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THE 



1 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



A REVIEW OP CURRENT PROGRESS IN ELECTRICtTY 
AND ITS PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 



VOLUME LX 



JULY 6 TO DECEMBER 28, 1912 






NEW YORK 

ELECTRICAL WORLD 



I 
V. Go 



INDEX TO VOLUME LX 



GENERAL INDEX 



Entries from the Digest of Current Electrical Literature are indicated by D (Digest) and D R {Digest Reference). 



Accidents, ElectricaL By G. S. Ram, (D.) 161 

Advertising by central stations: 

Billboard advertising, San Francisco, 456 

Boston window-lighting display, 719 

Co-operative advertising, 1391 

Electric vehicles, *941 

Fashion week, Oklahoma City, '830 

Float in civic celebration, Elwood, Ind., 

*720 

Galveston, Tex., *879 

-Match-less light, 1151 . 

Page in newspaper once a month, Twin 

Falls. Idaho, 1099 

Sharing the community's burden, 53 

Traveling electric show, Albany Southern 

R. R., *509 

Window display, 54 

County fair ideas, *779 

"Live" display, Emporia, Kan., 1046 

Livingston, Mont., *103 

Advertising, Electric : 

Shoe cleaner, Motor-driven, as window at- 
traction, *li01 

Window display devices, *829 

Agricultural communities. Electricity in: 

Amount of energy required for electro-cul- 
ture, (D.) 674 

Benton Harbor, Mich., Supply to farm cus- 
tomers over one wire with ground re- 
turn, *259 

Dayton, Ohio, Central-station service on 

farm of W. Stroop. *250 

Dayton, Ohio, Rural service near, 259 

Denmark, Data for 21 stations, 1207 

Discussion. By C. H. Miles, 935 

Discussion, Ohio Electric Light Association, 

237 

Farm of Dr. Robert Cassels, Rochester, 

Mich,, 202 

Farm exhibit of Boston Edison Co., *152 

Ground-return distribution systems, 291 

Pacific Power & Light Co., 552 

-Practical applications, *69 

Report to Association of French Central 

Stations. By P. Lecler. (D. R.) 518 

Stockton, Cal., Rural service to 700 farm- 
ers near, 508 

Uses of electrical energy in farming, 721 

Wurtemberg, Germany. By H. Buggeln, 

(D.) 1107 

Air compressors. Motor-driven ; 

— — AUis-Chalmers gearless, *842 

Piatt Iron Works, for torpedo service, *1225 

Alarm to indicate operation of remote rectifier 
set, St. Louis, *668 

Alloys: 

Electric conductivity. By A. E. Whitford, 

(D.) 573 

Magnetic properties, (D.) 160 

Alpha rays: 

Absorption and scattering. Theory of. By 

C. G. Darwin, (D.) 64 

Chemical action produced by alpha particles. 

By S. C. Lind, (D.) 1057 

Rays of Polonium. By V. E. Pound, (D.) 

733 

Alternating-current phenomena, Vector represen- 
tation of. By A. A. Nims, *660; Com- 
ment, 638 
Alternating current systems. Grounded versus 
unearthed neutrals. By J. S. Peck, (D.) 
1328 
Alternators. (See Generators) 

Aluminum, Kayser and Cowles process. By A. 

H. Cowles, (D.) 788 
Aluminum conductors. (See Wires and wiring) 
American Electric Railway Association, Conven- 
tion. 756, 814 
American Electrochemical Society, 437 
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Meet- 
ing, 1359 
American Institute of Consulting Engineers, 
1124 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers: 
Affairs, 809, 1026, 1296 

Convention, 1, 4. 13. 1078 

-Meetings, 84, 342, 437, 809, 1178 

— Nominations for officers, 1241 

Patent commission recommended by, 1178 

American Physical Society, 1180 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 

Convention. 1178 
American Telegraph Typewriter Co., 1359 



By 



414 
Wedding, 

By R. E. 



American Telephone & Telegraph Co. ; 

Alleged Sherman Act violation, 1084 

Pension system, 1028; Comment, 1023 

Ammeters: 

New design. By Goldschmidt, (D.) 788 

Sensibility and accuracy of alternating-cur- 
rent. By M. G. Newman, 31 

Ampere-hour meters, Langamo distant-dial, *166 

Anemometer for heating plant, Home-made, *507 

Anthracite coal situation, 1128 

Appalachian Power Co., New River, Virginia, 
*1141; Comment, 1119 

Appliance sales. (See Central-station business) 

Appraisal of intangible values in public utilities. 
By W. J. Hagenah, 866 

Arc between carbon electrodes, Starting. By 
A. Occhialini, (D.) 459 

Arc circuits, Test lamps for all-day supervi- 
sion, *667 

Arc lamps: 

Candle-power distribution curves, Photo- 
graphic method for recording. By Ives 
and Luckiesh, *153; Comment, 131 

Converting inclosed-arc into flaming-arc, 

*624 

Cradle clamp for hanging lamps. '1214 

Feeding mechanism, Steinhert patent (D.) 

949 

Flame: 

Carbon patent. By Passavant, (D.) 517 
German, New, (D.) *n0 
Johnson & Phillips long-burning. *326 
Status and future possibilities. By W. 

Hechler, (D. R.) 367 
Three-phase lamp development, 228 

High-candle-power lamps, Discussion in 

Berlin, (D.) 62 

Hughes non-magnet-type, *213 

Indirect lighting, Armorduct, *327 

Moving-picture arcs, 513, 948 

Radiant efficiency of the carbon arc. 

W. H. Damon and W. J. Enders, *502; 
H. E. Ives. 670 

Regulation of electrodes, (D. R.) 

Three-phase, Schaeffer. By W. 

(D.) 61, 414 

Arc projectors for electric vehicles. 
Neale, (Vt. R.) 618 

Argentine Republic, Electrical progress, 295 

Armature teeth. Calculating reluctance of. By 
David Robertson. (D.) 367 

Association of Edison Illuminating Companies, 
Convention, 342. 540. 594 

Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engi- 
neers, 592, 697, 757, 826 

Association of Railwav Electrical Engineers, 
Convention. 858, 980 

Atomic weights of metals. Electrolytic method 
of determining. By H. Pecheux, (D.) 
271 

Atoms, Recoil, in ionized air. By 
varik. (D.) 1220 

Austria, Electrical industries. By 
mann, (D.) 63 

Auto-converter for balancing three- wire sys- 
tems, (D.) *ni 

Automobile batteries, 876 

Automobile business of central stations: 

Boston station's use of Bailey roadsters, 791 

Chicago's activity, 692 

Chicago discussion, 544 

Comparative costs of horse and electric de- 
livery, 721 

Co-operation of sellers of gas and electric 

vehicles, 1081 

Cost of operation nf trucks, 723 

Memphis, Tenn., Charging service, 721 

Automobile lamp chest, 842 

Automobiles, Electric: 

Argo roadster, '843 

Autoconverter for. By J. N. Jacobsen, (D.) 

*12I9 

Raker delivery wagon, •1115 

Charging stations in Massachusetts, 910 

Chicago parade, 622 

Church-Field, with two-speed transmission, 

463 

Cost of operating trucks, 723 

Delivery wagon for grocer, *881 

Discussions at convention of Electric Ve- 
hicle Association, 760 

Fleischmann Yeast Co., *735 

Gear. Efficiency test of, 6 

— —Lighting. By A. Berthier, (D.) 414 

Masculine car. By J. Robertson, 786 

Performance data, 720 

•Indicates illustrated articles 



A. F. Ko- 
E. Honig- 



Automobiles, Electric : (Continued) 

Research work at Massachusetts Institute 

of Technology, 1247 
Salem, Mass., Roadster for central-station 

service, *165 
Status of, in Southeastern states. By A. N. 

Bentley, 389 
Trucks: 

Lansden, •167 

Louisville, Ky., "68 

Urban, Kentucky Wagon Mfg. Co., *37\ 

Waverley runabout, *735 

Woods: 

Brougham, *736 

Old and new cars, *697 
Automobiles, Gasoline-electric. By J. Simey„ 

(D.) 270. 572 
British patent, (D.) 1219 



B 



Bacteria, Destruction of, by electrolysis, 255 
Balancer sets, Direct-current. By A. C. Lanier, 

(D.) 1106 
Balancing three-wire systems. Auto-converter 

for. (D.) •Ill 
Ball bearings, Hess-Bright, 118 
Base-metal thermocouples. By O. L. Kowalke, 

(D.) 789 
Baseball games and the use of electricity, 811 
Bath, Electric: 

Accident in, (D.) 1222 

Collapsible, *955 

"Bathtub trust" case. Supreme Court decision^ 

1077, 1078, 1121, 1130 
Bells, Electric, Batteryless doorbell, *117 
Bergen, Norway, Development of water-power 

ot Samnanger watershed, *1257; Com- 
ment, 1241 
Beta rays: 

Origin of. By E. Rutherford, (D.) 888 

Reflection of, by thin metal plates. By 

W. B. Huff, (D.) 951 
Big Creek developments, California, *480 
Blanket, Electric-heated, *1111 
Bleaching liquor. By F. Charles, (D.) 1007 
Boiler-feed pumps. Centrifugal, *928 
Boiler-level gage. Distant-reading, Wichita, Kan., 

1324 
Boilers: 

Baffling, Novel, *146 

— —Corrosion of. By C. E. Stromeyer, (D.) 

1106 

Oil-burning, Bellingham. Wash., *144 

Oil-burning, Topeka Edison Co., *50 

Test with hand and stoker firing, Halifax, 

N. S.. 1092 
Bolt, Toggle, Chicago Nut Co., *374 
Book reviews: 

— — American Year Book. By F. G. Wick- 
ware, 272 

Analytical Mechanics. By E. H. Barton, 64 

Berechnung von Wechselstrom-Fernleitun- 

gen. B>r C. Breitfield, 952 
Claims; Fixing Their Value. By G. F. 

Deiser and F. W. Johnson, 113 
Commercial Engineering for Central Sta- 
tions. By A. Williams and E. F. 

Tweedy, 1109 
— ■ — Concentration and Control. By C. R. Van 

Hise, 674 
Costruzioni Elettromeccaniche. By E. Mo- 

relli, 890 
Efficiency as a Basis for Operation and 

Wages. By H. Emerson, 1222 

Electric Circuit. By V. Karapetoff, 952 

• Electric Ignition. By F. R. Jones, 161 

Electrical Blue Book, 211 

Electricite Domestique. By G. Mis, 211 

Elektrischen Einrichtungen der Eisenbah- 

nen. By R. Bauer, 1386 
— — Elektrizitatszahler, Der. By R. Ziegen- 

berg, 1008 
Elektrotechnische Messkunde. By P. B. A. 

Linker, 370 
Engineering as a Vocation. By Ernest Mc- 

Cullough, 952 
Freezing Point, Boiling Point and Con- 
ductivity Methods. By H. J. Jones, 

1222 
Growing Crops and Plants bv Electricity. 

B}^ E. C. Dudgeon. 1057 

Hendricks Commercial Register, 573 

Human Factor in Works Management. By 

Tames Hartness, 890 



IV 



INDEX. 



H. Col- 



By Horstmann and 

By C. E. Allen, 370 
Gas Association Pro- 



Palmer, 

By F. 



General 
Wright, 

Abraham 

By A. 

Theiss 



Book reviews: (Continued) 

KonstrUKtion, Bau und Betrieb von Funk- 

eiiinduktoren. By F". & M. Harrwilz, 

417 
Kiankheiten des • Stationaren Elektrischen 

Bleiakkumulaiors. By F. E. Kretz- 

schmar, 113 

■ Law of the Air. By H. D. Hazeltine, 161 

Lehrbuch der Pho"inietrie. By F. Uppen- 

born and B. \'onasch, 211 
— — Machine Shop Mechanics. By F. 

vin, 462 
Magnetism and Electricity. By E. E. 

Brooks and A. W. Peyser, 1160 
Manual for Engineers. By C. E. Ferris, 

573 
Manual of the Railway Signal Association, 

520 
Memoires sur I'Electricite et I'Optique. By 

A. Potier, 790 
Modern Illumination. 

Tousley, 621 

Modern Locomotive. 

National Commercial 

ceedings, 520 

Ornamental Street Lighting. 324 

Practical Mathematics. By C. I. 

1330 
Primer of Scientific Management. 

B. Gilbreth, 841 
Prufungen in Elektrischen Zentralen. By 

Lehraan-Richter, 211 
Questions and Answers in the National 

Electrical Code. By T. S. McLough- 

lin, 1057 
Ratgeber fur die Okonomische Erzeugung 

utid Verwertung Elektrischer Energie. 

By A. Prasch, 1330 
Rayons Ultra- Violets et Leurs Applications, 

841 
Small Water Supplies. By F. N. Taylor, 

1160 

Structural Design. By H. R. Thayer, 734 

Suir Applicazione dei Parafulmini alle Of- 

ficine ed Edifizi. By Pasquale Viscidi, 

1160 
Tecnia delle Correnti Alternate. By G. Sar- 

tori, 1386 
Testing, Fault Localization and 

Hints for Wiremen. By J. 

272 
Theorie der Elektrizitat. By M. 

and A. FoppI, 1008 
Theorie des Ions et I'Electrolyse. 

Hallard, 1109 
Toll Telephone Practice. By J. I 

and G. A. Joy, 417 
Torsionsindikator, Der. By Paul Nettmann, 

1109 
Traite de Metalloeraphie. By Feli.x Robin, 

790 
Travaux du Laboratoire Central d Elec- 

tricite. 1278 
L'bungsaufgaben aus der Gleich und Wech- 

selstromtechnik. By Fritz Hoppe, 1278 
■ Valuation of Public Service Corporations. 

By R. H. Wbitten. 462 
Wireless Telegraphy and Wireless Teleph- 
ony. By C. G. Ashlev and C. B. Hay- 
ward, 1008 
Boston; 

Co-operative Information Bureau, 438 

Electric Motor Car Chih, 1080, 1247 

Electric show, 595, 693, 736; by Louis 

Bell, '694 

Electrical construction, 297 

Brake drum. Water-cooled. By H. H. Brough- 

ton, (D.) 890 
Brakes: 
Electromagnetic track, Investigation of, (D.) 

S72 
— — Electropneurvatic railway. By Turner and 

Donovan, (D. R.) 368, 672, 1159 
Prony. Self-adjusting. By J. D. Coales, 

(D.) 416 

Testing. By D. Robertson, 

Braking of alternating-current 

tors. By M. Schenkel, 
Braking of series commutator 

Fraenckel, (D.) 618 
Brewery, Electrical equipment. 

Newell, 1111 
Bridges : 

Electrically-operated bascule, Chicago, 273 

Swing bridge carried on motor-driven pad- 

dlewbeel float. Chicago. *1150 

Association for the Advancement of 

Science. 641 
Municipal Electric Association, (D.) 

161. 209 
British Municipal Tramways Association. (D.) 

839 
Brooklyn Institute, Engineering lectures, 808 
Bucket for bailing pole holes, '1218 
Buildings. (See Central stations: Ofifice build- 
ings: Transmission plants.) 
Bureau of Standards. Wsrk of. By G. K. Bur- 
gess. (D. R.) 324 
Business situation, 435 



Cable connector. By A. Kastalski, (D.1 415 
Cable reel. Largest, Western Electric Co., 676 
Cables ; 

Armored flexible, Armourduct, *1280 

Fault localization in submarine. By C. E. 

Hay, (D.) 271 



(D.) 210 
commutator mo- 
(D.) 571 
motors. By A. 

By V. V. 



British 
British 



Cables: (Continued) 

— — Fracture in submarine cable of Great North- 
ern Telegraph Co. By E. Suenson, 
(D.) 322 

Insulated, Broomfield and Tawn patent, 

(D.) 1220 

Laving submarine, Hamburg, Germany. By 

O. Wundram, (D. R.) 621 

Protective covering. By F. Fernie, (D.) 

1329 

Semi-bridge duplex system for submarine 

cables. By J. Kajiura, (D.) "271 

Specifications, Raising the standard of. 

Method of tabulating requirements. By 
A. W. Welch, 356 

Substitution of direct current for alternat- 
ing current in tests. By J. Uelon, 
(D.) '1221 

Testing apparatus and methods, Boston Edi- 
son (^0.. *354 

Tests. By K. W. Wagner. (D. R.) 210 

Thirty-thousand volt, three-phase cable. By 

W. Pfannkuch, (D.) -1056. 1076. 1107 

(See also Telegraph; Telephone; Wires and 

wiring) 

California Commission news, 88, 139, 653, 765, 
868, 987, 1137, 1255, 1362 

California public utilities act, 136 

California Railroad Commission, Decision in 
Pacific Gas & Electric Co. vs. Great 
Western Power Co., 136; Comment. 
130 

Caloric theory. Bv H. L. Callendar, (D.) 672 

Calorimeter, Bomb. By R. S. Whipple, (D.) 
734 

Canadian Light & Power Co., Beauharnois Canal, 
St. Timothe, Quebec, '241 

Capacities, Comparison of, at various frequen- 
cies. By A. Campbell, (D.) *417 

Car lighting. (See Lighting) 

Carbon dioxide meters, Uehling, *115 

Carburetor, Novel treatment of faulty, 607 

Cathode rays. Asymmetry in the distribution of 
secondary rays produced by X-rays, and 
its dependence on the penetrating power 
of the exciting ravs. By C. D. Cooksey, 
(D) 518 

Cells, Photo-electric. By J. W. Woodrow, 
(D.) 840 

Central Massachusetts Light & Power Co., 188 

(Central-station business; 

.-Advantages rnd costs of purchased energy. 

By A. E. Rickards, 609 

.Advertising. (See .Advertising.) 

Appliance sales; 

Demonstration, Jersey City, 1082 
Demonstration, Louisville, Ky., 1101 
Denver exhibit, *132I 
Direct and indirect profits, Springfield, 

III.. 1047 
Louisville, Ky., '1323 
Sales for regular lamp circuits and 
their effect on load and income. 
By S. M. Kennedy, *1209; Com- 
ment, 1176 
Short-sighted campaigns. 879 

Automobiles. (See Automobile business) 

Baiting for the unwary customer. 939 

Baltimore: 

Prize contest, 1209 

Promptness in connecting new cus- 
tomers, 456 

Bills for ligbtinff. Chart showing why they 

increase, 512 

Boston Fdison Co.. Statistics, 609 

Camera for central-station use. 831 

Colleges. Selling electricity to, 455 

Commissions for non-commercial employees 

who aid sales, Emporia, Kan.. 999 

Complaints, Adjustment of. Fond du Lac. 

Wis.. 406 

— —Complaints on high bills. Reducing, 454 

(Tonsolidations and street-lighting rates, 508 

Contractor and the central station. 185 

Cooking load. By F. M. Long. (D.) 112 

Data sheets for the solicitor. North .Attle- 

boro, Mass., 608 

Denver, Bills for Christmas appliances pay- 
able Feb. 1, 1269 

Detroit; 

Contract routine system. '407 
Inspection of newly wired houses, 408 

Discounts. Separation of prompt-payment 

and quantity. Canton, Ohio, 1267 

Displacing steam power in a group of manu- 
facturing buildings, 778 

Display room at Youngstown, Ohio. *1209 

District heating. (See Heating. District) 

Dollars and factors. By C. J. Russell. 546 

— — Flatirons; 

Chicago, 115, 408 

Data on utilization of electric Irons, 

1176, 1183 
Free repairs, Montrose, Colo., 831 
House-wiring premiums, 53 
Illinois towns, 999 
Lawrence, Kan.. 999 
Sale at fair. Mobile. Ala.. 1209 
Selling to minimum-bill customers. 941 
— ^Fort Wayne, Ind., S3 

<jrill campaigns, 1046 

Heating-device campaign, St. Louis. Mo., 

665 

Ice-making. (See Refrigeration) 

-Identification cards for line crew, 319 

Income per hp-year from various rates and 

load factors, 611 

•Indicates illustrated articles. 



454 
942 



719 



Central-station business: (Continued) 

Kansas City, Mo. : 

Auxiliary service to telegraph compa- 
nies, 999 
Lighting campaign, 'llOO 

Lighting of company's office, 53 

Lighting revenue from six Massachusetts 

stations, 666 

Louisville, Ky., Court decision in relation to 

competition, 1183 

Manager of utility company and his duties, 

778 
Massachusetts consolidation of companies, 

188 

Motion-picture theaters, Louisville, Ky., 666 

.Motors, Hiring. By H. H. Holmes, (D.) 

63 
Newsboys' toast-eating contest, Oklahoma 

City, 406 

North Attleboro, Mass., Off-peak lighting 

contract, 610 
Organization in electrical undertakings. By 

C. M. Shaw, (D.) 112 

Philadelphia Electric Co. secures railway 

load, 436 
Prize-winning suggestions for improvements 

in service, Chicago, 567 
Progressive policies in small stations, Alva, 

Okla., 314 

Railway loads for central stations, 227 

Rates. (See Charging for electric current) 

Rochester, N. Y., Interest in public move- 
ments, 454 
St. Louis, Sale of energy to factories on 

"unrefined" basis, 610 

Salaries of solicitors. Unit schedule for, 940 

Shopworn articles sale, Louisville, Ky.. 1047 

Show-window lighting contest, Muncie, 

Ind., '665 

Sign campaign, 881 

Southern California Edison Co., Appliance 

sales. By S. M. Kennedy, *1209; Com- 
ment, 1176 
Street cars. Battery-operated, as an off-peak 

load, Billings, Mont, *261 
^Toaster campaign in Byllesby properties, 

508 

Track switches, motor operated, Boston, 

Twenty-four hour service, Perry, Kan. 

-Wiring campaigns; 

Baltimore, Old houses, 103 

Emporia, Kan., 779, 1000 

Great Falls, Mont., Dull-season 
paign, 151 

Lawrence. Kan., 999, '1208 

Muncie, Ind., House-wiring offer, 

Old houses. New business campaign 
by Allegheny Countv Light Co. By 
Terrell Croft, *10'5, *204, *317, 
•361 

Rented house. Campaigns against land- 
lords, 1000, *!208 

Rewiring woodworking establishment, 
104 

Wichita, Kan., 998 
Worcester, Mass., Growth of motor service, 

664 

-(See also Advertising) 

Central-station citizenship. Bv W. H. Hodge, 

151 
Central-station practice; 
— ■ — Balancing three-wire systems, Auto-con- 

verteV for, (D.) "Ill 
Bonus award for coal-per-kilowatt-hour 

record. Des Moines, la., *942 
Bus and switch compartments. By E. Bern, 

(D.) 460 
Clyde Valley Electrical Power Co. By D. 

A. Starr, (D.) 62 
Combined heating and electric plants. By 

E. D. Dreyfus, (D. R.) 518 
— — Combined lighting and power distribution 

with lighting voltage regulation, Law- 
rence, Kan., *1052 
Consolidation in electrical systems. Advan- 
tages of, 537, 551 
Depreciation of power-plant equipment. By 

E. Brown, 268 
Direct-current series system (Kurz) in Eng- 
land. By J. S. Highfield. (D.) 62 
Efficiency of power plant as determined by 

technical education of employees. By 

L. Shepard, 413 
Equalizing power fluctuations in central 

stations. By A. Schweiger, (D.) 572, 

619, 672 
Gas producers; 

Amarillo, Tex., 254 

Windham, Ohio. Bv F. A. Eberwine, 
255 
Heating loads for central stations. By A. 

Rittershausen, (D.) *572; Comment, 

538 

-Ice-making. (See Refrigeration) 

Interconnection of central stations. Wurt- 

temberg, Germany. By H. Buggeln, 

(D.) 209 

Labor costs in central stations, 1024, 1031 

■ Load factors. By S. A. Fletcher, (D. R.) 

887 
Off-peak load. Value of. By A. D. Bailey, 

998 
Profitable peak-load service from small 

water-power, *608 

Railway loads for central stations, 227 

Reactors, Porcelain-clad, *1332 

Regulations of German Association, (D.) 63 

— ■ — Small electric-light company's problem, 715 
Storage batteries in Chicago, 778 



INDEX. 



hydroelectric 
Enlargement 

Power Co., 
Rates of, 



Central-station practice: (Continued) 

- — -Swiss stations. By Uettmar, (D.) 1160 

Water-power stations, Economy of. By R. 

Rinkel. (D.) Ill 

Central-station sales managers. Annual meeting, 
296 

Central stations: 

Amarillo, Tex., Producer experience, 254 

Appalachian Power Co., on New River, 

Virginia, Hydroelectric energy for coal 
fields, *1141: Comment, 1119 

Bellingham. Wash., York Street. M44 

Bergen, Norway, Development cf water- 
power of Saninanger watershnl, •1257; 
Comment, 1241 

Bradford, England : 

Financial results, (D.) 1006 
History of its stations, '"Jh9; Com- 
ment. 973 

Canadian Light & Power Co., *2J2 

Chicago : 

Chicago & Northwestern Ry., New pas- 
senger terminal, Cost ol producing 
energy, 1205 
Chicago Sanilary District, *822 
Fisk Street station, Extension, 692 
Northwest station, 132; By H. H. 
Norris. *701 ; Comment. 690 

Consolidation, I'resent-day tendency. By 

J. F. Gilchrist. 566, 590; statistics, 1351, 
1353 

Cost of electricity in various stations. By 

F. Ross, (D.) 1329 

Cost of extensiun, Amesbury, Mass., 566 

Cost of production in 6500-kw station, 664 

Cost of small sy.-tem, rlyannis, Mass., 260 

Denmark, Data fir 21 rural stations. 1207 

Design of large stations. By G. Klingen- 

berg. (D.) 322. 369. 459: Comment. 
435; By I. E. Moultrop. 1097 

East Creek Electric Light & Power Co., on 

East Canada Creek, Inghams Mills, 
N. Y., *443 

Eldora, la.. Variable-head 

plant, *42 

El Paso Electric Railway Co, 

of station, *349 

England: 

Clyde Valley Electrical 

(D.) Ill 
Poplar electricity supply. 

(D.) 112 
Statistics. (D.) 572, 619 

Estacada, Ore., Portland Railwav, Light & 

Power Co. By E. A. West, "94 

France, Water-power plants. By H. Bres- 
son, (D.) 1276 

Germany: 

Baden developments. By Emil Frev. 

(D.) 367 
Hydroelectric stations in. By J. Rey- 

val, (D.) 619 
Statistics. By Emil SchiiT, CD.) 158; 
228 

Glasgow, Financial report, (D.) 949 

Greenville. Ohio, *52 

Guayaquil, Ecuador. (D. R.) 518 

Halifax. N. S., Steam equipment, with 

tests of boilers burning culm, *1089 ; 
Comment, 1075 

Idaho Falls, Idaho, Snake River plant. '604 

Italy: 

Adamello Electric Supply Co., (D.) 

322. 36S 
Rome, the San Paolo steam turbine 

station, *303; Comment, 291 
Statistics. By B. Lecler. (D.) 270 

Jordan River development of British Co- 
lumbia Electric Railway Co.. *676, "817 

Lexington, Ky., Kentucky Traction & Ter- 
minal Co., New turbine plant, *1035; 
Comment, 1023 

Life of plant, (D.) 1220; Comment, 1177 

London, Deptford station of London Elec- 
tric Supply Corporation, (D.) *460 

-Louisville, Ky., Legal difficulties, 858 

Luzerne County Gas & Electric Co., Kings- 
ton, Pa.. Electric service in coal re- 
gions, *921: Comment, 907 

Massachusetts Lighting revenue, 1911, 666 

Municipal, Results of seven years at Se- 
attle, Wash., 135 

Narragansett Electric Lighting Co., Expan- 
sion, 860 

New England Power Co., in Massachusetts 

and Vermont, "1365; Comment, 1349 

New York City, First station in the world, 

•480 

New York Edison Co., Kingsbridge station. 

Third Avenue Ry., 227, *23l 

Niagara Falls, Extensions to stations at 

1079 

Niagara, Lockport & Ontario Power Co . 

Reserve steam station, 1078 

Novksack Falls, Wash., *141 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co., New station, 183 

Pacific Power & Light Co., *551 

Paris, New stations. (D. R.) 63 

Pennsylvania Water & Power Co.. Susque- 
hanna River, Holtwood, Pa., •395- Com- 
ment, 385 
Private operation of a municipal plant Em- 
poria, Kan., 1099 

Rainbow Falls. Mont., Great Falls Power 

Co., *38 

Riverdale plant, Weber & Davis Counties 

°" "f?£. *^8^^"' Utah, *1I91; Com- 
ment, 1175 



Central Stations: (Continued) 

St. Anthony, Newfoundland, Small lighting 

installation, 566 

Santos Dock Co., Santos, Brazil. By F. 

Frederick, (D.) 949 

Sears, 111., on Rock Kiver, Davis Brothers' 

station, *871 

Seattle, Wash., Results of seven years' op- 
eration, 135 

Small water-power plant, at Cotentin, on 

River Saire, France, (D.) 459 

State-owned water-power plant, Baden, Ger- 
many, (D.) 1219 

Stoneleigh Abbey, England. (D.) 1220 

Thousand Springs, Idaho, Development, *43 

Trinidad, Col., Reconstruction, 150, 777 

Turners Falls, Mass., 297 

West Kootenay Power & Light Co., Elec- 
tricity in gold fields, * 193 ; Comment, 
179 

Western Canada Power Co., Stave Falls, 

B. C, *489 

Whatcom County Railway & Light Co., Bel- 
lingham. Wash., Generating and dis- 
tribution system, *141; Comment, 129 

Chain, Morse silent rocker-joint type, *327 

Chained Lightning, Louisville company publica- 
tion, 1000 

Charging for electric current: 

Baltimore, Hearings on rates, 189, 296 

Boston's new rates. 720 

Brooklyn, Investigation of rates, 189, 238 

Chicago, Proposed revision of rates, 189, 

297, 13S2 

Classified comparison of rates, 1100 

Contract system in Europe. By D. Ber- 

covitz, (D. R.) 573 

Demand controller as accessory to metered 

service, Beatrice, Neb., 939 

Discussion, Ohio Electric Light Association, 

235 

England, Limitation of rate relief from 

trading profits. By S. L. Pearce. (D.) 
161 

Garage rates under residence contract, St. 

Louis, 1150 

-Groton, Mass., forbidden to sell below cost, 

10, 82 

Harrisburg, Pa., Residential rates, 1000 

Macon, Ga., Street-lighting rates, 665 

New York Edison Co., Answer to rate dis- 
crimination charge, 345. 1134. By P. R. 
Moses, 1381 

OiT-peak schedule. Chicago, 314 

Ontario Hydroelectric Commission, 1361 

Poplar electricity supply, (D.) 112 

Potsdam tariff. By K. Markau, (D.) 1107 

Rate systems from central-station solicitor's 

viewpoint. By T. E. Bullard, 1042 

Residence rates. By H. G. Briggs, 320; 

E. C. Anderson, 366 

Solution of the rate problem. By W. Mc- 
Donald, 516 

Special-rate customers and their elimination, 

202 

Special rates of Milwaukee Electric Rail- 
way & Light Co., 314 

Street-lighting rates. By J. R. Cravath, 722 

Theory of tariffs. By L. Rosenbaum, (D. 

R.) 271; Carl Richter, (D. R.) 1056, 
1107 

Vehicle charging service, Memphis, Tenn., 

721 

Chart for sag and stress determinations, Thomas. 
1024, 1042, Sup. Nov. 16 

Chemistry and illuminating engineering. By O. 
Kruh, (D.) 459 

Chicago: 

Bureau of Fire Prevention, 296 

Electrolysis ordinance, 138, 294 

Office buildings. Electrical features, "556 

Prizes for suggestions made to Common- 
wealth Edison Co., 567 

Rate revision. 297 

Sanitary District, Cost of delay in giving 

electric service, 345 

Subways, Progress, 544 

^Telephone situation. 188, 976 

Chicago Telephone Co., Appraisal of physical 
property, 976 

Chignecto plant of Maritime Coal. Railway & 
Power Co., Amherst, Nova Scotia. 
*65S. 1053: Comment, 637 

Chlorate and perchlorate. New electrolytic, in 
France. (D. R.) 1007 

Christmas tree. Public, in New York, '1352 

Circuit breakers: 

Automatic tumbler, Denny, '1280 

Large high-voltage oil. By J. N. Mahoney, 

(D.) 733 

Cleanser for electric glassware, Myrlite, 1062 

Clock, Moore electric, with timing mechanism, 
*1110 

Coal: 

Analyses by Geological Survey, 660 

Anthracite situation, 1128 

Burning anthracite coaldust. By W. Kav- 

anagh, 1206 

Lignite experience in Texas station, 505 

Lignite of North Dakota, 777 

Low-grade fuel for the production of elec- 
trical energy. By F. Bartel, (D.) 270; 
Comment. 229 

Pumping coal from Susquehanna River by 

electricity, Plymouth, Pa., *51 

Purchase of, on heat-unit basis, Springfield, 

Ohio, 506 

Storage and spontaneous combustion. By 

H. C. Porter, 934 

Storage under water, *445, *714 

*Indicates illustrated articles. 



Coal fields. Hydroelectric energy for: 

— ■ — Appalachian Power Co., in New River, 

Virginia. "1141 ; Comment, 1119 

Luzerne County Gas & Electric Co., King- 
ston, Pa., *921; Comment. 907 

Mining and electric-service properties in 

central Illinois, 237 

Coal mines, Generating electric energy at, Chig- 
necto plant of Maritime Coal, Railway 
& Power Co., "655, 1053; Comment, 637 

Coal mining. (See Mines, Electricity in.) 

Coils, Changing size of wire on shunt. By A. 
M. Bennett, 253 

Colorado Electric Light, Power & Railway As- 
sociation, 596 

Comb and hair drier, Electric, *418 

Commutation : 

Analysis of direct-current. By Jens Bache- 

Wug, 605; Comment, 590 

Theory. By C. L. K. E. Menges, (D.) 

517; Karl Pichelmeyer, (D. R.) 1054, 
1106 

Complaints. (See Central-station business.) 

Concrete, Reinforced, Action of electricity on. 
By E. Schick, (D.) 1222; E. B. Rosa, 
1354; Comment, 1350 

Concrete mixer, Motor-driven, "942 

Condensers: 

Electrolytic, for sparkless contacts. By K. 

Siegl, CD.) 674 

■ Operation, Effect of air on, 1320 

Rotary jet, Manistee, *1389 

Synchronous. By H. E. Bussey, 389 

Synchronous, Power-factor correction. By 

C. T. Mosman, (D.) 369 

With Ruhmkorff coil. By W. H. Wilson, 

(D.) *620 

Condit Electrical Mfg. Co., Legal Icision, 1124 

Conductors: 

Inductance of aerial split conductors. By 

Louis Cohen, *994; Comment, 974; T. F. 
H. Douglas, 1326 

Resistance of powdered. By A. A. Somer- 

ville, en. R.) 416 

(See also Cables; Wires and wiring.) 

Conduit: 

Construction. By J. Schmidt, (D. R.) 733 

Cost of underground construction, 1270 

New systems. By J. Schmidt, (D. R.) 672 

Standard sizes for wires and cables, *1216 

Systems in concrete buildings. By J. P. 

Morrissey, *41 1 

Versus openwork in places subject to mois- 
ture, corrosive fumes, steam, etc. By 
F. G. Waldenfels *782, "834. *884, 
*1001, *1049; C. M. Jansky, 1326 

Conduit fittings, Bonnell, *1011 

Conserved resources. Distribution of, through 
existing public-utility enterprises, 931; 
Comment, 909 

Contractors: 

Convention of electrical, 184 

Co-operation with central-station men, Chi- 
cago, 1125 

Wiring contractor. Relation to the central- 
station, 855, 863 

Controllers: 

Compression resistor for continuous- duty 

controller, *1331 

Motor. By H. L. Beach, (D. R.) 460 

Motor-starting and regulating, Cutler-Ham- 
mer, "167 

Printing-press, Carpenter alternating-cur- 
rent, "676 

Convection and conduction of heat in gases. By 
Irving Langmuir, 29 

Converters: 

Auto-converter C. M. B. of MacFralane and 

Burge. By J. H. Jacobsen, (D.) 949 

— ^Commutating-pole rotary. Characteristics of. 
By J. L. McK. Yardley, (D.) 459 

Commutating-pole rotary, Westinghouse, 

•278 

Polyphase. By P. Stein, (D.) 208 

Rotary, for testing purposes, *164 

Small rotary. Pan Electric Mfg. Co., *894 

Vertical synchronous-booster commutating- 
pole rotary, Westinghouse, *419 

Cooking, Electric : 

Battleships of the U. S. Navy, '936 

Billings, Mont., 54 

British apparatus, (D. R.) 271 

Central-station experience. By H. F. Hol- 
land, 664 

— ■ — Character and cost of cooking load to cen- 
tral stations. By F. M, "Long, (D.) 
112 

Design of apparatus. By H. H. Holmes, 

(D.) 112 

Fireless cooker, Sykes Quad, '1012 

Gas vs. electricity. By G. Dettmar, (D.) 

1107, 1159 

Stands for inverted irons, 724 

(See also Heating.) 

Cooling tower at Worcester, Mass., sub-station, 
•256 

Cooper Hewitt diffusing lamp, '542 

Co-operative meeting of central-station men, 
manufacturers, jobbers, contractors and 
dealers, at Association Island, Lake On- 
tario, 483, 692 

Corona : 

Law of, and dielectric strength of air. ' By 

F. W. Peek. Jr., 13, (D.) 1219; J. B. 
Whitehead. 14; Comment, 3 

Loss on experimental transmission line. By 

C. F. Harding, 13 

Losses. By K. Zickler, (D.) 733, 788 

Cost of producing electrical energy with low- 

Sressure steam turbine. By S. G. 
eiier, 1205 



VI 



INDEX. 



Couplings: 

Disconnect for oil-switch leads, "361 

Sim[>lex grip nipple, "325 

Crank diagram for representation of electrical 
power. By A. A. Ninis, '660; Com- 
ment, 638 

Cut-outs, Metropolitan porcelain, *277 



Dams: 

Big Meadows, of Great Western Power Co., 

•184 

Estacada. Ore., "91 

Olympic Power Co.. Failure, 1081, *1129 

Definitions, Report of British electrotechnical 

committee, (D.) 520 
De La Rive tube, Theory of electric discharge 

in. By D. N. Mallik, (D. R.) 889 
Delta rays produced by Beta rays. By N. 

Campbell, (D.) 1159 
Denmark, Co-operative stations in rural dis- 
tricts, 1207 
Department store, Electricity in. Engineering 

and cost data. By L. F. Tweedy, 47 ^ 
Depreciation of power-plant equipment. By E. 

Brown, 268 
Depreciation data. Use of, in rate-making and 

appraisal problems. By H. P. Gillette, 

937, 1273; Comment, 909 
Des Moines gas case, Decision, 436 
Dielectric constant produced by strain. Changes 

in. By Adams and Heaps, (D.) 889 
Dielectric hysteresis at low frequencies. By W. 

M. Thornton, (D.) 416 
Dielectric strength of air. (See Corona.) 
Dielectrics, Surface leakage experiments with 

alternating current. By G. L. Adden- 

brooke, (D.) 209 
Dimmer, Theater, Cutler-Hammer, 623 
Discharge from an electrified point. By A. M. 

Tyndall, (D.) 733 
Disinfecting fluid, Electrolytic hypochlorite, (D.) 

519 
Distribution-main voltage drops in Kansas City, 

"1154 
Distribution system: 

^Alternating-current, Sprong and McCoy pat- 
ent, CD.) 1056 

Paragon balanced-power, (D.) "1055 

Dredge using central-station energy, East St. 

• Louis, "712, 719 
Drills: 

Portable electric, *1010 

Test of Standard portable electric, 574 

Drives. (See Industrial plants.) 

Dry cells: 

Elements of. By H. K. Richardson, (D. R.) 

57i 

Standard tests of, 341 

Duralumin. (D.) 950 

Dust figures produced by electrical sparks. By 

Barton and Kilby. (D.) 1108 
Dyeing plant, Cost of installing central-station 

service, 315 
Dynamometers: 
Direct-reading, indicating torque, speed and 

horse-power of revolving mechanisms 

without calculations. By C. R. Moore, 

"449; Comment, 434 

Electric absorption Diehl, *1335 

Tubular. By P. G- Agnew, *31 



Earth's magnetic field. By W. F. G. Swann, 

(D.) 461 
East St. Louis, 111.. Reclaiming shore line with 

central-station energy. "721 
Edgar, Charles L., Loving cup presented to, 

"541 
Edison label, The. By Frank Koester, 1053 
Edison Medal award, 1352 
Efficiency Society, 550 
Electric Vehicle Association of America, 544, 

640, 760. 876. 1178 
Electric waves, Diurnal variations of. By W. 

H. Eccles, (D.) 461 
Electrical Credit Association of Chicago, 1129 
Electrical engineering students and graduates 

in the United States. 1077. 1079 
Electrical industry, Future of. By C. P. Stein- 

metz, 911 
Electrical Manufacturers' Club. Meeting, 1027 
Electrical Supply Jobbers' Association, 388 
Elect rodynamometer. Tubular. By P. G. Ag- 
new, *31 
Electrolysis: 

Chicago ordinance, 138 

Comparison of Chicago ordinance with 

British regulations, 294 
Concrete, Electrolytic action in. By E, B. 

Rosa, 1354; Comment. 1350 
Rate of corrosion of various kinds of iron 

in street soil. Experiments. By A. F. 

Ganz, 27; Comment. 2 
Electrolytic analvsis with platinum electrodes. 

By Goodi and Burdick. (D. R.) 461 
Electrolytic deposition. Simultaneous, of cop- 
per and zinc from various solutions not 

containing cyanide. By M. de Kay 

Thompson. (D.) 323 
Electromagnetic effect. An. By S. R. Williams, 

(D.) 734 
Electrometers, Quadrant. By W. F. G. Swann, 

(D.) 67Z 



Electrometers, Quadrant (Continued) 

Measuring high alternating-current voltages 

with. By A. Baxmann. (D.) '461 

Electrons: 

Emission of, by metals under influence of 

alpha rays. By Burnstead and McGou- 
gan, (D.) 888 

Emission velocities of photo-electrons. By 

A. L. Hughes, CD.) 323 

Metallic vapors in filaments. Electric be- 
havior of. By E. N. da C. Andrade, 
(D.) 323 

Velocity of emission of electrons from ultra- 
violet light. By R. A. Millikan, (D.) 
461 

Electro-osmose, British patent, (D.) 620 

Electrothermal calculations. Simplification of. By 
Carl Hering, 28 

Electrotyping plant, (D. R.) 113 

Elementary electric charge, Value of. By R. 
A. Millikan, 1181 

Empire State Gas and Electric Association, 754 

Employees: 

Bonus award for coal per kilowatt-hour 

record, 942 

Costs of labor in central-station operation, 

1024, 1031 

Education and welfare. By A. S. Nichols, 

812 

Education of, and power-plant efficiency. By 

L. Shepard, 413 

Mess committee on construction gang, 721 

Pension system of American Telephone & 

Telegraph Co., 1028; Comment. 1023 

Public relations can be improved by em- 
ployees, 60S 

Safety rules, Minneapolis, 566 

Tipping forbidden, San Diego, Cal., 1152 

Training of, St. Louis, 1208 

Wages, Locomotive engineers, 1122, 1126 

Employers' liability, Massachusetts, 346; Com- 
ment, 339 

Engine cycle. By A. Leduc, (D.) 732 

Engineering education : 

Discussions, Society for Promotion of En- 
gineering Education, 133 

Industrial and vocational schools, 30 

Law for vocational training, 29 

Students and graduates in the United 

States, 1077, 1079 

University of Illinois, 297 

Engineers: 

Locomotive. Compensation, Award of board 

of arbitration. 1122. 1126 

— — Training of electrical. By W. Reichel, (D. 
R.) 890. (D.) 952 

Engines. (See Gas engines; Oil engines.) 
Export trade, 344, 751, 1241, President Taft on, 
1249 



Factory-lighting legislation in New York state, 

1360 
Fans: 
Speed control, Comparative costs of three 

methods. By W. E. Thaw, (D.) 1056 

Storing, for the winter, "1101 

Federal office buildings. Installation of small 

power plants in. By D. F. Atkins and 

H. M. Price, 257, 498, 717 
Feeder regulation, Automatic, By F. W. 

Shackelford, 663 
Feeder resistance. Interchangeable connections 

for. •1214 
Feeder voltaee records. Connections for obtain- 

ing.^'St. Louis, "725 
Feeder voltage regulation. By M. Unger, (D.) 

1384 
Fertilizers, Phosphate. By W. Palmaer, (D. R.) 

673 
Filaments. (See Incandescent lamps.) 
Fire, Jamestown, N. Y.. 345 
Fire alarm systems. By W. Fellenberg, 

R.) 1222 
Fire departments and the electric truck, 

1281 
Fire en^ne. Converted electrical, •509 
Fire extinguisher, Pyrene, "371 
Fire insurance. Reduction of rates: 
— ■ — Durango, Col., 780 

Idaho Springs, Col.. 202 

Inspection, Electrical, Effect of. 

Merrill, 1182 
Fire protecting apparatus, Delaware 

Automatic. *66 
Flasher, Reynolds cabinet type, *1331 
Flatirons. (See Central-station business.) 
Floors, Acid-proofing, •1331 
Flumes of Jordan River development, "818 
Four-terminal conductor and the Thomson 

bridge discussed by Dr. Frank Wenner, 

932 
Fourth of July and the central station, 82, ^"87 
France, Water-power stations in. By H. Bres- 
son, (D.) 1276 
French Association for the Advancement of 

Science, (D.) 890 
Frequency changers. By C. TurnbuH, fD.) 838 

Taylor patent. (D.) 517 

Frequency indicators: 

Resonant circuit. By Pratt and Price, "34 

Thompson. (D.) 674 

Fuel (See Coal; Oil.) 

Furnace arrangement for burning oil, *937 

Furnace efficiency, 712 

Furnaces, Electric: 

Heat losses. By F. A. J. Fitz Gerald, (D.) 

673 



(D. 

1247, 



By W. H. 

Hudson 



Furnaces, Electric: (Continued) 
Historical review. By F. A. J. Fitz Ger- 
ald, 27 
Iron ore reduction at Trollhattan. By Lef- 

fier and Nystrom, (D.) 113 
Laboratory furnace. By Calhane and Bard, 

(D.) 370 
Pig-iron, Microscopic study of. By Lyon 

and Langenberg, (D. K.) 323 

Pig steel. By J. W. Richards, (D.) 113 

Simple furnace. By R. S. Wile. (D. R.) 

416 
Steel-foundry practice. By Paul Girod, 

(D.) 788 
Transformer crucible furnace, German, (D.) 

370 
" ^Zinc furnace. By W. McA. Johnson, (D. 

R.) 573 
Zinc ores, Difficulties in treating. By F. 

Louvrier, (D.) 1056 

Zinc reduction, 453 

Fuse puller, Barry safety, "842 
Fuses: 

Delta-Star high-potential, "65, '623 

Proposed system of non-interchangeable. 

By Hundhausen, (D. R.) 840 

S. & C. high-potential, "1114 

Starting resistances and motor fuses. By 

E. Jasse, (D.) 518 

Weatherproof, Delta-Star, "623 

Future of the electrical industry, Steinmetz on, 

911 



Gage, Distant-reading boiler-level, Wichita, Kan., 

•1324 
Galvanometer lamp and scale arrangement, Leeds 

lS: Northrup, •574 
Galvanometers: 

Duddell vibration, Maximum sensibility ot. 

By H. F. Haworth. (D.) 160, 461" 
Magnetic shunt vibration. By H. Tinslev, 

(D.) •734 

Marine, of English make, (D.) 210 

Rectangular. By A. Ferguson, (D.) 1108 

Vibration characteristics and applications of. 

By Frank Wenner, 31 
Gamma rays, Origin of. By E. Rutherford, 

(D.) 888 
Garage charging rates, St. Louis, 1150 
Garages, Electric: 

Fresno, Cal, 358 

Individual meters in, Chicago, 406 

Load curves, in Chicago garage, 1046 

Milwaukee garage and stable, *831 

■ -Model, at Boston Electric Show, 780 

-Murphy Power Co., Detroit, Mich., "1059 

Service of. Discussion, 1298 

Gas, Prices of, in Natick, Mass., 917 
Gas engines: 

Aberdeen. S. D., Failures and successes, 261 

Factors of heat flow, (D.) 887 

Gas producers: 

.Amarillo, Tex., 254 

Rotary bituminous, Chapman, "792 

^Windliam, Ohio, experience. By F. A. 

Eberwine. 255 
Gas turbine, Summary of various researches. 

By D. Clerk, (D. R.) 788 
Gases in air, Detection of combustible. By L. 

J. Steele, CD.) '888 
Gases in vacuum tubes. Absorption of, 1177; By 

S. E. Hill. (D.) 1277 
Gasoline-electric generating set, Sturtevant, *891 
Geissler bromine tube, New rays in. By U. 

Ribaud, (D.R.) 370 
Gener.nl Electric Co. : 

• Financial review, 232 

Stock dividend, 434 

Generators: 

Acoustic tests of machines. By W. Burstyn, 

(D.) 459 
"Automobile lighting generators. By C. J., 

Webb. (D.) "1327 

British Thomson-Houston 5000-kw, "162 

Compensated dynamo, British patent, (D.) 

571 
Current rushes. Lessening the effect of, 

Hunter and Shand patent, (D.) 672 
Curtis turbo-alternators, (D.) 270; (D. R.) 

322 
Direct-current 20DO-kw unipolar, Develop- 
ment and construction. By B. G. 

Lamme, *17 
Excitation for alternating-current gene- 
rators. By D. B. Rushmore, 18 
Frequency doubled by means of mercury- 
vapor rectifier, (D.) 1006 
High-speed dynamo-electric machinery, (D.) 

1275 

Improvement in steam turbo-generators, 716 

Induction, Snuirrel-cage, Principal features. 

By Hobart and Knowlton, 15 
large turbo-generators in Germany, (j>.) 

1219 
Loading large alternators, three methods. 

By F. D. Newbury, (D.) 519 
No-load losses. Determining. By A. Ytter- 

berg, (D.) 1157 
Operating characteristics of large turbo- 
generators. By A. B. Field, 16 
Parallel operation of alternators. By L. 

Fleischmann, (D.) 158; C. Czeija, (U-) 

517 
Parallel operation of gas-driven. By W. O. 

Schumann, (D. R.) 619 



•Indicates illustrated articles. 



INDEX. 



VII 



Generators: (Continued) 

Parallel operation of synchronous machines. 

By Lee Hagood, (D.) 787 
Power efficiency of rotating machines, Ue- 

termination. By E. M. Olin, 16 
Reactance voltage. Calculation. By J. 

Liska. (D.) 949 
Regulation of alternators, Thrupp patent, 

(D.) 517 

Self-regulating constant-voltage, (D.) *1005 

Shunt- voltage regulation in direct-current 

generators. Increasing the range of. By 

P. Amsler, *198, 570: Comment, 293 
——Synchronizing. By H. W. Brown, (U.) 460 

Test of 5000-kw Curtis turbo-generator, 164 

Three-phase windings for single- phase serv- 
ice. By W. J. Foster, (D.) 367 
Three-wire direct-current, Modern. By C. 

L. Pilger, Jr., *150 
Transforming double-current generator into 

rotary converter, Chicago, 358 
-Transient reactance of alternators. By Dur- 

gin and Whitehead, 17 

Turbo-converter. By F. Creedy, (D.) '1157 

Unipolar direct-current. Construction and 

transformation. By W. A. Dick, (D. 

R.) 732- 

Vibration recorder on motor-generators. 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co. By E. E. 
Hall, *200- Comment, 181 
Voltage regulation of alternating-current. 

Automatic. By Lester McKenney, 996 
fWireless telegraphy and telephony. By E. 

F. W. Alexanderson, (D.) 160 
German Association of Central Stations. By 

Eswein, (D.) 520 
German Association of Electrical Contractors, 

(D.) 840 
German Association of Electrical Engineers, 

Convention. By Zehme, (D.) 161 
German electrical industrv, (D.) 1220 
German Reichsanstalt, (D.) 1221 
German Rontgen Society, (D.) 462 
Glassware, Investigation of diffusing. By M. 

Luckiesh, *1040; Comment, 1025 
Gold refineries, Electricity in, 151 
Governor, Hydraulic, remotely controlled, *67 
Graduation from electrical courses in the United 

States, 1077, 1079 
Grand Central Terminal, *1309 
Grip for conduit joints, *1279 
Ground-return distribution systems, 291 
Attaching plates for, *165 
bathroom fixtures, Omaha, Neb., 



Ground wires, 
Grounding of 

*945 
Grounding of 

adopt 



secondaries, Byllesby com panics 
uniform method, 1 102 



H 



Halifax. N. S.: 

Halifax Electric Tramway Co., Central-sta- 
tion practice, •1089; Comment, 1075 
Nova Scotia Power Co., Plans for hydro- 
electric power, 439 
Harper Memorial Library, Chicago, Electrical 

features, *601; Comment, 589 
Harvesting machine, Gas-electric, '1162 
Heat-storage apparatus for equalizing the load 
curve of central stations. By A. Kit- 
tershausen, (D.) *572; Comment, 538 
Heat transmission, Experimental investigation. 
By C. H. Lander and J. E. Petarel, 
(D.) 887 
Heater, Electric, Bastian, (D.) 723 
Heating, District: 

Cost of heating water from steam mains, 999 

Data on steam heating. By H. A. Wood- 
worth, 978 

Discussion. By A. G. Rogers, 977 

Gage recording heating pressure at distant 

customers* premises, *11S2 

Interest in devices. By G. E. Shepherd, 

1218 
National District Heating Association Con- 
vention, 6 

■ Sweden and Norway, (D.) 271 

Heating, Electric: 

House heating data, 103 

Milling industry. 52 

Hetch Hetchy water and power project for San 

Francisco. 1185 
Heusler alloys. By P. W. Gumaer, (D.) 1221 
Hodcnpyl-Hardy & Co., Convention of operating 

oflicers, 1082 
Hoists, Electric: 

Mine at Christopher, III., 420 

Pulley hoists. By H. Thieme, *1263 

Holder for removing street-series receptacles, 

*1215 
Horse-power, Relation of, to the kilowatt, 934 
Hospital lamp signal system, *612 
Hot plate, Electric, Vulcan, *1061 
Human engineering, 756 
Hydroelectric plants. (See Central stations; 

Transmission plants) 
Hydrogen, Electrolytic manufacture, 939 
Hyperbolic functions, Kennelly on, 808, 1125, 

1298 
Hysteresis loss in iron. By M. Rosenbaum, 
(D.) 61 

.As affected by previous magnetic history. 

Loss in iron at atmospheric and Hquid- 
air temperatures under three condi- 
tions. By Wilson, Clayton and Power, 
(D.) 369 



Hysteresis: (Continued) 

Dielectric hysteresis at low frequencies. By 

W. M. Thornton, (D.) 416 
Due to combined pulsating and rotating 

magnetic field. By T. F. Wall, (U.) 

788 
Effect of temperature upon hysteresis loss. 

By M. Maclaren, 807 
Transformer iron, cast iron and stalloy. 

Experiments with. By F, Stroude, (D.) 

369 



Ice-making. (See Refrigeration.) 
Ignition of coal gas and methane by momentary 
electric arcs. By W. M. Thornton, 
(D.) 1109 
Illinois Electric Association Convention, 913 
Illinois, Northern, High-tension distribution and 
unification in. By H. B. Gear, *1095, 
1096; Comment, 1076 
Illinois public service commission proposed, 

1133, 1186 
Illuminants. (See Light; Lighting.) 
Illuminating Engineering Society: 

■ Annual meeting, 1245 

Co-operation with British society, 294 

Convention at Niagara Falls, 230, 541, 592, 

642, 710 

New York section, 810 

Past and prospective work, 638 

Pittsburgh section, 808 

Primer of illumination, 856 

Illuminometers: 

Portable, British design, *675 

Simplified. By Sharp and Millar. •266 

Incandescent lamp fixtures: 

Attachment for pull sockets, Hubbell, "325 

China ware receptacles. Murphy, *524 

— ■ — Card connector. Black composition, *521 

Fixture loops, *418 

Hoods for sign work, Reynolds, *1010 

-Indirect, Alexalite, *1389 

Interchangeable fixtures. *326 

Locking attachment, *65 

Receptacle, Pass & Seymour, *I058 

-Reflectors: 

Magna side reflector, *622 

— X-Ray, *622 

Wheeler, ^524 

Semi-direct unit, Haskins, *329 

Shop-lighting unit, Delta-Star, *422 

Socket and receptacle for large-base lamps, 

Pass & Seymour, *421 

Sockets, Angle pull, Benjamin, *1009 

Tungsten, for store fronts, Fort Wayne, 

Ind., "53 
Incandescent lamp resistors. By T. H. Amrine, 

33 
Incandescent lamps : 

British patent of Peter Cooper Hewitt, (D.) 

1276 

Coloring for bulbs, 1226 

Cooper Hewitt diffusing lamp. *542 

— —Electric properties. By H. Pecheux. (D.) 
732; Comment, 691 

-Exhaustion of bulbs, (D.) *1158 

High-candle-power lamps. Discussion in Ber- 
lin. (D.) 62 

-Lambert's cosine law of the emission from 

tungsten and carbon. By A. G. Worth- 
ing, (D.) 2/0 
Low-voltage metallic filament lamps, Light- 
ing with. By M. Howald, (D.) 1384 
—■ — Metallic filaments, Grote and Hoge patents, 

(D.) 732 
— —Metallic-filament lamps. Results of many 
tests. By D. H. Ogley, (D.) 787 

Osram and carbon lamps. By A. Sauquet, 

fD.) 1006 

Series lighting. Booth patent, (D.) 839 

— —Specifications for railroad work, 981 
— —Temperature of filaments. Table. By von 
Pirani and Meyer, (D.) 270 

Tungsten: 

Drawn-wire, Strength of. By F. W. 

Willcox, (D.) 618 
Drawing the wire. (D.) 1276 
Filaments on alternating current. By 

L. W. Wild, (D.) *1054 
Infringement suit of General Electric 

Co. against Laco-Philips Co., 479 
Krause filaments, (D.) 367 
Parabolic reflectors. By G. H. Stick- 

ney, (D.) 1384 
Rate of operation and permissible de- 
crease of candle-power. Theory of 
calculating. By L. Bloch, (D.) 414 
Strength and ductility, British patent 
for improving, (D.) 414 
— — Tungsten-allov filament, 1224 

Vacua in lamps. By W. R. Whitney, 28 

'Vacuum, Improvement of, British patent, 

(D.) 321 

Voltages, Standard. By F. W. Willcox, 

CD.) 1006 
Income per hp-year from various rates and 

load factors, 611 
Incubator, Electricity in. Muskogee, Okla., '55 
Indiana Commission news, 867 
Indiana Electric Light Association, Convention, 

977 
Indicators: 

Remote-speed, Siemens. (D.) 1057 

Warner automatic watt, 675 

•Indicates illustrated articles. 



Induction: 

Electromagnetic, and relative motion. By 

S. J. Barnett, (U.) 1276 

Unipolar. By E. H. Kennard, (D.) 63 

Industrial management. Art of, 980 

Industrial plants. Electricity in; 

Brewery equipment. By V. V. Newell, 1111 

Cider mill drive. By K. B. Mateer, 829 

Comparative costs oi motive power for small 

machines, 753 

Cotton mill, Kolbermoor, in Austria, By 

H. Beckmann, CD.) 208 

-Department store. Engineering and cost 

data. By E. F. Tweedy, 47 

Displacing steam power in a group of man- 
ufacturing buildings, 778 

Dyeing plant. Cost of central-station serv- 
ice, 315 

Machine shop, Worcester, Mass., *1323 

Nut and bolt factory, Indiana Harbor, Ind., 

*1199 

Paper machines. Electric drive for. By E. 

C. Morse, 19; J. S. Henderson, Jr., 19 

— — Paper-mill machinery. Test of power re- 
quired by. By W. E. Byerts, 567 

^Power for small shops. By E. Vollhardt, 

(D.) 788 

Rolling mill driving. By A. Keisset (D.K.) 

839 

Rolling mills, Direct current versus alter- 
nating current in. Installation at Fager- 
sta, Sweden, *1045 

Southern Aluminum Co., Whitney, N. C, 

755 

. -Steel mill electrical engineering, Convciiuon 

discussions, 826 

Steel-mill electrification. By Wilfred Svkcs 

and F. W. Meyer, 1027 

Steel mills, Direct-and-alternatmg current 

motors in. By Shorer and Cheney (.D.) 
415 

Varnish works, Denver, Drive, 202 

Wood sawing. Grand Forks, N. D., 1101 

Wood shop, Omaha, Neb., *1208 

Insect destroyers. Electric, *465 

Inspection, Municipal electrical, in Chicago, 1029 

Institute of Radio Engineers, 540 

Insulating cover for cable connectors. Dessert, 
*678 

Insulating material: 

Calculation of insulation covering. By A. 

Michard, (D.) 518 

Characteristic of an artificial material. By 

E. KnoDlauch, (D.) 324 

D'isfico horn insulation, 677 

Molded compounds. By R. B. Lattin. *893 

Rex compound, 66 

Insulators: 

Clamp, without tie-wires, St. Louis, "725 

Design and construction, Fundamental prin- 
ciples. By W. Fellenberg, (D.) 159, 
369 

Low-voltage glass. Brookfield, *275 

Suspension insulator case, 1300 

^Tests of high-frequency. By Imlay and 

Thomas, •USS 

Intake screens. Motor-driven hoist for, Marion, 
Ind., *722 

Interferometry of air-carrying electrical current. 
By (Jarl Barnes, (D.) 370 _ 

International Association of Municipal Electri- 
cians, 475, 482 

International Association for Testing Materials, 
132, 476 

International Conference of Time, (D.) 1278 

International Congress of Applied Chemistry, 

476, 548 (D.) 620 
International Congress of Chambers of Com- 
merce and Industrial Associations, 592 

International Congress of Electroculture, /54 
International Electrical Congress, San Fran- 
cisco, 1915, 230 

International Photometric Commission, 975, 976 

International Radio Telegraph Conference, 84, 
180, 182, 639; Proceedings, 648 

Interrupter. Connections of electromagnetic. 
(D.) 'lins 

Ions from hot salts. By O. W. Richardson, 
(D.) 112 

Ions in metallic vapor flames. By E. N, da C. 

Andrade. (D.) 112 
Irrigation. (See Pumping, Electric) 



Jordan River power development, 

Comment, 751 
Jovian Congress, 808 



*767. •817; 



Kansas Commission news, 88, 1033 

Kansas Gas, Water, Electric Light and Street 

Railway Association, 754, 861 
Kelvin. Lord, Memorial to, 182. 342 
.Kilovoit ampere. By C. W. Eisenmann. 731 
Kilowatt as the only unit of power, (D.) 461 



Labor. (See Employees) 
Labor incentive of machinery, 507 
Laboratory of radioactivity. By J. Danne, (D. 
R.) 64 



VIII 



INDEX. 



Lamp post, Central Electric Co., *I060 

(See also Street lighting) 

Lamps: 

Counterbalance for drop lamp, Sachs, •892 

Portable electric, Phcenix, •574 

Portable, of Veluria glass, '844 

-Reflector for desk lamp, Cassidy, 'ISS? 

(See also Arc lamps; Incandescent lamps) 

Lecher system. Vibration of a. By Blake and 

Sheard, (D.) 416 
Legal : 

Bathtub case. Supreme Court decision, 1077, 

1078, 1121, 1130 

Canadian Niagara Power Co., 238 

Condit Electrical Mfg. Co., Circuit breaker 

suit, 1124 

Des Moines gas case, 436 

Enamel insulation, 1299 

Glenwood Springs, Col., Suit to remove 

rival's lines, 1268 

Lincoln high-tension case, Decision, 387, 

•391, 436 
Pacific Gas & Electric Co. vs. Great West- 
ern Power Co., 136; Comment, 130 

Suspension insulator case, 1300 

Telephone and high-tension lines. Parallel, 

87 

Telephone merger case in San Francisco, 

1084 
— — United Shoe Machinery Co. vs. Chapelle, 
85; Comment, S2 

Worcester, Mass., street lighting case, 190 

Library, Harper Memorial, Electricity in, •601; 

Comment, 589 
Light: 

Chemical technology' of electrical illumi- 

nants. Comment on paper by Dr. O. 
Kruh, 474 

Colors of illuminants. Research. By Dr. 

Voege, 806 

Mercury arc lights, Study of. By H. K. 

Ives, *304: Comment, 292 

Photometry of lights of different colors. 

By H. E. Ives, (D.) 1106 
Stroboscopic effects obtainable with incan- 
descent filaments as illuminants. By 
C. F. Lorenz, *1146; Comment, 1121 

Temperature of sources of light. By 

Buisson and Fabry, (D.) 1055 

(See also Photometry) 

Lighting, Electric: 

-\verage performance of lighting systems. 

By C. E. Clewell, 20 

Banking room. Indirect lighting, *669 

Car lighting: 

Brown, Boveri system. By P. Amsler, 

(D.) *517 
Data, 982 
Tests at Washington. D. C. Bv A. J. 

Sweet. 643; F. T. Leilich, 886 
Tungsten lamps, 728 

Church: 

Denver, Col., •1324, •1380 
Halifa-x, N. S., *6I6 
Indirect lighting *1104 
St. Louis cathedral, semi-indirect light- 
ing, 616 
Temple Israel exterior, St. Louis, *66S 
Tungsten lamp standards for entrances, 
•514 

Color, Relations of, to illumination. By 

H. E. Ives, 22 

Comparison of gas and electric lighting 

costs. Diagram. By Norman Macbeth, 
203 

Cost of, compared with kerosene lighting. 

By J. Singer, (D.) 158; B. Monasch, 
(D.) 322 

Demonstration of lighting effects. 

S. Millar. •1083 

Direct and indirect lighting. By 

.Ashe, (D. R.) 459 

Drafting room. Indirect illumination, 

Efficacv in illumination. By P. S. 

775: Comment, 752 

Exhibition room at Chicago, •833 

Factory lighting. By M. H. Flexner, 1004 

Factory-lighting legislation in New York, 

1360 

Foreign lighting practice. By Louis 

875 

Glare, Fight against, 974 

Grill room of Great Northern Hotel, 

cago. '784 

Hearst Building, Chicago, Posts, *669 

Hotel rooms, ^614, *616 

Illuminating engineering for the central- 
station salesman, 943 

Illuminating Engineering Society conven- 

tion discussions, 642, 710 

Indirect lighting; 

Boston drug store, '569 
Chicago auditorium ceiling, ^570 
Department store, Milwaukee, 617 
Drafting room, •832 

Industrial illumination. Bv C. E. Clewell. 

20; Ward Harrison, 1324 

—Interior illumination. By Bassett Tones. 

.Tr., 20 

Lawyers' Club. New York. By W. H. 

Spencer. '1280 

Library. Harper Memorial, Chicago, ^601 ; 

Comment, 589 

Lumber yard. Flame arcs for, '1216 

Measuring of illumination. By J. S. Dow 

and V. H. Mackinney, *363 
Method of working out illumination prob- 
lems. By C. E. Clewell, (D.) 367 



W. S. Kilmer, 



magnetite 



By p. 

S. W. 



•832 
Millar, 



Bell, 



Chi- 



quantity. 



from 
710 

engineering to 
By Louis Bell, 



By G. T. Had- 



Bv B. 



-569 



E. F. 

light- 



Lighting, Electric: (Continued) 

Office building lighting. By 

•264 

Office buildings, Chicago, ^556 

Playground illumination with 

lamps, Chicago, '568 

Post-office mail-case lighting, 1083 

Primer of illumination, 856 

Progress of 1911, 473 

(Quality as distinguished 

Discussion by I. E. S. 

Relation of illuminating 

electrical engineering. 
22 

-Residence, St. Louis, '667 

St. Louis Public Library. 

ley, '107 

Semi-indirect : 

Boston restaurant, *523 

Chicago bank, 1272 

St. Louis cathedral, 616 

Shop lighting, 1381 

Steel mill illumination, 758 

Beck, 730; Comment, 690 

Store lighting: 

Boston drug store. Indirect, 
Confectionery shop, ^884 
Department store lighting. By 
Tweedy, 47 
England, Tendency in window 

ing, *1271 
Kansas City, 1000 
Milwaukee, Indirect lighting, 617 
Showcase lighting. By J. A. Vessey, 
•1223 

Theater, Cutler-Hammer dinner, *623 

Three-phase lamps. By W. Schaeffer, (D.) 

1158 

(See also Sign and decorative lighting; 

Street lighting) 
Lighting, Gas: 

High-pressure, 810 

-I Tests of street lighting, Manchester, Eng- 
land. By T. Osborne, 1265 
Lighting bills. Why they increase, 512 
Lighting system — the Permel fixture for intense 

spot illumination, '954 
Lightning, Curious action of, 357 
Lightning arresters: 

-•\daptation of three-phase for two-phase 

use. *1153 

Demonstration of low-voltage, ^842 

— — Electrolytic, (D.) 209 
Lightning conductors: 

German standardization rules. By Kuppel, 

(D.) 211 

Size of. By E. W. Kellogg, ^60 

Tests, with Ruppel apparatus, (D.) 

Lightning detector for 2S0-ft. concrete 

Topeka, Kan., *939 
Lightning protection. Potential drop in con- 
ductor for various discharge fre- 
quencies, 91S 
l-ignite. (See Coal) 

Lincoln, 111., high-tension case, 387, "391, 436 
Line construction. (See Transmission. Electric) 
Load fluctuations. (See Central-station prac- 
tice) 
Locomotives, Electric: 

Mining. By G. W. Hamilton, (D.) 518 

Operation of. under service conditions. 

By N. W. Storer, 982 

Single-phase : 

French Southern Ry. By R. Van Cau- 

wenberghe, (D.) 1006 
Westinghouse. By J. Simey, (D. K ) 
1107 

Storage-battery, for car shops, *624 

Ward Leonard multiple-voltage systems, 

*295 
Locomotives, Oil-engine, Junkers. By J. 

Baker, •US: Correction, 140 
London, Municipal electricity loans. By T 
Bowden and F. Tait, (D.) 788 ' 
Lumeter, Holophane. *363 

Luzerne County Gas & Electric Co., Kingston 
Pa., System, ^921; Comment, 907 



•210 
stack. 



B. 

II. 



M 

Madrid, Spain, Electricity supply. By H. Bin- 
demann, (D.) 6?2 

Magnetic concentration. By M. Ruthenburg, 
(D. R.) 113 

Magnetic flux. By F. Emde, (D.) 1277 

.Magnetic properties of alloys, (D.) 160 

Magnetic rays in different gases. By A. Righi. 
. (D. R.) 1160 

Magnetic separation in Colorado. By H. (_'. 
Parmelee. (D. R.) 573 

Magnetic tests of iron. By F. Stroude, (1) ) 
209: J. Epstein, (D.) 1221 

Magnetite lamps: 

— —Playground illumination, Chicago, •SeS 

Street lighting at Cincinnati and Chatta- 
nooga, 1155 

Street lighting in Utica, N. Y., "521 

Magnets: 

.\Iuminum wire. Naked in electromagnets, 

.Vdvantages. By H. F. Stratton, •400; 
Comment, 386 

Calculation of direct-curr'ent electromag- 
nets. By F. Kraus, (D.) 1007 

Cutler-Hammer, lifting, '893 

Doubling capacity of lifting. 1311 

Industrial uses for electromagnets, ^575. 

By A. Reisset, (D. R.) 619 

•Indicates illuslrattl .irlicles. 



Magnets: (Continued) 

Lake and l.indquist lifting electromagnet, 

-Lifting of 5000 lb. of pig iron, '575 

Permanent magnets. By S. P. Thompson, 

(D.) 160; Comment, 83 

\\ itton-Kramer, lifting, '1010 

.Maine Electric Association, 233 

^Ianllole adapted to new street grade, '944 

-Manhole covers, steam-heated, for policemen, 

Indianapolis, ^724 
.Manhole traps. Replacing with water seals, 

•1206 
Manual-training schools, Isolated plants in, •QSS 
Map records of primary and secondary pole 

lines, Milwaukee, *613 
Maryland Commission news, 347, 439, 487, 548, 
598. 652. 698, 764, 918, 986, 1086, 1136, 
1188, 1254 
.Massachusetts Commission news, II. 139, 191, 
239, 440, 486, 652, 764, 815, 917, 986, 
1085, 1188, 1254 
Massachusetts workmen's compensation act, 346; 

Comment. 339 
Maximum demand. (See Charging for electric 

current) 
Measurement of small intervals of time. By 

F. C. Brown, (D.) '209 
Measurement standards. Practical, (D.) 889 
.Measurement of voltage and current over long 
artificial transmission line. By Ken- 
nelly and Lieberknecht, 15 
-Measurements, Electrical transmission of elec- 

trical. By O. J. Bliss, 30 
Measuring alternating-current resistance. Hy 

E. F. Northrup, 32 
Measuring capacity and self-induction. Instru- 
ment for, Thompson patent, (D.) 951 
Measuring high speeds of rotation. By J. 

_ Schillo, (D. R.) 520 
Measuring instruments: 

Central station instruments. By 1< O 

Heinrich. (D.) 1109 

Hot-wire -■\dvantages. By Pierce and 

Tressler, 34 

Iron in. Use of. By Dolivo-Dobrowolsky. 

(D.) -1277 
— ^Shape of scales required for reflecting in- 
struments with concave mirrors. By 
E. H. Rayner. (D.) 323 
.Measuring large currents. The four-terminal 
conductor and the Thomson bridge, 
933 
Measuring permeability with alternating cur- 
rent. By Robinson and Ball, 32" 
.Measuring power. Electrical apparatus for. By 

C. R. Moore, *449; Comment, 434 
Measuring resistance of platinum thermometer. 
Bridge methods for. By F. E, Smith, 
(D.) ^889 
-Measuring small inductances. By S. Butter- 

_ worth, (D.) *519 
Measuring stray currents in underground 

pipes. Bv Carl Hering, *36 
Mercury arc. Study of light from. Use of 
Cooper Hewitt fluorescent reflector. By 
H. E. Ives, *304; Comment, 292 
.Mercury-break converter. By P. R. Coursey. 

(D.) '673 
Mercury switch. Hatfield, (D.) '11S9 
Mercury vapor lamps: 

-Mternating-current lamp with quartz 

globe. By F. Girard, (D.) 208 
French and German quartz-tube lamps. De- 
sign, operation, cost and service life. 
By W. H. Miller, •197; Comment, 180 

General electric quartz-tube. *373 

Quartz-tube, for power-house lighting, 1153 

Quartz-tube, for street lighting, Chicago, 

•478 
Mercury-vapor rectifier. Bv Bela B. Schaefer, 
(D.) '115"; Comment, 1123 

Hatfield patent. (D.) 734 

Metallic arc. Rotations in. By W. G Cadv 

(D. R.) 370 
Metallic vapors in filaments. Electric behavior 
of. By E. N. da C. Andrade, (D.) 323 
Meter errors, Financial importance of By S 

M. Powell, (D.) 788 
Meter-room equipment. By E. P. Austin, (D.) 

573 
Meter seals: 

Renewable parts. Security Seal Co., '1110 

Watt-hour, Palmer, *677 

Meter-testing board, Topeka Edison Co., "1048 
Metering large direct-current installations. By 

F. V. Magolhaes, 30 
Meters, Candle-per-vvatt. By W. T. Birdsall, 

157 
Meters, Carbon dioxide, Uehling, •US 
Meters, Electric: 

.\utomobile. Westinghouse, '1161 

Commercial meters. Bv -A. Durand, (D. ) ti4 

Isario Electro Co. By M. Wiesengrun.l, 

(D.) 417 

Losses from slow meters, 259 

Ohio Electric Light Association report, 236 

Perpipersberg single-phase induction, (D. 

R.) 519 

Protection of meters. By R. Montgomery, 

•412 
— — Westinghouse frequencv, •421 

Westinghouse power-factor, *328 

Westinehouse switchboard, *114, •167 

(See also their names) 

Meters. Energy-cost. Donkiu. "625 
Meters, Insulation, the "Omega," (D.) '1007 
Meters. N^'ave. Calibration of. By G. W. O. 
Howe, (D.) 160 



INDEX. 



IX 



with 
By A. 



cen- 
Hart- 



637 



and 



Mexico, Hydroelectric projects in the Rio Ala- 
meda, 910 , T V 
Mica insulation. By Fleming and Johnson, 

(D ) 952 
Michigan Commission news, 299, 347, 440, 549, 

653, 868, 1362 
Micro-monophone, (D.) *1385 
Middle West Utilities Co., Operations of, I<i6» 
Mills. {See Industrial plants) 
Mine maps. Electrical symbols for, 1204 
Mine power plants, Competition of, 
tral stations, in Europe, 
mann, (D.) 460 
Miners' lamps: „ t- c. u mat 

Faerber safety. By F. Faerber, (D. K.) 

887 

Methods of testing, (D.) 732 

Mines, Electricity in: 

Central Illinois reports, 237 

Coal mining. By T. E. Spence, 'ZeO 

Colorado metal mining. By W. J. Canada, 

*1194 

Generating energy at coal mines, Chignecto 

plant of Maritime Coal, Railway * 
Power Co., *655, 1053; Comment, 

Historical. By S. F. Walker, 1204 

Lead and zinc districts of Missouri 

Kansas. System of Empire Uistrict 
Electric Co.. *445; Comment, 433 

MogoUon, N. M., 55 . ^ . . w . 

Rossband, B. C. Power furnished by West 

Kootenay Power & Light Co., 193. 
Comment, 179 . 

Tandem operation of motor and engine, 

1260 ,^ ^ ,,,„ 

Three-phase cascade motors, (U.) 61S 

Winding plant at coal mine at Kippax, 

Yorks, (D.) 839 

(See also Coal fields) 

Money, Paper, Cleaning by electricity, 418 
Monorail traction, Brennan apparatus. By 

L. Newkirk, (D.) 672 
Motion-picture industry. Electricity m, 420 
Motor manufacturers. Co-operation with cen- 
tral stations. By J. M. Tomb, 864 
Motor service. (See Central-station business) 
Motor starters: 

Auto-transformer type, 165 

Automatic, for direct-current motors. By 

H. L. Beach, (D. R.) 888 

Field automatic, (D.) 672 

Fire-pump starters, Manually operated, 

*1U0 
Multiple-switch, alternating current, Cutler- 
Hammer, "273 

— Oil-immersed, *576 

Westinghouse direct-current, '63 

. Westinghouse, for slip-ring motors. 

Motor-starting currents as affecting large 'rans- 
mission system.s. By P. M. Lincoln, 15 
Motor-starting devices for alternating current 
motors. By W. E. Kampf, 877; Com- 
ment. 857 
Motors, Electric: 

.Advance single-phase, ^372 

Armature reaction in lap-wound machines. 

By W. Lulofs, (D.) 1383 

Braking of alternating-current commutator. 

By M. Schenkel, (D.) 571 

Braking polyphase series commutator. By 

Niethammer and Siegel, (D.) 671, 949 

Braking of series commutator. By A. 

Fraenckel, (D.) 618 

Braking of three-phase series commutator 

motors. By K. Schenfer, (n.) 269 

Cascade connection of induction motors 

and three-phase commutator motors. 
By E. Siegel, (D) 208, 367 

Cast-iron magnets and weight of motors. 

By J. W. Burleigh, (D.) 1005 
Commutaling-pole elevator motor, 



U. 



•463 



the phase difference of 
A. Scherbius, (D.) '1005 
equipment. By E. l-'. 

By F. C. Aldous, (U.) 



(D. 
(U. 



R.) 
R.) 



West- 
inghouse. *624 

Compensation of 
induction. By 

Department store 
Tweedy, 47 

Drying windings. 
732 

Elevator, Watson, *1114 

•Hunt cascade. By J. S. Heather, 
887: J. R. Catterson-Smith, 
1054 

-Induction, Current and power-factor in. 
By H. J. S. Heather, (D.) 571 

Induction motor characteristics, Predeter- 
mining. By C. R. Moore, (D.) 459 

-Interpole, for traction, (D.) 887 

-Interpole traction. Use of. By L. Bac- 
queyrisse, (D.) 518; Comment, 539 

-Leakage coefficient of interpoles. By L. A. 
Doggett. (D.) 571 

-Losses in induction motors due to eccen- 
tricity of the rotor. By Smith and 
Johnson, (D.) 321 

-Phase advancer for non-synchronous ma- 
chines. By .'\. Scherbius, (D.) *269 

-Phase compensation of induction, (D.) 1157 

-Polyphase of Mechanical Appliance Co., 791 

-Polyphase commutator, vector diagram and 
characteristic features. By R. Riiden- 
herg, (D. R.) 321 

-Production of high-frequency currents. By 
M. Latour, (D.) 1383 

-Railway. Experience with interpole motors. 
By L. Bacqueyrisse, (D.) 518 

-Regulation of direct-current. By W. 
Lehmann, (D.) 208 

-Resistance of contacts. By L. Binder, (I). ) 
787 



Motors, Electric: (Continued) 

Reversing motor drive for machine tools, 

•1336 , 

Self-excitation and braking, with recovery of 

energy of alternating-current motors 
with series characteristics. By A. Scher- 
bius, (D.) *1383 

Self-excitation of polyphase commutator ma- 
chines. By R. Moser, (D.) "61 

Single-phase commutator. By Hellmund 

and Smith, (D.) 208, 732; M. Latour, 
(D.) *1327 

^Single-phase electric. Bell, *1011 

Single-phase induction. Development ot 

complete vector analysis. By W. J. 
Branson, 15 

Single-phase induction. Theory. By K. 

Moser, (D.) 949, 1005, '1054 

Single-phase railway, Bergmann, (U.) 321 

Single-phase railway, Nicholson and Haigh, 

Small motor. Duties performed by. By G. 

J. Kirchgasser, *1378 
Small split-phase induction. Determining 

relative characteristics. By B. Lester. 

(U-) 1054 , . „ ... . 
Speed regulation of induction, Britisn 

patents, (D.) 618 
— —Speed relation between shunt and series 

direct-current motors. By L. Cohen, 

(D. R.) 517 ^ , 
Squirrel-cage induction, Fairbanks, Morse, 

'1161 -.,. . 

