 55 miles. Other companies which have ordered trac- 
tion equipment are the following: The Danville Traction & 
Power Company, operating between Danville and School- 
field, Va., and the Birmingham-Tuscaloosa Railway & 
Utilities Company. The order from the latter company 
includes a 500-kw rotary converter, three 185-kva trans- 
formers, a switchboard and one quadruple equipment with 
control apparatus for a combination baggage, express and 
freight car. This company has also placed an additional 
order for substation and car equipment to be used in con- 
nection with the electrification of a portion of the road 
near Tuscaloosa, Ala. 

Electric Trucks for the United States Government. — The 

Waverley Company, of Indianapolis, has under construction 
for the navy yard on Puget Sound, Wash., a 3-ton electric 
truck and a 3-ton trailer which will be designed for handling 
plates and angles from storage to machines and from 
machine to machine in the Naval Repair Shop. The wheel- 
base of the tractor will be 66 in. and the platform of the 
car 5 ft. by 11 ft., the principal overhang being in front of 
the front axle. The battery will consist of forty-two cells, 
which will be divided between two battery boxes, one be- 
tween the wheels and the other under the forward over- 
hang. Mounted on the platform of each car will be a turn- 
table 5 ft. 2 in. in diameter running on rollers and operated 
by hand spikes for the quick and convenient unloading of 
the heavy plates or beams that it will be designed to carry. 

Production of Copper Decreased in 1914. — According to 
figures and estimates collected by the United States Geo- 
logical Survey, the copper production of the United States 
in 1914 showed a marked decrease from that of 1913. At 
an average price of about 13.5 cents per lb. the 1914 out- 
put has a value of $152,400,000, compared with $189,795,000 
at an average price of 15.5 cents per lb. for the 1913 output. 
According to the statistics and estimates received, the 
output of blister and Lake copper was 1,129,000,000 lb. in 
1914 against 1,224,484,000 lb. in 1913. The output of re- 
fined copper from primary sources, both domestic and for- 
eign, for 1914, it is estimated, was 1,493,000,000 lb., com- 
pared with 1,615,067,000 lb. in 1913. According to the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, the imports 
of pigs, ingots, bars, etc., for the first eleven months of 
1914 amounted to 187,433,676 lb., and the copper contents of 
ore matte and regulus amounted to 97,348,866 lb., a total 
import of 284,782,542 lb. This compares with an import 
for the twelve months of 1913 of 409,560,954 lb. The ex- 
ports of pigs, ingots, bars, plates, sheets, etc., for the first 
eleven months of 1914 amounted to 780,048,777 lb., com- 
pared with an export for the twelve months of 1913 of 
926,441,142 lb. At the beginning of 1914 there was about 
90,000,000 lb. of refined copper in stock in the United States. 
This added to the refinery production gives a total avail- 
able supply of about 1,583,000,000 lb. of refined copper. 
On subtracting the export from this, with an estimate for 
December, it is apparent that the supply available for do- 
mestic consumption is materially below the 812,000,000 lb. 
of 1913, without taking account of stocks held at the close 
of the year. 