Starting large direct-current motors without 

series resistance. By Carl Trettin, 
(D.) 367, 414, 459 

Submersible, '325, (D.) 618 

Synchronous machines in parallel. By Lee 

Hagood, (D.) 1385 

Synchronous, Methods for determining 

performance without complicated dia- 
grams or equations. By N. Stahl, 
*147; Comment, 131 

Temperature compensation, Krupp patent, 

(U.) 839 . ,„, 

Three-phase cascade, (jerman mine, (Ll.J 

Three-phase commutator. By M. Schenkel, 

(D.) 887, 949 . „ ,, 

Three-phase commutator series. By Urey- 

fus and Hillebrand, (D.) 61 

Transformer action in single-phase com- 
mutator. By Hellmund and Smith, 
(D.) 414 

Voltage variation of direct-current shunt 

machines. By M. Osnos, (D.) 671 

Mutual inductance. Calculation of. By H. 
Nagaoka, (D. R.) 1160 ^ „ ,„ 

Mutual inductance of solenoids. By O. K. Uls- 
hausen. (D. R.) 621 

Myrawatt, the new unit. By Stott and O JNeill, 
32; Comment, 2 



N 



Natick, Mass., rate case, Decision, 917 

National Association of Railway Commissioners, 

Annual meeting, 1080, 1182 
National Civic Federation Conference, 1358 
National District Heating Association, 6 
National Electric Light Association: 

.-Vftairs, 230 

Commercial section, 754, 1241 

Committee meeting in Chicago, December, 

1241 

Commonwealth Edison Section. 544 

Convention of 1913, 808, *1179 

Georgia Section, 183, 389 

New England section, 437, 692, 812, 863 

Rate research committee, 808 

Rate research conference, 388 

National Electrical Contractors' Association, 13-, 

184 
National Electrical Credit Association, 5 
Navy of the United States, Recommendations 

by Secretary Meyer, 1246 
Neon lamp. By Schroeter, (D.) 571 
Networks: . ,„ ^ ,^ 

Calculation of. By E. Mattansit, (D.) 63; 

H. Frohmann, (D.) 950 
Disturbances of potential and current pro- 
duced in an active conducting network 
by the application of a leak load. By A. 
E. Kennelly, *1373 

Problems. By R. Appleyard, (D.) 620 

Protecting secondary against defective trans- 
former;, "717 

Protector, Alternating-current, Metropolitan, 

*844 
Tramway, Determination. By A. J. Law- 
son, (D.) 270 
New England Electrical Development Associa- 
tion, 476, 755, 813 
New Jersey Commission news, 652. 814, 867, 

987. 1188, 1254 
New York City: 

Electric lighting development, 480 

Electric show. 696, *759, 793, '880 

Fourth of July, 82, *87 

Grand Central Terminal, *I309 

Rubber exhibition, 640 

New York Edison Co.: 

Acquires railway load. 227, *231 

Address by Commissioner Maltbie. 1179 

Electromedical division, 1353 

Rate discrimination charge, 345, 113''; by 

P. R. Moses, 1381 



New York Electric Vehicle As.sociation, 592, 1126 

New York Public Service Commission News, 10, 
88, 138, 191, 238, 299, 347, 392, 439, 
548, 598, 652, 698, 764, 867, 917, 986, 
1032, 1085, 1136, 1187, 1253, 1761 

New York Public Service Commission, Status of, 
1252 

New Zealand: 

Electrical progress, 1248 

Patent legislation in, 1249 

Niagara Falls power situation. By Louis Bell, 
tD.) 1006 

Niagara, Lockport & Ontario Power Co., Devel- 
opment plans, 755 

Nitrogen Fixation of, by alumina and carbon. 
By Tucker and Rend, (D.) 1006 

Northwest Electric Light and Power Association, 
Convention, 646 



Office buildings. Electric equipment: 

— — Chicago buildings, *556 

-Installation of small power plants 

eral buildings. By D. F. Atkins 

H. M. Price, 257, 498, 717 

Muskogee, Okla., *262 

Storage battery for night operation, Omaha, 

Neb., "1149 
Ohio Commission news, 89, 139, 191, 239, 299, 

393, 486, 549, 598, 653, 699, 765, 814, 

918, 986, 1033, 1086, 1188, 1254, 1362 
Ohio Electric Light Association, 5, 187, 212, 234 
Ohmmeter, Moving-coil, Record 

1160 



fed- 
and 



patent, (D.) 



Oil: 



of fuel-oil in 



Westinghouse, 

By E. Owen, 

•959 
turbines. By 

Correction, 



1098 

1080 
1032 

of current- 
R. Milner, 



By H. Busch, 
W. Salomonson, 



-Production and consumption 
United States, 1098 

Properties, testing, etc., of transformer oil. 

By A. Reisset, (D.R.) 269 

.Requirements of transformer oil. By A. 

Reisset, (D.R.) 208 
Oil-drying and purifying outfit, 

•1224 
Oil engines: 

— —Diesel, for irrigation service 
109 

Diesel type, using crude oil, 

Diesel engines vs. steam 

Gerecke, (D.) 518 

Junkers. By J. B. Baker, *115; 

140 

Remington oil-engine generator set, "1113 

Oil fuel. By C. E. Stromeyer, (D.) 1106 

Bellingham, Wash., 144 

Furnace arrangements: 

San Francisco, *937 
Topeka Edison Co., *S0 

In electrical service, 339 

Tests on internal combustion engines, 

Oil in boilers. Tube for detecting, *418 
Oregon Electrical Contractors' Association 
Oregon Public Service Commission, "^'^ 
Oscillating spark. Determination 
potential curves. By S. 
(D.) 1108 
Oscillographs: 

Blondell-Ortich theory. 

(D.R.) 370 

Design of. By J. K. A. 

(D.R.) 64 
Overhead construction. (See Transmission) 
Oxygen, Electrolytic manufacture, 939 
Ozone, Properties and production. By W. H. 
Thompson (D.) 1108 



Pacific Gas & Electric Co. vs. Great Western 
Power Co., 136; Comment, 130 

Pacinotti, Antonio. By L. Finzi, (D.) 113 

Panama- Pacific International Exposition, 118 

Paper mills. (See Industrial plants) 

Patent cases in England, 984 

Patent commission: 

Asked for by Inventors' Guild, 84 

Recommended by American Institute of 

Electrical Engineers, 1178 

Patent legislation in New Zealand, 1249 

Patent matters, United States: 

Annual report of Commissioner of Patents, 

233 

Evils of patent license restrictions. By 

John Brooks, 207 

Investigation, 182, 389. 1028 

Investigation Report by Economy and Effi- 
ciency Commission, 1243, 1250 

Legislation in Congress, 182, 344, 388, 1180 

Monopolies and patents. Decision in United 

Shoe Machinerv case, 85; Comment, 82 

Oldfield substitute bill, 344 

Protection of intellectual property. By L. 

H. Baekeland, 1359 

Reform. By R. D. Mershon, 1081 

Report of American Society of Mechanical 

Engineers, 976 

Report of Economy and Efficiency Commis- 
sion, 1243, 1250 

Report of House of Representatives com- 

mittee, 343: Comment, 340 

Sulzer bill for a single court of patent ap- 
peals, 1302 

Trial of patent cases affected by new rules 

of equitv practice, 1252 

Patent office, German. By Carl Weihl, (D.) 64 



•Indicates illustrated articles. 



INDEX. 



Peat for power purposes. By H. V. Tegg, (D.) 

517; Comment, 475; J. TeichmuUer, 

(D.) 1385 
Pennsvlvania Electric Association, 438, 476, 545, 

577 ^ ,.^ . 

Pennsylvania electrical properties. Consolidation 

and extension, 543 
Pensions. (See Employees) 
Phase advancer for non-synchronous machines 

By A. Scherbius, (D.) "269 
Photoelectric action. By O. W. Richardson 

CD.) 888 
Photoelectric cells. By J. W. Woodrow, (D.) 

840 . , 

Photoelectrie effect of phosphorescent material 

By C. A. Butman, (D.) 518 
Photoelectric effect of some compounds. By A 

L. Hughes, (D.) 733 
Photometric pressure recorders, Dow patent, (U.) 

1108 
Photometry: 
Apparatus for measuring light and illumina. 

tion. By J. S. Dow and V. H. Mac- 

kinney, "363 . 
Central station photometric practice. By 

S. R. Keyes, 1267 
Color difference, Elimination of, in incan- 
descent lamps, by means of multi-volt- 

■age standards. By D. H. Tuck, (D.) 

1275 
Color photometry. By Lord Rayleigh, (D.) 

571 
Flicker, Comment on paper by H. E. Ives. 

753 

Heterochromatic. By H. E. Ives, CD.) 110 

International Photometric Commission, 975, 

976 
Lights of different colors. By H. E. Ives, 

(D.) 269, 671, 1384; Comment, 1295 
Photoelectric cell in. By Nichols and Mer- 

ritt. (D.) '158 
Photoelectric photometer. By Elster and 

Geitel, (D.) 459 
Photographic method for recording candle- 
power distribution curves. By Ives and 

Luckiesh, '153,; Comment, 131 
Physical photometers. By J. S. Dow, 873; 

Comment, 855 o t.t t. 
Precision photometer, Leeds & Northrup, 

10S8 „ . „ 
Selenium cell and photometry. By A. tl. 

Pfund, (D.) 110 , ^ 
Spectral luminosity curve of the average 

eye. By H. E, Ives, (D.) 127S 
Pictures, felectric transmission: 

Korn method, (D.) 789 . ,^^ ^^, 

Marino system. Bv A- Manno, (D.) 674 

Pig-iron, Electric-furnace. By Lyon and Lan- 

genberg. TD.) 323 
Pinch phenomenon, (D.R.) 788 
Pipe, Design of high-pressure steam, 1320 
Piping for transformer oil, air and cooling wa- 

ter. Design of. By Fred Buch, *1201 
Platinum. By H. F. Keller. (D.) 1222 

Diminutive separable,. Hubbell, *371 

Waterproof wall, G. E., *328 

Polarization emf of a mixture of clay, feldspar 

and quartz. By A. A. SomerviUe, 403 
Pole-height estimator. Milwaukee, *944 
Pole-line record systems. Milwaukee, *613 
Poles: 
Concrete: , t j- i* 

Cost of concreting wooden, Indianapolis, 
*724 

Hollow reinforced-concrete, Jones, *89S 

Manhattan, Kan., '948 

Reinforced cement and concrete. By 
Alfred Still, 658; Comment, 638 

Revolving molds for, 716 

Tests and deflections. 832 

V'ersus wooden. Tests, 456 
Cost of pole-line construction. By S. B. 

Hood, 781 

Joint pole-line construction, *457, 780 

^Joints for tubular steel poles, *883 

Life tests on treated and untreated chestnut 

poles, Warren-Buffalo line and Pough- 

keepsie-Newtown Square l.ine, 1148 

Painting in yard, before erecting, *612 

. Preserving. (See Timber preservation) 

Polonium, .Mpha rays of. By V. E. Pound, 

(D.) 733 
Popcorn wagon. Electric, *1048 
Portland, Ore.: . , .,, 

Electrical display at Rose Carnival, *56 

Threatened competition in, 86 

Posts. (See Street lighting) 

Potential. Production of high, for electrometer 

work. By A. H. Forman. (D.) 841 
Pottery mixtures, Polarization emf of. By A. A. 

SomerviUe. 403 
Power-factor of three-phase circuit. Determina- 
tion. By H. N. Lucas, (D.R.) 789 
Power generation. Cost of. with low-pressure 

steam turbine. By S. G. Neiler, 1205 
Power loads. (See Central-station business) 
Power plants. (See Central stations; Office 

buildings; Transmission plants) 
Power transmission. (See Transmission) 
Precipitation of suspended particles, Electric. 

By Linn Bradley. (D.) 840; W. W. 
Strong. (D.) 840 
Primary battery, Burn-Boston "Noloss." •1110 
Protection of intellectual property. By L. H. 

Baekeland. 1359 
Protective apparatus. By E. E. F. Creighton, 
(D.) 369; C. C. Badeau, 813 



Public-service corporations: 

Relation of central station to prospective 

consumer. By E. M. Addis, 863 
Relations with the public. By U. L. Gas- 
kill, 235 
Public utility laws. Investigation by National 

Civic Federation, 1252 
Pumping coal from Susquehanna River by elec- 
tricity at Plymouth, Pa., *51 
Pumping, Electric: 

Deep-well pumping. By J. E. Bullard, '510 

Emergency work at Denver, Col., *315 

-Empire District mines, Missouri and Kan- 
sas, 447 

Irrigation : 

Garden and truck farmers. Pumps for, 

•214 
Lodi, Cal.. Irrigation plant near, "714 
Pacific Power & Light Co.. 552 
Southern Idaho. By E. A. Wilcox. 
•705; Comment. 689 
Pumps: 

— ' — Centrifugal boiler-feed. ^938 
— • — -Fire pumps. Electric. *465. '1012 

Goulds vertical centrifugal, *843 

Irrigation electrical equipment, •118. *214 

^Molecular air pump. By W. Gaede, (D.) 

•1007; Comment. 975 

Multiple-stage centrifugal, Manistee, *57S 

Rotary air pump and condenser. By C. E. 

C. Shawfield. (D.) 62 

Sand pumps. Cost of operating electric, 879 

Sump, Goulds motor-driven centrifugal, "leS 

Punch and shear press, Cleveland motor-driven. 

•68 
Pyrometers: 

Calibration of radiation and optical pyrome- 
ters. By G. A. Shook, (D.) 113, 621 
Continuous chart recording. Brown, *955 



Quarries, Electricity in, Martinsburg, W. Va., 
•463 



Radiators, Electric, Simplex, •lOlO 

Radioactive elements. Chemical compounds of 
short-lived. By H. Schrader, (D.) 416 

Radiological Institute of the University of Heid- 
elberg, (D.) 1056 

Radiometer, Joule. By F. W. Jordan, (D.) 
1277 

Radium C, V'olatility of. By A. S. Russell, (D.) 
519 

Radium standard. By W. Neumann, (D.) 573 

Railless traction: 

Berlin to Steylitz. By W. A. T. Muller, 

(D.) Ill 

Dundee, (D.R.) 840 

Railophone. By H. von Kramer, (D.) 1385 

Kails, Corrugation, British report, (D.) 887 

Railway loads for central stations. 227 

Railway terminal. Grand Central, New York, 
•1309 

Railways: 

.-\ustralia. Single-phase versus direct current 

for suburban traction, (D.) 1276 

Berlin, Germany, Electrification work, (D.) 

63 

Billings, Mont., Storage-batterv car, ^261 

Brazil. By L. Wiener, (D.R.) 518 

Budapest. By J. F. de Tovaros, (D.R.) 733, 

1056, 1107 

Car meters. By W. Clough, (D.) 209 

-Car mileage. Calculating. By W. Wykes, 

(D.) 518 

-Cars, Pay-as-you-enter, in North America. 

By H. M. Howard. (D.) 208 

Cars. Storage-battery, Billings, Mont.. *261 

Chicago conditions, (D.) 839 

— —Cologne, Germany. Bv R. Kruger, (D.R.) 
460, 518 

-Denver & Rio Grande electrification, 1078 

Dessau-Bitterfeld, Overhead work, (D.) 733 

^Determination of tramway networks. By 

A. J. Lawson, (D.) 270 

Direct current versus single-phase traction, 

(D.) 1328 

Discussion of tramways, omnibuses and rail- 
less traction. By A. H. Pott. CD.) 208 

France, Single-phase system in Haute- 

Vienne district. By P. Chazaux, (D.) 
788 

Generation and primary distribution of en- 
ergy for given areas. Discussion of 
paper by Samuel Insull, 22, 24 

— ■ — Hamburg, Germany: 

Elevated. By W. Mattersdorff. (D.) 63, 

111, 209, 368 
New Metropolitan Ry. By G. Cuvillier, 
(D.R.) 415, 51S 

Illinois (Central, Electrification of suburban 

service, 132 

Intermittency in traction for city and sub- 
urban service. By W. Y. Lewis, (D.) 
63 

Italy. By G. Calzolari, (D.) 1329; (D.) 

1385 

Leeds municipal system. Financial account. 

(D.) 368 

Light railways of Belgium and Prussia. By 

R. Haas, (D.R.) 415 

Lincoln, England, Financial statement, (D.) 

839 

'Indicates illustrated articles. 



system. 



By T. Fekl, (D.) 270 

By H. Bebn-Eschen- 

W. Kummer, (D.R.) 

Lorain, England. 



Railways: (Continued) 

London subway extension, (D.) 460 

Multiple-voltage electric-traction 

Ward Leonard patent, '295 
New York Central, Grand Central Terminal, 

•1309 
New York New Haven & Hartford, Boston- 
Providence electrification, 184 

Norway, Single-phase traction at Rjukanfos. 

By F. Marguerre, (D.l 949. 1006, 1220 

Paris, Reorganization, (D.) 1329 

' Problems of traction. 

Single-phase traction. 

burg, (D.) 158; 

572 
Surface-contact system, 

(D.) 839 
Track maintenance. By W. Thorn, (D.) 

208 

Upper Silesia, (D.) 888 

Rainbow Falls transmission plant, *37: Com- 
ment, 2 
Ranges, Electric: 

Copeman range and fireless cooker, ^954 

Miniature, Simplex. ^956 

Thompson's Spa, Boston, ^892, 1012 

Rates. (See Charging for electric current) 
Rathenau medal founded in American Museum 

of Safety, *1245 
Reactance, Synchronous and asynchronous. By 

J. Rezelman, (D.) 61 
Reactance coil used with generator supplying 

railway load, Deptford station, London, 

(D.) '619 
Reactors, Porcelain-clad, *1332 
Receptacles, Cutler-Hammer attachment plug, 

•1161 
Recoil atoms in ionized air. By A. F. Kova- 

rik, (D.) 1220 
Records, forms and files for solicitors. By J. E, 

North, 1377 
Rectifiers: 
Crystal. Use of. By R. H. Goddard, (D.) 

160 

Edison alternating-current, '891 

Vibrating, for charging three-cell batteries, 

Westinghouse, *1281 
Rectifying effect. Bv H. Rohmann, (DJ 415 
Rectifying valves. Connections of electrolytic. 

By G. E. Bairstro, (D.) 368 
Reflectors: 

Cassidy, for desk lamp, '1387 

Industrial metal dome, *274 

National X-Ray, *1009 

Reynolds reflector and flasher, •ll? 

Refrigeration: 

(Jentral-station ice-making. By H. J. Mac- 

intire. 359 

Household plant for ice-box, ^163 

^Lexington, Ky., Central-station ice-making, 

•1023 
— —Packing house and butcher shop, St. Louis, 

•623 
Regulators; 
Feeder-voltage. By E. E. Lehr, (D.R.) 

1056 
Pressure, Automatic. By S. T. Watson, 

(D.) 158 
Single-phase induction, Siemens-Schuckert, 

(D.) 1220 
Speed regulator for small motors. Midget, 

•1009 
Voltage regulator for house lighting, Edison, 

956 
Relativity, Theory of. By R. D. Carmichael, 

(D.) 950 
Relay auxiliary contact for aluminum check 

cell, *725 
Relays; 

On alternating-current circuits. Practical in- 
stallation of. By C. E. Freeman. ^924 
• Protective systems, European and American 

practice. By L. L. Elden. ^18 

Sensitive, the KK detector, (D.) '840 

Resistance, Effect of magnetic fields on. By C. 

W. Heaps, (D.) 1330 
Resistance of contacts. By L. Binder, (D.) 

787 
Resistance of metals. Effect of vibration on. By 

H. L. Brakel, (D.) 951 
Resistance material, British patent. (D.) 1007 
Resistivity of oxide powders with temperature. 

By A. A. SomerviUe. (D.) 113 
Resistor, (jraphite compression, for large rheo- 
stats, Allen-Bradley, *1059 
Resuscitation from electric shock. By C. A. 

Lauffer, 545 
Rheostats: 

Allen-Bradley small controlling, *1279 

• -Compound starting and regulating, Inde- 
pendent, ^576 
Water-cooled iron-pipe, capable of dissipat- 
ing 1500 kw continuously, ^715 
Riverdale plant of Weber & Davis Counties Co., 

near Ogden, Utah, •1191; Comment, 

1175 
Riveter. Electric, Flohr, (D.) ^370 
Rock River hydroelectric development, •871 
Roentgen radiation from substance of low atomic 

weight. By Sadler and Mesham, (D.) 

369' 
Roentgen radiation from carbon. Distribution 

and qualitv of the secondary. By H. 

Pealing, (D.) 1159 
Rolling mills. (See Industrial plants) 
Royal Society, Anniversary of. By Brother Po- 

tamian, 233 
Rubber: 

Report of Rubber Central Bureau for Ger- 
man colonies, (D.) 462 



INDEX. 



XI 



Kaempf, 
W. S. 



Grip- 
By 



T. Donnelly 
patent, (U.) 



Rubber : (Continued) 

Synthetic. By A. J. Beaver, (D.) 272; A. 

Troller, (D.) 674 
Ruhmkorff coil, Influence of condenser on the 

working of. By W. H. Wilson, (D.) 

•620 



Safety precautions around electrical apparatus, 
•827 

Safety rules for electrical construction, Indiana 
Harbor, Ind., 1270 

Sag formulas. (See Transmission, Electric) 

Salaries, Solicitors', Unit schedule for, 940 

Sale of energy. (See Central-station business) 

Salt vapors in flames. Diffusion of. By H. A. 
Wilson, (D.) 416 

San Francisco: 

Board of Supervisors, 699 

— — Hctch Hetchy water and power project, 
1185 

Transportation problem, 693 

Saws, Electrically operated, *524, *1226 

Screen cover for manhole workers, 457 

Screens. Electric, to kill insects, 465 

Search-lamps, Troubleman's portable, *676 

Search-lanterns: 

Gun-carriage type, *1279 

Linemen's, 939 

Selenium: 

Saturation current in. By F. 
1159 

Sensitive selenium cell. By 

enberg. (D.) 370 

Variation of resistance of, with voltage. 

E. E. Fournier d'Albe, (D.) 159 

Sewage : 

—Electrolytic purification. By F. C Cald- 
well, 236 

Purification by ozone, Trenton, N. J., 604 

Sewing machines. Motor-driven, *67, (D.) 733 

Shaft lining. Application for electric iron, 455 

Shears; 

Bliss circle-cutting, *275 

Portable motor-operated, *67 

Ships: 

Electric propulsion. By W. 

and G. A. Orrok, '1127 

Electric propulsion, British 

1276 

Electric propulsion, three-phase system. By 

Zickler and Czepek, (D,) *414; Com- 
ment, 386 

Electric propulsion of U. S. collier "Jupiter," 

•251; By E. Berg, (D.) 619; H. A. 
Mavor, (D.) 840 

Launching ci the "Jupiter." 436 

Steering gear. Electro-hydraulic, on the 

"Orama," (D.) 572 

Shoe cleaner, motor-driven, *1101 

Shoe machinery, Electric, *957 

Shoes, Insulating, ^1163 

Shop management, Scientific. By G. C. AI ling- 
ham, (D.) 1109 

Sign and decorative lighting: 

Baltimore search-lamp illumination, 'lO? 

Boston electric show. Exterior lighting. By 

Louis Bell, "525 

— —Buffalo General Electric building, *1215 

Fire engineers' sign, *784 

Halifax. N. S., 513 

Lebanon, Pa., *8S3 

Louisville, Ky., *998 

Muskogee, Okia, '262 

Portland, Ore., *56, *26S 

St. Louis theater front, *1214 

Salt Lake City, Hotel Utah, '207 

Vancouver, B. C., '882 

(See also Street lighting) 

Signals, Electric: 

— —Ball ground apparatus, Boston. *277 

Block system in Berlin, (D.) 1385 

Hospital lamp signal system, *612 

• Railophone wireless inductive system of 

automatic railway signaling, (D.) 272 

Submarine signaling. History and develop- 
ment. By H. J. W. Fay, 25 

Signs, Electric: 

Armorduct Mfg. Co., '65 

Clock, *791 

Delivery wagon flashing signs, *374 

Foster arc lamp signs, *ld09 

Interchangeable illuminated sidewalk sign, 

•1156 

Lincoln. Neb., Co-operative signs, *1151 

New type, *956 

Newton, Mass., *525 

Remote-control switches for flat-rate signs, 

Topeka. Kan., 1046 

Sandusky, Ohio, sign, *523 

Security of Chicago, 358 

Talking signs, the Bickley Motograph, De- 
troit. *58 

Silicon carbide plant of Norton Co., Chippewa, 
Ontario. By F. A. J. Fitzgerald, (D.) 

Singing arc, Experimental investigation. By T. 
E. Hoyt, (D.) 1277 

Skin effect in conductor with circular cross- 
section. By P. Girault, (D.) 323 

Skin-effect co-efficients. By H. S. Wallau, 1156 

Smelting, Electric, of zinc ores. By W. R. In- 
galls, (D.) 323 

Smoke prevention. Fireman's use of mirror in 
watching stack, 825 

Society of Automobile Engineers, 6 



Society for Electrical Development, 754, 858, 
1026, 1181 

Society for the Promotion of Engineering Edu- 
cation, 5, 133 

Solar energy. Fixation of, 591 

Solenoids, Mutual inductance of. By G. K. 
Olshausen, (D. R.) 621 

Sons of Jove. By H. H. Cudmore, 617 

Sources of energy available for power geneia- 
tion. By H. S. Hele-Shaw, (D.) 1056 

South America, Electrical industry in. By L. 
W. Schmidt, (D. R.) 840, 890 

Spain, Electrical industry in. By von Scheren, 
(D.) 1385 

Spark, Oscillating, Determination of current- 
potential curves. By S. R. Milner, 
(D.) 1108 

Spark-gaps in running liquids. By Eccles and 
Makower, (D.) 890 

Sparking in direct-current machinery, minimiz- 
ing. By Jens Bache-Wiig, 605 ; Com- 
ment, 590 

Sparks, Dust figures produced by electrical. By 
Barton and Kilby, (D.) 1108 

Spectacular lighting. (See Sign and decorative 
lighting) 

Speed indicators: 

Electric, *954 

Telephone transmitter used as, *164 

Standardization rules, German, (D.) 732 

Stands for working on inverted electric irons, 
724 

Starting resistances and motor fuses. By K. 
Jasse, (D.) 518 

Steam turbines: 

Commercial efficiency, 995 

Diesel engines and steam turbines. By 

Gercke, (D.) 518 

Essen, built by Escher, Wyss & Co., (D.) 

1158 

Exhaust disks, •1376 

Exhaust heating from. By A. H. Kruesi, 8 

Mixed-pressure turbine and steam regener- 
ator. By E. D. Dickinson. 757 

Operation of mixed-pressure turbines. By 

R. C. Muir, (D.) 367 

Parallel-flow, Kerr, *276 

Rateau mixed-pressure, *213 

Steel: 

Comparative magnetic tests. By E. Gum- 

lich. (D). 64 

Magnetic and elastic properties. By C. W. 

Waggoner, (D.) 271 

Magnetic properties of manganese and 

nickel steels. Ev Hilpert and Mathesius, 
(D.) 1220 

Refining, Electric. By R. Amberg. (D.) 673 

Self-demagnetization. By Smith and Guild, 

(D) 416 

Steel mills. (See Industrial plants) 

Stcinmetz on the future of the electrical indus- 
try, 911 

Sterling Debenture Corporation, 1359 

Storage batteries: 

Automobile batteries, Discussions at Boston 

convention, 876 

Burning of plate lugs, (D. R.) 1221 

Central-station practice in Chicago, 778 

Charging without a booster. By R. Edler, 

(D.) •368 

— — Discussion at Chicago, 1181 

Hannover, in Copenhagen, (D.) 64 

Voltage regulation. By C. Kjar, (D.) '950 

Storage-battery multiple-unit traction system, 
•1060 

Storage-battery legulation of low-head water- 
power plant. *932 

Stoves, Electric. (See Cooking, Electric) 

Street lighting: 

^—Alameda, Cal., "946 

Baltimore. Down-town. "726 

^Billinjrs, Mont.. Remote control, "568 

Chattanooga. Tenn., 1380 

Chicago: 

Column transparencies, *785 
Dearborn Street, 1128 
Flame arcs. 514 
Height of arc lamps, •264 
Operations under contract with the 
Sanitarv District, *772, •822; Com- 
ment. 80S 
Park lighting with flame arcs, *569 
Private ornamental lighting, *614 
Quartz- tube mercury- vapor lamps, ^478 
Standardization of fixtures, 1103 

Cincinnati and Chattanooga, Inverted mag- 
netite lighting, 1155 

Columbus, Ohio, *]155 

Comparative light distribution and operating 

costs of tungsten and arc lighting. By 
H. H. Magdsick, 319 

Dayton. Ohio, Automatic control of curb 

lighting from switchboard, ^513 

Des Moines, la.: 

Co-operative lighting. 881 
Viaduct lighting. "1052 

Discussion at Pittsburgh, 1353 

Electricity versus gas, Tests at Manchester, 

England. By T. Osborne, 1265; Com- 
ment, 1242 

Emporia, Kan., Use of trolley poles, •1218 

Fitchburg, Mass.. 202 

-Fort Wayne, Ind., Artificial granite posts. 



By 

111., 



361 
-Fort Worth, Tex., 

police-call and 
-Future possibilities. 



Combination white-way. 
fire-alarm posts, *3]9 
By D. M. Diggs, 979 



-Gas versus electricity, (D.) 1106 
-Great Falls, Mont., Frontage charges, 

"Indicates illustrated articles. 



•358 



Street lighting: (Continued) 

Height of arc lamps, Chicago, "264 

Houston, Tex., magnetite arcs, "153 

Jonesboro, Ark., "516 

Kansas City, Mo., Tungsten posts, "1051 

—Lincoln, Neb., "1103 

Maiden, Mass., Legal decision, 916 

Manchester, Eng., Tests of electricity and 

gas. By T. Osborne, 1265; Comment, 
1242 

Marion, Ind., Lighting used as police aux- 
iliary, •785, 1151 

Mercury-vapor, quartz-tube lamps, Chicago, 

•478 

Milwaukee, Grand avenue viaduct, "515 

Minneapolis, Curb post with flower bas- 
ket, "832 

Mobile. Ala., 882 

New York illumination for naval pageant, 

'811 

Omaha, Neb., Flame-arcs, "1155 

Pasadena, Cal., Bronze posts, "1003 

Peoria, 111., Remote-controlled operation, 

•1154 

Pittsburgh, Flaming arcs, *677 

Pueblo, Col., Flaming arcs, 53 

Rochester, N. Y., "728 

St. Louis, "784 

Park bridge, ^832 

Standards at public buildings, *1325 

White Way lamp, "1052 

Seattle, Wash., "58 

Seneca Falls, N. Y., "1270 

Toronto, Ontario, Features of the installa- 
tion. By K. L. Aitken, "493 ; Com- 
ment, 474 

Utica, N. Y., Luminous arc lamps, 438, *521 

Wiring arrangement, Economical, Worces- 
ter, Mass., "263 

Worcester, Mass., street lighting case, De- 
cision, 190 

(See also Sign and decorative lighting) 

Street-lighting tables, 1185, Sup. Dec. 7 

Stroboscopic effects obtainable with incandes- 
cent filaments as illuminants. By C. 
F. Lorenz, "1146; Comment, 1121 

Substations: 

Butte, Mont., Great Falls Power Co., *41 

Chicago Sanitary District, *825 

Design of high-tension stations. By C. M. 

Rhoades, (D.) 949 

Jordan River development, British Colum- 
bia, 820 

-Pacific Power & Light Co., "554 

Portable, "372, "1040 

- — —Reinforced concrete, Sacramento, Cal. 
R. B. Mateer, "1213 

Remote-controlled switching, Peoria, 

"1102 

Sulphur content of fuel,. 994 

Switch boxes: 

Combined switch and fuse box, *67S 

Convenient, "843 

-Extension elbows and boxes for interior 

wiring, Fancleve, "1061 

Switchboards: 

Garage, "1059 

Inexpensive temporary panel, "610 

Switches: 

Battery and magneto, Fahnestock, *793 

Condit disconnecting, "212 

Cord switch for portable device, Cutler- 
Hammer, *418 

Curbside double-throw feeder switches at 

Fort Wor;h, Tex., 410 

^Disconnect switch for feeder regulators, 

"667 

Heating and cooking. By W. P. Maycock, 

(D. R.) 518 

Light indicating switch for heating and 

cooking appliances, "521 
, Locking device for disconnecting, "1058 

Mercury, Hatfield, (D.) "1159 

Oil: 

Disconnect coupling for oil-switch leads, 

"361 
Experiments. By F. Marguerre, (D.) 

322 
General Electric, *895 
Large-rating, Condit, "166 
Tests of different types. By F. Mar- 
guerre, (D. R.) 271 

Pressure-control, Garton, "1223 

—Railway, motor-operated, "454 

Safety-stop switches for conveyor, *507 

Starting, for alternating-current motors: 

Allen-Bradley, "1224 
Dustin patent, "506 

33, 000-volt, double-throw, three-pole, weather- 
proof, Delta-Star, "278 

— — Weatherproof, Delta-Star, "623 

Symbols, Electrical, for mine maps, 1204 



Table^ Electric service. ^512, "1388 
Tannmg, Electrolytic, (D.) 1330 _ 
Tariff. (See Charging for electric current) 
Telegraph lines 

Artificial, Brown patent, (D.) 1008 

-Military lines using polarized sounder as 

receiving instrument. By G. R. Guild, 

25 
Protection from high-tension lines. By 

Girousse, (D.R.) 462 
Telegraphy: 
— —Photo-telegraphy, Korn method, (D.) 789 



XII 



INDEX. 



Telegraphy : tContinuedj 

Submarine, Development, liy M. Roscher, 

(D. R.) 462 

Submarine relays, Brown patent, (D.) 890 

Submarine, Theory. By H. \V. Malcolm, 

tD.) 210, 324, 621, 674, 789 

Transatlantic cables. By K. W. Wagner, 

(D.R.) 789 

(See also Wireless telegraphy) 

Telephone booths, Ventilating system, *1223 
Telephone cable boxes with constant high insu- 
lation. By Ebeling and Deibel, (D.) 

841 
Telephone courtesy reminder, *611 
Telephone exchanges: 

Mainz, Germany. By Blohmer, (D.R.) 573, 

621 

Operators required, Determining. By F. 

Ambrosius, (D.) 462 
Telephone lines: 

^Bimetallic wires, (D.) 789 

Disturbances from single-phase railways. 

By F. Marguerre. (D.) 1278 

Interference by transmission lines, Lincoln. 

111., case. 387. *391, 436 

Loaded lines in Europe, (D.) 890 

Parallel high-tension lines. Court decision, 

87 
Protection from high-tension lines. By 

Girousse, (D.R.) 462 
Telephone mouthpiece, Electrcse, 'IllS 
Telephone patents, 109, 207. 320. 366, 413, 45S. 

570, 617. 670, 786. 837, 886, 1004, 1052, 

1105. 1156, 1273 
Telephone rates and service, Chicago, Bemis re- 
port, 976, 1132 
Telephone receivers. Impedance of, as affected 

by the motion of their diaphragms. By 

A. E. Kennelly and G. W. Pierce, *56p; 

Comment, 538 
Telephone-testing set, Holtzer-Cabot, *1060 
Telephone transmitter arm, Western Electric, 

•325 
Telephone transmitter as speed indicator, *164 
Telephony: 
Automatic svstems. By G. H. Green, (D.) 

1160. 1222. 1278 

■ Compensator, Brown patent, (D.) 1008 

Interference due to single-phase railroads. 

By G. Stein, (D.) 520 

Low-speed telephone, (D.) 1330 

Microphone improvement, (D.) 951 

Phenomena investigation. By A. P. Con- 
nor, 837 
Submarine cables. By Devaux-Charbonner. 

(D.) 113 
Vibrations of telephone diaphragms. By 

Meyer and Whitehead, 26 

(See also Wireless telephony) 

Temperatures, Determination of very high. By 

G. A. Shook, .(D.) 417 
Tennessee hydroelectric developments, 201 
Testing material under repeated stress. Device 

for. By B. P. Haigh, (D.) *951 
Theaters, Electricity in. By R. (jrau, '215 

• Winnipeg, Manitoba, *409 

Theft of electricity, St. Louis, 1047 
Thermocouples, Base-metal. By O. L. Kowalke, 

(D.) 789 
Thermo-electricity, Electronic theory of. By O. 

W. Richardson, (D.) 1159 
Thermometers: 
Comparison of platinum resistance with gas, 

(D.) 621 
Platinum, Bridge methods for resistance 

measurements. By F. E. Smith, (D.) 

•889 ' 

Thomson effect. Measuring. By H. R. Nettle- 
ton, (D.) 1530 
Thousand Springs, Idaho, Development of water 

power, *43 
Three-wire system controlled with induction reg- 
ulators, •1153 
Thury system of power transmission bv contin- 
uous currents. Bv Alfred Still, *1093. 

•1144; Comment, 1120 
Tides, Utilizing energy of, 453; bv E. F. G. 

Pein, (D.) 1006. 1055 
Timber preservation. By W. Mangtelow, (D.) 

619; Malenkovic, (D.R.) 733 
Aczol, a new preservative. By W. Mankte- 

low. (D.) 271 

Proeress made with poles. Bv E. F. Pe- 

^iritsch, (D.) 1107 
Tar oil impregnation of wooden poles. By 

R. Nowotney, (D.R.) 271 
Tyler. Tex., Method at. By W. C. Thayer, 

948 

Water-gas tar, 941 

Time recorder. Industrial Instrument Co., *1115 

Toaster, Electric. Helion, ^735 

Tower wagons, Electric, •940, *953 

Towers: 

Erection of transmission lines for Utah 

Light & Railwav Co.. Cost data. By 

L. J. Riter. •246 
Flexible, for overhead transmission lines. 

By A. Still. *97; Comment. 83 

Keokuk-St. Louis transmission line, '496 

Steel. Life of, 836 

Wooden, with steel bowspring cross-arm for 

100.000-volt line, '403 
Trade outlook, 1123 

Train resistance and tonnage rating, 102 
Transformers: 

Bell-ringing, Westinghouse. *678 

Conversion of three-phase into single-phase 

currents of triple frequency. By F. 

Spinelli. (D.) •1054; A. M. Taylor. 

(D.) •1106 



Transformers: (Continued; 

Current rushes on the connection of trans- 
formers to the line. By T. D. Yensen, 
(D.) •838 

Design of. By M. Vidmar, (D.) 1219 

Dredge, Transformers in, 923 

High-frequency discharges in high-tension 

transformers. By A. J. Makower, (D.) 
•838 

Instrument, Methods for compensation of 

errors and of testing. By C. Toone, 
(D.R.) 621 

Operation of tub-lransformer secondaries in 

series, '1103 

Pittsburgh outdoor high tension, 1226 

Pole-type, Foster. '792 

Reactance, Use of, in. By W. S. Moody, 

806, 809. 1004 

Replacing old cores with new ones. By 

T. G. Homan, 501 

Strains, Abnormal. By C. P. Steinmetz, 

(D.) 1219 

Testing instrument. Bv Agnew and Silsbee, 

•35 

Three-phase distributing, serving Milwaukee 

factory, '613 
Transient phenomenon in opening a circuit. Bv 
K. Meyer, (D.) 415 

Transmission. Electric: 

.Aluminum conductors for overhead lines, 

European experience. By C. L. John- 
son, *44; Comment, 3 

Angle construction on 50, 000- volt line in 

Montana. ^457 

-Clamp insulators without tie-wires, St. Louis, 

•725 

Corona, Law of, and dielectric strength of 

air. By F. W. Peek. Jr., 13. (D.) 
1219; J. B. Whitehead, 14; Comment. 3 

Corona loss on experimental line. By C. F. 

Harding, 13 

Corona losses. By K. Zickler. (D.) 733 

Direct-current series system of Metropolitan 

Electric Supplv Co., London. By J. S. 
Highfield. (D.) 62 

Discussion, Ohio Electric Light Associa- 
tion, 234 

Disturbances of potential ^nd current pro- 
duced in an active conducting network 
by the application of a leak load. 
By A. E. Kennelly_ '1373 

Empire District Electric Co.. Missouri and 

Kansas lead and zinc mines, *445 

Flexible supports for overhead lines, Sag 

stresses. By A. Still. 97; Comment. 83 

Ground- return distribution systems, 291 

High-voltage transformers. By H. H. 

Hodgman. (D.) 1383 

Illinois. Northern, High-tension distribution 

and unification in. Bv H. B. Gear, 
•1095. 1096; (Tomment, '1076 

— — ^Inductance of aerial split conductors. By 
Louis Cohen, 994: Comment, 974 

Investigation of high-tension tiansmission 

hazards by Bureau of Standards. J301 

Investigation of transmission line phenomena 

by means of hyperbolic functions. By 
.A. E. Kennelly. 306; Comment, 293 

Iron-pipe alley construction, *1104 

Joint pole-line construction, ^45 7 

Jordan River development, British Colum- 
bia. 821 

Keokuk-St. Louis long-distance line, *496 

Laying out angles, (D.) 1276 

Magnetic leakage. By J. M. Weed, fD.) 

1383 

— — Network problems. By R. Appleyard, (D.) 
620 

Newark, Ohio. Reconstruction of line-^. *409 

Operation of mixed underground and over- 
head high-tension lines, 718 

— —Pacific Power & Light Co., ^554 

Pennsylvania Water & Power Co., *397 

Propagation of electric energy for standing 

and traveling waves. Exoerimental test. 
Bv J. F, H. Douglas. *'311; Comment. 
293 

Rural line with iron-cable conductors. 945 

Sag and stress determinations, Thomas 

chart of, 1024,, 1042, Sup. Nov. 16 

Sags and stresses in aluminum spans. Chart 

for determining, 374 

Sag formulas for overhead wires and cables. 

By H. V. Carpenter, 101: Comment, 83 

Sags in long spans. Investigation of. at 

Massachusetts Institute of Technologv. 
bv Codding and Brackett, 606 ; Com 
m'ent, 590 

San Diego Consolidated Gas & Electric Co . 

1099 

Thurv system, bv continuous currents. By 

Alfred Still, ♦1093. •1144; Comment, 
1120 

— LTtah Light & Railway Co.. Erection of 

lines, details and cost data of double- 
circuit steel towers. ] 
•246 

Voltage drop on overhead 

Forrsblad. (D.) 1385 

(See also Poles; Towers) 

Transmission plants: 

Appalachian Power Co., i 

Energv for coal fields, 
1119 

Bergen. Norway, •1257; Comment. 1241 

TMg Creek development, California. •480 

-British Columbia Electric Railw.Tv Co., Tor- 
dan River development. '767. •817; 
Comment. 7.''! 

Canadian Light & Power Co., Beauharnois 

Canal at St. Timothee, Quebec. '241 



L. T. 



Riter 

lines. Bv Nils 



Transmission slants: (Continued) 

East Creek Electric Light & Power Co., 

Inghams Mills, N. Y.. "443 
France, in Northern part. By J. Reyval, 

(D.) 1384 
-Luzerne County Gas & Electric Co., King- 
ston, Pa., '921; Comment, 907 
Maritime Coal, Railway & Power Co., Chig- 

nee to mine plant, '655: Comment. 637 
New England Power Co., in Massachusctti 

and Vermont, *1365; Comment, 1349 
Ogden, Utah, Riverdale plant of Weber & 

Davis Counties Co., *1191; Comment, 

1175 
Pacific Power & Light Co.. System, •SSI; 

Comment, 537 
Pennsylvania Water & Power Co., Holt- 
wood, Pa., '395: Comment. 385 
Portland Railway, Light & Power Co., Esta- 

cada. Ore. By £. A. West, *91; Com- 

ment, 81 
Rainbow Falls, Mont., Great Falls Power 

Co.. '37; (Jomment, 2 

Rhone River to Paris, (D.) 63 

Southern Sierras Power Co.. *298 

West Kootenay Power & Light Co., System 

of, in mining region around Rossland, 

B. C, ^193; Comment. 179 
Western Canada Power Co., Stave Falls, 

B. C, 143, '489 
Whatcom County Railway & Light Co., Bel- 

lingham, Wash., •HI; Comment, 129 
Trucks, Electric, for fire departments. 1247, 1281 
Trucks, Meter, Springfield, Mass., •1322 
Tungsten; 

Dates in the history of, 912 

New uses for. 556 

Tungsten lamps. (See Incandescent lamps) 

Turbines: 

Gas, Summary of various researches. By 

D. Clerk. (D.R.) 788 

Hydraulic, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 625 

Steam. (See Steam turbines) 



U 



Unit, New, the myrawatt. By Stott and O'Neill, 

32; Comment, 2 
Unit of capacity. By K. Fisclier, (D.R.) 621 



\'acuum cleaner, Eclipse portable. '1058 

V'alves, Electrolytic rectifying. Connections of. 
By G. E. Bairsto, (D.) •368 

Vapor lamp. New metallic, with white light. By 
M. Wolfke, (D.) 671 

\'ehicle call system, Edwards. •1113 

Veneer cutter. Motor-driven, *1269 

Ventilation of Ritz-Carlton Hotel, 1062 

Vibration recorder used with motor-generators. 
Pacific Gas & Electric Co. By E. E. 
Hall, *200; Comment. ISl 

Voltage regulation. By F. VV. Shackelford, (D.) 
413 

Voltage regulators. Fuss patent, (D.) 367 

Voltages, Dangerously 'rph, Sources and pro- 
tective devices, liv F. Klost, (D.) 415: 
G. Giles. (D.) 4 15 

Voltameter, Silver H> E. B. Rosa, G. W. 
Vinal and H. S. McDaniel, 1261, •1262; 
Comment, 1243 

\'oltmeter test boxes at distribution points, Kan- 
sas City, *941 

X'oltmeters. New design. By Goldschmidt, (D.) 
•788 

\'ulcanizer. Electric, *735 



w 



on New River. 
•1141: Comment, 



Washing machine. Electric, Dodge & Zuill, '675 

Water heaters. Electric. By W. R. Cooper, (D.) 
•159 

Foster, ^1279 

Water power: 

Conference on water-power regulation at 

Washington, 1124 

Development, Benefits of, and its relation- 
ship to navigation improvement. By 
J. E. Hewes, 1200 

Distribution of conserved resources through 

existing public-utility enterprises, 931; 
Comment, 909 

Federal water power policy, Report of Secre- 
tary Fisher, 1304; Comment, 1294 

Italy, Adamello Electric Supply Co., (D.) 

322, 368 

National commission to solve problems pro- 
posed, 859 

President Taft's message to Congress, 1245 

Some peculiarities of, 908 

Switzerland. (D.R.) 270 

Tennessee hydroelectric developments, 201 

Water purification bv ozone, St. Petersburg, Rus- 
sia, (D.) '620 

Water strainer, Lagonda, *1391 

Waterwheels: 

Repair of cracked. •256 

Runaway speed of, and its effect on con- 
nected rotary machiner>'. By D. W. 
Mead. 18 

Watt-hour meters: 

Accuracv, Effect of ratio and time-phase 

angle. By A. Maxwell, 30 

-Huge direct-current, 1062 



•Indicates illustrated articles. 



INDEX. 



Xlll 



Vatt-hour meters: (Continued) 

Improper connections. Uy F. Niethammer, 

No-load loss. By H. Bueggelin, (D.) 1330 

Portable, Sangamo, *524 

Railway, General Electric, "1387 

Temperature errors in tests, 199 , _ , 

Testing of large. By Ingalls and Cowles, 

30 

Wattmeters: 

Compensating. By A. L. Ellis, *34 

Connections of three-phase. Correct and in- 
correct. By C. K. Riker, (D.) 789 

Maximum-demand, Boddie, *328 

Thermo-electric, for weak alternating cur- 
rents. By W. Gerlach, CD.) 210 

Wlave detectors. Electromagnetic. By R. H. 
Goddard, (D.) 160 

Waves, Bending of electric. By J. W. Nichol- 
.son, (U.) 1108 

Welding, Electric. By V. D. Green (D.) 1221, 

Toledo electric spot welder, *953; By H. J. 

Glaubitz, 1105 
West Penn Traction Si Water Power Co., 5-13 
Western Union Telegraph Co., annual report, 

859 
Williams, Arthur, *595 ,, j . „ 

Winches and pulley hoists. Motor-driven. By 

H. Thieme, *1263 
Wind velocity. Electrical measurement of. By 

J. T Morris, 857, (D.) 889 
Winding engines. Electric. By A. E. du Pas- 

quier, (D.) 1219 . 
Economy in operation, for mines. By w. 

Philippi, CD.) 1276 
Winding plant, Electric at coal mine, (D.) 839 
Windings: , . _ 
Standard instrument and transformer. By 

C. C. Garrard, (D.) 210 
Three-phase windings for single-phase serv-. 

ice. By W. J. Foster, (D.) 367 
Wireless telegraphy: 

Antennas, Measuring self-mduction and ca- 
pacity. By A. Esau, (D.) 370 

.-Xrlington, Va.. station tested, 910 

.Atmosphere, Effect of. on transmitters and 

receivers. By A. Esau, CD.) 520 
— — .Atmospheric disturbances. By Hosier, CD-) 

1109 
Bill in Congress regulating radio-communi- 
cation, 388 
Condensers. By Toiikata and Yokoyama, 

CD.) 952 
Design of station. By Shunkichi, CD.) 1008: 

Kimura, CD.) 1057, 1109 
Detector, of crystal type, CD.) '211 



Wireless Telegraphy: CContinued) 

Earth antennas. By W. Burstyn, (D.) 210 

Efficiency of "earths." By C. A. Culver, 

1319; Comment, 1294 
Efficiency of generation of high-frequency 

oscillations by means of an induction 

coil and ordinary spark-gap. By Howe 

and Peattie, CD.) 460 
Emission of electromagnetic waves from 

antenna. By C. Gutton, CD.R.) 621 
Frog-muscle recorder for electric waves, 

CD.) *951 
Generator, Goldschmidt high-frequency, CD.) 

*324 
Generator, High-frequency. By E. F. W . 

Alexanderson, CD.) 160 
Inductive tuner. By J. O. Mauborgne, CD.) 

417 
Low-frequency circuit in spark telegraphy. 

By L. B. Turner, (D.) 520 

London Conference, 84, 180, 182, 639, 648 

Marconi contract with British government. 

Proposed, 389 
Propagation of waves. By W. H. Eccles, 

CD.) 952 
Radiation efficiency of transmitters. By L. 

B. Turner, (D.) 520 

Sayville, N. Y., station, 1297 

Ship installations. By H. Bredow, CD.) 

1008, 1057 ^ ^ 

Bill requiring equipment of, passed by 
Congress, 183 

Merchant marine. By H. Thurn, CD.) 
1008, 1057 

Statistics concerning. By H. Thurn, 
CD.) 951 
Triangular aerial. Properties of. By C. 

A. Culver. *452 
Tuning transmitters. By P. Boudier, CD.) 

1278 
Wireless telephone microphone, Egner — Holm- 
Strom's, for large currents. By G. 

Holmstrom, CD.) 211 
Wiremen, Licensing journeymen, Omaha, Neb.. 

1051 
Wires and wiring: 

Aluminum conductors. By F. Marguerre, 

(D.) 460; Huber Stockar, CD.) 1159 

Diagram for determination of deflection 
and stress, (D.) 322 

European experience. By C. L. John- 
son, "44; Comment, 3 
Attaching plates for ground wires. Cope, 

*165 
Calculation of flexible pole lines. By A. 

Still, '97; Comment, 83 



Mi- 



By 



Wires and wiring: (Continued) 

Calculation of networks. By E. Mattansit, 

(D.) 63 
Carrying capacities of Nichrome resistor 

wire at high temperatures. By C. P. 

Madsen, 1098 
Cold-storage room wiring. By W. J. Can- 
ada, 59 , J , 
Colored wire for switchboards and panels, 

Kansas City, •1213 

Conduit, Standard sizes, '1216 

Conduit versus openwork in places subject 

to moisture, corrosive fumes, steam, etc. 

By F. G. Waldenfels, *782, '834, '884, 

'1001, *1049 
Covering wires with asbestos insulation, 

British patent, CD.) 63 

-Flicker cured by two-phase wiring, *882 

Inspection of wiring at Boston, 1326 

Interior-wiring construction. By W. 

chaelsen, 945 

Railroad buildings, 1102 

Re-wiring, at Pueblo, Colo, 947 

Shunt coils. Changing size of wire on. 

A. M. Bennett, 253 
Skin effect in a conductor with circular 

cross-section. By P. Girault, (D.) 323 
Standardization of non-insulated conductor 

wires. By W. von Moellendorf, CD.) 

369; Comment, 340 

Tagging meter loops, 1272 

Telephone wiring methods. By F. L. 

Rhodes, 25 

Theater wiring, Colorado Springs, *68 

Wiring old houses. By Terrell Croft, *105, 

*204, *317, *361; McKirdy and Wood, 

546 

-Woodhouse steel casing system, *114 

Wisconsin Commission news, 11, 89, 139, 191, 

239, 300, 439, 487, 653. 765, 815. 868, 

918, 1086, 1136, 1188, 1255, 1362 
Workmen. CSee Employees) 
Workmen's compensation act in Massachusetts, 

339, 346 



X-ray work. Electrical equipment for, Kelley- 
Koett Co., *1162 



Zinc ore dressing in Colorado. By H. C. Par- 
melee, (D. R.) 573 



AUTHOR INDEX 



AITKEN, K. L. Street lighting in Toronto, 
Ontario, '493 
Amsler, P. Direct-current generator regulation. 

'198, 570 
Anderson, E. C. Residence rates, 366 
Atkins, D. F., and H. M. Price. Installation of 
small power plants in federal office 
buildings, 257, 498, 717 



BACHE-WIIG, JENS. Minimizing sparking in 
direct-current machinery, 605 

Baker, J. B. Junkers oil engine, *115 

Beck, B. G. Steel-mill illumination, 730 

Bell, Louis. Exterior lighting of the Boston 
Electric Show, '694 

Tendencies in foreign lighting practice, 875 

Bennett, A. M. Changing the size of wire on 
shunt coils, 253 

Birdsall, W. T. Candle-per-watt meter, 157 

Briggs, H. G. Residence rates, 320 

Brooks, John. Evils of patent license restric- 
tions, 207 

Brown, Everard. Depreciation of power-plant 
equipment, 268 

Buch, Fred. Design of piping for transformer 
oil, air and cooling water, '1201 

Bullard, J. E. Electric deep-well pumping, '510 

Rate systems from the central-station so- 
licitor's viewpoint, 1042 

Byerts, W. E. Test for power requirements ot 
a paper mill, 567 



f^ANADA. W. T. Electricity in metal mining 

^^ in Colorado, '1194 

Wiring in cold-storage rooms, 59 

Carpenter, H. V. Simplified sag formulas tor 
overhead wires and cables, 101 

Cohen, Louis. Inductance of aerial split con- 
ductors, 994 

Connor, A. P. Telephone phenomena investiga- 
tion, 837 

Cravath, J. R. Street-lighting rates, 722 

Croft, Terrell. Wiring old houses, 105, '204, 
•317, '361 

Xudmore, H. H. Jupiter of the Sons of Jove, 
617 

Culver, C. A. Efficiency of "earths" in radio- 
telegraphy, 1319 

Properties of a triangular aerial, *452 



DAMON, W. H., and W. J. Enders. Radiant 
efficiency of the carbon arc lamp, '502 
Douglas, J. F. H. Derivation of formula, 1326 

Propagation of electric energy by standing 

and traveling waves, *311 
Dow, J. S. Physical photometers, 873 
Dow, J. S., and V. H. Mackinney. Apparatus 
for measuring light and illumination, 



EBERWINE, F. A. Gas-producer plant at 
Windham, Ohio, 255 
Eisenmann, C. W. The kilovolt-arapere, 731 
Enders, W. J. CSee Damon, W. H.) 



FREEMAN, C. E. Practical installation of re- 
lays on alternating-current circuits, '924 



GILLETTE, H. P. Use of depreciation data in 
rate-making and appraisal problems, 
927, 1273 
Glaubitz, H. J. Electric spot welders, 1105 
Grau, Robert. Electrical side of the theater. 
♦215 



K 



H 



ADLEY, G. T. Illumination of St. Louis 
Public Library, '107 

Hall, E. E. Vibration produced by motor-gen- 
erators, *200 

llewes, J. E. Benefits of water-power develop- 
ment and its relationship to navigation 
improvement, 1200 

1 Ionian, J. G. Replacing old transformer cores 
with new ones, 501 



IVES, H. E. Radiant efficiencies, 670 

Study of the light from the mercury arc, 

•304 

Ives, H. E., and M. Luckiesh. Photographic 
method for recording candle-power dis- 
tribution curves, ^153 



lANSKY, C. M. Cause of condensation, 1326 

Johnson, C. L. Aluminum conductors for over- 
head transmission lines, 44 

•Indicates illustrated articles. 



AMPF, W. E. Starting devices for alternat- 

**■ ing-current motors, 877 

Kavanagh William. Methods of burning an- 
thracite coal dust, 1206 

Kellogg, E. W. Lightning conductors, 60 

Kennedy, S. M. Sale of electrical appliances for 
regular lamp circuits and their effect on 
load and income, '1209 

Kennelly, A. E. An investigation of transmis- 
sion-line phenomena by means of hyper- 
bolic functions, 306 

^Disturbances of potential and current pro- 
duced in an active conducting network 
by the application of a leak load, '1373 

Kennelly, A. E., and G. W. Pierce. Impedance 
of telephone receivers as affected by the 
motion of their diaphragms, *560 

Kilmer W. S. Illuminating a modern office 
building, *264 

Kirchgasser, G. J. Duties performed by the 
small motor, 1378 

Koester, Frank. The Edison label, 1053 



I ATTIN, R. B. Molded insulating compounds, 

•-- *893 

Leilich, F. T. Lighting of cars, 886 

l.orenz, C. F, Stroboscopic effects obtainable 

with incandescent filaments as illumin- 

ants, '1146 
Luckiesh, M. Investigation of diffusing glass- 
ware, '1040 
CSee also Ives, H. E.) 



IVjcDANIEL, H. S. CSee Roza, E. B.) 

McDonald, William. Rates for electrical energy, 
516 

Macintire, H. J. Central-station ice making, 359 

McKenney, Lester. Automatic voltage regula- 
tion of alternating-current directors, 996 

Mackinney, V. H. CSee Dow, J. S.) 

Mateer, R. B. Motor drive in a cider mill, 829 

Reinforced concrete substation at Sacra- 
mento, Cal., '1213 

Meadwell, W. E. Silent-chain transmission in 
rubber mill. '327 

Millar, P. S. Efficacy in illumination, 775 

CSee also Sharp, C. H.) 

Miller, W. H. French and German quartz-tube 
mercury-vapor lamps, '197 



XIV 



INDEX. 



Montgomery. Robert. Protection of electric 
meters, •412 

Moody, W. S. Reactance in transformers, 1004 

Moore, C. R. Electrical apparatus for measur- 
ing power, *449 

Morrissey, J. P. Conduit systems in concrete 
buildings, •411 

Moses, P. R. Proper basis for energy charges, 
1381 



EWELL, V. V. Electrical equipment of a 
brewery, •llll 

Niethammer, F. Improper watt-hour-meter con- 
nections, 157 

Ninis, A. A. Crank diagram for representation 
of electrical power, *660 

Norris, H. H. Northwest plant of the Common- 
wealth Edison Company, *701 

North, T. E. Records, forms and files for solici- 
tors, 1377 



f^SBORNE, T. Electricity versus gas for street 

^^ lighting, 1265 

Owen, E. Oil engines for irrigation service, 109 



plERCE, G. W. (See Kennelly, A. E.) 

Pilger, C. L., Jr. Modern three-wire direct-cur- 
rent generators, '150 



Potamian, Brother. -Anniversary of the Koya! 

Society, 233 
Price, H. M. (See Atkins, D. F.) 



D ITER, L. J. Erection of transmission lines 

'^ for the Utah Light & Railway Company, 

•246 

Robertson, James. The masculine electric car, 
786 

Rosa, E. B., G. W. Vinal and H. S. McDaniel. 
The silver voltameter, 1261, *1262; Com- 
ment, 1243 



C ARBINSKY, M. A national electrical testing 

"-^ laboratory, 1273 

Sharp, C. H., and P. S. Millar. A simplified 
illuminometer, •266 

Shepard, Lyman, Power-plant efficiency as de- 
termined by the technical education of 
employees, 413 

Somerville, A. A. Polarization emf of a mix- 
ture of clay, feldspar and quartz, 403 

Spence, T. E. Central-station service in mining 
operations, ^260 

Spencer, W. H. Illumination of the Lawyers* 
Club, New York, •1280 

Stahl, Nicholas. Synchronous motor perform- 
ance, 147 

Still, .Alfred. Flexible supports for overhead 
transmission lines, 97 

•Indicates illustrated articles. 



Still, Alfred: (Continued) 

Reinforced cement and concrete poles for 

overhead electric lines, *658 
Thury system of power transmission by 

continuous currents, •1093, •1144 
Stratton, H. F. Use of naked aluminum wire in 

electromagnets, ♦400 

yHAYER, W. C. Wood preservation, 948 

Thieme, H. Motor-driven ■ winches and pulley 

hoists, *1263 
Thomas, P. H. Chart for sag calculation, 1042. 
Tweedy, E. F. Electricity in the department 

store, 47 

■yESSEY, J. A. Showcase lighting, *1223 
Vinal, G. W. (See Rosa, E. B.) ' 

WALDENFELS, F. G. Conduit versus open- 
work in places subject to moisture, cor- 
rosive fumes, steam, etc., •782, *834, 
•884, •1001. ^1049 

Welch, A. W. Raising the standard of cable 
specifications, 356 

West, E. A. Hydroelectric plant at Estacada. 
Ore., '91 

Wilcox, E. A. Application of hydroelectric en- 
ergy to irrigation pumping in Southern 
Idaho, '705 



Electrical World 

The consolidation of Electrical World and Engineer and American Electriciait. 



Vol. 6o. 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JULY 6, 1912. 



No. I. 



PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY 



McGraw Publishing Company 

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Copyright, 1912, by McGraw Publishing Company. 
Entered at the New York Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter. 



The circulation of Electrical World for 1911 was 965,500. Of this issue 
21,000 copies are printed. 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JULY 6, 1912. 



CONTENTS. 

Editorials 1 

A. I. E. E. Convention News 4 

Boston Meeting of the S. P. E. E 5 

Ohio Electric Convention 5 

Meeting of National Electrical Credit .Association 5 

Meeting of Society of Automobile Engineers 6 

National District Heating Association Convention 6 

Town Forbidden to Sell Electrical Energy Below Cost 10 

Public Service Commission News 10 

Current News and Notes 1 1 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers Convention— Papers and 

Discussions 13 

Developments of the Great Falls Power Company 37 

Variable-Head Hydroelectric Plant at Eldora, la 42 

Developing a Unique Idaho Water-Power 43 

Aluminum Conductors for Overhead Transmission Lines. By Charles 

L. Johnson 44 

Electricity in the Modern Department Store 47 

Back-Fired Oil-Burning Boilers of Topeka Edison Company [ $0 

Pumping Coal from the Susquehanna River by Electricity at Plymouth 

Pa 51 

Greenville's Modern Steam-Turbine Station 52 

Electric Heating in Milling Industry 52 

Tungsten Fixture to Combat Gas Arcs 53 

Utilizing Display Window Space .'.'.'.'.'.' 54 

City of 10,000 Using 300 Electric Stoves 54 

Electricity in the World's Largest Incubator 55 

Mine Generating Plant at Mogollon, N. M =5 

Daylight Lighting '.'.'.'.'.'.'. 56 

Electrical Display at Portland's Rose Festival 56 

Continuous "Talking" Electric Sign ] 50 

Wiring in Cold-Storage Rooms. By W. J. Ca.n3.d^. .'...'.'.'.'.','.',.'.'." ' 59 
Letter to the Editor's: 

Lightning Conductors. By E. W. Kellogg gO 

Digest of Current Electrical Literature <;, 

Book Review .'.'.'!!!!.'.'.'!.' 64 

New Apparatus and Appliances 6S 

Industrial and Financial News 70 

Directory of Electrical Associations, Societies Etc 70 

Weekly Record of Electrical Patents '. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'." so 



THE BOSTON CONVENTION, A. I. E. E. 

The Boston convention of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers made itself noteworthy in several ways. 
The registration reached 934, which was exceeded only by 
the Chicago convention of last year (965). There were 
some sixty-five papers presented at Boston within four days. 
All of these were dealt with in fourteen working hours, rep- 
resenting an average of nearly five papers per hour. This 
was only accomplished, however, by working two sessions, 
in parallel for most of the time, and by conforming rigidly 
to a schedule prepared in advance. The committees in 
charge of the work deserve credit for the discipline main- 
tained throughout the schedule and for the efforts required 
in publishing and disseminating nearly all these many 
papers about a week in advance. 

Another good feature of the convention was that two of 
its sessions were held jointly with other societies; namely, 
one with the Illuminating Engineering Society and the 
other with the Society for Promotion of Engineering 
Education. This plan worked out advantageously and might 
well be further extended at future conventions. Yet 
another meritorious feature of the convention was the large 
number of brief yet good papers. Of course, not all sub- 
jects can be handled both effectively and briefly. Neverthe- 
less, the value of a paper, other things being equal, lies in 
its brevity, or is inversely as its length; some say it is 
inversely as the square. The social features of the conven- 
tion were also excellently arranged and carried out. 

By those upon whom may fall the task of arranging 
future conventions a note of protest heard from several 
authors of papers and others could profitably be heeded. 
Although the formal program was spread over four days, 
one-half of the papers were scheduled for the final day, 
necessitating parallel sessions during both the forenoon and 
the afternoon and crowding the discussion of each paper 
into a very brief period. In fact, several valuable papers 
were not discussed at all. Several persons also complained 
that they were unable to prepare for the discussion, owing 
to the very short interval between the receipt of the papers 
and the opening of the convention. Of course, the task of 
planning such a convention program is a very great one 
and requires many personal sacrifices on the part of those 
who have charge of it, and this fact should temper the 
criticism that was offered. Moreover, the fault is fre- 
quently with authors of papers who are delinquent in 
submitting their manuscripts far enough in advance. How- 
ever, it may be hoped that more effective co-operation be- 
tween the authors and the papers committee will go far 
toward smoothing out the difficulty. It may also be feasible 
to enforce a rule requiring manuscripts to be submitted at 
least sixty days ahead of meetings. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, Xo. i. 



THE RAINBOW FALLS HYDROELECTRIC SYSTEM. 

The great hydroelectric development at the Rainbow 
Falls of the Missouri described elsewhere in our columns 
is one of the important American plants that are operated 
at 100,000 volts or more. The upper Missouri drops 
nearlj' 400 ft. within a few miles of Great Falls, Mon- 
tana, and the topography is such that the power sites are 
easily developed. One of these is within the city limits 
of Great Falls, largely utilized for great smelting works, 
and only in part for power transmission. Four miles be- 
low the city lies the site of the present development. On 
the crest of the Rainbow Falls a rock-filled crib dam more 
than 1000 ft. long is seated on the bedrock. Two huge 
steel pipe lines, 15 ft. 6 in. in diameter, leave the forebay 
at the dam and run for half a mile to a balancing reservoir 
above the power house, which serves as a buffer or great 
relief valve between the flow from the dam and the vary- 
ing demand of the wheels. This renders the task of regu- 
lation vastly easier than would otherwise be the case and 
simplified the construction of the pipe line. These 
pipes when filled hold 56,000,000 lb. of water, and the 
hydraulic forces would be stupendous were the conditions 
such as to permit the act of governing suddenly to demand 
even a slight change in velocity. 

The transmission structure is of more than usual inter- 
est. It is a double-tower line, each set of towers carrying 
a single circuit with the conductors spaced 10 ft. apart on 
the same level. The towers are somewhat lower than 
early tower practice would show, supporting the wires only 
40 ft. from the ground. Each conductor is a six-stranded 
hemp-centered copper cable borne by six lo-in. disk insu- 
lators tested wet for 300,000 volts from conductor to arm. 
At the tower tops are carried, symmetrically placed be- 
tween conductors, a pair of J^-in. galvanized-steel cables 
serving as ground wires. The actual pressure is 102,000 
volts, so that the factor of safety with respect to the insu- 
lators is very nearly three, an unusually good figure in 
transmission practice. The normal span between tower 
and tower is 600 ft., although there are various long spans 
in the line, one of them a little over 3000 ft. at the cross- 
ing of the Missouri. 

Each of the separate transmission circuits is sectionalized 
at intervals of about 20 miles with disconnecting tower 
switches. The telephone circuit is on a separate pole line 
midway between the two tower lines. The high-tension 
circuits are not transposed at all, but the telephone cir- 
cuit is spiraled every five poles. In the operation of the 
line it is interesting to note that, thanks to a large motor 
load at Butte and three 1200-hp synchronous motors at 
Anaconda to compensate the wattless volt-amperes, the 
power-factor at the Rainbow Falls busbar is held steadily 
at almost unity. Very little corona is visible on the lines, 
although the loss due to this cause amounts to about 2 kw 
per mile. The load-factor, ow4ng to the unusually steady 
use of motors on the system, is extraordinarily high, aver- 
aging about 86 per cent on an annual basis. Altogether the 
Rainbow plant is an admirable piece of straightforward 
transmission engineering and a notable member of the al- 
ready imposing and rapidly increasing list of plants in this 
country operating at 100,000 volts and over. 



ELECTROLYTIC CORROSION OF IRON BY DIRECT CURRENT IN STREET 
SOIL 
Among the papers presented at the Boston convention of 
the American Institute of Electrical Engineers was one by 
Prof. Albert F. Ganz on electrolytic corrosion of iron pipes 
under definite laboratory conditions purporting to resemble 
those existing in practical service under city streets. It 
has been known that with relatively high current densities 
and under purely laboratory conditions the electrolytic cor- 
rosion of iron anodes may be much less than the gram-per- 
ampere-hour accorded by Faraday's law. It is interesting 
to note that the results given in the paper for long-continued 
applications of feeble current density over iron-pipe anode 
surfaces in street soil gave corrosions greater, and fre- 
quently 30 per cent greater, than those theoretically deduced 
by Faraday's law. The excess is, of course, capable of 
being explained by secondary oxidizing action in the pres- 
ence of moist soil. An interesting deduction given in the 
paper is that cast-iron pipes have certain practical advan- 
tages over steel or wrought-iron pipes in resisting the pro- 
longed action of electrolytic corrosion. There is always the 
hope that experimental research may bring to light some 
preservative that shall be capable of inexpensive application 
to a new pipe when buried in the soil of a city street where- 
by the effects of electrolytic corrosion might be eliminated. 
Such a preservative might be a specific paint, or it might 
be some cheap solution with which to impregnate the sur- 
rounding soil. At all events, it is to laboratory tests, under 
definite conditions, that we must look for improvements. 



PROPOSED NEW UNIT FOR STEAM-POWER HEASUREHENT. 

An important proposal for a new unit of steam-power 
measurement was proposed by Messrs H. G. Stott and 
Haylett O'Neill at the Boston A. I. E. E. convention. It has 
hitherto been customary, in specifying, describing and 
measuring the power absorbed by a steam engine at its 
throttle-valve, to refer either to the so-called British ther- 
mal units or to pounds of steam per unit of time, at a 
defined temperature and condition of dryness. When a 
steam engine is connected to an electric generator the power 
output of the generator is measured and stated in watts, 
and usually in thousands of them, or kilowatts. So long as 
the steam engine and the generator are so completely 
separable that the losses of power in each can be measured 
and stated separately, the dissension between the respective 
units does not much matter. When, however, as in most 
steam turbo-generators, the engine and generator are so 
closely associated that some of the losses cannot be sep- 
arated the complexity of defining the steam-power intake in 
heat units and the electric output in watts becomes both 
troublesome and incongruous. 

The paper points out that a "boiler-horse-power" is gen- 
erally accepted to be the rate of steam-power delivery cor- 
responding to 34.5 lb. of evaporation per hour from and at 
212 deg. Fahr. under normal conditions and amounts to 
9.8 kw. If, therefore, the steam engineers w'ould be willing 
to stretch the magnitude of their boiler-horse-povixr by 
2 per cent, it would become equivalent to 10 kw. As such 
it would not only be available for steam engineering in all 



July 6, 191^ 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



the applications of the boiler-horse-power used hitherto, but 
it would also bring the output and input of steam turbo- 
generators into the same unit — the watt. The plan sug- 
gested has the merit of great simplicity and practicability. 
The steam engineers in accepting the new unit would be 
departing by only 2 per cent from their custom in the past 
and might regard it as virtually the same boiler-horse- 
power unit under a new name. The advantage to them as 
well as to electrical engineers would be that losses and 
efficiencies in the turbo-generators would all be expressible 
in one and the same unit. 

If the suggestion can be carried out, the specific out- 
put of a steam turbo-generator might conveniently be ex- 
pressed in kilowatts output per "myrawatt" of input, or as 
the raito of myrawatts output to the myrawatts input. In 
either case the watt would be the unit of reference, only the 
decimal place of the numerical values being determined by 
the prefix. It is earnestly to be hoped that the steam en- 
gineers may be willing to accept this very convenient plan, 
which virtually merely changes the name of the boiler- 
horse-power. It would be difficult to suppose that our 
confreres in steam engineering could find objection to a 
name which embodied that of Watt. 



THE LAW OF CORONA AND DIELECTRIC STRENGTH OF AIR. 

Several good papers bearing upon high-tension corona 
were presented to the Boston convention of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, and it is interesting to 
observe that their conclusions are in mutual accordance to 
a satisfactory degree. In previous years there has been 
some discordance among observed results, and efforts were 
directed to finding the practical conditions governing 
coronal losses of energy for the guidance of transmission- 
line designers. This year the data for practical engineering 
use have been so well agreed upon that research has fol- 
lowed more recondite and purely scientific considerations. 

A paper read by F. W. Peek, Jr., was virtually a con- 
tinuation of the paper presented by him last year. Besides 
collating and confirming the data previously reported, some 
interesting experimental results were presented by a strobo- 
scopic method. It was stated that the coronal discharge 
over opposed smooth parallel wires changes in appearance 
during the emf cycle, being of a bluish-white color at and 
near the positive wire but of a reddish glow at and near the 
negative wire. While the bluish glow distributes itself 
freely over the positive wire, the reddish glow tends to col- 
lect into more or less equidistant successive beads along the 
negative wire. This action indicates very clearly the 
essential differences between coronal phenomena at the 
anode and at the cathode. According to the electronic 
theory, they are due to the inherent differences between the 
positive and negative electrons. 

It is now generally agreed, from the results of various 
observers, that corona tends to form as soon as the critical 
dielectric strength of air is reached, which at normal 
atmospheric pressure and temperature is 3 kilovolts per mm. 
At the surface of a thin wire, however, corona does not 
form until a certain higher electric gradient is attained. 
Below the critical gradient, with smooth clean wires and in 



fine weather, the coronal power loss is negligible. Above 
the critical gradient it increases as the square of the excess 
and also in proportion to the frequency. In windstorms the 
coronal loss does not seem to be increased above that of 
fine weather, but in rainstorms, and particularly in snow- 
storms, the loss is considerably increased. Since snow- 
storms occur at relatively infrequent intervals, while fair 
weather constitutes the more frequent and normal condition, 
this extra loss during snowstorms is much easier to supply 
than if the conditions were reversed and the heavier loss 
occurred during fair weather. 



ALUMINUM CONDUCTORS. 

An article by Mr. Charles L. Johnson in this issue gives 
an instructive view of present British practice in the ex- 
tensive use of aluminum conductors for transmission lines. 
As is well known to our readers, the American price for 
aluminum is deliberately set by the powers that rule it at a 
figure which just fails to encourage the very large use of 
the metal in preference to copper. Under ordinary condi- 
tions an aluminum conductor at American prices is just a 
few per cent cheaper than the equivalent copper conductor, 
so little cheaper in fact that the extra cost of supports and 
stringing the aluminum equals the saving. In Europe and 
in Canada the ordinary quotations of aluminum are about 
the same pound for pound as copper at the base price, and 
for hard-drawn wire a saving in the use of aluminum figures 
out at from 35 to 40 per cent. This difference in condition 
is established by a virtual monopoly of aluminum in this 
country, with the usual effect on the duty, which has been 
kept just high enough to block importations. As a result 
of this the transmission line outside of American territory 
is more than likely to be constructed of aluminum, while 
inside our tariff wall copper has to be the chief reliance. 

One of the interesting minor advantages of aluminum 
for the very high voltages as found .on some of the Cana- 
dian lines is that owing to its larger cross-section for 
the same conductivity the tendency to coronal loss is some- 
what reduced. At the present time there are about thirty 
transmission lines in Great Britain using aluminum con- 
ductors. It is instructive to note that on some of these 
lines the engineers have taken advantage of the light con- 
ductors to increase the span considerably beyond ordinary 
pole-line practice in this country. Our British friends may 
be conservative, but their conservatism is rampant anarchy 
compared with the attitude of most American engineers 
toward the long-span pole line. If we are lucky enough to 
obtain cheap aluminum in the future, possibly the British 
practice described by Mr. Johnson may serve as a welcome 
source of courage. Be that as it may, it seems to be a fact 
that the aluminum line in foreign practice is being installed 
in many cases and with pretty uniform success. The old 
hesitancy about using a new metal came chiefly from the 
earlier product strung as solid wire and of dubious strength. 
A first-class stranded aluminum cable as manufactured to- 
day is entirely free from the risks once feared. Given real 
competition in the manufacture of aluminum or a free 
chance to import the product, copper, so far as transmission 
lines are concerned, would find a dangerous rival. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



A. I. E. E. CONVENTION NEWS. 



The business program of the convention was carried out 
on Thursday and Friday, June 27 and 28, with only minor 
changes in the order of papers read. The attendance at all 
sessions was excellent and the interest well sustained. On 
account of the large number of papers presented it was 
necessary to curtail the discussions somewhat, but some 
lime was saved by discussing papers dealing with similar 
subjects in groups. Special mtcrest was displayed in the 
electrical measurements sessions held on Friday, this being 
the first time that meetings have been sectionalized in the 
Institute with reference to this branch of the art. The 
second railway session on Thursday noon brought out an 
extended discussion of certain aspects of energy supply for 
trunk-line electrification. The educational symposium with 
the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education 
was well attended, and much interest was manifested in the 
telephone and telegraph and the generating station and in- 
dustrial sessions. 

During the electric-lighting session Dr. H. E. Ives, Cleve- 
land, gave an interesting lantern-slide lecture on color, 
demonstrating the problem of artificial daylight. 

In the course of the electric lighting session Dr. Louis 
Bell, Boston, called attention to the forthcoming "Illumina- 
tion Primer" which has been prepared by the Illuminating 
Engineering Society for the purpose of putting the "A B C" 
of illumination before the general public. The primer, 
which is now in the hands of the printer, is a twenty-page 
publication which in no sense pretends to be a technical 
summary, but which will undoubtedly fulfil a greatly needed 
service among laymen. Arrangements are to be made 
whereby any responsible party can secure permission from 
the Illuminating Engineering Society to reprint the primer 
in full. 

RESOLUTIONS PASSED. 

At the opening of the Friday morning session resolutions 
were unanimously passed expressing the cordial appreciation 
by the board of directors of the Institute, on behalf of the 
membership, of the many courtesies and excellent arrange- 
ments made for the benefit of those attending the convention 
at Boston, and transmitting the thanks of the organization 
to Mr. C. L. Edgar, chairman of the entertainment com- 
mittee, and to Messrs. L. D. Gibbs, C. B. Davis, F. P. Valen- 
tine and W. H. Blood, Jr., chairmen of the sub-committees, 
and their associates. The appreciation of the Institute was 
likewise tendered to the presidents of Harvard University 
and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, to the 
Edison Electric Illuminating Company of Boston and to the 
Boston Elevated Railway Company. Through President 
Dunn the ladies in attendance also expressed their apprecia- 
tion of the hospitalities shown them during their visit. 

The entertainment program came to a climax on Thurs- 
day in an all-day automobile ride of nearly 100 miles through 
some of the most diversified and historically attractive 
scenery in New England. Forty-three machines left the 
Hotel Somerset at 9:45 a.m., and after a ride through 
Cambridge and Arlington proceeded to Lexington, Concord 
and thence to the Vesper Country Club house on Tyng's 
Island in the Merrimac River, about 4 miles beyond Lowell. 
The change in the weather from the sultry to the cool, 
bracing variety rendered the ride most enjoyable. Luncheon 
was served at the club house at I p. m., and after a pleasant 
afternoon in the open the party returned to the headquarters 
hotel about 5 o'clock. A trip by special electric cars to the 
Lynn works of the General Electric Company was taken 
by a large number of men on Thursday afternoon. 

ANNUAL BANQUET. 

The convention reached its height on Thursday evening, 
when the annual banquet was held in the grand ballroom of 
the Hotel Somerset. Nearly 200 persons gathered at the 
tables, and a large number of ladies graced the occasion 



with their presence. The feature of the evening was the 
award of the Edison gold medal to Mr. George Westing- 
house for his pioneer work in the development of alter- 
nating-current transmission and distribution. The occasion 
was marked by great enthusiasm on behalf of the dis- 
tinguished inventor and received special mention in the 
editorial and news columns of the Boston dailies on the 
following morning. 

President Dunn acted as toastmaster at the banquet. In 
introducing the first speaker, Hon. Robert Luce, Lieutenant- 
Governor of Massachusetts, President Dunn emphasized 
the catholicity of engineering, pointing out the tendency of 
electrical activities to enter every department of civilized 
life. 

Lieutenant-Governor Luce referred to the great develop- 
ment of the electrical industry and noted with pleasure the 
rewards enjoyed by its adherents in the way of material 
and mental prosperity. 

Dr. M. I. Pupin, New York, responding to the toast "Elec- 
trical Engineering," received a great ovation, which was 
heightened by the toastmaster's appreciative references to 
his epoch-making inventions in the field of telephone trans- 
mission over long distances. Dr. Pupin spoke in a reminis- 
cent vein of the early opposition to the alternating-current 
system, referring in glowing terms to the encouragement 
given him twenty-three years ago by Dr. Elihu Thomson on 
the occasion of his presenting a paper upon the subject 
before a none too appreciative audience. He outlined the 
various striking phases of recent high-tension transmission 
progress, citing the use of potentials as high as 150,000 volts 
in ordinary well-advanced practice. 

PRESENTATION OF EDISON MEDAL. 

The Edison medal, awarded once a year for meritorious 
achievement in the furtherance of the electrical industry 
and profession, was then presented to Mr. Westinghouse 
amid great enthusiasm. A highly appreciative introductory 
address was delivered by Dr. Elihu Thomson prior to the 
bestowal of the medal, the speaker paying a glowing tribute 
to the mechanical insight, genius as an inventor and ability 
as an organizer that mark the guest of honor, and sketching 
in bold strokes the debt of civilization to the air brake, the 
gas engine, railway signal apparatus and alternating-current 
systems of transmission and distribution. In response Mr. 
Westinghouse said that he received the medal with the 
greatest satisfaction, and expressed his high appreciation 
of the tribute of Dr. Thomson, who was one of the first to 
realize the possibilities of the alternating current. Mr. 
Westinghouse mentioned briefly the opposition which the 
advocates of alternating current had to encounter in the 
early days of the industry and gave high praise to Stanley, 
Smith, Shallenberger, Scott and other engineers who saw 
beyond tlie limitations of the direct-current system and 
helped to build the foundations of the present great develop- 
ment. In closing, he called attention to the waste of un- 
utilized power at Niagara and made the prophecy that the 
time will come when the power of the great cataract will 
be turned into serviceable work to a much greater extent 
than at present. 