Walker Vehicle Company Adds Passenger-Car Depart- 
ment. — The Walker Vehicle Company, Chicago, has pur- 
chased the factory and business of the Chicago Electric 
Motor Car Company, adding the latter's line of electric 
passenger cars to its own business, which has been hereto- 
fore confined exclusively to commercial electric trucks. 
Salesrooms have been opened in a modern structure built 
for the purpose at 2700 Michigan Boulevard, Chicago, for 
the display and sale of electric passenger cars, and Mr. 
Gail Reed, formerly secretary and sales manager of the 
Chicago Electric Motor Car Company, has been appointed 
sales manager of the Walker company's new passenger-car 
division. The manufacture of "Chicago electrics" will be 
continued at the Walker factory, 531 West Thirty-ninth 
Street, Chicago, with modifications and improvement in de- 
signs from time to time. The Walker company is also pre- 
pared to continue service to present owners of Chicago 
Electric cars. Later it is planned to bring out a business 
man's electric passenger car which will, it is believed, have 
a wide field of usefulness, and which can be sold at a rea- 
sonable price. The Walker Vehicle Company has been en- 
gaged in the manufacture of electric commercial cars for 
the last six years, and a number of its officers are promi- 
nent in the management of the Commonwealth Edison Com- 
pany of Chicago. Mr. W. A. Fox, president of the Walker 
Vehicle Co., is vice-president of the Commonwealth Edison 
Company, and Mr. G. A. Freeman, of the Edison company, 
is vice-president of the Walker Company. Messrs. J. F. 
Gilchrist and J. H. Gulick, vice-presidents of the Edison 
company, are members of the board of directors of the 
vehicle company, together with Messrs. Fox and Freeman 
and Mr. G. R. Walker, the designer whose name the con- 
cern bears. The Walker Vehicle Company has sales offices 
in Minneapolis, Boston, New York and Cincinnati. 



Vol. 65, No. 2 

New Industrial Companies 

The Pettibone-Mingay Electric Supply Company, of 
Niagara Falls, N. Y., has been incorporated with a capital 
stock of $5,000 by C. P. Mingay, L. A. and L. W. Pettibone. 

The New Light & Supply Company, of Boston, Mass., has 
been incorporated with a capital stock of $50,000 by W. B. 
Wheeler, F. A. Kidder and D. A. Freeman, of Boston, Mass. 

The Royal Incandescent Supply Company, of New York, 
N. Y., has been chartered with a capital stock of $1,000. 
Henry Hartman, 20 Vesey Street, New York, N. Y., is at- 

The Electric Storage Battery Service Company, of Tulsa, 
Okla., has been incorporated with a capital stock of $1,000 
by H. M. Prewett, J. E. Washington, Jr., and John Y. Mor- 
gan, Jr., Tulsa. 

The Electric Ricket Machine Company, of Chicago, 111., 
has been incorporated with a capital stock of $100,000 to 
manufacture machinery and appliances. The incorporators 
are E. W. Mosher, E. H. Tillson and F. R. Wescott. 

The Edwards Lighting & Fixture Company, of Chicago, 
111., has been incorporated by L. J. Georgen, J. L. Cushing 
and L. V. Hult, of Chicago, 111. The company is capitalized 
at $25,000 and proposes to manufacture machinery and ap- 

The Current Saving Electric Sign Company, of New York, 
N. Y., has been incorporated with a capital stock of $16,000 
by George F. Hummel, 1478 Broadway; Lawrence L. Brown 
and Joseph G. Williams. C. L. Clune, 2 Rector Street, New 
York, is attorney. 

The York Products Company, of New York, N. Y., has 
been chartered with a capital stock of $55,000 to manufac- 
ture electrical and mechanical machines, and supplies, etc. 
The incorporators are J. J. Donohue, E. F. Phillips and J. 
Lee, of New York, N. Y. 

Habacht & Weiss, of New York, N. Y., have filed articles 
of incorporation with a capital stock of $3,000 for the pur- 
pose of manufacturing gas and electric fixtures. The direc- 
tors are Harry Habacht, Max Weiss and Solomon Brinn. 
S. Brinn, 63 Park Row, New York, N. Y., is attorney. 

The California Beacon Miniature Electric Company, of 
New York, N. Y., has been incorporated by M. L. Kaplan, 
S. I. Posen and W. Rosin, 1823 Eighty-second Street, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. The company is capitalized at $25,000 and pro- 
poses to manufacture and deal in appliances, machinery, 
lamps, batteries, etc. 

The Quaker City Engineering Company has filed articles 
of incorporation under the laws of the State of Delaware. 
The company is capitalized at $50,000 and proposes to do 
a general electrical and mechanical engineering business. 
The incorporators are H. E. Latter, W. J. Maloney and O. J. 
Reichard, of Wilmington, Del. 