President-elect Mershon, the last speaker of the evening, 
responded to the toast "The Institute," being presented as 
the first member to be made a fellow by the board of 
directors, this having been done by a motion passed on 
Thursday afternoon. He advocated the larger participation 
of the engineer in public affairs, showing how the civic 
problems of the time demand solution by men with engineer- 
ing training. 

CLOSING SESSION. 

The convention was brought to a close on Friday after- 
noon by President Dunn and Dr. Elihu Thomson at the end 
of the electrical measurements session. President Dunn ex- 
pressed his deep satisfaction at the unusual degree of 
enthusiasm and intermingling of members which had char- 



July 6, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



acterized the gathering throughout the Boston meeting, and 
touched upon the general satisfaction felt with the program, 
which contained the largest list of papers ever presented at 
an Institute meeting. The total registration was 934, and 
at the Boston convention a larger percentage of delegates 
and guests came from outside the city than in the Chicago 
convention of 191 1, where all attendance records were 
broken. Before leaving the city for their homes, all dele- 
gates at the convention were invited to attend a sinoker of 
the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education 
and a meeting of the Society for the Promotion of Scientific 
Management, which were held on Friday evening in Boston. 
As the retiring president raised the gavel to close the pro- 
ceedings a vote of thanks was put by Dr. Thomson, upon the 
motion of Mr. W .B. Jackson, expressing the delegates' ap- 
preciation of the able manner in which the affairs of the 
convention had been administered. Every voice in the 
room sustained the motion, and after a few words charac- 
terizing the Boston meeting as one of the best the Institute 
has ever held Dr. Thomson adjourned the convention. 



BOSTON MEETING OF THE S. P. E. E. 



The twentieth annual meeting of the Society for the 
Promotion of Engineering Education was held in Boston, 
Mass., June 25 to 29, with headquarters at the Hotel Somer- 
set. The coincidence of the dates and location for this 
meeting with those of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers was one cause of an unusually large attendance, 
by far the largest in the history of the society. The tech- 
nical program was the result of a plan of concentration of 
effort devised by President William G. Raymond, in which 
attention was directed to means for improving the admin- 
istration of college courses. On the social side the society 
is largely indebted to the local committee of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, which invited the edu- 
cators to participate in the excursions planned originally 
for Institute members. 

The fundamental structure of the program comprised 
three symposiums — one on the training of engineering 
teachers, the second on efficiency in engineering instruction, 
and the third on engineering laboratory equipment. These 
were presided over by Dean G. C. Anthony, Tufts College ; 
Mr. Frank B. Gilbreth, New York, and by representatives 
of four branches of engineering instruction respectively. 
The third-mentioned symposium was divided into four 
sections so that each engineering subject represented might 
have more detailed consideration than would have been 
possible in a joint session. The sections with their re- 
spective presiding officers were as follows: Civil engineer- 
ing. Prof. F. J. McKibben, Lehigh University; mechanical 
engineering. Prof. A. M. Greene. Jr., Rensselaer Poly- 
technic Institute; mining engineering, Prof. F. W. Sperr, 
Michigan College of Mines; electrical engineering, Prof. 
J. O. Phelon, Worcester Polytechnic Institute. 

In addition to the symposiums, one paper, on the teaching 
of physics to engineering students, was presented by Profs. 
W. S. Franklin and Barry MacNutt, Lehigh University. 
This paper was a special order for the 1912 meeting of the 
society, as it had been in preparation for more than a year. 
The authors have radical ideas regarding the teaching of 
physics, and it was expected that the paper would stimulate 
discussion. The principal part of the opening session of 
the meeting was, therefore, assigned to it and this time was 
filled with lively, frank and occasionally amusing remarks. 

The symposium plan, with each division in charge of 
experts in their several fields, was a success, bringing out 
papers and discussion from practising engineers and teach- 
ers through the personal influence of the chairmen. The 
result was an almost overwhelming array of interesting 
contributions, a large proportion of which were presented 



by their authors. The only criticism of the program made 
by those in attendance was that they could not absorb all 
that was presented. 

A joint meeting with the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers was held on June 27. An account of this session 
appears in the report of the A. I. E. E. convention else- 
where in this issue. Abstracts of papers and discussions 
at other sessions will be given in a later issue. 

At the closing business session of the society the follow- 
ing officers were elected to serve one year: President, 
William T. Magruder, professor of mechanical engineering, 
Ohio State University; vice-presidents, Lionel S. Marks, 
professor of mechanical engineering. Harvard University; 
F. W. Sperr, professor of civil and mining engineering, 
Michigan College of Mines; secretary, Henry H. Norris, 
professor of electrical engineering, Cornell University; 
treasurer, William O. Wiley, secretary John Wiley & Sons, 
publishers, New York City. Seven new members of the 
council were also elected as follows : F. L. Bishop, dean of 
the school of engineering. University of Pittsburgh ; G. R. 
Catburn, professor of applied mechanics, University of 
Nebraska; O. P. Hood, engineer. United States Bureau of 
Mines, Pittsburgh, Pa.; F. P. McKibben, professor of civil 
engineering, Lehigh University; G. D. Shepardson, pro- 
fessor of electrical engineering, University of Minnesota; 
Walter B. Snow, publicity engineer, Boston, Mass.; J. C. 
Tracy, assistant professor of structural engineering, Yale 
University. 

OHIO ELECTRIC CONVENTION. 



For the eighteenth ann-ual convention of the Ohio Electric 
Light Association, to be held at the Breakers Hotel, Cedar 
Point, on July 16-19, the following program has been 
arranged: 

On July 16 at 2 p. m. the president, Mr. W. C. Anderson, 
Canton Electric Company, will deliver his address, to be 
followed by the report of the committee on electrical trans- 
mission, by Mr. M. H. Wagner, Dayton Power & Light 
Company. On July 17 at 9:30 a. m. a paper on rate making 
will be read by Hon. Halford Erickson, chairman of the 
Railroad Commission of Wisconsin ; one on the public 
versus the utility, by Mr. D. L. Gaskill, president of the 
Greenville Electric Light & Power Company, and the com- 
mittee on costs, of which Mr. J. D. Lyon, Union Gas & 
Electric Company, Cincinnati, is chairman, will present its 
report. On July 18 at 9:30 a.m. the report of the com- 
mittee on meters will be presented by Mr. John Gilmartin, 
Toledo Railway & Light Company, and a paper on elec- 
trolytic purification of sewerage will be read by Prof. F. C. 
Caldwell, of the Ohio State University, Columbus. The 
election of officers will take place at this session. On July 
19 at 9:30 a. m. a paper on the supply of electric energy to 
rural districts will be read by Mr. J. C. Matthieu, Dayton 
Power & Light Company, and a paper on joint-pole line 
construction by Mr. J. L. Spore, Toledo Railway & Light 
Company. 

The usual elaborate souvenir program has been prepared 
for distribution to members. Especial attention has been 
paid to the entertainment for the ladies, in which music 
will play a prominent part. 



MEETING OF NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CREDIT 
ASSOCIATION. 



I 



The thirteenth annual meeting of the National Electrical 
Credit Association, at Hotel Hollenden, Cleveland, Ohio, 
June 26, was one of the most successful and enjoyable 
meetings ever held by the organization. Representatives 
were present from the five local associations of Boston, 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



New York, Philadelphia, Chicago and San Francisco, and 
the attendance generally was larger than at any previous 
meeting in the last ten years. The reports for the year also 
showed increased activities on the part of members, with 
corresponding greater benefits returned to each. 

The annual election resulted as follows: President, Mr. 
George J. Murphy, Pettingell-Andrews Company, Boston; 
vice-president. :\Ir. John H. Dale, Dale Company, New 
York; secretary-treasurer, Mr. Frederic P. Yose, Chicago. 

This is the thirteenth consecutive reappointment of Mr. 
Vose, who has served as general secretary of the organiza- 
tion from its inception in 1898. 

An entertainment connnittee, of which Mr. H. E. Hacken- 
berg. National Carbon Company, Cleveland, was chairman, 
provided a luncheon at the Hollenden for the visiting dele- 
gates. In the late afternoon an automobile ride through 
the business sections and parks of Cleveland was followed 
by a well-appointed dinner at the new Cleveland Athletic 
Club. Mr. C. T. McKinstry, of the Erner Electric Com- 
pany, acted as toastmaster, and the large company present 
listened to inspiring talks on the service and accomplish- 
ments of the elctrical credit associations and the sub- 
stantial benefits which had accrued to the trade as a result 
of nearly 500 representative manufacturers and iobbers co- 
operating in the exchange of their ledger experiences for 
the credit guidance of their fellow-members. 



MEETING OF SOCIETY OF AUTOMOBILE 
ENGINEERS. 



\\'hile the summer session "of the Society of Automobile 
Engineers, held at the Pontchartrain Hotel, Detroit, June 
27, and on board the steamer City of Detroit II, June 28 
and 29. was devoted chiefly to matters of gasoline-automo- 
bile design, several of the papers presented contained subject 
matter having an application to electric-vehicle construc- 
tion. The report of the standards committee rendered bv 
Mr. Henry Souther, chairman, referred to the increasing 
benefits which uniform fittings will confer upon the builder 
as well as the user of motor-driven vehicles. Mr. Souther's 
report was divided into sections relating to various detail 
parts. Mr. Leavitt J. Lane read a paper on leaf springs, 
describing factors of design and methods of mounting. The 
springs division of the standards committee also presented 
a report suggesting dimensions and methods of construction 
for standard practice. "A Method of Determining Brake 
Capacity" was the subject of a paper by Mr. S. L Fekepe, 

EFFICIENCY TEST OF GE.\R FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES -\ND LIGHT 

CARS 
Straight-type womi and worm gear for rear-axle drive. Phosphor bronze 



worm 


gear, 39 teeth 


case-hardened steel worm solid on shaft, 4 threads; 








ratio 9J 


to 1.) 








Test. 


*o 


V3 


E 

U 

O 


c 


ft. from 
j-in. 
ft. Long. 




is 


Is 


1.1 




Temperat 
Worm G 
Deg. Fa 


•o 


o 

0.' 


■o 




is' 

2 3 

t c 
Z.- 


lis 

c S V 


li 

o 


1( 


74 


u 


1393 


143 


6.13 


MAS 


1.64 


1.032 


61.2 


2 


82 


2 


1423 


146 


9.81 


28.95 


2.65 


2.153 


81.2 


3 


86 


2? 


1416 


145 


12.65 


42.95 


3.41 


3.172 


93.2 


41 


86 


3A 


1416 


145 


16.6 


57.25 


4.46 


4.23 


94.8 


^! 


90 


It 


1370 


140. S 


21.1 


71.65 


5.48 


5.13 


93.7 


94 


1389 


142.5 


25.5 


86.00 


6.72 


6.24 


93.0 


8 


108 


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1400 


143 . 5 


35.56 


116.25 


9.43 


8.5 


90.2 



who presented a graphical analysis of the problem of con- 
verting mechanical energy into heat at the brake band. 
The paper included a discussion of the maximum and mini- 
mum brake conditions required. The report of the frame 
sections division of the standards committee discussed ap- 



proved practices in steel-frame construction. The fourth 
report of the ball-bearings and roller-bearings division con- 
tained a table giving brace, bore and width diameters for 
suggested standard ball-bearing construction. Mr. E. E. 
Sweet contributed a compilation of automobile license-tag 
requirements of various states. A paper by ^Ir. Eugene 
P. Batzell on "Motor Sizes and Drive Ratios for Com- 
mercial Vehicles" also has an engineering application to 
electric vehicles, although the discussion related entirely to 
gasoline-car construction. ''Worm and Helical Gears as 
Applied to Rear Axles" was the subject of a paper by Mr. 
Frank Burgess. Following a historical account and 
analytical definitions of various types of gears, the author 
outlined the qualifications of the successful worm gear, such 
as cheapness, strength, durability, small friction, simplicity, 
bearing conditions, noiselessness, reversibilit}', lightness 
and power transmission. A detailed discussion of the 
straight and Hindly types of gears, illustrated with photo- 
graphs of both the gears themselves and plaster casts, was 
followed by an account of methods of testing gearing for 
efficiency. The testing machine devised by Prof. F. C. 
Reily, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was 
described and the results given in the accompanying table 
were appended as obtained with this machine. 

The initial open session of the societv was held at the 
Pontchartrain Hotel, Detroit, on Thursday. In the evening 
the 400 delegates boarded the steamship City of Detroit II 
for a cruise to Mackinac Island, where several hours were 
spent ashore on Frida\-, June 28. The professional sessions, 
which were closed except to members, were held on board 
the vessel. 



NATIONAL DISTRICT HEATING ASSOCIATION 
CONVENTION. 



The fourth annual convention of the National District 
Heating Association opened at the Cadillac Hotel, Detroit, 
Mich., June 2^, with the president, Mr. .\. D. Spencer, of 
the Detroit Edison Company, in the chair. Senator James 
H. Lee welcomed the convention to Detroit and was fol- 
lowed by Mr. Alex. Dow, general manager of the Detroit 
Edison Company, who made a witty speech detailing the 
advantages of Detroit and making pertinent comment in a 
happy vein on events of the day. The response to these 
speeches of welcome was delivered by Mr. George W. 
Wright, of Baltimore, Md. President Spencer then pre- 
sented his official address, in which he detailed the efficient 
work of the officers and committees of the association dur- 
ing the year past, commenting on the growth of the organi- 
zation's influence, its gain of 25 per cent in membership, 
and the future before it. The report of the secretary- 
treasurer, Mr. D. L. Gaskill, Greenville, Ohio, showed re- 
ceipts of $1,807.36 and disbursements of $1,684.49, leaving 
a balance of $122.87 on hand. Mr. A. C. Rogers, Toledo, 
Ohio, chairman of the committee on membership, urged 
both operators and manufacturers of heating systems and 
supplies to join with the association. 

REPORT OF METER COMMITTEE. 

The report of the meter committee was read by Chairman 
A. P. Biggs, Detroit, Mich. This paper listed, and de- 
scribed briefly, condensation, steam-flow and boiler-feed 
meters of interest to district heating plants, and was illus- 
trated by numerous cuts. Limits of meter accuracy' and 
various system troubles were described briefly and com- 
parative tests were given to show the eft'ect of condensation 
surges on instruments. The report also went into the sub- 
ject of inspections on customers' premises, recommending 
visits at intervals of from fifteen to thirty days where the 
bills involved are large or specially difficult conditions pre- 
vail. Routines of installing, reading and removing meters 
were described in detail and a simple test was outlined for 



JuLv 6, igi2. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



investigating the accuracy of meters on customers' premises. 
Classifications under vvhicli trouble is to be found were 
indicated by compilations made from the inspection reports 
of actual operating companies. The report closed with an 
account of test equipment and apparatus for meter repair. 
Specifications for a meter inspector's equipment were also 
included, and reference was made to an electric printing 
attachment which has been developed for recording cus- 
tomers' meter operation at a central point. 

Mr. Alex. Dow, Detroit, Mich., declared consistency in 
meter readings to be the real requirement rather than ulti- 
mate accuracy, since most of the trouble with customers is 
due to unexplained differences in instrument recording. 
The speaker outlined the directions along which better 
accuracy can be obtained, as, for example, by increasing 
the turning moment and leverage within the meter 
as has been done in the case of its electric prototype. Mr. 
E. Darrow, Indianapolis, Ind., declared that his company 
has almost quit urging customers to use meters on account 
of the inaccuracy and the amount of attention required by 
present commercial apparatus. Mr. J. F. Lewis, Detroit, 
Mich., explained the solution reached by the Murphy com- 
pany in having boys read meters at intervals of from four 
to eight days. The readings are noted down on slips of 
paper which are scrutinized, and if any variation is found 
the heating inspector is immediately dispatched to the in- 
strument suspected to be in trouble. This practice has 
resulted in eliminating 90 per cent of the meter complaints. 
The Murphy company will test meters reported "fast" only 
in the presence of the customer or his representative. Mr. 
George W. Wright, Baltimore, Md., declared that many of 
the troubles traced to meters are in fact the result of ex- 
traneous conditions, such as flooded sewers, trap defects, 
etc. In a given lot of 191 troubles reported from 250 meters 
only 4 per cent were actually due to the meters themselves. 
Mr. Wright urged the frequent reading of meters — at six- 
day intervals, if possible. 

Mr. C. F. Oehlmann, Denver, Col., recounted the troubles 
of his men in getting into consumers' premises for frequent 
reading of meters. The customers are also disposed, he 
added, to think the meters are not sufficiently reliable to be 
left alone for a full month. Mr. Wright replied that in 
Baltimore, if access is refused to the inspector, the cus- 
tomer is notified that if his bill is excessive there can be 
no redress for inaccurate meter registration. Mr. H. A. 
Ruth, London, Canada, pointed out that where there are 
competing heating companies the claim for less frequent 
annoyance in the reading of meters may be a factor in 
getting and holding business. 

Mr. C. R. Bishop, Buffalo, N. Y., urged the necessity for 
periodical meter tests and the requirements for proper in- 
stallations on the customers' premises. By an illustration 
of two similar houses he showed how the slight, undis- 
covered factor of an open chimney flue had resulted for a 
long time in 50 per cent difference in the steam required for 
heating the houses. Some companies, he said, test meters 
on the customer's demand, charging $1 or $2 for a two- 
hour test and 40 cents an hour for longer periods. In case 
the meter is found over 4 per cent fast this amount is re- 
turned. In a given set of tests, 97 per cent were found to 
be 16 per cent slow. Mr. A. C. Rogers, Toledo, declared 
insufficient radiation area to be a dominating cause of ex- 
cessive bills and supposed meter troubles. Inadequate radia- 
tors condense steam so rapidly as to flood the meter. The 
speaker urged that heating companies supervise customers' 
installations as much as possible, improving construction 
and in this way bettering the conditions under which their 
meters operate. In closing the discussion Mr. Biggs said 
that the more frequently inspections are made the more 
often meters are torn down and additional meter troubles 
are consequently discovered. It is the practice of the 
Detroit company, he added, to correct meter troubles as 
fast as they occur, not waiting until they cause loss. 



SOURCES OF TROUBLE IN CUSTOMERS INSTALLATIONS. 

Mr. E. Darrow, manager of the Merchants' Heat & Light 
Company, Indianapolis, Ind., in a paper on "Common 
Sources of Trouble in Customers' Installations," described 
his company's system, comprising 12 miles of mains and 
tunnels and more than 1.000,000 sq. ft. of radiation area, 
the largest system of exhaust steam heating in the country. 
This service is supplied from two plants, one of 10,000 and 
the other of 2000 boiler-hp equipment. Improper installa- 
tion on the customer's premises has been found so common 
a source of trouble in low-temperature weather that, be- 
sides conducting a campaign of education among architects 
and piping contractors, the Merchants' company has in- 
sisted that installation plans be submitted to its engineering 
department before acceptance of the heating contract. Air 
valves should be made very sensitive. Mr. Darrow also 
urged installations of thermo-control valves, which, he 
declared, might improve the success and economy of central- 
station heating by from 15 to 30 per cent. The Merchants' 
company requires at least one such valve for every installa- 
tion. Cooling or economizing coils possessing 15 to 20 per 
cent of the total radiation area are also insisted upon in 
many cases. Proper provision for drainage, expansion and 
insulation are the important requisites of pipe-line construc- 
tion. Any material not strictly mineral has been found to 
suffer rapidly from destruction by gases, decay and elec- 
trolytic action. After passing through a severe winter 
without difficulty, Mr. Darrow recommended to others his 
own policy of frequent inspection of customers' plumbing 
and stipulations for good regulators, cooling coils, traps, 
and at least one pound of steam pressure at customers' serv- 
ice valves to secure circulation. 

QUALITY OF STEAM SERVED CUSTOMERS. 

In a paper on "Quality of Steam as Served by a Central 
Station to Its Customers," Mr. A. C. Shepherd, of the 
Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 
described steam-quality tests made at points along the lines 
of the Cleveland company with the assistance of barrel and 
jet condensing calorimeters, the object being to determine 
variations of steam quality at different points in the dis- 
tributing system. Following brief descriptions of the two 
types of calorimeters, which were illustrated with sketches 
and photographs, Mr. Shepherd reported the results ob- 
tained with the jet continuous condensing calorimeter to 
be more accurate and uniform than those obtained with the 
barrel calorimeter. The jet calorimeter error, however, 
may be as high as 3 per cent when testing steam of from 
3 lb. to 5 lb. pressure. The average results obtained in the 
tests showed steam of from 98 to 100 per cent quality, indi- 
cating that the steam sampled was commercially dry. 

STATION RECORDS. 

The report of the committee on station records was next 
read by Mr. H. R. Wetherell, of the Peoria Gas & Electric 
Company, Peoria, 111., and comprised exhibits of a number 
of blank forms for daily steam reports, heating records, 
application blanks, meter-reading slips, layout maps, com- 
plaint forms, superintendent's reports, etc., used by the 
Peoria company. The text matter of the committee report 
described the use of these various blank forms. Mr. Weth- 
erell recommended that all companies, even the smaller 
ones, keep a complete system of records for their own 
knowledge and for comparison with similar reports of other 
corporations. The Peoria systein of records was started 
twelve years ago and has been added to frequently since, 
now affording a very complete and successful system. The 
Peoria company makes use of a recording pressure gage at 
the extreme end of the line, the invention of one of its 
employees. Through an electric circuit this gage records 
in both the superintendent's office and the engine-room, 
enabling the engineer to maintain the proper terminal pres- 
sure regardless of the gage showing at his plant. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



RATES FOR STEAM-HEATING SERVICE. 

The sessions of Wednesday were held on board the 
steamer Pleasure, which cruised up the Detroit River and 
through Lake St. Clair and the St. Clair River, returning 
in time for a chicken dinner at the Belle Isle Casino in 
the evening. At the morning session, after a sharp dis- 
cussion on proposed constitutional changes intended to draw 
closer lines of classification between the active and asso- 
ciate members, the report of the committee on rates was 
presented. This paper, prepared by Messrs. R. D. De Wolf, 
Rochester, N. Y., and J. L. Hecht, Chicago, compiled the 
replies received from 107 steam-heating companies and 
40 hot-water-heating companies, although, as the committee 
itself pointed out, an adequate summary of results is not 
possible without further statement of conditions under 
which service is supplied. A wide range is indicated in 
both rates and methods, although an attempt was made in 
the report to summarize contract clauses used. Tabulated 
data of the relative cost per 1000 lb. of steam and the per- 
centage of exhaust steam utilized, together with the cost of 
coal where given, are also included in the report. 

"An Analysis of Heating Rates," a paper presented by 
Mr. A. E. Duram, Central Station Engineering Company, 
Chicago, discussed the equitable bases of charging for steam 
heating. Any schedule based on area of radiation, said 
the speaker, is but a poor system of guessing, while the 
purely meter rates are found hardly adequate to meet the 
conditions of the large prospective user operating his own 
plant. Submitting the rate schedules of a number of cities 
to illustrate the divergence in charges, Mr. Duram showed 
how actual station costs of production might be plotted in 
the process of devising an equitable rate based on a readi- 
ness-to-serve charge plus a metered quantity charge for 
all steam consumed beyond this minimum. 

Mr. L. D. West, Cleveland, Ohio, questioned the accuracy 
of the rates quoted from Cleveland, where, he said, the 
maximum by ordinance is 35 cents per 1000 lb. Mr S M. 
Bushnell, Chicago, 111., observed that results similar to 
those reported had also been reached as the conclusions of 
the district-heating committee of the National Electric 
Light Association, which found in favor of a rale based 
on both consumption and radiation area elements of charge. 
Provision of an elastic system of rates, he declared, will 
aid in meeting the requirements of different classes of 
customers. Mr. A. D. Spencer, Detroit, pointed out that 
some rule must be observed in providing the required radia- 
tion area. Mr. H. A. Austin, Lockport, N. Y., declared 
radiation area to be too indefinite, depending even on the 
paint used on the radiators. He recommended instead the 
use of cubical contents. Mr. A. C. Rogers, Toledo, Ohio, 
objected that cubical contents is only one of the four quan- 
tities involved. The factors considered by the Toledo com- 
pany are glass area, exposed wall, cubical contents and 
exposure. 

DECENTRALIZED STEAM HEATING. 

The regular program of the afternoon session was 
opened with Mr. S. M. Bushnell's paper, "Sectional Steam 
Heating in Chicago," in which the author described the 
practices of the Illinois Maintenance Company, which 
operates existing steam-boiler plants in downtown office 
buildings, heating in this way also adjoining premises. The 
latter buildings may retain their old boiler equipment for 
use in extremely cold weather, but under ordinary condi- 
tions are supplied from the local common plant. A general 
engineer visits and inspects the individual heating plants 
daily, exercising the same supervision over labor and sup- 
plies as if in a central power house. As the company has 
little or no investment in its plants, the rates charged are 
lower than in similar large cities. Isolated-plant owners 
in Chicago have now largely overcome their former preju- 
dice against turning over their plants to be operated by 
outsiders, finding that the experience of the operating 



company enables the same service to be supplied at a con- 
siderable saving of former wastes. The first contracts 
made for heating were for short terms only, averaging five 
years or so in length. Recent contracts, however, cover 
periods from ten to twenty years, as these longer terms 
serve to stabilize the business, enabling smaller customers 
to be picked up in the vicinity and thus adding to the profit- 
able character of the business. The paper was illustrated 
with a sketch map of the Chicago district served by ihis 
"decentralized" system, together with halftones showing 
some of the buildings supplied. The paper was discussed 
briefly by Messrs. E. Darrow, Indianapolis ; L. H. Murphy, 
Detroit, and Mr. Bushnell. 

COMBINATION HEATING, POWER AND ICE PLANT. 

Mr. J. F. Lewis, manager of the Murphy Power Com- 
pany, Detroit, followed with a descriptive account of this 
central power, heating and refrigerating ■ plant, an illus- 
trated description of which was given in the Electrical 
World, Sept. i, 1910. The station, occupying a ground 
area 148 ft. by 125 ft., contains two 500-kw and two 1500-kw 
turbo-alternators, delivering 4600-volt, 6o-cycle energy. 
There are twelve 400-hp boilers, and low-pressure exhaust 
steam is supplied for heating through 30,000 ft. of dis- 
tributing system, the majority of which is of standard 
wood-log construction. High-pressure steam is also sup- 
plied for cooking purposes, and refrigerated brine is circu- 
lated for cooling ice boxes. 

During the discussion which followed, Mr. A. P. Biggs 
recounted the experience of the Central Heating Company, 
Detroit, with seals. Out of 400 cases of trap adjustments, 
only twenty-five cases were found where the seal leaked. 
The company always makes a second inspection after re- 
quiring that repairs be made, in this way assuring itself 
that proper corrective measures have been taken. Mr. 
L. H. Murphy, Detroit, declared cooking with exhaust 
steam to be out of the question on account of its low 
temperature, but Mr. Lewis related instances where, with 
special equipment having more ample steam passages than 
is customary, such steam is used successfully for cooking 
at pressures of only from 6 lb. to 8 lb. per sq. in. 

EXHAUST HEATING FROM TURBINES. 

Mr. August H. Kruesi, General Electric Company, .Sche- 
nectady, N. Y., presented a paper on "Heating in Connec- 
tion with Steam Turbines," in which were described recent 
developments in Curtis turbine design permitting the ex- 
traction of steam for heating and industrial purposes. 
These turbines are now available in sizes from 500 kw to 
2000 kw and may be operated non-condensing against back 
pressures up to 10 lb. gage, carrying full rated output. A 
special valve equipment is provided, so that a variable 
electrical load can be carried on the turbo-generator with- 
out trouble. The valve-port nozzles close and open succes- 
sively to full position, only one group being throttled at a 
time. When exhaust steam is to be supplied to a heating 
system, the turbine is fitted with a non-return valve which 
prevents the back-flow of low-pressure steam from the 
main in case the electrical load should suddenly be lost. 
In conclusion, Mr. Kruesi declared that turbines can be 
operated non-condensing at economies equal to those of 
reciprocating units, besides the saving in space occupied 
and in the other requirements of engine installations. He 
expressed doubt that any beneficial effect results from the 
pulsating exhaust of engine units. 

Mr. W. Parsons, Springfield, Ohio, cited his own ex- 
perience that flow meters are of only very approximate 
accuracy at low rates of flow. The Springfield company, 
he said, is preparing to install steam-flow meters on all its 
individual boiler units, headers, turbines, etc., besides equip- 
ping the boiler-feed lines with recorders. Mr. E. L. Wilder. 
Rochester, N. Y., quoted a formula for the quantity of 
steam required by a turbine furnishing steam-heating serv- 
ice. This expression takes the form of the sum of the 



July 6, igi5 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



quantity of steam required to keep the turbine spinning 
idle, plus the product of the steam rate of the machine 
multiplied by the kilowatt-hours produced, plus the per 
cent of steam bled. Mr. H. J. Westover, New York, pre- 
sented results of tests of a 2Soo-kw turbine which develops 
a kilowatt-hour on 15.3 lb. of steam when running con- 
densing and takes only 18 lb. running against a 6-lb. back 
pressure. Mr. E. D. Dreyfus, Pittsburgh, Pa., said the 
alleged superior economy of exhaust heating with engines 
over that with turbines has been explained by some as due 
to the sweeping away of moisture by the pulsations of the 
reciprocating exhaust. Mr. C. R. Bishop, Buffalo, N. Y., 
dissented from the author's conclusions relating to the in- 
effectiveness of superheat for customers' service, which 
heat Mr. Kruesi had declared to represent energy wasted. 
Others who commented briefly were Messrs. H. A. Ruth, 
London, Ont.; Mr. T. J. English, Muncie, Ind.; Mr. A. C. 
Rogers, Toledo, Ohio, and Mr. L. D. West, Cleveland, Ohio. 
In closing the discussion Mr. Kruesi explained how steam- 
flow meters may be installed to advantage and calibrated 
with the aid of mercury U-tubes and water columns. 

A LARGE HOT-WATER SYSTEM. 

Mr. G. E. Chapman, of the Public Service Company of 
Northern Illinois, described his company's extensive hot- 
water system at Oak Park, 111. The plant comprises four- 
teen boiler units aggregating 4800 boiler-hp, four of the 
boilers being reserved exclusively for heating the hot water. 
This is circulated by four turbine-driven centrifugal pumps, 
each having a rated output of about 2500 gal. per minute. 
The make-up supply, compensating for water lost in the 
system, is provided by a balanced-column duplex pump. 
The two-pipe distribution system comprises 12 miles of 
double line inclosed in oiled wooden bo.xing with double 
air-spaces. Service is supplied to 710 houses aggregating 
550,000 sq. ft. of radiation surface. In addition to the use 
of the special hot-water boilers, the exhaust from the 1500- 
kw and 500-kw turbines and two 250-kw engine sets is 
discharged into four heaters which can be run singly, in 
series or in multiple as the conditions require. Brief com- 
ments and questions were put by Messrs. A. W. Whitten, 
Boston, Mass. ; H. A. Woodworth, Evansville, Ind. ; D. T. 
Donohue, Lafayette, Ind.; W. A. WoUs, Columbus, Ohio; 
August Kruesi, Schenectady, N. Y. ; H. J. Westover, New 
York ; T. J. English, Muncie, Ind. ; C. R. Bishop, Buffalo, 
N. Y.; A. C. March, Evanston, 111., and C. A. Gillhams, 
Chicago. 

SURVEY FOR COMBINATION PLANTS. 

Mr. E. D. Dreyfus' paper, "Economic Survey of Com- 
bined Power and Heating Plants," was read at the morning 
session by the author, who is engineer for the West Penn 
Electric Company, with headquarters at Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Mr. Dreyfus prefaced his remarks with a discussion of 
surveys of temperature, humidity and weather conditions 
obtainable from United States Weather Bureau reports, 
which, he pointed out, should be investigated when con- 
sidering the installation of a plant. The author then out- 
lined the design and layout of an assumed station to con- 
tain three looo-kw automatic bleeder turbo-units and two 
looo-kw standard units, basing his computations on the 
necessary service expected under local weather conditions. 
The bleeder-turbine installation, he specially pointed out, 
is practically insensible to pressure variations, in contrast 
with the serious objections which may make their appearance 
in a reciprocating plant improperly proportioned. A de- 
tailed description of the Westinghouse bleeder-type turbine 
followed, with a discussion of the operation of the auto- 
matic valve mechanism extracting steam from the inter- 
mediate section. If desired, the entire exhaust can be ar- 
ranged for discharging into the heating system. Mr. Drey- 
fus then exhibited a number of curves showing steam con- 
sumptions of engine and turbine types, together with a 
collection of monthly curve sheets of the electrical and 



steam-heating demand on a typical 5000-kw station. Sum- 
ming up these results, he concluded that a saving of 10.6 
per cent would be effected by the use of bleeder turbines as 
compared with piston engines. Suggestions were also sub- 
mitted for the lay-out of the machines in the power house, 
making use of direct-connected exciters as well as thermo- 
static control of the exhaust branch from the bleeder main 
to the feed-water heaters. The author predicted an in- 
creasing future development of the steam-heating field and 
recommended that designing engineers make provisions, in 
laying out present electric plants, for their conversion to 
bleeder-turbine operation later if needed. Where a hot- 
water system is desirable, said the author, a closed heater 
may be aranged to receive the exhaust of the same bleeder 
type of turbine. 

DEPRECIATION IN UNDERGROUND SYSTEMS. 

The closing paper of the program, "Depreciation in Un- 
derground Distribution Systems," by Mr. William Jen- 
nings, of the Harrisburg Steam Heat & Power Company, 
Harrisburg, Pa., was read in the author's absence by Secre- 
tary Gaskill. The Harrisburg plant was installed in 1887, 
wood logs being used to inclose the charcoal-iron pipe 
employed for the steam mains. The logs were anchored 
in the loam and sandy soil by bar-iron straps, while ex- 
pansion was permitted through means of variators. When 
this construction was excavated recently, in order to replace 
it with larger pipe, the wooden casing was found charred 
to a depth of i in. or so, but except where it had been 
attacked by leakage from sewers or water pipes the logs 
were sound. The iron pipe showed no leaks and when 
taken up was bright and clean. More than two miles of this 
construction is still in service after twenty-five years' use. 
The principal source of leakage trouble has been from the 
service runs, hardly half a dozen leaks having occurred 
in the mains proper. 

Mr. E. G. Jacobs, Detroit, declared wood-log construction 
to be a failure in his experience and recommended concrete 
as subject to less thermal loss and depreciation. Mr. E. B. 
Tyler, Pittsburgh, Pa. .thought concrete might be liable to 
cracks, admitting water. Mr. H. A. Woodworth, Evansville, 
Ind., pointed out that variator construction is usually limited 
10 100 lb. pressure and suggested that special soil conditions 
may account for unusual destructive action. Mr. G. D. 
Higgins, Detroit, reported that the Murphy company uses 
wood logs exclusively and finds them proof against decay 
except where a water main breaks or leaks. If 2 ft. under 
the asphalt pavement, he added, the heat loss is not suf- 
ficient to melt the first fall of snow. In reply to a query 
by Mr. J. C. Hobbs, Pittsburgh, Pa., Mr. Jacobs explained 
that in Detroit slip-joints are installed at street-intersection 
intervals of from 200 ft. to 300 ft., the mains being anchored 
midway, while service fittings are installed at approximately 
50-ft. distances. 

UNDERGROUND INSULATION. 

Following the discussion of Mr. Jennings' paper, a sym- 
posium was held on the subject of underground installations 
and insulation, representatives of the manufacturers being 
invited to discuss the features of their own construction and 
equipment. Mr. C. M. Staten, of the H. W. Johns-Manville 
Company, New York, described the sectional conduit made 
by his company, which he declared to afford the maximum 
protection, durability and efficiency in the transmission of 
heat. The conduit is mixed from carefully selected clays, 
and vitrified in extreme heat to render it moisture-proof, the 
sections being formed whole and afterward cut and num- 
bered correspondingly. Such construction, he explained, is 
cheaper than tunnel-work and more efficient than wood 
casings. 

Mr. H. B. Smith, Jr., Michigan Pipe Company, Bay City, 
Mich, described the principles of his special construction in 
which guides hold the pipe equidistant from the inclosing 
wood conduit. Joints in the latter are waterproof and the 



10 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



material is extremely durable, having withstood tests of 
thirty years. The tamarack timber used is hardy and close- 
grained. Skilled labor is not required to lay this construc- 
tion. Mr. H. A. Austni, American District Steam Com- 
pany, Lockport, N. Y., described the method of constructing 
heating-system trenches with their porous underfiller, the 
subtrenching also being filled with gravel or crushed stone. 
Variators are installed at loo-ft. intervals, with special 
anchor fittings at the mid-points. The packingless features 
of these fittings avoid manhole defacement and reduce heat 
loss. Mr. Austin recommended the air-dried and kiln-dried 
white-pine wood used, as the most efficient insulating 
material available. Mr. J. H. Wilson, of the Richards- 
Wilson Company, Grand Rapids, Mich., spoke of the Rick- 
well underground covering, a mixture of kieselguhr and 
other materials, which he declared to have an insulating 
efficiency of 90 per cent. Mr. Wilson urged careful drain- 
ing of the pipe trenches. Mr. M. O. Payne, W. H. Schott 
Company, Chicago, spoke informally of the construction 
methods used in recent work by his company. Here pure 
asbestos is suspended around the pipe, leaving an air space 
which is rendered dead against circulation, by the fittings. 
The waterproof joints of the concrete casing are broken 
with those of the inner pipe construction, effecting a heat- 
delivery efficiency of 95 per cent of that generated, declared 
the speaker. Mr. C. A. Gillhams, of the Central Station 
Engineering Company, Chicago, pointed out the three im- 
portant requisites to proper underground construction ; good 
drainage, perfect insulation and mechanical protection of 
the insulation. Under the specifications he outlined, the 
trench is both bottom-filled and side-filled with rock or 
gravel and is drained to sumps- if necessary. The construc- 
tion described by the speaker has the feature of flexibility, 
lending itself to modifications to meet various requirements. 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

■ At the session of Wednesday morning, held on board the 
steamer, the following officers were unanimously elected 
for the follow-ing year: President, R. D. De Wolf, 
Rochester, N. Y. ; first-vice-president, J. F. Lewis. Detroit, 
Mich.; second vice-president, J. L, Hecht, Chicago, 111.; 
third vice-president, E. Darrow, Indianapolis, Ind. ; secre- 
tary-treasurer. D. L. Gaskill, Greenville. Ohio. Executive 
committee: W. A. Wolls, Cleveland, Ohio; H. R. 
Weatherell, Peoria, 111., and A. D. Spencer, Detroit, Mich. 
Invitations for the association to hold its 1913 convention 
in their cities were received from representatives of 
Indianapolis, Washington, Baltimore, Chicago, Buffalo and 
Cleveland. The executive committee will decide upon the 
place of meeting later. A committee was also ordered 
appointed, to meet with similar committees from the 
National Electric Light Association and the Society of 
Heating and Ventilating Engineers, for the formulation of 
material on educational subjects in the fields of steatn and 
hot-water heating. 

ENTERTAINMENT. 

A delightful entertainment program, arranged by Chair- 
man J. F. Lewis and his committee, occupied the time of the 
delegates between business sessions. Tuesday evening there 
was a theater party at the Temple Theater. On Wednesday 
morning the convention boarded the steamer Pleasure, char- 
tered for the day, and enjoyed a cruise up the Detroit River 
through Lake St. Clair and into the St. Clair River, past 
hundreds of attractive waterside homes and resorts. An 
unexpected feature of the trip was the sinking of the 
freighter Bothnia by the steel ship Ciirrie in full view of 
the delegates who were in the forward part of the conven- 
tion boat. Luncheon was served on board the Pleasure, the 
vessel returning in the evening to Belle Isle, where a 
chicken dinner was served at the Casino. On Thursday 
afternoon automobiles took the delegates for a trip to local 
automobile factories, returning by the boulevards for a visit 
to the Delray plant of the Detroit Edison Company. 



TOWN FORBIDDEN TO SELL ELECTRICAL ENERGY 
BELOW COST. 



The Massachusetts Gas and Electric Light Commission 
has issued a decision refusing to permit the municipal light 
board of the town of Groton to sell electrical energy below 
cost, as petitioned by the municipality in a formal communi- 
cation addressed to the conmiission following a recent town 
meeting. The commission gave a hearing at Groton a few 
weeks ago, at which it developed that the average cost to 
the town for the year ended March i, 1912, was 16.43 
cents per kw-hr., including operating expenses, interest on 
the investment at 3^^ per cent and depreciation at 5 per 
cent. The output was 29,644 kw-hr., energy being purchased 
from the Ayer Electric Light Company by the town on a 
five-year contract at a maximum price of 6 cents per kw- 
hr., with a reduction to 5 cents for energy in excess of 
20.000 kw-hr. per year. The total cost of supplying its 
consumers during the year was $4,872, of which $2,997 ^^'^^ 
reqilired for operating expenses and $1,056, or 22 per cent, 
was needed to take care of depreciation. The town desired 
to sell energy at 12 cents per kw-hr. for commercial light- 
ing, with a probable discount of 10 per cent, making the 
anticipated net price 10.8 cents. The town supplies si.xty- 
nine private commercial customers, the town hall and other 
public buildings, and 165 50-watt and 19 40-watt incan- 
descent street lamps. The net investment to June 30, 191 1, 
was $20,767. 

In dismissing the petition the board said: '"It is obvious 
from these figures that the cost to the town of the electricity 
supplied by it, as defined by the statute (Revised Laws, 
Chap. 34, Sees. 22 and 23, and Acts 1905. Chap. 410, Sec. 
7), has been more than 12 cents per kw-hr. It developed 
at the hearing that some misapprehension as to the cost of 
the electricity sold had probably led the town to vote for the 
i2-cent rate. L'nder the contract for the purchase of energy 
the average cost per unit will decrease with the increase of 
electricity used, and, while the volume of business has prob- 
ably not yet reached its limit, no sufficient evidence was of- 
fered to show such development of the business in the near 
future as would reduce the cost as low as 12 cents. The 
maximum net price now charged is not high when the size 
of the town, the volume of the business and the benefits, 
direct and indirect, are considered. Indeed, unless the out- 
put shall appreciably increase, even this price may prove to 
be less than cost. The statute, having defined 'cost' with 
considerable precision, manifestly intends that the property 
shall be efficiently managed and that private customers 
shall bear their full share of the burden which the town 
assumes in supplying the electricity which thev use, unless 
exceptional conditions shall make such course clearly im- 
practicable or inexpedient. A supply to private consumers 
for less than cost compels all other taxpayers, many of 
whom may be unable to obtain the service for their own 
use, to pay for the special advantages enjoyed by a few." 



PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION NEWS. 



NEW YORK COMMISSION, SECOND DISTRICT. 

The Public Service Commission for the Second District 
has denied the application of the Philmont Lighting & 
Pow-er Company for approval of franchises granted it by the 
village of Philmont in the town of Claverack, Columbia 
County. At a recent hearing held by the commission the 
president and all of the trustees of the village of Philmont 
objected to the approval of this franchise, which was 
granted by the village board five years ago. They stated it 
was their desire that the entire lighting situation in Phil- 
mont be reopened and that two other companies should have 
an opportunity to make propositions to tlie village for fur- 
nishing electric light. 



July 6, igu. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



MASSACHUSETTS COMMISSION. 

The Gas and Electric Light Commission has issued an 
order dismissing the petition of" consumers of the Suburban 
Gas & Electric Company, of Revere, for a reduction in the 
price of electricity. The hearing disclosed the fact that the 
petition was not brought in accordance with the statute, 
seven of the persons whose names were signed to the com- 
plaint not being customers of the company, and the local 
Board of Selectmen not being a party to the proceedings. 
In dismissing the case the commission pointed out that the 
company and the lighting committee of the town were at 
the point of reaching an agreement when the petition was 
filed, and that voluntary rate reductions have since been 
made by the company. 

The commission has also issued a decision refusing to 
permit the town of Groton to sell electricity at less than 
cost. The salient points in this decision are printed else- 
where in this issue and are of considerable significance. 

WISCONSIN COMMISSION. 

At the suggestion of the Paramount Power & Realty 
Company, of Beaver Dam, the Railroad Commission has 
investigated the condition of the company's dam and has 
ordered certain specified improvements to be made in the 
interest of public safety. Since the dam was built several 
years ago the city has spread until now a number of build- 
ings of considerable size are located immediately below the 
dam and below the level of the lake. A failure of the dam, 
due either to high water or to the failure of dams higher up 
the river, would be attended by serious consequences. 

The commission has authorized the Wisconsin Telephone 
Company to purchase and acquire the property and effects 
of the Fox River Valley Telephone & Telegraph Company 
at a purchase price of $335,000 and has authorized the com- 
pany to issue $200,000 of its notes in part payment thereof. 
The property involved includes eight exchanges, with all 
lines connected to them either directly or indirectly. The 
commission has appraised the property and determined its 
true value to be in excess of the purchase price. 

The Wisconsin Electric Railway Company has applied to 
the commission for authority to establish an amended sched- 
ule of rates on its interurban lines between the cities of 
Omro and Oshkosh and between the cities of Neenah and 
Oshkosh. The amended schedule is to be based upon a 
uniform rate of 2 cents per mile and will be substituted for 
the system of charging according to fare zones now in 
effect, which is attacked in a proceeding now pending before 
the commission as being excessive and discriminatory. An 
application by the Eastern Wisconsin Railway & Light 
Company for a similar amended schedule to apply on its 
interurban line between Oshkosh and Fond du Lac has also 
been filed with the commission. 



Current News and Notes 



Gas and Oil Engines. — To meet the demand for in- 
formation concerning internal-combustion engines and gas 
producers, the United States Bureau of Mines, Washington, 
D. C, has issued technical paper No. 9, entitled "The Status 
of the Gas Producer and of the Internal-Combustion Engine 
in the Utilization of Fuels," by Mr. Robert H. Fernald. 
Many valuable data are contained in this pamphlet, copies 
of which may be obtained upon application. 

* * * 
Need of Better Dam Construction. — Based upon the re- 
cent report made by Mr. Alexander R. McKim, inspector 
of docks and dams, the New York State Conservation Com- 
mission has lately issued a statement pointing out the neces- 
sity of constructing dams that will stand up under spring 
freshets. Mr. McKim has just reported on several dams 



which were carried away by high water this year. A code 
of dam construction intended for owners, engineers and 
builders has been adopted by the commission. 

* * * 

Telephone Pension Plan. — On July i the New England 
Telephone & Telegraph Company put into effect a pen- 
sion system for the benefit of its employees. A mini- 
mum pension of $25 per month and a maximum of $100 per 
month are the principal features of the plan. After twenty 
years of service an employee of the company may be pen- 
sioned for disability at sixty, and he may retire of his own 
volition upon a pension at sixty-five. Retirement at seventy 
is compulsory unless the board of directors decides to make 
an exception. Employees are not called upon to make 
contributions of any kind toward the maintenance of the 
pension fund. 

* * + 

New Baltimore Rate Schedule. — The Consolidated 
Gas, Electric Light & Power Company, of Baltimore, has 
issued a new schedule of rates, revised to June I. While 
there are few changes in the charges the schedule contains 
references to a number of new customs adopted by the 
company. Among these is a provision whereby in cases of 
sickness the company will install service without charge 
for service connection, excepting for e.xtensions, upon re- 
ceipt of a certificate from the attending physician or other 
satisfactory evidence indicating the necessity of temporary 
electric service. A special rate is also made for conven- 
tions, carnivals or other celebrations, and whenever any 
action is taken by the Mayor declaring that electric service 
upon such occasions will be of general benefit to the city 
or to the public energy will be supplied by the company at 
this reduced rate. 

* * * 

Analysis of Engine Performance. — Bulletin No. 58 of 
the Engineering Experiment Station of the University of 
Illinois is devoted to a paper by Mr. J. Paul Clayton entitled 
"A New Analysis of the Cylinder Performance of Recipro- 
cating Engines." The paper contains the results of an ex- 
tensive investigation of indicator diagrams from engines 
using steam, gas, air and ammonia. It has been found that 
the actual steam consumption of an engine may be computed 
by a new method from the indicator diagram alone to within 
4 per cent of the results obtained by tests. New methods, 
have also been devised for detecting leakage from the indi- 
cator card, for computing the amount of the clearance 
volume and for closely locating the cyclic events. Copies of 
the bulletin may be obtained upon application to Dr. W. F. 
M. Goss, director of the Engineering Experiment Station, 
University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Bureau of Standards Report on State Gas Laws. — 
The National Bureau of Standards has prepared a report 
summarizing the provisions of the state gas laws, which 
shows that only sixteen out of the forty-eight states have 
laws for the regulation of gas service. Candle-power re- 
quirements are provided in the laws of California, Mary- 
land, Massachusetts and New York. Sixteen candle-power 
is required in all California cities of more than 100,000 
population. Twenty candle-power is required in Maryland 
for water gas, and about 17 cp or 18 cp for coal gas. In 
Massachusetts the minimum is 16 cp. The requirement in 
New York is 16 cp for coal gas, 18 cp for mixed gas and 20 
cp for water gas. An exception exists for the city of New 
York, where the requirement is 22 cp. Wisconsin, New Jer- 
sey and Nevada are the only states in which a heating-value 
requirement exists under the statute. In Wisconsin and New 
Jersey the monthly average of gross heating value is re- 
quired to be not less than 600 thermal units per cubic foot of 
gas, with a minimum of 550 thermal units. The correspond- 
ing requirements in Nevada are 550 and 500 thermal units 
respectively. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



Prevention of Electrical Accidents in Mines. — The 
Bureau of Mines, ^Vashington, D. C, has recently issued 
technical paper No. 19, entitled "The Factor of Safety in 
Mine Electrical Installations," by Mr. H. H. Clark, copies 
of which may be obtained upon application. 

* * * 

Assistant Electrical Engineer. — The New York State 
Civil Service Commission will hold an examination on 
July 27 for the position of assistant electrical engineer, the 
pay for which is $600 per year and maintenance. The 
address of the commission is Albany, N. Y. 

* * * 

Fire Prevention Conference. — The first international 
conference and exhibition embracing fire prevention, fire 
protection and fire fighting will be held in Madison Square 
Garden, New York, Oct. 2-12, 1912. The secretary of the 
committee on arrangements is Mr. A. D. V. Storey, 1269 
Broadway, New York. 

* * * 

Electric Versus Horse-Dravvn Trucks. — It is claimed 
that from May i, 1911, to May i, 1912, there was a decrease 
of 6753 in horse-drawn vehicles in Chicago due to the in- 
crease in motor vehicles. The decrease equaled 14.7 per 
cent of the total number of horse-drawn vehicles in use 
before May i, 1911. A large percentage of the vehicles 
were replaced by electric trucks, which possess many advan- 
tageous features for this service. 

* * * 

The Water-Power of Iceland. — According to the Ice- 
landic paper Thodviljinn. a company has recently been 
formed for utilizing practically all the available water- 
power in Iceland, aggregating 250,000 hp. A thorough in- 
vestigation and study of the falls have been made by two 
Norwegian engineers, Mr. G. Heildal and Mr. T. Krabbe. 
The name of the company is the Iceland Waterfalls Com- 
pany, Ltd. The president is Mr. Sam. Johnson, Christiania, 
Norway. 

* * * 

Proposed Telephone Merger at Pasadena, CAL.^n 
view of the proposal to merge the local telephone systems 
now operated at Pasadena. Cal., by the Home Telephone 
Company and the Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company, 
the State Railroad Commission has been making an in- 
spection of the plants. It is stated that a new central office 
will be required in the event of consolidation. This 
merger, if it becomes effective, will establish a precedent 
in such cases in California and the negotiations are being 
followed with considerable interest. 

* * * 

Smoke Prevention Lectures. — The department of in- 
dustrial research of the University of Pittsburgh has 
arranged a series of lectures on the smoke problem to be 
delivered by members of its staff. There will be eight lec- 
tures dealing with the following subjects: The smoke 
nuisance ; smoke and the public health ; smoke and the cost 
of living: smoke and plant life; methods and means of 
smoke abatement; the effect of smoke on buildings and 
building materials ; the psychology of smoke, and the smoke 
nuisance and the housekeeper. The arrangements are in 
charge of Dr. R. C. Benner, department of industrial re- 
search. University of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

* * * 

Boston Edison Company Outing. — The annual outing of 
the employees of the Edison Electric Illuminating Company 
of Boston was held at the Riverside Recreation Club 
Grounds, at Auburndale, Mass., on Saturday, June 29. 
About 3.ioo persons were present, including members of 
employees' families and guests. The day was devoted to a 
great variety of land and aquatic sports, under the general 
oversight of Mr. John Campbell, of the special service 
department. A feature was a baseball game which was won 



by the construction department ffom the electrical engineer- 
ing department by the score of 21 to 20. 

* * * 

Colorado Electric Development, — At a meeting of the 
Colorado Electric Club on June 27 addresses were given by 
Governor John F. Shafroth of Colorado, Mayor H. F. 
.\rnold of Denver and by Publicity Agent Hotchkiss for the 
International Dry Farming Congress. The Governor spoke 
of the water-power possibilities of Colorado and the induce- 
ments of cheap energy to manufacturers. He emphasized 
•the fact that because of the federal government's charges 
for water-power developments in the State capital has been 
discouraged from embarking upon such enterprises, to the 
detriment of Colorado. Some of the support to this federal 
restriction has come from those states in which large water- 
power development has taken place unrestricted in the past. 
The application of such restriction to Colorado at this time 
appears to constitute a discrimination favoring older com- 
monwealths. Mayor Arnold spoke particularly of the power 
of Denver to accomplish anything it starts upon by co- 
operation of its organizations, and he asked the particular 
support of the Electrical Club. About 200 members were 

present. 

* * * 

Electricity in a Mail Order House. — Mr. S. E. Church, 
chief electrician of Sears, Roebuck & Company's mail-order 
merchandising plant, Chicago, addressed the Electric Club 
in that city June 20 on the uses of electricity for lighting 
and motor service in the company's establishment. The 
private steam generating plant has a total rating of 3050 kw 
and supplies 220-volt two-wire direct-current service over 
a number of 1,000,000-circ. mil and 1,500,000-circ. mil feeder 
cables to 25,000 carbon-filament incandescent-lamp units, 
5000 Nernst lamps, 3000 tungsten lam^ps and 560 motors 
above i hp in rating, in addition to a number of small 
motors driving sewing machines, adders, etc. In the light- 
ing of the offices 1700 inverted or indirect fixtures are now 
in service, said Mr, Church, and are giving complete satis- 
faction to both the employees and the company. The 
speaker suggested, however, the development of a better 
semi-indirect fixture, using a translucent reflector to give 
partial direct lighting. Where conditions of ceiling height 
and wall color are right, indirect illumination, declared Mr. 
Church, can be operated as cheaply as direct lighting. The 
speaker then went on to describe the complete electrical 
equipment of the Sears-Roebuck printing department. An 
elaborate system of records of all electrical apparatus, 
lamps, etc., is in use in the mail-order establishment, en- 
abling performances to be compared with each other over 
a term of years. Illuminometer tests are made of all office 
premises, and where possible the arrangement of units is 
improved from a lighting standpoint as the floors are re- 
wired from time to time. Messrs. W. M. Connelly, G. W. 
Cravens, Charles Delaney and O. B. Duncan spoke briefly 
in the discussion which followed. 



SOCIETY MEETINGS. 

Officers New England Section, I. E. S. — The follow- 
ing officers of the New England Section of the Illuminating 
Engineering Society have been elected for the 1912-13 
year: Chairman, Mr. R. B. Hussey; secretary, Mr. H. C. 
Jones; managers, Messrs. H. C. Clifford, C. A. B. Halvor- 
son, J. M. Riley, R. C. Ware and W. E. Wickenden. 
* * * 

Toronto N. E. L. A. — At a meeting of the Toronto Com- 
pany Section of the National Electric Light Association 
held on June 26 the following officers were elected: Mr. 
Parker H. Kemble, chairman ; Mr. R. F. Pack, honorary 
president ; Mr. L. V. Webber, first vice-president ; Mr. 
Thomas Marshall, second vice-president; Mr. F. H. Byrne, 
secretary The section has a membership of over 200. 



July 6, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



13 



American Institute of Electrical Engineers 
Convention— Papers and Discussions 




HE twenty-ninth annual convention of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers 
was held in Boston from June 24 to June 28, 
inclusive. In accordance with the usual cus- 
tom the formal sessions were preceded by a 
reception and dance given on the evening of Monday, June 
24, which proved to be a most pleasurable occasion for all 
who arrived early enough to attend. On the morning of 
June 25, at the opening session held at 10 o'clock, President 
Gano Dunn delivered his annual address, and then Presi- 
dent-elect Ralph D. Mershon was introduced and responded 
with a few brief remarks. The general features of the 
convention were reported in the columns of our last issue, 
and other notes concerning the meetings of committees and 
miscellaneous events will be found elsewhere in the present 
issue. Below is given a full account of the technical ses- 
sions held from Tuesday to Friday, inclusive, with abstracts 
of the papers and brief summaries of the discussions. 



Transmission 



CORONA LOSSES. 

Prof. C. Francis Harding, Lafayette, Ind., presented the 
results of an experimental determination of corona losses 
on an experimental transmission line and a comparison of 
these results with the calculated losses. The experimental 
line was about 1380 ft. in length and made up of three 
spans supported from steel poles. Energy was supplied to 
the line from a 300,000-volt, 30-kw, 6o-cycle transformer. 
The circuit of this transformer was opened at the grounded 
neutral and a Rowland dynamometer, calibrated as an am- 





































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'line 


AND R 


ACK 


































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LINE 


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1 

1 










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i 


7 






























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/ 










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V 




























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'/ 














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^y 








.^ 


IRACK 


ONL> 


















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^j^ 


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3 -( 


) 


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10 20 30 JO 50 CO 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 
KILOVOLTS 

Relation Between Voltage and Loss. 

meter, and one of the elements of an oscillograph, were 
connected in series therewith. The potential was measured 
in two ways, first, by the use of an auxiliary coil in the 
transformer, and again by means of a needle-gap. Prac- 
tically sinusoidal wave forms were employed exclusively. 
The line conductors were new No. 4 B. & S. gage solid 
copper-clad steel wires. A typical curve showing the losses 



measured is given in the accompanying figure. The author 
presented a series of eight conclusions, which are sum- 
marized in what follows: The use of the oscillograph and 
the methods employed to measure the potential were found 
to be satisfactory. The corona loss curve follows a para- 
bolic law, but the constants of the equations have different 
values above and below the visual critical voltage. In 
general, the experimental results checked Mr. Peek's 
formula for pressure above the visual critical voltage ; the 
deviations were in general in the direction of greater 
losses than those indicated by the formula. 

THE LAW OF CORONA AND DIELECTRIC STRENGTH OF AIR. 

A paper on the law of corona, presented by Mr. F. W. 
Peek, Jr., of Schenectady, N. Y., is a continuation of his 
earlier paper on the same subject which was presented at 
the 191 1 annual convention. The first paper was referred 
to as Part I, and the present paper as Part II. Each of 
these papers presents the results of experimental researches 
into the phenomenon of corona, supplemented by mathe- 
matical analysis and discussion. Working formulas were 
presented in Part I for determining the disruptive critical 
voltage and the visual critical voltage on transmission lines 
and the energy losses per unit of strength, under various 
conditions of temperature, air density and weather, with 
conductors of different sizes and spacings. It was shown 
that humidity has no effect on either the critical voltage or 
the corona loss. However, it was observed that the pres- 
ence of smoke lowers the critical voltage and increases the 
loss. Heavy winds were not observed to produce any effect 
at ordinary commercial frequencies. Certain other weather 
conditions, however, should always be taken into account. 
Fog, sleet, rain and snow lower the critical voltage and in- 
crease the loss. The effect of snow is greater than that of 
any of the other conditions just mentioned. It has been 
observed in these tests that high voltages do not entirely 
prevent sleet formation. 

While the formulas presented in Part I make it possible 
to predetermine the corona characteristics of a given trans- 
mission line under conditions ordinarily met, the investiga- 
tions have been continued with a view of rationalizing the 
formulas and dissecting the phenomenon of corona to learn 
its true nature. The latter investigations have been pre- 
sented in Part II. When the quotient found by dividing 
the distance between the conductors by the conductor radius 
is less than thirty, it has been found that spark-over occurs 
before corona appears; when this quotient is just equal to 
thirty, either spark-over or corona appears, and this con- 
dition is very unstable ; but when the quotient is greater 
than thirty corona appears first and spark-over occurs at 
some higher voltage. The normal disruptive gradient of 
atmospheric air is 29.8 kilovolts per centimeter. When the 
conductor surfaces are coated with water the spark-over 
voltage, at a given spacing, is almost independent of the 
radius and approximately follows the needle gap curve. Oil 
has a somewhat similar effect. 

One of the most interesting features of the paper is 
the stroboscopic study of corona, which invariably revealed 
the interesting fact that corona on positive and negative 
conductors of equal size is not the same. The positive dis- 
charge appears in general as a fine bluish-white spray, while 
the negative discharge appears as reddish tufts. The dis- 
charge from a positive point gives the same impression as a 
stream of water being forced out under pressure, while the 



14 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



negative discharge gives the appearance of a spray. The ' 
paper contains numerous stroboscopic views of the forma- 
tion of corona on conductors of various shapes under differ- 
ent surface conditions. 

The author concludes that corona loss seems to be char- 
acterized by a form of conduction from positive to negative, 
always starting from the former. Thus it commences al- 
ternately from each conductor, first one and then the other, 
every half cycle. When a 500-ft. span consisting of two 
20-mil parallel steel conductors 10 ft. apart was erected for 
experiment it was noted that at high voltage the conductors 
vibrated, reaching an amplitude finally of several feet, at 
the span center. One conductor generally vibrated as the 
fundamental, with a one-second period, and the other as 
the third harmonic. The same phenomenon was repeated 
in the laboratory with short conductors, and a stroboscopic 
study showed, from the corona characteristics, that the 
wires were vibrating synchronously with the alternations 
in the supply circuit. 

DIELECTRIC STRENGH OF .\IR. 

Two earlier papers presented before the Institute by this 
author. Prof. J. B. Whitehead, of Baltimore, Md., dis- 
cussed the conditions under which high-tension corona 
initially starts. This line of investigation was continued 
to some extent in the present paper, and further work was 
done along the line of determining the physical nature 
of corona phenomena. The author has carried out his 
investigations from the standpoint of the ionization theory. 
The results obtained show that there is a distinct motion 
of air away from the corona, and that this air carries both 
positive and negative charges. Furthermore, the air tends 
to move in straight lines, but there is, nevertheless, a 
certain tendency toward general diffusion. Any mate- 
rial obstacle will entirely stop this motion. No discrep- 
ancies between these phenomena and the ionization theory 
were noted. An interesting photographic study of the 
diameter of corona on cylindrical wires was carried out, 
both with the usual type of glass lens and with a quartz 
fluorite lens. Typical photographic studies were presented 
with the paper. The author also studied the corona voltage 
of subdivided conductors arranged both in three-strand and 
four-strand configurations. The summary of conclusions 
states that during the early stages of corona the carriers 
constituting the leakage current have the positive sign, 
while with increasing voltage the negative carriers pre- 
dominate. The variations of the corona diameter with dif- 
ferent voltages can be studied by photographic methods. 
The critical voltage may be increased by subdividing a cir- 
cular conductor into three or more equal strands sym- 
metrically spaced; for three strands the critical voltage 
may be raised 16 per cent, and for four strands it may be 
raised 20 per cent. 

Discussion. 

The discussion on the papers by Messrs. Harding, Peek 
and Whitehead was opened by Mr. John B. Taylor, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y., who pointed out that the slow vibration of 
conductors in a 500-ft. span, under high voltage, as de- 
scribed in Mr. Peek's paper, has not been satisfactorily 
explained. He stated that possibly this swaying was caused 
by periodic variations in the supply voltage, but there was 
no positive evidence to prove this and the volt-meter read- 
ings did not confirm it. He also emphasized the need of 
further investigation to bring out the true nature of corona. 

Dr. A. E. Kennelly, Cambridge, Mass., commented on 
the advances in knowledge concerning corona during the 
year past. It is now well established, he said, that the 
corona loss follows a parabolic law above a certain critical 
voltage in any given circuit. In one of the earliest Institute 
papers on corona losses, which was presented by Prof. H. 
T. Ryan, it was stated that the voltage gradient for visible 
corona on small wires varied inversely as the wire radius. 



He pointed out that the results obtained by Mr. Peek do 
not exactly corroborate Prof. Ryan's conclusion. The 
speaker commented on the interesting use of the strobo- 
scope in the study of corona as described in Mr. Peek's 
paper. In referring to the apparent excess of electrification 
on the positive conductor or the streaming of positive elec- 
tricity from this conductor into space. Dr. Kennelly raised 
the question whether this might not be a flow of negative 
electricity from space to the conductor. He spoke in the 
highest praise of the work done by Mr. Peek and said 
that the industry owes him a debt for his clear and definite 
formulas enabling corona losses on transmission lines to 
be predetermined with a fairly high degree of accuracy. 
The speaker then referred to a possible error in Mr. Hard- 
ing's results arising from the relatively high rack losses 
encountered in his arrangement of apparatus. 

Dr. C. P. Steinmetz, Schenectady, N. Y., said that the 
laws of corona as first derived were empirical, but such 
laws must stand the test of furnishing rational results 
when applied in practice. He also said that the prob- 
ability law for determining the losses below the visual 
critical voltage is necessarily approximate. He stated that 
an approach to the rational explanation of corona is found 
in the papers by Messrs. Peek and Whitehead. It is now 
know-n that corona does not form on positive and negative 
conductors in precisely the same way. The speaker stated 
that corona probably does not start on the positive con- 
ductor at the same voltage as on the negative, and prob- 
ably the losses on the two conductors are also unequal. 
This would tend to produce a unidirectional electrification 
of the whole line with respect to the earth. By applying a 
unidirectional pressure of opposite polarity from line to 
ground it should be possible to raise the disruptive voltage. 
It seems evident that the possible influence of the free 
ionization of the air on the formation of corona ought to 
be investigated. The commercial importance of continuing 
the investigations of corona to ultimate conclusions, the 
speaker said, can hardly be overestimated. Under the pres- 
ent circumstances various important industrial developments 
are being held up because of the lack of knowledge con- 
cerning the real nature of corona. He stated further 
that it is important in presenting such papers as these to 
publish the full experimental data as well as the con- 
clusions drawn therefrom. It is very essential. Dr. Stein- 
metz said, for investigators to give each other as soon as 
possible the benefit of their complete researches. 

President Dunn explained that the meetings and papers 
committee had considered in connection with these papers 
the publication in full of the data submitted with them, 
but concluded that the cost was too great to warrant it. 
At the same time he expressed his appreciation of the value 
of the data and stated that any suggestions concerning a 
disposal of it for the best interests of the Institute mem- 
bers would receive most careful consideration. 

Mr. Harding, in closing the discussion on his paper, ex- 
plained that the apparent rack losses were due in consider- 
able part to the losses in the line from the high-tension 
transformers to the rack. He doubted the presence of any 
substantial error in his results because of their very close 
agreement with the quadratic law. He also pointed out 
that the close agreement with this law at voltages below 
the visual disruptive gradient might have been due to the 
use of new line wires which were bright and clean. 

Mr. Peek closed the discussion on his own paper very 
briefly by expressing his gratification over the corroborative 
results obtained by Mr. Harding, but criticised at the same 
time Mr. Harding's use of the needle-gap method of meas- 
uring high voltages and expressed his preference for the 
auxiliary transformer coil method. Fie stated that his in- 
vestigations are being continued and additional data have 
already been recorded but are not yet available for pub- 
lication. The speaker expressed his belief that many of 
the valuable data which have not hitherto been published 



July 6, 1912 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



IS 



on account of the lack of space can readily be printed at 
comparatively little expense by the use of small type. 

Prof. Whitehead highly commended Mr. Peek's investi- 
gation of the influence of temperature and air density on 
the formation of corona. He said that further investiga- 
tions into the effect of air pressure on corona, covering a 
much wider range of pressures, have been carried on in 
the laboratories at Johns Hopkins University, and it is his 
hope that the results can be published at an early date. 
The speaker also voiced his appreciation of Dr. Steinmetz's 
remarks concerning the ionization theory, in distinction 
from the energy zone theory. He pointed out that free 
ionization of the air, however, has nothing to do with 
starting the formation of corona, because the effect is so 
very minute in comparison with the line pressures, amount- 
ing probably to an intensity of only two volts in contrast 
with a line pressure of many thousand volts. 

MEASUREMEXTS OF VOLT.^GE AND CURRENT OVER A LONG ARTI- 
FICIAL POWER-TRANSMISSION LINE AT 25, 60 AND 
420 CYCLES PER SECOND. 

Dr. A. E. Kennelly and Mr. F. W. Lieberknecht, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass., presented in this paper a description of an 
artificial three-phase transmission line nearly 500 miles in 
length and a series of tests made over this line for the pur- 
pose of checking transmission theory. The energy source 
employed consisted of a three-phase alternating-current 
generator, having a rating of 12 kva at either 60 cycles or 
25 cycles per second. This machine gave a very close ap- 
proximation to a sine wave of emf, as shown by the oscillo- 
grams. Both the voltage and the current at successive 
points along the line were measured by a Drysdale alter- 
nating-current potentiometer. Tests were made with the 
receiver end of the line both open and loaded. The results 
were summarized in the paper in tabular form and also 
plotted in both rectangular and polar co-ordinates. Within 
the limits of precision of the measurements, the results 
confirm the hyperbolic-function theory of such lines. 

Discussion. 

The paper was briefly discussed by Dr. C. P. Steinmetz, 
Schenectady, X. Y. ; Prof. J. P. Tackson, State College, Pa. ; 
Prof. C. F. Scott, New Haven,' Conn. ; Prof. J. B. White- 
head, Baltimore. Md., and Mr. J. B. Taylor, Schenectady, 
N. Y. All joined in complimenting the authors on their 
thorough experimental investigation to verify the theory 
of transmission. One of the speakers said such investiga- 
tions prove the accepted electrical theory to be a fact 
and not a hypothesis. A number of questions were asked 
of the authors by those who spoke, and Dr. Kennelly re- 
plied briefly. He explained that the constants of the 
artificial line were chosen as fairly typical of a practical 
case. This equipment can be employed very satisfactorily 
for laboratory instruction, by dividing the students into 
small groups and having each group repeat the tests out- 
lined by the instructor. It is very essential in making 
accurate measurements on the artificial line to maintain 
the impressed voltage and frequency at almost absolute 
constancv. 



Electrical Machinery 



THE SQUIRREL-CAGE INDUCTION GENERATOR. 

Messrs. H. M. Hobart and E. Knowlton, of Schenectady, 
N. Y., presented a paper dealing with the characteristics of 
induction generators and recounting some of the peculiar 
features of their design. The general purpose of the paper 
was to show the correct economic field for generators of 
this type. One of the principal features is the necessity 
of minimizing the length of the air-gap for the purpose of 



reducing the exciting component of the stator current and 
keeping down the total cost of the apparatus. As is well 
known, induction generators must be operated in parallel 
with one or more synchronous generators in order that they 
may be supplied with the necessary magnetizing or exciting 
current. When an induction type of generator is operated 
in parallel with a synchronous generator, the latter machine 
has to supply the entire wattless component of the load on 
the system, as well as the magnetizing current for the in- 
duction generator. The authors compared at some length 
the cost and characteristics of an installation consisting of 
one 5000-kw synchronous generator and one 5000-kw induc- 
tion generator with another installation consisting of a sin- 
gle io,ooo-kw synchronous generator. The characteristics 
of the induction type become the more favorable the higher 
the speed and the greater the rated output. One of the most 
important applications of the induction generator is for fur- 
nishing additional capacity in stations which are now 
equipped with synchronous generators. The fact that the 
induction type is well suited to high speed and large outputs 
thus makes it peculiarly suitable for installations where it is 
desirable to increase the output without enlarging the sta- 
tion. 

MOTOR-STARTING CURRENTS AS AFFECTING LARGE TRANSMIS- 
SION SYSTEMS. 

Mr. P. M. Lincoln, of East Pittsburgh, Pa., presented a 
paper analyzing the effect of motor-starting currents on the 
operation of large transmission systems. There has been a 
pronounced tendency, especially in alternating-current sys- 
tems, to limit the size of motor units, for a number of rea- 
sons, among which are a desire to avoid concentrating too 
much load in a single piece of equipment, a fear that the 
starting currents and load fluctuations of relatively large 
motors will cause fluctuations in the supply voltage, and a 
further fear that the cumulative effect of starting many 
large motors at nearly the same hour will create a demand 
beyond the capacity of the generating system. The author 
described an investigation made in a certain large transmis- 
sion system operating in the South which experienced con- 
siderable difficulty in carrying its load during the time each 
morning at which cotton mills usually start. Nine typical 
mills were selected and tests were made upon each one of 
ihem by means of curve-drawing meters, measuring both 
the current and the power supplied to the installation. 
Omitting two cases, the largest motor in any installation 
did not exceed 15.5 per cent of the installed motor capacity 
and the kva demand during the starting period never ex- 
ceeded the running demand. In one instance there was a 
motor whose rating was equal to one-half the capacity of 
the whole installation, and in this case the kva demand 
during the starting period was 25 per cent in excess of the 
demand during the running period. In another instance 
there was a single motor whose rating was equal to 66.7 
per cent of the total installation, and here the kva demand 
during the starting period was 50 per cent in excess of 
the running demand. In the two latter instances the motors 
were of the squirrel-cage type. The author presented 
typical curves showing the kva demands during the starting 
periods in a number of the mills tested. He concluded that 
the only logical restriction in the size of motors ought to 
be that no single motor unit should exceed 25 per cent of 
the capacity of the largest mill on the system. 

SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS. 

The paper presented on this subject by Mr. W. J- Branson 
had for its object the development of a complete vector 
analysis of single-phase induction motor performance, as 
the basis for an accurate circle diagram applicable to mo- 
tors of even the smallest commercial size. Practically the 
whole paper was given over to mathematical and graphical 
treatment, based on the transformer theory of the induction 
motor as distinguished from the rotating-field theory. He 



lb 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



stated that it was necessary to derive mathematically correct 
formulas or graphical construction for several quantities 
which have been loosely treated heretofore, including the 
value of the secondary load current reduced to equivalent 
primary current, the construction of the current circle and 
the evolutions per minute. The final results were pre- 
sented in the form of a working diagram and a data table 
showing the formulas necessary to employ in practical calcu- 
lations. The author concluded with a table giving a com- 
parison of calculated and tested results on twelve motors, 
ranging in size from i hp to 1/12 hp, showing very close 
agreement. 

Discussion. 

The papers by Messrs. Hobart and Knowlton. Branson, 
and Lincoln were discussed at considerable length by 
Messrs. L. Hagood, Boston, Mass. ; C. A. Adams, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., and E. F. W. Alexanderson, Schenectady, 
N. Y. Mr. Hagood stated that the use of synchronous 
condensers is frequently justifiable when the power-factor 
IS low, and often this is the case where induction gener- 
ators which take lagging excitation currents are em- 
ployed. The use of synchronous condensers is best war- 
ranted as a rule at the load-end of long transmission sys- 
tems when the power-factor is poor. 

The tooth losses in induction motors and the effect of 
different winding pitches were discussed at considerable 
length by Prof. Adams, with the aid of numerous black- 
board diagrams. He pointed out that the neglect of losses 
caused by tooth harmonics frequently gives rise to great 
errors in the total calculated losses. There should be a 
substantial difference between the number of teeth in the 
stator and the number in the rotor. No approximate 
method of calculating the load losses even on a semi-ra- 
tional basis yet exists, but it is not improbable that such a 
method will ultimately be obtained. Another cause of in- 
determinate losses is the breakdown of insulation between 
laminations caused by the pressure exerted in assembling. 
An excellent distribution of magnetic flux in the air-gap, 
approaching sinusoidal form, can be obtained in single- 
phase motors by the use of a five-sixths winding pitch. 
Prof. Adams also pointed out that the resistance of damp- 
ing windings has very little influence on the damping ef- 
fect, which is largely governed by the leakage flux. 

Mr. Alexanderson stated that his investigations show 
that the tooth loss is proportional to the square of the air- 
gap density and also to the square of the peripheral speed. 
He expressed a doubt whether the induction generator, 
which requires lagging excitation current, will meet with 
much favor for use in generating stations. 

Mr. Hobart, in closing the discussion on his paper, stated 
that he did not intend to recommend the induction gener- 
ator for station service to the complete exclusion df syn- 
chronous machines, but said that a few of these generators 
can undoubtedly be employed to advantage in each large 
installation. He then called attention to the fact that the 
extra losses in induction generators are due in part to the 
American practice of employing form-wound coils, where- 
as abroad the winding slots are nearly closed and some- 
what higher efficiency is thereby secured. 

Mr. Lincoln, when called upon to close the discussion 
on his paper, said there had been no discussion, for the 
evident reason that those present had not been afforded 
sufficient time for reading the paper in advance of the 
meeting. 

DETERMINATION OF POWER EFFICIENCY OF ROTATING ELEC- 
TRICAL MACHINES. 

This paper, presented by Mr, E. M. Olin, of East Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., advocates the testing of rotating electric 
machinery by use of the summation of losses method 
wherever possible, as a substitute for the input-output 
method. It is well known that certain losses occurring in 
electric machines can be accurately determined when 



operating under no-load conditions. There are other losses, 
however, which cannot be determined in the same way, 
since their magnitude varies with the load in a somewhat 
complex manner. The author then discussed in detail the 
various kinds of losses which occur in machinery of this 
description, stating that the only losses which cannot be 
accurately determined from no-load measurements are rota- 
tion losses and the losses due to eddy currents caused by the 
stray fields of useful currents. The author proposes to 
conduct a long series of input-output tests, in order to 
arrive at the actual losses of a large number of machines of 
varying types and sizes, and thus to compare the measured 
losses with the losses calculated by the summation of losses 
method. This would furnish a basis for determining the 
correction factors, which could thereafter be employed in 
the summation of losses method, and would make it un- 
necessary to resort to the input-output method, which it is 
oftentimes so difficult and expensive to apply. The author 
presented several elaborate tables showing comparisons of 
the two methods and the discrepancies between them. 
Discussion. 
A brief discussion was participated in by Messrs. C. M. 
Green, Lynn, Mass., and B. G. Lamme, Pittsburgh, Pa. It 
was pointed out by Mr. Green that the peculiar character- 
istics of the Brush arc generator make it feasible to de- 
termine the commercial efficiency only by the input and 
output method. There are great changes in the field ex- 
citation and armature reaction of this machine between 
no load and full load. Mr. Lamme pointed out that it is 
a very difficult matter to calculate generator losses from 
theoretical considerations. He expressed the hope, how- 
ever, that the development of correction factors will make 
it possible to calculate the load losses in a fairly simple 
manner. It is quite essential to apply short cuts to the 
theoretical computation and make use of approximation. 
Mr. Lamme stated that he has little confidence in the 
input-output method under shop conditions unless the re- 
sults are always checked by a second or third test. The 
author, in closing the discussion, stated that the input- 
output method is of greatest utility- under laboratory con- 
ditions where the fluctuations of supply voltage which 
occur in shop practice can be avoided. 

0PER.\TING CHARACTERISTICS OF LARGE TURBO-GENERATORS. 

Mr. A. B. Field, of Pittsburgh, Pa., presented a paper 
summarizing the operating characteristics of large turbo- 
generators and emphasized how rapidly the speed require- 
ments have been changing in the past few years. At the 
present time six-pole turbo-generators rated at 20,000 kw 
and 1000 r.p.m. have been constructed in Europe, while in 
this country two-pole generators for the same output at 
1500 r.p.m. are under construction. After discussing at 
some length the short-circuit characteristics of large 
machines, the author presented a number of conclusions, 
among which were the following: The momentary short- 
circuit current ratio is not directly affected by the fre- 
quency to any very large extent, except by reason of the 
smaller penetration of the stator leakage flux in the rotor 
body at higher frequencies. A two-pole generator has a 
larger momentary short-circuit current ratio than a cor- 
responding four-pole machine having the same general fea- 
tures of design. Using a given frame for a definite rating, 
the momentary short-circuit current ratio is nearly pro- 
portional to the square of the flux per pole. However, the 
manner in which this ratio increases with the rating cannot 
be stated definitely, since it is complicated by several fea- 
tures which influence the magnetic proportions of the de- 
sign. The general tendency has been to sacrifice regulation 
in order to limit the ratio of the momentary short-circuit 
current to the normal current at the maximum continuous 
lating. Improvements in rotor design have also been made 
possiljle by employing separate blowers for producing the 
necessarv ventilation. 



July 6, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL W U R L D . 



17 



, TRANSIENT REACTANCE OF ALTERNATORS. 

A paper devoted to an investigation of the transient im- 
pedance of alternators and its influence on some of the 
machine characteristics was presented by Messrs. William A. 
Durgin and R. H. Whitehead. The phenomena investigated 
included the maximum and minimum currents flowing from 
a l2,ooo-kw turbo-generator, with and without external 
reactance, under various short-circuit conditions; the max- 
imum and minimum currents fed into different classes of 
faults from a system supplied by several such units in par- 
allel; the maximum cross-currents obtainable when paral- 
leling one of these units with such a system, and the torque 
developed by the maximum currents existing under short- 
circuit or fault conditions. The authors concluded from their 
investigations that short-circuit currents of alternators are 
limited by reactances much more complex and much higher 
than the self-inductive reactances of the armatures. They 
stated that these limiting reactances are constant for sim- 
ilar units and can be obtained for any size and type of gen- 
erator by simple low-voltage, short-circuit tests. They also 
concluded that the current per unit delivered to any given 
short-circuit is less as the number of units in parallel in- 
creases; that the maximum current always results when the 
short-circuit occurs at the zero point of the corresponding 
pressure wave ; that the maximum instantaneous torque 
merely varies inversely as the reactance in circuit, and 
hence the instability of the system and generator stresses 
at times of short circuit are only lessened by reactance coils 
in proportion to the resulting increase in total reactance. 
They further concluded that the maximum torque is entirely 
independent of the points on the pressure waves at which a 
three-phase short-circuit occurs, and stated finally that the 
total reactance of an alternator should be at least 15 per 
cent per phase, divided about equally between the machine 
and the external reactance coils. The authors declared 
that even this reactance will not insure complete protection 
from torque stresses caused by poor synchronizing or short- 
circuits. 

Discussion. 

The papers by Messrs. Field, Durgin and Whitehead 
were discussed by Messrs. H. M. Hobart, Schenectady, 
N. Y.; B. G. Lamme, Pittsburgh, Pa.; H. J. Strobel, Bos- 
ton, Mass.; P. M. Lincoln, Pittsburgh, Pa.; E. W. Rice, Jr., 
Schenectady, N. Y., and C. A. Adams, Cambridge, Mass. 
Mr. Field's paper was characterized as an excellent pres- 
entation of the modern trend in the design of large high- 
speed alternators. Several speakers agreed that it is the 
best practice to employ independent ventilating apparatus 
in connection with large generators since this will permit 
the design of both generators and ventilating apparatus 
for maximum efficiency. It will then be possible to clean 
the air employed for cooling and, if thought desirable, to 
obtain an air supply from out of doors during those sea- 
sons of the year when it will be advantageous. It was also 
pointed out that the temperature rise of an alternator is 
kept within lower hmits by the use of humid air or air 
containing a considerable proportion of water particles in 
suspension. The resulting vaporization of this moisture 
absorbs a considerable quantity of heat. One of the speak- 
ers stated that it is quite general practice abroad to filter 
the air employed for cooling large generators by means of 
thin cotton cloth. 

A considerable portion of the discussion was devoted to 
the subject of internal reactance in large generators, and 
one of the speakers pointed out that high internal reactance 
tends to safeguard a generator from destruction or injury 
on short-circuits. Such short-circuits frequently occur at 
the end turns of the generator or near the terminals. The 
effect of short-circuits on the field windings of large 
turbo-generators was referred to, and troubles of this 
character in the Cos Cob station of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad Company were specifically 



mentioned. Breakdown of the field windings is often 
caused by the high induced voltage which accompanies 
short-circuits on the generator. This difficulty was re- 
lieved by shunting the field winding, but a still more effec- 
tive remedy was found to consist of placing cage-dampers 
on the field rotors. The last expedient was applied on the 
generators in the Cos Cob station about four years ago 
and no trouble of this character has since appeared. 

Other speakers referred to the excessive momentary 
values of shaft torque which frequently accompany gen- 
erator short-circuits. In the case of engine-driven gener- 
ators having very large armature inertia, the torque mo- 
mentarily transmitted to the engine shaft during short 
circuits is necessarily limited, but in the case of turbo- 
generators this is not true, and it has been found necessary 
to design the shafts and shaft-couplings with due recog- 
nition of such a contingency. 

Another speaker pointed out that the internal reactance 
of alternators has never been rationally defined. It was 
questioned whether the internal reactance of large turbo- 
generators can be made as low as 2 per cent. A large 
portion of the internal reactance resides in the end turns, 
particularly in the case of two-pole machines having a 
high peripheral velocity, except where windings of low 
pitch are employed. One or two of those who spoke 
added their complaints in reference to the very short time 
available for study of these papers before their presenta- 
tion. 

DEVELOPMENT OF A SUCCESSFUL DIRECT-CURRENT 2000-KW 
UNIPOLAR GENERATOR. 

The author of this paper, Mr. B. G. Lamme, of Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., described the development and construction of a 
2000-kw unipolar generator which has been in successful 
operation for several years. The general features of this ma- 
chine are shown in the accompanying illustration. The princi- 
pal difficulties developed after the machine had been con- 
structed as originally designed and set up for shop test. These 
troubles were very largely those of a practical nature, which 
could not, in the absence of any experience to form a guide, 
be foreseen. The major portion of the paper was devoted 
to a very full presentation of these difficulties and the meas- 
ures which were adopted to overcome them. When the ma- 
chine was installed the severe conditions under which it was 
required to operate — adjacent to a stone crusher — presented 
new difficulties. Among the interesting expedients adopted 
was the unique one of setting the copper-leaf brushes 
against the direction of rotation in order to avoid the accu- 
mulation of dust and dirt under the heels of the brushes. 
The ring wear has been reduced to an average of less than 
o.oooi in. per day, or less than ^ in. per year, which is ex- 
tremelv low in view of the high periphery speed and the 



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Construction of Unipolar Generator. 

large number of brushes employed. This machine now 
operates day and night, seven days per week, and almost 
continuously throughout the year, with no trouble. 

Discussion. 

The discussion was opened by Mr. J. B. Taylor, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y., who referred to the paper on unipolar gen- 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, Xo. i. 



erators read before the Institute by Mr. J. E. Noeggerath 
in 1905. The speaker then gave an abstract of a written 
discussion of Mr. Lamme's paper contributed by Mr. 
Noeggerath. The latter complimented the author's frank 
presentation of the many practical difficulties encountered 
and commented upon some of them from his own ex- 
perience in the design and construction of such machines. 
He then stated that his experiments have convinced him 
that magnetic fields at right angles or perpendicular to 
each other in the same medium have no effect upon each 
other. This he declared to be true even if the medium is 
iron and is saturated in one of the given directions ; there 
will still be no efifect on the field or the magnetic properties 
in a perpendicular direction. This theory was illustrated 
by diagrams accompanying his comnmnication. He also 
stated that he had seen Mr. Lamme's machine in operation, 
which seemed to be highly satisfactory. 

Dr. Elihu Thomson, of Lynn, Mass., congratulated the 
author of the paper on his boldness and perseverance in 
striking out into a new and difficult field. The speaker 
then referred to some of the early attempts, both in this 
country and abroad, to build such generators in commer- 
cially satisfactory form. Unforeseen difficulties of a prac- 
tical nature always developed and none of these attempts 
was commercially successful. 

EXCITATION OF ALTERNATING-CURRENT GENERATORS. 

The general problems encountered in providing direct-cur- 
rent excitation for alternating-current synchronous gen- 
erators were treated in a paper presented by Mr. D. B. 
Rushmore, of Schenectady, N. Y. In discussing the ex- 
citation requirements of such generators, the author con- 
sidered the characteristics of exciters and then enumerated 
three general methods of excitation, known as self-e.xciting, 
compositely exciting and separately exciting. The last- 
named method is employed almost exclusively. Proceeding 
next to discuss the subject of voltage regulators, he de- 
scribed a number of well-known types of automatic regu- 
lators employed in this country and several used abroad. 
The closing portion of the paper was devoted to a descrip- 
tion of different e.xciter arrangements, including the selec- 
tion of the proper number of units, method of drive and 
different systems of connection. Several diagrams were 
presented showing the system of connections employed in 
large installations. In one very large plant now being in- 
stalled each main generator will be provided with its own 
motor-driven exciter, which in turn receives its energy from 
a generator driven by an independent prime mover. There 
are two of the latter units, one of which is an emergency 
reserve, and they will furnish energy to all the exciter sets 
in the station. It will also be possible to supply the motors 
of the exciter sets from the main station bus, if desired. 

Discussion. 

After an abstract of the paper had been presented for 
the absent author by Mr. E. A. Lof, of Schenectady, N. Y., 
the discussion was opened by Mr. B. G. Lamme. Pittsburgh. 
The speaker raised a question in regard to the author's 
table of slot factors, and stated that in his own practice 
he prefers to compute the constant for each particular 
case from the flux distribution curve. He pointed out that 
the reason a commutating-pole machine flat-compounded 
at 125 volts gives a rising voltage characteristic at lower 
pressures is no doubt because the iron is fully saturated 
when the machine delivers its rated pressure of 125 volts. 
Mr. Lamme criticised the use of individual direct-con- 
nected exciters and recommended the use of fewer exciter 
units with independent drives. Mr. J. L. Woodbridge, of 
Philadelphia, Pa., questioned the advantages of compound 
exciters as proposed by the author and stated that equal 
stability can be secured with plain shunt machines. In 
closing the discussion, Mr. Lof stated that in one instance 
where a large exciter unit is driven by a synchronous 



motor which receives its energy from the main bus, inter- 
ruptions have been caused by the motor falling out of step. 

THE RUNAWAY SPEED OF WATERWHEELS AND ITS EFFECT ON 
CONNECTED ROTARY MACHINERY. 

A paper on the runaway speed of waterwheels was pre- 
sented by Prof. Daniel W. Mead, of Madison, Wis., the 
object of which was to show what might happen if the full 
load on a waterwheel was suddenly removed and the speed 
governor failed to act. Accidents have been known to oc- 
cur from this cause when the electric generators connected 
with the waterwheels were not designed to withstand the 
runaway speed. At present it is current practice to design 
the generators for 200 per cent runaway speed. The au- 
thor submitted characteristic speed-torque and speed-power 
curves of waterwheels and discussed the hydraulics of 
both impulse and reaction wheels at some length. He con- 
cluded that in the case of impulse or tangential wheels 
which are used under high heads of relatively constant 
magnitude the runaway speed to be cared for will be about 
200 per cent of normal. It may be stated in general that 
when a reaction turbine is working at the most efficient 
speed and the head is constant the runaway speed may be M 
as low as 150 per cent or as high as 180 per cent, according " 
to the type of wheel. When the head is low, however, 
and there is a wide variation of head under different con- 
ditions of stream flow, and the wheel is designed to work 
over the whole range of heads with a normal speed cor- 
responding to the central range, the runaw^ay speed under 
the maximum head may be 200 per cent or more of the 
normal speed. These conclusions are rather general and 
the author always recommends a detailed analysis of each 
case. 

LOCALIZERS, SUPPRESSORS AND EXPERIMENTS. 

An experimental study of the application of localizers of 
faulty feeders and an arcing ground suppressor to a large 
high-tension distribution system was presented by Prof. 
E. E. F. Creighton, of Schenectady, N. Y., and Mr. J. T. 
Whittlesey, of Newark, N. T. The localizer is a special 
type of relay which is connected to a series transformer in 
each feeder, and lights a signal lamp and sounds an alarm 
w'hen an accidental contact or arc occurs between one phase 
and ground. This apparatus is part of the general scheme 
of protection for cable systems and is used especially in 
connection with the arcing grounding suppressor. The 
latter extinguishes an accidental arc from one phase to 
ground a small fraction of a second after it forms. The 
authors presented results of their experiments in consider- 
able detail, accompanied by a large number of oscillograms, 
showing the instantaneous effects. They conclude that gen- 
erators on a loaded three-phase system practically maintain 
constant delta potential, and that the generators themselves 
generate nearly constant and stable star potential. Any 
shifting in the generator neutral on a loaded system is 
merely transitory. No dangerous potentials were observed 
during the operation of arcing ground suppressors. The 
protective effects of the grounded neutral may be obtained 
by connecting aluminum cells between the generator neutral 
and the ground; at the same time this will avoid all the 
objectionable effects of short-circuits and cross-currents 
that attend a grounded neutral. The insulation resistance 
of mixed overhead and underground systems is largely de- 
termined by the insulator leakage. Weather conditions 
changed the insulation of the system tested from 5000 ohms 
to more than 500 megohms. 

RELAY PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS. 

A paper describing relay protective systems with refer- 
ence both to Continental and American practice was pre- 
sented by Mr. L. L. Elden, of Boston, Mass. There have 
been no material changes in the construction or commercial 
applications of this class of apparatus under American con- 



Jl'lv 6, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL W (J R L D . 



19 



ditions for a number of years. In response to demands for 
modification of the characteristics of time-limit overload 
relays certain changes have been made in existing types, 
and. further, a nevif type of relay has been introduced, all 
of which have increased the facilities for obtaining selec- 
tive action between the different relays. Generators are not 
arranged in general for automatic disconnection from the 
system which they supply, but reverse power relays are 
sometimes used to operate signals to indicate the reversal 
of power in generator circuits. The relay protection em- 
ployed for transmission lines varies with the type of system 
and method of operating. But as a rule the instantaneous, the 
inverse-time-limit or the definite-time-limit types of relays 
have been used, depending upon the judgment of the engi- 
neer. Fairly satisfactory results have been obtained with 
this protection when applied to radial-feeder systems, but 
indifferent or unsatisfactory results when applied to ring- 
feeder systems. Marked progress has been made in the de- 
velopment of protective equipment abroad, and the system 



MAIN SWITCH 

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Typical Arrangement of Merz-Price Protective System. 

invented by Messrs. Merz and Price, of London, Eng., has 
worked out very satisfactorily. A number of arrangements 
of the Merz-Price system are shown in the accompanying 
illustration. 

The Merz-Price system operates on the principle that if a 
conductor in service is in proper condition the current enter- 
ing it at one end and leaving it at the other must be of the 
same value. When a fault develops the currents become 
unequal, and this causes an unbalance in the pilot circuit, 
which, in turn, causes the switches at each end of the circuit 
to be instantaneously tripped. As adopted in English prac- 
tice, this system has made it possible to employ substations 
without attendance of any character. The author also 
showed modifications of the Merz-Price system designed to 
afford current-balance protection to generators or trans- 
formers and also emf-balance protection. A great many 
modifications of the Merz-Price system can be worked out 
to fit special conditions. The author also described briefly 
the Hochstader system of protection employed in Germany. 
The last system, however, depends upon the use of a special 
form of construction in underground cables. 

Discussion. 

In opening the discussion on the papers by Messrs. 
Cretghton and Whittlesey, and Elden, Mr. D. W. Roper, 
Chicago, asked why the time-limit, overload relay was em- 



ployed as shown in the author's diagram and suggested 
that it might be there to protect the busbars. He also 
raised the question whether it would be possible to set this 
relay so as to discriminate between different kinds of cir- 
cuit trouble. Further remarks were contributed by Mr. 
L. C. Nicholson, Buffalo, N. Y., who brought out the im- 
portant factor in such protective systems introduced by 
the time element in oil-switch operation. The shortest 
interval in which an oil switch can now be made to operate 
equals the duration of 16 cycles, and a short-circuit lasting 
for this period will oftentimes throw synchronous ma- 
chines out of step. 

In closing the discussion, Prof. Creighton referred very 
briefly to a modification of the arcing ground suppressor 
described last year, which provided protection against in- 
sulator troubles on overhead transmission circuits. Mr. 
Elden stated that the time-limit overload relay shown in 
connection with the Merz-Price system is intended to take 
care of short-circuits between the phase wires, and it can 
also be used with a high setting for instantaneous action 
to disconnect two groups of ring feeders. The Merz-Price 
apparatus is not affected by overload and will respond only 
to fault currents. 



Utilization 



THE APPLICATION OF ELECTRIC DRU'E TO PAPER CALENDERS. 

It was Stated by the author of this paper, Mr. E. C. 
Morse, of Boston, that motor drives have been employed in 
paper mills for the last twenty years, and that they have 
been successfully applied to every machine used in the 
process of paper making. For this reason it has been pos- 
sible to study the power requirements of various paper ma- 
chines and much useful information has been obtained, but 
very little of it published. The author's object was to set 
forth some of the facts that have been observed and state 
any conclusions which appear to be warranted. His sub- 
ject matter was confined to the finishing department of the 
paper mill, and especially to the motor drives for three 
types of paper calenders, known as super calenders, sheet 
calenders and platers. The methods of drive and the power 
requirements were discussed in each case, and typical load 
curves were presented. A number of illustrations were in- 
cluded showing typical motor drives. The problem of speed 
control is highly important, and it is very essential to obtain 
uniform and smooth acceleration from minimum to maxi- 
mum speed. It is also essential to be able to operate at 
various speeds so as to accommodate various grades of 
paper, and it is important to be able to stop the calender 
quickly from various points. When alternating-current 
motors are employed the wound secondary type is nearlv 
always adopted, and the speed control is obtained by the 
variation of external resistance in the secondary circuit. 
The author presented comparative cost data for several 
installations and concluded with the statement that it is 
quite evident that increased quality and quantity of pro- 
duction is obtained by the use of electric drives in the 
finishing department of a paper mill. This, he said, is due 
to the fact that each machine is under perfect speed control 
and each kind of paper is finished at the most advantageous 
speed. 

ELECTRIC DRIVE FOR PAPER MACHINES. 

The chief advantages of the electric drive for paper ma- 
chines were presented in a brief illustrated paper by Mr. J. 
S. Henderson, Jr., of Pittsburgh, Pa. The operating prin- 
ciple of the paper machine is quite simple and consists 
essentially in the separation of the paper fiber from its sus- 
pension in water, first by wire gauze and then by pressing 
and drying. The principal parts of the machine are the 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



wire, which is driven by a couch roll, the press rolls, the 
driers, calenders, reel and the winder These parts consti- 
tute what is known as the variable-speed portion of the ma- 
chine, while sucli other portions as the stuff pumps, vacuum 
pumps, screens, shake, etc., are driven at constant speed. 
The required speed range may be as great as lo to i, de- 
pending upon the class of output. It is essential to obtain 
good speed regulation at any speed, with simple and posi- 
tive speed control over the entire range, and perfectly 
uniform angular velocity at all times. Numerous econ- 
omies result from the use of electric drives, which also 
possess simplicity and require but a small amount of floor 
space and comparatively little attendance. Such drives have 
the further advantage that the speed is independent of the 
load. After discussing the standard methods of speed con- 
trol, the author summarized his presentation in the state- 
ment that a successful paper-machine drive should furnish 
the desired speed range in a simple and positive manner, 
with good regulation at each speed from about three-quarter 
load to full load, and should be able to carry all loads con- 
tinuously and economically. 

Discussion. 

Mr. W. B. Jackson, of Chicago, contributed briefly to 
the discussion of the papers by Messrs. Morse and Hen- 
derson, and suggested possible advantages in developing 
an electric clutch or accelerator for obtaining very close 
speed control and producing smoother acceleration, such 
devices to be incorporated as part of the general speed 
control system. Mr. Henderson agreed that such a device 
would have theoretical advantages, but stated that he did 
not consider it commercially necessary. 

ELECTRICITY ON THE FARM. 

The numerous and increasing uses for electricity on the 
farm were presented in an illustrated paper by Mr. Putnam 
A. Bates, of New York City. Attention was called by the 
author to the reviving interest in agriculture and the de- 
sirability of doing everything possible to improve the farm- 
er's conditions. Several references were made to the farm 
uses for electricity which have been developed in the Far 
West and along the Pacific Coast, particularly in irriga- 
tion pumping. Many applications of motor drives to re- 
place manual labor in farmwork were described and illus- 
trated. The author also touched upon the subject of iso- 
lated plants for supplying a single farm, or possibly a group 
of farms, which might be situated outside of the zone of 
central-station service. The convenience of local telephone 
service about the farm was briefly dwelt upon. The use of 
electrical energ\' for lighting, heating and motor service 
also diminishes the fire risk, which is a very important con- 
sideration in rural communities, where public fire protection 
is almost universally impracticable. 

Discussion. 

A brief discussion was participated in by Messrs. J. D. 
Merrifield, Pasadena, Cal. ; L. L. Elden, Boston, Mass., 
and J. A. Moyer, Ann Arbor, Mich. It was pointed out 
that the central-station company operating in Boston and 
vicinity is making an aggressive campaign to secure farm 
business and is advertising extensively by means of a trav- 
eling exhibit known as the "Edison Farm." In reply to a 
question the author stated that isolated plants and central- 
station service seldom come into competition for farm 
business inasmuch as the latter is almost invariably em- 
ployed if it is available at reasonable prices. When, how- 
ever, it is necessary to install an isolated plant, the author 
invariably recommends the use of storage batteries for 
emergency and breakdown service. He described at con- 
siderable length the seemingly wonderful field of develop- 
ment which awaits the central station when the farmer 
is once aroused to the great advantages resulting from the 
use of electricity. 



Illumination 



On June 26 President Dunn called to order the joint meet- 
ing of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers with 
the Illuminating Engineering Society. He spoke briefly of 
the intimate and cordial relations which exist between the 
two societies, and then introduced President V. R. Lansingh, 
of the Illuminating Engineering Society, who addressed the 
meeting. Mr. Lansingh commented upon this gathering of 
one of the oldest and most influential engineering organiza- 
tions with the youngest of all the engineering societies. 
This occasion, he said, marked the first joint meeting of 
the I. E. S. with another national engineering society at 
its annual meeting. The art of illumination, regarded as a 
branch of engineering, received its greatest impetus on the 
occasion of the famous series of lectures delivered on the 
subject two years ago at Johns Hopkins University. Since 
that time this branch of engineering has been well estab- 
lished and is now universally recognized. 

THE PROBLEMS OF INTERIOR ILLUMINATION. 

Mr. Bassett Jones, Jr., of New York City, presented a 
paper in which were discussed the problems met in inte'rior 
illumination. The illuminating engineer must consider, first, 
the kind of work to be done by artificial light ; second, the 
distribution of light flux that will make it possible to do the 
work at the highest efficiency, and, third, the character and 
arrangement of illuminants that will produce the desired 
results most economically. It is very essential for the 
engineer to grasp and appreciate the lighting effect which is 
desired, and especially he ought to understand the relation 
of shadow and color to design, in order to preserve the 
value of the architectural treatment and ornamentation. 
The engineer ought to know enough about color and about 
pigments to discern beforehand exactly what effect any 
particular tone or intensity in the light will have upon the 
color scheme, because both color and intensity in light pro- 
duce marked effects on color pigments, and these effects 
vary with the character and saturation of the pigments. 
The possibility of altering the character of color ornamenta- 
tion by modifications in the color of the illumination 
presents a remarkable field for the display of good taste 
and ingenuity. Shadows constitute a most important means 
of setting off relief design, and the engineer should be 
especially careful to see that the lighting scheme secures the 
desired effect. The reversal of shadows by improperly 
directed light, or the apparent flattening of relief orna- 
mentation by excessive diffusion of light, is, of course, 
disastrous to architectural beauty. 

Obviously a large amount of co-operation is needed be- 
tween- the illuminating engineer and the architect in refer- 
ence to interior effects. When the location of the light 
source has been fixed the amount of flux to be generated 
can be calculated by three methods, which the author char- 
acterized as the point by point method, the flux method 
and the absorption method. He concluded his paper with a 
discussion of these methods, by the aid of specific examples. 

INDUSTRIAL ILLUMINATION AND THE AVERAGE PERFORMANCE 
OF LIGHTING SYSTEMS. 

A paper containing a brief symposium on the lighting 
of industrial establishments, with reference both to the 
type of installation and the results obtained under working 
conditions, was presented by Mr. C. E. Clewell, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. Factory work may be grouped, generally speaking, into 
two kinds. The first includes many sorts of bench work, on 
the horizontal plane, which requires in the main only down- 
ward illumination. The other kind includes machine tool 
operations, foundry molds, rolling mills and the like, where 
the side diffusion of illumination, as well as the vertical. 



July 6, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



plays an important part in the results. The size and shape 
of lamps to be employed depend in a large measure on the 
ceiling, roofs and trusses. The author devoted much of his 
paper to a discussion of the efficiency of utilization, and 
presented a comprehensive table showing the results of 
extensive tests which have been conducted during the past 
year to determine the results obtained in practice. It was 
sought to establish the actual efficiency of various illumina- 
tion systems in comparison with the theoretical efficiency 
which might be supposed to exist from calculations based on 
the candle-power distribution curves. Particular attention 
was paid to the condition of the lamps and reflectors and 
their state of cleanliness. Five typical interior locations were 
selected, all of which were equipped with tungsten lamps 
and glass reflectors. Tests were then made for a period of 
seventeen weeks. The results were presented in tabular 
form, some of which were plotted as curves. Great attention 
was given to the loss of efficiency resulting from accumu- 
lations of dirt. The author's conclusions on the economic 
relation of wages to illumination are especially interesting 
and instructive. The wages for six minutes per day in the 
average shop or factory pay for entirely adequate illumina- 
tion, and when one considers that nearly all such establish- 
ments have some lighting facilities, it becomes evident that 



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good illumination, which plays so large a part in the 
efficiency of workmanship, is most emphatically justified. 
The author also stated that it is economical to clean lamps 
and reflectors much more frequently than is now the custom 
or the rule. 

Discussion. 

The papers by Messrs. Clewell and Jones were discussed 
together. The discussion was opened by Mr. D. McFarlan 
Moore, Newark, N. J. He emphasized how essential it is 
to consider the effect of shadows in designing interior 
illumination systems and pointed out that each problem 
should be considered from the standpoints of both day and 
night effects. The speaker also regretted that Mr. Jones 
did not explain more in detail some of the interesting color 
effects which he demonstrated. 

Mr. P. S. Millar, New York City, complimented Mr. 
Jones' paper as typifying in an excellent manner the real 
nature of illuminating engineering and touched upon the 
importance of securing high efficiency in illumination. He 
expressed the hope that Mr. Jones would relate in further 
detail his researches which preceded the interesting results 
given in his experimental demonstrations. 

Dr. C. F. Scott, New Haven, Conn., discussed the char- 
acteristic attitude toward problems in factory illumination 
a number of years ago, and from some of his own ex- 
periences drew the lesson that illuminating engineering is a 
subject quite as complex and requiring fully as much study 



as many other engineering specialties. He then described 
the results of poor illumination in a drafting room and re- 
lated how tlie correction of faulty conditions enabled each 
draftsman to increase his output by an amount correspond- 
ing to one-half or three-fourths of an hour's work each day. 

Dr. A. E. Kennelly emphasized the economic importance 
of keeping lamps and fixtures clean, as shown by the results 
presented in Mr. Clewell's paper. 

Dr. C. H. Sharp, of New York City, said that while the 
conclusions presented in Mr. Clewell's paper are not new, it 
is nevertheless valuable to have additional data. In shop 
lighting, he stated, it is quite essential to study the needs 
of each particular machine as to the direction, quantity and 
intensity of light required. We are now beginning to 
appreciate, the speaker stated, that illuminating engineering 
is a complex and sometimes difficult subject. He com- 
plimented Mr. Clewell's method of expressing the loss in 
illumination due to dirty lamps and glassware in terms of 
the extra wages of the workmen whose efficiency is 
diminished by the want of adequate light. Dr. Sharp also 
cautioned against accepting the judgment of a workman as 
to the amount of light needed to enable him to do his work 
at the best advantage. 

Prof. F. C. Caldwell, Columbus, Ohio, pointed out the 
characteristic differences between natural illumination by 
daylight and artificial illumination employed at night. There 
is also to be taken into account the physiological effect of 
sudden transition from daylight to artificial light for short 
periods. 

Mr. G. H. Stickney, of Harrison, N. J., emphasized the 
marked difference in character between the two papers, one 
dealing with decorative and the other with industrial light- 
ing. He also mentioned the interesting fact that the cost of 
adequate lighting is sometimes stated as equal to i per cent 
of the salaries of the employees who work under it. The 
distressing physiological effects of glare caused by a case 
of improper office lighting were briefly described by Mr. W. 
J. Hammer, of New York City. He also pointed out that 
the proper remedy is frequently a simple one, but neverthe- 
less many examples of bad lighting continue to exist for 
want of recognition of their disadvantages and dangers. 

Mr. E. A. Champlin, of Boston, Mass., stated that while 
drafting rooms are often well arranged for natural illumi- 
nation by daylight, quite frequently the artificial lighting 
is badly planned and even comes from the opposite 
direction. 

In closing the discussion on his paper, Mr. Clewell said 
that industrial lighting involves problems as complex on the 
whole as those met in decorative lighting. He stated that 
careful attention was given during the tests described in his 
paper to the matter of noting the depreciation of walls and 
ceilings, but no such effect was observed. He also re- 
ferred to a specific case in which individual lighting units 
over each machine in an industrial plant were removed, 
although the change was protested against by the workmen. 
The same men, however, approved of the change after they 
had had an opportunity to work under better illumination. 
This shows that prejudice is often a factor and also demon- 
strates that the judgment of the workmen cannot be taken 
at its face value. 

While closing the discussion on his paper, Mr. Jones 
pointed out that ordinary daylight is directed light. When 
daylight is perfectly diffused by a thin overcast sky the high 
intensity of illumination in every direction fatigues the eye 
and makes it difficult to look directly at lighted objects. He 
said that many architects still cling to old-fashioned notions 
concerning illumination, and related some of the tests which 
he had made in order to demonstrate to architects the best 
colors to be employed in decorating rooms under different 
conditions. For example, a room with a north exposure 
should be painted blue in order to reflect the blue light 
which is characteristic of the northern sky, while a room 
with a southern exposure should be decorated with a buff 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



color in order to reflect the yellow light from the southern 
sky. In concluding, he stated that his investigations of 
color effects were made so hurriedly and under such high 
pressure to reach conclusions by the most direct route that 
he hesitated to present a detailed account of all his experi- 
ments leading up to the results just demonstrated to the 
audience. 

' ILLUMINATION .\ND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING. 

Dr. Louis Bell, Boston, Mass., delivered an address de- 
voted to the relations of illuminating engineering to the 
other arts and sciences, and particularly to electrical engi- 
neering. It may be said from the standpoint of the illumi- 
nating engineer that electrical engineering constitutes his 
most important source of supply or raw materials. Illumi- 
nation is by no means a new art, but the utilization of light 
has made tremendous strides in the quarter century which 
has elapsed since the introduction of electric lighting on a 
commercial scale. Of course much of what now consti- 
tutes both the art and science of illumination was developed 
many years before the advent of electric lighting, and in 
numerous instances modern practice is founded upon prin- 
ciples which were first stated more than half a century ago. 

Illuminating engineering, briefly, is the science and art 
of utilizing light sources to obtain effitient illumination. 
As a science it consists of a body of physical principles 
and data which deals with the radiation of luminous energy 
from source to destination. Again, as an art, it involves 
the adaptation of particular kinds of light sources so as to 
utilize their peculiarities in the most effective manner. In 
one sense we may say that where electrical engineering 
stops illuminating engineering commences, but the latter 
springs also from important sources in a number of other 
arts and comes very intimately in contact with industrial 
chemistry. Illuminating engineering transcends to a far 
greater extent than any other branch of engineering the 
limits of pure mathematics or physics, and extends into 
the realms of physiology and psychology. The fact that 
illuminating engineering is thus interlocked with many 
sciences is no doubt the chief reason why it seemed in 
the beginning a thing so intangible and indefinite. While 
illuminating engineering must stand by itself, it depends 
nevertheless to a greater extent upon electrical engineer- 
ing than any other branch. 

The author went on to describe the differences between 
natural and artificial light and stated that one of the great- 
est tasks now before the electrical engineer is that of ob- 
taining luminous radiation at high efficiency but greatly 
diminished intensity, and remarked that perhaps the chemi- 
cal engineer may outstrip his electrical rival in struggling 
for this goal. But the resources of electrical engineering 
make it likely that electric light will be the light of the 
future. Although gas and oil are still with us, their future 
sphere of usefulness apparently lies in the production of 
heat and motor service. 

There being no discussion on Dr. Bell's paper, he was 
next called upon to say a few words in regard to the im- 
portant work which has been carried on by a committee of 
the Illuminating Engineering Society in preparing the "Illu- 
mination Primer." 

THE ILLUMINATION PRIMER. 

Dr. Bell stated that more than a year ago the committee 
undertook the diflkult task of stating the fundamentals of 
illumination in brief and simple language for the instruc- 
tion of the general public in this new and important art. 
After long and arduous labors by the committee and many 
revisions of the original draft the "Illumination Primer" 
was finally condensed to twenty pages, and the original 
copy is now in the hands of the printer. Dr. Bell stated 
that the primer is not intended in any sense to be a sum- 
mary of knowledge for the benefit of engineers, but instead 
is designed to guide the general public toward a better 



understanding of the principles of correct illumination. 
The first edition of the primer is necessarily limited by the 
financial resources of the Illuminating Engineering Society, 
but he said that arrangements will be made whereby any 
responsible engineer, firm or corporation may obtain per- 
mission to reprint the primer in full for such general dis- 
tribution as may be desired. 

RELATIONS OF COLOR TO ILLUMINATION. 

Dr. Herbert E. Ives, Cleveland, delivered a lecture on 
the relations of color to illumination work, which was 
supplemented by lantern slides and demonstrations. The 
general problem, he said, is divisible into two parts, the 
first of which concerns the determination of the facts by. 
pure scientists, and the second their utilization by engi- 
neers. After discussing spectrum analysis and throwing 
several spectra on the screen, he demonstrated by means 
of an ingenious apparatus that any color can be duplicated 
by a mixture in proper proportions of red, green and blue. 
After discussing these effects the speaker turned to the 
subject of producing artificial daylight and pointed out 
some of the difficulties in this problem. He showed three 
examples of so-called artificial daylight which appeared 
very closely alike to the ordinary observer. Their dif- 
ference was demonstrated quite clearly by testing the color 
of ordinary fabrics when exposed to each kind of light and 
also to the light on an ordinary carbon-filament lamp. 
Numerous interesting examples of this character were 
demonstrated. The speaker explained that the phenomenon 
is due to certain missing characteristics in the spectrum 
of the artificial light and to other peculiarities in the spec- 
trum of the dye colors. The production of a perfect arti- 
ficial light, the speaker stated, is of considerable com- 
mercial importance. 

Discussion. 

Among those who contributed to the discussion following 
Dr. Ives' demonstrations were Dr. C. F. Scott. New Haven, 
Conn. : Mr. W. J. Hammer, New York City, and Dr. C. H. 
Sharp, New York City. Referring to those demonstrations 
which showed the interesting effects of defective artificial 
daylight on the color of fabrics, Mr. W. J. Hammer made 
the rather startling statement that he has found a substance 
which will glow a blood-red color when exposed to light of 
any character whatever. Dr. Sharp commented on the very 
striking effects shown in colored fabrics, which he said are 
caused partly by the peculiarities of the spectra of the dyes 
employed. In closing the discussion, Dr. Ives stated that 
the problem of producing stability in the colors of fabrics 
is open to two lines of attack. The dyer is naturally inter- 
ested in avoiding the weird effects which had been so clearly 
illustrated and is therefore desirous of obtaining dyes which 
tend as much as possible to maintain color stability under 
different kinds of artificial illumination. On the other 
hand, the illuminating engineer is anxious to produce an 
artificial pure white light which imitates daylight to the 
closest possible degree. 



Electric Railways 



The first railway session of the convention was called to 
order by President Dunn at Wednesday noon. The meet- 
ing was devoted to a discussion of the paper by Mr. Samuel 
Insull read before the April 5 meeting of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers in New York, dealing 
with the generation and primary distribution of energy for 
given areas, and at that time it was announced that the 
paper would be taken up for general discussion at the next 
annual convention. The author stated that he was not 
viewing the question of railway electrification from the 



July 6, igi2. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



23 



railroad operating standpoint, but rather from the point 
of view of the central-station man who sees an economic 
advantage in securing this class of load. It is interesting 
and significant to note that the railroad demand is only 
about 15 to 20 per cent of the total demand for energy in 
any community, and the author further expressed the 
opinion that the amount of energy required to operate the 
terminal and suburban systems of all the trunk lines center- 
ing in New York City would be less than the total energy 
required to operate the isolated electric-light plants in the 
same territory. The keynote of the paper is found in the 
statement that the concentration of the production of en- 
ergy, for all the purposes required in a given area occupied 
by a large center of population, would result in substantial 
savings in capital and operating expenses. Taking New 
York City as an example, he pointed out that the savings 
obtained in this manner would provide sufficiently for the 
generating capacity and primary transmission systems nec- 
essary to electrify the railroad terminals and suburban 
service of all the trunk lines centering there. The per- 
centage of saving is not so impressive as the actual mag- 
nitude in dollars. The manner in which this saving can 
be realized consists, in a word, of taking advantage of the 
diversity of demand in different classes of consumption or 
load. The first illustration presented was that of New 
York City, where the combined load of electrified steam 
railroads, lighting and motor service and street railways, 
regarded as separate systems, was given as 678,000 kw for 
the peak of last winter, while operated as a single system 
the demand would have amounted only to 630,000 kw, leav- 
ing a saving of 47,000 kw, corresponding to a diversity 
factor of jYi per cent. 

The author pointed out that the farther the electrifica- 
tion of railroads extends from the terminals the less in- 
fluence the suburban service will have upon the demand 
and the greater will be the diversity factor. Suburban 
travel produces two peaks of demand, one in the morning 
and one in the evening, and the peaks are accentuated by 
the necessity of heating the cars in cold weather and the 
extra power demands for traction during bad weather con- 
ditions, especially when low temperatures prevail. The 
steam railroad load-factor is materially better where sub- 
urban traflSc is relatively unimportant. 

Mr. Insull presented other examples of the savings which 
would result from unification of generating systems in Bos- 
ton and Chicago, and gave many data in relation to the 
power demand which will result if the railway terminals in 
Chicago are electrified, part of which was embodied in an 
appendix prepared by Messrs. Paul Bird, H. B. Gear and 
E. J. Fowler, of Chicago. 

iMr. Frank J. Sprague. New York, chairman of the rail- 
way committee of the Institute, opened the discussion. He 
pointed out that the discussion of the merits of the three 
principal systems of electrification has been held some- 
what in abeyance of late in view of the committee's belief 
that what is needed are actual results from the operation 
of existing electrified roads. The speaker felt that the cost 
of energy is a subject of fundamental importance in this 
connection. Efforts promising some success are being made 
to induce manufacturers and other interested parties to 
take up co-operatively a specific railway electrification prob- 
lem on a large scale and in a comprehensive manner. 

Mr. Sprague pointed out the possibilities of establishing 
a financial organization prepared to take the capital risks 
of electrification through a contract providing for opera- 
tion by electric motive power over a fixed term and pos- 
sibly providing for the supply of rolling stock. Referring 
to the condition at New York the speaker said that in the 
electric zone of the New York Central lines the insur- 
ance of an ample supply of energy is a fundamental neces- 
sity, the cost of energv being a secondary consideration. 
The net cost of producing energy in five of the principal 
generating plants supplying energy for train service at 



New York averaged about 0.51 cent per kw-hour delivered 
at the switchboard in 191 1 and excluding fixed charges. 
This figure averages somewhat higher than the results ob- 
tained in very large stations of modern design. Mr. 
bprague pointed out the fact that the energy cost at the 
Cos Cob station of the New Haven system runs from 45 
to 60 per cent higher than in the other plants serving elec- 
trified trains and suggested that the purchase of electricity 
would have been desirable in this case. 

Mr. H. G. Stott, New York, contended that Mr. Insull's 
results were obtained in Chicago by combining in one or 
two plants of modern design the outputs of several broken- 
down stations. He could see no other argument supporting 
Mr. Insull's conclusions. As compared with an old plant a 
modern station ought to show at least 20 per cent gain 
in economy. Mr. Stott said that his investigations of the 
relation between load-factor and energy cost show that the 
cost varies inversely as the fourth root of the load-factor. 
He thought on this basis that the saving resulting from 
centralized plant operations in a city like New York would 
be only about one-eighth of that figured by Mr. Insull. 
Mr. Stott questioned the economy of very large turbo- 
units, say of 20,000 kw rating, as compared with 10,000- 
kw units and touched upon the advantages of shifting the 
load from one plant to another in an interconnected sys- 
tem. The diversity factor is practically nil in railway 
work. The total installation equipment must be the same 
no matter how many plants are combined in one. The 
speaker disagreed with Mr. Insull's contention that 30 per 
cent reserve equipment is required in individual plants 
against 25 per cent in combined installations. With 
modern equipment a reserve of 10 per cent is sufficient, 
provided this is utilized in connection with the overload 
range of the equipment. The total cross-section of copper 
is the same, regardless of how many plants are required, 
although the length of copper obviously varies with the 
conditions. The speaker regretted that Mr. Insull failed 
to show the results of his plant combinations in detail, 
and suggested that there should be a division of profits 
between the manufacturer of energy and the consumer. 

Mr. William McClellan, New York, said that only a 
certain number of railroads can be electrified economically 
at the present time. The investment cost is the great 
stumbling block, taken in connection with the amortization 
of the existing investment. It is his opinion that the 
cost of the third-rail system, the single-phase system and 
of electric locomotives is unlikely to be decreased to any 
extent. If enlargement of plant does not decrease the cost 
of energy there is no reason for working out the sub- 
station idea still further. The price of energy should in- 
clude a means for amortizing old equipment so that ob- 
jectionable standing assets and corresponding charges may 
not be continued. 

Mr. Percy H. Thomas, New York, stated that there is 
a possibility that the railroads may be waiting for some- 
thing better to turn up in the electrical field. He felt cer- 
tain that the concentration of energy production and dis- 
tribution is bound to increase. Mr. W. G. Carlton, New 
York, pointed out the possible benefits of pooling loads 
between stations, after the manner of pooling rolling stock. 
The size of generating stations is reaching the economic 
limit. 

Mr. Calvert Townley, New York, stated that to carry 
Mr. Insull's paper to its logical conclusion might lead to 
the absurdity of concentrating the energy generation of the 
United States in a single plant, eliminating for the moment 
the questions of divided ownership, municipal and state 
boundaries. The whole problem of energy supply is dis- 
tinctly an engineering question involving transmission and 
distribution conditions no less than matters pertaining to 
generation. The saving due to diversity factor is reduced 
as the size of the station increases. The speaker did not 
oppose consolidation of plants but said that he could not 



24 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



accept the author's paper as general cure-all for railway 
electrification problems. Mr. Townley said that the New 
Haven company did not buy energy from the New York 
Central organization because the lowest price quoted by 
the latter was 2 cents per kw-hour. It was necessary to 
have economical energ)- on the system at a certain time, 
and hence the company built its own plant at Cos Cob. 
The poor load-factor of the New Haven system was antici- 
pated, but it will probably be improved when the progress- 
ing electrification to New Haven is completed. The ability 
of the central station to undertake to supply future energy 
demands is a strong argument in favor of the purchase of 
energy by railways. The increases in load handled by the 
central station cut out the amortization of no small in- 
vestment by the energv user. 

Mr. S. D. Sprong, Brooklyn, and Air. W. S. Lee, Char- 
lotte, X. C, also spoke briefly, Mr. Lee emphasized the 
increasing distances of modern transmission and voiced the 
advantages of interconnected networks with stations not 
too near together, carrying local loads and interchanging 
energy to maintain good load-factors in the individual in- 
stallations. 

In closing Mr. Sprague pointed out that Mr. InsuU in 
no sense recommends the concentration of energy genera- 
tion under a single exclusive roof. Concentration should 
go only so far as to call for units in reasonable size and 
numbers, operated at a fair load-factor. He reiterated the 
opinion that the existing plants supplying energy to the 
railroads in the New York district could be run for less 
money if operated under a common management with the 
resulting interchange of loads. 

SECOND RAILWAY SESSION. 

The second railway session was called to order Thurs- 
day noon by Chairman Sprague. The continued discussion 
of Mr. Insull's paper was opened by Mr. W. S. Murray, 
New Haven, who said by way of introduction that the next 
link in the New Haven electrification will be the section 
from Boston to Providence, which will shorten the steam 
haul between New York and Boston. Mr. Murray cor- 
roborated Mr. Townley's remarks regarding the necessity 
of building an independent plant for the New Haven serv- 
ice, the price question being the chief issue. He objected to 
the assembly of the power-plant cost and data discussed 
by Mr. Sprague for comparative purposes on account of 
the wide differences in local conditions which control the 
economics of production. The Cos Cob costs are higher 
because of the poor present load-factor, probablv the worst 
in New England under the enforced conditions now con- 
trolling the situation. At Port Morris the storage-battery 
system connected with the plant's output tends to raise the 
load-factor. The amount of energy per ton-mile of train 
propulsion, on the other hand, is less at Cos Cob than else- 
where. The Cos Cob plant has been operating almost en- 
tirely upon a construction basis, including the furnishing 
of steam to contractors and operating on a temporary basis 
the signal equipment of the electrified division. Inside of 
another year the costs are sure to decrease. The valleys 
of the load will be filled by a large freight load operated 
at night and energy will be delivered to lighting companies 
owned by the New Haven company. Within another year 
a complete steam locomotive stage will be in operation 
electrically. 

Mr. W. B. Jackson, Chicago, said that the Cos Cob plant 
is of particular interest in view of the conditions under 
which it is operated and predicted that the future cost of 
energy there will be much reduced by the anticipated im- 
provement in diversity factor. The large plant is of im- 
portance chiefly in connection with the assumption of 
service which improves the load-factor and conditions of 
generation. The paper was a splendid plea for the concen- 
tration of all electric service in an economic district. No 
one can take exception to the general principle that parallel 



channels supplying the same sort of energy must be 
eliminated, in the larger economic sense. Even in the 
smaller centers concentration of production means less cost 
per kw of plant construction, per kw-hour of output and 
a tremendous improvement in the large problem of plant 
administration. Satisfactory correlated operation of plants 
also means undoubted gains. He paid a high tribute to 
the author's work in preparing the paper. 

Mr. Lee H. Parker, Boston, emphasized the possibility 
of supplying energy to all the railroads in the Boston 
district from a single generating service. The load is com- 
paratively small and should be handled without difficulty. 

Mr. C. O. Mailloux, New York, pointed out that while 
local conditions largely control plans for energy production 
and distribution, the tendency is toward specialization in 
the different departments of electrification. In new work 
precedents are of less importance. The reduction in capital 
possible through the purchase of energy from a centralized 
source presents great interest and is a factor of great eco- 
nomic value. Lower costs follow the reduction of invest- 
ment, rendering the capital already in use more efficient. 
He discussed the problem in a broad manner, contending 
that in the long run expediency must determine the course 
to be followed. Centralization by no means involves the 
installation of all generating equipment in one station, but 
the interconnection of efficient units of production. 

Mr. P. W. Sothman, Toronto, Ont., said that it is possible 
to put too much equipment under a single roof. Local 
conditions control the solution of every engineering prob- 
lem. The combination of railway and factory loads is 
highly desirable from the economic standpoint. He touched 
upon the possibilities of a rearranged train schedule, which 
in one instance had reduced the peaks from 1700 hp to 1200 
hp. In Europe storage batteries are used with great suc- 
cess in cutting down peak loads upon plants. Flexibility 
is secured by the use of mixed systems. Railroad electrifi- 
cation is almost entirely a commercial problem. Its engi- 
neering success is thoroughly established. 

Prof. C. L. de Muralt, Ann Arbor, Mich., suggested the 
possibility of the supply of energy to the United States 
from a single network. He pointed out the saving in fixed 
charges in equipment where the load-factor is high. He 
also spoke of the coincidence of railroad and lighting peaks, 
which tends to make the diversity factor less beneficial. 
The possibilities of the freight and through traffic load are 
of great importance economically. 

Mr. N. W. Storer, Pittsburgh, Pa., concurred with the 
author in regard to the broader economic aspects of con- 
centrated production and distribution. He questioned the 
possibility of subdivided operation and pointed out the 
benefits of a government regulated system of distribution, 
assuming a larger degree of state supervision of railroads. 
Mr. Storer also said that the adoption of a 15-cycle system 
by the railroads, if found practicable, would be justified on 
that ground alone. 

Mr. E. N. Lake, Boston, said that the Boston Elevated 
Railway Company's decision to build its own plant was a 
wise one in view of the cost of energy developed by the 
local central-station system. 

In closing the discussion, Mr. Sprague said that in the 
matter of reliability, efficiency and size modern apparatus 
has become well standardized and developed. Permanent 
construction and greater restrictions of right-of-way have 
been carried to pretty definite conclusions. The absence 
of complete electrification in the existing terminal and sub- 
urban zones at New York is a present drawback of serious 
magnitude. The elimination of the steam locomotive from 
an engine stage and the publication of actual facts and 
costs from any and all systems will give the industry the 
necessary data for further substantial advance. He char- 
acterized Mr. Insull's paper as an argument along the 
broadest lines on behalf of concentration of energy gen- 
eration and distribution. 



July 6, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



25 



Telephony and Telegraphy 



HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF SUBMARINE SIGNALING. 

Mr. H. J. W. Fay, of Boston, Mass., presented an in- 
teresting paper summarizing the development of submarine 
signaling apparatus and described some modern develop- 
ments which make it possible to carry on communication at 
sea up to a maximum distance of 15 miles. Inventors have 
been encouraged to develop successful submarine signaling 
systems, because of the great loss of life and property 
through shipwreck caused by aberrations of sound occurring 
at sea. The author treated the general history of the art 
up to the work of Prof. Elisha Gray, and described its status 
at the time of his death in 1901. Further progress was 
made by the late Arthur J. Mundy, of Boston, who made the 
important discovery that the best location for the receiving 
microphone was in a tank of water, one side of which was 
formed by the skin of the ship below the water line. This 
made it possible to hear transmitted signals on a vessel 
moving at full speed in any weather, without confusion from 
foreign noises or the rush of passing water. The modern 
signaling apparatus consists of a 220-lb. bell having a period 
of 1215 vibrations per second when submerged. After try- 
ing various kinds of mechanisms for striking the bell, the 
present pneumatic striker was found to be the most 
satisfactory." 

It has been found essential to place the receiving tanks 
on the inside of the skin of the vessel, in such a position as 
to give them the greatest forward projection, since this is 
the most favorable position for hearing signals which come 
from some point dead ahead. It is also important to locate 
the tanks as far as possible below the surface of the water. 
Two tanks are employed, one on either side of the vessel. 
It is also important to avoid a location near a point at which 
the bow wave breaks. The direction from which signals 
are coming is determined by listening with a telephone 
receiver first to the microphone in one receiving box, and 
then on the opposite side of the vessel, noting which is the 
louder. The direction of the vessel is then changed until 
the intensity of sound from each receiving box is the same, 
when the source from which the signals are issuing will be 
directly ahead. 

In the application of this system submarine bells are 
located on the lightships or at danger points and installed 
at a depth of not less than 24 ft. under water. At the 
present time a total of fifty-two bells are operating in United 
States waters, and there are thirteen on the Canadian coast. 
A total of about 900 vessels are now equipped with receiv- 
ing apparatus. 

Discussion. 

Among those who partook in a brief discussion of this 
paper were Messrs. A. P. Allen, Chicago, III. ; G. W. 
Pierce, Cambridge, Mass., and J. B. Taylor, Schenectady, 
N. Y. It was brought out that code signals are very gen- 
erally used and each lightship is assigned its own code 
signal. All sorts of liquids have been employed in the re- 
ceiving tank, including kerosene and alcohol, but salt 
water has been found the most satisfactory and does not 
freeze. The rather high pitch of 1200 vibrations per sec- 
ond was criticised, but the author showed that it is never- 
theless justified. For example, the tapping of a rod under 
water can be heard 7 miles away on a stationary ves- 
sel, but when in motion the sound of the passing water 
obliterates the signals. The use of a frequency of 1200 
was found necessary in order to avoid this difficulty. The 
author stated that the steamship Baltic can pick up sig- 
nals at a maximum distance of 16 miles, while a number 
of other vessels can work over distances of from 12 to 14 
miles. At distances approaching the maximum the musical 
note of the bell fades away to a faint tick corresponding 



to each stroke. The receiver consists of a simple inertia 
button mounted on a small phosphor-bronze diaphragm, 
which is under a moderate tension. The sensitiveness has 
to be diminished sufficiently to avoid picking up the noise 
of the water rushing past the sides of the moving vessel. 
The direction from which signals are received can be lo- 
cated with an accuracy of about 5 degrees, and the 
government specifications call for an accuracy within one 
point of the compass. In the latest types of submarine 
boats the signaling bell is arranged to be lowered through 
a submerged tube so that signals may be sent at all times, 
even when the vessel is floating at the surface. 

THE WIRING OF LARGE BUILDINGS FOR TELEPHONE SERVICE. 

Mr. Frederick L. Rhodes, of New York City, presented a 
paper describing telephone wiring methods employed in 
large modern office buildings. After pointing out that build- 
ing plans should always include provisions for telephone 
wiring, the author stated that, from the standpoint of this 
class of service, buildings may be divided into two classes, 
the first comprising office and loft buildings and the second 
hotels and apartment houses. In the former class the tele- 
phones do not remain fixed in position, but are changed 
from time to time, to suit the requirements of the tenants, 
while in the second class the number of telephones and 
their location are fairly stable. The office or loft buildings 
require a permanent cable system, supplemented by a multi- 
tude of branches, consisting of pairs of conductors for con- 
necting the individual telephones or private branch ex- 
change switchboards with the permanent system. This per- 
manent cable system extends upward from the basement 
and branches out to suitable terminals or distributing points 
on each floor. The office building requires a more compre- 
hensive and flexible system of wiring, as a rule, than the 
hotel or apartment house. In the latter practically all of 
the wiring is permanent. The author described at consider- 
able length the modern scheme employed in office buildings, 
and supplemented this with a number of typical examples, 
including diagrams of interior cable distribution. In a 
similar way the methods employed in typical hotels were 
described. 

Discitssion. 

In a brief discussion participated in by Mr. G. K. Man- 
son, of Boston, Mass., and the author, it was brought out 
that the attenuation system, while the most economical 
one for the very high buildings in New York City, is not 
well suited to the conditions which obtain in Boston, where 
there is only one building over twelve stories in height 
and the ordinance height limit is 125 feet. Under the lat- 
ter conditions the individual riser system is more econom- 
ical and satisfactory. Each riser takes care of only one 
floor, or two at the most. Modern wiring methods have 
assisted materially in diminishing the fire hazard. 

MILITARY TELEGRAPH LINES USING THE POLARIZED SOUNDER 
AS A RECEIVING INSTRUMENT. 

This paper, presented by Mr. George R. Guild, described 
the underlying principles employed in induction telegraphy, 
with numerous diagrams showing the circuit theory and 
illustrations of the equipment employed by the United States 
Army. Under conditions of actual warfare the equipment 
must be reduced to the minimum of weight and made as 
rugged as possible. A 300-mile telegraph line operated on 
the closed-circuit principle would need about 150 cells of 
gravity battery, or if the line were operated on the open- 
circuit principle there would be needed about 100 dry cells 
per station. But the induction system will operate satis- 
factorily with from four to six dry cells per station. The 
last fact and other features of simplicity impart special 
merit to this system for field use in the army. The instru- 
ments needed for a single station include a polarized relay, 
4-ohm sounder, key, induction coil and four dry cells, and 



26 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, Xo. i. 



when these are installed in a portable box the complete 
weight is about 12 lb. The induction coil is wound with a 
ratio of i to 100, and its primary consumption is about 12 
watts at 4 volts. The United States Signal Corps is con- 
ducting e.xperiments with a view of further simplifying the 
present equipment. 

Discussion. 

In the absence of the author of this paper the chairman, 
Dr. A. E. Kennelly, abstracted it briefly and commented 
upon its salient features. There was no other discussion. 

THE VIBRATIONS OF TELEPHONE DIAPHRAGMS. 

This paper, presented by Messrs. Charles F. ^Meyer and 
J. B. Whitehead, of Baltimore, Md., described a series of 
researches into the vibrations of telephone diaphragms 
which were undertaken to obtain further and more accurate 
information concerning the way in which the diaphragms in 
telephone transmitters and receivers vibrate when acted 
upon by simple periodic forces having different frequencies. 
It was also desired to obtain quantitative data on the in- 
fluence of the free periods and to determine to what degree 




luoo laoo 2000 

FSEQ'jENCY (CYCLES PER SEC.) 

Relation Between Frequency and Range of Oscillation for a Con- 
stant Current. 

of approximation the form of the diaphragm vibration fol- 
lows the impressed force. The investigation of the vibra- 
tion of receiver diaphragms was accomplished by mounting a 
small mirror on each diaphragm, so arranged that its motion 
would be recorded in the corresponding vibrations of a 
beam of reflected light, which were recorded photo- 
graphically. The wave-form of the current sent through 
the receiver was recorded by a Dudell double high-fre- 
quency oscillograph, used simultaneously as an oscillograph 
and an annneter. The paper includes many photographic 
reproductions showing the wave-form of the current and 
the simultaneous vibration of the diaphragm, accompanied 
by values of the exciting current, the frequency and the 
total amplitude of the angular vibration of the diaphragm. 
It was found that the relation between the current passing 
through the receiver and the range of oscillation of the 
diaphragm, at a given frequency, was very closely expressed 
by a straight line. A resonance curve giving the relation 
between frequency and range of oscillation, for a constant 
value of current, showed a generally irregular character 
and one very prominent peak at 720 vibrations per second. 
A repetition of the tests on another receiver of different 
manufacture gave results in general similar, but the 
resonant peak occurred at about 820 vibrations per second. 
The problem presented in measuring the vibration of 
transmitter diaphragms offered other difficulties. The 
method employed was to mount a small iron disk on the 
transmitter diaphragm and excite it with a magnet, dupli- 
cating the mechanism of the telephone receiver. An oscillo- 
graph was employed to measure simultaneously the value of 
current in the exciting coil and the current flowing through 
the transmitter microphone. The plotted results showed 
linear relations between the exciting curent and the 
microphonic current. The resonance curve showed a gen- 



erally irregular contour, embracing two peaks, one occur- 
ring at 700 and the other at 940 vibrations per second, with 
an intermediate minimum at 800 vibrations. In the sum- 
mary of results it was pointed out that in receivers there is 
considerable distortion at some frequencies and very little 
at others, but at any one frequency the distortion is less for 
small currents. It was suggested that by properly intro- 
ducing diametral vibrations the transmission of speech 
might be improved. The variations of current in the trans- 
mitter showed a rather marked distortion, even for the 
lowest exciting force employed. The first resonant maxi- 
mum was attributed to the fundamental period of the 
diaphragm vibrating as a whole, while the second was 
attributed to the diaphragm vibrating in an irregular con- 
figuration on account of the damping springs. 

Discussion. 

Great interest was displayed in this paper. Among 
those who took part in the prolonged discussion were 
Messrs. G. D. Shepardson, Minneapolis, Minn.; G. W. 
Pierce, Cambridge, Mass. ; A. E. Flowers, Columbus, Mo. ; 
J. B. Taylor, Schenectady, N. Y. ; F. Wenner, Washing- 
ton, D. C., and A. E. Kennelly, Cambridge, Mass. The 
authors were complimented by Prof. Shepardson for the 
excellent quantitative results they obtained. This speaker 
commented on the peculiar irregularities in the diaphragm 
vibrations at 332 cycles and 1292 cycles. These irregu- 
larities consist of dimples in one set of half-waves, occur- 
ring approximately where the peak of each wave should 
be. This he stated was caused by the fact that the current 
is several hundred times as great as that which would flow 
through the receiver under normal conditions of telephony, 
and thus the negative half-waves overpower the per- 
manent magnet and create an extremely brief interval 
of positive pull, while the current wave passes through its 
peak value. This speaker also criticised formulas in the 
paper which express the force exerted on the receiver 
diaphragm, and gave it as his opinion that this force is 
affected as much by the position of the magnetizing coils 
as by the magnitude of the current. In his opinion the 
force is affected more by changes in the distribution of the 
magnetic flux than it is by any changes in the absolute 
magnitude of the flux. Prof. Shepardson called attention 
to the discrepancy between the observed fundamental fre- 
quency of the diaphragm and the calculated fundamental 
found from Rayleigh's formula, and noted that the for- 
mula takes no account of changes in temperature. He has 
found in his own experiments that the effect of a spring 
bearing on the diaphragm, which would tend to damp its 
vibrations, is not so great as one would expect. He has 
also found by experiments that damping reduces the pitch 
of ma.ximum sensitiveness, and has observed that in com- 
mercial receivers the maximum sensitiveness occurs at 
multiple frequencies and with irregular amplitudes. 

Prof. Pierce presented a most able discussion of the 
paper and described at some length the researches which 
have been carried on at Harvard University by Dr. Ken- 
nelly and himself along somewhat similar lines. They 
have found that clamping the receiver diaphragm in a 
metallic frame makes it extremely sensitive to tempera- 
ture changes, but this effect is greatly lessened when the 
clamp is loosened. They have also noted the character- 
istic dimple in the oscillograms showing the vibrations of 
the diaphragm. Prof. Pierce then described in a most inter- 
esting manner some of the general results of their meas- 
urements of the effective reactance and resistance of re- 
ceivers over the telephonic range of frequencies. In their 
experiments they have employed a receiver current of 
about I milliampere and a terminal pressure of about 0.3 
volt. The lag of the magnetization in the steel also pro- 
duced noticeable effects. They have made a number of in- 
teresting investigations into the production of standing 
sound waves in a closed room, issuing from an electrically 



July 6, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



27 



driven tuning fork with constant amplitude. It was found 
that when the room was lined with felt the total energy 
emitted from the source had increased. 

Dr. Whitehead, in closing the discussion, pointed out that 
the characteristic dimples in the oscillograph records oc- 
curred with maximum values of receiver currents. In his 
experiinents he avoided the difficulties arising from the 
formation of standing waves by suspending very thin cur- 
tains all about the room at a distance of about one foot 
from the walls. In response to a criticism directed at the 
cutting out of the center of the receiver cap, he replied 
that in his opinion the effect of this was negligible. He 
also emphasized the fact that a great deal of investigation 
remains to be done along these lines. 



Electrochemistry and Electrophysics 



CORROSION OF IRON IN SOIL. 

A paper by Prof. Albert F. Ganz, Hoboken, N. J., dealt 
with electrolytic corrosion of iron by direct current in street 
soil. The experiments described by the author were par- 
ticularly designed to determine the relative rates of electro- 
lytic corrosion of various kinds of iron in two typical kinds 
of street soil, when subjected to such low current densities 
as are ordinarily found in practice on underground struc- 
tures. Four sets of tests were made, each extending 
throughout forty-seven days to determine the rate of cor- 
rosion of commercial steel, commercial wrought iron, ingot 
iron and cast iron, and to compare the actual amount of 
electrolysis with that calculated by Faraday's law. It was 
attempted in these tests to approach practical conditions as 
nearly as possible. The tests were connected in the elec- 
trical laboratory of Stevens Institute of Technology. The 
results of these tests were given in detail. 

The duration of these tests was not sufficiently long to 
warrant positive conclusions regarding the relative corro- 
sion of the four kinds of iron tested, when subjected only 
to the action of damp soil. The following conclusions ap- 
pear, however, to be warranted : 

The corrosion of iron by electrolysis in the two kinds of 
street soil tested is independent of the value of the applied 
voltage, except in so far as this determines the amount of 
current produced, and less than I volt can produce corrosion 
by electrolysis. 

For the two kinds of street soils tested, and with current 
densities ranging from 1.7 milliamperes per sq. ft. (18.3 
milliamperes per sq. m) to 54 milliamperes per sq. ft. (581 
milliamperes per sq. m) the loss of weight of iron by elec- 
trolysis is at least equal to that calculated by Faraday's 
law and is in general greater than the theoretical loss. In 
all cases electrolysis tends to cause localized corrosion and 
decided pitting. Surface scale appears to accelerate cor- 
rosion from electrolysis with all iron except cast iron. This 
was especially pronounced in the case of the steel pipes 
tested. When the surface scale was removed there was 
practically no difference in the amount of corrosion pro- 
duced by a given current leaving iron for damp soil between 
commercial steel, commercial wrought iron, ingot iron and 
cast iron. 

The electrical resistance of cast iron is about ten times as 
great as that of wrought iron, steel or ingot iron, and the 
usual lead joints in cast-iron pipes also have a resistance 
which is many times greater than the screw-coupling joints 
usual with wrought-iron and steel pipes. For these reasons 
a given voltage drop through ground will cause a much 
smaller current to flow on a cast-iron pipe than on a 
wrought-iron or a steel pipe, thus practically making cast- 
iron pipes much less subject to electrolysis than wrought- 
irnn or steel pipes. When a cast-iron pipe is corroded by 
electrolysis the iron is oxidized but remains in place as a 



gra])hitic mass having little mechanical strength but possess- 
ing the ability to maintain the pipe gas-tight and sometimes 
even water-tight for considerable periods, while with 
wrought-iron or steel pipes this action does not occur, and 
hence holes are more quickly produced. Frequently where 
cast-iron pipes appear to be immune from electrolysis be- 
cause no evidences of leakage have developed an examina- 
tion of the pipes would reveal that a great deal of corrosion 
has actually taken place and that the pipes have been very 
greatly weakened. 

Discussion. 

Prof. W. S. Franklin, Bethlehem, Pa., pointed out that 
experiments have shown that corrosion is negligible where 
a caustic soda solution is used, and suggested the impregna- 
tion of the soil near the point where the current leaves 
the pipe. Dr. Carl Hering, Philadelphia, suggested that the 
excessive action noted by the author might be due to the 
condition of the electrode. Over-voltage at the copper 
electrode in tests familiar to him produced some of the 
effects noted by Prof. Ganz. There is also a mechanical 
effect in underground electrolysis in the form of diffusion 
of the liquid through the soil. 

Dr. E. B. Rosa, Washington, D. C, said that natural 
corrosion may be responsible for a part of the action noted. 
He had found that corrosion is greatly accelerated in iron 
pipes laid in cinders. Dr. I. Langmuir, Schenectady, brought 
out the point that iron in a ferric condition reacts with 
iron in ferrous condition, tending to hasten the corrosive 
action. Dr. C. H. Sharp, New York, voiced the opinion 
that the action of the electric current accelerates the normal 
oxidation of the iron. In closing Prof. Ganz said that two 
wrought-iron pipes were used in each case and the elec- 
trolytic loss was determined by taking the difference be- 
tween the losses in each pipe. One pipe was in circuit and 
the other was not. He agreed that natural corrosion is 
unquestionably a factor in the experiments but that it is 
nullified by the above precaution. 

ELECTRIC FURNACE. 

A paper by Mr. F. A. J. FitzGerald, Niagara Falls, dealt 
with "Thirty Years' Progress in the Electric Furnace." 
The author gave a general historical review. The furnace 
of Sir William Siemens, in which he melted about 20 lb. 
of steel, was considered the forerunner of the modern elec- 
tric steel-refining furnace. In the evolution of the latter 
furnace in large sizes two troublesome problems had to be 
solved, namely, those of the electrodes and the roofs. Large 
carbon electrodes can now be made which will not go to 
pieces in the furnace. By fastening such electrodes end 
to end they can be fed continuously into the furnace and 
there is no waste from "butts." 

As to the roof the necessity of frequent renewals is a 
heavy item of expense. A brick of silicon carbide has 
recently been made which when used in the roof of an elec- 
tric steel furnace will have a much longer life than the 
silica brick now used, but it also costs considerably more. 

The author briefly reviewed the work done by Ferranti 
and Colby in the invention of the induction furnace, by the 
Cowles brothers in the evolution of the resistance furnace, 
and by Acheson in the work on carborundum, etc. The fact 
that it is possible to produce at will silixicon or carborun- 
dum is quoted as evidence of the comparative ease with 
which electric furnaces can be adjusted to delicate tem- 
perature conditions even in larger sizes. 

Loss of heat through the walls of electric furnaces now 
attracts considerable attention. The importance of the 
matter is shown by a case from the author's practice where 
the heat losses amounted to 50 per cent of the total energy 
consumption, but merely covering 25 per cent of the outer 
surface of the furnace with a moderately good heat in- 
sulator reduced this loss nearly 20 per cent. Brief men- 



28 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



tion was made of the Harper electric kiln, which is of the 
continuous channel type. 

In reading his paper the author emphasized the fact 
that silicon carbide has been found to be a thoroughly satis- 
factory material for furnace roofs. Prior to the use of this 
substance the furnace roof had to be changed weekly, 
whereas with silicon carbide runs of several months' dura- 
tion have already been successfully made. Silicon carbide 
bricks, however, are very expensive, costing about one 
dollar apiece. 

Discussion. 

Dr. Carl Hering, Philadelphia, said that the cost of en- 
ergy and of furnace materials is a matter of less im- 
portance than the value of the product of the furnace. 
Heavy costs can be borne if the material is of superior 
quality when produced. Anything that saves labor in the 
operation of the electric furnace is intrinsically of great 
value. He suggested the possibility of preheating by 
means of fuel and getting the higher temperatures by elec- 
tric heat. 

Mr. A. H. Cowles, Sewaren, N. J., reviewed the history 
of early furnace construction in the electrical field, touch- 
ing upon the investigations of Siemens and of the Cowles 
brothers. He maintained that, as Sir William Siemens never 
reduced materials in the electric furnace, he cannot be 
considered as anticipating the splendid work of Heroult. 
Mr. W. B. Jackson, Chicago, questioned the possibility of 
utilizing the electrical furnace as an off-peak load. In 
closing, Mr. Fitzgerald pointed out that in some processes 
the electric furnace can be run as a valley load. In one 
instance under development a demand occurs for 6000 kw 
for eight hours daily, beginning at midnight. 

SIMPLIFIC.'\TION OF ELECTROTHERMAL CALCULATIONS. 

A paper by Dr. Carl Hering, Philadelphia, dealt with 
the simplification of electrothermal calculations, the watt 
and the thermal ohm. In some recent papers the author 
pointed out directions in which many of the numerous 
engineering calculations can be simplified by merely se- 
lecting the more suitable units. The physicist enjoys the 
use of the ideally simple c.g.s. system of units for calcu- 
lations. This simplicity can be enjoyed by the practical 
engineer also if he will make his units decimal multiples 
of the c.g.s. units ; it is this reform which the author 
urges. 

The paper under notice showed the application of this 
simplified system to the calculations of the electrochemist 
and the electric-furnace engineer, to which this system is 
particularly well adapted, owing to the fact that the energy 
keeps changing its form, as in electric furnaces, for in- 
stance, and it is useless labor to change the units as the 
form of energy changes. In such a system there is only 
one unit for each physical quantity, and never more than 
one. In this system all power, in whatever form it may 
be, is represented in watts or kilowatts, and all forms of 
energy in watt-hours, including thermal energy. A flow, 
transmission, rate of production or consumption of heat 
is then expressed in watts. When new units are created 
the author urged that they be based on this simplified sys- 
tem, and as the need of a unit of thermal resistance has 
become important, especially in electrothermal calcula- 
tions, he defined a new unit based on these principles, call- 
ing it a thermal ohm ; it is equal to the centigrade degrees 
per watt. 

By the use of this unit, calculations concerning the flow 
of heat through bodies, as in furnace work, for instance, 
or electric heating devices, become exceedingly simple, in 
fact, quite as simple as those for electric currents, the elec- 
tric units having been based on the same system as that de- 
scribed. 

The paper included a table of conversion factors for re- 
ducing data concerning thermal resistances and conduct- 
ances to and from this simplified system. 



Discussion. 

The paper was discussed by Messrs. H. B. Gale, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., and A. H. Cowles, Sewaren, N. J. Mr. Gale 
spoke strongly in favor of the use of a practical unit, such 
as the thermal ohm, but advocated shortening the terminol- 
ogy to "therm" or "therm-ohm." Mr. Cowles took the posi- 
tion that existing methods of measurement are adequate 
without multiplying units and terminology. In closing, Dr. 
Hering urged the use of the thermal ohm as a step to- 
ward simplicity. 

METALLIC TUNGSTEN. 

A paper by Dr. W. D. Coolidge, Schenectady, N. Y., dealt 
with metallic tungsten and some of its applications. So 
long as tungsten was known merely as a brittle metal it 
found only one technical application, namely as lamp fila- 
ment made by some sintering process. But with the advent 
of ductile tungsten the metal has assumed a very consider- 
able degree of technical importance in other lines. Several 
of the new applications of metallic tungsten are described. 

Under the conditions pertaining in many electrical make- 
and-break devices, as in magnetos, spark coils, voltage regu- 
lators, railway signal relays, telegraph and telephone relays, 
telegraph sending keys, etc., wrought tungsten has proved to 
be far superior to platinum-iridium for the contact points. 
Tungsten contacts wear longer than those of platinum or 
platinum-iridium, which is doubtless due largely to the lower 
vapor pressure. Tungsten contacts show less tendency to 
stick than do contacts of platinum or platinum-iridium, and 
this is to be attributed in part to the higher melting point 
of tungsten. 

Discussion. 

The discussion emphasized the increasing value of 
tungsten for service outside the lamp filament field. Mr. 
C. M. Green, Lynn, Mass., stated that the use of tungsten 
wire for the leading-in terminals of rectifier tubes gives 
better results than platinum. The specific resistance is 
about one-half that of platinum, being from 5 to 6 microhms 
per cu. cm. Commercial platinum averages from 12 to 
14 microhms per cu. cm. The addition of 5 per cent iridium 
increases the specific resistance of platinum to from 30 
to 40 microhms. Tungsten is coming into use also in the 
construction of inner terminals for rectifier tubes. 

Answering inquiries by Mr. VV. J. Hammer and others. 
Dr. Coolidge said that it is possible to plate tungsten with 
copper for subsequent soldering, but better results are se- 
cured by the use of molten copper. The major part of the 
occluded gas in drawn tungsten wire is given off in a 
short time when the wire is heated in a vacuum. Tungsten 
makes a desirable cathode material. It can now be ob- 
tained in small lots for experimental purposes. 

VACUA. 

In a paper by Dr. W. R. Whitney, Schenectady, N. Y., 
an account was given of some phenomena in the vacua in 
incandescent lamps. The author referred to the Malignani 
method of supplementing the vacuum pumps. This process, 
in its most perfect form, consists in distilling into the bulb 
a small amount of some such substance as arsenic, sulphur, 
iodine or phosphorus. At the instant when one of these 
vapors was introduced he passed a high current through the 
filament, the lamp being closed from the pump. This im- 
proved the vacuum very considerably, and the improvement 
of the vacuum could be seen by the McLeod gage. If the 
vacuum is improved so tliat the pressure tends to become 
less than the vapor pressure of mercury at the temperature 
of the gage, then the gage will not only not measure it 
but the mercury vapor may even affect the life of the lamp. 
It is a fact that an incandescent lamp gets black very quickly 
when attached to a mercury column which serves as a gage 
to indicate evolution of gas. 

Lamps were also made to which were attached tubes 
which carried small globules of mercurv. \\'hen these side 



TuLY 6, igi2. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



29 



tubes were short and straight, say I in. or 2 in., and the 
lamp was exhausted as well as possible on the pump, the 
blackening of the bulb started at once when the entire glass 
was at ordinary temperature. But when the side tube with 
its mercury was submerged in different cooling mixtures 
the length of time for a given blackening was increased. 
By lengthening the side tube containing the mercury the 
rate of decomposition of filament material in the bulb may 
also be decreased. 

An interesting fact on the blackening of globes in the ab- 
sence of mercury vapor is that most electric lamps will 
blacken relatively quickly if allowed to burn in a heated 
oven. In general the hotter the oven the more rapid the 
blackening. This process is largely, if not entirely, due to 
imperfect exhaustion. All glass contains water, which can 
be removed but slowly, even at relatively high temperatures. 
The presence of water vapor, even in the absence of mer- 
cury vapor, causes rapid blackening. For this reason it is 
customary to exhaust lamps at as high a temperature as 
possible. 

Discussion. 

Mr. H. C. Snook, Philadelphia, touched upon the tendency 
of glass to bubble in tests carried on in a vacuum of less 
than I mm absolute pressure. Calcium, sodium and lead 
glass, whether new or old, undergo this action. Mr. A. 
H. Cowles, Sewaren, N. J., pointed out that the experi- 
mental method used by the author has also been employed 
in Germany. 

CONVECTION AND CONDUCTION OF HEAT IN GASES. 

A paper by Dr. Irving Langmuir, Schenectady, N. Y., 
dealt with the convection and conduction of heat in 
gases. The author had formerly given a theory accord- 
ing to which the "convection" of heat from hot wires in a 
gas consists essentially in conduction of heat through a 
film of gas of definite thickness, in which the heat carried 
by motion of the gas is negligible compared to that carried 
by conduction, and outside of which the temperature is 
maintained uniform because of convection currents. The 
thickness of the film of gas is related in a simple way to 
the diameter of the wire, so that from the experiments 
the thickness B which the film would have in case of a 
plane surface can be readily calculated. 

In the paper under notice the author made use of the 
results of Dr. Kennelly on the conduction of heat from 
small copper wires and showed that Kennelly 's data afford 
strong proof of the reliability and usefulness of the au- 
thor's theory of convection. A few of the results con- 
cerning the significance of the conducting film with thick- 
ness B are as follows: The quantity B, for quiet air at 
room temperature and at one atmosphere pressure, is equal 
to 0.43 cm. B is independent of the temperature of the 
wire from room temperature up to the melting point of 
platinum, 1750 deg. C. The values of B obtained from 
experiments on wires of different sizes are found to be 
the same. The film thickness (for plane surface) B varies 
inversely as the 0.75th power of the pressure of the gas. 
The value of B varies inversely as the 0.75th power of the 
wind velocity. 

Discussion. 

Mr. H. M. Hobart, Schenectady, N. Y., pointed out the 
value of Dr. Langmuir's investigations in connection with 
the study of dynamo heating. He criticised the Institute 
rule for temperature rise above the surrounding air in the 
light of the results obtained by the author. According to 
the former, the higher the room temperature the greater 
. becomes the temperature rise in the machinery, and a cor- 
rection factor of positive sign is used in cases where the 
surrounding temperature exceeds 25 deg. C. The tempera- 
ture rise, according to the author, becomes relatively less 
as the room temperature increases. In closing. Dr. Lang- 
muir pointed out that the shape factor in his equation is 
easily determined in free air for a single wire, but for 



complex wire layouts the subject must be investigated with 
great experimental detail. The heat conductivity of air 
rises rapidly with increase of temperature. The thickness 
of the conducting film in the case of convection from a 
plain surface decreases as the temperature rises and tends 
to offset the effect of heat convection. The heat loss by 
convection increases rapidly as the temperature of the 
room rises. 



Engineering Education 



In laying out the plan of procedure by the educational 
committee of the Institute for its joint meeting with the 
Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education no 
specific effort was made to confine the study of educa- 
tional conditions as applied to the electrical industry. The 
committee holds the opinion that the proper establishment 
of vocational education for all children who cannot ad- 
vance beyond the rank of hand workers is essential to the 
highest success of the country as a whole in its industrial 
and commercial functions. It is contended that the United 
States has fallen somewhat behind Germany, Austria and 
France in this regard. Reference was made to the con- 
tinuation schools of Germany, which provide training of 
great practical value between the ages of 14 and 16 as a 
minimum. It is estimated that only from 10 to 20 per cent 
of the children of 16 years whom necessity drives to work 
in this country are so situated that they can learn a trade. 
The continuation school in which the pupil, already regu- 
larly employed, gives a part of the working hours each 
week to school work shows distinct and positive signs of 
being best suited to the conditions facing the great major- 
ity of young men. Mental judgment and physical skill are 
the objects sought in good schools of this type. Continua- 
tion schools need not be more expensive than common 
schools, since the practical applied part of the training can 
be to a large extent obtained during a portion of the time 
the pupils are at work. Each commonwealth should have 
a commission composed of representatives of the indus- 
tries, with power to direct the industrial work of the state, 
subject to the approval of the state board of education. 
Material financial aid should be given by the state to in- 
stitutions that comply with its regulations. 

LAW FOR VOCATIONAL TRAINING. 

Twenty-four states now have provisions of active char- 
acter for vocational training and six have permissive pro- 
visions. Massachusetts, Wisconsin, New York and Maine 
seem to have given the subject the most careful considera- 
tion, the first-named being a pioneer in this field. In the 
majority of cases heretofore the vocational training has 
been almost entirely in the line of agriculture or home- 
making, with manual training as an additional or inci- 
dental feature of existing high or secondary school work. 
In the opinion of the committee, the feature of the Massa- 
chusetts and Wisconsin laws which causes them to e.xcel 
those of all other states is the provision that in order for 
a vocational school to receive state aid it must receive the 
state's approval of many of its important features, such as 
courses, teachers, buildings, methods, time and accounts. 
This encourages local boards to consult with the proper 
representatives of the state board from the beginning of 
school organization rather than to await the exact period 
when money is requested of the state. An outline of a 
scheme for industrial education based largely upon the 
Massachusetts and Wisconsin laws was presented by the 
committee. The committee feels that attendance upon day 
or part-time schools should be restricted to persons between 
14 and 25 years of age and compulsory between 14 and 16. 
Attendance at evening classes should be restricted to those 



30 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



over 17. Provision should be made that all illiterate minors 
over 16 should be required to attend the evening schools. 
E.xtracts from the Massachusetts laws relating to vocational 
schools are included in the report of the committee. 

INDUSTRIAL .VND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS. 

A valuable portion of the report of the educational com- 
mittee dealt with a few typical industrial schools and de- 
scribes their essential methods and equipment. Pratt In- 
stitute, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; the Stuyvesant High Schools, 
New York; Manual Training High School, Brooklyn; 
Bryant High School, Long Island City, the Wentworth 
Institute and the Albany (N. Y.) vocational school were 
discussed as examples of institutions which are meeting the 
problem of industrial education on a broad scale with effi- 
ciency and ability. At Pratt Institute, which was founded 
in 1887, day and evening instruction is given to over 4000 
students. There are five schools of instruction, including a 
school of science and technology of high class. The 
courses include applied electricity, mechanics, machine 
work, chemistry, drawing, steam engineering, practical 
mathematics, carpentry, sheet-metal work, machine design, 
and many other related subjects. Similar subjects are 
taught at the new Wentworth Institute, at Boston, the ob- 
ject of which is to develop artisans and skilled mechanics, 
and to train men who wish to become inspectors, shop fore- 
men, master mechanics and superintendents in industry. 
Although the buildings were hardly completed in Septem- 
ber, 191 1, more than three times as many applicants as 
could be accommodated appeared. Eighteen men consti- 
tute the faculty. 

The report concluded with a resume of the work done in 
vocational training in the State of New York under the 
direction of the commissioner of education, covering the 
work in manual training, shop and laboratory work in the 
high schools and emphasizing special subjects taught in 
localities where the prevailing industries call for a more 
or less specialized training. Much inforuiation of value 
concerning curricula was introduced. The report closed 
with an outline of the training given in the apprentice 
school systems of the New York Central, Pennsylvania and 
other railroad systems. 



Electrical Measurements 



ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 

Mr. O. J. Bliss read a paper describing a combination of 
standard instruments and a telephone line for the pro- 
duction of electrical measurements at a receiving station 35 
miles distant from a generating plant owned by another 
company and emphasized the value of such arrangements 
in the operation of interconnected plants controlled by load 
dispatchers. In the case in hand, the terms of the contract 
for energy sale rendered it necessary for the receiving 
plant to guarantee a certain load-factor and keep the peaks 
of its demand as low as possible. Two intermediate sub- 
stations owned by the receiving company were in service, 
and energy was sold on the basis of measurements at the 
generating plant. The receiving company was therefore 
greatly dependent upon a plan of measurement which 
should' at all times show the input to the receiving system's 
line at the seller's generating plant. 

The apparatus consisted of a 36-volt storage battery dis- 
charging about 150 milliamperes through a resistor having 
with a sliding contact controlled mechanically by the mov- 
ing system of a recording wattmeter in the generating sta- 
tion. By the sliding contact a variable connection was made 
through a telephone line to a recording direct-current volt- 
meter and an indicating direct-current voltmeter in the re- 
ceiving station. The current through the resistor was large 



as compared with that through the instrument, giving a 
recording meter deflection closely proportioned to the volt- 
age. The resistance was divided between the two plants in 
order to prevent interference with the telphone service, 
condensers also being used to protect the latter from the 
direct current of the transmitting system. Reactance coils 
in the instrument leads prevented interference with the 
meters by the telephone ringing current. 

METERING LARGE DIRECT-CURRENT INSTALLATIONS. 