The Terminal Electrical Utilities Company, of New York, 
N. Y., has been incorporated by Max M. Kotzen, Abraham 
A. Kotzen, and Henry Amster. A. A. Kotzen, 51 Cham- 
bers Street, New York, is aatorney. The company is cap- 
italized at $1,000 and proposes to do general electrical 
work and deal in appliances, etc. 

The Electric Ticket Machine Company, of Chicago, 111., 
has been incorporated by E. W. Mosher, and Frank R. West- 
cott; correspondent, Alvan L. Ringo, corporation counselor, 
Security Building, 189 West Madison Street, Chicago. The 
company is capitalized at $100,000 and proposes to manufac- 
ture and deal in machinery, appliances, etc. 

The Minirallac Electric Company, 400 South Hoyne 
Avenue, Chicago, has purchased the business of the Altman 
Company, formerly at 69 Dearborn Street, Chicago, and will 
manufacture the Altman weighted desk pushes in improved 
ili- igns. These pushes are made with one to nine buttons, 
and can be furnished in mahogany, oak and sycanioi •• tO 
match office furniture. 

The Universal Welding & Manufacturing Company, of 
Queens, has been tni with :< capita] stock of $10,000 

to manufacture lamps, heat and lighting appliances (gas and 
ric, etc.); also to manufacture metal articles, etc. The 
incorpor.'itm ily. 616 Twelfth Street, 

lvn; William F. Fund, 26 \venue, New York, 

N. V.. and Thomas F. Doyle, 9X Elm Street, Astoria, N. Y. 

Trade Publications 

Bench Drill. — A motor-driven bench drill is described in a 
leaflet sent out by H. G. Crane, Brookline, Mass. 

Battery Charging Apparatus. — The Esterline Company, 
Indianapolis, Ind., is sending out a booklet entitled "Profit 
in Storage Battery Charging." 

Small Lighting Set. — Fairbanks-Morse & Company, Chi- 
cago, 111., have published a folder which is descriptive of a 
gas-engine-operated lighting plant. 

Reamer for Bearings. — The Harding Distributing Com- 
pany, Boston, Mass., has issued a booklet which describes the 
"Martell" aligning reamer for bearings. 

Attachment Plug. — The Best Electric Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., is sending out a leaflet which describes its re- 
cently developed swivel attachment plug. 

Electric Sterilizer. — The Victor Electric Company, Jackson 
Boulevard and Robey Street, Chicago, 111., has recently issued 
a leaflet which describes an improved electric sterilizer. 

Storage Battery. — "What Owners Say About Ironclad 
Exide Batteries" is the title of a booklet recently published 
by the Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

House-Wiring Plan. — The Edison Electric Illuminating 
Company, Brooklyn, N. Y., has issued an illustrated folder 
which describes a plan for wiring homes on an easy-payment 

Electric Washing Machine. — "The Capital Safety First 
Electric Washer" is the title of a booklet issued by the 
Capital Electric Company, Insurance Exchange Building. 
Chicago, 111. 

Fans. — A booklet designated as B-3328, recently issued by 
the General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., contains 
information on a number of different types of electrically 
operated fans. 

Direct -Current Generators. — The Robbins & Myers Com- 
pany, Springfield, Ohio, has issued Bulletin No. Ill, which 
contains information on its type "S" steel-frame direct- 
current generators. 

Electric Incubators. — The Electric Specialty Company, 154 
South Main Street, Salt Lake City, Utah, has issued a cata- 
log which contains information on its double-deck and single- 
deck electrically operated incubators. 

Electrical Devices. — Catalog No. 3 issued by the 
Fahnestock Electric Company, 129 Patchen Avenue, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., contains information on several types of spring 
binding posts and other electrical devices. 

Brush-Holder Equipment. — "Commutation Troubles and 
Their Elimination" is the title of Bulletin No. 516 issued 
by the Baylis Company, Bloomfield, N. J., which contains in- 
formation on the company's reaction brush-holder equipment. 

Woven Fabric. — The Chernack Manufacturing Company, 
Pawtucket, R. I., has issued a folder entitled "Weaver versus 
Braid," and Bulletins Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, which con- 
tain information on woven fabric and the looms for making 
the product. 

Ornamental Standards and Brackets. — The Electric Rail- 
way Equipment Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, has issued an 
attractively illustrated catalog which contains information 
on ornamental standards and brackets for high-efficiency 
tungsten lamps. 

The Steel City Electric Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., is send- 
ing out several loose pages which are additions to its Bulletins 
No. 26, No. 26, No. 27 and No. 28. These pages contain 
tables on prices and information on beam straps and hickey 
fixture hangers. 

Pull Switches and Reflectors. — Harvey Hubbell, Inc.. 

Rridgeport, Conn., has issued Bulletin No. 15-6, which de- 

and illustrates a fixture pull switch, and Bulletin No. 

l. r >-. r >, which contains information on small half reflectors for 

LU-watl and 16-watt lamps. 

Diesel. Engine Tests. — The Busch-Sulzer Rrothers Diesel 
Engine I ompany, St. Louis, Mo., has published results of 
conducted by Dr. A. C. Scott, Dallas, Tex., to determine 
comparative economies of a 225-hp Diesel engine set at 
Hugo, Okla., under conditions of steady and fluctuating 

January 9, 1915 



Construction News 

New England 

AUGUSTA, MAINE— The Central Maine 
Pwr. Co. has submitted a proposal to the 
City Council offering to replace the 60-cp 
lamps now in use with 2G0-cp lamps and the 
arc lamps with new nitrogen lamps of 600 
cp, provided the city will sign a contract 
for five years' service. The proposal also 
included replacing the 32-cp lamps at South 
Gardiner and on the Gardiner and Randolph 
bridge with 100-cp lamps. 

BANGOR, MAINE.— The city of Ban- 
gor has placed a contract with the S. Mor- 
gan Smith Co., of York, Pa., for two 45-in 
vertical wicket-gate wheels for the munici- 
pal water-works station. The wheels are to 
be controlled by a Lombard governor and 
drive a 150-kva generator from a jack- 
shaft. The power to be developed is to be 
used in connection with the water-works 
system. The electrical equipment will be 
furnished by the General Electric Co. 

BELFAST, MAINE. — The Penobscot Bav 
El. Co., it is reported, is contemplating de- 
veloping the water-power at the Sherman 
lower mill site for use at its East Side sta- 
tion. If the power is developed, the water 
will be carried to the station through a tube 
about 3500 ft. long. 

MANCHESTER, N. H. — Plans are being 
prepared by the Manchester Trac, Lt. & 
Pwr. Co. for placing its wires underground 
in the business section of the city. 

JOHNSON, VT.— The Ithiel Pwr. Co., re- 
cently incorporated with a capital stock of 
$150,000, is developing 4000 hp on the 
Lamoille River at Johnson, Vt. The com- 
pany has not yet decided upon equipment 
for its proposed plant, or length of trans- 
mission line, as it has two markets 
for its entire output. F. ' A. Walker, of 
Barre, is engineer in charge of the work. 
The Light, Heat & Pwr. Corpn., 77 Frank- 
lin Street, Boston, Mass., has the contract 
for construction of plant. Charles H. 
Thompson, P. O. Box 453, Montpelier, is 
treasurer and manager of the Ithiel Falls 
Pwr. Co. 

LYNDONVILLE, VT.— Contracts have 
already been placed by the village of Lyn- 
donville for complete hydroelectric equip- 
ment for the new municipal power station. 
Two 450-hp Francis type turbines in cast- 
iron spiral cases, each turbine to be regu- 
lated by Woodward oil-pressure governor, 
will be furnished bv the S. Morgan Smith 
Co., of York, Pa. The General Electric Co., 
of Schenectady, has the contract for the 
entire electrical equipment. 