A paper by Mr. F. V. Magalhaes discussed the advan- 
tages and disadvantages of the four principal methods of 
metering direct current on a large scale, ranging from 1000 
to 10,000 amp at from loo to 600 volts. Method i con- 
sists of installing a single watt-hour meter between the 
source of supply and the distributing switchboard; Method 
2, the installation in parallel of several meters of adequate 
total rating; Method 3, dividing the service supply, meter- 
ing separately any natural components of the total load, 
and Method 4 comprises the development and use of the 
shunt type of watt-hour meter. The author concluded 
that Method i is the simplest and least costly at the out- 
set, but of questionable accuracy and relatively high in 
maintenance expense. Method 2 facilitates the convenient 
measurement of large loads, moderate initial cost and sim- 
plicity in testing, although differences in the resistance of 
connections may lead to vitiated results with the added 
drawback of poor light-load performance. Method 3, by 
which individual meters are installed for comprehensive 
parts of an extended service, fits the meter closely to its 
work and insures more accurate measurements. Although 
the cost at the outset runs higher the increased accuracy is 
a very valuable feature. In Method 4, assuming the avail- 
ability of a shunt type of watt-hour meter, the measure- 
ment of large outputs even under fluctuating loads is 
effected with a limited number of instruments, high flexi- 
bility in operation and excellent accuracy insured by ready 
calibration of the service meter and its standard. 

MEASURING OF ENERGY WITH INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS. 

Mr. Alexander Maxwell presented a paper in which it 
was pointed out that comparatively little has been written 
concerning the effect of ratio and time-phase angle upon 
the accuracy of watt-hour meters. It is not possible to 
adjust such meters to compensate automatically for changes 
in ratio and time-phase angle for different loads and power- 
factors within the range of the meter. Legal and com- 
mercial considerations require that such meters be main- 
tained within certain specified limits of accuracy. Devia- 
tions from stated ratio and ideal time-phase relations are 
small in shunt instrument transformers as compared with 
series instrument transformers. In general, modern series 
transformers of the best design, under favorable conditions, 
show quite satisfactory ratio curves for secondary currents 
down to 10 per cent of rated current. Similarly, the angle 
by which the secondary current differs from the ideal 180- 
degree relation with the primary current is small over a 
wide range, but may still introduce serious errors at low 
loads. Series transformers of highly special design gen- 
erally have ratio and 'time-phase angle characteristics 
which render them quite unsuitable for use in connection 
with watt-hour meters. Where series transformer ratios 
have the same value from full secondary load to a small 
secondary load like 5 or 10 per cent, the meter accuracy is 
not affected, since the ratio, whatever its value, is ac- 
counted for in the calibrating constant of the meter. 

TESTING LARGE WATT-HOUR METERS. 

The problem of testing large watt-hour meters was dis- 
cussed in a paper by Messrs. C. H. Ingalls and J. W. Cowles. 
Special attention was given to the testing of meters hand- 
ling fluctuating loads, by the rotating standard method. To 
adopt the rotating standard to the calibration of meters of 



July 6, igi2. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



31 



1000 or 2000 amp rating, the authors devised an equip- 
ment somewhat modified from the dit¥erential galvanometer 
designed by Prof. F. A. Laws, of the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology, for heavy testing. The modification 
consisted in general of three resistors of fixed resistances 
forming three arms of a Wheatstone bridge, the rotating 
standard and two resistors of adjustable resistances farm- 
ing the fourth arm. From measurements made with the 
bridge according to the usual method of securing a gal- 
vanometer zero reading, the current measured by the meter 
under test and that measured by the rotating standard are 
determined. Ma:nganin resistors are employed on account 
of their negligible temperature resistance coefficient and 
low thermal effects. For accurate work materials having 
very small thermo-electric effects must be utilized, and 
manganin meets this condition admirably. The apparatus 
can be carried in a case 2,2 x 19 x 14 in. in dimensions. In 
using the direct-current rotating standard, care must be 
taken to guard against the influence of external fields, and 
since this apparatus is designed for service in places where 
large currents are involved, precaution should be taken to 
make two sets of readings with reversed leads, or to 
change bodily the position of the standard 180 degrees, and 
take a series of readings in both azimuths. The paper 
closed with sample test data from street railway practice. 

Discussion. 

The papers by Messrs. Bliss, Magalhaes, Maxwell and 
Ingalls and Cowles were discussed together. Mr. W. J. 
Mowbray, Providence, R. I., congratulated Messrs. Ingalls 
and Cowles upon their work and commended the use of the 
rotating standard for testing large meters. Mr. F. P. Cox, 
Lynn, Mass., said that the use of extra meters as cited by 
Mr. Magalhaes is at times well worth the cost in large 
direct-current installations. There are many commercial 
difficulties in the way of employing total dials, as suggested 
by Mr. Magalhaes. Mr. J. R. Craighead, Schenectady, 
N. Y., cited the field of usefulness of series trans- 
formers of very small secondary current ratings in 
making measurements at a distance, using small sizes of 
wires. Special insulation of the secondary is necessary. 
He criticised the practice of adjusting meters to run fast on 
low loads, as creeping tends to result. Mr. F. V. Magal- 
haes, New York, said that one of the excellent points about 
the Ingalls arrangement is its use of apparatus which can 
easily be obtained. Mr. W. H. Pratt, Lynn, Mass., cited the 
vast difference between the characteristics of the series 
transformers now on the market. Chairman Robinson 
warned the audience not to draw too general deductions 
from the special cases discussed by the authors. Mr. 
Ingalls said in closing that a differential millivoltmeter is 
useful in measuring the resistances of the shunts in the In- 
galls-Cowles apparatus. 

TUBULAR ELECTRODYNAMOMETER. 

The difficulty of mixing the strands in the field coils of 
electrodynamometers for heavy currents to provide for the 
same effective resistance and inductance in each led to the 
design of the tubular instrument described in a paper by 
Mr. P. G. Agnew. The apparatus has a "field coil" con- 
sisting of two co-axial copper tubes giving a circular mag- 
netic field in the space between. The concentric tubes 
form an approximation to a toroid, or endless solenoid of 
one turn. The axial symmetry insures that the value of 
the magnetic field at any point is independent of the di- 
mensions of the conductor. No m.agnetic field exists be- 
tween the tubes due to the outside tube, and that due to the 
inside tube produces no skin effect. In the instrument, 
which is well adapted for alternating-direct-current trans- 
fer dynamometer service, the moving element consists of 
a static coil attached to a mirror and damping system, one 
coil being above and one below the inner tube. The instru- 
ment is read by telescope and scale, and with water cool- 



ing of the inner tube has a current range of 5000 amp. 
Its sensitivity is 100 cm deflection at 86 cm scale dis- 
tance with 100 amp in the tube circuit and 0.06 amp in the 
moving coils. It is believed that the instrument is accu- 




OOSIH Ju'POIT' 



JJu 



TubLilar Dynamometer. 



rate to 0.05 per cent. The author described some of the 
special problems encountered in the design and construc- 
tion of the instrument and concluded with a data table 
giving the important constants and dimensions. 

MEASURING LOW-VALUE .ALTERNATING CURRENT. 

In a paper by Mr. M. G. Newman were discussed the sen- 
sibility and accuracy of alternating-current ammeters of 
the dynamometer type. He presented the results of vari- 
ous excitation tests upon a telephone transformer at 60 
cycles, using a separately excited dynamometer as an 
ammeter, and contrasting data obtained with the perform- 
ance of a dynamometer operated on a self-exciting basis. 
Connection diagrams and oscillograms were presented, and 
further tests outlined upon a ring of high silicon steel. 
The author pointed out that by varying the excitation of 
the moving coil it is possible to make current measure- 
ments with a dynamometer over a very large range without 
changing the series coils. Large errors are introduced 
when such an instrument is used to measure the exciting 
current of sheet steel at high magnetic densities, say above 
6000 gausses. At high densities the distorting component 
of the comple.K exciting current wave is large and the 
sinusoidal component is small in comparison. This large 
distortion component is due to the rapid rate of change 
of reluctivity during the magnetic cycle. As the density is 
lowered the exciting current wave approaches the sinu- 
soidal form. The actual wave distortion varies with dif- 
ferent samples of steel. Below a density of 6000 gausses 
the errors obtained in using a separately excited dynamom- 
eter do not exceed 2 per cent. Such apparatus has the ad- 
vantage over many high sensibility ammeters in that the 
suspension and moving parts are comparatively rugged, and 
there is little disturbance from outside sources. 

VIBRATION GALVANOMETER. 

A paper by Dr. Frank Wenner dealt with character- 
istics and applications of vibration galvanometers. The 
author pointed out that the vibration galvanometer is a 
type of synchronous motor rather than a galvanometer. 
He gave the theory of the instrument and showed the re- 
lation which exists between the amplitude of the vibration 
and the impressed voltage in terms of the intrinsic con- 
stancies of the instrument and of the electric circuit in 
which it may be used. The author thought that in most 
laboratories the vibration galvanometer has met with less 
favor than it deserves. He mentioned various applica- 
tions which it has found in the Bureau of Standards and 
the British National Physical Laboratory. He also thought 
that it may be found useful in engineering work when its 
characteristics become more widely known and when it is 
understood that it is not a delicate instrument. 



32 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



Discussion. 
In answering questions, Dr. Wenner said that the in- 
strument is read by a line of light whose width is an indica- 
tion of the amplitude of vibration. The sensitiveness is 
readily controlled and the instrument can be designed to 
respond neither to harmonies nor to substantial changes in 
frequency. The mechanical quadrants of the instrument 
largely determine the shape of the sensitivity curve. The 
instrument can be used as a deflection apparatus although 
it has usually been used as a zero instrument. The band of 
light is sharp on the edges. A deflection of a few centi- 
meters is usual. The deflection is directly proportional to 
the current or the voltage. 

PERME.'VBILITY MEASUREMENTS WITH ALTERNATING CURRENT. 

Messrs. L. T. Robinson and J. D. Ball, Schenectady, 
N. Y., pointed out in a paper of which they were joint 
authors that in designing electrical apparatus it is desirable 
to know the core loss and the permeability of the material 
with considerable accuracy. It is desirable also to find 
means to measure permeability with accuracy and speed 
comparable with core loss measurements, and as core loss 
measurements are made on alternating currents, a method 
using the same current supply as that used in making this 
test is sought. The paper dealt with the general relations 
between maximum flux density, maximum exciting current 
and magnetizing current. Experiments were carried on 
with ring samples. The authors presented a large num- 
ber of curves and oscillographs illustrating the relations 
between magnetizing, exciting and eddy currents in various 
samples of iron. The conclusions were that the measure- 
ment of maximum current by an elementary oscillograph 
observing the width of the.tseam is satisfactory and fur- 
nishes a convenient and fairly accurate means for deter- 
mining the value in any work where the maximum rather 
than the average or effective value of a current or voltage 
is required. 

HIGH-VOLTAGE TESTING. 

In a paper by Messrs. C. H. Sharp and F. M. Farmer 
were pointed out the difficulties of ascertaining the peak 
factors of alternating-current waves under ordinary con- 
ditions through changes in the wave form produced by the 
test itself. The vagaries of the spark-gap were empha- 
sized. To meet the problem of obtaining reliable measure- 
ments, the authors devised an apparatus in which a series 
of condensers serving as a voltage divider were connected 
across a high-voltage line. In parallel to the condenser, 
which was grounded, was connected a rectifier or commu- 
tator driven by a synchronous motor, the rectifier in turn 
being connected to an electrostatic voltmeter. The com- 
mutator was adjusted to make instantaneous contact be- 
tween the condenser and the voltmeter at the peaks of the 
waves. In this arrangement the voltmeter becomes 
charged to a potential corresponding to the maximum of 
the voltage waves and indicates this value. 
Discussion. 

The papers by Messrs. C. H. Sharp and F. M. Farmer, 
and L. T. Robinson and J. D. Ball, were discussed to- 
gether. The discussion was opened by Mr. E. D. Doyle, 
New York, who said that the electrostatic voltmeter must 
have a high insulation resistance in order to measure high 
potentials. By placing a condenser across the voltmeter 
terminals a peak factor of 135 per cent was found with 
1,000,000 megohms. With a o.i mf. condenser across the 
instrument the indication was the same as with 50 megohms. 
Dr. M. G. Lloyd, Chicago, commended the determination of 
permeability by the use of alternating current within its 
limitations. Special attention should be given to the fact 
that the maximum current does not correspond to the max- 
imum magnetizing current. It is not generally true that 
eddy currents are in time-phase with the emfs producing 
them. The oscillograph has a useful field in the approxi- 
mate measurement of maxima without drawing the curve 



in detail. Dr. Sharp brought out the point that the elec- 
trostatic voltmeter takes no current from the line, whereas 
the oscillograph has this objection. Chairman Robinson 
touched upon the fitness of the term peak-factor in the 
.Sharp-Farmer paper. The Robinson-Ball experiments em- 
phasize the fact that in dealing with thin sheets of iron 
with low eddy loss the tendency of the total primary current 
was to exceed the maximum magnetizing current. Dr. 
Elihu Thomson suggested the use of the term "wave peak- 
factor." 

THE MYRAWATT. 

The authors of this paper, Mr. H. G. Stott and Mr. 
Haylett O'Neill, New York, presented a proposal for a new 
unit of power equal to 10,000 watts, or 10 kilowatts. The 
derivation of the term is almost obvious, coming from the 
Greek "myria," meaning 10,000, and the term "watt." The 
authors pointed out that there are now in general use, both 
in America and abroad, many empirical units, such as the 
horse-power, boiler-horse-power and cheval a vapeur, 
which are unsatisfactory and not internationally employed 
in the same sense. The term kilowatt has been steadily 
growing in favor, with the increase in steam-turbine in- 
stallations, as a measure of output, particularly when the 
turbine is direct-connected to an electric generator. The 
following table of equivalents was presented by the authors 
showing how the new unit compares with those now in 
use. expressed in Ib.-Fahr. heat units per hour: 
I horse power = 2,547 

I cheval a vapeur = 2,510 
I pferde-kraft = 2,510 

I poncelet = 3,350 

I kilowatt = 3,415 

I boiler-horse-power = 33,479 
I myrawatt = 34,150 

It may be noted that the myrawatt is only 2 per cent larger 
than the boiler-horse-power. If the myrawatt is employed 
as a unit of boiler or producer output, and correspondingly 
used as a unit of input for all kinds of dynamical machinery, 
the computation of over-all efficiencies of direct-connected 
units will become exceedingly simple. Over-all efficiency 
will then be found by multiplying the kilowatts of output by 
the factor 10 and dividing the product by the input in 
myrawatts. The authors conclude with a number of 
examples showing how calculations of efficiency will be 
simplified. 

Discussion. 
Dr. Carl Hering, Philadelphia, urged the use of units 
designed to simplify calculations. Dr. A. E. Kennelly, 
Cambridge, Mass., said that here is a good opportunity for 
unifying steam and electrical units. The boiler horse-power 
is within 2 per cent of 10 kw, or the myra-watt. Dr. Ken- 
nelly urged the use of the metric term myria-watt in place 
of the term myra-watt. 

MEASURING ALTERNATING-CURRENT RESISTANCE. 

Dr. Edwin F. Northrup described two electrodynamom- 
eter circuits and methods for the comparison of alternat- 
ing-current and direct-current resistances, giving the 
mathematical details of the procedure in each case. In 
general, the apparatus required consists of a frequency 
meter, an alternating-current ammeter, a three-point 
double-throw switch for quickly changing connections, re- 
sistors and an electrodynamometer. The last piece of ap- 
paratus must be designed to carry the full current without 
overheating. The hanging or potential coils are two in 
number, arranged to be entirely astatic with respect to the 
earth's field. The constant of the instrument is then the 
same for direct current and alternating current, all good 
electrodynamometers being constructed in this way. Either 
the Rowland deflection type or Siemens type, constructed 
on the astatic plan, may be used. The alternating-current 
resistance obtained by the methods reviewed in detail by 
the author is a quantity which, expressed in ohms and mul- 
tiplied by the root mean square of the alternating current 



July 6, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



33 



through the circuit, expressed in amperes, will give the 
root mean square value of that component of the im- 
pressed emf expressed in volts which is in time-phase 
with the current. That is, it is the quantity which, when 
multiplied by the mean square value of the current, will 
give the power in watts which is being dissipated in the 
circuit. In drawing the triangle of emfs of an inductive 
circuit one sometimes represents the component of the 
emf in time-phase with the current by the product of the 
current and the direct-current resistance. This procedure 
may lead to considerable error in circuits in which there 
are other than PR direct-current losses. In such circuits 
the alternating-current resistance R should always be used. 
The methods described are useful in measuring the alter- 
nating-current resistance of steel-covered cables. 

Discussion. 

The papers by Messrs. Agnew, Newman and Northrup 
were discussed together. Mr. W. H. Pratt, Lynn, Mass., in 
discussing Dr. Agnew's paper, said that stranding the con- 
ductor is important to take care of eddy currents in an in- 
strument of high sensibility. He referred to a water-cooled 
dynamometer of his own construction, having astatic sus- 
pension, which was described at the Jefferson (N. H.) 
meeting in 1910. He considered the latter as developed to 
be more flexible than the Agnew apparatus, and questioned 
the accuracy of the latter. Mr. J. D. Ball, Schenectady. 
N. Y., in discussing the Newman paper touched upon the 
value of the method brought out by the author. The 
method of separately exciting the field of a reflecting dyna- 
mometer in measuring low-voltage drops is useful Dr. 
Frank Wanner, Washington, D. C, spoke of changes in the 
connector design which have increased the accuracy of the 
Agnew instrument, notably by splitting the tube and amal- 
gamating the surfaces. Dr. M. G. Lloyd, Chicago, pointed 
out the usefulness of the thermal ammeter, notably in wire- 
less-telegraph circuit measurements. The general plan is 
the insertion of a thermocouple in the moving coil of a 
D'Arsonval galvanometer. The indications are somewhat 
slow. He spoke in terms of high praise of the Agnew instru- 
ment for the measurement of heavy currents. Mr. Taylor 
Reed, Schenectady, N. Y., said that he had sometimes found 
the use of two dynamometers desirable. The subject of 
measuring alternating-current resistance is of increasing 
importance. The use of conductors other than copper and 
aluminum is a coming problem. Mr. A. L. Ellis, Lynn, 
Mass., testified as to the accuracy of the tubular dynamome- 
ter. The water-cooled instrument is particularly free from 
trouble in terminal attachments. The suspension is the 
chief difficulty with such instruments. Dr. E. B. Rosa, 
Washington, cited the absence of any appreciable stray 
fields in the operation of the tubular dynamometer. Chair- 
man L. T. Robinson pointed out that each instrument has 
its field and touched upon the high accuracy of the sepa- 
rately excited dynamometer. 

LAMP TESTING. 

Mr. Evan J. Edwards, Cleveland, Ohio, presented a paper 
in which was emphasized the importance of maintaining 
instruments of high accuracy in laboratories handling a 
large amount of lamp testing. Photometric and lamp- 
testing laboratories should maintain an accuracy of o.i 
per cent in their electrical measurements. The author 
briefly discussed the personal equation in making observa- 
tions, and urged the desirability of chronological records 
of instrument calibration, with plotted comparisons ar- 
ranged on time basis. The use of standard cells was men- 
tioned and meter-setting curves were given for averaged 
observations, showing the precision obtained in practice 
and the tendency of certain observers to favor specific 
digits in taking readings. The author contended that for 
every-day use on photometric equipment the precision at- 
tainable with ordinary portable instruments is insuffi- 



ciently high, and large laboratory standards and deflection 
potentiometers have resulted. An average deviation of 
0.4 per cent from the arithmetical mean is obtainable with 
good photometric apparatus, calling for a voltage accuracy 
of 0.1 per cent in the same precision measure. In con- 
clusion a brief description was given of a voltmeter with 
scale adjustable by rack and pinion attachments, to facili- 
tate calibration to direct readings. Mr. Edwards consid- 
ered graphic recording voltmeters useful in keeping track 
of large changes, but unreliable for measurements of re- 
fined accuracy. 

INCANDESCENT LAMPS AS RESISTORS 

.A paper by Mr. T. H. Amrine emphasized the flexibility 
and economy of incandescent lamp resistors for varied 
service. The author stated that the general availability 
and low cost of such equipment is insufficiently appreci- 
ated in many quarters, and presented curves and data in 
tabular form showing the range and methods of selection 
desirable. The list price of a lamp which will carry o.li 
amp and which has a resistance of 2150 ohms is only 18 
cents, which is probably less than the cost of an equal 
resistor of like carrying capacity in any other form. 
Curves presented showed that for limited ranges almost 
any desired change of resistance with change of current 
can be selected, ranging from a pronounced decrease to a 
very large increase, as well as a practically negligible 
change of resistance with current. A feature of the paper 
was an equation giving the change in resistance with 
changes in candle-power, volts, watts, specific consumption 
and current. Other data included the maximum resist- 
ance available in commercial lamps for various ampere 
ratings, this ranging from 8 to 2520 ohms in the table, in- 
cluding lo-watt to 500-watt lamps. The percentage of 
normal current which lamps will carry at various degrees 
of incandescence was also given. The paper enables one 
to select the type of lamp which will give most nearl\ the 
desired current-resistance change at the proper degree of 
incandescence. Lamps may be used in checking ammeters, 
in holding current at a constant value through the use of 
bridges, with photographic recording alternating-current 
voltmeters and in the control of temperatures, as well as 
in the usual resistance problems. 

Discussion. 

The papers by Messrs. Edwards and i\mrine were dis- 
cussed by Dr. C. H. Sharp, New York ; Dr. A. E. Kennelly, 
Cambridge, Mass. ; Dr. M. G. Lloyd, Chicago ; Mr. Paul 
MacGahan, Pittsburgh, and Mr. T. H. Amrine, East 
Orange, N. J. Dr. Sharp doubted if a laboratory standard 
voltmeter is sufficiently accurate for testing the life-voltage 
relations of incandescent lamps. Accurate voltage methods 
checked against each other are of great commercial impor- 
tance. The Amrine method has been tried lately with suc- 
cess by the speaker, modified somewhat to facilitate meas- 
urements of voltage where very slight changes are to be 
taken into account. Dr. Kennelly commended the use of 
the alternating-current potentiometer, which easily works 
to 0.05 per cent in voltage measurements. Dr. Lloyd em- 
phasized the importance of studying the relation between 
the width of the space and the size of the pointer. Mr. 
Amrine presented several records of interest obtained by a 
photographic recording voltmeter. 

INDUCTION TYPE INSTRUMENTS, 

Emphasizing the increasing importance of compactness, 
aperiodicity. ruggedness, durability, legibility and sim- 
plicity in modern switchboard instruments, Mr. Paul 
MacGahan presented a paper pointing out the advantages 
of induction type indicating equipment and contended that 
in the future instruments built on the induction principle 
will eventually supersede other types. Freedom from ex- 
ternal field influences, good initial and continued accuracy, 



34 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



high ratio of torque to weight, nigged and simple move- 
ments and ease of repairing all contribute to the growing 
popularity of induction type instruments. Induction type 
ammeters and voltmeters having an error of less than 0.05 
per cent are now obtainable, so that the discrepancies due 
to this cause would not be noticeable in a modern plant. 
The close frequency maintained by turbine units has made 
this phase of instrumental design less important than the 
problem of protecting equipment from external magnetic 
and electrostatic fields. The mechanical sources of error 
are probably of greater importance than the purely elec- 
trical ones in switchboard instruments. Instruments hav- 
ing the highest ratio of torque to weight of movement will 
have the greatest accuracy and longest life if equivalent in 
other respects, and if the movement is not sufficiently heavy 
to damage the jewels. E.xperience has shown that 15 
grams maximum is the safe limit for horizontal shafts in 
"V" sapphire jewels, and that a ratio of torque to weight 
of 0.15 is a satisfactory minimum, when torque is ex- 
pressed in centigrams, and weight in grams. Very light 
movements are undesirable. 

The paper contained an interesting study of the space 
occupied by switchboard instruments of various types, in- 
cluding comparisons of scale lengths, panel areas and 
pointer deflections. The J}i-'m. round pattern induction 
type instrument occupies 3.9 sq. in. of panel per inch length 
of scale, which is less than any corresponding area re- 
quired by the usual round pattern horizontal or vertical, 
edgewise or illuminated dial unit. The induction principle 
applied to the 7-in. ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter has 
apparently placed this construction on an entirely new 
basis, the scale length being equal or greater than in any 
previously designed 9-in. meter. The paper closed with a 
reference to the value of black dial instruments and in- 
cluded as a final section a comprehensive exposition of the 
theory and practice of induction instruments. 

C0MPENS.\TING WATTMETERS. 

The importance of providing a suitable indicating watt- 
meter for the measurement of power in small quantities 
and on circuits supplying appliances of low power-factor 
was emphasized in a paper by Mr. A. L. Ellis- The author 
pointed out that an instrument for this work should permit 




Connections of Compensating Wattmeter. 

the ready correction of errors for all conditions of load, 
power-factor and scale position ; that it should have indica- 
tions compensated for its own losses and for losses in volt- 
meters or other instruments connected across the terminals 
of the device whose input is being measured, and that it 
should have high torque, large current range in terms of 
the full scale watt value, a damped moving system and 
adequate shielding from stray fields. 

A large part of the paper was devoted to the detailed 
description of a specially compensated instrument in which 
the series coil and compensating winding substantially off- 
set each other. The instrument had a current range of 
2.25 amp, a potential limit of 125 volts and a full scale 
of 70 watts. On the basis of 120 volts, the full scale de- 
flection would be obtained at 26 per cent power-factor as 



compared with 62 per cent power-factor i'or the common 
type of indicating wattmeter. Deflections around one-third 
scale can be obtained at power-factors below 10 per cent 
within the rated current. The paper contained a large 
number of comparisons of instrumental readings and vari- 
ations in calibration with lagging and leading currents at 
different frequencies. The compensated wattmeter is of 
particular value in measuring losses in the cores of small 
transformers, compensators for metal filament lamps, 
small fan motors, etc. 

UESON.ANT CIRCUIT FREQUENCY INDICATOR. 

A paper by Messrs. W. H. Pratt and D. R. Price, de- 
scribed a method for accurately measuring the frequency of 
a circuit, with a large scale deflection in connection with a 
small percentage change in frequency, under ordinary con- 
ditions of wave form, voltage regulation and temperature. 
The principle that impedance is most sensitive in a circuit 
containing inductance and capacity connected in series or 
parallel was utilized. The constituent parts of the circuit 
consisted of an inductor wound upon a laminated iron core 
with an air-gap ; a condenser made by the vacuum process ; 
resistors with metal having a zero temperature resistance 
coefficient, and an indicating instrument with moving coil 
and field circuit. Three circuits were used, these being 
adjusted to be in resonance at frequencies between 36 and 




C CC:. CONDENSERS 
L l'l-_ -INDICATORS 
R r'r-I. RESISTANCES 
A a'.. .MOVING COIL OF INSTR. 
F FIELD COIL OF INSTR. 

Connections of Frequency Indicator 

70 cycles. The indicator was connected in series with the 
circuit branches between the latter and one side of the line. 
The results have been highly satisfactory, notably in the 
direction of securing large deflections for small changes in 
periodicity. Special need of cutting down the hysteresis 
losses in the inductor was anticipated in the construction of 
the apparatus. 

HOT-WIRE INSTRUMENTS. 

Messrs, A, W, Pierce and M. E. Tressler presented a 
paper on the advantages of hot-wire instruments in meas- 
uring small alternating currents and voltages; as general 
utility instruments for indiscriminate use on alternating and 
direct current and for checking iron-vane anuneters; and 
for measuring high-frequency currents where coil instru- 



July 6, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



35 



ments would be useless. It was pointed out that hot-wire 
apparatus of proper design has no temperature coefficient, 
and a very small zero error due to changes in the instru- 
ment temperature. The inductance of the hot wire is 
practically zero, and accurate indications are given on both 
alternating-current and direct-current circuits at all fre- 
quencies up to 500 cycles per second. Hot-wire voltmeters 
can be relied upon within one-half scale division as low as 
1.2 volts. They are not affected by external fields, and are 
independent of wave form. The internal drops and losses 
of these instruments compare favorably with those of mov- 
ing iron ammeters of corresponding ranges. Hot-wire am- 
meters can be made for a full scale range of 0.25 amp, 
which will indicate o.l amp with an accuracy closer than 
I per cent. Currents as high as 2000 amp have been suc- 
cessfully measured by the use of shunts. 

Discussion. 

The papers by Messrs. MacGahan, Ellis, Pierce and Tress- 
ler, and Pratt and Price were discussed simultaneously. 
Mr. F. P. Cox, Lynn, Mass., agreed that for the measure- 
ment of low voltage and circuits of high frequency the hot- 
wire instrument is specially valuable. Its high energy loss, 
however, is objectionable in measuring large currents. Air 
transformers instead of shunts appear to be desirable for 
high-frequency service, as indicated by experience reported 
from the Fessenden wireless station at Brant Rock, Mass. 
The long scale' is of less importance than accuracy. He 
said that a light-moving element does not necessarily mean 
a weak element but it does mean that the average meter 
man cannot be trusted to handle it. Shielding is a vital 
necessity. The black scale with white fingers has its 
place, but is not the requisite for all conditions. 

Mr. W. H. Pratt, Lynn, Mass., urged the importance of 
accuracy in instrumental service. A light-weight moving 
element is more trustworthy than a heavy-weight one. Prof. 
A. F. Ganz, Hoboken, N. J., confirmed this statement and 
emphasized the increased wear and friction due to heavy 
moving parts. 

Mr. J. P. Mowbray, Providence, R. I., favored the black 
scale for cellars and other places where the light is poor. 
Mr. A. L. Ellis, Lynn, Mass., said that there is no occasion 
to fear the effect of electrostatic disturbances if the meter 
is properly designed. If a horizontal shaft is used, the in- 
dication of the instrument tends to be inaccurate on account 
of rolling in the jewel bearing. Light-weight moving parts 
are of great importance. 

Mr. P. M. Lincoln, Pittsburgh, described a method of 
measuring frequency by putting a power-factor meter into 
a resonant circuit, pointing out that close accuracy of indi- 
cation is possible with proper design. 

Mr. F. H. Bowman, Lynn, Mass., said that interchange- 
ability between alternating-current and direct-current work 
is of less importance in hot-wire instrument work than for- 
merly. Careful handling of such instruments is of great 
importance if good results are to be obtained. Wire for 
hot-wire instruments can be made with a zero temperature 
coefficient, but the apparent resistance tends to increase 
with the heating, on account of the decrease of cross-section 
and lengthening of the wire. 

Mr. Cox condemned the practice of opening the scale at 
the top, where the instrument rarely is required. 

Mr. MacGahan said in closing that the method of com- 
pensation for temperature changes in induction instruments 
is simple and effective. Errors in watt-meters are inter- 
mediate in importance between those in voltmeters and 
ammeters. The tendency is to keep the ratio of torque to 
weight high in watt-hour meters, even at the expense of in- 
creasing the weight to 30 grams. In the induction ammeter 
the weight is 10 grams in the moving element, the torque 
being 2.8 centimeter-grams. Mr. Pratt said that errors due 
to temperature changes can be made practically negligible 
in the frequency indicator. Mr. Pierce said that his hot- 



wire voltmeter has a slight temperature coefficient, which, 
however, is taken care of in the calibration. 

POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER TESTING. 

Mr. J. R. Craighead presented a paper dealing with the 
effect of the resistance of the detector circuit in determin- 
ing the time-phase angle and ratio of two alternating volt- 
ages by the balance method and found that if the resist- 
ance of the detector is adjudged to equal the product of the 
two balance resistances divided by their sum, the ratio of 
voltages will be represented by the two balance resist- 
ances. The errors in ratio due directly to time-phase 
angle and to the detector current offset one another. For 
accurate determination of the time-phase angle, the two- 
dynamometer method is recommended. The results ob- 
tained by the author were calculated for sine waves. The 
theory is greatly complicated by harmonics which flow 
in the detector in case a distorted voltage wave or slightly 
differing waves are used. Where inductive devices are 
used to balance the voltage in the detector circuit they do 
not, on account of wave form, wholly prevent the flow of 
current, and consequently only diminish the errors. The 
additional errors caused by harmonics are in general neg- 
ligible in practical work. 

TESTING INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS. 

Messrs. P. G. Agnew and F. B. Silsbee presented a paper 
describing the determination of the ratio and time-phase 
angle in series and shunt instrument transformers by the 
use of a single galvanometer, carrying forward methods 
previously described in the Bulletin of the Bureau of 
Standards, Vol. 7, 191 1. Equations were given for the 
methods reviewed, and the simplicity of the adjustments 
required was emphasized. The determination in the case 
of the series transformer was obtained by adjusting a re- 




Connectlons for Testing a Series Transformer. 

sistance and mutual inductance in circuit with a gal- 
vanometer and appropriately related to a non-inductive low- 
resistance shunt and transformer primary, the equation 
being fulfilled as described in detail by the authors at the 
moment of securing a balance. Somewhat analogous con- 
nections were employed in testing the shunt instrument- 
transformer. The advantages of the arrangement cov- 
ered by the paper included the possibility, without chang- 
ing the set-up, of testing a transformer in which the time- 
phase angle changes from lagging to leading; and, second, 
by it the fixed inductance used can be placed in a fixed 
position removed from the rest of the circuit where its 
stray field would not cause trouble in the galvanometer 
circuit. By the methods described in the paper only one 
observer is required, and neither a polyphase source of 
potential, a phase-shifting device nor a rotating commu- 
tator is needed. 

Discussion. 

The papers by Messrs. Craighead, and Agnew and Silsbee, 
were discussed simultaneously. Dr. C. H. Sharp, New 
York, said that the last method described by Messrs. Agnew 
and Silsbee had been presented at the Frontenac convention 
two vears ago, and that a satisfactory detector is now in 
service. Mr. [. R. Craighead called attention to the difficul- 
ties of handling vibration galvanometers in commercial test- 



36 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



ing. The adjustment of a dynamometer is the same for all 
frequencies. Condensers are unsatisfactory where perma- 
nent accuracy is required. Dr. E. B. Rosa, Washington, D. 
C, pointed out the dangers of attempting to solve measure- 
ment problems with a single method. Local conditions 
largely determine the best apparatus and methods. Chairman 
Robinson concurred in this opinion. Dr. Sharp called atten- 
tion to the advantages of a synchronous reversing key in al- 
ternating-current measurements of high sensibility with a di- 
rect-current galvanometer. The arrangement is particular- 
ly useful in transformer testing. The vibration galvanome- 
ter is not a discriminatory instrument. Measurements of in- 
ductance and capacity can also be made conveniently by the 
synchronous reversing key and a direct-current galvano- 
meter. 

Dr. F. Bedell, Ithaca, N. Y., said that with the synchro- 
nous commutator certain adjustments can be made to ad- 
vantage in determining phase angle. Dr. Rosa pointed out 
that the error of the rotating commutator and direct-cur- 
rent galvanometer are greater than with the vibration type 
of instrument. The latter have been used successfully at 
Washington for ten years and for many purposes. Mr. 
W. W. Crawford, Lynn, Mass., favored the connections 
used by Messrs. Agnew and Silsbee. He had found a 
vibrating tongue with platinum contacts highly successful, 
and cited tests in which the sensitiveness of the portable 
apparatus was 50 microvolts per scale division. Dr. Frank 
Wenner, Washington, cited difficulties associated with the 
use of the rotating commutator. 

MEASURING STRAY CURRENTS IN UNDERGROUND PIPES. 

The author of this paper. Dr. Carl Hering, of Philadel- 
phia, Pa., describes several original methods for measuring 
stray electric currents flowing through underground metal- 
lic structures such as water or gas pipes. These methods 
were devised in connection with investigations of electrol- 
ysis caused by stray currents from electric railway tracks. 
In methods previously used it has been customary to assume 
or calculate the pipe resistance from the supposed dimen- 
sions and the assumed resistivity. It is obviously desirable 
to avoid all such assumptions if possible. The author's 
first method may be described as follows: The terminals 
of a millivoltmeter or a sensitive galvanometer are con- 
nected to the pipe at two points situated a short distance 
apart. A shunt circuit embracing an ammeter, a few cells 
of storage battery and an adjustable resistance is then con- 
nected to the pipe at points lying on either side of the volt- 
meter terminals, as shown in the accompanying figure. If 
the battery is correctly poled the adjustable resistance may 
be varied until no current flows through the shunted section 
of pipe, and this condition will be indicated when the volt- 
meter or galvanometer gives a zero reading. Under this 
condition the shunted portion of pipe is everywhere at the 
same potential. The ammeter in the shunt circuit will then 
measure the current which previously flowed through the 
shunted portion of pipe. If the millivoltmeter reading is 
noted whjle the shunt circuit is open, the resistance of the 
pipe between the millivoltmeter terminals can obviously be 
calculated at once. 

This method involves only the assumptions that the in- 
troduction of the measuring apparatus does not alter the 
original distribution of current in the pipe system and that 
the current in the pipe section tested has a constant value 
throughout the section. 

By waiting for a suitable opportunity when the current 
is constant for a short interval, measurements of sufficient 
accuracy can probably be made, in spite of fluctuations, and 
since this part of the test is primarily for calibration of the 
millivoltmeter, more time can be taken for it if necessary. 

Practical difficulties are likely to arise, however, from 
fluctuations of the current. The two sets of readings em- 
ployed in this method are successive instead of simultane- 
ous, and when the current is changing rapidly from moment 



to moment it will be desirable to have available a method 
relying upon simultaneous readings. The author describes 
several modifications of the above method which meet this 
requirement. One of the modifications employs a second 
shunt, overlapping the first, and a second millivoltmeter. 
.\nother modification employs only an additional millivolt- 
meter connected outside of, but adjacent to, the shunted 



x: 



<i> 



^ 



^ 



hSmHI^-AA/WW h 




Connections for Measuring Stray Currents. 

section. The author points out that no current will enter or 
leave the section of pipe under test if the excavation is free 
from water and there is no moist earth in contact with that 
part of the pipe. 

The method described for identifying the sources of the 
stray currents is briefly to determine the simultaneous values 
of current in the pipe line and in the adjacent or neighbor- 
ing electric railway track. If these two currents are found 
to be fluctuating in unison, it may be concluded that the 
track return circuit under test is the source of the current 
observed in the pipe. In readings taken for the last purpose 
the measuring apparatus need not give indications in volts 
or in amperes, but simply in proportional values. These 
tests are sometimes applied to long stretches of pipe or track 
by utilizing telegraph wires for bringing the pipe or track 
connections to the measuring instruments. 

Discussion: 

Prof. Albert F. Ganz, Hoboken, N. J., pointed out that 
the method described by Dr. Hering has been used for some 
years in the measurement of stray currents and described a 
modified test with two millivoltmeters of high sensibility 
used in his own practice. In some cases it has been possible 
to connect directly to the rails without using a battery, al- 
though the battery provides a steady source of current sup- 
ply. Where the variations in readings are small high 
accuracy in taking readings is essential. Twenty-four-hour 
readings are helpful. Pipe resistance measured by estimate 
from the dimensions is sufficiently accurate for practical 
purposes in 95 per cent of the cases. Simultaneous twenty- 
four-hour readings on both pipe and neighboring rail lines 
are very desirable in working on networks. 

Prof. G. F. Sever, New York, presented a long written 
discussion by Dr. E. F. Northrup, Princeton, N. J., which 
was read by title. Prof. Sever then touched upon some of 
the legal difficulties associated with testimony in electrolysis 
cases, based upon measurements in connection with litiga- 
tion. He said that the whole subject is an open one. 

Dr. E. B. Rosa, Washington. D. C, said that it is not 
always necessary to determine the resistances of pipe in the 
field. The Bureau of Standards will shortly issue a table 
of pipe resistances based upon extended tests. 

Mr. Alexander Maxwell, New York, defended the use of 
the Haber earth ammeter and favored the method of using 
the strong current in pipe testing. The assumption of pipe 
resistances is reasonably accurate. 

Dr. Frank Wenner, Washington, D. C, also pointed out 
the well-known characteristics of the method described by 
Dr. Hering. Dr. C. H. Sharp. New York, said that all 
methods are useful at times in electrolytic surveys and that 
the Institute owes the author a debt of gratitude for "smok- 
ing out" the persons who have been silently employing the 
method for years past. In closing, Dr. Hering reiterated 
the importance of accurate measurements where the changes 
in readings are slight. He discredited the practice of assum- 
ing pipe resistances. 




Harnessing the Rainbow Falls of the Missouri River by 29-ft. Dam, Creating 

HydrauHc Head of 105 Ft. 

Plant Near Great Falls, Mont., Generating 21,000 Kw. and Transmitting Energy 152 Miles at 

102,000 Volts to Mines at Butte and Anaconda. 




ISING in humble fashion near Three 
Forks in western Montana, where 
three small streams named after a trio 
of Revolutionary fathers — Gallatin, 
Jefferson and Madison — flow together, 
the great Missouri River journeys 
2000 miles before merging its silt- 
laden waters with the mighty Miss- 
issippi a few miles above St. Louis. 
By the time the river has reached 
Great Falls in north central Montana, 
hardly 100 miles from the point of 
its birth, it has become quite an appreciable stream, 
showing a minimum recorded flow of from 2500 to 2300 
cu. ft. per second. In the short distance of 8 miles in the 
vicinity of Great Falls' town site the river undergoes a total 
fall of nearly 400 ft., making available possible developments 
of 130,000 hp, with the storage basins easily created by 
dams taking advantage of the admirable natural topography 
of the channel. This total fall of 400 ft. occurs as a suc- 
cession of cataracts, accounted for by the superposition of 
harder and softer layers in the undisturbed sedimentary 
strata which form the local country rock. Series of natural 
water-power sites are thus created, making development by 
several dams comparatively easy. 

Within the city limits of Great Falls is the first and most 
abrupt of these cataracts, Black Eagle Falls, where 10,000 
hp is developed from a timber-crib dam which, topping the 
natural crest, creates a head of 45 ft. More than three- 
quarters of this power is utilized directly through mechan- 
ical transmission by the Boston & Montana Smelter, whose 
great works line the river bank at this point. On the south 
side of the falls, the Great Falls Electric Properties Com- 
pany has a water-power station, the output of which is used 
locally for central-station and street-railwav service. 

Four miles below Black Eagle Falls is the Rainbow Falls 
development which this article describes, and which utilizes 
in effect the three adjacent but distinct cataracts, Coulter's 
Falls. Rainbow Falls and Crooked Falls, combined to create 
a head of 105 ft. Up to the present time, water-power 
development here has gone only this far, but in the rapids 
for a distance of 4 miles below Rainbow a total drop of 
140 ft. is frittering itself away, while at the end of the 
rapids the stream takes a vertical plunge of -j"] ft., appropri- 
ately known as the Big Falls of the Missouri River. This 
latter cataract, it is understood, will be the ne.xt site of 



development, and offers a quota of 75,000 hp to be added 
to the present system of the Great Falls Power Company. 

DEVELOPMENT AT RAINBOW. 

The Rainbow development comprised the erection of a 
29-ft. dam on the crest of Rainbow Falls, thus practically 
drowning out Coulter's Falls, above, and creating, from 
headrace to tailwater below Crooked Falls, a total hydraulic 
head of 105 ft. The main dam, seen in Fig. 2, is of rock- 
filled crib construction with sloping upstream face so dis- 
posed that, through the reinforcing members, the weight of 
the head of water is transmitted to increase the stability of 
the structure. The downstream or spillway slope merges 
into a long concrete-filled apron, protecting the bed of the 
stream against undercutting and erosion when passing 
severe floods and permitting quiet discharge without sub- 
jecting the masonry structure to dangers from tremor. 
Throughout its length of 1 146 ft., the dam is firmly seated 
on bedrock, and from the rock floor to its crest the struc- 
ture measures 29 ft. in height. 

At the south end of the dam is a concrete sluiceway with 
waste gates having a discharge capacity of 8000 cu. ft. per 
second. These gates are controlled by hand-operated 
mechanism. The forebay leading to the main pipe lines is 
located at the north or opposite end of the dam. Protected 
by the usual trash racks are eight 8-ft. openings which 
admit the water into the concrete forebay chamber. 

The huge pipe lines which connect the forebay with the 
balancing reservoir, nearly half a mile distant, are the 
second largest riveted steel tubes ever built. In diameter 
they measure 15 ft. 6 in., — larger than the bore of the 
average railway tunnel, and readily capable of admitting 
the passage of standard passenger-coach equipment. Figs. 
3 and 4 show the interior and exterior of these great tubes. 
In their construction it is estimated 2471 tons, or 62 car 
loads, of steel was employed. The sheets, aggregating 
roughly 5 acres in area, are held together by half a million 
rivets. When the pipes leave the concrete forebay, and 
again where they enter the balancing reservoir, their diam- 
eter is increased in bell-mouth fashion, to make gradual the 
changes in velocity as the water enters and leaves the pipe 
from the less restricted spaces of the terminal chambers. 
Either penstock tube can be emptied and drained, for paint- 
ing or repairs, by the aid of stop-log guides at the ends, 
between which wickets can be dropped into place, shutting 
off the flow of water. 



38 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



In the hydraulic operation of the plant the terminal 
balancing reservoir acts as a resilient buffer between the 
steady flow necessary in the pipes and the varying demands 
for water taken by the turbine governors. The main pipes 
when filled hold 56,000,000 lb. of water, the tremendous 
hammer blow effects of which can easily be computed for 
even slight changes in velocity. This balancing reservoir 
is seen above the power house in Fig. 6. At its downstream 



operated 60 per cent in excess of normal rating without 
any difficulty on the part of the wheels in carrying the 
heavy overload. On other occasions the turbine gates have 
been opened wide with all load removed from the gen- 
erators, but even under these runaway conditions at the 





• Havre 




Great Falls j^ 
Cascade.-^ 

Switching ^S 
Station j^^ <? 


^Rainbow Falls "'^<!>v-. 


^ Rit'cr 


/M 






Anaconda ff-5' \ 






V^ Butte Substation 








EUctncal iVorU 



Fig. 1 — Map of 102.000-Volt Transmission Lines of Great Falls 
Power Company. 

end a spillway is provided to discharge extraordinary 
surges, such as might be due, for example, to the rapid 
shutting down of several waterwheels that had been running 
with wide-open gates. 

POWER-HOUSE EQUIPxMENT. 

The power house contains six 6ooo-hp inward-flow Fran- 
cis double-runner waterwheels designed to operate under 
105 ft. head. The turbines were built by the S. Morgan 
Smith Company, and the units are controlled by Lombard 
governors. Each runner of the pair comprising the 6ooo-hp 
set is inclosed in its own spiral case, with a separate header 
connecting from the balancing reservoir. The twelve open- 
ings in the plant side of this concrete chamber, admitting 
an equal number of 8-ft. branch penstocks, are controlled 
by hand-operated gates and are protected by trash racks 
and screens. Although fed by separate penstocks, each 
pair of wheels discharges into a common draft tube. As 
the illustration. Fig. 5, shows, the gates, which are of the 




Fig. 3 — Steel Pipes Connecting Forebay and Reservoir. 

high speeds attained no damage resulted to any part of the 
apparatus, nor were discoverable vibrations set up due to 
unbalancing of parts. The machines have also been shut 
down quickly in an attempt to produce water ram in the 
penstocks, and although pressures double the ordinary oper- 
ating head were shown by the gages, no injury or distress 
resulted in penstocks, runner cases, or foundations. 

As the accompanying sectional elevation (Fig. 7) shows, 
the lowest part of the power-house structure is the turbine- 
room. On a gallery level overlooking this floor are the 
switchboard, low-tension switches and step-up transformers, 
all located over the penstock tubes. Above the switch and 
transformer compartments is the high-tension room where 
are installed the 100,000-volt buses, oil switches and light- 
ning arresters. The power house is a steel-frame structure 
with brick walls and concrete roof and floors. 

ELECTRICAL APPARATUS. 

The waterwheel-driven alternators are 3500-kw, 6600- 




Fig. 2 — Water-Power Dam and Rainbow Falls of the Missouri. 

wicket type, have their bearings located outside, insuring 
good lubrication. The runners are of bronze. 

In a series of tests made on these wheels to simulate 
operating conditions full-load efficiencies of 85 per cent 
have been obtained, certainly indicating extraordinary per- 
formance for turbines working under such heads. ' Each 
wheel is directly connected to a 3500-kw alternator, but the 
latter machines have been overloaded to 5500 kw and thus 



Fig. 



Interior of One of the 15-Ft. Steel Pipes. 



volt, 60-cycle, three-phase General Electric machines, and 
operate at 225 r.p.m. A shaft extension of each main unit 
carries an exciter generator of a size sufficient to excite 
any two machines. If desired any of these direct-current 
generators can be connected to suppl-. auxiliary service 
about the station, for lighting, battery cha'^mg, crane oper- 
ation, etc. 

The principal part of the output of the Rainbow Falls 



July 6, igi2. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



39 



plant is transmitted to Butte and Anaconda, 130 and 152 
miles distant, at 102,000 volts. Two of the six generators, 
however, deliver their output at bus pressure, 600 volts, 
to the nearby Great Falls system, which is connected with 
the Rainbow station by a wooden pole line. The other 
four generators deliver energy to the 6600-volt primary 
windings of four 3600-kw banks of single-phase trans- 
formers mounted in fireproof compartments on the gallery 
level at the rear of the switch house. Five per cent taps 
are brought out on the 102,000-volt delta-connected second- 
ary windings, in addition to 3 per cent taps on the low- 
tension side, permitting the adjustment of actual operating 
pressure to suit conditions. 

From the high-tension terminals of the transiormtrs the 
102,000-volt conductors are led through fir or bushings to 
the oil switches controlling each bank. A double 102,000- 



roof bushings to the aluminum-cell lightning arresters on 
the second-story high-tension gallery. 

I02,000-V0I,T TRANSMISSION LINES. 

Throughout the entire distance of 130 miles from Rain- 
bow Falls to Butte, two separate 102,000-volt tower lines 
are carried, the circuits running parallel over the same 
right-of-way. Each circuit is made up of six-strand hemp- 
center copper cables, equivalent to No. o in cross-section. 
The suspension insulators comprise six Ohio lo-in. disks, an 
entire string being able to withstand a wet test of 300,000 
volts from conductor to arm. 

The three conductors of each circuit are supported in the 
same horizontal plane, from the single cross-arms of Milli- 
ken four-legged steel towers. These towers measure 43 ft. 
from ground to arm, and support the wires at a distance 




Fig. 



-Waterwheel Units on Main Floor of Rainbow Plant. 



volt bus is provided, as shown in Fig. 7, connection to 
either bus being established through knife-blade hook 
switches operated with the corresponding oil switches open. 
All the disconnecting switches belonging to one bus are 
indicated by red targets, and those of the other bus by 
white targets. The bus structure itself is of iJ/^-in. iron 
pipe put together with the usual plumber's fittings, little 
effort having been exerted to minimize corona by inclosing 
sharp points, unions, etc., in sheet-metal balls. The bus 
conductors have been coated with aluminum-bronze paint, 
and are suspended by the standard strings of suspension- 
type disk insulators used in the outdoor line construction. 
For the line switches. General Electric 102,000-volt oil 
switches are employed, the outgoing conductors passing 
upward through oil-filled, porcelain roof bushings to the 
high-tension structure overhead. The lightning-arrester 
paths are conducted almost straight from the line-wire 
dead-ends to horn-gaps on the roof, and thence through 



of 40 ft. from the ground. The conductors are themselves 
held at center distances of 10 ft. Saddled on the cross- 
arms at the points where the latter are intersected by the 
tower members, and thus placed symmetrically betvvcai the 
conductors, a pair of ■)^-in. galvanized-steel ground wires 
are carried the length of each circuit as a protection against 
lightning. 

In ordinary construction on level ground the towers arc 
placed at 6oo-ft. intervals, but in rough country where 
ravines, rivers and mountains have to be crossed the span 
distance necessarily varies widely, reaching in many in- 
stances from 1500 to 2000 ft. The span where the line 
crosses the Missouri River, 3034 ft., is the longest on the 
system. The casual reader will gain a better idea of the 
meaning of such a span when he is told that, viewed from 
one end, the wires seem utterly to vanish into space, and 
even on a clear day the tower on the opposite side of the 
river can barely be made out. 



40 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



At a point about midway between Rainbow and Butte, the 
102,000-volt lines are led through a switching station 
equipped with oil switches so arranged that either circuit 
can be cut in two and cross-connected with the other if 
necessary. In case of injury or repairs on one section of 
a circuit, the other half can thus be continued in operation. 
As long as sections of both lines remain in operating con- 



These air-break switches are, of course, designed for opera- 
tion only with the line dead. 

To locate a ground or cross, the dispatcher calls by tele- 
phone those detailed to manipulate the section switches, 
and orders all switches on the affected line open. This 
enables him to charge the first section, and if it shows 
clear he then orders the next switch to be closed and tries 




Fig. 6 — Rainbow Plant and Equalizing Reservoir. 

dition, a circuit clear through from Rainbow to Butte can 
be maintained with the help of the switch-station cross- 
over. Lightning-arrester equipment similar to that at the 
generating plant is also provided at this midway switch 
house. 

OPERATING .\ND TEST FEATURES. 

For testing and locating faults in case of trouble, each 
circuit is also sectionalized at intervals of about 20 miles, by 
the rather elaborate disconnect switch towers shown in 
Fig. 10. The switch mechanism is of the center-pivoted 
type, similar to the throw-over contacts used with alumi- 




Fig. 7 — Cross-Section Through Rainbow Falls Generating Station. 

num-cell arresters. A wooden handle extending to within 
reach of the ground is used to operate the three pivoted 
bars which complete the connections. This handle is 
grounded near the top so that the operator avoids danger 
of shock in wet weather. As shown, the switches are 
mounted on separate structures, while the dead-ended spans 
are cross-guyed between the towers adjoining the switch. 



Fig. 8 — High-Tension Gallery at Generating Station. 

charging again. In this way the section containing the 
ground or cross is shown up, as soon as reached, by its 
excessive current, and patrol men can be dispatched from 
each end to run down the trouble. The switches are located, 
when possible, near the cottages of the patrolmen. The 
latters' wives are also instructed in the operation of the 
sectionalizing switches so that in emergency the women 
can be called on if their husbands are absent. 

Occupying the center space between the two tower lines 
is a private telephone line of No. 10 hard-drawn copper 
carried on 25-ft. poles at 175-ft. intervals. At no point on 
the 102,000-volt system are the high-tension wires trans- 
posed. The telephone circuit is given a turn, however, 
every five poles or 875 ft. and at 5-mile intervals disconnect 
switches are cut in to aid in testing for trouble. 

In crossing the Continental Divide, the Great Falls trans- 




Fig. 9 — standard 102,000-Voit Line Construction. 

mission line rises to an altitude of 8200 ft. above sea level, 
practically a mile higher than at the Rainbow plant, eleva- 
tion 3200 ft. The terminal substation at Butte is at eleva- 
tion 6loo ft. Investigations of corona effects have shown 
that while the No. o conductor running at 102,000 volts is 
being worked at nearly its limiting pressure, the theo- 
retically expected corona point for these conditions of pres- 



July 6, igi2. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD, 



41 



sure, altitude, etc., is substantially lower than the perform- 
ance actually obtained in practice. Owing to the lagging 
characteristics of the large motor load on the Butte end of 
the system, the leading capacity reactance of the line itself 
and the power-factor adjustment made possible with the 
three 1200-hp synchronous compressor motors of the 
Anaconda mining company, the power-factor at the Rain- 



of the turn itself, but are positively fixed in position by a 
second insulator secured to a lower auxiliary cross-arm. 

SUBSTATION AT BUTTE. 

The Butte substation is located on "the Hill" adjoining 
the famous compressor plant of the Anaconda company. 
Like the power house, it is a steel-frame structure with 



'\ 


. \ 







i 














Fig. 10 — 102,000-Volt Sectionalizing Switch Tower. 

bow bus is held continuously at practically 100 per cent. 

While the corona from the 102,000-volt line is hardly 

visible except at the sharp points of clamps or fittings, tests 

made on the system have shown this loss to amount to 




Fig. 11 — Bus structure and Interior of Butte Substation 

about 2 kw per mile at 102,000 volts. The charging current 
taken by the line averages 40 amp per phase wire for the 
entire 130-mile distance. 

Among the departures in construction developed on this 
102,000-volt system is the unique method of angle guying 
shown in Fig. 12. Here the conductor and insulator are 
not allowed to swing free as usual, held only by the tension 



Fig. 12 — Special Angle Construction. 

brick walls and concrete floors and roof. In floor plan the 
substation measures 150 by 50 ft. The present equipment 
comprises four 3600-kw banks of single-phase transformers, 
all windings delta-connected, and arranged to step down 

from 102,000 volts to 2500 volt.s, 
the local distributing pressure. 
Separate brick compartments 
are provided for each trans- 
former. These chambers open 
only through the outdoor wall 
of the substation. The cooling 
water is discharged through 
open spouts accessible from the 
operating floor, but an attendant 
must be sent outside hourly to 
ascertain the transformer tem- 
peratures. Each unit is mounted 
on a truck which can be run 
over its transverse rails onto 
flat cars on the standard-gage 
track paralleling the building 
wall. 

The substation interior is 
opened into a single large room 
from floor to roof, the second 
story being in the form of 
parallel galleries carrying the 
line switches and lightning ar- 
resters, while between is the 
double-bus, high-tension con- 
struction of lyi-in. iron pipe, 
similar to that in the power 
house. The tvifo buses are sus- 
pended in parallel planes, and 
transfers of the line and trans- 
former switches from one to 
the other bus are effected through sets of disconnect 
switches marked respectively with red and white targets. 
The switchboard itself is in two sections, one of which 
controls the high-tension apparatus, both line and trans- 
former switches, while the other contains the 2500-volt 
hand-operated switches. 

From the Butte substation a line corresponding in con- 



42 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



struction to the 102,000-volt specifications, but at the present 
time carrying only half that pressure, extends the 20 miles 
eastward to Anaconda, Mont. Later it is the intention to 
convert this circuit to 102,000-volt operation. The energy 
delivered to Anaconda is all taken by the Washore smelter, 
the largest, by the way, in the world. The equipment in 
the brick substation here includes six 1200-kvv transformers. 




Fig. 13— 102,000-Volt Oil Switches in Butte Substation. 

besides the oil switches, lightning arresters, etc., similar 
to those in the stations of the Great Falls company. 

Although the load supplied by the 102,000-volt Great 
Falls Power Company's system is used chiefly for mine 
purposes in Butte, emergency throw-over service is afforded 
to the local associated system of the Butte Electric & Power 
Company, while in turn the Butte system, which has water- 
power plants totaling 20,000 kw, on the Yellowstone, Madi- 
son, Jefferson and Big Hole Rivers, enjoys the auxiliary 
source of supply of the Great Falls system in case of its 
own interruption. Since the two systems develop widely 
separated watersheds, an insufficiency of water for one 
seldom finds the other similarly embarrassed. 

Of special interest is the extremely high load factor of 
the Great Falls lines and system. Measured 365 days a 
year on the 24-hour basis, the system load factor has aver- 
aged above 86 per cent. ■ A power factor of nearly unity is 
maintained on the Rainbow 
switchboard, since, as already 
pointed out, the line capacity 
about neutralizes the lagging 
characteristics of the induction 
motor load, while the synchro- 
nous machines in the Anaconda 
company's compressor plant ca:i 
be adjusted to preserve the bal- 
ance closely. 

MINE HOISTING WITH COM- 
PRESSED AIR. 

This compressor plant sup- 
plies air at 90 lb. pressure for 
operating the hoists of a num- 
ber of mines in the neighbor- 
hood. There are three 1200-hp Westinghouse 2300-volt 
synchronous motors direct-connected to drive at 75 r.p.m. 
three Nordberg cross-compound air compressors. With 
fields over-excited at 120 amp direct current, these machines 
are ordinarily operated at unity power factor. The air is 
stored as compressed in a series of huge steel tanks, 10 ft. 
in diameter and 57 ft. in height. Part of these receivers 



are located at the bottom of a hill, while 200 ft. above them 
an open water tank is connected to the system so that a 
constant pressure of about 90 lb. is maintained on the 
receivers, the water flowing down to take the place of the 
air as the latter is used for hoisting. Excess air is dis- 
charged by an automatic relief valve into the "mine sys- 
tem," from which drills and other apparatus are operated. 
Each compressor handles 7500 cu. ft. of free air per minute. 
The mine-hoist air engines average 2000 hp to 3500 hp in 
nominal rating. The present compressor plant, itself total- 
ing only 3600 hp, is operating six of these hoists, and with 
the large number of additional engines now being installed 
the completed si.x-compressor station will be able to operate 
about twenty-five hoist engines, representing a diversity 
factor of 8 to 10 between motors and skips. An over-all 
efficiency of 40 per cent is asserted for the air-hoist system, 
measuring from electrical energy to rock hoisted. As suc- 
cessive chambers of the mines are exhausted of ore they 
are back-filled for support and for disposal of the waste 
rock. The lowering of this material into the mines allows 
the engines to act as compressors, returning air to the 
system, and so contributes to the efficiency of operation. 

Mr. Max Hebgen is general manager of the Great Falls 
Power Company, Mr. Frank Scotten is superintendent at 
Great Falls, and Mr. H. H. Cochrane is electrical engineer. 



VARIABLE-HEAD HYDROELECTRIC PLANT AT 
ELDORA, lA. 



Counteracting Variations in Hydraulic Head by Utili- 
zation of Surplus Water During Flood Period. 

Tl IE turbine equipment in the hydroelectric plant of the 
Park Dam Company at Eldora, la., operates under 
a normal working head of ro.5 ft. The stream 
flow is such that variations ranging from 2 ft. to 6 ft. are 
encountered. Provision has therefore been made for main- 
taining constant voltage at the generators notwithstanding 
a variation of 10 per cent in their speed. The exciters are 
driven by quarter-turn belts and different-sized pulleys are 
employed to drive these machines at increased speed when 
the turbine speed decreases. For instan'ce, when the work- 
ing head is reduced a smaller pulley is put on the exciters, 
*thus increasing the voltage on the main generator field coils 
and maintaining constant the generator emf. It is said that 
this plan does not affect the service with the exception of 
the induction motors on the line; a 10 per cent reduction 




Fig. 1 — Plant and Dam at Eldora, la. 

in speed of these machines as long as the voltage is main- 
tained has no undesirable effect, it is claimed. 

During flood periods the water reaches a height of 3.5 ft. 
over the crest of the dam and piles up to a greater height 
below the dam, thereby decreasing the effective head to as 
low as 4 ft. in extreme cases. The company has installed 
a special by-pass equipment designed to increase the velocity 



July 6, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



43 



of discliarge of the water from the turbines, or rather to 
lower the counter head at the turbine outlet. For this 
purpose use is made of water flowing under the full head 
at the dam directed so as to force forward the back water, 
which otherwise would be excessive. On either side of the 
discharge tubes are placed two pipes 24 ft. in length, vary- 
ing in diameter from 36 in. at the intake to 18 in. at the 




shaped bearing underneath the waterwheel which comes 
into play in case of failure of the top bearing, and two 
ball bearings, one above and the other below the revolving 
field structure. 

The waterwheels were made by the Trump Manufactur- 
ing Company, Springfield. Ohio ; the generators by the 
Electrical Machinery Company, Minneapolis, Minn., and 
the compensating governors by the Woodward Governor 
Company, Rockford, 111. The plant was designed by Mr. 
A. H. Latimer, general manager of the Park Dam Com- 
pany, under whose supervision the construction work on 
the dam generating station and hydroelectric equipment 
was done. 



DEVELOPING A UNIQUE IDAHO WATER-POWER. 



Harnessing 181-ft. Head of the " Thousand Springs " 

Beneath Lava Outflow, and Construction 

of 3,000-hp Plant. 



Fig. 2 — Umbrella-Type Generator and Belt-Connected Exciter. 

discharge. During flood times some of the surplus water 
is passed through these pipes to increase the velocity of the 
water discharging from the turbines. The scheme has 




^^^_ /J \ Tail WamrLeyel-^ 




Toil Race 



Fig. 3 — Cross-Section of Station. 

proved successful to the e.xtent of adding from 2 ft. to 3 ft. 
to the effective working head. 

Under normal conditions the flow of the stream is about 
200 cu. ft. per second ; the maximum reaches about 700 and 
the minimum about 70. The equipment installed at present 
has a rating of 300 hp. The generators are of the um- 
brella type provided with three bearings, one spherically 



PRACTICALLY the whole State of Idaho and parts or 
Utah and Nevada are overlaid with a great lava shee' 
which covers the sedimentary country rock in place- 
to a depth of several hundred feet. This lava rock, now 
hardened and more or less impervious to water, lies on a 
sandstone equally impervious. But in the plane of contact 
between these two formations underground streams are 
collected and flow for miles without meeting the light of 
day. 

In southwestern Idaho, where the Snake River has cut its 
channel more than 300 ft. deep through first the lOj-ft. 
surface layer of igneous lava outflow, and then through 
the softer sedimentary rocks for 200 ft. more, egress is 
permitted for one of these underground rivers in a curious 
way. For a distance of nearly half a mile along the side 
of the canyon the water pours out into view from the plane 
of the lava contact, forming the famous Thousand Springs, 

which originally appeared as 
shown in Fig, i. The source of 
the water itself is unknown and 
certainly is not within 100 miles 
of the point where it emerges 
from its underground channel. 
The stream has an average flow 
of about 750 cu. ft. per second 
and is very uniform in char- 
acter, varying little during the 
seasons of the year. From the 
level where it emerges, 100 ft. 
below the top of the canyon, a 
head of 181 ft. is available down 
to the Snake River, which flows 
below, and here a 3000-hp 
water-power plant is now being 
constructed, with provision for 
future extensions to 12,000 hp 
to utilize the full flow of the 
Springs. 

Many different attempts have 
been made in earlier years to 
collect and utilize the flow from 
the Thousand Springs, but with- 
out success, owing to the pecu- 
liar nature of the problem, tlie 
difficulty of foundationing struc- 
tures on the side of the clifif and the long contact outlet of 
the water. The final solution, carried out in connection with 
the present development, was the erection of a concrete 
canal wall on the side of the cliff at the outflow level. This 
wall is 400 ft. long and in places 16 ft. high. It forms a 
canal 20 ft. wide, whose other side is the native clifT and in 
which the water from the numerous spring outlets is col- 



'^^m^- 



44 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



lected. At one end for a distance of 150 ft. the canal is 
widended out to 40 ft., forming a forebay opening to the 
penstocks which are to convey water to the power house 
beneath. The construction of this wall was especially diffi- 
cult, both on account of its precarious foundationing on the 
side of the canyon and owing to the provisions which had to 
be made for cofferdams to hold back the water from the 



nearly 200 ft. below. Though the Thousand Springs develop- 
ment is capable of providing 12,000 hp, the initial machinery 
to be installed will comprise only two 1500-hp units. Spiral 
scroll-case Pelton-Francis waterwheels, operating under the 
head of 181 ft., will drive Westinghouse 2300-volt, 6o-cycle, 
three-phase alternators. No gate valves will be provided 
for the penstock tubes, but quick-closing headgates will be 




Fig. 



1 — Thousand Springs, 
Height, 



Idaho. Before 
181 Ft. 



Development. 



concrete forms during building. There was no way of 
shutting off the flow, of course, and the water had to be 
deflected while the concrete was setting. Other difficulties 
were experienced in sealing off the ends of the contact 
crevice to prevent the water from finding its way out at the 




Fig. 2 — Forebay Wall Erected at Flow-Level Contact of Lava 
Sheet and Sand Stratum. 

sides. Although the present is but a partial installation, the 
canal wall as initially built is provided with two spillways, 
totaling 90 ft. in length, which is ample to discharge the 
entire flow from the underground river. 

From the canal wall, which is itself 100 ft. below the 
surrounding surface, two 42-in. steel penstocks will convey 
water down to the power house at the foot of the cliff, 




Fig. 3 — Plant Under Construction, Canal Wall and Penstock 
Openings. 

inserted at the tops of the pipes. These headgates will be 
hoisted by worm-geared motors, although it will be possible 
to close the gates almost instantaneously from the power- 
house floor, by means of a tripping rope allowing the gates 
to fall shut. 

From the alternators the emf of the 2300-volt, 60-cycle 
energy will be stepped up to 40,000 volts for transmission 
to Idaho points, where the energy will be chiefly used for 
irrigation pumping. The hydroelectric site is 8 miles south 
of Windell, Idaho, on the Snake River. Fig. 3 shows the 
steel frame of the power house complete. Machinery is 
now being installed, and the plant is expected to be ready 
for operation by July i of this year. The present develop- 
ment is being made by the Thousand Springs Power Com- 
pany, of which Mr. Lafayette Hanchett, of Salt Lake City, 
LTtah, is general manager, and Mr. O. H. Gray, also of 
Salt Lake, is engineer. 



ALUMINUM 



CONDUCTORS FOR 
TRANSMISSION LINES. 



OVERHEAD 



European Experience with Aluminum — Saving of 36 

per Cent in Cost of Conductor — Engineering Data 

with Particular Reference to British Practice. 



T 



By Ch.\rles L. Johnson. 

HE main object of this article is to describe British 
practice in the use of aluminum conductors for 
overhead transmission lines and to indicate the 
extent of their adoption in the United Kingdom, but some 
preceding remarks on the relative position of aluminum and 
copper from a commercial standpoint will not be out of 
place. An estimate of the saving to be effected in first 
cost by the use of aluminum can readily be made. A hard- 
drawn aluminum wire has 61 per cent of the conductivity 
of a hard-drawn copper wire of the same size, and, there- 
fore, an aluminum wire or cable must have 1.64 times the 
sectional area, and consequently 1.28 times the diameter, 
of the equivalent cop^jer cable. As the specific gravity of 
aluminum wire is only 2.71, as against 8.95 for copper 
wire, the aluminum cable will weigh one-half the equivalent 
copper cable. 



July 6, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



45 



For the last eight or ten months the average market 
quotations in the United States for the two metals have 
been, aluminum 21 cents per pound, and copper 13 cents 
per pound. The expenses for drawing into wire are, of 
course, larger per pound for aluminum than for copper, 
and the average normal cost of hard-drawn wire may be 
taken as 27 cents per pound for the former and 15 cents 
per pound for the latter. On the basis of these prices it 
will be found by simple arithmetic that any bare aluminum 
conductor will cost 10 per cent less than the equivalent 
copper conductor. Although several aluminum lines have 
been erected in the United States, it is found in general 
that the comparatively small saving is largely offset by the 
increased height and cost of the towers for the aluminum 
line, and consequently there is little inducement for the 
American' engineer to adopt the new metal. Matters are 
somewhat different, however, in Europe and Canada. 

The American, European and Canadian quotations for 
copper are practically identical and may be taken at present 
at 12.5 cents per pound. The European and Canadian quo- 
tation for aluminum, however, is only 13 cents per pound 
as against 21 cents in the United States. In these countries, 
therefore, the prices for hard-drawn wire are approximate- 
ly 19 cents and 15 cents per pound for aluminum and cop- 
per respectively, with the result that the substitution of 
aluminum for copper effects a saving of over 36 per cent. 



consider that the gain in business from electrical quarters 
would compensate for the loss of profit in other fields con- 
sequent upon such a reduction. 

In Europe, however, as has been shown, the use of 
aluminum effects a saving of 36 per cent in the cost of 
conductors with copper at a comparatively low figure, and 
advantage is being taken of this saving by a large number 
of engineers in many countries, and particularly in the 
United Kingdom and in France. 

Contrary to the generally expressed opinion, the condi- 
tions of British overhead transmission lines are as favor- 
able to the substitution of aluminum for copper as in any 
other country. With the comparatively low transmission 
pressures employed, a fairly heavy conductor, cheap insu- 
lators and short spans with cheap creosoted wooden poles 
are usual, and consequently the cost of the conductors is a 
very substantial proportion of the total cost of the line, 
sometimes as high as 60 per cent. Thus, considering capital 
cost only, the use of aluminum for the conductors may 
result in a saving of some 20 per cent on the total cost of 
the line, including erection but excluding rights-of-way. 
The chief reasons why aluminum is not already employed 
in the United Kingdom to a greater extent than it is are 
undoubtedly the general conservatism of the average British 
engineer and the fact that much publicity was given to 
some very unsatisfactory results obtained by one important 



' TABLE I. DETAILS OF SOME BRITISH OVERHEAD LINES WITH ALUMINUM CONDUCTORS. 



War Office, Aldershot 

War Office. Aldershot 

War Office. Aldershot 

Newton. Chambers & Co.. Birdwell, Yorkshire 

Weardale Coal & Steel Co., Spennymore, Durham 

Glantawe Electric Supply Co., Ystradgynlais, Glamorg 

Lyme Regis Electricity Works, Lyme Regis, Dorset 

Bolckow, Vaughan & Co., FerryhiU, Yorkshire 

Langton Colliery. Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Langton Colliery. Newcastle-on-Tyne 

LeadhiUs Co., Ltd., Leadhills, N. B., Wales 

British Aluminium Co., Foyers. N. B., Wales 

Associated Portland Cement Manufacturers, Ltd., Hailing, Kent 
Associated Portland Cement Manufacturers, Ltd., Hailing, Kent 
Urban Electric Supply Co , Berwick-on-Tweed 

Craighead & Bothwell Castle Collieries, Glasgow 

Cammell. Laird & Co., Birkenhead, Tranmere Shipyard 

Cork Electric Tramways & Light Co., Cork. Ireland 



Year 
Erected. 



1910 
1911 
1911 
1910 
1910 

1910 

1907 
1908 
1909 
1911 

1909 

1899 
1905 
1906 
1909 

1910 

1908 
1910 



Length 

in 
Miles. 



2.6 
0.6 
5.0 
1.7 
3.0 

15.0 



3.2 
1.1 

l.I 

2.3 

0.8 
0.9 
I.O 
1.0 



0.4 
1.0 



Span 


Average 


Number 


Section 


m 


Height 


of Con- 


per Con- 


Feet. 


of Pole. 


ductor. 


ductor. 
0.025 


200 


34 


4 


200 


34 


4 


O.OS 


200 


34 


4 


0.1 


120 


30 


2 


1.4 


120 


34 


3 


0.16 


/ 90 
t ISO 


31 


2&4 


variou 


120 




vari 


ous — up 


120 




3 


0.15 


120 




3 


0.125 


120 




3 


0.115 


70 




3 


0.105 


105 




2 


0.113 


450 




2 


0.31 


450 




2 


0.095 


150 




2 


0.245 


f210 
t 150 




3 


0.038 


60 




4 


0.67 


120 




1 


0.17 



Number 
of Wires 



Strand. 



7 
19 
19 
37 
19 

I s up to 

to 0.1 sq. 

1 
1 
7 

1 

1 

37 
1 
37 



61 

7 



Diame- 
ter of 
Each 
Wire, 
Inches. 



0.072 

0.072 

0.08 

0.222 

0.104 



Pressure 



0.365 

0.385 
0.104 
0.348 
0.092 



3000, a.c. 
3000, a.c. 
3000, a.c. 
600, d.c. 
3000, a.c. 



71.159 240, d. 

in. llO.d.- 

0.44 I 

0.4 I 5500, a.c 

0.144 I 5500, a.c 



250, d.c. 
250, d,c. 
500, d.c 



0.128 6600, a.c. 



0.118 
0.176 



440, d.c. 
550. d.c. 



It is interesting to note that the addition of an American 
duty of 7 cents per pound on imported aluminum to the 
European figure of 13 cents brings the price up to 20 cents, 
and that, allowing i cent for transportation charges, the 
total price of imported aluminum is brought up to 21 cents, 
which is the market quotation for, the home-produced metal. 
From these figures one is forced to the conclusion, assuming 
that labor and establishment costs are approximately the 
same as in Europe, that the home manufacturers maintain 
the price of the metal at a far higher figure than that at 
which it could be produced and sold with profit. It is, 
indeed, known that American manufacturers have offered 
hard-drawn aluminum wire in Canada at 21 cents per 
pound, the corresponding figure in America being 27 cents. 
A government rebate may be partly responsible for this, 
however. As imported aluminum could not be sold at a 
profit for less than 21 cents and 27 cents per pound for bar 
and wire respectively, it appears that the American price 
is regulated by the duty-paid price of the foreign article. 
A reduction in the price would enable home manufacturers 
to gain large orders for aluminum for electrical purposes, 
without fear of competition from the imported metal in 
that or other fields, but doubtless the manufacturers do not 



concern with aluminum lines erected many years ago, the 
troubles with which were traced to the use of solid wires 
of doubtful purity. There is, at any rate, a deeply rooted 
reserve on the part of many influential British engineers 
regarding the introduction of aluminum, prompted chiefly 
by a feeling of insecurity and an uncertainty as to the 
durability of aluminum lines as compared with copper lines. 
It may here be pointed out that in the case of long- 
distance transmission at very high pressures the extra cost 
of the insulator makes very long spans more economical, 
and then the cost of the insulators and towers is so great as 
to make the cost of the conductors a comparatively small 
proportion of the total cost. This, combined with the fact 
that the towers must be some 10 per cent higher with 
aluminum cables in consequence of their greater sag. and 
wider on account of the greater spacing to prevent touching 
when swinging in a gale, results in the saving effected 
by the use of aluminum being reduced to only from 4 to 6 
per cent, as shown by the official publications of the Ontario 
Hydro-Electric Commission. A careful analysis of the 
figures of cost contained in these volumes shows that, in 
the case of the main line to Toronto, consisting of two 
three-phase circuits each comprising three No. 4-0 B. & S 



46 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



cables, the six cables cost $1,450 per mile as compared with 
$2,050 per mile for copper cables (copper wire at 16 cents 
per pound and aluminum at 23.5 cents per pound), showing 
a saving of nearly 30 per cent on the cables alone. This 
saving was reduced to 5.6 per cent only on the total cost 
of the line, partly because the actual towers weighed 1.72 
tons as against 1.57 tons for towers for an equivalent cop- 
per line, and partly because the cost of the cables was only 
30 per cent of the total cost of the line, including erection 
but excluding rights-of-way. 

It has been stated that one of the chief reasons for the 
use of aluminum in preference to copper for the above 
lines was the lower corona loss with aluminum conductors. 
At the high pressure employed, namely, 110,000 volts, the 
section of conductor for copper was so small as to approach 
the limit at which the corona loss becomes very consider- 
able, and the 28 per cent greater diameter of the equivalent 
aluminum cable was, therefore, an important advantage. 
As the corona loss is one of the most important of the 
difficulties to be overcome in future lines at very high 
pressures, this advantage of aluminum will necessarily 
carry great weight. 

There are at present some thirty transmission lines vifith 
aluminum conductors in operation in the United Kingdom. 
Particulars of some of these are given in Table I. It will 
be noticed that the pressures are comparatively low and 
the spans short. The first four lines in Table I may be 
taken as representative of British practice. The first- 
mentioned line at Aldershot was erected for the British 
War Office according to the specifications of Messrs. Ken- 
nedy & Jenkin, the consulting engineers. This line is of 
particular interest in so far as it is the first instance within 
the writer's knowledge of the Board of Trade (the British 
government authority for the public safety, etc.) permitting 
a high-tension overhead line on a public road. It is a three- 
phase line constructed in three lengths of different size and 
operated at 3300 volts. It is carried for a total distance 
of 7.5 miles over natural moorland which is very rough 
and uneven in parts. Four wires have been erected, one 
being held in reserve which can readily be switched in by 
suitable change-over switchgear at both ends of the line in 
the event of the breakdown of any one conductor. The 
average height of the poles is 34 ft. and the average span 
198 ft. The conductors, particulars of which are given in 
Table I, are spaced 4 ft. and 5 ft. apart. The wooden poles 
were creosoted to the British Post Office standard specifica- 
tion and are of the A type. Each member is approximately 
7 in. diameter at the top and 9.5 in. at 5 ft. from the bottom. 
The cross-arms are of rolled channel iron. Use is made of 
a longitudinal steel earth wire above the conductor and 
horn-gaps and "kicking" coils for protection against light- 
ning. There is also an elaborate arrangement of cradle 
wires to catch and earth the high-tension conductors in the 
event of a break. L^se is made of the inverted type of 
terminal sealing boxes for connecting the line conductors 
to underground paper-insulated armored cables. 

Table II shows the sags and tensions in the conductors 

TABLE II. SAGS AND TENSIONS AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES. 



Temperature 
in Deg. Fahr. 



Sag on 200-ft. 
Span. 



Tension in Cable in Pounds. 



Cables. 



O.OS Sq. In. 
Cables. 



0.025 Sq. In, 
Cables. 



40 


2 ft. S in 


2S0 


125 


65 


60 


2 ft. 9 in. 


220 


110 


55 


80 


3 ft. 1 in. 


195 


100 


50 



insulators so that the weld was in a loop of cable not under 
strain. 

One particular feature of line No. 2 of Table I is the 
exceptional size of the conductor, namely, 1.4 sq. in. 
(1,781,672 circ. mils) section, which necessitated a very 
heavy "H" pole construction. The wooden poles are 30 ft. 
and 32 ft. in height and are spaced 120 ft. apart. The line 
is worked at 600 volts direct current and has a load of about 
550 hp. It is carried through large works and then over 
wooded agricultural land. The total cost of this was about 
$6,000 per mile as compared with $9,000 per mile for an 
equivalent copper line. An interesting feature of this line 
is the use of mechanical joints, as illustrated herewith. 
The two outer layers and the core of the stranded aluminum 




specified by the consulting engineers for different tempera- 
tures. All the joints on this line were welded and made 
only at poles, the two ends being brought up to adjacent 



Mechanical Cone-Type Joint for 1.4-sq. in. Cable. 

cable are severally gripped between a series of annular 
cones also of aluminum to avoid the corrosion due to con- 
tact with other metals. Aluminum bonds are provided be- 
tween the two halves of the joint, but these are probably 
an unnecessary precaution. The two halves of the joint 
are held together by four enameled steel bolts and the 
whole is painted with a preservative compound. These 
joints, contrary to the usual British practice, were placed 
under strain in the span, and they have been found to be 
able to withstand a very heavy tension without slackening, 
and are proving to be altogether successful for such heavy 
conductors. 

In line No. 3 the poles are from 34 ft. to 55 ft. high and 
are spaced 120 ft. apart. They are 7 in. diameter at the top 
and 10 in. at 5 ft. from the bottom. A sag of 2 ft. 3 in. 
was allowed at 60 deg. Fahr. The line is operated at 3000 
volts and runs along colliery sidings. It cost about $2,500 
per mile. Guard wires are provided where the line crosses 
the colliery yard. Mechanical cone-type joints, as shown 
in the accompanying illustration, are used in this line, but 
in this case are not under strain. 

Line No. 4 is a particularly interesting overhead distribu- 
tion system erected for the Glentawe Electric Supply Com- 
pany at Ystradgynlais, in Wales. This, as in the case of 
the above lines, was erected by the British Insulated & 
Helsby Cables, Ltd., and has the distinction of being the 
first complete overhead distributing network in aluminum 
to be put up in the United Kingdom. These lines have 
been at work for about twelve months and the results ob- 
tained have been uniformly good. There are some 15 miles 
of route on this network with conductors ranging from 
seven 0.159 stranded cable to No. 14 solid wire. The spans 
range from 90 ft. to 150 ft. and the poles from 30 ft. to 
36 ft. These lines run along country roads and are oper- 
ated at 240 volts direct current. It is noteworthy that there 
are here in use nearly 3 miles of Nos. 14 and 12 hard- 
drawn aluminum solid wire, this being the first time such 
small conductors have been used with success. All of the 
joints on this system were made at insulators and were 
married and bound, this method being quite suitable for 
small conductors. These lines have held up through several 
gales and have withstood a good deal of frost and snow 
without any measurable increase in sag. 

It will be noticed that in each of the four lines described 
wooden poles are used. These poles are well seasoned and 
thoroughly creosoted before use and such poles have been 
found to have a life of from twentv to forty vears accord- 



July 6, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



47 



ing to the nature of the soil in which they are placed. Steel 
lattice or tubular poles with longer spans are employed in 
some instances, but in general the wooden poles with short 
spans are more economical for the comparatively low- 
pressure work carried out in the United Kingdom. 

Steel poles for transmission lines are not likely to come 
into common use in the United Kingdom for various rea- 
sons: First, rights-of-way are ditTicult to obtain. This 
causes the lines to zigzag considerably and makes short 
spans inevitable (very few exceed 240 ft.) ; with short 
spans the wooden poles are sufficiently strong. Secondly, 
creosoted wooden poles withstand the atmospheric condi- 
tions in the United Kingdom better than steel and are 
cheaper to maintain ; in the United Kingdom steel poles 
need repainting every third year because of the smoke and 
damp. 

In conclusion, it may be mentioned that in addition to the 
use of aluminum for overhead lines British engineers are 
already adopting this metal for many other electrical pur- 
poses. In the Manchester and other large electricity works 
aluminum busbars are largely used, and bare and insulated 
underground cables of aluminum are employed in several 
instances. 



ELECTRICITY IN THE DEPARTMENT STORE. 



Engineering and Cost Data for Illumination and Motors 
Based Upon Central-Station Service. 

By E. F. Tweedy. 
/~T-vHE diversity of uses to which electricity is applied in 
_£ the modern department store is almost comparable 
with the diversity of the lines of merchandise han- 
dled by a store of this character. Besides its use for light- 
ing purposes and for the operation of elevators, electricity 
is usually employed in this class of buildings for operating 
ventilating fans, for pumping water, for running sewing- 
machines, for conveying packages and for operating a 
large number of small motors that are applied to a great 
variety of uses. It is frequently employed for operating 
the cash-carrier system and occasionally for operating the 
compressor and the brine-circulating pump of the refrig- 
erating plant which now usually forms part of the mechan- 
ical equipment of the modern department store. A list of 
the various motors in a certain representative department 
store is given below, and it clearly shows the diversity of 
the uses to which the electric motor is applied in a store of 
this character. 

ELECTRIC-MOTOR EQUIPMENT OF A LARGE DEPARTMENT STORE. 



Forty-three 115-anip elevatore 

Two 75-ainp elevators. 

One 1-hp mangle. 

One i-hp mangle. 

One 10-hp drive. 

One 2-hp drive. 

One 1-hp laundry machine. 

One 17i-hp fan. 

Three I6-hp fans. 

Two 13-hp fans. 

One 12-hp fan. 

One 1 1-hp fan. 

One 10-hp fan. 

Two 8-hp fans. 

One 2i-hp fan. 

One 1-hp exhaust fan. 

Five 6-hp dumbwaiters. 



One i-hp drill. 
Two 2-hp dish-washers. 
Two 10-hp compressors. 
One 7^-hp compressor. 
Five 1-15-hp hair-dryers. 
Two 2-hp ice cream freezers. 
One 2-hp ice-chopper. 
One i-hp carbonator. 
Five 3-hp air- washers. 
Four 2-hp air-washers. 
One .3-hp saw. 
Two .S-hp sump pumps. 
One 20-hp pump. 
Two 10-hp pumps. 
One 2-hp pump. 
One 50-hp fire pump. 
One 15-hp ammonia pump. 



Fifty-one 1-7-hp sewing machines. One 1 -hp emery wheel. 

Eight 1-8-hp sewing machines. One 5-hp jiaper baler. 

One 1-hp carpet sewing machine. One 3i-hp package conveyor. 

One 1-hp buffer. One 2J-hp package conveyor. 

One ^-hp buffer. One 1 J -hp package conveyor. 

One ^-hp blower. Two J-hp package conveyors. 

One J-hp lathe. Five i-hp package conveyors. 

Total number of motors 177 

Total horse-power of motors 4728 

Entirely aside from the question of the relative cost of 
securing an adequate supply of electrical energy for its 
manifold needs, a store of this character should use central- 
station service rather than depend upon a private generating 
plant located upon the premises, for the reason that any 
interruption in the supply of electrical energy is liable to 



lead to very serious consequences and is almost certain to 
result, even under the most favorable circumstances, in a 
large financial loss. It does not require a great deal of 
imagination to picture the situation that would arise were 
the lights in a department store, crowded with women and 
children, to be suddenly extinguished under such conditions 
of outside darkness as are present in the late afternoons 
of mid-winter. Even were a panic avoided by the quick 
restoration of the lights — which might be accomplished were 
an emergency connection with the central station available 
— experience has shown that the financial loss resulting 
from tlie thefts that occur during even a ve'ry short period 
of darkness is a sufficiently serious matter from the owner's 
point of view. With the number of connections usually 
provided for this class of buildings by the central stations 
of our large cities, the possibility of an interruption in the 
central-station service is now too remote to warrant even 
the slightest consideration, which certainly cannot be said 
of the supply from a private generating plant, no matter 
how well designed and how carefully operated such a 
plant may be. The cost of electrical energy is usually 
such a small percentage of the total operating costs of the 
average department store that the owners of these stores 
are quite naturally loath to sacrifice reliability of service 
to an estimated saving that, at most, would amount to an 
extremely small percentage of the total cost of operation. 
The word "estimated" is used advisedly, as it is a well- 
known fact that the estimated savings of a great many 
private generating plants are never realized under condi- 
tions of actual operation. 

So much for the source from which the supply of elec- 
trical energy is to be obtained. Attention will now be 
given to the uses to which electricity is applied in modern 
department stores and to an examination of certain data 
relating to such uses. In this connection the subject of 
lighting will be the first considered. 

Prior to the introduction of the higher efficiency incan- 
descent lamps, such as the tungsten and the tantalum, the 
general lighting of department stores was accomplished 
almost exclusively by means of arc lamps. This type of 
lamp is still very largely used for this class of lighting, al- 
though there have recently been some notable instances 
where the tungsten lamp has been employed with extremely 
satisfactory results. The main floors of department stores 
are generally divided into bays, each bay usually having an 
area of 400 sq. ft. to 600 sq. ft. The custom has been to 
install an arc lamp in the center of each of these bays, there- 
by making the watts per square foot range from about 
I to 1.5. The resulting average illumination upon the plane 
of the counters probably ranges for this class of lighting 
from slightly under 2 ft.-candles to something over 3 ft.- 
candles. 

A large department store recently erected, in which tung- 
sten lamps are used almost exclusively for lighting, is 
probably the best lighted, both as regards quantity and 
quality of light, of all existing stores of this character. The 
main floor is lighted by means of 250-watt tungsten lamps 
placed inside of 14-in. ground-glass balls. These lights are 
supported at a distance of 16 ft. from the floor, the height 
of the ceiling being 20 ft., and the ceiling outlets are 
located approximately 12 ft. apart. The watts per square 
foot for the main-floor bays are slightly over 2, and the 
approximate mean horizontal foot-candles on a plane 33 in. 
from the floor with all lamps lighted, as shown by a test 
made upon a certain section of the main floor, were 9.3. 
The usual practice is to use only about one-half of the total 
lamps on this floor at any one time, and under these condi- 
tions the approximate mean foot-candles for the section 
tested were 5.5. Even with only one-half of the installation 
in use, the average illumination on the main floor of this 
department store is probably at least twice the average for 
stores of this type. In spite of this 100 per cent increase 
in the quantity of illumination, the watts per square foot. 



4S 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, \o. i. 



on the basis of one-half of the lights being used, are no 
greater than for the ordinary arc-lamp installation. 

The writer has before him figures showing the watts of 
connected lighting installation per square foot of gross 
floor area — which includes walls, partitions, etc., but ex- 
cludes any exterior or interior courts — for a number of 
large department stores. The figures range from a trifle 



S S 

oEC 

Is 



100 300 300 400 

Connected Lighting Installation in Kilowatts 

Fig. 1 — Consumption of Electrical Energy for Lighting In Four 
Department Stores, New York City. 

over 1.4 watts per square foot, in the case of a store where 
tungsten and tantalum lamps comprise a little over 15 per 
cent of the total connected lighting installation, to a little 
less than 0.6 watt per square foot for a store in which tung- 
sten and tantalum lamps form nearly 90 per cent of the 
total connected lighting installation. The values falling 
between these limits, however, show a considerable amount 
of variation from a strict relation between this wattage 
percentage and the number of watts per square foot of 
gross floor area. 

When it comes to the question of hours' use per year of 
the total connected lighting installation, department stores 



750000 


































^ 


T' 


































^ 






6U00OO 




























y 


' 
































y\ 


y 












450000 























y 














— 




















y 


^ <i 


1 














300000 














^ 


^ 




















— 














y 
























150000 








y 


y 


Ki 


low 


XX : 


;oura 1 


Coiinccted \ 




367- 
osi 










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y 






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uately) 




A 



















these four cases fall to a mean line which gives a C(jnsta;it 
the value of which is 1867. In other words, the kilowatt- 
hours consumed per year for lighting in these four stores 
are approximately equal to the total connected lighting 
installation in kilowatts multiplied by 1867 hours. 

The monthly variations in the lighting requirements of a 
typical large department store are shown by the heavy 
full-line curve in Fig. 2. The lighting consumption during 
the month of December is always relatively high in depart- 
ment stores, as a result of such stores usually being open 
evenings for a week or more preceding Christmas, and also 
on account of the additional decorative lighting usually em- 
ployed at this time. For this particular store the December 
lighting consumption is approximately 14 per cent of the 
total yearly lighting consumption, which is perhaps slightly 
above the average for stores of this character. 

The subject of elevators in its relation to the modern 
department store will next be considered. Until compara- 
tively recently the hydraulic type of elevator was looked 
upon by the majority of engineers as preferable to the 
electric type of elevator for department-store service, and 
this fact is largely responsible for the prevalence of the 
former type of elevator in department stores at the present 
time. However, as a result of the improvements that have 
been made in the electric type of elevator during the past 
few years, there has been a decided change of opinion as 
to the comparative merits of these two types of elevators, 
and the electric type has now little to fear in this class 
of service from its once formidable hydraulic competitor. 

The accompanying table gives the results of a series of 
observations made in connection with a study of the opera- 
tion of the elevators in a number of large department 
stores. These observations were made during what were 
considered to be periods of normal operation, and the figures 
given may therefore be taken as representing the average 
conditions of operation throughout the year. The number 



DEPARTMENT. STORE ELEVATOR DATA. 





Average 
Number of 

Seconds 
per Round 
Trip Spent 

in Stops. 


Average 
Number of 

Seconds 
per Round 
Trip Spent 
in Running. 


Average 

Number of 

Seconds 

for 

Complete 

Round Trip. 


Running 

Time as Per 

Cent of 

Total 

Round-Trip 

Time. 


Average 
Running 
Speed in 
Feet per 

Minute 
(Excluding 

Stops). 


Average 
Number of 

Floors 
per Stop. 


Total 
Number of 
Passenger 
Elevators. 


Number of 
Floors 
Served. 


Approximate 

Area of 

Floors 

Served by 

Passenger 

Elevators. 


Approximate 

Square Feet 

of Floor 

Area per 

Elevator. 


A.. 


95 


51 


146 


35 


192 


1.11 


14 


Basement 
7 Floors 


375,000 


2 7,000 


B.. 


73 


53 


126 


42 


170 


1.05 


7 


Basement 
6 Floors 


158.000 


23,000 


C .. 


100 


38 


138 


28 


196 


1.00 


8 


Basement 
6 Floors 


275.000 


34,000 


D.. 


109 


59 


168 


35 


224 


1.12 


11 


Basement 
7 Floors 


350,000 


32,000 


E... 


US 


57 


172 


33 


252 


1.2 


14 


Basement 


460,000 


33.000 


F... 


118 


74 


192 


38 


196 


1.1 


« 


Basement 
7 Floors 


240.000 


40.000 


G... 


107 


60 


167 


36 


220 


1.09 


6 


7 Floors 


160,000 


27,000 


H.. 


121 


66 


187 


35 


193 


1.03 


8 


10 Floors 


258,000 


32,000 


I... 


218 


lOS 


323 


32 


154 


1.00 


15 


Basement 
13 Floors 


557,000 


37,000 


J... 


194 


94 


288 


33 


196 


1.01 


35 


Sub-basement 
Basement 
10 Floors 


840,000 


24.000 


Av 




1 


35 


200 


1.07 








3 1 . 000 

















— at least those in New York City that are supplied by 
central-station service — show a remarkable degree of uni- 
formity. In Fig. I the number of kilowatt-hours consumed 
per year for lighting has been plotted against the total con- 
nected lighting installation for four large department stores, 
in which it has been possible to separate the kilowatt-hours 
used for lighting from those used for the operation of 
motors and for other purposes. It will be noted how close 



of elevators as given includes only those used by the 
public, and the total floor area as given is likewise con- 
fined to that portion to which the public has access. It will 
be observed that the percentage relation which the time 
spent in running bears to the total round-trip time is a 
fairly constant quantity, the average value being 35 per 
cent. It will also be noticed that the running speeds of the 
elevators show a reasonably close approach to an average 



JuLV 6, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL W O R L D . 



49 



speed of 200 ft. per minute. With these average values 
as a basis and with an estimated daily operating period of 
ten hours, it would appear that the average distance traveled 
per day by a department-store elevator is approximately 
8 miles, a figure which the writer has substantiated by 
actual mileage tests. 

A glance at this table will show that the traffic conditions 



noooo 






1 




















att Hours 






























































1 
=60000 


















































•" 


1 
































§43000 






























Q. 




a 


























230000 

























































Month 








P 


kseeng 


if Ele^ 


ators' 




— 


— 


— ' — ' 




























■ 



Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 
Fig. 2 — Yearly Load Curve of a Large Department Store. 

in department-Store service are extremely severe, a stop 
being made at .approximately each tloor. As the amount 
of electrical energy consumed per car-mile by the electric 
elevator depends almost entirely upon the number of starts 
and stops that are made, the kilowatt-hours per car-mile 
of travel are practically twice as great in the case of the 
department-store elevator as they are for the same type 
of elevator in the average office building, where the number 
of stops per car-mile is usually only from one-third to one- 
half as manv. 

The dotted curve in Fig. 2 shows the amount of elec- 
trical energy consumed during each month of a recent 
year by eleven electric passenger elevators of the depart- 
ment store whose monthly lighting consumptions are shown 
by the heavy full-line curve. The light full-line curve shows 
the total energy consumption by the month, the difference 
between this curve and the curve shown by the broken lines 
representing the electrical energy used for operating four 
freight elevators and a number of miscellaneous motors, the 
latter aggregating a little over 100 hp. In this particular 
store the exhauster of the pneumatic-tube system is nor- 
mally operated by means of a steam engine, but a motor- 
driven exhauster is provided as a reserve unit. It will be 
observed that there is comparatively little variation through- 
out the year in the kilowatt-hours consumed per month bv 
this group of passenger elevators. The consumption of 
electrical energy per elevator per year for this group is 
about 14.000 kw-hours. A test made upon these elevators 
during the month of July of the present year showed the 
total travel for the month to be 1764 miles. The average 
number of miles traveled per business day during this period 
by each of eight of these elevators — the combined mileage 
of which was 95 per cent of the total — was 7.6, while the 
average of kilowatt-hours per car-mile was 6.y. On the 
basis of 300 business days per year, with an average daily 
travel of 7.6 miles and with an average consumption of 6.7 
kw-hours per car-mile, it will be seen that the yearly con- 
sumption of electrical energy per elevator would be a little 
over 15,000 kw-hours, which is somewhat in excess of the 
actual yearly consumption per elevator, as previously given, 
owing to the fact that the elevators of this group are never 
all in operation throughout an entire day, the number in 
service being varied with the daily — and to a certain extent 
with the hourly — requirements. 

Mechanical ventilation must be provided for the basement 
and sub-basement spaces of a department store if the floors 
below ground are to be devoted to sales purposes or if they 



are to be occupied by any considerable number of the store's 
employees. In some department stores tlie ground-floor 
space is ventilated by mechanical means, but, as a general 
rule, the entire space above ground, with the exception of 
the toilets, etc., is ventilated by means of the windows, with 
the assistance, in some instances, of one or more ventilating 
ducts extending to the roof and having openings at each 
floor. 

Steam-driven ventilating fans are occasionally employed 
in stores of this character, but the motor-driven ventilating 
fan is the one most commonly found in this class of service. 
The yearly consumption of electrical energy by the niotor- 
driven ventilating fans in a department store is necessarily 
high per connected motor horse-power, inasmuch as such 
fans are in operation during some ten or twelve hours of 
each business day. During the winter season the air sup- 
plied by these ventilating fans is, of course, tempered by 
first passing it through steam-heated coils. Fans are either 
provided with a capacity sufficient to effect a definite num- 
ber of air changes per hour in those portions of a depart- 
ment store that require mechanical ventilation — say, a com- 
plete change every ten or twelve minutes — or else the 
capacity is based upon the number of persons that it is esti- 
mated will occupy the space requiring ventilation — a com- 
mon allowance being some 30 cu. ft. of air per minute per 
person. 

Lack of space forbids even a brief description of the 
many other uses to which electricity is put in the modern 
department store. Therefore the remainder of the article 
will be confined to the presentation of data showing the 
total consumption of electrical energy in a number of de- 
partment stores and to a study of some twenty-four-hour 
load curves of a certain large department store that is using 
central-station service. 

In Fig. 3 the total yearly consumptions in kilowatt-hours 
are plotted against the total gross volutnes, above and below 
ground, of sixteen department stores, some of which are 
located in New York City, some in Chicago and the rest in 
Boston. A wide variation in the consumption of electrical 
energy is seen to exist when the several stores are thus 
compared upon a volumetric basis. This is by no means sur- 
prising when it is considered that some of these stores have 
hydraulic elevators, while others have electric elevators ; 
that some have arc and carbon lamp installations, while 
others have lighting installations consisting almost entirely 





































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1 
































































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• 


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• 








































u 


• 


• • 


• 


















% 








• 


• 

































• 



































l.j 



Gross Volume Above and Below Ground 
in Millious of Cubic Ft. 



Fig. 



3 — Total Yearly Consumption Compared with Size of 
Buildings. 



of tungsten lamps — the watts per square foot of gross floor 
area actually ranging for this group of stores from a little 
under 0.6 to something over 2.5 — and when it is further con- 
sidered that some of these stores have a certain amount of 
slcam-driven apparatus, while others use the electric drive 
Ihroughout. This chart shows the futility of attempting to 
estimate the consumption of electrical energy in a given 



so 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



department store by comparing its cubical contents with 
those of another store of which the electrical consumption 
is known unless careful attention is given to the many 
factors that tend to affect such a comparison. 

There is one point in connection with Fig. 3 to which the 
writer would direct particular attention. The department 































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\i 



A.M. 



P.M. 



Fig. 1 — 24-Hour Load Curves of a Large Department Store. 

storie designated as "A" upon the chart has a complete elec- 
trical installation, which includes elevators and a large num- 
ber of motors used for various purposes, and secures its 
supply of electrical energy from a central station. The store 
designated as "B" has a hydraulic-elevator equipment and 
has its own private electrical generating plant. Although 
this store has a smaller gross volume than that of store 
"A," it will be observed that the annual consumption in 
kilowatt-hours is more than 50 per cent greater than the 
consumption in store "A." The consumptions in these two 
stores tend to substantiate what the advocates of central- 
station service claim, namely, that where a private generat- 
ing plant is installed there is little or no incentive to the 
economical use of electrical energy, as a result of which a 
reasonably low unit cost of generation may actually mean a 
high total cost of providing the amount of electrical energy 
actually required. 

Fig. 4 shows three twenty-four-hour load curves of a 
large department store. The full-line curve represents the 
load throughout the twenty-four hours of the day of maxi- 
mum load, which occurred during the week prior to Christ- 
mas, when this store was decorated profusely with incan- 
descent lamps for the holiday season. The maximum load 
was reached at about 6 o'clock, which is about one hour 
later than the maximum load on the generating plant of the 
central station supplying this department store. The other 
two load curves represent respectively a rainy day in Octo- 
ber and a clear day in May. 

The yearly load-factor of a department store, based upon 
ihe maximum load throughout the year and upon a year of 
8760 hours, is apparently about 30 per cent when the electric 
type of elevator is used and in the neighborhood of 23 per 
cent when the elevator equipment is of the hydraulic type. 
These figures are for department stores supplied by central- 
station service, and they are, of course, subject to a con- 
siderable amount of variation. Where a private generating 
plant is in use the vearly load-factor will be higher as a 
result of the greater consumption due to the more wasteful 
use of electrical energy. The writer has in 'mind one de- 
partment store, which has electric elevators and which op- 
erates its own generating plant, where the yearly load-factor 
is 40 per cent. 

In addition to the strong argument in favor of a depart- 
ment store securing its supply of electrical energy from the 
central station on the ground of reliabilitv of service, as 



mentioned earlier in this article, a private electrical gen- 
erating plant is at a relative disadvantage in this type of 
building because of the fact that the amount of exhaust 
steam that can be utilized for heating the building is small 
when compared with the total amount available from the 
generation of the large quantity of electrical energy that is 
usually required. In other words, the question of exhaust- 
steam heating carries much less weight in a building of this 
character than it does in the average office building, where 
the amount of exhaust steam available from the electrical 
generating plant approaches more closely to the heating re- 
quirements of the building. 



BACK-FIRED OIL-BURNING BOILERS OF TOPEKA 
EDISON COMPANY. 



Increased efficiency and lengthened life of boiler tubes 
are reported by the Topeka Edison Company as the result 
of firing its boilers with fuel oil introduced from the rear 
of the combustion chambers. The Topeka generating sta- 
tion contains four 260-hp, four 300-hp and two 508-hp 
boilers, all equipped with rear-fired burners as shown in the 
sketch. A 2j<^-in. false floor, consisting of a single layer 
of firebrick, separates the combustion chamber from the 
air inlet ducts, each of which contains a 150-hp oil burner. 
The heat from this partition floor aids to warm the air 
before it reaches the rear and enters the furnace at the 
burner. Each of the smaller boilers is equipped with two 
air ducts and burners, and each of the 500-hp units with 
three. Oil is delivered to the fuel valves at 30 lb. per square 
inch pressure, while steam is taken directly from the boilers 
through throttling valves reducing to 75 lb. pressure. Each 
burner as shown is made up of duplicate lo-ft. lengths of 
-)^-in. oil pipe and 54-in. steam pipe, which connect the 
valves at the front of the boiler with the burner at the rear. 
Besides the steam and oil supply valves, there is a third or 
blow-out valve, by means of which steam can be turned in 
to blow all oil out of the fuel pipe when shutting down the 
burner. 

The Hammel burner tip used produces a flat fishtail 
flame, the admission of the proper quantity of air being 
controlled bv a brick checker-work in front of the burner. 



Oil and Steam Pipes.' 




Electrical n'vrlU 



Arrangement of Back-Flred Oil-Burning Boilers. 

While the massive parts of the tip are machined castings, 
the lips of the opening itself are of steel, made replaceable 
so that when a tip becomes burned only the lip pieces have 
to be renewed. This can be done at a trifling cost. Each 
burner is rated at 150 hp, but this value can be exceeded 
by 50 to 75 per cent without difficulty. The oil used has 
a fuel value of 19.500 Ib.-Fahr. heat units per pound, and 



July 6, 19 12. 



ELECTRICAL \V U ]< L D 



51 



I lb. burned under the Topeka boilers will produce 16 lb. of 
steam, or 440 watt-hours of electrical energy. Under 
regular running conditions a fuel consumption has been 
recorded of 0.309 gal. or 2.29 lb. oil per kw-hr. generated. 
The average output of the plant is 23,000 kw-hr. to 26,000 
kw-hr. per month, with a peak of 2650 kw. 

Reduction in boiler repairs has been one of the most im- 
portant results of the rear-burner arrangement, according 
to Mr. J. I. Chase, chief engineer of the station. In two 
years' operation barely ten boiler tubes have been lost 
owing to blistering, although the boilers are being washed 
down only every thirty days. The feed water used is pur- 
chased from the city and is very hard. By treatment with 
soda ash, lime and aluminum sulphate in three 6o,ooo-gal. 
tanks outside the plant the content of objectionable matter 
is reduced from 32 grains to 4 grains. Huge underground 
oil tanks provide the fuel storage for the plant. These 
tanks are roofed flush with the ground, and each is ven- 
tilated by 2-in. pipe 10 ft. in height, opening to the atmos- 
phere out of reach of careless or intentional meddling. A 
steam coil heats the tank to render its contents more fluid. 
Connected with the same main is a complete set of fire- 
protection steam jets arranged to smother out any fire that 
might start in the tank. The steam-jet supply is controlled 
by a fusible plug, so that in the event of any undue rise in 
temperature in the oil the steam will be automatically 
turned into the tank. The heating coil and jet supply are 
drained by a trap, assuring that the pipe will always be 
filled with steam. 



PUMPING COAL FROM THE SUSQUEHANNA RIVER 
BY ELECTRICITY AT PLYMOUTH, PA. . 



In the Susquehanna River from Wilkes-Barre to below 
Steelton, Pa., are large deposits of anthracite coal. The 
fuel, made up of a mixture of pea and buckwheat, is washed 
down the river with every spring freshet from the coal 
banks and culm piles which flank the Susquehanna from 
Nanticoke and Millersburg and from Shamokin Creek be- 
low Sunbury. While much of the fuel travels along the 
bottom of the river as far as Steelton, the greatest deposits 
are found in the neighborhood of Plymouth and Northum- 



bridge piers in the river, and the prevailing size of coal at 
that point is No. 4 buckwheat. The coal is singularly free 
from slate because the latter, being flat, will not roll along 
the riverbed to any extent. After its long journey the 
fuel is also remarkably clean and of excellent heating value, 
since it is known that fuel stored under water does not 




Fig. 2. — Pumping Coal from River at Plymouth. 

suffer deterioration as much as fuel stored by ordinary 
methods with access to air. 

Dredges and pumps are employed to take the coal from 
the river bottom. At Harrisburg sand pumps are used to 
load small flat scows, while at Plymouth a float equipped 
with 190 hp in motors and using central-station energy is 
employed as indicated in Fig. 2. A centrifugal pump driven 
by a loo-hp, 6o-cycle motor sucks the coal from the river 
and forces it with the water through a long pipe line to the 
shore, where the coal is deposited, the water finding its 
way back to the river again. The pump is capable of suck- 
ing 50 tons an hour. In addition to the loo-hp motor there 
are three 30-hp motors on the dredge for operating the 
drags. 

It will be understood that the float is anchored in the 
river, but is obliged to shift its position from time to time 
when no more coal is found at the anchorage. In order to 
bring the coal within the range of the sucker, the three 
motor-driver drags are employed. One of these drag 




Fig. 1 — Motor-Driven Pump and Transformers on Coal Dredge. 

berland, where the north and west branches of the Sus- 
quehanna River come together. It is estimated that as 
much as 100,000 tons of fuel can be reclaimed from the 
river at that point. 

The coal forms with the sand in bars in all eddies, still- 
water beds, back of bridges, piers, etc. At Harrisburg, 
for instance, the supply is found chiefly back of the many 



Fig. 3 — IVIotor- Driven Drag on Coal Dredge. 

motors is shown in Fig. 3, while Fig. I shows an interior 
view of the float, the exterior of which is given in Fig. 2. 
In Fig. I the loo-hp motor driving the centrifugal pump is 
seen in the foreground, while the transformers may be seen 
in the rear. The energy for the dredge is received from an 
overhead line from shore connected to the mains of the 
Luzerne County Gas & Electric Company. 



52 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



GREENVILLE'S MODERN STEAM-TURBINE 
STATION. 



Electrical energy for local consumers in Greenville, Ohio, 
and for a group of surrounding suburban towns is gen- 
erated in the model looo-kw steam-turbine plant of the 
Greenville Electric Light & Power Company, completed dur- 
ing the past year to replace the engine-driven equipment 
formerly served by the same boiler-room. In the installa- 
tion of this plant special care was taken to provide duplicate 
equipment so that in the case of any break-down no inter- 
ruption to service would result. As an example of this 
broad policy, two 500-kw turbines are in place, although 
the peak load of the system does not yet ta.x the capacity 
of one machine. 

Two 125-hp Chandler & Taylor boilers and one 150-hp 
Borger boiler furnish steam at 125 lb. pressure for the 
turbines. The turbine sets are 500-kw horizontal four- 
stage Curtis units, running at 3600 r.p.m. and driving 500-kw 
General Electric 2300-volt, 60-cycle, three-phase alternators. 
There is one 17.5-kw steam-turbine-driven exciter and one 
15-kw exciter driven by a 220-volt alternating-current mo- 
tor. For the local 220-volt direct-current motor-service cir- 
cuit there is also a 175-kw motor-generator set. The street 
lighting of Greenville includes the operation of 120 7^-amp 
series inclosed alternating-current arc lamps, the constant- 
current transformer equipment for which comprises three 
50-lanip tub regulators. These street lamps were converted 
from 133-cycle to 60-cycle operation with the inauguration 
of the new station in June, 191 1. 

As shown in the accompanying illustration, the switch- 
board comprises an exciter panel, two generator panels, two 
line feeder panels and the arc panel. A Tirrill regulator 
controls the voltage of the alternators, and on the same 
swinging standard there is a synchroscope for phasing the 
machines. A totalizing watt-hour-meter measures the total 
generated output of the station, and other integrating 
meters are arranged to record the consumption of the trans- 
mission feeders, street-lighting circuits, etc. 

The two 500-kw steam turbines exhaust into a 1500-sq. ft. 
Wheeler condenser, circulating water for which is taken 
through 24-in. tile lines from Greenville Creek near the 
plant. All condenser auxiliaries are engine-driven, and the 
Cochrane feed-water heater installed returns the supply to 




Fig. 1 — Interior of Greenville Steam-Turbine Station. 

the boilers at an average temperature of 208 deg. Fahr. 
Massive concrete foundations support the turbine units. 
Access to the exhaust valves is obtained through 24-in. tile 
tunnels extending through these turbine bases, the passages 
being just large enough to admit a man's body. 

From the Greenville station 6600-volt transmission lines 



extend respectively 12 miles to Bradford, 7 miles to Gettys- 
burg and 9 miles to Ansonia. The system is now being ex- 
tended by the construction of a further transmission net- 
work reaching the towns of New Madison, El Dorado, West 
Manchester, Lewisburg and Brookville. In each case the 
transmitted energy is distributed by a company of local 




Fig. 2 — Switchboard. 

citizens, which purchases its supply at its own town limits 
or at the switchboard of the generating company. 

Even the most casual visitor to the Greenville station 
cannot fail to be struck with the high order of maintenance 
and excellent upkeep observed there. The policy of the 
management has been to insist on superficial neatness as 
well as technical operating excellence, the officers being 
firm in the belief that adherence to the one helps to stimu- 
late interest in the other. A feature of the Greenville plant, 
rare but perhaps no less desirable in other stations, is the 
presence of a number of palms and other tropical plants in 
the engine-room. The warmth and even temperature of 
this room causes these plants to flourish as on their native 
soil, and their presence adds that touch of attractiveness to 
the turbine-room interior which is everywhere reflected in 
the inunaculate condition of the equipment and the rooms 
in which it is installed. 

Mr. D. L. Gaskill, president of the Greenville Electric 
Light & Heating Company, is well known among central- 
station men as the able secretary of the Ohio Electric Light 
Association and the National District Heating Association. 
Mr. W. S. Meeker is secretary of the company, Mr. W. C. 
Bishop is treasurer, and Mr. S. M. Rust is general superin- 
tendent. 



ELECTRIC HEATING IN MILLING INDUSTRY. 



Electrically heated ovens have an important application in 
the milling industry for testing sample grains by desiccating, 
glutenizing, germinating and baking. One large flouring 
mill in Canada, the Maple Leaf Milling Company of Port 
Colborne, Ont., utilizes a total of 3000 kw in electrical equip- 
ment, the majority of which, of course, is in motors. The 
office building and all necessary parts of the mill are heated, 
however, by nearly 200 electric air heaters, averaging 1500 
watts each. In its laboratories the company employs eleven 
Despatch electric ovens, the largest of which takes 17 kw 
and is capable of producing 100 loaves at each baking. 
These ovens are used to dry samples of the wheat, subtract- 
ing moisture to determine the quality of the grain. In 
others the gluten is extracted and expanded. Employees of 
the mill are furnished at cost with electrically cooked bread 
baked in these ovens. 



July 6, iqi2. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



53 



Central Station 

Management, Policies and Commercial Methods 



THE ATTRACTION OF FLAMING-ARC LIGHTING. 



Ever since the merchants on Union Avenue. Pueblo, Col., 
placed lo-ft. extensions on trolley poles and suspended 
flaming-arc lamps from goosenecks their success in attract- 
ing traffic has been urging merchants of Main Street, 
the principal retail district, to the adoption of similar illu- 
mination. Four-lamp classic-design cast-iron columns 
have now been erected on Main Street spaced lOO ft. and 
extending ten blocks from Union to Tenth Streets. Tung- 
sten lamps of 150-watt rating will be used in opalescent 
globes, the units being placed 1 1 ft. above the curb. 



IRONS AS HDUSE- WIRING PREMIUMS. 



The Marion (Ind.) Lighting & Heating Company has 
used to advantage the offer of a free electric iron for each 
new house wired and connected within a certain limited 
period. At intervals of two or three months the company 
makes the announcement that for each residence service 
contracted for during a specified ten-day period an electric 
iron will be given free to the householder. This attractive 
offer usually hastens the laggards, and practically without 
other sales expense than the irons and advertising the com- 
pany is able to close up a group of new consumers during 
the ten-day campaign. At the time of the last free-iron 
offer, a month ago, fifty residences were closed in this way. 
The Marion company also sells a standard electric iron 
practically at cost and now has about 2300 in use on its 
lines. 



" $25 A MONTH TO LIGHT OUR OFFICE." 



There is probably no central-station manager who has not 
heard the cynical remark of some local "kicker" regarding 
the company's brightly lighted office — "Well, you can afford 
to burn all these lights because we customers are paying for 
it !' To draw the force of such unfair comment, as well as 
to illustrate to persons who have had no experience with 
electricity what the cost of electric lighting really is, Mr. 
J. F. Roche, of the Billings & Eastern Montana Power 
Company, has placed in his own modern and well-lighted 
office a card detailing the e.xact cost of operating this light- 
ing at the local commercial rate, 6 cents per kw-hr. plus 20 
cents per 60-watt connected unit. "All lights in this room," 
the sign reads, "can be operated three hours nightly, and 
the window lamps burned until midnight, for $25 a month 
on our regular schedule of rates." The illumination of the 
Billings office is quite elaborate and the intensity very high, 
so that the small cost of this brilliant display usually strikes 
home a double lesson to the passer-by after nightfall. 



SHARING THE COMMUNITY'S BURDEN. 



The Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company published an in- 
teresting "double-page spread" advertisement in the spe- 
cial anniversary edition issued by the Daily Oklahoman. 
The growth of Oklahoma City has been phenomenal, and 
the central-station company there, which is controlled 
by H. M. Byllesby & Company, has been correspondingly 
enterprising, progressive and helpful. In its advertisement 
the company talks about "Our Share of the Burden." Con- 
struction work has constituted a permanent problem with 
the company, for there has been building and rebuilding. 



enlarging and extending ever since the present organiza- 
tion took hold. The company lays claim, as undoubtedly 
it is entitled to do, to a share in making Oklahoma City 
what it is and declares that the best interests of the com- 
munity are the best interests of the company. Whatever 
prosperity the company has enjoyed has been earned, and 
the organization does its level best to render a dollar's 
worth of service for a dollar paid. The company says that 
it is striving to operate its public utility on equitable prin- 
ciples and with regard for the rights of all, complying with 
the spirit as well as with the letter of the law. The ad- 
vertisement, which is a striking and effective one, is em- 
bellished with portraits of the company's officers and with 
pictures of some of its plants and installations. 



TUNGSTEN FIXTURE TO COMBAT GAS ARCS. 



Mr. J. B. Weidgenant, sales superintendent of the Fort 
Wayne (Ind.) central-station company, is inaugurating a 
tungsten-fixture campaign to replace gas arcs used to light 
the fronts of buildings. At Mr. Weidgenant's suggestion 
the special fixture illustrated has been prepared by the 
Tungstolier Company and consists of an l8-in. clear-glass 




store-Front Tungsten Fixture. 

globe inclosing a 250-watt or 400-watt tungsten lamp, the 
whole mounted under an enameled reflector borne by a 
crane arm. These arms as delivered are 6 ft. in length 
and are cut off to fit the local conditions where they are to 
be attached to the buildings. The central station offers 
to install and maintain the tungsten fixture, including all 
lamp renewals, for 50 cents a month, the energy consumed 
to be paid for under the customer's regidar metered rate. 
Artificial gas sells for $0.90 per looo cu. ft. in Fort Wayne, 
and it is expected that this new fixture will provide means 
heretofore lacking for bringing about vigorous competition 
to the gas arc. In locating these lamps on store fronts 
judgment will be particularly exercised in placing them so 
that the window lighting will not be affected by their use. 



54 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



UTILIZING DISPLAY WINDOW SPACE. 

Thousands of dollars ^re spent for plate glass and for 
preferential positions on streets traversed by crowds of 
people, and then, strangely enough, little or no advantage 
is taken of the opportunities created by such expensive out- 
lays. The central station which presents attention-attract- 
ing displays in its windows benefits not only from the adver- 
tising gained directly but also from the stimulation of other 
merchants to increased standards of window lighting on a 
long-hour basis. 

Realizing this point, one progressive Western company 
has from time to time installed a number of "stunts" in its 
windows, drawing crowds to its office. By a familiar black- 
art trick, with the aid of a piece of plate glass and comple- 
mental rheostats and lamp banks, a vase full of flowers was 
made to turn into a ten-dollar bill, which was offered as 
the first payment on an electric stove to any one who 
guessed the explanation of the feat. A "magic" mirror was 
also arranged so that the passer-by who stopped to inspect 
his reflection the next instant found himself looking through 
a transparent window at an announcement of a new rate 
for electric cooking. Holiday times gave cues for Christ- 
mas scenes, one of which included a complete electric train- 
load of miniature electric stoves. A perpetually emptying 
bottle is the "stunt" to be used next. With these simple 
and inexpensive displays this central station has attracted 
crowds to its windows, even suffering the destruction of one 
large plate-glass window, but the interest it created spread 
everywhere through the little city, and several merchants 
increased their window-lighting installations solely by rea- 
son of the stimulus of the electric company's displays. 



CITY OF 10,000 USING 300 ELECTRIC STOVES. 

A remarkable development in the use of electricity for 
cooking has taken place at Billings, Mont., where among 
2000 central-station customers in a city of 10,031 inhabitants 
nearly 300 electric stoves are already in use and 100 more 
will likely be added during the present season. These 
stoves are supplied with energy at 3 cents per kw-hr. over 
separate house circuits, the customer paying $1 a month 
minimum for the additional meter required. No restriction 
is made concerning off-peak use. It should also be pointed 
out here that this 3-cent energy sold at Billings for cooking 




Float Advertising Electric Stoves. 

purposes is in no sense "dump power," for the load factor 
of the associated Butte Electric system, of which Billings 
is a part, was last year 85 per cent on a twenty-four-hour 
basis. The majority of the stoves now in use at Billings 
are of the Hughes type, although during the past two 



months the company has also undertaken the sale of Cope- 
man automatic stoves. 

Customers purchase their stoves from the central station 
at cost, the company making the installation free of charge. 
The prices which Billings purchasers pay are as follows: 
Two-burner hot plate, $15; three-burner hot plate, $22; 
three-burner stove, $45 ; four-burner stove, $55 ; cabinet 
range, $60 ; single-compartment automatic stove, $45 ; two- 
compartment automatic, $60; three-compartment, $110. 
These amounts are payable $5 down and $5 a montli there- 
after, except in the case of the stove costing $110, for which 
the payment is $10 monthly. The cost to the company of 
connecting customers' stoves, running circuits, setting me- 
ters and transformers, etc., has averaged $10 to $11 per in- 
stallation. In addition to the stoves, the customer can oper- 
ate electric fans, irons, or any cooking or heating devices 
from his 3-cent heating circuit. All these outlets are 
equipped with push-prong jacks, into which only the cor- 
responding special plugs can be inserted. No abuse of the 
low-rate circuit to operate lamps or unauthorized services 
has been reported. Nearly 1500 electric irons are also in 
service at Billings. 

The three-burner and four-burner stoves have proved the 
most popular in point of number sold. The average income 
from the Billings stoves ranges between $1.50 and $5 a 
month. A few careless users have consumed even $8 and 
$10 worth, but such consumption is considered exceptional 
and unnecessary. For 150 stoves that have been in use one 
year $3.60 was the highest monthly average bill. It is the 
experience of the Billings company that users of the smaller 
two-burner hot-plates soon become interested in larger 
sizes, and the two-burner stoves taken in on these trades 
are put out again to new users at reduced cost. The com- 
pany maintains all stoves free of cost to the customer for 
one or two years, and even after this time the charge made 
is dependent on conditions of service, repairs, etc. During 
the winter months, when coal ranges are generally used 
locally, the average electric stove bills still exceed $1.50 a 
month. Coal costs $3 to $6 a ton in Billings. No gas has 
heretofore been available, although a company recently 
started now offers to supply gas at $1.80 per 1000 cu. ft. 
At the price for cooking in Billings, electricity is by far 
the cheaper fuel. 

Hot water for several flats and office buildings in Billings 
is also provided electrically on the 3-cent rate. One build- 
ing has a 2oo-gal. 3-kw heater which is operated continu- 
ously. Another loo-gal. boiler in a seven-flat apartment is 
arranged with a thermostatic cut-out, which shuts off the 
service as soon as the water reaches the desired tempera- 
ture. Laurel, a town of 1000 near Billings, and part of the 
same system, has 119 electric customers and ten electric 
stoves. Other near communities show similar ratios. 

Mr. J. F. Roche, local manager of the Billings & Eastern 
Montana Power Company at Billings, is an enthusiast on 
the possibilities and success of electric cooking, as the 
results already accomplished indicate. He uses newspaper 
advertising extensively, and "open house" is held at the 
company offices every evening while cooking demonstrations 
.ire being given by experienced operators. Billboard post- 
ers, many of them electrically lighted, are also used witli 
effect. One such illuminated display at a dark turn on a 
much traveled automobile thoroughfare a mile out of town 
serves as a guidepost and gives its message to the class of 
people most desirable to reach. The illustration shows a 
float driven through the city streets, bearing an elecfric 
stove and "King Electricity." Recently when the Billings 
company received a carload consignment of 100 electric 
stoves the opportunity was not lost to placard both car and 
delivery wagons with large painted announcements. Only 
one solicitor has been employed, but advantage is taken of 
an information system of tips on prospective customers, to 
which every employee is privileged to contribute in com- 
petition for $35 in prizes awarded at the end of the year. 



July 6, 19 12. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



55 



ELECTRICITY IN THE WORLD'S LARGEST 
INCUBATOR. 



Muskogee, Okla., has a 30,000-egg incubator, the heat 
control and air circulation for which are effected by elec- 
trical means, while the growth of the chicks is artificially 
forced by tungsten electric light. Use of motor-driven 
blowers to circulate the air heated by natural-gas burners 
has made possible the compact construction of this hatchery, 
the egg trays of which are superimposed on racks twenty 
deep. Five thousand eggs can thus be handled and hatched 
in a space 2 ft. by 4 ft. by 4 ft., requiring only about one- 
tenth of the volume demanded by the old-style incubators. 
After hatching has begun trays with high sides are sub- 
stituted for the incubating trays, each high-side tray occu- 
pying the space of two of the ordinary trays. 

Although the idea of converting the whole building into 
a hatchery, with superimposed open trays for the eggs, is 
not new, according to Mr. Norman B. Hickox, contract 
agent for the Muskogee Gas & Electric Company, the use of 
a motor-driven blower at Muskogee to force the evenly 
heated air to all parts of the tray racks has for the first 
time made this method practicable on a large scale. Humid- 
ity of the air is controlled by passing it over open pans of 
water, as shown in Fig. 2. A home-made thermostat con- 
trols the , natural-gas supply to the burners through a 
mercurial valve, keeping the temperature in the incubator 
constant at 100 deg. 

In the runways electric light has been used to force the 
growth of the chicks with surprising success, says Mr. 
Hickox, the scheme being to substitute sixteen-hour arti- 
ficial days — with eight-hour light and eight-hour dark 
periods — for the natural twenty-four-hour cycle. As ex- 
plained by Mr. Hickox, the cause of this forcing is quite 
rational. The chick naturally eats during hours of light, 
and his craw digests the food after dark. In eight hours 
he can eat all the food needed, and in another eight hours 



-L-k , 


1 




vt _i 


'^■1 ^^^ ^^M 





Fig. 1 — Mr. Hastings Testing Eggs. 

of repose his little craw will have fully digested its con- 
tents. "It follows," to quote Mr. Hickox, "that under the 
ordinary way of brooding the chick is idle eight hours out 
of the twenty-four, or, to express it electrically, his load- 
factor is only 66 per cent. Mr. Hastings, the owner and 



inventor of the hatchery, thus runs his electrically forced 
chicks at nearly 100 per cent load-factor. The baby chicks 
in this way live three electric days during two ordinary 
sunshine days, and the four-week-old electrically bred 




Fig. 2 — Motor-Driven Blower for Heated-Air Circulating, 

chicken will far outweigh his normal brother bred in the 
66 per cent load-factor fashion." 



MINE GENERATING PLANT AT MOGOLLON, N. M. 



An interesting generating plant has recently been com- 
pleted at Mogollon, N. M., for the Socorro Mines Company, 
fully equipped for furnishing both electric and compressed- 
air mine service, with oil engines as prime movers. The 
plant housing consists of very simple construction, being a 
one-story, wood-frame, iron-sheathed building, with a floor- 
plan 60 ft. by 80 ft. over all and open interior finish. The 
equipment consists of one 250-hp twin oil engine belted to 
a 150-kw, 500-volt alternating-current generator, one 180- 
hp twin oil engine belted to a loo-kw, 500-volt alternating- 
current generator, and one 250-hp twin engine belted to a 
countershaft which in turn drives two SO-hp and one 130-hp 
air compressor and one 70-kw, no-volt direct-current gen- 
erator. An auxiliary drive for the countershaft is pro- 
vided by a belted-type 150-hp, 500-volt induction motor, thus 
making it possible to keep the second 250-hp engine unit 
in reserve. 

The engines operate on crude oil, of a gravity equal to 
24 deg. Baume, fed through a 5-in. supply line from two 
5000-gal. tanks buried underground 100 ft. from the build- 
ing. An auxiliary gasoline tank, with pump feed, connects 
to the main supply line to each engine, for emergency start- 
ing in case none of the units is operating. Under normal 
starting conditions an engine unit receives the first turn- 
over by using the belted exciter as a motor, until the engine 
picks up under its own power. The temporary energy 
supply for the exciter is taken from the direct-current 
1 10- volt mine supply. This plant forms a complete and 
self-contained unit for mine operation, including direct- 
current and alternating-current supply and providing for 
lighting, motor and compressed air service. 



S6 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



Wiring and Illumination 

ELECTRICAL DISPLAY AT PORTLAND'S ROSE 
FESTIVAL. 



Portland, Ore., has the distinction of holding one of the 
prettiest yearly festivals known in the United States, the 



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Fig. 1 — A Basket of Portland Roses. 

"Rose Carnival." This year the week beginning June 9 
was set aside for Rex Oregonus, and on the two last even- 
ings of the week a magnificent electrical pageant outrival- 
ing anything ever before attempted was given. As dele- 
gates to the Seattle convention of the National Electric 
Light Association know, this electrical parade made a fitting 
climax for a carnival ever to be remembered for the soft, 
sensuous perfume of the rose for which Portland is famed. 



be used again during the Elks" Carnival, which takes place 
in Portland from July 7 to July 13. 

Preceding the glittering and gorgeous pageant was a 
mammoth basket of Portland roses. The basket was 
guarded by an imperious pilot-peacock and two dragon 
fountains. This precious freight of bloom symbolized the 
floral wealth of the "Rose City" and the prodigality of 
those whom fortune favors with nature's gifts. -The king 




Fig. 3 — Float of Rex Oregonus. 

was seated on a throne borne upon the back of a giant 
golden pheasant. This bird of Oregon was regal in the 
splendor of its plumage, which vied in magnificence with 
the royal robes. The float was a riot of color with splashes 
of gold and a flood of bewildering light effect, and the royal 
coat-of-arms was emblazoned upon a shield behind which 
were guards and courtiers, pages and heralds. 

Following the float of Re.x Oregonus came floats svmbolic 





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Fig. 2 — Street Illumination During Rose Festival at Portland, Ore. 



The electrical pageant pictured the various nations of the 
world in a succession of tableaus. The floats were mounted 
on flat electric cars and were run over the tracks of the 
Portland Railway, Light & Power Company, which donated 
the electrical energy for the occasion. Xeedless to state, 
electricitv was employed lavishly in producing the proper 
effect, and so pleasing were tlie results that the floats will 



of Germany, Russia, Greece, Holland, Japan, Italy, Spain, 
France, Alaska, Monte Carlo, India, Turkey. China, Egj'pt 
and Great Britain, in the order named. Chief among the 
military glories of Germany are the achievements of Fred- 
erick the Great, and this illustrious warrior was shown 
mounted on a dapple-grav steed of heroic size as though 
emerging from his famous castle on the Rhine. The car 



t «■ ■ 





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At %^ i lift iP li |« 1 A]!i1 



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Fig. 4 — Floats In the Portland Rose Festival. 



S8 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



blossomed with the royal purple flower, the insignia of 
majesty, with the eagle head and wings across the front. 

The Muscovite is not at home unless he is surrounded by 
snow and ice, and in the car symbolic of Russia the Czar 
and Czarina were shown in a royal sled. The highway was 
covered with the pink camellia, contrasting well on a field 
of white, and a typical Russian church was to be seen at 
the back of the float. 

The Isles of Greece formed the theme for the fourth car, 
and on it was depicted the legend that the denizens of the 
deep lured men and gods to their watery wastes and in safe 
retreat were propitious to those they loved and marred or 
maimed the ones they hated. The enchantress was shown 
beneath a foam-flecked crest surrounded by golden friends 
of the finny tribes. Coral reefs formed a picturesque frame 
for the aquatic panorama and mammoth molusks afforded 
resting places for recumbent naiads. 

The home life and peaceful routine of daily duties of 
Holland were brought out in the fifth car. The morning 
glory, the welcome' stork and the windmill, so typical of 
Holland, were not forgotten in the attempt to idealize its 
life. By an artistic arrangement of colored lamps the 
flowers stood out in prismatic blend. 

Japan with its cherry blossoms and wealth of wistaria 
was shown in color and a rare design of Oriental splendor. 
In front was the vase of Buddha with its rich floral offer- 
ings, while at the rear seated upon a dais before the golden 
sun was the queen of Japan's fairyland. 

The Roman galley of the Cjesars was employed to typify 
Italy, and the days of Columbus w-ere recalled in the float 
of Spain. The bow of the Santa Maria and the throne of 
Ferdinand and Isabella were combined in a single design 
showing the return of Colufnbus, with the golden poppy 
blending with the dazzling lights and shades of the royal 
surroundings. 

The coronation of Josephine by Napoleon formed the 
theme for the float of France. Two golden forms extended 
crowning wreaths to the queen seated beneath a canopy, 
and the fleur-de-lis stood forth in bold relief upon the car. 
The illumination of this tableau was brilliant and effective. 

Alaska, the "Land of the Midnight Sun," was possibly 
the most dazzling of all the floats. The great white bear, 
the penguin and the Eskimo and his faithful dog were all in 
evidence surrounded by icy floes; while the light effect of a 
fast-fading sun sinking behind glaciers was most beautiful. 

The flight of riches epitomized in Monte Carlo was shown 
in realistic fashion on the eleventh car, and immediately fol- 
lowing it was a car describing in a beautiful way the now 
famous pageant known to the world as the Durbar. Noth- 
ing was lacking to carry out the impression of barbaric 
splendor attending this classic pageant of India. 

The Ottoman Empire, with its crescent moon, scimiter 
and veiled effect of Oriental flavor, was symbolized on a car 
which for color scheme and general appearance was second 
to none in the parade. Equally resplendent was the car of 
China, with its dragon and lanterns and the floral wealth 
of the Celestial Empire. Egypt's queen, the famous Cleo- 
patra, was shown drifting in her boat on a fountain of love. 
In front a swan disported himself while the Sphinx of 
porphyry stood guard. The vast fountain was a mass of 
colored lights sunk beneath the splashing waters. 

The final float typified England, Britannia being shown 
seated on a lion. The provinces were symbolized by 
women, and the thistle of Scotland and the shamrock of 
Ireland were made to ornament the tableau, the illumination 
of which required many hundred lamps. 

The entire effect was beautiful, the different colors of the 
designs being brought out by varicolored lamps. As a 
pageant this climax to Portland's "Rose Carnival" has set 
a pace for electrical effects which it will be hard to match. 
Some nine months were required to build the floats and not 
a little ingenuity was shown in hiding the motorman and 
rendering the trolley pole inconspicuous. 



DAYLIGHT LIGHTING. 



One of the interesting features of the National Electric 
Light Association convention was the display of daylight 
lamps arranged by the municipal lighting department of the 
city of Seattle. 

The daylight color is obtained with tungsten lamps 
dipped in a solution which absorbs the excess of red and 
vellow light. The process is the result of research by the 
engineering department of the National Electric Lamp 
Association, by which the lamps at Seattle were dipped. 
The solution v^-as adjusted by comparing the light from a 
tungsten lamp at its rated voltage with that from the north- 
ern sky, and the color varied until the two sources were 
identical in color value. The result is a solution which 
forms a dark-blue coat that appears opaque when the lamps 
are cold but gives a true daylight when they are turned on. 
Since the color from the tungsten filament is orange-yellow, 
the principal part of the light is absorbed by the coating, so 
that about four times the wattage is necessary for the same 
amount of light with dipped lamps as compared with those 
having clear bulbs. 

The lamps were displayed in Seattle in the fine arts room 
of the public library and on the ornamental cluster poles 
on Fourth Avenue in front of the library. In the library 
the 6o-watt lamps in the chandeliers were replaced with 




Daylight Lighting at Seattle. 

loo-watt dipped lamps. The result was a pleasant soft 
light which appeared to be of natural daylight color and 
gave pictures, dyed fabrics and flowers their true appear- 
ance. The cluster-lamp poles on the street in front of the 
library are of the standard five-globe type used throughout 
the business district, each containing five 50-watt lamps. 
Each pole was equipped with one 400-watt and four 250- 
watt lamps. The section of street thus lighted attracted 
much attention on account of both the increased illumina- 
tion and the whiteness of the light, and the ordinary tung- 
sten lamps on each side appeared decidedly yellow by 
contrast. Here again the true color values of colored ob- 
jects appeared. Dark-blue cloth was blue instead of black, 
yellow paper showed yellow instead of white, and each 
shade examined appeared the same as by daylight. 



CONTINUOUS "TALKING" ELECTRIC SIGN. 



An ingenious new "talking" electric sign in which the 
letters and words are formed at the right and sweep across 
the display, simulating the passage of text beneath the eye, 
has just been installed on the Columbia Vaudeville Theater, 
Gratiot Avenue. Detroit, where its novel appearance has 
been attracting considerable attention. Unlike the old- 
fashioned stationarv letter-box signs, the letters form at 



July 6, igi2. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



59 



the right, cross the vision and disappear at the left, enabling 
words and sentences of any length to be displayed. Opera- 
tion of the sign is controlled by a perforated paper ribbon, 
similar to the ones which are used by mechanical piano- 
players. 

The present Detroit equipment comprises a bank of 768 
iio-volt, io-\vatt tungsten lamps, 8 lamps wide and 96 
lamps long. Each lamp is individually connected to a 



iXLtS ^/VAMADIUM SI 



Fig. 1 — Sentence Exhibited by IVlotograpin '*Tall<ing" Sign 

contact brush bearing on the commutator surface of the 
controller, over which the perforated paper ribbon is run. 
As a given perforation travels the length of the controller 
it permits contact to be made to the corresponding series of 
lamps. In the same way an appropriate grouping of such 
holes causes the formation of a letter which travels across 
the bank. 

This display is of further interest in containing one of 
the first installations of no-volt, multiple lo-watt, 7-cp 
lamps ever used. These lamps are especially applicable to 
tliis sign on account of their quick rise to full filament 
brightness, as well as the small current (0.099 amp) which 
the individual brush contacts are required to carry. En- 
durance tests made on the brushes and paper ribbon used, 
according to the manufacturer, show that the elements may 
be depended on with confidence that they will give long 
service in operation. 

As illustrated by the displays on the Columbia Theater 
sign, the moving patterns are not limited to letters and 
figures but may be made to include any simple design which 
can be formed on a rectangular lamp-bank. For preparing 
standard-text perforated ribbon a keyboard perforating ma- 
chine embodying a new principle is employed. With its aid 
the ribbon can be prepared as fast as it is run off, adapting 
the sign admirably for news bulletins, etc. If desired, of 
course, a fixed succession of sentences, of any length, can 
be displayed. About five seconds is required for a given 
letter to cross the Columbia display, which in length is 
twelve times its height. Advantage will be gained, however, 
by increasing this length to fourteen or more times the unit 
height, thereby permitting more letters on the bank at a 
given time. 

Tests have shown the average demand of the sign to be 
from 20 to 30 per cent of its total connected load, and this 
demand is very steady during the operation of the display, 
varying only as heavy or light words appear. In the case 
of the Detroit installation the moving feature of the letters 



WIRING IN COLD-STORAGE ROOMS. 



Fig. 2 — Perforated Paper Ribbon Controlling the Operation of the 

Sign. 

themselves has been observed to exercise a remarkable 
attention-compelling effect on passers-by, and on several 
occasions even special policemen have been required to 
keep the public out of danger, so great has been the interest 
in the display. 

This display device is known as the Bickley Motograph 
and is manufactured by the Electric Sales Company, 1028 
Chamber of Commerce Building, Detroit, Mich. 



By W. J. Can.\da. 

Conduit construction for electric wiring has come to 
mean the last word in safe and permanent work for ordinary 
residence, mercantile and manufacturing buildings. In one 
class of occupancy, however, the advance of conduit use 
has found a serious check. The cold-storage room, the 
steam rooms of packing plants and killing rooms offer a set 
of atmospheric conditions very exacting on any type of con- 
struction. The advocates of conduit point to the mechanical 
protection afforded, which becomes of greater moment as 
the insulation deteriorates and slight disturbances would 
cause crosses with open wiring. The advocates of open 
wiring in turn point to the necessity under such moist con- 
ditions of the most liberal spacing, long leakage distances 
on insulators, and the advisability that slight dependence be 
placed on the insulation proper of wires, since this insula- 
tion must necessarily deteriorate rapidly in such rooms. 

In high altitudes and areas of low humidity such as our 
Western States offer the interior atmospheric conditions 
seem to be somewhat modified, there being less condensation 
and less rapid deterioration of insulation. 

In low altitudes and moist climates the accelerated effect 
on insulation makes the mechanical advantage of conduit 
less evident. It seems probable that practice should be 
determined by competent engineers from a study of local 
conditions. Some such rooms, from lack of corrosive solu- 
tions, character of materials stored or handled, method of 
refrigeration, infrequency of cleaning, etc., may be much 
less liable to frequent drying and recondensation than 
others. 

If conduit is employed, the effects of condensation should 
be minimized by the following general precautions: 

1. Place all circuit fuses and switches outside of the 
rooms in substantial cabinets. The practice of using in the 
rooms cabinets kept partially dry by incandescent lamps is a 
poor palliative. 

2. Use "brewery" cord and weatherproof keyless sockets. 
Attach the cords to the circuit wires mechanically in con- 
ducts or outlet boxes, solder them carefully, and warm the 
rubber tape in applying it. 

3. Incline the conduit toward the outlet and junction 
boxes and leave these with opening to drain the attached 
conduit lengths, not, however, allowing them to drip in the 
attached sockets. 

4. Repaint the conduit carefully at all joints and fittings, 
avoid short bends and repaint the entire conduit runs occa- 
sionally. 

5. Have the conduit thoroughly bonded and grounded and 
test occasionally for leakage to and from the conduit. 

6. Use alternating current if possible rather than direct 
current. 

Where conditions seem to indicate the desirability of 
using open wiring, the following precautions will enhance 
the minimization of leakage for which this construction is 
alone employed and will tend to the reduction of chance 
grounds, crosses and injuries from mechanical disturbances: 

1. Place the fuses and switches in substantial cabinets 
outside of the rooms. 

2. Use "brewery" cord and weatherproof keyless sockets, 
supporting them directly from the wires, using carefully 
made joints, well cleaned, soldered and with the rubber 
tape applied warm completely covering the joints, 

3. Support the circuit wires on petticoated insulators, 
maintaining unusual separation between the wires. .'Attach 
the cords near the insulating supports. 

4. Where it is necessary to use bushings, if no mechanical 
injury is anticipated and the wire leaves the bushing parallel 
with it, use long porcelain tubes with at least 3 in. projecting 
on either side of the material through which the bushing 
passes. If mechanical injury may occur, use properly 



66 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, Xo. i. 



drained- conduit with the terminal condulet properly sep- 
arating the wires and serving as a drip fitting. Where ice 
or frost accumulates conduit should be used, because tubes 
are frequently broken in such locations. 

5. Where much dripping from the ceiling occurs inverted 
wood or metal trough should be placed over the wires. 

In either class of wiring the use of portable cords should 
be restricted, and if necessary marine cord and heavy 
guarded hand lamps should be used. 

It is frequently found that where special precaution has 
been observed in joint making and drainage conduit installa- 
tions suffer much less than previous experience had led one 
to look for from condensation and early development of 
grounds, and for this reason the use of conduit is gaining 
favor even in those territories where the natural humidity 
is relatively high. 

The use of direct-current systems has usually resulted 
from the tendency to retain methods adopted in former 
plants, but managers of breweries, packing plants, cream- 
eries, etc., who have installed alternating-current systems 
or arranged for purchase of alternating-current energy 
from public-service supply systems have found grounds and 
resultant short-circuits less frequent, fire hazard much bet- 
ter limited and the motor repair bill reduced by 90 per cent. 
In fact, in many such plants the repair of direct-current 
motors, due largely to the vulnerability of brush rigging and 
comnmtator to moisture, will amount to more than half the 
operating expense of the electrical plant, including the elec- 
trician's wage, even where the energy is purchased from a 
service company to offset the initial charges on a private 
plant. Conduit wiring for alternating-current distribution 
will be the type favored for the carefully planned cold- 
storage plant of the future. 



Letter to the Editors 



LIGHTNING CONDUCTORS. 



To the Editors of Elcclriail World: 

Sirs: — In taking up the study of lightning I have been 
struck with the wide differences of opinion among writers 
on the subject as to the necessary or desirable size of light- 
ning rods for buildings. The report of the lightning re- 
search committee, London, 1905, reconunends copper ribbon 
weighing not less than 6 oz. per foot, or iron weighing not 
less than 2.25 lb. per foot, but states that the practice on 
the Continent has been to use much lighter material. The 
United States Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 
367. specifies No. 3 or No. 4 double galvanized-iron wire. 

Such divergence in practice would seem to indicate that 
the lighter conductors had given satisfaction where they 
were used, or at least that the failures were not traceable 
to insufficient size. More conservative engineers have ad- 
hered to larger sizes simply because little was positively 
known and they wished to be on the safe side. 

The security afforded by a liglitning rod depends pri- 
marily on its permanence and its arrangement, and to a 
less degree on its conductivity. The path offered by the 
conductor is so vastly superior to air that a slight difference 
in the impedance of the rod would hardly be a factor in 
determining what path the discharge would take. 

In order to test whether the large, expensive conductors 
often used are warranted on the basis of reduced im- 
pedance, I made a rough calculation, the result of which 
is shown in the accompanying curve. The assumptions with 
which I started are only rough approximations, but were 
such as to exaggerate the difference in impedance of the 
different sized wires rather than to minimize it. Certain 
experiments made in connection with high-frequency ap- 
paratus used in wireless telegraphy have shown that at a 



frequency of 50,000 cycles per second the current is con- 
fined to a layer of metal o.ooi in. thick on the surface of the 
wire. The resistance was calculated on. this basis, using 
10.8 ohms per circular mil-foot. The reactance vvaB calcu- 
lated assuming that the conductor was a straight' vertical 
tube, that the return path of the current was a concentric 
cylindrical surface, of 40-ft. radius, and that the frequency 
was 50,000 cycles per second. For higher frequency, or 
with a greater distance to the return conductor, the in- 
ductive reactance would be greater and the ratio of total 
impedances for large and small wires would be even less. 
Now, the return path in the case of a lightning discharge 
consists in the dielectric currents in the air, and it is prob- 
able that the average distance from the conductor is much 
greater than 40 ft. The frequency of oscillation of a light- 
ning discharge is not certainly known, but 50,000 cycles is 
probably a low limit. It has been estimated as high as 
500,000 cycles per second. While the higher frequency 
would increase the ohmic resistance by accentuating the 
skin eft'ect, it would increase the inductive reactance in 
much greater ratio. It is thus evident that there is less 
difference in the impedances of large and small wires than 
this curve would indicate, but taking the figures as I have 
them the conclusion is of interest. 

The ohmic resistance (which was added in vector quad- 
rature to the inductive reactance to determine the total 
impedance) is a negligible factor. 

The smaller wires have a slightly higher inductance. 



0.30 














0.28 


Diam. B. & S, 






0.26 


Gage _^3 






0.24 


-foajM-t*:^ 


1 1 1 1 








0.22 
0.20 


1 


1! 








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0.18 


K 














0.16 


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0.14 


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0.10 














0.08 


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0.06 


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0.04 


-\ 










0.02 







,,__Ohmic 


Resistance 





0.1 



U.6 1.0 

Diameter in Inches 



1.5 



Resistance and Impedance of Round Copper Conductors at 50,000 

Cycles. 

Calling the impedance of No. 4-0 B. & S. unity, No. 2 
would show an impedance of 1.08, No. 6 of 1.15, No. 10 
of 1.22, and No. 14 of 1.30. Where, then, is the advantage 
in using anything over No. 10 B. & S. copper wire for 
lightning rods? The object of using larger sizes is to 
avoid danger of mechanical injury and danger of melting 
when struck by lightning. In regard to this last point I 
should be glad of more information. A melting of the 
wire at the point where the stroke passed from the air to 
the wire would hardly indicate that the wire was too small, 
since the heat in this case is developed in the surrounding 
air and not in the wire. The melting of the points of a 
lightning rod is inevitable if a direct stroke occurs, and it 
does no serious harm. 

Columbia, Mo. E. W, Kellogg. 



July 6, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



61 



Digest of Curren t El ectrical Literature 

ABSTRACTS OF THE IMPORTANT ARTICLES APPEARING IN THE ELECTRICAL PERIODICAL PRESS OF THE WORLD 



Generators, Motors and Transformers. 

Self-Excitation of Polyphase Commutator Machines. — R. 
MosER. — The author describes the following phenomenon 
of self-excitation which was observed with a polyphase 
commutator machine. As shown in Fig. I, the stator of 
a small polyphase machine of 2-hp rating was provided 




Fig. 1 — Arrangement of Apparatus. 



with a two-phase winding d. The rotor had two windings, 
namely, an ordinary direct-current armature winding a 
with commutator and a second drum winding a„ which 
was connected at two opposite points on the two slip- 
rings /. During the test in question this second winding 
was not to be used. Brushes y at the commutator of the 
first winding were connected with the stator winding of 
a small two-phase synchronous generator H which had 
been made from a two-phase induction motor by passing 
direct current into two slip-rings g of its three-phase rotor 
while the third rotor phase winding was short-circuited. 
The synchronous generator H and the commutator machine 
were directly coupled together and were driven by a 
direct-current motor. Since the synchronous generator 
and the commutator niacliine had the same number of 
poles, the winding a of the latter was supplied with an 
absolutely synchronous current of correct frequency. Now 
everything went well as long as the stator d was open. 
There was no sparking at the brushes y, and by measuring 
the current through the brushes and the voltage at the 
stator d it was possible to plot the no-load curve. But 
when for the purpose of a short-circuit test the stator 
winding d was short-circuited the brushes began to spark 
heavily with slight excitation of the synchronous generator 
H. Evidently there was here some peculiar kind of self- 
excitation, similar to that in the simple repulsion motor, 
since the stator winding d and the rotor winding a were not 
connected together. It was also evident that currents of 
a very different frequency were here active. The remedy 
was found when it was observed that by bridging the slip- 
rings / of the second rotor winding n, the sparking could 
be made to disappear at once. The remedy applied was a 
cross-section on the second winding a. as indicated by the 
dotted line. This cross-connection was possible because 
the machine was intended only for synchronous oieration 
for certain purposes. Of course, a special small squirrel- 
cage winding would be just as effective as this cross-con- 
nection. — Elek. u. Masch. (Vienna), June 2, 1912. 

Three-Phase Commutator Series Motor. — L. Dreyfus 
AND F. HiLLEBRAND. — Continuation and conclusion of their 
theoretical article on the circular diagram of the three- 
phase commutator series motor. The authors now take 
into consideration the magnetizing current of the series 
transformer and show how this magnetizing current may 
influence the behavior of the series motor. The circular 
diagram is given for this case and it is shown how to 
determine graphically the rotor current, the magnetizing 



currents of motor and transformer, torque and power. For 
illustration a numerical example is added. — Elek. «. 
Masch. (Vienna), June 2 and 9, 1912. 

Reactance. — J. Rezei.man. — A continuation of his long 
mathematical serial on synchronous and asynchronous re- 
actance. This article deals with the reactance of a single- 
phase high-frequency alternator. The pole pitch being 
very small, the reactance of the stator windings and the 
leakage coefficient of the poles are both very large, and in 
designing such a machine it is very important to pre- 
determine their magnitude accurately. — London Elec- 
trician, June 7, 1912. 

Hysteresis Loss in Iron. — M. Rosenbaum. — A note on 
an experimental investigation. The author's experiments 
were undertaken with a view to ascertaining how the iron 
losses of a static transformer vary, owing to the super- 
position of continuous-current magnetization on the alter- 
nating flux. The change of flux over a cycle was main- 
tained constant. It was found that the hysteresis loss 
increases very appreciably under those conditions. This 
phenomenon manifests itself in practice in inductor alter- 
nators and static balancers. — London Electrician, June 7, 
1912. 

Lamps and Lighting. 

Thrce-Phasc Arc Lamp. — W. Wedding. — An illustrated 
description of a new three-phase arc lamp of Schaeffer 
with an account of tests of this lamp made in the author's 
laboratory. The feature is the method of regulation of 
the electrodes. I'.ach of them can move in two different 
directions, either longitudinally or laterally, so that the 
uniformity and symmetry of the three arcs are always 
maintained. Tests were made of the efficiency as a func- 
tion of the voltage of the arc. The results are given in 
Fig. 2. Curve A gives the lower mean hemispherical 
candle-power in hefners, while curve a gives the specific 
consumption in watts per lower mean hemispherical 
candle-power. The abscissas are volts. It will be seen 
that the specific consumption is a minimum for voltages 
between 60 and 70. The results of another set of tests 




20 30 10 so 60 70 to so too 

nit 

Fig. 2 — Variation of Efficiency with Voltage of the Arc. 

are given in curves B and b, the difference from the ar- 
rangement of curves A and a being simply in the adjust- 
ment of the blowing magnet. .Another set of tests was 
made in which the current was maintained constant and 
the voltage was determined as a function of the distance 
between the electrode ends, the results being given in 
Fig. 3. The abscissas are the distances in millimeters 



62 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol 6o, No. i. 



(l mm equals 0.04 in.). The voltage increases propor- 
tionately to the distance. The specific power consumption 
was also measured, and the results are given in the curves 
a and b. It is seen that in order to get high efficiency the 
new lamp must be operated with a comparatively long arc ; 
that is, with comparatively large distances between the 
electrode ends. At a voltage of 62.3 with a current of 





0.^ 


90 




o,s 


SO 




«7 


70 


t- 

c 



fl/f 


60 






•y. 

.5!? 










0,3 


30 




0/ 


ZO 




0.1 


W 




Fig- 



00 mm 



-Variation of Efficiency with Distance Between the 
Electrodes. 



10 amp and a power consumption of iioo watts the lamp 
had a lower hemispherical candle-power of 11,052 hefner 
candles. The specific consumption is, therefore, o.i watt 
per mean hemispherical candle-power. It is finally shown 
that the electrode consumption is relatively less than in 
ether arc lamps and a numerical example is given to show 
a considerable saving in the cost of attendance and main- 
tenance. — Elck. Zcit., June 6, 1912. 

High-Candle-Poivcr Lamps. — An account of a general 
discussion before the Berlin Electrical Society on high- 
candle-power lamps. It was opened by Wedding, who 
defined high-candle-power lamps as lamps of 1000 cp or 
more ; that is, chiefly arc lamps. With a specific con- 
sumption of 0.2 watt per mean lower hemispherical candle- 
power for flame-arc lamps and with a specific consump- 
tion of 0.6 liters (0.021 cu. ft.) of gas for incandescent 
gas lamps, the expenses for gas and electric energy are 
the same for the same light production if gas costs 10 
pfennige per cubic meter (71 cents per 1000 cu. ft.) and 
electricity costs 7.5 cents per kw-hr. There are to be 
added to this the expenses for arc-lamp electrodes and 
Welsbach mantles, as well as for attendance and main- 
tenance. To reduce this cost for arc lamps it is im- 
portant to lengthen the life of the electrodes. Progress 
has been made in this direction, as indicated by the recent 
paper of Hechler. In the discussion Hechler emphasized 
that he did not describe a new lamp but only new elec- 
trodes. These electrodes were first made in Germany, 
but were materially improved in the United States and 
the -improved electrodes are now being introduced in Ger- 
many. Passavant thought that the new electrodes are as 
much superior to the old ones as the metallic-filament 
lamp is superior to the carbon-filament lamp. Without 
increase of cost it is now possible to increase the intensity 
of street lighting threefold. Levy emphasizes the really 
great advances made in compressed gas lighting. An 
account is also given of a recent exhibition of the new 
electrodes of Hechler's paper by the AUgemeine Elek- 
tricitats Gesellschaft. The essential feature is that they 
are homogeneous, the whole cross-section being filled 



with a mixture of carbon and impregnating salts. — Elek. 
Zeit., June 6, 1912. 

Generation, Transmission and Distribution. 

Direct-Current Series System. — J. S. Highfield. — An 
illustrated article in which the author describes the pioneer 
installation by the Metropolitan Electric Supply Company 
of the continuous-current series system (Kurz) in England. 
The earth has been used as a stand-by conductor, and some 
interesting tests on the use of the earth as a return con- 
ductor have been made. Finally, the special circumstances 
are discussed which render the adoption of the series sys- 
tem preferable to the customary three-phase transmission 
in this particular instance. The author does not think 
that the former will supplant the latter in every case, since 
each has its own sphere, but for certain work the series 
system and series-wound constant current machines possess 
great advantages as to cost and convenience over other 
systems. For very long-distance transmission, especially 
where underground mains are necessary, it is possible where 
the alternating-current system is not possible. Where 
energy has to be taken to a great city from a distance, 
whether from a water-power station or a steam station 
situated at the coalfields, the underground system offers 
great advantages, as compared with the overhead system, 
in respect of security of supply and cost of maintenance. 
In many intances the underground direct-current system 
can be laid at no greater cost than the three-phase over- 
head system. The system might be advantageously used for 
railway supply, especially where water-power is available, 
since it enables a very long line to be fed from a single 
power station. It is nearly as easy and inexpensive to 
insulate for 100,000 volts as for 20,000 volts; all that is 
necessary is to design the couplings and machine insulation 
for the higher pressure. With this high pressure any 
practicable distance from a power station is possible. The 
series machine is well adapted for any special work where 
variable speed is required, as for driving winding and 
hauling gear and for rolling mills. It has been found more 
economical to install a separate series system consisting of 
a generator and motor, the former driven by a three-phase 
motor, to drive a single winding gear. The great advan- 
tage for these purposes is, of course, the combination of 
constant torque with any degree of speed variation and 
the absence of the losses incurred in any form of rheostatic 
control. — London Electrician, June 14, 1912. 

British Poiver Company. — David A. Starr. — An abstract 
of a paper read before the Scotch section of the (British) 
Institution of Electrical Engineers. The author outlines the 
early history, the equipment and the system of distribution 
of the Clyde Valley Electrical Power Company, since its 
powers were obtained in 1901. Particular attention is given 
to recent progress by the company and to the modifications 
necessary in the original equipment. Energy is obtained 
from steam by means of turbines. The development of the 
company is indicated by the fact that in January, 1908, the 
connections amounted to 12.400 hp and in January, 1912, 
to 46,500 hp, of which 43,500 hp were motors and 3000 hp 
lamps. From January to May, 1912, the connections have 
increased by some 6000 hp. There are two stations. The 
diversity factor is noteworthy. The highest peak reached 
by the combined stations during 191 1 was 12,500 kw, this 
being only 27 per cent of the kilowatts connected at that 
time. The sum of the highest observed loads on the stations 
taken separately each week is invariably much higher than 
the actual demand of the two stations when running in 
parallel. The difiference has at times exceeded 1000 kw. — 
London Electrician, June 7, 191 2. 

Rotary Air Pump and Condenser. — C. E. C. Shawfiei.d. — 
An illustrated article in w'hich the author points out that 
the advent of the steam turbine, displacing the reciprocating 
engine in steam-driven generating stations, has rendered it 
desirable to seek more efficient means of condensation. 



July 6, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL VV (J K L D 



63 



TIius attempts, notably by Maurice Leblanc and E, S. G. 
Rees, have been made to replace reciprocating air pumps by 
rotary pumps. The pumps evolved by these two engineers 
are described, their advantages and disadvantages are stated 
and the opinion is expressed that such plant is well worth 
the consideration of central-station engineers. — London 
Electrician, June 14, 1912. 

Energy Transmission to Paris. — A report of the "investi- 
gating committee of the Genissiat project," replying in de- 
tail to some criticisms which have been raised against the 
scheme of transmission of electrical energy from the Rhone 
River to Paris. — La Lumiere Elec, June 8, 1912. 

Traction. 

Berlin. — A note stating that the Prussian Ministry of 
Railroads has prepared a plan for the substitution of elec- 
tricity for steam on all the city and suburban railways of 
Berlin. The work will be carried out by 1916. The de- 
cision has been reached owing to the congestion and slow- 
ness of traffic under the present system. The railway 
department must either adopt electricity as a means of 
obtaining a more frequent train service or must double the 
tracks. The second solution was found too costly, owing 
to the fact that the railways within the city run overhead. 
With electric traction it will be possible to run forty trains 
an hour, carrying 25,000 passengers each way, as against 
twenty-four trains, with 12,000 passengers, under the present 
system. It is proposed to retain in use the present carriages 
and to make up trains consisting of at most thirteen car- 
riages. Each train will have electric locomotives in front 
and at the rear, the two locomotives being so connected 
that they will run at the same speed and will start and stop 
at exactly the same moment. In times of slack traffic half 
trains with only one locomotive will be run. The electric 
railways will continue to be exploited by the state, but the 
supply of electricity is to be provided by private conces- 
sionaires, who will build their own power stations. One of 
these will be in Berlin and the other in the brown-coal 
district where fuel is cheap, the energy being brought to 
Berlin by underground cables. The power companies will 
be allowed to supply electricity for industrial and private 
purposes. The total cost of electrification is estimated at 
$31,000,000. The railway department proposes to raise 
fares all round. At present the city and suburban railways 
are run at a considerable loss. They earn no interest on 
the vast capital invested, and the receipts usually do not 
cover the cost of running.- — London Electrician, May 
31, 1912. 

Hamburg. — W. Mattersdorf. — The first part of a long 
detailed illustrated description of the elevated railroad in 
Hamburg. The power plant from which three-phase cur- 
rents are transmitted at 6000 volts to the substations con- 
tains two steam turbines of 2000 kw each and one steam 
turbine of 4000 kw. The article is to be continued. — Elek. 
Zcit., June 6 and 13, 1912. 

Intermitlcncy in Traction for City and Suburban Service. 
— W. Y. Lewis. — The author shows that the intermittency 
inseparable from the present heavy trains and long stations 
on the underground electric railways has brought existing 
tubes almost to the limit of their haulage capacity. He 
suggests that only a "continuous" system can satisfactorily 
solve the transport problem in large cities. Some remarks 
are made and diagrams given in connection with graded 
acceleration. — London Electrician, May 31, 1912. 

Installations, Systems and Appliances. 

Hiring Motors. — H. H. Holmes. — An article on the im- 
portance of hiring motors in cultivating a domestic load. 
It is pointed out that it is most important that an electricity 
undertaking should hire motors if the path of the consumer 
is to be made attractive in embarking on the e.xtended use 
of electricity for domestic purposes. Such facilities make 
the consumer feel that he is not pledged to a heavy expendi- 



ture for apparatus that may not suit him, or that he may 
require for only a comparatively short time in case he 
moves to another district. Owing to the fact that revenue 
is obtained from the sale of energy for such apparatus, 
the hiring charges need not be unduly high. The author 
concludes with some rules which should be observed in 
dealing with consumers under a hiring scheme. — London 
Electrician, June 14, 1912. 

Regulations. — The revised regulations for the construc- 
tion of starters and regulating resistors for low-voltage in- 
stallations are given and explained by F. Natalis. The new 
regulations for the construction and testing of alter- 
nating-current high-tension apparatus (switches, protection 
devices, etc.) from 1000 volts upward for interior installa- 
tions have also been revised and are printed in their new 
form. These regulations are to be voted on at the next 
convention of the German Association of Electrical 
Engineers. — Elek. Zeit., May 30, 1912. 

Electrical Industries of Austria. — E. Honigmann. — A 
statistical article on the status in 191 1 of the electrical in- 
dustries in Austria. There are 636 small Austrian central 
stations (with a rating up to 500 kw), aggregating 46,553 
kw. There are ninety-two stations of medium size (from 
500 kw to 5000 kw), aggregating 112,755 kw. There are 
twelve large stations (above 5000 kw), aggregating 177,644 
kw. Statistical data of the import and export trade are 
given. — Elek. u. Masch. (Vienna), June 9, 1912. 