MONTPELIER, VT. — The stockhold- 
ers of the Montpelier & Barre Lt. & Pwr. 
Co. have authorized an increase of capital 
■tock from $2,310,000 to $4,810,000. 

ATHOL, MASS. — The Massachusetts Gas 
and Electric Light Commission has granted 
the Athol Gas & El. Co. permission to issue 
$320,000 in capital stock, the proceeds to be 
used to meet the cost of extensions to plant, 
including the development of steam and 
hydraulic stations and the purchase of the 
property of the Orange El. Lt. Co. 

BOSTON, MASS. — Plans have been ap- 
proved for extending the ornamental light- 
ing system through Copley Square and 
down Boylston and Tremont Streets to Scol- 
lay Square. 

BOSTON, MASS. — The contract for elec- 
trical wiring at the Nurses' Home and two 
ward buildings at Long Island, Boston Har- 
bor, has been awarded to the Carlisle Con- 
nor Co., 25S Washington Street, Boston. 

Co., of Springfield, has applied to the State 
Board of Gas and Electric Light Commis- 
sioners for permission to issue 2500 shares 
of new capital stock at the par value of 
$100 a share, the proceeds to be used to 
pay off outstanding indebtedness incurred 
in making extensions and improvements to 
system and for further extensions and im- 
provements contemplated. 

Haddam El. Lt. Co. has filed a petition with 
the Secretary of State asking that legisla- 
tion may be granted authorizing the com- 
pany to extend its lines to and furnish elec- 
trical service in the town of Lyme, and es- 
pecially in the northerly portion of Hadlyme 
and vicinity. 

Middle Atlantic 

BIN'GHAMTON, N. Y. — The Binghamton 
Lt., Ht. & Pwr. Co. (operating under an en- 
tirely new management) has requested the 
Board of Contract and Supply to grant the 
company a hearing, in order that it may 
present its position in regard to furnishing 
the city with electricity. The communica- 
tion states that the company is ready to 
make a contract with the city for any 

length of time desired at a cost to the tax- 
payers lower than can be obtained by 
building a new municipal electric-light 
plant. S. H. Dailey is general manager. 

BUFFALO, N. Y. — The Aldermanic water 
committee has recommended that the con- 
tract for electrical apparatus for the new 
pumping station at the foot of Porter Ave- 
nue be awarded to the Buffalo El. Construc- 
tion Co., at $48,900. The cost of the plant 
complete is estimated at about $95,000. 

HANNAWA FALLS, N. Y. — The Public 
Service Commission has approved an issue 
of bonds by the Hannawa Falls Pwr. Co. to 
provide funds for the purchase of equip- 
ment and machinery, including a 51-in. 
Allis-Chalmers waterwheel and governor 
and a General Electric 4500-kva, three- 
phase, 60-cycle, 4400-volt generator (di- 
rectly connected), water-cooled transform- 
ers, with panels, switches, accessories and 
equipment, and other transformers, circuit 
feeders, switches, insulators, etc. 

LA SALLE, N. Y. — The village of La 
Salle is contemplating the installation of a 
municipal electric-light plant. 

NEW YORK, N. Y.— Bids will be re- 
ceived by Robert Adamson, fire commis- 
sioner, Headquarters of the Fire Depart- 
ment, Municipal Building, New York, until 
Jan. 15, for furnishing four motor-driven 
fuel wagons. Blank forms and further in- 
formation may be obtained at the above 

NEW YORK, N. Y. — Bids will be received 
by the Board of Trustees of Bellevue and 
Allied Hospitals, Department of New York 
City, Twenty-sixth Street and First Avenue, 
borough of Manhatan, until Jan. 15, as fol- 
lows: (1) For furnishing all labor and ma- 
terials required for excavation, masonry, 
carpentry, steel and iron work, metal work 
and roofing, painting and glazing, hardware, 
electric work, refrigerating and drinking 
water and all other work for the alterations 
to the present main building of the Harlem 
Hospital, 136th and 137th Streets and Lenox 
Avenue; (2) for alterations and additions