Paris. — Two new generating stations are at present in 
course of erection in Paris, one of 25,000 kw at Issy-les- 
Moulineaux and the other of 80,000 kw at Saint-Ouen. — 
La Lumiere Elec, June i, 1912. 

Wires, Wiring and Conduits. 

Calculation of Networks. — E. Mattansit. — For the cal- 
culation of networks there are available the method of 
Herzog and Stark, that of Coltri, that of Teichmuller, that 
of Frick and that of Kennelly. The author combines all 
these methods in such a way that in the calculation of a 
network it is possible to pass over from one method to 
another method. The final result is obtained by means of 
the superposition principle. The method is illustrated by a 
practical example. — La Lumiere Elec, June I, 1912. 

Covering Wires ivith Asbestos Insulation. — A note on a 
recent British patent (No. 18,949, June 6. 1912) of the 
British Thomson-Houston Company, Ltd. (General Electric 
Company of this country). For insulating wires with 
asbestos and similar material previously formed into a web, 
which is thin and fragile and is applied to the wire and 
afterward compressed, one method is to wind the web into 
a roll with a sheet of paper between the turns to prevent 
them from adhering together. In this invention, however, 
instead of the paper, a movable support is used which 
receives the web and conveys it to the wire. A roller is 
mounted with its periphery engaging the wire and a roll of 
insulating material also engaging with this roller. A mov 
able carrier is mounted below the wire to apply the insulat- 
ing materials by causing the roller to rotate and to apply the 
adhesive necessary. — London Elec. Eng'ing, June 13, 1912. 

Electrophysics and Magnetism. 

Unipolar Induction. — E. H. Kennard. — A description of 
some unipolar induction experiments from which the author 
concludes that they disprove the moving-force-line theory. 
"In the future whenever the electromotive intensity due to 
electromagnetic induction is assumed to be proportional to 
motion relative to magnetic force lines, these force lines 
must be supposed to be always stationary, at least as re- 
gards any rotation of the magnetic system about an axis of 
magnetic symmetry. That is, a rotating magnet does not 
'carry its force lines' around with it. It is thus rendered 
probable that electromagnetic induction caused by motion 
depends on absolute motion — that is, on motion relative to 
the ether, not on motion relative to material bodies." — 
Phil. Mag.. June, 1912. 



64 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, Xo. i. 



Theory of the Absorption and Scattering of the Alpha 
Rays. — C. G. Darwin. — A paper in which a hypothesis is 
put forward whereby the alpha particles in passing through 
matter pull electrons out of the atoms they traverse, acting 
on them with the ordinary law of the inverse square. An 
equation is deduced relating their velocity to the distance 
they have traveled from their source. This is the "velocity 
curve" and agrees closely with the experimental curve. The 
equation involves two unknown constants: n, the number of 
electrons in each atom; r, the radius of the atom. In the 
case of air, if r be assumed known, n can be deduced from 
the range. Widely dift'erent values of r give very similar 
values of n. The number of electrons in the atom appears 
to be intermediate between the atomic weight and its half. 
The atomic radii decrease with increasing atomic weight. — 
Phil. Mag., June, 1912. 

Electrochemistry and Batteries, 

Storage Battery. — .\ note on a new storage battery of 
H. I. Hannover in Copenhagen for which a low weight per 
kilowatt-hour is claimed. "The plates are of a lead alloy, 
pierced with millions of holes of microscopical dimensions, 
which render the plate extremely porous and enormously in- 
crease the active surface." The method of producing this 
minutelv perforated plate is the main point of the invention, 
but the process employed is not yet made public. It has 
been found that the storage capacity of the plates is "at 
least 4.3 times that of the plates of the train lighting cells 
used hitherto bv the Danish street railways for the same 
dimensions." — London Elec. Eng'ing, June 6, 1912. 

Units, Measurements and Instruments. 

Comparative Magnetic Tests of Steel. — E. Gumlich.^ 
An account of the results of comparative tests of five 
samples of sheet steel carried out by the Bureau of 
Standards in Washington, the National Physical Laboratory 
in London and the Reichsanstalt in Berlin. The coefificient 
of loss (verlustziffer) and the hysteresis loss were deter- 
mined. The Reichsanstalt employs the Epstein apparatus, 
the Bureau of Standards and the National Physical Lab- 
oratory the Lloyd-Fisher apparatus. The principal differ- 
ences between the two methods are in the dimensions of 
the strips of the sheets used as samples and in the joints 
at the corners. All three bureaus determine the loss by the 
dynamometric principle, the Reichsanstalt using a needle 
wattmeter of Siemens & Halske and the other two institutes 
taking mirror readings. The separation of hysteresis and 
eddy-current loss is made by a variation of the frequency in 
the Bureau of Standards and the Reichsanstalt, while the 
British National Physical Laboratory makes use of the 
change of the wave-form of the magnetizing current and of 
the voltage wave-form, since the latter has an effect not 
only on the hysteresis loss but also on the eddy-current loss. 
The results of the comparative tests in the three bureaus 
are given in two tables. The mean differences for the five 
samples are below l per cent, although in one case there is 
a difference of 1. 1 per cent. Between the results obtained 
by the three bureaus for the same sample there are greater 
differences, amounting in a few cases to 3 per cent. The 
conclusion of the author is that if the various sources of 
error are taken into consideration the agreement between 
the results of the three bureaus is "good beyond expecta- 
tion." It is especially noteworthy that there are no sys- 
tematic deviations between the results obtained with the 
different arrangement of measurement. — Elck. Zeit., May 
30, 1912. 

Meters.— A. Durand. — His long Turin Congress paper on 
commercial electric meters with a detailed description of 
laboratory tests as to various sources of error. The be- 
havior of the meters in commercial practice is also discussed. 
— La Revue Elec., May 24, 1912. 

Oscillograph. — J. K. A. W. Salomonson. — The author 
discusses the design of transformer and oscillograph (par- 
ticularly in reference to damping) when they are used in 



conjunction with a microphone for the production of vocal 
curves. — London Electrician, June 7, 1912. 

Moving-Coil Alternating-Current Instrument. — Gossen. — 
An illustrated translation of his German paper noticed some 
time ago in the Digest on a new moving-coil measuring in- 
strument for direct and alternating current of the ^\'eston 
type. — London Electrician, June 7, 1912. 

Laboratory of Radioactivity. — J. Danne. — An illustrated 
description of the equipment of the laboratory for tests of 
radioactive substances in Gif, Seine-et-Oise, in France. — 
Phys. Zeit., June 15, 1912. 

Miscellaneous. 

German Patent Office. — Carl Weihl.- — An article giving 
statistical data on the work of the German Patent Oflice in 
191 1. The expenses of the patent office were $1,280,000. 
The income was $2,670,000. A revision of the German 
patent statutes is recommended. — Elek. Zeit.. June 6, 1912. 

Factory. — An illustrated description of the new fan works 
and central stores of the (British) General Electric Com- 
pany.— London Elec. Rci'iezv, June 14, 1912. 



Book Review 

Analytical Mechanics. Comprising the Kinetics and 
Statics of Solids and Fluids. By Edwin H. Barton. 
London : Longmans, Green & Company. 535 pages, 
241 illus. Price, $3 net. 
Teachers and post-graduate students will find this book of 
much interest, aside from its value as a text-book, owing to 
the method of exposition employed and its clear and logical 
enunciation of principles. It would, however, be of little 
service in the average American undergraduate course, as 
its object is to teach principles and not merely to develop 
the formulas most frequently met with in practical work. 
The student who masters a text of the present kind is fitted 
to deduce fornuilas in after life from the underlying prin- 
ciples as practical problems are presented, or at least to 
apply handbook formulas with an intelligent knowledge of 
their bearing and limitations. On the other hand, the 
student who is taught mechanics in the usual way may start 
life well equipped with formulas and knowledge of their 
application to specific cases, but in the lack of logical asso- 
ciation with principles this kind of learning quickly passes 
away, the result being another recruit to the ranks of those 
who. a few years out of school, have "forgotten their 
mathematics" and are prone to condemn writers who are 
obliged to employ mathematics in setting forth new develop- 
ments. 

.\ valuable chapter in the book consists of a discussion of 
the physical basis of kinetics. A historical account is given 
of the conceptions of Galileo, Huyghens and Newton. The 
principles of Newton are examined, an account is given of 
the criticism of their verbal statement by Mack, Pearson 
and Love, and a restatement is offered in modern termi- 
nology. The heads of other subjects treated in this general- 
chapter are as follows: Lodge on axioms; universal gravi- 
tation ; friction-coulomb, Morin and Beauchamp Tower ; 
laws of Hooke and Boyle ; relative character of motion antf 
mechanics ; attitude toward physical axioms ; masses at 
high speeds; quantities usually proportional to mass. The 
chapter ends with enunciations by the author, followed by 
a discussion, of the chief mechanical bases. 

In referring to metric units, it is stated that the standard 
of length, the meter, is a platinum rod made by Borda and 
preserved in the Bureau des Archives in Paris, and that the 
standard of mass, made also by Borda, is preserved in the 
Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, Paris. These are his- 
torical standards, the actual international standard meter 
and kilogram being now kept, under ideal conditions with 
relation to proper preservation, at the Bureau InternationaJ 
des Poids et Mesures, Sevres, France. 



July 6, 191J. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



05 



New Apparatus and Appliances 



DIRECT-CURRENT MOTOR STARTER. 



ADVERTISING SIGNS. 



A device which affords an efficient and- inexpensive 
method for starting and protecting constant-speed, direct- 
:urrent motors has recently been placed on the market by 
the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. East 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

A magnet switch serves to open and close the circuit and 



Some new electric signs which are said to involve a new 
principle in sign lighting have recently been put on the 
market in England. The black background or frames are 
made of sheet metal, the lettering or design being per- 
forated in these plates. In the perforations are inserted 
flanged glass balls which are held tightly between the two 





Figs. 1 and 2 — Direct-Current IVIotor Starter. 



Electric Sign. 



ts blow-out coils prevent injurious arcing. In conjunction 
ivith interlocking mechanisms and the overload relay this 
switch also affords low-voltage and overload protection. A 
two-pole line switch disconnects the motor and starter from 
:he line completely. .\ multipoint starting switch cuts out 
the starting resistor in several steps. The switch has an 
interlocking contact at each end. One of these contacts 
must be closed before the magnet switch can operate. The 
switch is made for 115-volt motors of from 10 hp to 60 hp, 
for 230-volt motors of from 12.5 hp to 125 hp, and for 550- 
volt motors of from 30 hp to 250 hp. 



PREVENTING THEFT OF INCANDESCENT LAMPS. 



.\ method which is said to afford protection against theft 
:o lamps and reflectors can be used in connection with the 
50-called "shurlock" lamp-locking attachment. A small 
hole is drilled through the end of the filjer and the shell 




Lamp Socl<et with Locking Device. 

^lolding the lock. A small wire is inserted through this 
dole and the private seal of the owner is then attached to 
the wire, making any attempt to tamper with the lock im- 
mediately evident. Pass & Seymour, Inc., Solvay, N. Y., 
will apply this method to "shurlock" sockets upon request. 



plates. The illuminant is placed in a compartment behind 
the glass balls. Owing to the focusing spheres the signs, 
it is claimed, give a maximum of illumination and can be 
read from any angle. It is readily seen that this principle 
can be adapted to almost any form of sign. This sign has 
been placed on the market by the Armorduct Manufactur- 
ing Company, Ltd.. Farringdon Avenue. London. England. 



HIGH-POTENTIAL FUSE. 



A new type of high-tension fuse has recently been placed 
on the market by the Delta-Star Electric Company, Chi- 
cago, 111. It consists of a short fusible element innnersed 




22,000-Volt, 12-Amp Fuse. 

in a non-combustible arc-extinguishing liquid. The fusible 
part is held under spring tension and passes through a float 
the normal position of which is near the top of the sealed 
glass tube. Upon melting of the fuse, the spring rapidly 
pulls the float down through the liquid body, thereby ex- 



66 



L E C T R I C A L W^ O R L D . 



Vol 6o, No. i. 



tinguishing the arc, at the same time giving a positive in- 
dication of an open circuit. While the tube is hermetically 
sealed, the upper end is so constructed that a small vent 
will open at a certain pressure, thus forming a safeguard 
against breaking of the tube in case of extremely violent 
short circuits. 

These fuses are built for potentials up to and including 
66,000 volts. For indoor or station use the fuse is sup- 
ported on corrugated porcelain pillars mounted on a marble 
base. For pipe-frame mounting the insulators are of the 
standard petticoat type, provided with steel-base pins and 
"U" bolts for clamping the iron pipe. For protecting out- 
door substations, pole-type transformers and sections of 
lines the fuse mounting is made weatherproof and consists 
of two petticoat insulators suspended from cross-arms, in 
a manner similar to that employed with weatherproof in- 
verted-type disconnecting switches. 



reached by water accumulating in the basement where the 
panel is generally installed. 

The pressure governor connected to tKe water system 
closes the control circuit of the panel as soon as the water 
pressure falls to a predetermined value, the motor being 



INSULATING COMPOUND. 



An insulating material which is said to have proved very 
satisfactory is the so-called Rex electrical insulating com- 
pound. Although it dries in less than five minutes, it is 
said to leave no streaks or lumps in applying. The results 
of equal applications have shown from 20 per cent to 50 
per cent greater insulating qualities on the part of this com- 
pound. The finish is said to be similar to varnish or baked 
enamel. The basic material is gum and it has no disagree- 
able odor. It is manufactured by the Flintkote Manufac- 
turing Company, Boston, Mass. 




AUTOMATIC FIRE PROTECTION. 



Many industrial plants are now equipped with automatic 
water-sprinkling systems, and protection against fire is 
afforded provided the water pressure is maintained. For 
this purpose it is essential that the motor and control ap- 
paratus be absolutely reliable so that no fault will develop 
and make it necessary to shut down the motor and stop 
the pump. 

A fire-pump motor and control panel is designed for 
emergency conditions and consequently is seldom operated. 
In the control panel shown herewith all bearings are pro- 



Fig. 2 — FIre-Piimp Starter for Induction Motor. 

started with all the resistance in circuit. Current-limit con- 
tactors automatically accelerate the motor by cutting out 
successive steps of the resistance. If desired, the motor 
may be started by hand by means of the operating lever at 
the right of the contactor. This method forces the con- 
tactors to close in their proper sequence by means of a cam 
shaft. 

The panel is protected against failure of voltage and also 
from overloading. Two lamps are mounted on the panel, 
one serving to indicate w-hen there is voltage on the line, 
while the other indicates to the operator that the motor is 
running. 

Fig. 2 shows a panel installed by the Delaware & Hudson 




Fig. 1 — Fire-PL'mp Panel with Combined Hand and Automatic 

Starter. 

vided with non-corrosive parts so that they cannot rust on 
account of long disuse and prevent the motor from 
operating at the critical time. 

The completed panel is inclosed in a splash-proof case 
and is mounted on four pipe supports so that it cannot be 



Fig. 3 — Fire-Pump Panel. 

Company at its coal pocket near Schenectady. This panel 
controls a loo-hp, 220-volt, 60-cycle slip-ring induction 
motor, driving a centrifugal pump. In this instance the 
panel is controlled by a separate pressure governor at a 
remote point. 



lULY 6, igi2. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



67 



These panels may be used to advantage in hotels, office 
uildings, stores, etc., for supplementing the city service 
nd insuring a sufficient water pressure for every-day use. 

This control apparatus is manufactured by the General 
ilectric Company, Schenectady, N. Y. 



PORTABLE MOTOR-OPERATED SHEAR. 



A portable shear for cutting metal bars or straps 
lounted on a small f^at car of standard gage has recently 
een placed on the market by John Evans' Sons, Philadel- 
hia, Pa. The car is run to any desired point on the 




Portable Motor-Operated Shear. 

rack in front of the bin containing the material to be cut. 
'he shear is operated by a 7.5-hp, three-phase motor and 
he motor is connected to the nearest junction box by a 
exible cable. The motor for this shear was furnished by 
he Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, 
Last Pittsburgh, Pa. 



SEWING-MACHINE MOTORS. 



The endeavor of the manufacturers of sewing-machine 
notors has been to eliminate features which in the past 
lave cast a damper upon the enthusiasm of the housewife 
or electricallv driven machines. The motor frame here 




Motor. Driven Sewing Machine. 

Uustrated is cylindrical, grease cups being placed on the 
inder side of the bearings. Wicks regulated by a spring 
ictuate the flow of the lubricator and insure a steady feed, 
rhe field cores are composed of steel laminations. The 
ipeed-regulating device is concealed within the end cover, 



the movable contact being connected by a light chain to the 
treadle. The maximum machine speed is about looo stitches 
per minute. A clock spring opens the circuit and regulates 
the movements of the carbon contacts as pressure on the 
treadle is varied or entirely removed. The belt from the 
motor pulley, held in place by a belt guard, runs over an 
idler. A leather brake released by the treadle-controlling 
mechanism when the circuit is broken bears upon the saucer 
rim of the pulley, causing an instantaneous stop. The net 
weight of the motor, bracket, idler and dress guard is 21 
lb. and the motor is rated at 1/25 hp. This apparatus is 
manufactured by the Diehl Manufacturing Company, of 
Elizabethport, N. J., for the Singer Sewing Machine 
Company. 



REMOTELY CONTROLLED COMPACT HYDRAULIC 
GOVERNOR 



The chief characteristics of the hydraulic governor re- 
cently invented and developed by Mr. Nathaniel Lombard 
are flexibility, absence of relay or intermediate valves, 
economy in floor area and the use of remote-control equip- 
ment which allows the governor to be started from any 
distant point to which wires have been connected. The 
motor of the controlling equipment is a small direct-current 
machine wound usually for operation on the standard of 
loo-volt station circuits but capable of being wound for 
use on circuits from storage batteries. The valve which 
controls the supply of oil to the rotary piston is operated 
directly from the revolving top and is large enough to 
supply the cylinder directly without the use of any inter- 
mediate arrangement. The flexibility of the governor is 
due to the fact that the rotary piston shaft is so arranged 
as to make several turns or any part of one turn and can 
be coupled directly to the gate shaft without the use of 
gears, links, chain or wire rope. 

The pump used to maintain pressure was also designed 
by Mr. Lombard. It is of the inclosed triplex plunger 
type. There are no valves on the suction side, a port being 




Remote-Controlled Hydraulic Governor. 

cut through the guides near the upper end, which is open 
when the plunger is in the extreme upward position and 
is closed when the plunger travels downward. 

The flywheel governor serves to actuate the lever at- 
tached to the valve controlling the movement of a rotary 



68 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol, 6o, No. i 



piston consisting of mechanically operated vanes attached to 
the main governor shaft. 

The governor is equipped with a relaying or anti-racing 
mechanism operated from the governor shaft by worm-and- 
gear mechanism, its movement being in a decreasing pro- 
portional ratio to the increase of load; in other words, the 
greater the load change, the less the relaying effect. The 
large hand-wheel at the right is provided for operating the 
wheel gates manually when desired. There is also pro- 
vided a safety device to prevent any dangerous action of 
the governor in case the driving belt should run off or 
break by holding the gates in a normal position, neither 
closing nor opening them until the hand-wheel is used. 

The governor is made at present in two styles, one 
being horizontal and the other vertical, of which the latter 
requires very little floor area and in some cases can be 
mounted on the end or the side of the wheel case. It de- 
velops about 10,000 ft. -lb. per second under normal pres- 
sure. It is stated that plans have been completed for a 
governor of the same design to develop 60,000 ft. -lb. in one- 
fourth turn of the piston. The governor is manufactured 
by the Holyoke Machine Company, Worcester, Mass. 



LIGHT ELECTRIC TRUCK. 



An electric truck which in some details departs from 
other types has just been delivered from the works of the 
Kentucky Wagon Manufacturing Company, Louisville, Ky. 
Particular attention has been given to the accessibility of 
all parts and to lubrication. The controller, ampere-hour 




Light Electric Truck. 



meter, wiring terminals and lamps are made easily accessible 
by the removal of the panel at the rear of the short front 
hood. The battery can be reached through doors on either 
side of the battery compartment, and through a removable 
section of the floor which exposes the top of the battery for 
the purposes of taking hydrometer readings, filling the cells 
and attending to connections. The same removable floor 
section gives free access to the countershaft and motor. 

Allov steel springs, hardened and ground grease bolts and 
annular ball bearings or roller bearings on all revolving 
journals are used. 



IMPROVED THEATER WIRING. 



Five years ago in no theater in the State of Colorado 
was the electric-light wiring installed in conduits. .'\t 
present there are seven such installations in Denver, two in 
Colorado Springs and one in each, of eleven other cities in 
the State. Other improvements in theater wirdng are in 
switchboard construction, cabinets, junction, boxes, etc., all 
with the object of obviating the open wiring and, preventing 
mechanical injury. 



In the new Burns Theater at Colorado, Springs there i; 
a switchboard 11 ft. long by 7 ft. high, of the Crouse-Hind; 
manufacture, located on a reinforced-concrete gallery 10 ft 
above the stage floor. The dimmers are mounted below th( 
switchboard, interlocking with masters and sub-masters 




Terminal Boxes and Fuse Cabinet for Theater. 

Behind the board and dimmers are terminal boxes and fusi 
cabinets. The backs of these boxes and cabinets, which ar^ 
shown in the illustration, are provided with doors for e.\ 
amination of connections. These were built by the Com 
mercial Switchboard Manufacturing Company, Denver, Col 



MOTOR-DRIVEN PUNCH AND SHEAR PRESS. 



Economy of floor space in machine shops is often a 
very important matter, particularly so when it is desired t' 
install additional tools. The Cleveland Punch & Shear 
Works. Cleveland, Ohio, has recently placed on the market 
a very compact electrically driven punch and shear pre-- 
which occupies a very small floor area. This machine Iki- 
been designed for hea\v work, being able to shear twel\L 




Motor- Driven Punch and Shear Press. 

inches of 1.5-in. flat bars and to punch a s-in. hole in a 
1.5-in. plate. \'arious attachments for angle shearing, bar 
shearing and punching are interchangeable. It is operattil 
by a 25-hp, 230-volt direct-current motor of the comnnitat- 
ing-pole type, which is mounted above the press. The elec- 
trical equipment lias been furnished by the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa. 



VLv 6, igi: 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



69 



ELECTRIC SERVICE IN AGRICULTURE. 



Actual denionstratinns on farms in ( iermany have proved 
hat it is practicable to use electrically driven motors for 
awing wood, pumping water, milkins; cows, separating 




Fig. 1 — Outdoor Substation. 

ream, making butter, chopping, threshing, cleaning of 
rain and plowing. Among other uses to which electrical 
nergy may be put are laundering, ice-making, reaping, 
riving machine shops, sewing machines, sheep clippers, 
orn shellers, fans and labor-saving devices in the home, 




I 



LU 


■J ': 


■M 


t 






cost of labor in this country is frum 50 per cent to 100 
per cent higher than it is in Europe, an energetic campaign 
should be made by every transmission company that de- 
sires to develop this promising field to the fullest extent 
possible. 

The foremost idea to be kept in mind is to supply energy 
at the lowest possible cost. This must necessarily be the 
case, as the farmers as a rule do not live in crowded com- 
munities and each does not use a very large amount of 
power. In the Middle West the question of supplying the 
energy by the central stations is being studied very care- 
fully and experience has proved that it can be supplied from 
the main transmission line at a very low cost per kw-hour 
and still allow the central station a fair profit. 

The practical application of electricity to farms is not 
confined exclusively to these large installations, but can be 
carried on to good advantage on farms of very small size, 
if the situation is carefully analyzed and the first cost of 
supplying energy is not made too high. 

For irrigation purposes electric motors are of great serv- 
ice, as the pumps operate during only certain periods of the 
year and at certain hours of the day; at other times they 
can be shut down and stored in a safe place, the branch 
line disconnected from the main trunk line, and the core 
loss of the transformers saved. If necessary the electrically 
driven pumps may be portable. 

In the states of Idaho, Mevada and California the trans- 
mission companies are tapping on their 44,000, 60,000 and 
80,000-volt lines and supplying energy for pumping work, 
gold dredging and many uses. They are using the outdoor 
type of transformers, the smaller size being mounted on a 
platform supported by three or four poles. The high-tension 
side is protected by horn-type switches, fuses and lightning 
arresters. It is said that these outdoor substations can be 
installed at a very low cost and have operated very satis- 




Figs. 2 and 3 — Horn-Gap Switch, Lightning Arresters and Fuses Controlling Outdoor Substations. 



ind lighting buildings. It is of interest to note that in one 
jf the municipal farms located just outside of Berlin, Ger- 
nany, there is installed and used for farming purposes 
ipproximately 500 hp in motors. 

One of the discouraging features of farming in this 
:ountry is the question of labor, the scarcity of which has 
:aused manv a large farm to show a deficit, and as the 



factorily. Complete lines of transformers equipped for 
outdoor service are now available. Horn-type apparatus 
has been developed and improved until now it is accepted 
as safe and reliable. In Figs, i and 2 is shown substa- 
tion ap])aratus installed for outdoor service. This ap- 
paratus has been developed by the Railway & Industrial 
Engineering Company, Pittsburgh. Pa. 



70 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



Industrial and Financial News 



ALTHOUGH a slight decrease has taken place in the 
volume of trade in the past two weeks, it has oc- 
casioned no particular concern inasmuch as a slow- 
ing down is customary at this time of the year — a mid- 
season period. Even if this condition was not a normal 
one, a natural cause for conservatism has been furnished by 
the uncertainty attendant upon the national conventions. 
Confidence that business will expand before the end of the 
year still prevails in many parts of the country, and the 
existence at present of several of the factors that usually 
foreshadow a period of good business seems to be ample 
justification for this attitude. The necessity for replenish- 
ing low stocks of merchandise is one factor of far-reach- 
ing effect, while the large increase in orders for future de- 
livery may be taken as a sign that the outlook is regarded 
as fairly promising. Top-notch activity in the iron and 
steel trades and maintenance of demand regardless of 
higher prices are other indications that progress is being 
made. Attention is concentrated at present on the crops. 
and here also the outlook is good. Pending the crop 
financing the money market remains quiet. Rates in New 
York July 2 were: Call, 2><,@2^ per cent; ninety days, 
Z%@3% per cent. 



Central States Electric Company Directors. — Organiza- 
tion of the Central States Electric Company, which was 
formed as a holding company for 70 per cent of the com- 
mon stock of the Cleveland (Ohio) Electric Illuminating 
Company secured by Harrison Williams under his offer of 
$130 per share, as noted in these columns May 18 and 25, 
1912, is rapidly nearly completion. Among the directors of 
the new company, in addition to Harrison Williams, who 
is the guiding spirit, are: R. E. Breed, president American 
Gas & Electric Company; Edwin M. Bulkley, of Spencer 
Trask & Company; Anson W. Burchard, of the General 
Electric Company; De Forest Candee, president Federal 
Utilities, Inc.; George A. Galliver, vice-president Republic 
Railway & Light Company, all of New York; Parmelee W. 
Herrick, of Herrick, Parmelee & Crawford, Cleveland; 
Robert. Lindsay, general manager Cleveland Electric Illu- 
minating Company; Robert C. Morse, of Jackson & Curtis, 
Boston; James Richardson, of Richardson & Clark, Provi- 
dence, R. I., and Samuel Scovil, vice-president of the Cleve- 
land Electric Illuminating Company. The Central States 
Electric Company, with acquisition of 70 per cent of the 
stock of the Cleveland company, will have outstanding 
$3,611,000 7 per cent preferred stock, of an authorized issue 
of $30,000,000, and $4,334,400 common stock of an authorized 
issue of $10,000,000. In addition to the above, the company 
will also have outstanding $4,333,000 ten-year 5 per cent 
notes, of an authorized issue of $6,000,000. The Guaranty 
Trust Company and Spencer Trask & Company have pur- 
chased these notes and will offer them publicly within a 
short time, at a price to yield 5.75 per cent. Additional 
notes may be issued, at the rate of about $77.32 par value 
in notes for each additional $100 par value of Cleveland 
Electric Illuminating stock deposited with the trustee. They 
are convertible at par into 7 per cent preferred stock of 
the company at 105 at any time. The Cleveland Electric 
Illuminating Company has recently closed a ten-year con- 
tract with the Cleveland Electric Railways Company to 
supply the latter with additional energy required, as noted 
in these columns June 8, and in this connection a 14,000- 
kw equipment is to be installed shortly by the lighting com- 
pany. 

Hall Signal Reorganization Plan Modified. — After con- 
sideration of the suggestions made by several stockholders 
that in the reorganization of the Hall Signal Company the 
preferred stock of the new company to be formed under the 
plan outlined in these columns April 6 should be sold to 
stockholders at less than par, the readjustment committee 
has decided to modify its plan and will offer the new pre- 
ferred shares at the rate of $80 for each $100 of the old 
stock. Each stockholder is entitled to subscribe by July 



15, 1912, for an amount of the new stock equal to 62}^ 
per cent of his stock in the old concern. Under the modi- 
fied plan, each stockholder will receive $125 of new pre- 
ferred stock and $200 of new common stock for each $I0C 
subscription. To effect this change the amount of new 
preferred stock will be increased by $250,000 to $2,2250,000, 
of which $1,250,000 will be sold and $1,000,000 will be re- 
tained in the treasury. The committee states that it has 
voluntarily relinquished its claims to $500,000 of common 
stock which was to have been paid to the committee and its 
counsel for expenses and services under the original plan. 
This amount of common stock will be divided among the 
stockholders of the Hall Signal Company. .\n underwrit- 
ing syndicate formed to carry out the plan has agreed to 
take over the stock of the new company not subscribed for 
by the present stockholders, on terms practically the same 
as those offered to the latter. Each member of the under- 
writing syndicate will receive, however, a commission of 
50 per cent in common stock and 5 per cent in cash, 

A Westinghouse Company to Deal in Securities. — 'In ac- 
cordance with the plans of Guy E. Tripp, chairman of the 
board of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Com- 
pany, to organize a subsidiary corporation along the same 
lines as the Electiic Bond & Share Company, operated by 
the General Electric Company, of which mention was made 
in the Electrical World May 18, 1912, a syndicate composed 
of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, 
the Equitable Trust Company and William Morris Imbrie 
& Company, of New York, has taken over the Electric 
Properties Company, as a medium for dealing in the se- 
curities of public service corporations. The Electric Prop- 
erties Company was incorporated in New York in May, 
1906, to finance and develop electric lighting and traction 
companies. Its authorized capitalization consists of $6,000,- 
000 common stock and $6,000,000 6 per cent cumulative pre- 
ferred stock. The Westinghouse Machine Company has 
controlled the Electric Properties Company through own- 
ership of $5,000,000 of the common stock. Through own- 
ership of the entire capital stock of Westinghouse, Church, 
Kerr & Company, the Electric Properties Company has 
carried on a general engineering and construction business. 
Enlargement of the company's field of operation and ac- 
quisition of new properties are among the plans of the syn- 
dicate. 

Additions to Generating Stations. — Recent orders placed 
with the General Electric Company for power-house equip- 
ment include one from the Mount Whitney Power & Elec- 
tric Company, of Visalia, Cal., for a 937-kva turbo-gener- 
ator, with a 25-kw exciter set and switchboard. The East- 
ern Michigan Power Company, of Jackson, Mich., has re- 
cently placed an order with the same manufacturer for one 
250-kw, 7200/720 volt and one 43-k\v, 5000 '2500-500/250-volt 
regulator and ten oil switches and panels. Three 750-kva, 
22,000/2400-volt transformers have been ordered by the 
Great Western Power Company for a substation at Sacra- 
mento, Cal. One 200-hp motor, six induction motors in 
ratings ranging from 2 hp to 75 hp and a switchboard have 
been ordered by the Yuba Contracting Company, San 
Francisco, Cal., for installation on a river dredge at Sump- 
ter, Ore. 

May Dissolve Telephone Manufacturing Company. — A 

special meeting of the stockholders of the Stromberg-Carl- 
son Telephone Manufacturing Company, of Rochester, N. 
Y., manufacturer of telephone apparatus and of aerial and 
underground cable, has been called for July 29 to vote upon 
a proposition to dissolve the corporation forthwith. This 
action has been under consideration since June i, when a 
conference was held between the stockholders and the 
board of directors as to the future policy of the company. 
As a result of this meeting a committee was appointed to 
go over the affairs of the company with the directors to 
determine what course to pursue. This committee has now 
reported that in its judgment the property and business of 
the company should be put in liquidation. 



lui.v 6, 191^ 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



71 



Status of Electric Bond & Share Company. — Since its in- 
:orporation in February, 1905, until Dec. 31, 191 1, the Elec- 
tric Bond & Share Company has earned a total gross in- 
:ome aggregating $3,934,777. Expenses and commissions in 
that time amounted to $903,213 and the net income to 
53,031,564. Total preferred dividends were $682,500 and 
common dividends were $400,000, leaving a surplus income 
of $1,949,064. The net surplus earned as of Dec. 31, 191 1, 
was $1,873,624, which, with a surplus of $440,599 at com- 
mencement of the business, made an aggregate surplus on 
Jan. I, 1912, of $2,314,223. The company was organized by 
the General Electric Company with an authorized capital 
of $2,000,000 S per cent cumulative preferred stock and an 
equal amount of common stock. The latter is owned by the 
General Electric Company. The purpose of the company 
is to take a financial interest in electric light and water- 
power, gas and street-railway enterprises, to buy, sell and 
hold securities of such properties and to act as fiscal agent 
for companies controlling and operating such properties. 
It also furnishes the necessary capital and manages con- 
solidations and reorganizations of such enterprises. The 
company has no authorized or outstanding bonded indebted- 
ness. At a special meeting of the stockholders on Jan. 22, 
1912, as noted in these columns Jan. 27, the authorized 
amount of capital stock was increased from $2,000,000 to 
$5,000,000 of each class and the preferred was made cumu- 
lative at 6 per cent instead of 5 per cent. Subsequent to 
that date there has been issued $1,500,000 preferred and 
$1,500,000 common stock, and all of both classes of stock 
was purchased by the General Electric Company at par for 
cash. Dividends at the rate of 8 per cent are being regu- 
larly paid on the common stock. 

June Incorporations Show Increase. — Compilation by the 
Journal of Commerce, New York, shows that papers filed m 
the Eastern States in June for companies with an author- 
ized capital of $1,000,000 or over aggregated $280,250,000. 
This total represents an increase of $134,966,000 over May, 
and, compared with June, 1911, an increase of $127,700,000. 
Charters taken out during the month by other companies 
with an individual capital of $100,000 or over, but less than 
$1,000,000, including states other than those in the East, 
brought the total for June up to $393,948,000, which com- 
pares with $239,531,999 in May and with $232,900,000 in 
June, 191 1. Since Jan. i the output of new companies with 
$1,000,000 capital or over in the Eastern States, including 
the filing of increases in capital, amounted to $1,178,889,000 
against $1,042,964,000 in 191 1 and $1,544,692,400 in the cor- 
responding period of 1910. The grand total of all com- 
panies incorporated in the first six months of this year 
with a capital of $100,000 or over, including States other 
than those in the East, amounted to $1,760,186,499, as com- 
pared with $1,622,194,750 in the first half of 191 1, and with 
$1,870,307,240 in 1910. Among the large public utility com- 
panies incorporated in the East in June were the $50,000,000 
Continental Public Service Company and the $40,000,000 
American Public Utilities Company. 

United Wireless Assets Transferred to Marconi Com- 
pany. — On June 29 the assets of the United Wireless Tele- 
graph Company were turned over to the Marconi Wireless 
Telegraph Company of America, and according to the lat- 
ter the affairs of the merged companies are now proceeding 
as harmoniously as might be desired. The transfer was 
made through the Wireless Liquiding Company, which was 
formed to assist United Wireless stockholders in regaining 
some of the loss sustained by them when the affairs of 
the concern became involved. About $700,000 in par value 
of Marconi stock was received by the Wireless Liquidating 
Company in payment for the assets of the United Company. 
This represents 140,000 shares of Marconi stock at par and 
will be distributed among the holders of the United Wire- 
less stock who came into the liquidating company. 

Citizens' Light, Heat & Power Company (Pa.) Bonds. — 
First mortgage 5 per cent gold bonds of the Citizens' Light, 
Heat & Power Company, of Johnstown, Pa., are being of- 
fered by Francis Ralston Welsh, of Philadelphia, at loi and 
interest, yielding 4.92 per cent. These are due Nov. i, 1934, 
but are callable on and after Nov. i, 1914, at 105 and interest. 
The company controls the entire artificial and natural gas 
and practically the entire electric lighting and motor-serv- 
ice business of Johnstown, Pa., having a population of over 



70,000. The bonds are a direct first lien on all artificial gas 
and electric service property now owned or hereafter ac- 
quired, and are, through deposit of securities, a first lien on 
the natural-gas properties. The authorized issue is $3,000,- 
000, of which $1,500,000 is outstanding. The remainder can 
be issued for only 75 per cent of the cost of permanent ex- 
tensions and improvements, when the annual net earnings 
are twice the interest charges, including those on bonds to 
be issued. The franchises of the company, except those for 
natural gas, which extend until 1936, are regarded as unlim- 
ited in duration. Net earnings of the company in the fiscal 
year ended March 31, 1912, after deducting taxes, were 
$144,305; bond interest was $75,000, and balance, to surplus, 
was $69,305. 

Montgomery (Ala.) Light & Traction Company In- 
creases Stock. — A certificate increasing the authorized cap- 
ital stock of the Montgomery (Ala.) Light & Traction 
Company from $1,000,000 to $2,000,000 has been filed. This 
increase was voted by the stockholders on March 28. It 
is understood that the increase is for the purpose of reim- 
bursing Richard Tillis, who was principal owner of an elec- 
tric-light business in Montgomery, which was merged with 
the Montgomery Traction Company to form the Mont- 
gomery Light & Traction Company, as mentioned in these 
columns Jan. 6, 1912, for personal expenditures in the com- 
pany's behalf. A new 5000-kw steam-turbine plant was part 
of the power-station equipment completed by Mr. Tillis and 
turned over to the new company. The company has re- 
cently filed a new mortgage on its property for $5,000,000 
5 per cent first-mortgage bonds, of which $1,000,000 have 
been issued. The bonds have not been sold, but the $1,000,- 
000 issued have been deposited as security for an issue of 
$650,000 two-year 6 per cent notes which were recently 
sold to the Guaranty Trust Company, of New York, and to 
which reference was made in the Electrical World June 22, 
1912. 

Toledo Railway & Light Reorganization Plans Rejected. 
— At a meeting June 27 members of the stockholders' pro- 
tective committee of the Toledo Railway & Light Com- 
pany rejected the alternative plans for reorganization sub- 
mitted by the bondholders' committee to which reference 
was made in these columns last week. The stockholders' 
committee objected to these plans on the ground that they 
were entirely too drastic as regards the interests of the 
stockholders, requiring the latter to raise a much larger 
amount of new capital than they consider necessary. It is 
understood that attempts will be made to bring the two 
committees together again in the near future. 

Independent Telephone Company Incorporated in Ken- 
tucky. — The Christian-Todd Telephone Company, with a 
capital stock of $1,000,000, divided into $750,000 common and 
$25,000 preferred, has filed articles of incorporation at Hop- 
kinsville, Ky., where its home office will be located. The 
new concern has rights to own and operate telephone and 
telegraph lines for 200 years unless sooner dissolved. J. M. 
B. Hoxey and R. E. Hastings, of Atlanta; R. E. Cooper and 
F. G. Hoge, of Hopkinsville; B. B. Petrie, of Elkton, Ky,, 
and J. B. Hoge, of Cleveland, Ohio, are the incorporators. 

Dominion Power & Transmission Company (Ont.) Sold. — 
It is understood that the Dominion Power & Transmission 
Company, of Hamilton, Ont., has been sold to the MacKen- 
zie and Mann interests. It is stated that stockholders are 
to receive $125 a share for their preferred stock, $110 a 
share for their second preferred stock and $100 for each 
share of common stock. The company has issued: First 
preferred stock, $3,673,100; second preferred, $5,100,000; 
common, $2,608,000; and 5 per cent bonds, $6,488,000. 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Company Re-in- 
corporated. — On June 27 stockholders of the Puget Sound 
Traction, Light & Power Company voted to authorize re- 
incorporation under the laws of Massachusetts in accord- 
ance with plans which were noted in these columns June 
15. The stock of the company will be non-taxable in that 
State. 

New American Cities Directors. — Hugh McCloskey, pres- 
ident of the New Orleans Railway & Light Company, and 
R. L. Montgomery, of Montgomery, Clothier & Tyler, of 
Philadelphia, have been elected directors of the American 
Cities Company, succeeding Fernand Lapeyre, deceased, 
and to fill a vacancy. 



72 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i. 



General Gas & Electric Company Organized to Acquire 
Vermont and Ohio Properties. — W. S. Barstow & Com- 
pany, Inc., of 50 I'ine Street, New York, consulting engi- 
neers, who are engaged in the managing and financing of 
public utilities companies, have organized tlie General Gas & 
Electric Company under the laws of Maine to take over a 
number of gas, electric lighting and traction properties in 
Vermont and Ohio. W. S. Barstow is president of the 
new concern, and the names of the other officers and the 
directors will be announced shortly. The General Gas & 
Electric Company has an authorized capitalization of $10,- 
000,000 common, $10,000,000 6-7 per cent cumulative pre- 
ferred stock and $:;o,ooo,ooo first-mortgage 5 per cent sink- 
ing-fund convertible gold bonds due 1932. Of the stock, 
$2,600,000 of the common and $1,300,000 of the preferred 
are to be issued, while $1,400,000 of the bonds will be out- 
standing. The companies which will be taken over by the 
General Gas & Electric Company, all of which will be con- 
trolled and managed by W. S. Barstow & Company, Inc., 
are the Western \"ermont Light & Power Company and the 
Northwestern Ohio Railway & Power Company. The first- 
named company will own and operate the hydroelectric 
plant at Carver's Falls, Vt., now known as the Fair Haven 
Electric Company, and will also operate under lease the 
Rutland (Vt.) Railway, Light & Power Company. The 
Northwestern Ohio Railway & Power Company will pur- 
chase the Toledo, Port Clinton & Lakeside Railroad, which 
was recently acquired by W. S. Barstow & Company. The 
electric railway is 57 miles in length, running from a ter- 
minal station in the city of Toledo over the lines of the 
Toledo Railway & Light Company through the towns of 
Genoa, Elmore, Oak Harbor, Port Clinton, Lakeside and 
Marblehead to Bay Point, Ohio. From the eastern ter- 
minus connection is made by ferry with Sandusky and 
Cedar Point. In addition to its railway interests, the com- 
pany also does an electric-light and motor-service business 
in a number of the towns named above. Its central station 
is located on Lake Erie near Port Clinton and has a rated 
output of 2000 hp. This will be doubled this summer by 
the installation of a new steam turbine unit which will 
enable the company to take care of the new business now 
in sight. The various holdings of the Vermont companies 
include two water-power stations with a total rated output 
of about 5000 hp, now in operation, together with the con- 
trol of other water rights, some of which are already par- 
tially developed. According to statements of W. S. Bar- 
stow & Company, whose engineering department has made 
a careful investigation of all of the properties, all of the 
water rights held by the Vermont companies will yield 
under full development a maximum output of about 20,000 
hp, which will be available throughout the year on accoimt 
of the favorable geographical location of the several units 
comprising the whole and the provision that has been made 
for abundant storage facilities. The additional facilities 
will be developed gradually as increases in the company's 
business require. The Rutland company owns and main- 
tains in reserve two steam stations aggregating 1300 hp. 
It also owns a gas plant in Rutland and 3S miles of electric 
railway serving Rutland, Rutland Center, "West Rutland, 
Castleton, Hydeville, Fair Haven, Poultney and intervening 
territory, with a branch to an amusement park owned by 
the company on Lake Bomoseen. The various public 
service properties in Vermont and Ohio now serve a popu- 
lation of about 275,000. The acquisition of additional prop- 
erties is now under consideration, and it is expected that 
these will be taken over by the fall. According to estimates 
by W. S. Barstow & Company, the net earnings of the con- 
stituent properties during the coming year will be about 
$235,000. 

Eastern Texas Electric Company Declares Initial Divi- 
dend. — An initial semi-annual dividend of $3 per share was 
recently declared by the Eastern Texas Electric Company 
on its $850,000 6 per cent cumulative preferred stock. This 
was payable July i to holders of record June 29. The com- 
pany was incorporated in Maine in December, 191 1, and 
owns the entire capital stock of the Beaumont (Tex.) Elec- 
tric Light & Power Company. The latter was incorporated 
in Texas on Nov. 15, 1911, with $880,000 authorized capital 
stock, as the successor to the Beaumont Ice, Light & Re- 
frigeration Company. An income statement of the Eastern 



Texas Electric Company for the first six months of oper- 
ation shows gross returns of $87,843; operating expenses, 
$37,465; taxes, $2,069; preferred dividends, $25,500; and sur- 
plus, $22,809. 

Bell Telephone Managers. — A new plan for conducting 
the systems of the Bell Telephone Company in the central 
division, which comprises Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois 
and Wisconsin, became effective July I. Under this plan 
each state is to be in charge of a separate general manager. 
The following state managers have been appointed: For 
Illinois, B. F. Hill; Indiana, L. N. 'Whitney; Ohio, E. A. 
Reed; Michigan, A. von Schlegell; Wisconsin, H. O. Sey- 
mour. These managers will be under the direction of Vice- 
President Burt. 

■Will Promote Public Utility Projects. — The Jersey In- 
dustrial Company has been incorporated in New Jersey 
with an authorized capital of $1,000,000 to promote and de- 
velop water, electric light, heat and power plants. The in- 
corporators are Albert H. Clarke, of Brooklyn, Frank B. 
Shannon, of Wilkinsburg, Pa., and Harry A. Otjen, of Jer- 
sey City, where the office of the company will be located. 

Union Electric Light & Power Company (St. Louis) 
Bonds Listed. — The New York Stock Exchange has listed 
$879,000 additional refunding and extension mortgage 
twenty-five-year 5 per cent bonds of the Union Electric 
Light & Power Company, of St. Louis, with authority to 
add $121,000 on notice of sale, making a total of $6,500,000 
listed. 

Southwestern Telephone & Telegraph in Anti-Trust Suit. 
— Suit is to be brought against the Soutliwestern Telephone 
& Telegraph Company, which operates in Arkansas and is 
the Bell Telephone interest in the Southwestern States, for 
alleged violation of the anti-trust act. 

Ford, Bacon & Davis. — Charles F. Uebelacker, Charles 
N. Black and William von Phul have been admitted to part- 
nership in the engineering firm of Ford, Bacon & Davis, 
115 Broadway, New Y'ork. 



PRICES IN THE NEW YORK METAL MARKET. 



Copper: f June 25 ^ , — ;— July 1 ^ 

Standard: Bid. Asked. Bid. .\sked. 

Spot 16.75 17.50 le.STA 17.37V5 

Tune 16.75 17.50 

July 16.8754 17.37'/4 17.00 17.50 

August 17.00 17.32!^ 17.00 17.50 

September 17.00 U.32yi 17.30 17.35 

London quotation: £ s d £ s d 

Standard copper, spot 77 2 6 77 7 6 

Standard copper, futures 78 78 5 

Prime Lake 17.20 to 17.40 17.50 

Electrolytic 17.10 to 17.30 17.50 

Casting' 17.00 17.15 

Copper wire, base 18.75 18.75 

Lead 4.50 4.50 

Sheet zinc, f.o.b., smelter 8.65 8.65 

Spelter, spot 7.10 7.15 

Nickel 39.00 to 40.00 39.00 to 40.00 

Aluminum : 

No. 1 pure ingot 21 to 22 21 to 22 

Rods and wire, base 31 31 

Sheets, base 23 33 

OLD METALS. 

Heavy copper and wire 16.50 16.50 

Brass, heavy 10.25 10.25 

Brass, light 8.50 8.50 

Lead, heavy 4.25 4.25 

Zinc, scrap 5.75 5.75 

COPPER EXPORTS IN JUNE. 
Total tons, including June 25 18,961 June 29 26,547 

STOCK MARKET PRICES. 

Tune 26. July 2. 

Allis-Chalmers K* !^* 

•Mlis-Chalmers. pf Z'/i* 2<4' 

.\malgamated Copper 86^ 85^ 

Amer. Tel. & Tel 146H MSH 

Boston Edison 290* 390* 

Commonwealth Edison 139 138^ 

Electric Storage Battery 55 5554 

General Electric 174K 180 

Mackay Companies 87H 88J4 

Mackay Companies, pf 69^ 69^* 

Philadelphia Electric 22'A 22!4 

Western Union 83 82H 

Westinghouse 74 J4 77 

■Westinghouse, pf 117* 121* 

*Last price quoted. 



July 6, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



73 



Personal 



Mr. John McWilliam, a graduate of Throop Polytechnic 

Jnstitute, has been appointed city engineer of South Pasa- 
dena, Cal. 

Mr. R. A. Field has resigned as superintendent of the 
Rome (N. Y.) Gas, Electric Light & Power Company and 
will move to Frankfort, Ky., on Aug. i. 

Dr. Henry Smith Carhart, who from 1872 to 1886 was 
professor of physics at Northwestern University and later 
professor and emeritus professor at the University of 
Michigan, had conferred upon him the degree of doctor of 
science by the Northwestern University at its recent com- 
mencement. 

Mr. Theodore N. Vail, president of the American Tele- 
phone & I'elegraph Company, has presented to the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology the Dering Library, val- 
ued at $100,000. This library was collected by Mr. George 
Edward Dering, of Lockleys, Herts., England, and is said 
to cover all electrical publications issued during the past 
sixty years. 

Mr. Albert B. Morton has resigned as manager and su- 
perintendent of the Municipal Electric Light & Gas Plant, 
Wakefield, Mass., to become superintendent of the Rome 
( N. V.) Gas, Electric Light & Power Company, with which 
he was formerly associated for three years. During the 
past seventeen years Mr. Morton has been identified with 
gas and electric companies in Detroit, Mich.; Ontario, 
Can.; Rome, N. Y.; Bowling Green, Ohio, and Wakefield, 
Mass. 

Dr. Charles F. Brush has received the degree of doctor 
of science from the University of Michigan, from which 
he was graduated in 1869 and which later conferred upon 
him the degree of M.S. Western Reserve University has 
conferred on him the degrees of Ph.D. and LL.D. The 
French government in i88i decorated Dr. Brush for his 
achievements in electrical science, and the American 
Academy of Art and Science in 1887 awarded to him the 
Rumford medal, its highest honor. 

Mr. Charles F. Uebelacker, recently admitted to part- 
nership in Ford, Bacon & Davis, was graduated from 
Princeton University in 1899 as electrical engineer. For 
the next few years he was employed by various manufac- 
turing and electrical concerns, having been chief engineer 
of the Short Electric Railway Company and the Brush 
Manufacturing Company, Cleveland; electrical engineer of 
the Consolidated Traction Company of New Jersey, and 
later chief engineer and manager of the Peckham Truck 
Company, Kingston, N. Y. In 1899 he became connected 
with the firm of Ford, Bacon & Davis, in charge of the 
operation of the Elmira Water, Light & Railroad Com- 
pany as vice-president and general manager. In 1901 he 
joined the organization of the firm in New York, and since 
1902 he has been its chief engineer. 

Mr. Charles N. Black, of the firm of Ford, Bacon & 
Davis, graduated from Princeton University as electrical 
engineer in 1890. From that time until 1899 he was in 
the employ of electrical manufacturing companies in the 
design and construction of electric-railway and electric- 
lighting machinery, having been superintendent of the 
shops of the Brush Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, 
and manager of the New Haven factory of the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company. In 1899 he 
became connected with the engineering organization of 
Ford, Bacon & Davis and until 1902 was its chief engineer. 
After the firm finished its work of reconstructing the Kan- 
sas City cable system into an electric railway system, of 
which Mr. Black was in charge, he was appointed vice- 
president and general manager of the Kansas City Railway 
& Light Company, continuing until 1907, when he assumed 
his present position of vice-president and general manager 
of the United Railroads of San Francisco. 

Mr. William von Phul, who became partner in the firm 
of Ford, Bacon & Davis on July i, was graduated from 
lulane University in 1891 as mechanical engineer. During 
the next ten years he was general superintendent of the 
Louisiana Electric Light Company and of the Edison Elec- 
tric Company, New Orleans, and also of the New Orleans 



& Carrollton Railroad, Light & Power Company. He then 
took charge of the operation of the Cincinnati Gas & 
Electric Company as general superintendent, and since 
1905 he has been connected with the engineering and op- 
erating forces of Ford, Bacon & Davis at New Orleans, 
being also vice-president of the American Cities Company. 
Mr. D. L. Gaskill, president of the Greenville (Ohio) 
Electric Light & Power Company and secretary-treasurer 
of the National District Heating Association, was presented 
with a handsome diamond-studded gold watch-charm and 
chain by the members of the heating association at its 
Detroit convention June 27, in recognition of his untiring 
efforts for the organization's advancement. The presenta- 
tion was made by Mr. A. C. Rogers, superintendent of 
heating for the Toledo Railways & Light Company, and 
Mr. Gaskill responded in a gracefeul speech of acceptance. 
Mr. Gaskill has served as secretary of the heating asso- 
ciation since 1909. He is perhaps even better known as 
secretary of the Ohio Electric Light Association, of which 
society he has been secretary for twelve years. 

Mr. Robert Francis Pack, who was elected to the presi- 
dency of the Canadian Electrical Association at its recent 

meeting, has been made 
honorary president of the 
Toronto Company Section 
of the National Electric 
Light Association, the for- 
mation of which can be at- 
tributed largely to his ef- 
forts. Mr. Pack's energetic 
efforts have been instru- 
mental in increasing the 
membership and interest in 
the Toronto branch and 
in influencing the Canadian 
association to affiliate with 
the N. E. L. A. Mr. Pack 
is secretary and general 
manager of the Toronto 
Electric Light Company, 
liaving previously been with 
the Great Northern Tel- 
egraph Company. He is an associate member of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Electrical Engineers. 




R. F. PACK 



Obituary 



Mr. A. E. Stevens, manager of the Consumers' Power 
Company, Minot, N. D., died on June 22, as a result of 
injuries received in an automobile accident. He is survived 
by a widow, who was also injured in the accident. 

Mr. Cecil Brunswick Smith, past-vice-president of the Ca- 
nadian Society of Civil Engineers, died in Toronto on June 
30 at the age of forty-eight years. He was a graduate of 
McGill University and had specialized in hydroelectric 
work. 

Mr. Richard T. Laffin, vice-president of the Puget Sound 
Traction, Light & Power Company, Seattle, Wash., died at 
Seattle on June 26, following an operation for intestinal 
trouble. Mr. Laffin was very well known in electric railway 
and engineering circles in the East. For many years he 
was connected with the Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway 
and later was general manager of the Worcester (Mass.) 
Consolidated Street Railway. He resigned from the latter 
company to become vice-president and general manager of 
the Manila Electric Railroad & Light Company, Manila, 
P. I., and spent four years in the Philippines, during which 
time he was in charge of the reconstruction and electrifica- 
tion of the street railway lines in Manila carried out by J. 
G. White & Company, Inc., New York, N. Y. Mr. Laffin 
returned to the United States in 1909 and became associated 
with the Stone & Webster Management Association, Bos- 
ton, Mass., in connection with the Seattle Electric Company 
and other Puget Sound railway and lighting properties. 
Early in 1912 he was elected vice-president of the newly 
organized Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Company, 
Seattle, Wash., which was incorporated in the interests of 
Stone & Webster to effect a merger of the properties which 
they manage in the Puget Sound district. 



74 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. l. 



Construction 



ATTALLA, ALA. — The City Council has granted the Alabama Pwr. 
& Devel, Co. a franchise to supply electricity for lamps, heat and motors 
and also water. 

GUNTERSVILLE, ALA.— The Council has engaged the J. B. McCrary 
Co., Atlanta, to prepare plans for an electric-light plant. 

HUNTSVILLE, ALA.— The El. Bond & Share Co. has submitted a bid 
to the City Commissioners for lighting the city. The company is nego- 
tiating for the purchase of the system of the Huntsviile, Chattanooga & 
Interurban Ry., Lt. & Pwr. Co. and if the property is taken over pro- 
poses to enlarge the plant. It is proposed to utilize electricity generated 
at Jackson Shoals on the Little River. Webb Offut is representative 
of the company 

MOBILE, ALA. — The contract for installing a lighting system for the 
Mobile & Ohio R. R. Co.'s Pier 3 has been awarded to the Southern El. 
Co., Mobile, for $2,475. 

COLFAX, CAL. — Steps have been taken toward the orginization of 
an independent power and lighting company for the purpose of supply- 
ing electricity in Colfax and Clipper Gap and the ranches between the 
two places, Applegate and Weimar, the summer resorts and the sani- 
tarium at Colfax. Interests connected with the Colfax Suburban Tel. 
Co. are interested in the project. Arrangements have been made by the 
Colfax Suburban Co. for improvements to its system, including the 
installation of new instruments, etc. 

FALL RIVER MILLS, CAL.— Scott Mc.\rthur is interested in an 
enterprise to furnish water for the irrigation of a large tract of land 
in Shaster County. A power plant is also planned in connection with 
the irrigation project. 

GLEXDALE, CAL. — Preliminary work has been started by the city 
on the installation of an ornamental street-lighting system in the business 
district, to cost approximately $15,000. 

HANFORD, CAL. — The H. G. Lacey Co. is extending its electric serv- 
ice west of the town. A transmission line is being erected from Ar- 
mona to several ranches in that district. 

PETALUMA. CAL.— The Great Western Pwr. Co. has purchased a 
site for a substation in Pctaluma. 

SAX BERNARDINO, CAL.— Plans are being prepared by the Santa Fe 
Co. for the construction of an electric power plant here, to cost about 
$200,000. The plant will furnish electricity for the block signal systems 
which are to be installed on all branches in Southern California, as well 
as for the local works. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.— The State Railroad Commission has granted 
the Great Western Pwr. Co. permission to extend its transmission lines 
and furnish electricity in Sonoma, Napa and Solano Counties. 

WATERVILLE, CONN. — Plans are being prepared by the Waterville 
Corpn. for the construction of a power house, 50 ft. x 110 ft., on 
Thomaston Avenue. D. L. Summey, Waterbury, Conn., is engineer. 

BROOKSVILLE, FLA.— The Brooksville EI. Lt. & Pwr. Co. has con- 
tracted with the Florida Pwr. Co., Ocala, for electricity generated at the 
plant of the latter company on Withloccochee River, 25 miles below Dun- 
nellon. The Florida company will extend its transmission line from Ista- 
chatta to phosphate mines at Croom and from there to Brooksville. 

SARASOTA BAY, FLA.— Mrs. Calvin S. Smith, 3982 Lake Avenue, 
Chicago, 111., it is reported, is contemplating the installation of an electric- 
light plant for dwelling at Sarasota Bay. 

ALBANY, GA. — The contract for the first section of the proposed 
ornamental street-lighting system has been awarded to the Albany Elec- 
trical Supply Co. 

FORT OGLETHORPE, GA.— The contract for installing an electric- 
lighting system at this post has been awarded to the W. M. Perry El. 
Co.. Brooklyn, N. Y., at $32,487. 

M.\CON, GA.— The Georgia Ry. & Pwr. Co., Atlanta, has been granted 
a franchise to erect transmission lines in Macon for the distribution of 
electricity for lamps, heat and motors. 

MIDVILLE, GA.— The J. B. McCrary Co.. Atlanta, Ga., has been 
engaged by the Council to prepare plans for improvements to the electric- 
light system. 

SAVANNAH, GA. — Louis Brown, Box 77, Savannah, would like to 
receive proposals for the installation of an electric-light plant with suffi- 
cient output to supply 50 houses, 10 stores and street lighting. 

SAVANNAH, GA. — The Great Eastern Lumber Co. is planning to erect 
a large lumber plant, with a daily capacity of 150,000 ft., near Savannah. 
The plans include the installation of an electric power plant to supply 
electricity for lamps and motors. The mill will be equipped with motor- 
driven machinery. George K. Wentworth, Chicago, 111., is president 

\nDALIA, GA. — The City Council has engaged the J. B. McCrary Co., 
Atlanta, to prepare plans for improvements to water-works and electric- 
light systems and construction of sewerage system. 

NEZPERCE, IDAHO.— The Nezperce Co-operative Tel. Co. is con- 
templating extensive improvements to its system, including the erection of 
a line from Lewiston to Nezperce and to Grangeville. The cost of the 
work is estimated at about $10,000. 

BLOOMIXGTON, ILL. — Arrangements are being made by the Bloom- 



ington & Normal Ry. & Lt. Co. for the erection ot a transmission line IS 
miles along to connect towns in the northern part of McLean County. The 
new line will necessitate the construction of several smaller stations 
along the route to transform the current for local distribution. The 
plants at Chenoa, Gridley and El Paso will be remodeled. 

CARTHAGE, ILL. — Funds have been contributed for the installation 
of ornamental lamps on the Public Square. 

CHICAGO, ILL. — The Union Lt. & Supply Co. has increased its 
capital stock from $2,500 to $20,000. 

KEWANEE, ILL. — The Kewanee Home Tel. Co. is planning improve 
ments to its system, including the installation of 7000 ft. of cable and 
additions to its switchboard. 

LYNDON, ILL.— The Public Service Co. of Northern Illinois has ap 
plied to the Village Board for a franchise to furnish electricity here. 

MILFORD, ILL. — The local telephone company is planning to insta! 
a new switchboard. R. C. Walkup is manager. 

PEORI.-\, ILL. — The light committee of the Uplands Improvemen 
Association has reported favorably upon a plan to install ornamenta 
lamps on Columbia Terrace, Institute Place and Parkside Drive. W, D, 
Hatfield, A. S. Oakford and Dr. Walter W. Wyatt are interested. 

PORT BYRON, ILL. — Steps have been taken for the installation of 
an electric-lighting system here to supply electricity for street and com 
mercial lighting. It is proposed to secure the service from the People'^ 
Pwr. Co., Rock Island. 

QUINCY, ILL. — Plans are being prepared for an electric belt rail 
way reaching over the entire city of Quincy, which later will be extended 
to a point 58 miles north of this city. The new line will be extend: 
northward from Quincy immediately after the belt line is completed ■ : 
will be known as the Quincy & Western Illinois Ry. Co. Power I^. 
operating the railway will be furnished by the Mississippi River Pwr. Co., 
of Keokuk, la. Henry F. Dayton, Quincy, is president. 

SPRINGFIELD, ILL. — Plans are being considered by the city com- 
missioners for lighting the municipal buildings with electricity generated 
at the pumping station at the river. 

WYOMING, ILL.— The Wyoming El. Lt. Co. has applied to the Board 
of Supervisors of Stark County for permission to erect a transmission 
line from Wyoming to Bradford. 

LAGRANGE, IND.— It is stated that the St. Joseph Valley traction 
line, operating between Lagrange & Bristol, a distance of 32 miles, will 
soon be equipped for electrical operation. Electricity for operating the 
railway will be furnished from a power plant which is being built on the 
Elkhart River. 

PORTLAND, IND.— D. E, Bims, A. E. Townsend, Cleveland, and C. 
L. Smith, Montpelier, are interested in the construction of an electric 
railway to extend from Portland and Marion, via Montpelier and Fiatl. 

BENNETT, lA. — Proposals will be received by J. B. Vaughan, town 
clerk, Bennett, until July 16 for furnishing and installing equipment for 
an electric-light plant as follows: One 25-hp or 35-hp engine, using either 
gasoline, kerosene or distillate for fuel; one 15-kw or 25-kw, 110-volt di- 
rect-current generator, either belted or direct-connected to engine; one 
storage battery complete, capacity from 100 amp-hr. to 140 amp-hr.; 
switchboard; one belted pump jack, suitable for deep-well pump of 
30-in. stroke, and 16 40-watt street lamps. All poles, fixtures and wire 
according to plat on file at the office of the town clerk. Building and foun- 
dation will be furnished by the town. Each bidder will be required to 
furnish plans and specifications for the above plant. 

CENTERVILLE, lA.— An election will be held July 18 to vote on the 
proposition of granting the Southern Iowa Trac. Co. a franchise to extend 
its tracks around the Public Square and to erect a power plant to furnish 
electricity for its suburban system. 

CLARKSVILLE, lA.— The local electric-light plant owned by Harvey 
Bouton has been sold to Messrs. Sparry & Flenkin, of Olin. Robert 
Poisal is manager. 

CLINTON, lA. — Bids are being asked for the installation of orna- 
mental lamps on Fifth Avenue between Second and Third Streets. The 
plans provide for 18 standards, carrying five-lamp clusters. 

COLUMBUS JUNCTION, lA. — Preparations are being made to con- 
struct an electric-light plant here, to cost about $30,000. R. D. Parker, 
Columbus Junction, is superintendent. 

DYSART, I.\. — The installation of an electric-light system in Dysart 
is under consideration. 

ERASER, lA. — Improvements will be made to the power house of the 
Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern R. R. Co. in Eraser, including 
erection of addition to building and installation of additional machinery, 
at a cost of about $20,000. 

INDIANOL.^, lA, — The Hawkeye Tel. Co. contemplates improvements 
to its local system, to cost about $6,000. 

MARION, lA. — Application has been filed by the Cedar Rapids & 
Iowa City Ry. & Lt. Co. for a franchise to erect a transmission line 
along what is known as the Dubuque Road from Marion to Stone City, 
via Springville, Whittier and Viola. The company will supply electrical 
service to residences along the line and also has contracts to supply elec- 
tricity to the large stone quarries and crushers in Stone City. Prepara- 
tions are being made to increase the output of the Marion power p'ant 
-\ 150-hp engine has been purchased. In Springville the energy will be 
sold direct to the company owning the plant there. 



ULY 6, I912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



75 



MONTICELLO. lA.— The Cedar Rapids & Iowa City El. Co., Cedar 
apids, has applied to the Board of Supervisors of Jones County for 
srmission to erect transmission lines along the highways of the county, 
he company proposes to furnish electricity in Springfield and to the 
uarry owned by J. A. Green & Sons at Stone City. Application has 
(so been made for a similar franchise in Linn County. 
: SCHLESWIG, lA. — The citizens have voted to establish an electric- 
ght plant here. 

, WOODLAND, I A.— The Boone El. Co., Boone, has been granted a 
■anchise to install and operate an electric system here. 

ALMENA, KAN. — The City Council has purchased equipment for 
tt electric-light plant. An appropriation of $6,000 has been made to 
istall the system. 

HUTCHINSON, KAN. — ^A company has been organized to build an 
lectric railway from Newton north through Canton, Goessel and Rox- 
ury. It is proposed to use motor cars for passenger and steam for 
reight. T. H. McManus and Dr. Axtell, Newton, are interested. 

LAWRENCE', KAN.— The Lawrence Ry. & Lt. Co. contemplates extend- 
ig its transmrssion lines to Eudora, a distance of about 8 miles, to 
irnish electricity for street-lighting and commercial purposes. 

FRANKFORT, KY.— The Commercial Club is considering the installa- 
on of an ornamental street-lighting system in the business district, the 
xpense to be borne by the business men and property owners. E. H. 
rown is secretary of the Commercial Club. 

LOUISVILLE, KY.— The Louisville Bridge & Iron Co. has been 
warded the contract for the iron and steel work on the new power sta- 
ion of the Louisville Ry. Co. at Twentieth Street and High Avenue. 
"he total cost of the plant is estimated at $600,000. 

LOUISVILLE, KV. — The Louisville Ltg. Co. is contemplating extend- 
ig its transmission lines into Middletown, Anchorage and Jeffersontown 
f supply electrcity for lamps and motors. The cost of the extension is 
stimated at from $25,000 to $30,000. P. T. Glidden is general manager. 

MAYSVILLE, KY.— The Springdale & Tollesboro Mutual Co. is erect- 
ig a telephDne line from Springdale to Tollesboro. 

TAYLORSVILLE, KY.— The town of Taylorsville contemplates selling 

franchise for the installation of an electric-light plant here. Henry 
: Henry, who operate the Taylorsville rolling mills, it is said, expect to 
urchase the franchise and install an electric plant, 

NEW ORLEANS, LA. — 'The contract for the construction of Power 
louse No. 2 of the purification plant of the drainage system has been 
warded by the Sewer and Water Board to R. McCarthy, Jr., for $61,308. 
Equipment for the power house has been purchased. 

ANNAPOLIS, MD. — Sealed proposals will be received at the Bureau 
f Yards and Docks, Navy Department, Washington, D. C, until Aug. 3 
or installing (Complete an underground distribution system for electric 
ight, power and telephones at the Naval Academy, Annapolis. Plans and 
pecifications can be obtained on application to the bureau or to the 
uperintendent of the Naval Academy. William M. Smith is acting chief 
if bureau. 

HAGERSTOWN, MD.— The Hagerstown Lt. & Ht. Co. has applied to 
he Public Service Commission for permission to issue $1,500,000 in bonds. 
t is proposed to issue $350,000, the proceeds to be used for construction 
■f part of new plant and extension of distributing system. 

OAKLAND, MD. — Surveys are being made by H. A. Fisher, engineer, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., for the purpose of harnessing the Youghiogheny River and 
stablishing a large power plant at Swallow Falls, near Oakland. The pro- 
losed plant will cost about $2,000,000. Electricity generated at the plant 
vill be transmitted to Pittsburgh and other cities and towns in Pennsyl- 
vania, West Virginia and Maryland. 

BOSTON, MASS. — Bids for furnishing and installing electrical work 
n an office building, the annex to the city hall, which were to have been 
jpened July 1, have been withdrawn. The work will be readvertised 
ater on. Manus J. Fish is superintendent of public buildings. 

BOYLSTON, MASS.— At a special town meeting held June 24 the 
litizens voted to establish an electric-light plant at a cost of about $8,000. 
.t is proposed to erect a distributing system and to purchase electricity 
rom a private company. 

FRANKLIN, MASS.— The Union EI. Lt. Co., of Franklin, and the 
^oxboro El. Co. have been consolidated under the name of the Union 
^t. & Pwr. Co. 

LOWELL, MASS. — The Lowell El. Lt. Corpn. has obtained a permit 

build an addition to its plant, 100 ft. x 92 ft., two stories high, to 
ost about $15,000. 

LOWELL, MASS.— The Shaw Stocking Co. is installing a 1000-hp steam 
urbo-generator set to supply electricity to operate its works. The equip- 
nent includes new switchboard and motors. 

WOODBRIDGE, M.ASS. — Plans are being considered for the construc- 
ion of an electric railway between Woodbridge, Westville and Seymour, 
ohn W. Wetzel and S. H. Street are interested. 

ANN ARBOR, MICH.— The Eastern Michigan Edison Co. has awarded 
he contract for construction of its power house here to E. R. Decker & 
-0., Ann Arbor. The cost of the power plant is estimated at $100,000. 

ELKTON, MICH. — Bonds to the amount of $6,000 have been voted 
or the installation of a municipal lighting plant. 

ALBERT LEA, MINN. The Minnesota Gas & El. Co. has purchased 

1 site on which it will erect a new electric-light and power plant. 



AURORA, MINN. — The village of Aurora is contemplating the pur- 
chase of a motor-driven pump, centrifugal or impeller type preferred. 
The pump is to be operated by three-phase, 220-volt, 60-cycIe current 
against a 300-ft. head. J. H. Simons is superintendent of water and 
light department. 

DULUTH, MINN. — Arrangements are being made by the lighting 
committee of the West End Commercial Club for installation of an 
ornamental street-lighting system on Superior Street from Garfield Ave- 
nue to Twenty-second Street West. 

FOXHOME, MINN.— The Otter Tail Pwr. Co., Fergus Falls, has 
applied for a franchise to supply electricity here. 

LAKEFIELD, MINN.— The Northwestern EI. Equip. Co., Minneapolis, 
has been awarded a contract for one 75-kw Sprague generator for the 
municipal electric-light plant. 

LITCHFIELD, MINN.— The Mannah mill property and water-power 
has been purchased by a party of capitalists, who propose to develop the 
water-power and supply electricity in Eden Valley and Watkins. 

MOORHEAD, MINN. — Plans are being considered for the installation 
of a new turbine engine in the municipal electric-light plant, to cost 
about $20,000. J. F. Bastian is chief engineer. 

PIERZ,' MINN.— The Little Falls Wtr. Pwr. Co. of Minnesota, Little 
Falls, has submitted a proposition offering to supply electricity for lamps 
and motors here. It is proposed that the village erect a transmission 
line from Little Falls to Pierz, a substation and distributing system here, 
the cost of which is estimated at from $4,000 to $5,000. 

ST. PETER, MINN.— The Nicollet County Tel. Co. will soon begin 
work on the construction of a new telephone system in St. Peter to 
cost about $25,000. 

BRANSON, MO.— The Ozark Wtr. & Pwr. Co., it is reported, has 
taken over the Standish power project on the James River, 20 miles 
northwest of Hollister, and will build a third dam and storage reservoir 
at a point in the 35-mile bend of James River, 

ST. JOSEPH, MO. — Plans are being considered for increasing the 
output of the municipal electric-light plant and for extensions to the 
street-lighting system involving an expenditure of about $100,000. It is 
proposed to erect new lamps in the outlying districts. 

HARLEM, MONT. — Preparations are being made for the installation 
of an electric-light plant here. A company will be organized under 
the name of the Harlem El. Lt. Co. to construct and operate the same. 
Peter Mitchell is interested. 

HUNTLEY, MONT. — Steps have been taken toward the organization 
of a company for the purpose of building a power plant on the Yellow- 
stone River to supply electricity for lamps and motors here. 

BRUNING, NEB. — Plans are being prepared by the Alamo Engine & 
Supply Co., Omaha, for an electric-light plant and water-works system, 
to cost approximately $20,000. 

DESHLER, NEB. — Plans are being considered for the installation of 
an electric-light plant here. Local parties are said to be interested. 

GERING, NEB.— The Alamo Engine & Supply Co., of Omaha, will 
prepare plans for a new electric-light plant and water-works system for 
Gering. 

HOLMESVILLE, NEB.— The Holmesville Mill & Pwr. Co. is con- 
templating extending its transmission lines to Odell and Diller to supply 
electrical service in those places. 

MAGNET, NEB. — Work has begun on the construction of the power 
house for the proposed electric-light plant. 

MARQUETTE, NEB. — The city of Marquette is planning to con- 
struct an electric-light plant and water-works, to cost about $11,000. 
Bruce & Standevin, Bee Building, Omaha, Neb., are consulting engineers. 

NORFOLK, NEB. — The property of the Independent Tel. Co., which 
operates in Norfolk and vicinity, was sold at sheriff's sale to Theodore 
Parmalee. Plattsmouth, for $26,010. 

NORTH LOUP, NEB. — The installation of an electric-light plant and 
water-works is under consideration and plans are being prepared by the 
Alamo Engine & Supply Co., Omaha. The cost of the work is esti- 
mated at about $16,000. 

OMAHA, NEB. — The City Commissioners have signed a contract with 
the Omaha El. Lt. & Pwr. Co. for the erection of 122 flaming-arc lamps 
in the business district. 

SCOTIA, NEB.— The Alamo Engine & Supply Co., Omaha, is pre- 
paring plans for an electric-Hght plant and water-works system for 
Scotia, to cost about $15,000. 

WAHOO, NEB. — Sealed proposals will be received at the office of 
George E. Loder, city clerk, Wahoo, until July 9 for furnishing and 
installing machinery and apparatus for extension and improvement of the 
municipal electric-light system as follows: Sectionl — engine; section 2 — 
generator, exciter and switchboard. Bids will be received on one or both 
of the above-named sections. The cost of the work is estimated at $3,500; 
section 1, $1,350; section 2, $2,150. C. L. Mielenz is Mayor. 

FORT HANCOCK, N. J. — Contracts for the installation of an electric- 
light system at Fort Hancock have been awarded to W. M. Sheehan & 
Co., 114 Broadway, New York, N. Y., at $22,739, and to L. B. Jacobs, 
Newark, N. J., for $19,000. 

GLOUCESTER CITY, N. J.— Sealed proposals will be received at 
the office of commissioner. Immigration Service, Department of Com- 



76 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. i 



merce and Labor, port of Philadelphia, Pa., until July 10 for furnishing 
and installing an electric push-button lift in detention building at Glou- 
cester City, in accordance with plans and specifications, copies of which 
may be obtained from J. J. S. Rodgers, commissioner. 

HARRISON, N. J.— Plans have been filled by the Crucible Steel Co. 
with the office of the building inspector for a new power plant to be 
erected on its property near the Passaic River, to cost about $22,000. 

OCEAN GROVE, N. J. — Plans are being considered for the installation 
of an ornamental street-lighting system on the boardwalk and on streets 
leading to the walk. 

BUFFALO, N. Y. — Sealed proposals will be received until Aug. 5 at 
the LTnited States Engineer's office, 540 Federal Building, Buffalo, for fur- 
nishing and installing electric power and light lines and fixtures, telephone 
wiring and iron fences with gates at Block Rock Shiplock. Buffalo. For 
further information address Col J. C. Warren. 

HEUVELTON, N. Y.— The Town Board has awarded the contract for 
street lighting to the Hannawa Falls Watr. Pwr. Co. for one year at 
$11 per lamp per year. 

JOHNSTOWN, N. Y.— The Public Service Commission has authorized 
the Fulton County Gas & El. Co. to issue $36,000 in notes, the proceeds 
to be used for additions and improvements to its plant. 

NEW YORK, N. Y. — The contract for building the underground con- 
nection between the Brooklyn Bridge and the Centre Street loop under 
the municipal building has been awarded to the North Eastern Constr. 
Co. for $408,883. 

NEW YORK, N. Y.— Bids will be received by the Park Board, Depart- 
ment of Parks. Arsenal Building, Fifth Avenue and Sixty-fourth Street. 
New York, until July 11 for furnishing a combined 12-in. four-sided 
molding and planing machine, with directly connected electric motor and 
starting box complete, for the American Museum of Natural History. 
Blank forms may be obtained at the above office. Charles B. Stover is 
president of board. 

NEW YORK, N. Y. — Rids will be received by C. B. J. Snyder, superin- 
tendent of school buildings. Department of Education, corner Park Avenue 
and Fifty-ninth Street. New York, until July 15 for installing electric 
equipment in the addition to and alterations in Public School 43, on 
Brown Place, between 135th and 136th Streets, borough of the Bronx, 
also for installing electric equipment in the new Public School, No. 61, on 
East Twelfth Street, between Avenues B and C, borough of Manhattan. 
Blank forms, plans and specifications may be obtained at the above office. 

RAY BROOK, N. Y. — Sealed proposals will be received by Martin E. 
McClary, president board of trustees. New York State Hospital for In- 
cipient Tuberculosis, Ray Brook, until July 15, for installing one 50-kw 
direct-current dynamo and engine at the New York State Hospital for 
Incipient Tuberculosis, Ray Brook, N. Y. Drawing and specifications may 
be seen and forms of proposals obtained at the hospital and at the office 
of Herman W. Hoffer, state architect, Albany, N. Y. 

ROCHESTER. N. Y.— The Board of Contract and Supply has awarded 
the contract for stieet lighting to the Rochester Ry. & Lt. Co. for a period 
of five years, at $350,941 per year. 

ROCHESTER. N. Y.— The Rochester Ry. , & Lt. Co. will supply elec- 
tricity and steam heat for the new 16-story building of the Eastman 
Kodak Co. and the old building on State Street. About 1000 hp will 
be required by the Kodak company, which will be supplied from station 
No. 3. The railway and light company will install five new lead-covered, 
copper cables, each about 2 in. in diameter, from the station to the fac- 
tory, and will also install a 2000-hp new rotary converter. 

UTICA, N. Y. — Plans are being considered for installing a new light- 
ing system on Genesee Street and possibly other streets in the business 
district. 

WATKINS, N. Y.— The Elmira Wtr., Lt. & R. R. Co. has submitted 
another proposition to the Water and Sewer Commission offering to fur- 
nish electricity for the municipal electric-light plant. The company offers 
to deliver the energy at the municipal power house at 2], 2 cents per 
kw-hour. 

CHARLOTTE, N. C— Bids will be received at the office of the super- 
vising architect. Treasury Department, Washington, D. C, until Aug. 
2 for construction, including plumbing, heating apparatus, gas piping, 
electric conduits and wiring and interior lighting fixtures, of the exten- 
sion, remodeling, etc., of the United States post office and court house 
at Charlotte. Plans and specifications may be obtained at the above of- 
fice or at the office of the custodian, Charlotte. James Knox Taylor is 
supervising architect. 

HENDERSONVILLE. X. C— The Laurel Park Street Ry. Co. is con- 
templating the construction of a power plant, to cost about $20,000. The 
company is planning to discard its steam equipment and equip the road 
for electrical operation. 

•SPENCER, N. C— The Southern R. R. Co. is planning to install an 
electroplating plant in Spencer for its own use. The company proposes 
to make reflectors for its headlights. 

FARGO, N. D.— The Union Lt., Ht. & Pwr. Co. is contemplating 
extensions to its plant in this city involving an expenditure of about 
$85,000, which will include the erection of a gas holder for the gas plant, 
the installation of a new electric unit at the electric plant, extension of 
gas mains and enlarging the carhouses. The company also proposes to 
extend the street railway to Dilworth, which will cost about $70,000 more. 



The company is controlled by H. M. Byllesby & Co., Chicago, 111. M. L 
Hibbard is local manager. 

ASHTABULA, OHIO. — Contracts have been awarded for equipment fo 
the municipal electric-light plant as follows: Hoover, Owens, Reutschle 
Co., Hamilton, for engine, $12,500; Allis-Chalmers Co., Milwaukee, Wis 
for generator, $7,430, and Bates Machine Co., Joliet, HI., for wate 
heater. $785. 

CANTON, OHIO. — The Canton El. Co. has taken out a permit for th 
construction of a large addition to its boiler house. The new build 
ing will be 70 ft. x 110 ft. and will cost about $42,000. E. J. Landoi 
contractor, has charge of the work. 

CLE\"ELAND, OHIO.— Preparations are being made for the installi 
tion of a municipal steam-heating plant at the Fairmount pumping st: 
tion. 

COLUMBUS, OHIO.— All bids received for the cluster-lamp stree- 
lighting system have been rejected. The work will be readvertised. 

EAST ROCHESTER, OHIO.— The Eastern Ohio Tel. Co. has pet 
tioned the Public Utilities Commission for permission to issue $17,50 
in capital stock. 

FREMONT. OHIO.— The City Council has awarded the contract fo 
lighting the city to the Fremont Yaryan Co. for a period of 10 year* 
Under the terms of the contract the arc lamps now in use are to be rt 
placed with magnetite luminous-arc lamps and the number increased froi 
141 to 200. Work will begin on the installation of the new system as soo 
as possible. 

GENEVA. OHIO.- The United Lt. & Pwr. Co. is planning to enlarg 
its plant. New equipment will be installed. 

MARYSVILLE, OHIO. — Preliminary bids for estimates for improvi 
ments to the plant of the Marysville Lt. & Wtr. Co., to cost about $20,00( 
will be received until July 12. The Reliance Engineering Co., Fourt 
National Bank Building., Cincinnati, Ohio, has charge of the enginee; 
ing work. 

MIDDLEPORT; OHIO. — An election will be called to vote on ih 
proposition to issue $80,000 in bonds to establish a municipal electric-ligh 
plant and water-works system. 

REYNOLDSBURG. OHIO.— The State Board of -Agriculture has er 
gaged Dawson & Holbrook, Columbus, architects, to prepare plans for 
power house for the State Serum Farm, near Reynoldsburg. 

SANDUSKY, OHIO.— The Sandusky Gas & El. Co. has awarded cor 
tract for equipment for its plant, consisting of a 1500-kw turbine, 500-h 
boiler, feed-water heater, brick stack, etc. E. A. Bechstein is manager. 

KINGFISHER, OKLA.— Bids will be received by the City Commi; 
sioners until July 10 for the construction of an electric-light plant an 
for water- works extensions. Plans and specifications are on file at th 
office of tlie city clerk. Kingfisher, and the office- of the Benham Eng 
neering Co., 812 American National Bank Building, Oklahoma City, coi 
suiting and supervising engineer, 

PONCA, OKLA. — The contract for the construction of the municips 
electric-light plant has been awarded to the Tonkawa Constr. Co 
Tonka wa. The cost of the plant is estimated at $30,000. Burns « 
McDonnell. Kansas City, Mo., are engineers. 

SKIATOOK. OKLA.— Bonds to the amount of $3,000 have been vote- 
for the installation of an electric-light system. 

HAMMOND. ORE.— The City Council has granted George A. Robir 
son a 30-year franchise for the construction of an electric railway here. 

HOOD RIVER, ORE.— The Home Tel. Co. is planning to erect a ne\ 
exchange building on State Street. Charles Hall is president. 

BUTLER, PA. — Edward H. Wise, of Johnstown, has applied to th 
Council for a franchise to erect transmission lines in Butler. 

CONYNGHAM, PA. — The contract for street lighting has beei 
awarded to the Edison lU'g Co., Ashland, for a period of five years a 
$85 per lamp per year. Work will begin at once on the erection of thi 
system. 

NAZARETH, PA.- The control of the Nazareth El. Lt. & Pwr. Co 
and the Nazareth lU'g Gas Co. has been acquired by the Eastern Penn 
sylvania Pwr. Co., Easton. 

PHILADELPHIA. PA.— The Pennsylvania Equipment Co., West Enc 
Trust Building, Philadelphia, is in the market for a 400-kw to 500-kw 
three-phase, 60-cycle, 2300-volt generator. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA.— The Cruse-Kemper Co., Philadelphia, gas 
holder manufacturer, contemplates extensive improvements to its powe: 
house and shops. Hackett & Mora, Drexel Building, Philadelphia, Pa., 
are consulting engineers. 

CLINTON, S. C— The J. B. McCrary Co., Atlanta, Ga., consulting 
engineer, has been engaged by the City Council to take charge of the 
installation of the proposed power plant. The cost of the work is esti- 
mated at $18,000. Contracts for engines, boilers and generators have been 
placed. Other machinery will be purchased later. 

GREER, S. C— The City Council has engaged the J. B. McCrary Co., 
Atlanta, Ga., to prepare plans for proposed improvements to the electric- 
light system. 

SPARTANBURG, S. C— The City Council has granted P. J. Wood, of 
-Augusta, a 50-year franchise to supply electricity for lamps and motors. 

GARRETSON, S. D.— Bids will be received by H. C. Peterson, cit> 
auditor, until July 15, for furnishing and installing electric-light plant 



LY 6, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



n 



mplete, including poles and pole-line material, 40-hp combustion engine, 
hp generator, storage-battery switchboard, station wiring, etc. 
MILLER, S. D. — A special election will be called to submit the propo- 
ion for the city to purchase the electric plant of the Miller El. Co., 
be owned and operated by the municipality, to a vote. 
3H.M'TANOOGA, TENN.— Merrill B. Parker, Chattanooga, is plan- 
ig to install a power plant, the equipment to consist of a SO-kw gen- 
itor, four motors and a switchboard. 

CH.ATTANOOGA, TENN.— The Tennessee Hydro-Electric Co., which 
jposes large developments on the Clinch and Powell River, is now 
ating dam sites, surveying for right of way for transmission lines, etc. 
e largest dam and lock is to be located at Kingston, just above where 
; Emory River flows into the Clinch. The company proposes to supply 
ictricity in Chattanooga, Knoxville, Nashville and other smaller towns 
East Tennessee. J. S. Kuhn, Pittsburgh, Pa., and associates are said 
be interested. 

COLUMBIA, TENN.— The owners of the Ashton Roller Mills are 
inning to install a hydroelectric plant in connection with their dam 
Duck Riixr,' which is being raised. Arrangements are being made 
supply electricity in Columbia. 

G'REENEVILLE, TENN.— The Tennessee Eastern El. Co. has pur- 
jsed the property of the Greeneville El. Co. for $9,000. The Tennessee 
I. will begin work immediately on the construction of a dam on the 
)lachucky River. 6 miles south of here, and will develop about 20,000 
for transmission to Greeneville, Newport, Jonesboro, Johnson City 
d Erwin. 

fOHNSON CITY, TENN.— The Tennessee Eastern EI. Co., organized 
Warner, Tucker & Co., Boston, Mass., has purchased the property of 
Watauga El. Co. and the Johnson City Trac. Co., both of Johnson 
:y, and the plant of the Greeneville EI. Co., Greeneville. The company 
i also applied for franchises in Morristown, Erwin and Jonesboro. .\x- 
igements are being made by the company for the construction of a 
droelectric power plant on the Nolachucky River near Greeneville, 
ere about 20,000 hp will be developed. The construction of an electric 
erurban railway from Johnson City to Elizabethton, 10 miles, and to 
lesboro, 8 miles, and of a loop from the State Normal School to the 
diers' Home, is under consideration. W. V. N. Powelson, of New 
rk, N. Y., will prepare plans and have charge of construction work. 
Smith is manager of the Johnson City properties. 

■CNOXVILLE, TENN. — The Knoxville Welding Co. is in the market 
■ an electrically operated air compressor for use in connection with 

equipment of its new welding shop. 
vIORRISTOWN, TENN. — K movement is on foot among the citizens 
develop the water-power of a nearby stream to generate electricity to 
:rate an electric railway system and manufacturing plants. Applica- 
n will be made to Congress for use of power rights. J. B. Holloway 
1 W. C. Hale are interested. 

'RENDERG,\ST. TENN. — Steps have been taken by T. Morrow, Pren- 
gast, to organize a company to be capitalized at $100,000, for the 
■pose of building a 10,000-spindle mill. Electricity will be used as mo- 
j power. 

RUSKIN, TENN. — The Ruskin Cave College is in the market for a 
ond-hand 25-kw generator. R. I. Smith is president of the institution. 
:)ALLAS, TEX.— The jEtna Pwr. Co., of Chicago, 111., has been 
mted a permit to do business in Texas with headquarters in Dallas, 
e capital stock of the company is placed at $500,000. 
DALLAS, TEX.^The Union Terminal Co., which proposes to build a 
minal for several railways entering Dallas, including the construction 
car and locomotive repair shops, roundhouses, freight houses, train 
-■ds, passenger station and electric power plant, expects to begin work 
:hin 90 days. The power plant will supply electricity for lamps, heat 
1 motors for the yards and buildings. The work involves a total ex- 
■iditure of about $5,000,000. F. G. Pettibone is president. 
HOUSTON, TEX.— The Houston-Southern Trac. Co. has awarded a 
itract for the construction of an electric railway between Houston and 
xarkana, 242 miles long, to the Indianapolis Constr. Co. John Love- 
t and associates, of Houston, are interested in the company. 
SALT LAKE CITY. UTAH.— The Utah Lt. & Ry. Co. is preparing 
' extensive extensions and improvements to its system, which will 
/olve a total expenditure of about $650,000 and increase its total output 
about 16,000 hp. Contracts have been awarded for the construction 
two large reservoirs in Big Cottonwood Canyon and for material and 
uipment for the erection of a transmission line to Bingham for the 
rpose of supplying electricity to the Ohio Copper Co. Contracts have 
;o been placed for machinery for the two power plants in the canyon. 

RICHMOND, VA.— The committee on streets has recommended to the 
•uncil the ordinance granting the Richmond & Henrico Ry. Co. a 
inchise to supply electricity for lamps, heat and motors in Richmond. 

I BL.\INE, WASH. — The Farmers' Mutual Tel. Co. contemplates ex- 
I isivc improvements in its system, including the erection of a new ex- 
{ ange building. 

I CLE ELUM, WASH.— The Kittitas Ry. & Pwr. Co. has awarded the 
1 St contract for the construction of a hydroelectric power plant and 
ir an electric railway from Cle Elum to Salmon La Sac, a distance of 
' miles. The cost of the railway and power plant is estimated at 
Uut $1,750,000. 



EVERETT, WASH. — The construction of a garbage incinerator is 
under consideration. It is proposed to heat the salt water for the nata- 
torium and to furnish power to operate the machinery on the municipal 
docks from the incinerator plant. 

HOCKINSON, WASH.— The residents of Hockinson have offered the 
Washington-Oregon Corpn., Vancouver, a bonus of $12,000 to extend its 
electric railway from Sifton to this place. Hockinson has not a post 
office. 

NORTH YAKIMA, WASH.— Theodore Weisenberger, of this city, is 
interested in a project to reclaim a large area of arid lands in the 
lower Ahtanum valley by irrigation, either by gravity flow or by pump- 
ing from drilled wells by electricity. The plans include the develop- 
ment of water power at the head of Ahtanum Creek sufficient to supply 
Wiley City and the entire district with electricity for lamps and motors. 

SEATTLE, WASH.— The City Council has passed an ordinance appro- 
priating $500,000 to continue the work of erecting a masonry dam at 
Camp No. 2, in the Cedar River watershed. 

YAKIMA CITY, WASH. — The construction of an electric railway be- 
tween Yakima City and North Yakima, a distance of 5 miles, is under 
consideration. 

BARABOO, WIS. — The Baraboo Gas & El. Ltg. Co. has submitted a 
proposition to the City Council for the installation of an ornamental 
street-lighting system in the business district. It is proposed to dis- 
card the arc lamps now in use and erect tungsten lamps, to be fed by 
underground wires. 

EAU CLAIRE, WIS. — Plans are being considered by the city of Eau 
Claire, the Chippewa Valley Ry., Lt. & Pwr. Co. and the Dells Paper & 
Pulp Co. for the construction of a new flume at the Dells dam to replace 
the present flume, to serve the three parties receiving power from the dam. 
The city is planning to install new waterwheels at the pumping station. 

COWILEY, WYO. — The Wyoming El. Lt. Improvement Co. contem- 
plates the construction of electric-light plants in Cowley, Worland and 
Lovell, Wyo. Work will begin on the Cowley plant about Aug. 1. Frank 
W. Ditto, Gillette, is general manager. 

PORT ALBERNI, B. C, C.^N.— H. L. Gaskill, Lewis Crook and H. 
M. Hinricks have submitted a proposition to the City Council offering 
to install an electric-light plant if granted a charter. It is proposed to 
develop a water-power on Beaver Creek at the base of the Beaufort 
Mountains. 

MIMICO, ONT., CAN. — Plans are being considered by the Municipal 
Council and the Hydro-Electric Commission for extensive additions to 
the village lighting system. 

S.ARNI.-X, ONT., CAN. — The plant of the Sarnia Gas & El. Lt. Co. 
was destroyed by fire recently, causing a loss of about $100,000. 

TORONTO, ONT., CAN. — The Ontario Hydro-Electric Commission is 
contemplating building an extension of its transformer station on Garri- 
son Common. 

MONTREAL, QUE., CAN. — Work has been started on the plant of 
the Cedar Rapids Mfg. & Pwr. Co., at St. Joseph de Soulange on the 
St. Lawrence River. The power house will be 700 ft. long. The present 
plans provide for a generating capacity of 50,000 hp. Julien C. Smith has 
charge of construction of the plant: Henry Holgate is consulting en- 
gineer. 

B.\TTLEFORD, SASK., CAN. — Sealed tenders will be received by J. 
P. Marshall, secretary and treasurer, until July 10 for machinery and 
materials as follows: (a) for furnishing and installing two generators, 
exciters and switchboard; (b) for pumps and motors; (c) for construction 
of power house and reservoir; (d) construction of sewage-disposal works; 
(e) 4725 ft. 8-in. steel water pipe and specials; (f) trenching and laying 
water pipe, etc.; (g) two pneumatic storage tanks. Plans and specifica- 
tions may be seen at the office of the town engineer and electrical engi- 
neer, Battleford, and at the office of McArthur, Murphy & Underwood, 
consulting engineers. Saskatoon, Sask. 

KINDERSLEY, SASK., CAN.— Tenders will be received by D. Mac- 
Tavish, secretary and treasurer, Kindersley, until July 22 for furnishing 
the following machinery and materials: For 15,000 lin. ft. of 4.in. to 
10-in. steel pipe and special castings, or alternatively; 400 tons of 4-in. 
to 10-in. cast-iron pipe and special castings; 76 gate valves; 27 hydrants; 
pressure filters; 100,000-gaI. elevated tank; two return tubular boilers 
and stack; duplex pump, capacity 500 gal. per minute; 130-hp simple 
horizontal engine; steam piping; 75-kva alternator; cedar poles and 
transmission-line equipment for 12,000 ft. of line; 6000 lb. copper wire, 
and erection of pole line. Specifications and other information may be 
obtained at the office of the John Gait Engineering Co., 517 Portage Ave- 
nue, Winnipeg, Man. 

MOOSE JAW, S.\SK., CAN. — Sealed tenders will be received by the 
city commissioners. Moose Jaw, until Aug. 1 for furnishing one 500-kw 
steam-driven generating set. Specifications and all information may be 
obtained on application to J. D. Peters, electrical superintendent. Moose 
Jaw. 

OUTLOOK, S.\SK., CAN. — The contract for the installation of an 
electric-light plant has been awarded to the British Engineering & Sup- 
ply Co., Winnipeg. The equipment will consist of one 74-hp Ruston- 
Proctor suction gas engine and producer gas plant, with full electrical 
equipment. A by-law providing for an expenditure of $15,000 for a mu- 
nicipal plant was recently passed. 



78 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol 6o, Xo. 



New Industrial Companies 

THE ELECTRIC BLUE PRINT COMPANY, of Louisville, Ky., has 
been incorporated with a capital stock of $1,000 by S. B. Tinsley, H. A. 
Churchill anu others. The company proposes to manufacture blueprint 
paper to be developed by electric light. 

THE MARTIN MANUFACTURING COMPANY, of Fort Wayne, 
Ind., has been incorporated with a capital stock of $1,000 to manufacture 
and sell electrical heating and plumbing material and supplies. The in- 
corporators are: E. Martin, J. E. Martin and F. H. Kreigh. 

THE McFELL SIGNAL COMPANY, of Chicago, III., has been incor- 
porated with a capital stock of $50,000 by Judson McFell, Charles Greve 
and Willis Smith. The company proposes to manufacture and install all 
kinds of electrical appliances. 



Trade Publications 



New Incorporations 

WILMINGTON, DEL.— The Tyler City Lt. & Ry. Co. has been in- 
corporated ivith a capital stock of $325,000 under the laws of the State 
of Delaware. The incorporators are: G. M. Osgoodby, C. H. Warford 
and J. P. Hoban, Dayton, Ohio. 

WASHINGTO.N, ILL.— The Washington Home Tel. Co. has been char- 
tered with a capital stock of $45,000 by E. S. Sterritt, C. A. Camp and 
A. B. Cheadle. 

CLAY CITY, IND.— The Clay City Mutual Tel. Co. has been incor- 
porated with a capital stock of $10,000 by C. \V. Hurst, John Middlemas 
and S. L. Royer. 

KINGMAN, IND.— The Crawfordsville & Danville Interurban Ry. Co. 
has been granted a charter with a capital stock of $5,000 to build an 
electric railway from Crawfordsville, Ind., to Danville, 111., a dis- 
tance of 46 miles. The incorporators are: J. W. Black, Jesse Clove, 
N. R. Myers, E. G. McCormack, W. D. Gott, Charles McCabe, A. M. 
Boyd and W. A. Johnson. 

MONTPELIER, IND.— The Montpelier Trac. Co. has applied for a 
charter to build an electric railway from Marion to Montpelier. The 
company is capitalized at $15,000 and the incorporators are: C. L. Smith, 
A. H. Bonham, N. W. Lacey,.D. E. Binns and A. E. Townsend. 

NOBLESVILLE, IND.— The Noblesville Gas & El. Co. has been in- 
corporated by Cyrus R. Heath, Royland S. Truitt and Fletcher S. 
Hecath. The company proposes to furnish electricity in Noblesville and 
adjacent towns for lamps, heat and motors. 

WEST LEBANON, IND.— The Cadwallader Tel. Co. has been incor- 
porated with a capital stock of $100,000 by Ira Cadwallader, C. L. Mess- 
ner and J. H. Brenner. 

HOPKINSVILLE, KY.— The Christian-Todd Tel. Co. has been incor- 
porated with a capital stock of $1,000,000 by J. M. B. Hoxey, .\tlanta. 
Ga.; R. E. Cooper and F. G. Hoge, Hopkinsville; B. B. Petrie, Elkton, 
Ky., and J. B. Hoge, Cleveland, Ohio. The company proposes to take 
over a number of telephone properties in this section and consolidate 
them. Considerable improvements will be made. 

LEITCHFIELD, KY.— The Leitchfield El. Lt., Ht. & Pwr. Co. has 
been chartered with a capital stock of $10,000. The incorporators are: 
Walter D. Hodson, W. T. McCaskey and S. F. Seager. 

LOUISVILLE, KY.— The Campbell El. Co. has been incorporated with 
a capital stock of $50,000 by Herbert L. Harries, T. B. Wilson, Fred A. 
Noble and Isaac ^li'kewitch. The company will take over the electric- 
light plant recently purchased by H. M. Byllesby & Co., Chicago, from 
Pike Campbell, L/-".isville, for $50,000, which also included the Fifth 
Avenue Hotel. 

COOPER'S MILLS. MAINE.— The Sheepscot Valley Pwr. Co. has been 
granted a charter with a capital stock of $200,000 for the purpose of sup- 
plying electricity in Kennebec, Lincoln and Knox Counties. The directors 
are: Arthur R. Gould, Presque Isle, president and treasurer; Frank 
Keiser,, Rockland; Amos and F. Gerald, Fairfield, and Herbert W. Weeks, 
Jefferson. The company, it is understood, proposes to develop important 
power privileges at Cooper's Mills. 

PORTLAND, MAINE.— The Federal Lt. & Pwr. Co. has been in- 
corporated under the laws of the State of Maine with a capital stock 
of $2,000,000. The officers are: John H. Pierce, president; Ernest M. 
White, treasurer. Frederick J. Laughlin, Charles E. Gurney, Carroll B. 
Skillin and others are directors. 

BOSTON, MASS.— The South Carolina Lt.. Pwr. & Ry. Co. has been 
incorporated with a capital stock of $5,000,000. Herbert A. Wadleigh, 
of Winchester, is president and Wilbur Tusch, of New Y'ork, secretary 
and treasurer. 

LANSING, MICH. — The Independent Pwr. Co. has been incorporated 
with a capital stock of $200,000 by George W. Eyster, trustee; Alfred W. 
Watson and Fred H. Aldrich. The company will supply electricity for 
lamps, heat and motors in Genesee, Oakland, Shiawassee and Livingston 
Counties. It is understood that several dams will be erected during the 
year. 

BRUNSWICK, MO.— The Brunswick Lt. & Wtr. Co. has been in- 
corporated with a capital stock of $10,000 by John Myers, Jr.. L. H. 
Herring, George W. Cunningham, J. G. Bartow, H. L. Mann and John 
Myers. 



MOTORS. — The Holtzer-Cabot Electric Company, Brookline, Mas 
in its Bulletin No. 320B devotes its attention to type "QP" two-pha 
and three-phase induction motors, of which brief descriptions arc give 
Bulletin No. 330B has type "QS" as its subject. It contains a descri 
tion, several illustrations, diagrams and curves. 

CH.-MN LINKS.- — A folder with a sample detachable link chain is t 
ing sent out by the F. W. Wakefield Brass Company, Vermilion, Ohi 
The construction of the chain is such that the intersection of the lip wi 
the slot serves merely to hold the link in position, while all weight 
borne on the flat surface of the overlapping ends. 

EXHAUST STEAM.— "The Right Amount of Heat in the Right Pla 
at the Right Time" is the descriptive title of booklet "G," which com 
from the .American District Steam Company, North Tonawanda, N. 
It describes briefly the atmospheric system of steam heating which 
being adopted in many parts of the United States. 

OUTBREAK SWITCHES.— Bulletin 4910 of the General Electric Co 
pany is devoted to oil-break switches for 600-volt, 4500-volt and 7S00-V' 
alternating-current circuits, said to be liberally designed, conservativt 
rated and simple in construction and operation. Details of construct! 
are given as well as dimension and connection diagrams. 

ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN TOOLS.— Catalog No. 13, issued by t 
Stow Manufacturing Company, Binghamton, N. Y., is very complete 
to descriptive matter, illustrations and price lists relating to flexible shaf 
The company has recently got out a line of small electrically driven to- , 
for various purposes which have also found space in this catalog. j 

TELEPHONE SYSTEMS.— The Stromberg-Carlson Telephone Mai 
facturing Company, Rochester, New Y'ork, has brought out Booklet ^ 
310, relating to private telephone systems. The descriptive matter, print 
in green in a gray background, gives clear, concise information on 
subject matter. A chapter is devoted to code call and general alarm. 

HANGERS. — Ball-bearing hangers form the text for a 32-page pamph 
issued by the Hess-Bright Manufacturing Company, Twenty-first Str 
and Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. It shows the saving t 
may be effected through the elimination of friction by the use of b: 
bearing hangers. The booklet contains various tables of dimensions 

DAT.-\ BOOK. — The "Central Station Manager's Data Book," conta 
ing condensed specifications of the electric commercial vehicles ma: 
factured by the General Vehicle Company, Long Island City, has j 
made its appearance. Illustrations, data and little talks on the elect 
truck and its importance to the central station compose the text of 
book. 

CALORIMETERS.— The Roland Wild Calorimeter for determining 
heat value of solid fuel is described and illustrated in Bulletin G2 
sued by the Precision Instrument Company, 49 West Larned StT' 
Detroit, Mich. This company is also distributing reprints of an art 
by Mr. Jacques Abady on "Coal and Common Sense," in which c 
testing methods are fully discussed. 

HAWTHORNE ON POST CARDS.— A series of views of the H 
thorne works of the Western Electric Company has recently been 
ranged for post card use. The series consists of twelve cards show 
general views of the works, the imposing water tower, the teleph 
apparatus shops, the general merchandise warehouse and the interior 
the lead-press room in the cable plant, a view showing how cable cc 
are built up, a corner of the switchboard wiring department, the c 
department, an electric motor truck in the warehouse, the brass ba 
the lunch room, with a seating capacity of 3000, and one of the ant 
field-day events of the athletic association. 



Business Notes 



THE OTIS ELEVATOR COMPANY has moved its New York off 
to the Otis Elevator Building, Eleventh Avenue and Twenty-sixth Str 

NATIONAL ELECTRIC LAMP ASSOCIATION.— Mr. C. E. Wb 
formerly connected with the engineering department of the Natic 
Electric Lamp Association, Cleveland, will in the future represent 
Nelite Works of the General Electric Company in the States of Ohio ; 
New York. Mr. H. G. Gainer will cover the Southern territory. 

BURKE ELECTRIC COMPANY.— Mr. James R. Downs, who 
been with Burke Electric Company at Cleveland, is now manager of 
Pittsburgh sales office, 1301 Oliver Building. Mr. George F. Ada 
formerly associated with Mr. Downs at Cleveland, will remain in cha 
of the company's Cleveland sales office. 713 New England Building. 

FORD, BACON & DAVIS.— Announcement has been made of 
admission of Messrs. Charles F. Uebelacker, Charles N. Black and VI 
iam von Phul to partnership in the engineering firm of Ford, Bacoi 
Davis, New York. The firm is engaged in the design, construction ; 
operation of public-utility and engineering enterprises generally, includ 
urban and interurban electric railroads, elevated railroads and subwi 
electric-! ighting systems, hydroelectric and steam power plants, artifi 
and natural gas developments, and water storage, irrigation and reels 
tion projects. It has branch offices in New Orleans and San Francis 
each of which is in charge of a resident partner. 



ULY 6, igi2. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



79 



Directory of Electrical Associ- 
ations, Societies, Etc. 

Alabama Light & Traction Association. Secretary-Treasurer, Geo. 
Emery, 11 N. Royal St., Mobile. Ala. 

American Electric Railway Accountants' Association. Secretary, 
. E. Weeks, Davenport. la. 

American Electric Railway Association. Secretary, H. C. Donecker, 
ngineering Societies Building, 29 West 39th St., New York. Con- 
mtion, Chicago, 111., Oct. 7-11, 1912. 

American Electric Railway Engineering Association. Secretary, 
orman Litchfield, Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York. 

American Electrochemical Society. Secretary, Prof. J. W. Richards, 
ehigh University, South Bethlehem, Pa. 

American Electro-Therapeutic Association. Secretary, Dr. J. Wil- 
rd Traveil, 27 East 11th St., New York. Convention, Richmond, Va., 
ept. 3-5, 1912. 

American Institute of Consulting Engineers. Secretary-Treasurer, 
ugene W. Stern, 103 Park Ave., New York City. The Council meets 
e first Friday of every month. 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Secretary, F. L. 
utchinson, Engineering Societies Building, 29 West 39th St., New 
ork. Meeting, second Friday of each month, excepting June, July, 
ugust and September. 

American Physical Society. Secretary, Ernest Merritt, Cornell Uni- 
■rsity, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Arkansas Association of Public Utility Operators. Secretary, W. 
Tharp, Little Rock» Ark. 

Association of Edison Illuminating Companies. Secretary, H. T. 
igar, Seattle, Wash. 

Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers. Secretary, 
mes Farrington, Steubenville, Ohio. Annual convention, Milwaukee, 
is., Sept. 16-21, 1912. 

Association of Railway Electrical Engineers. Secretary, J. Andreu- 
tti, Chicago & Northwestern Railway, Chicago. 

Association of Railway Telegraph Superintendents. Secretary, P. 
. Drew, 135 Adams St., Chicago. 

Colorado Electric Club. Secretary, C. F. Oehlmann. Meets every 
lursday at Albany Hotel, Denver, Colo. 

Colorado Electric Light, Power & Railway Association. Secretary, 
D. Morris, 323 Hagerman Building, Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Electric Club, Chicago. Secretary, W. M. Connelly, 1417 Monad- 
ck Block, Chicago. Meets every Thursday noon. 

Electrical Contractors' Association of New York State. Secretary, 
10. W. Russell, Jr., 25 West 42d St., New York. 

Electrical Contractors' Association of State of Missouri. Secre- 
ry, Ernest S. Cowie, 1613 Grand Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 

Electrical Credit Association of Chicago. Secretary, Frederic P. 
Qse, Marquette Building, Chicago. 

Electrical Salesmen's Association. Secretary, Francis Raymond, 125 
ichigan Ave., Chicago. Annual meeting, Chicago, January each year. 

Electrical Trades Association of Canada. Secretary, William R. 
j avely. Royal Insurance Building, Montreal, Can. 

j Electrical Trades Association of the Pacific Coast. Secretary, 
Ibert H. Elliott, Harding Building, 34 Ellis St., San Francisco, Cal. 
onthly meeting, San Francisco, second Thursday of each month. 

Electrical Credit Association of Philadelphia. Secretary-Treas- 
■er. John W. Crum, 1324 Land Title Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. Execu- 
te Committee meets second and fourth Thursday of each month. 

Electric Vehicle Association of America. Assistant Secretary, 
arvey Robinson, 124 West 42d St., New York. Meeting, fourth Tues- 
ly of each month. Annual convention, Boston, Oct. 8-9, 1912. 

Electric Vehicle Association of America, New England Section. 
ecretary, W. E. Holmes, 46 Blackstone St., Boston, Mass. Meetings 
onthly upon notice. 

Electric Vehicle Club of Boston. Secretary-Treasurer, Leavitt L. 
dgar, 39 Boylston St., Boston, Mass. Meeting every Wednesday, 
3:30 p. m. 

Empire State Gas & Electric Association. Secretary, Charles H. 
'. Chapin, Engineering Societies Building, 29 West 39th St., New York. 

j Florida Electric Light & Power Association. Secretary, H. C. 
I dams, West Palm Beach, Fla. 

Gas, Electric & Strejet Railway Association of Oklahoma. Secre- 
' ry-Treasurer, Prof. H. V. Bozell, Norman, Okla. 



Illinois State Electrical Association. Secretary, H. E. Chubbuck, 
Peoria, III. 

Illuminating Engineering Society. Secretary, P. S. Millar, Engi- 
neering Societies Building, 29 West 39th St., New York. Sections in 
New York, New England, Philadelphia and Chicago. Annual convention, 
Niagara Falls, Ontario, Can., Sept. 16-19, 1912. 

Independent Electrical Contractors' Association of Greater New 
York. Secretary, A. Newburger, 1153 Myrtle Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Meetings second and fourth Wednesday, New Grand Hotel, New York. 

Indiana Electric Light Association. Secretary, J. V. Zartman, 120 
So. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Internal Combustion Engine Association. Secretary, Chas. Kratch, 
416 W. Indiana St., Chicago. Meetings, second Friday of each month. 

International Association of Municipal Electricians. Secretary, 

C. R. George, Houston, Tex. Convention, Peoria, III., Aug. 26-30, 1912. 
International Electrotechnical Commission (international body 

representing various national electrical engineering societies contributing 
to its support). Secretary, C. le Maistre, 28 Victoria St., Westminster, 
London, S. W., England. Next meeting at Berlin in 1913. 

International Association for Testing Materials. Secretary, H, J. 
F. Porter, 1 Madison Ave., New York. Sixth Congress, New York, 
Sept. 3-7, 1912. 

Institute of Radio Engineers. Secretary, E. J. Simon, 81 New St., 
New York. Next meeting, Columbia University, New York, Sept. 2, 
1912. 

Iowa Electrical Association. Secretary, A. W. Zahm, Mason City, la. 

Iowa Street & Interurban Association. Secretary, H. E. Weeks, 
Davenport, la. 

Kansas Gas, Water & Electric Light Association. Secretary, James 

D. Nicholson, Newton, Kan. Annual meeting at Manhattan, Kan., Oct. 
17-19, 1912. 

Louisiana Electrical Association. Secretary, W. H. Bower Spangen- 
berg, 627 Poydras St., New Orleans, La. Meets third Monday of eack 
pionth. 

Maine Electric Association. Secretary, Walter S. Wyman, Water- 
ville, Maine. 

Minnesota Electrical Association. Secretary, E. F. Strong, Chaska, 
Minn. Sixth annual convention March 15-22, 1913. 

Missouri Electric, Gas, Street Railway & Water Works Associa- 
tion. Secretary-Treasurer, P. W. Markham, Brookfield, Mo. Next 
convention at Mexico, Mo., 1913. 

National Arm, Pin & Bracket Association. Secretary, J. B. Magers, 
Madison, Ind. 

National District Heating Association. Secretary, D. L. Gaskill, 
Greenville, Ohio. 

National Electrical Contractors' Association of the United 
St.^tes. Secretary, W. H. Morton, 41 Martin Building, Utica, N. Y. 
Next annual convention, July 17-19, 1912, Denver, Col. 

National Electric Light Association. Executive Secretary, T. C. 
Martin, Engineering Societies Building, 33 West 39th St., New York. 

National Electric Light Association, Canadian Section. Secretary, 
T. S. Young, 220 King St. West, Toronto, Csn. 

National Electric Light Association, Commercial Section. Secre- 
tary, P. S. Dodd, 1823 E. 4Sth St., Cleveland, Ohio. 

National Electric Light Association, Eastern New York Section. 
Secretary, W. A. Wadsworth, Schenectady Illuminating Company, Sche- 
nectady, N. Y. 

National Electric Light Association, Georgia Section. Secretary- 
Treasurer, T. W. Peters, Columbus Railway Company, Columbus, Ga. 

National Electric Light Association, Michigan Section. Secretary, 
Herbert Silvester, 18 Washington Boulevard, Detroit, Mich. 

National Electric Light Association, Mississippi Section. Secre- 
tary, A. H. Jones, McComb City, Miss. 

National Electric Light Association, Nebraska Section. Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, S. J. Bell, David City, Neb. 

National Electric Light Association, New England Section, Sec- 
retary, Miss O. A. Bursiel, 149 Tremont St., Boston, Mass. Semi-annual 
convention, Boston, Oct. 10-11-, 1912. 

National Electric Light Association, Northwest Section. Secre^ 
tary, N. W. Brockett, Pioneer Building, Seattle, Wash. Annual conven 
tion, Portland, Ore., Sept. 11-13, 1912. 

National Electric Light Association, Power Transmission Section, 
Secretary, D. B. Rushmore, 234 Union St., Schenectady, N. Y. 

National Electrical Credit Association. Secretary, Frederic P. 
Vose, 1343 Marquette Bldg., Chicago. 

National Electrical Inspectors' Association. Secretary, W. L. 
Smith, Concord, Mass. 

National Electrical Supply Jobbers' Association. Secretary, Frank- 
lin Overbagh, 411 South Clinton St., Chicago, HI. 

National Fire Protection Association. Secretary-Treasurer, Franklin 
H. Wentworth, 87 Milk St., Boston, Mass. Next annual meeting New 
York, May 13-15, 1913. 



8o 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol 6o, Xo. i. 



National Independent Telephone Association. Secretary, Richard 
Valentine, Janesville, Wis. 

New England Electrical Ti!.\des Association. Secretary, Alton F. 
Tupper, 84 State St., Boston, Mass. Directors meet first Wednesday of 
each month. 

New England Street Railway Club. Secretary, John J. Lane, 12 
Pearl St., Boston, Mass. Meets last Thursday of each month. 

New Orleans Electrical Contractors' Assochtion. Secretary, L. G. 
Marks, 312 Carondelet St., New Orleans, La. Meetings, second and 
fourth Tuesday of each month. 

New York Electrical Credit Association (affiliated with the National 
Electrical Credit -Association). Secretary, Franz Neilson, SO Wall St., 
New York. Board of Directors meets second Thursday of each month. 

New York Electrical Society, Secretary, G. H. Guy, Engineering 
Societies Building, 33 West 39th St., New York. 

New York Electric Railway Association. Secretary, Chailes C. 
DietE, Albany, N. Y. 

Ohio Electric Light .Association. Secretary, D. L. Gaskill, Green- 
ville, Ohio. Next annual meeting. Breakers Hotel, Cedar Point. Ohio, 
July 16-19, 1912. 

Ohio Society of Mechanical, Electrical & Steam Engineers. Sec- 
retary, Prof. F. E. Sanborn, Ohio State University. Columbus, Ohio. 
Annual meeting, -Akron, Ohio, Nov. 21 and 22. 1912. 

Pennsylvania Electric .\ssociation (State Section N. E. L. A.). 



Secretary-Treasurer, Waller E. Long, 1000 Chestnut St.. Philadelphia, Pa, 
Annual convention, Bedford Springs, Pa., Sept. 4-6, 1912. 

PiTTSBLRGH ELECTRICAL BOOSTER Club. Recording Wattmeter. O. R 
Bombach, 919 Liberty .Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. Meetings, fourth Monday 
of each month. 

Rejlven.^ted Sons op Jove. Jupiter, R. L. Jaynes, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Mercury (Secretary), E. C. Bennett, St. Louis, Mo. 

Society for the Promotion of Engineering Edccation. Secretary 
H. H. N orris, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Southwestern Electrical & Gas Association. Secretary, H. S 
Cooper. 405 Slaughter Building, Dallas, Texas. 

Vermont Electrical -Associ-ation. Secretary-Treasurer, A. B. Ma» 
den, Manchester, Vt. 

Western -Association of Electrical Inspectors. Secretary, W. S 
Boyd, 76 West Monroe St., Chicago, 111. Convention St. Louis, Mo. 
Jan. 27-30, 1913. 

Western Society of Engineers. Electrical Section, formerly Chicagi 
Electrical -Association. Secretary, J. H. Warder, 1737 Monadnock Block 
Chicago. Regular meetings, first Friday of each month, except January 
July and -August. -Annual meeting, Tuesday after Jan. 1 each year. 

Wisconsin Electrical Association. Secretary, George Allison, St« 
phenson Building, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Wisconsin Electrical Contractors' .Association. Secretary, Alber 
Petermann, Milwaukee, Wis. Summer meeting, Waupaca and Chain-of 
Lakes, Wis., .\ugust. 1912. 



Weekly Record of Electrical Patents 



UNITED STATES PATENTS ISSUED JUNE 25, 1912. 
(Prepared by Robert Starr Allyn, 16 Exchange Place, New York.] 

1,030,293. OUTLET HUSHING: F. W. Erickson, New York, N. Y. 

App. filed Oct. 5, 1911. Spring conduit grip. 
1,303,302. GAS OR VAPOR ELECTRIC LAMP; P. C. Hewitt, New 

York, N. Y. -App. filed -April 9, 1904. Starting device. 
1,030,307. TRAIN-SIGNALING MECHANISM; H. and L. R. Jarvis, 

Buffalo, N. Y., and Toronto, Canada. -App. filed Sept. 10, 1909. 

To prevent landslides. 
1030,308. TELEPHONE INST-ALLATION; H. O. Kabitzsch, Hamburg, 

Germany. App. filed Sept. 11, 1911. Keyboard-operated device. 
1,030,327. C.ARBOSILICON: H. N. Potter, New Rochelle, N. Y. -App. 

filed March 22, 1904. Process of making. 

1.030.349. METALLURGY OF ZINC; C. V. Thierry. Paris. France. 
-App. filed Oct. 6, 1911. Volatilization and condensation of the prod- 
ucts. 

1.030.350. METALLURGY OF ZINC; C. V. Thierry, Paris, France. 
-App. filed Oct. 6, 1911. Furnace and process of volatilizing and 
condensing. 

1,030,368. SECONDARY ELECTRIC CLOCK; Theodore H. Wurmb 

and Robert Baumann, St. Louis, Mo. App. filed Aug. 29, 1910. 

Improvement upon electromagnet previously patented (Patent No. 

682,377). 
1,030.412. IMPULSE TRANSMITTER; J. W. Lattig, Rochester, N. Y. 

App. filed May 16, 1907. Automatic alarm or telegraph. 
1,030,415, RELAY AND CIRCUITS THEREFOR; R. H. Manson, 

Elyria, Ohio. App. filed April 25, 1907. Self-restoring drop relay 

for lamp signal toll boards. 

1.030.435. ELECTRICAL STARTING DEVICE; J. L. Schureman, Chi- 
cago, 111. -Xpp. filed -Aug. 21, 1908. Successive switch operation. 

1.030.436. RAILWAY SIGNALING SYSTEM; L. H. Thullen, Edgewood 
Park, Pa. App. filed May 16, 1904. -Alternating-current propelling 
and signaling circuits. 

1,030,441. CONT-ACT MAKER; J. F. Webb, Jr., New York, N. Y. App. 

filed Jan. 27, 1910. Contact wheel support. 
1 030,490. APPAR.ATUS FOR THE RECOVERY OF PRECIOUS 

MET.ALS; H. N. Potter, Hollywood, Cal. App. filed June 7, 1911. 

Separable, interchangeable, superposed amalgam containers. 

1.030.504. TELEPHONY: E. R. Corwin, Chicago, 111. -App. filed Jan. 13, 
1910. Intercommunicating systems, lock-nuts and signals. 

1.030.505. TELEPHONE SYSTE-M; E. R. Corwin, Chicago, 111. App. 
filed May 18, 1911. Intercommunicating with test switch signaling 
and lock-out. 

1030,509. TELEGRAPHING INSTRUMENT; C. C. Ferguson, New 
York, N. Y. App. filed April 4, 1911. Typewriter attachment. 

1,030,543. SYRINGE WITH ELECTRIC ATTACHMENT; L. R. Saun- 
ders, Los Angeles, Cal. .App. filed Feb. 16, 1908. Mechanical details. 

1,030,548. MOTOR-CONTROL SYSTEM; H. A. Steen, Milwaukee, Wis. 
-App. filed Sept. 6, 1910. Series switch progression control. 

1030 550. TELEPHONE INSTRUMENT; W. P. Stunz, Lansdowne, 
Md. -App. filed Sept. 29, 1910. Tone amplifier. 

1,030.551. TELEPHONIC INSTRUMENT INCLUDING TRANSMIT- 
TERS; W. P. Stunz, Lansdowne, Md. App. filed April 13, 1911. 
Granular carbon type. 

1.030.555. THERMOSTATIC TIME-ELEMENT DEVICE; N. Wilkin- 
son, Milwaukee, Wis. App. filed April 17, 1911. Snap action. 

1.030.556. DYNAMO-ELECTTRIC MACHINE; R. B. Williamson, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. -App. filed Oct. 6, 1909. Ventilation of ti'rbo-generators. 

1.030.557. DYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINE: R. B. Williamson, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. -App. filed June 27, 1910. To prevent circulating cur- 
rents through parallel connected windings. 

1,030,568. CIRCUIT-BREAKER; H. W. Cheney, Milwaukee, Wis. App. 
filed Feb. 1, 1911. Tripping mechanism. 



1,030,569. CONTROLLER; H. W. Cheney, Milwaukee, Wis. Ap| 

filed, March 4, 1911. Protective device for starting. 
1,030,571. BRUSH HOLDER; C. T. Crocker, Norwood, Ohio. Api 

filed June 16, 1906. For inclosed railway motors. 

1,030.574. INSULATOR-SUPPORTING DEVICE; C. G. Ette, S 

Louis, Mo. App. filed May 25, 1911. Multiple device for pol 

cross-arms. 

1,030,581. DYN.AMO-ELECTRIC MACHINE: A. M. Gray, Milwaukei 

Wis. App. filed Oct. 8, 1916. Self-starting synchronous machine. 
1,030,593. SWITCH; A. P. Loguin, West Allis, Wis. App. filed Jan. 1: 

1911. Hand-setting automatic breaker. 
1.030,595. TURBO CONSTRUCTION: E. Mattman, Milwaukee, Wi 

■ App. filed Dec. 21, 1908. Coil-retaining and protecting end cover. 
1,030,597. TROLLEY WHEEL; J. S. McCabe, Bridgeville, Pa. Apt 

filed June 12, 1911. Support and lubrication. 
1,030,617. ELECTRIC CONTROLLER; R. Van R. Sill, Newark, N. . 
-App. filed Sept. 5, 1907- Pilot motor and master switch synchronisn 
1,030,620. METHOD OF TRE.ATING CARBON ARTICLES OF L0\ 
INITIAL CONDUCTIVITY: E. C. Sprague and A. M. Williamsoi 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. -App. filed March 20, 1912. Electric furnace ( 
unbaked or green carbon electrodes. 
1,030,622. CIRCUIT CONTROLLER; T. G. Stiles, Arlington, N. 
App. filed May 25, 1910. Multiple plug contact type of drawbridg 
controller. 

1,030,641. APPAR.ATUS FOR SOLDERING METAL PIECES; A, ) 
Braden, Beverly. Mass. App. filed Dec. 9, 1909. Electromagnet 
holding and heating. 
1,030,645. MOTOR-CONTROL SYSTEM; H. W. Cheney, Milwauke 
Wis. App. filed Sept. 30, 1909. Starting apparatus for a number 
motors. 
1,030,650. ELECTRIC B.ATTERY; H. De Martis, London, Englan 
-App. filed Aug. 14, 1909. Electrodes ar*» separated by a woven veg 
table fabric. 
1,030,666. PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING INCANDESCEN' 
L-AMP FIL-AMENTS: H. Kuzel, Baden, Vienna, Austria-Hungar 
App. filed Dec. 15, 1905. Metalloid filaments in vacuo. 
1,030.670. TROLLEY WIRE CLEANING DEVICE: N. Malmgren, 1 
N. Todd and S. J. Watson, Canton, 111. -App. filed May 6, 1911. 1 
cut away sleet and ice. 
1,030,672. ELECTRIC HEATING SYSTEM FOR BOILERS: J. F. M 
Elroy, Albany, N. Y. -App. filed Sept. 16, 1908. Electric locomoti' 
with steam generating plant. 
1,030,684. TELEPHONE STAND; H. W. Schussler, Philadelphia, P 

-App. filed May 4, 1911. Stabilizing device and receiver holder. 
1,030,780. MULTIPLEN TELEGRAPH SYSTEM; J. F. D. Hoge, Ne 

York, N. Y. -App. filed -April 11, 1910. Call-box signaling. 
1,030.788. ELECTRIC SWITCH; H. L. Morey and F. S, Brogde 

Syracuse, N. Y. App. filed March 29, 1911. Push-button pendant. 
1,030,791. TROLLEY CATCHER: J. R. Ricketts, Longbeach, Cal. Ap 

filed July 27, 1909. Spring device for holding the trolley rope. 
1,030,798. BUSBAR-CONNECTING DEVICE: F. B. Adam, St. Loui 
Mo. -App. filed July 3, 1911. For clamping two bars at right angl 
to each other. 
1,030,811. POL-ARIZED REL-AY; W. S. Henry, Rochester, N. Y. Ap 

filed May 6, 1911. -Automatic insensitive device. 
1,030,817. BINDING POST FOR CONNECTING ELECTRIC CABLE! 
G. Honold, Stuttgart, Germany, App. filed Feb. 14, 1912. Explosio 
motor ignition device. 
1,030.850. LIQUID REHOSTAT; H. A. Steen, Milwaukee, Wis. -Ap 
filed Sept. 6, 1910. Cooling and circulating means with adjustab 
plates. 
13,432 (reissue). OUTLET BOX FOR ELECTRIC CONDUITS; W. . 
Bonnell, Brooklyn, N. Y. -App. filed July 20, 1910. Conduit conne 
tion. (Nineteen claims. Original Patent No. 921,584, dated May 1 
1909.) 



Electrical World 

The consolidation of Electrical World and Engineer and American Electrician. 



Vol. 6o. 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JULY 13, 1912. 



No. 2. 



PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY 

McGraw Publishing Company 

James H. McGraw, Pres, C. E, Whittlesey, Sec*y and Treas. 

239 West 39th Street, New York 
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Requests foi changes of address should give the old as well as the new 
address. Date on wrapper indicates the month at the end of which sub- 
scription expires. 



Notice to Advertisers, 

Changes in advertisements should reach the New York office ten days in 
advance of the date of issue. New advertisements are received up to 
Wednesday noon of the week of issue. 



Copyright, 1912, by McGraw Publishing Company. 
Entered at the New York Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter. 



The circulation of Electrical World for 1911 was 965,500. Of this issue 
17,500 copies are printed. 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY. JULY 13, 1912. 



CONTENTS. 

Editorials 81 

International Radio Telegraph Congress 84 

Patent Commission Asked for by Inventors Guild 84 

A. I. E. E. Affairs 84 

Massachusetts Decision in the United Shoe Machinery Case 85 

Chicago Traction Affairs 86 

Threatened Competition in Portland, Ore 86 

New York's Electrical Fourth 87 

Court Decision Affecting Parallel Telephone and High-Tension Lines 87 

Public Service Commission News 88 

Current News and Notes 89 

Hydroelectric Plant at Estacada, Ore 91 

Flexible Supports for Overhead Transmision Lines. By Alfred Still 97 
Simplified Sag Formulas for Overhead Wires and Cables. By H. V. 

Carpenter 101 

Electricity in the Household 103 

The Electric Vehicle and the Poor Man 103 

Every Central-Station Manager His Own Sculptor 103 

Old House Wiring in Baltimore 103 

Experiment in House Heating by Electricity 103 

The Rewiring of a Large Woodworking Establishment 104 

Wiring Old Houses. — I. By Terrell Croft 105 

Spectacular Illumination at Baltimore Convention 107 

Illumination of St. Louis Public Library. By G. T. Hadley 107 

Recent Telephone Patents 109 

Letter to the Editor: 

Oil Engines for Irrigation Service. By E. Owen 109 

Digest of Current Electrical Literature 110 

Book Reviews 113 

New Apparatus and Appliances 114 

Industrial and Financial News 119 

Weekly Record of Electrical Patents 128 



ANOTHER HYDROELECTRIC PLANT FOR PORTLAND. 

Historically, Portland, Ore., was one of the first cities 
to be lighted from a high-voltage alternating-current sys- 
tem, the generators of which were operated by water power. 
The 3000-volt single-phase machines which sent energy into 
Portland were located at the falls of the Willamette, where 
a little deflecting dam, perched on the top of the natural 
rampart, turned water into the turbines. Three or four 
years later these machines were replaced by 6ooo-volt, 
three-phase generators in a new hydroelectric plant near 
the same spot. These were the first three-phase generators 
of anywhere near such voltage put into use in America. 
Later other hydraulic resources were developed, and at the 
present time Portland is well supplied with electrical energy. 
The latest plant near Portland is the one at Estacada. about 
30 miles from the city and a little below the Cazadero de- 
velopment on the Clackamas River. 

The power house is of reinforced concrete. It contains 
at present three units of the five which it is designed to 
contain ultimately. Each generator is connected to a pair 
of 51-in. turbines with bronze runners, one left-handed, the 
other right-handed, so that they utilize a common discharge 
pipe. The speed of the turbines and generators is 240 r.p.m. 
under 8i-ft. head. The electrical equipment is well planned 
and contains some interesting features, but it is in no 
wise as striking in its characteristics as the hydraulic 
features. From a hydraulic standpoint the dam is inter- 
esting as being one of the few examples of the Ambursen 
reinforced concrete type yet erected in the western portion 
of our country, although for some years this construction 
has been familiar in the east. It was located after a careful 
study of the hydraulic conditions and the site selected was 
one that particularly lent itself to easy construction. A 
somewhat unusual feature is the thoroughness with which 
the foundations were protected. A cut-off wall was run the 
whole length of the dam and below the cut made for this 
three rows of holes were drilled on about 6-ft. centers, 
approximately 50 ft. below the cut-ofif wall itself. Through 
pipes inserted in these holes the whole subfoundation was 
grouted under about 200 lb. pressure per square inch for 
the purpose of checking seepage and possible erosion below 
the foundation line. After the completion of this work test 
holes showed that the seepage had been practically stopped. 

The results obtained from the water wheels are rather un- 
usual. They were guaranteed for 82.5 per cent efficiency at 
three-quarters load. The generators had been tested before 
they were shipped and from their test data the wheel 
efficiencies wer determined. The result was highly grati- 
fying, since at three-quarters gate opening the wheels 
actually showed 84.5 per cent efficiency, a result which very 
closelv checked a direct test of one of the runners made at 



82 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol, 6o, No. 2. 



the Holyoke flume when 84.0 per cent was obtained. These 
turbine data, like others of recent date, indicate that con- 
siderable progress has been made^in improving the efficiency 
of water wheels throughout a considerable range of load. 
Although containing few innovations, the installation as a 
whole is a most workmanlike addition to the electrical re- 
sources of a territory already enriched by a group of im- 
portant plants. 

A CHECK ON BELOW-COST MUNICIPAL CHARGES. 

The Massachusetts Gas and Electric Light Commission 
has deprived us of what might have been an example of how 
a municipality can supply electrical energy "cheaper"' than 
central stations supply it. We refer to the action of the 
commission in the Groton case, reported in the Electrical 
World. July 6, page 10. Groton's cost of production, accord- 
ing to a calculation for the year ended March i, is 16.43 
cents per kw-hr. This figure includes operating expense, 
interest on the investment at 3% per cent and depreciation 
at 5 per cent. In the face of this cost figure, the town 
petitioned for a permit allowing it to sell energy for com- 
mercial lighting at 12 cents per kw-hr. In addition to 
pointing out the fact that such a course would be contrary 
to law. the commission in refusing the petition makes the 
common-sense observation that "a supply to private con- 
sumers for less than cost compels all other taxpayers, many 
of whom may be unable to obtain the service for their own 
use. to pay for the special advantages enjoyed by a few." 

The commission has done only its plain duty under the 
laws of the state and the unwritten laws of good public 
policy, but with a vote of the town in favor of the below- 
cost proposition, as there was in this instance, a commission 
with less backbone and unsound notions of its real obliga- 
tions to the public might easily have found the means of 
letting the people have their own way, right or wrong. 
With a clear understanding of what "cost" means— such as 
was arrived at in the Groton case — and with an equally 
clear conception of what it means to the whole community 
when a part of it obtains public service for less than the 
whole community pays, we get closer to the actualities and 
farther away from the chimeras of municipal ownership 
and operation. 



our free American spirit has so long encouraged. The ex- 
periment of substituting electrical illumination for fire- 
works was well conceived, and met with conspicuous suc- 
cess this year in a notable demonstration in New York City. 
Credit is reflected upon both the city officials and the man- 
agers of the New York Edison Company for the co-opera- 
tive spirit in which the idea was carried out in the public 
parks and on a few of the municipal buildings. In every 
sense the use of display illumination on so large a scale, 
and on such an occasion, is a welcome event. It widens 
the field of usefulness for the central station and tends to 
bring the public, the city officials and central station man- 
agers into closer harmony and mutual appreciation. The 
last result is almost as important, in its way, as the new 
role which awaits the central station in the conservation of 
life and limb. \\'e feel that in not pointing out the central- 
station aspect of this important movement we should miss 
our opportunity to aid a cause which needs universal 
support. 



THE CENTRAL STATION AND THE SANE FOURTH. 

A trend of the times which carries with it an opportunity 
for progressive central station managers to show their 
public spirit is seen in the rapid acceleration of the Sane 
Fourth movement. This year the Fourth of July fatalities 
were reduced to seventeen, compared with fifty-seven a 
year ago and 131 the year previous to that. Thus the 
tradition that patriotism is a matter of gunpowder and 
noise is happily passing, and it is evidently not too much to 
hope that Independence Day will some time become a blood- 
less affair. But the need of a healthy substitute for the 
traditional methods of celebration has long been obvious. 

For generations we have been taught that the "Glorious 
Fourth" is a day for celebration, and the problem is how 
to preserve the spirit of the occasion and its historical sig- 
nificance, with none of the w^arlike demonstrations which 



HONOFOLIES AND PATENTS. 

The refreshingly clear decision handed down last week 
by the Massachusetts Supreme Court in the case of the 
United Shoe Machinery Company vs. Chapelle, and re- 
ported elsewhere m this issue, draws a sharp distinction 
between the monopoly granted by a patent and the monopoly 
formed by purchasing or controlling substantially a whole 
chain of patents covering a particular art. The former 
bestows upon the inventor the right to exclude all others 
from the enjoyment of his discovery for a specified term, 
but to use the language of the decision — "The monopoly 
protected by the patent goes no further than the invention 
and contractual obligations attached to it." While a 
patentee may annex any condition to the sale of his inven- 
tion, and may place the users of it under numerous obliga- 
tions, the monopoly created thereby is conferred solely by 
the patent. 

On the other hand, a combination of patents, formed by 
purchase or control, for the purpose of extinguishing com- 
petition and establishing a monopoly, is subject to all the 
restrictions of law that apply to similar combinations of 
anything else — such as oil or tobacco. The same tests to 
determine legality apply to combinations of patents, accord- 
ing to this decision, as apply to any other combination. 
Thus conditions and combinations are not the same, but the 
difference is distinguishable in degree rather than substance. 
On this point the decision says, with admirable clearness: 
"Conditions annexed by the patentee to the enjoyment of an 
invention are legal even though resulting in an extended 
monopoly. Combinations among patentees resulting in an 
extended monopoly are illegal." The principal questions 
raised in this case, whether the plaintiff is in fact an illegal 
combination in restraint of trade and has monopolized in- 
terstate commerce and trade, and whether the contract in 
evidence is in direct aid of such a monopoly, are subject to 
review by the Federal courts, and a different interpretation 
is within the possibilities. But for clearness and saneness, 
coupled with an attitude of mind quite in accord with the 
spirit of the times, the Massachusetts decision stands out 
as a beacon light. 



fuLY 13, igi2. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



83 



HAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC ALLOYS. 

The subject of permanent magnetism is of great interest 
from many points of view. From a practical standpoint, a 
large and increasing number of electrical instruments utilize 
and depend upon the magnetic constancy of permanent mag- 
nets. Every consideration affecting the constancy under 
mechanical, thermal and magnetic disturbance becomes 
noteworthy to the manufacturer and employer of such in- 
struments. Moreover, every consideration affecting the 
available strength of permanent magnets under chemical 
and physical change of material is equally noteworthy, 
as offering opportunities for securing simpler, cheaper, 
lighter or nnore reliable magnets. Some of the factors here 
mentioned were discussed by Prof. S. P. Thompson in a lec- 
ture before a recent meeting of the British Institution of 
Electrical Engineers at Glasgow on the magnetism of per- 
manent magnets, as noted in the Digest in this issue. 

The most important magnetic property desired in a per- 
manent magnet is coercive force, or that value of the mag- 
netic intensity which must be applied to the sample con- 
sidered of a previously magnetized substance in order to 
reduce its remnant magnetism to zero. In soft iron or 
steel the coercive force may be only one or two gilberts per 
centimeter, while in glass hard steel it may be seventy or 
more. In a closed ring of magnetized steel the demag- 
netizing force is very small, so that even very soft iron of 
weak coercive force may retain a powerful residual mag- 
netic flux density if preserved in the form of a closed ring. 
When, however, the ring is opened at one or more air-gaps 
the residual magnetic flux passing through the magnetic 
resistance of each air-gap, produces a back mmf in sub- 
stantially the same manner as a current in the electric cir- 
cuit passing through an electric resistance produces a back 
emf. The back mmf divided by the length of the magnet 
gives as a quotient the average value of the demagnetizing 
force in the substance of the steel. If this exceeds the 
:oercive force the magnetization collapses until the re- 
duced flux yields a demagnetizing force everywhere lower 
than the coercive force. Hence long magnets are able to 
sustain a more powerful magnetic flux-density than are 
short magnets of the same air-gap dimensions. 

Much depends upon the thermal treatment of a magnet 
apparently for two reasons, the first being that at certain 
temperatures the carbon in iron, an almost inevitable im- 
purity, enters into chemical combinations with the iron, or 
with other alloyed impurities which combinations markedly 
affect the magnetic properties of the final alloy; and the 
second that in slow cooling both chemical and physical or 
crystalline changes occur in the structure. A steel, sud- 
denly quenched at a high temperature tends to retain the 
chemical condition of that temperature more closely than 
if allowed to cool slowly. 

The effects of thermal treatment on the properties of 
magnetic alloys were also prominently brought forward in 
a discussion on that subject recently held before the 
Faraday Society in London and reported in this week's 
Digest. Some of the Heusler alloys, of aluminum-man- 
ganese bronze, are found to be either magnetic or non- 
magnetic according to their previous thermal treatment 
history. The behavior of these alloys is as yet only im- 



perfectly understood. It is believed, however, that certain 
chemical combinations entered into by the constituent sub- 
stances of the alloy are molecularly magnetic, so that each 
molecule of that combination is a little permanent magnet. 
Changes of temperature affect the stability of these com- 
binations and thus alter the magnetic properties of the mass. 
According to this view a molecule that is inherently mag- 
netic may consist either of like atoms — such as those of 
iron, nickel and cobalt — or of unlike atoms in some kind of 
chemical union, such as manganese and aluminum. Much 
further investigation is needed in these fascinating fields of 
study. 

SAG STRESSES IN OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINES. 

The rapidly increasing use of tower construction for long 
transmission lines and the disappearance of American 
forests are calling for increased engineering attention to 
the mechanical problems involved in long spans. These 
problems fall into two classes, the first dealing with the 
proper support of the normal line span, and the second with 
insurance against extensive damage in case of an accidental 
rupture of the line at a particular span. The first class of 
problems relates to the proper sag and tension of line-wires 
when erected, as well as the proper construction of steel 
towers capable of sustaining the spans. The second class 
relates to the proper structure of the towers to withstand the 
unbalanced tensions due to a breakdown in some one span. 

The article by Mr. H. V. Carpenter, on page loi of this 
number, is a contribution to the first class of the above 
division. It attacks the problem of finding the proper sag 
to allow on a warm summer day when erecting a trans- 
mission conductor in place over a given span in order that 
it may withstand a moderate transverse gale, when covered 
with a layer of sleet. In the frontal attack on this problem 
the required tension is represented in a cubic equation with 
all its terms, while the required sag involves a cubic equa- 
tion with its second term missing. The article takes advan- 
tage of the well-known tractability of such mutilated cubic 
equations, by giving a convenient plan of approximating the 
required cube root with the aid of a slide rule. Since it is 
often more convenient to erect line wires by dynamometer 
tension, than by sag, the full cubic equation comes up for 
solution, and the article provides a graphic chart for the 
purpose which should prove very convenient for use after 
the sag has been determined. 

The article on page 97 by Mr. Alfred Still deals with 
the second class of the above-mentioned problems. The 
author discusses the conditions that present themselves in 
a line of more or less flexible towers when one or more 
conductors break in a single span, thus destroying the ten- 
sion equilibrium along the line. It is desirable that the 
poles adjoining the break should be sufficiently flexible to 
yield elastically away from the broken span without being 
thereby damaged or destroyed. As the author points out, 
the immediate effect of a rupture in any span is to set up 
longitudinal oscillations in the line, during which the stresses 
are likely to reach momentary maxima well in excess of 
those maintained afterwards in the steady state. The 
steady state problem is, however, the only one to consider in 
the imediate effects of a rupture in any span is .d set up 



.84 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. 2 



INTERNATIONAL RADIO TELEGRAPH CONGRESS. 



It has been decided to hold the next International Radio 
Telegraph Conference at Washington, D. C, in 1919. The 
leading points in the recommendations adopted at the 1912 
International Radio Telegraph Conference in London are as 
follows: Regulations to prevent interference in crowded 
areas and designed to make wireless telegraphy of the 
greatest possible use in saving life and property at sea, and 
making it also more valuable commercially. Every hour 
all ships must remain silent for ten minutes, listening for 
distress calls. A distress ship is to -control the magnetic 
field of her radius, and should many ships answer her dis- 
tress call she shall determine which is to remain silent, 
thereby avoiding confusion. 

During the sessions, lasting one month, the proposals sub- 
mitted by the United States were received with great in- 
terest and were generally accepted, particularly the pro- 
visions tending to insure safety at sea, compulsory inter- 
communication between all systems, and the reporting of 
meteorological data. 

Weather observations are to have the right of way over 
commercial dispatches. 

The following wave lengths were adopted for commercial 
business : Short and medium distances, 300 to 600 meters ; 
longer distances, 1800 meters. The military interests of 
Great Britain and France prevented the adoption of the 
American proposal for a general commercial wave length 
of 800 meters. 

The congress adopted an elaborate code governing the in- 
terchange of business between rival wireless companies, 
which are no longer to be permitted to disregard each other. 

The Russo-American combination against Great Britain's 
claim to six votes in the conference on account of her 
colonies has resulted in the more important powers receiving 
equality of votes. Thus at future congresses the United 
States, Great Britain, Russia, Germany and France are each 
to have six votes, Italy is to have three, Spain and Portugal 
two each and the other nations one each. 

Following the close of the conference on July 5 the dele- 
gates were entertained by Dr. and Mrs. William Marconi 
at Cedarhurst, their country home, near the Isle of Wight. 
The o-uests were conveyed by special train between London 
and Southampton. A luncheon at Cedarhurst and a cruise 
on the Solent were among the entertainment features. 



PATENT COMMISSION ASKED FOR BY INVENTORS 
GUILD. 



At a recent meeting of the Inventors' Guild held in 
New York the following resolutions recommending the ap- 
pointment of a Patent Commission was considered and 
adopted : 

"Whereas, The Inventors' Guild, composed exclusively of 
independent and experienced inventor-patentees, in Novem- 
ber. 191 1, petitioned President Taft to recommend to Con- 
gress that appropriate action be taken by him to secure the 
appointment of a commission, or its equivalent, which com- 
mission should consider the patent system of the United 
States with the object of accomplishing needed reforms m 
the Patent Office and in courts which hear and decide patent 
causes; and 

"Whereas, President Taft upon May 10. 1912, sent a 
special message to Congress requesting authority to appoint 
a commission to investigate and report upon such reforms, 
if any, as may be needed in connection with the United 
States Patent System. 

"Resolved, The Inventors' Guild does hereby by unani- 
mous vote give expression to its unqualified endorsement of 
the policy of President Taft looking to the appointment of 
a comnission to thoroughly investigate this intricate and 



important subject before the passage of legislation. And th( 
Inventors' Guild respectfully makes the suggestion tha 
such a commission should be one upon which there shouk 
be representatives of all important interests affected by thi 
Patent System, such as the general public, the inventors, thi 
manufacturers, the courts and the patent lawyers; and tha 
the general public should have the greatest number of rep 
resentatives upon the commission, inasmuch as modifica 
tions in the patent laws and court procedure should be mad' 
only in order to promote the general welfare of the Unites 
States, regardless of the interests of special classes, such a 
inventors, manufacturers, court officials, patent lawyers, etc 
"Resolved, That a copy of this resolution and of tli' 
resolution which the Inventors' Guild addressed to th< 
President upon Nov. 24, 191 1, be sent to every member 
Congress." 



A. I. E. E. AFFAIRS. 



A meeting of the board of directors of the America 
Institute of Electrical Engineers was held at Boston on Jun 
27 in connection with the annual convention. The director 
present at the meeting were : President Gano Dunn, Ne\ 
York; Vice-presidents Morgan Brooks, Urbana, 111.; W.C 
Carlton and Percy H. Thomas, New York; Managers A. W 
Berresford, Milwaukee, Wis.; W. S. Murray, New Havei 
Conn. ; H. H. Norris, Ithaca, N. Y. ; S. D. Sprong, H. I 
Barnes, Jr., and Charles E. Scribner, New York; N. W 
Storer, Pittsburgh, Pa., and W. S. Lee, Charlotte, N. C 
and Secretary F. L. Hutchinson New York. 

Upon recommendation of the law committee, the by-law 
relating to the transfer of present associates and member 
under the special section of the constitution as adopted 
May 21, 1912, were modified to eliminate the requiremen 
that the names of applicants and their certifiers be publishe 
prior to their transfer; the provision of publication, how 
ever, after transfer, was retained. 

Immediately following the adoption of this modificatio 
of the by-laws, Mr. Ralph D. Mershon, president-elect, wa 
unanimously transferred to the grade of fellow, thus becoiti 
ing the first fellow of the American Institute of Electrics 
Engineers. 

The members of the board of examiners, Messrs. W. C 
Carlton, Maurice Coster, A. F. Ganz, W. I. Slichter an 
P. H. Thomas, were next transferred to the grade of fellov 
in order that they may be eligible to serve on this importan 
committee until the expiration of the present administrativ 
year on July 31, 1912. Vice-president Thomas requested th 
privilege of taking the chair, and President Gano Dunn wa 
then unanimously transferred to the grade of fellow. I 
addition to the foregoing, the following members, core 
posing, with the names mentioned above, all whose applica 
tions for transfer were in complete form, were also trans 
ferred to the grade of fellow : Messrs. Henry Floy, Georg 
Gibbs, Gary T. Hutchinson, William McClellan, H. St. Clai 
Putnam, L. T. Robinson, George F. Sever, Frank J. Spragu 
and Charles P. Steinmetz. One hundred and seven ap 
plicants were elected associates of the Institute, thirty-tw 
students were ordered enrolled, and fifteen men were trans 
ferred from the grade of associate to that of member. 

The following resolution was adopted : 

"Whereas the memorial of the conferees on a Genera 
Engineering Congress prepared at the conference in Sa: 
Francisco on Jan. 15, 1912. has been before the board 
directors of the American Institute of Electrical Engineer! 
together with the report of Mr. Calvert Townley, dated Jun 
10, communicating the result of an informal conference 01 
the same subject between representatives of the nationa 
engineering societies in New York, it was 

"Resolved, on recommendation of the committee on organ 
ization of the International Electrical Congress, San Fran 
Cisco. 1915. that the following resolutions be adopted an^ 



ULY 13, 191 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



8s 



ransmitted to Prof. W. F. Durand, president, and Mr. Otto 
'^on Geldern, secretary, of the San Francisco Conference 
f Jan. 15 on the General Engineering Conference. 

"Whereas the ne.xt International Electrical Congress 
laving been awarded in September, 191 1, to the United 
itates by the International Electrotechnical Commission 
nd by the International Electrical Congress of Turin, upon 
he request of the American Institute of Electrical En- 
gineers, with the understanding that it should be held in 
jan Francisco in September, 1915, the American Institute 
if Electrical Engineers is under obligations to carry out the 
ilans for holding such a congress along the lines originally 
aid down by the commission, and is therefore unable to 
iierge this congress with the General Engineering Congress 
iroposed later in the year by representatives of various 
lational engineering societies in San Francisco. The 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers reiterates the 
losition taken by its board of directors on Jan. 12, 1912, at 
vhich time it appointed delegates to the General Engineer- 
ng Congress Conference, Messrs. H. A. Lardner, George R. 
vlurphy and S. J. Lisberger, and instructed them to inform 
he conference that, while unable to merge the electrical 
vith the general congress, it would be glad, so far as might 
le compatible with its obligations to the electrical congress, 
ordially to co-operate in the organization and conduct of 
he General Engineering Congress and to participate in its 
irogram. It was therefore 

"Resolved, That in response to the memorial of the con- 
erence on the General Engineering Congress, the American 
nstitute of Electrical Engineers stands ready to concur in 
nd to co-operate with whatever form the movement of the 
'ther societies may take, in so far as this co-operation is 
•ossible and consistent with its obligations already referred 
in connection with the International Electrical Congress 
f San Francisco, 191 5. To this end, although it is not 
easible in view of the large financial and other responsi- 
ilities undertaken by the American Institute of Electrical 
ilngineers in connection with the Electrical Congress and 
he accompanying meeting of the International Electro- 
echnical Commission to participate to the extent suggested 
■y the conference of June 10 of representatives of the 
lational engineering societies in New York, which assigned 

the American Institute of Electrical Engineers a partici- 
lation equal to that of the American Society of Civil En- 
;ineers and amounting to a guarantee of $9,000, with the 
irivilege of having six representatives on the joint board 
if control of the congress, the American Institute of Elec- 
rical Engineers, nevertheless, hereby is glad to undertake, 
ipon notification of the co-operation of the other societies 
n question, to guarantee an amount up to $3,500 of the 
leficit or expense that the General Engineering Congress 
nay incur, and to ask in view of this reduced participation 
he privilege of having only two instead of six representa- 

j ives upon the governing board of the General Engineering 

1 Congress." 

' It was voted that the official badge for the grade of fellow 
ihall be blue, similar to the present badge for the grade of 
nember, and the president was authorized to appoint a com- 
mittee of three to recommend a suitable design for a badge 
'or the grade of fellow and such modifications as might be 
ksirable for the member's badge. President Dunn, on con- 
mltation with President-elect Mershon, appointed as mem- 
)ers of this committee Messrs. Charles W. Stone, chairman, 
W. S. Rugg and Charles E. Scribner. 

Owing to the fact that under the constitution the terms 
)f all members of Institute committees expired at this board 
neeting, the President was authorized to reappoint all 
aresent committees to serve until the close of the present 
administrative year on July 31, 1912. 

After an active discussion of the memorial of the St. 
Louis Section to the board of directors regarding territorial 
representation and other related matters involving Institute 
organization and policy, the following resolution was pre- 



sented by the meeting of section delegates held at Boston 
on Wednesday evening, June 26, at which twenty-five of 
the twenty-eight sections of the Institute were represented: 

"Resolved, That the board of directors be requested to 
appoint a special committee for study and investigation and 
to draw up by-laws assigning to the sections such duties and 
responsibilities as will enable them to be more useful in de- 
veloping the Institute policies and permit them to take a 
larger part in the conduct of its affairs." 

In response to this the board of directors authorized the 
president to appoint a special committee to carry out the 
request of the sections. In view of the large amount of 
study required on the part of this committee and the near 
approach of the end of the present Institute administrative 
year, President Dunn referred the selection of this com- 
mittee to President-elect Mershon for appointment on or 
after Aug. I. 

Responses having been received from several of the 
European national electrical engineering bodies with which 
the president was authorized to communicate with a view to 
establishing mutual visiting member privileges, the presi- 
dent was authorized to establish such privileges with these 
societies whenever such connection with the Institute would 
be of mutual advantage. 

A communication was read from Dr. Morton G. Lloyd 
recommending the participation of the Institutes in a move- 
ment to correct the abuses of expert testimony. The board 
resolved that on account of the related nature of the subject 
this matter be referred to the Institute's patent committee. 

The thanks of the board were given to General Edward 
H. Ripley for his presentation to the Institute of an old steel 
engraving of Samuel F. B. Morse showing his new invention 
of the telegraph to the assembled inventors of the day. 



MASSACHUSETTS DECISION IN THE UNITED SHOE 
MACHINERY CASE. 



The Massachusetts Supreme Court has just handed down 
a decision in the case of the United Shoe Machinery Com- 
pany versus Euclid I. Chapelle, relating to a contract for 
employment, and the assignment of inventions and patents 
therefor. One clause of the contract bound the defendant 
to assign to the plaintiff any and all inventions, improve- 
ments and patents which he should make during the con- 
tinuance of the contract and for ten years thereafter, and 
for an equal period not to engage in any similar business. 
The defendant's employment under the contract ceased 
in 1909, but since then he has taken out a patent for an 
improvement in shoe machinery, which he refused to assign 
and the plaintiff brought suit to compel the assignment. 
Special interest in the case is aroused by allegations that 
the plaintiff is an unlawful monopoly by reason, in part, of 
controlling 95 per cent of the inventors of shoe machinery 
through similar contracts. 

The opinion of the court was prepared by Chief Justice 
Rugg and a number of pertinent quotations from it are 
given in what follows. In reference to the grounds upon 
which the defendant took an appeal from the rulings of 
the lower court the opinion says : 

"The cause comes up on exceptions, and hence only lim- 
ited and narrow questions are presented. The broader 
issues which would be open on an appeal are not raised. 
Whether the contract is unconscionable and hence unen- 
forceable, although somewhat argued, falls in this class 
and is left undecided by this judgment. The point is not 
made that the plaintiff or its conduct constitutes a monopoly 
or an engrossing at common law, in furtherance of which 
the contract in suit was made, and hence that question is 
left on one side." 

After disposing of a question of alleged intimidation of 
the defendant, and stating that the shoe machinery leases. 



86 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. 2. 



under which the lessees are forbidden to use any machines 
not supplied by the plaintiff, are upheld by the decision in 
the Dick case, 224 U. S. i, the opinion continues: 

"The remaining material matters averred in the answer 
of defendant as to alleged violation of the Federal anti- 
trust act are in substance that in 1899 the plaintiff' was 
constituted by the combination of seven or more pre- 
existing corporations competing with each other in two- 
thirds of the States of the Union, being all the principal 
shoe machinery manufacturers in the United States, and 
that by their merger into the single organization of the 
plaintiff, it acquired monopolistic control of the business of 
manufacturing, leasing and selling throughout the United 
States shoe machinery for the manufacture of footwear, 
and that it obtained the greater part of the valuable inven- 
tions of such machinery made prior to 1899, ^fd that since 
1899 it has bought competing corporations to the number 
of at least thirty for the purpose of diminishing competition, 
and thus has gained control of 90 per cent of the shoe ma- 
chinery business ; that it has achieved and maintained its 
monopoly of manufacture and trade and commerce in this 
class of manufactures between the several States of the 
Union by contracting with 95 per cent of the inventors of 
shoe machinery for the entire product of their inventive 
skill, through contracts similar in form to that with the 
defendant; and that by these means it has stifled competi- 
tion, so that it now controls from 90 to 95 per cent of all the 
shoe machinery in the United States, and has acquired also 
a monapoly of inventions relating to shoe machinery, and 
that the contract in suit was made in furtherance of that 
monopoly, all in violation of 26 U. S. Stats, at Large, 
c. 467. The court below ruled that no evidence was admissi- 
ble under this averment of the answer, and excluded all 
evidence offered. The defendant's exceptions to this ruling 
present the principal question in the case. . . 

"It is fairly inferable from the averments of the answer 
and the offer of proof that the constituent competing com- 
panies out of which the plaintiff was formed each owned 
valuable patents for machines used in the making of foot- 
wear. Therefore, the further question arises whether a 
combination among several patentees of competing devices 
is within the inhibition of the statute. There is no decision 
by the United States Supreme Court covering this point, 
although there is an intimation in Bement v. National Har- 
row Company. 186 U. S. 70, 94, 95, to the effect that such 
a combination may be illegal under certain circumstances. 
The holder of a patent is given an absolute monopoly of 
the invention covered thereby, not affected in any degree 
by the Sherman anti-trust act. He may refuse to use it, 
or may use it in part only, or grant its use to others upon 
conditions and he may prevent all others from infringing 
in any way upon the rights thus secured to him. Conti- 
nental Paper Bag Company v. Eastern Paper Bag Company. 
210 U. S. 405. But he is given no immunity from general 
laws governing the rest of the community and not directly 
affecting his patent rights. He holds the thing patented 
subject to general police regulations. There is nothing in- 
herent in his patent or in the nature of his peculiar privi- 
leges which enables him to be free from general laws 
enacted for the common good. 

"No word or phrase in the Sherman anti-trust act reveals 
an intent to exempt the owners of patents from its sweep- 
ing provisions against monopolistic combination. We are 
unable to perceive any underlying reason for supposing that 
by implication growing out of economic or business condi- 
tions such an exemption was intended. Tliere appears to be 
no inherent natural distinction between owners of patents 
and owners of oil which would justify the application of 
the statute to one and not to the other. The conclusion 
seems to follow that the comprehensive condemnation of 
the act against every person who monopolizes interstate 
commerce by combination with others includes holders of 
patents as well as others." 



The opinion states that the weight of authority supports 
the last view, although there are decisions to the contrary, 
and then cites a long list of cases. The next extract closes 
the opinion. 

"The provision of the contract here sought to be enforced, 
that for ten years after its termination every invention 
shall be assigned to the plaintiff', savors of restraint of trade. 
It projects itself so far beyond the period of actual employ- 
ment and payment of wages that it appears plainly to be in 
aid of the unlawful combination. It would choke the 'n- 
ventive capacity of the defendant for a period so long after 
his employment ceased that his usefulness to himself or lo 
any competitor would be extinguished in most instances 
When this contract is multiplied by substantially all like 
inventors in the country, its character as aiding the com- 
bination is too clear to require further discussion, 
single contract for the employment in labor of one person 
is far away from interstate commerce. But when it is 
alleged that it is one among others with 90 per cent of all 
those skilled in a particular manufacture, and that thai 
kind of manufacture is controlled by a combination formed 
of many previously competing persons which monopolize 
all or substantially all interstate commerce of that kind, the 
single contract for labor loses its individual aspect in tht 
larger relation it bears to the monopoly in interstate com- 
merce. As a single incident it may be harmless. As ai 
integral part of an unlawful scheme for monopolizing com- 
merce between the states which cannot be perpetuated suc- 
cessfully without contracts of like tenor with all practising 
a like craft, it partakes of the illegality of the scheme 
Exceptions sustained." 



CHICAGO TRACTION AFFAIRS. 



According to last reports negotiations between the cit; 
of Chicago and the local traction interests looking toward ; 
merger of all of the surface and elevated lines have beei 
called to a halt by the companies. The City Council an< 
representatives of the companies have been endeavoring ti 
name a new commission to place a final physical valuatioi 
on the elevated properties. As announced recently, thi 
commission was to consist of three men, one to be chosen b; 
the city, one by the companies and a third to be selected b 
these two. The present difficulty, it is said, arose from th 
insistence of Mayor Harrison in appointing as the city' 
representative Mr. James J. Reynolds. This appointmen 
was vigorously opposed by the legal representative for th 
traction companies, Mr. Gilbert E. Foster, on the grouni 
that Mr. Reynolds was a member of the original commissioi 
which had declared the elevated properties worth $40,000,00' 
less than the value placed upon them by their owners. Th- 
present situation leaves the members of the City Counci 
exactly w-here they were a year ago, when the city wa 
considering the matter of building its own subway system 
At that time the Harbor and Subway Commission was in 
structed to commence at once the preparation of plans fo 
a municipally owned underground traction system, and th' 
commission was asked to have the plans ready for presenta 
tion by Sept. I. 



THREATENED COMPETITION IN PORTLAND, ORE 



The Fleischhacker interests, which are prominent in th' 
Great \^'estern Power Company of San Francisco, Cal., an« 
which are now engaged in warring on the Pacific Gas i 
Electric Company in California, are seeking an entranc 
into the territory supplied w-ith energy by the Portlam 
Railway, Light & Power Company of Portland, Ore. Th 
Fleischhackers are back of the Northwestern Electric Com 



July 13, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



87 



pany, which is at present constructing a dam across the 
White Sahnon River above Underwood, Wash., and has 
appHed for a franchise to operate in Portland, Ore. 

The company already has a contract to supply some 
thousands of kilowatts to a large paper mill near Under- 
wood, and is seeking a market for the surplus. At 
present there is no public service commission in Ore- 
gon, although one will be established this year. The 
Portland Railway, Light & Power Company is fighting the 
proposed franchise by an energetic publicity campaign, 
seeking to put off the question of competition until the 
appointment of the public service commission, when, it 
asserts, a properly constituted body can pass judgment on 
the merits- of the case. However, the Northwestern Electric 
Company is striving to bring matters to a head before the 
appointment of a commission and is pressing the City Coun- 
cil of Portland for action. The hydroelectric station at 
present contemplated will have an output of approximately 
15,000 kw, and the proposed franchise will permit the com- 
pany to maintain and operate plants in Portland, to string 
wires and lay conduit and in general to wage an aggressive 
campaign for business in competition with the Portland 
Railway, Light & Power Company. 



COURT DECISION AFFECTING PARALLEL TELE- 
PHONE AND HIGH-TENSION LINES. 



NEW YORK'S ELECTRICAL FOURTH 



As mentioned in our issue of June 29 fifteen of the parks 
of New York City were illuminated by means of incandes- 
cent electric lamps during the evenings of July 3, 4 and 5. 
The electrical illumination was used as a safe and sane 
substitute for the dangerous fireworks. 

Festoons of electric lamps hidden in Japanese lanterns 
were strung from tree to tree throughout the parks. In 
City Hall Park and on City Hall use was made of 6000 
8-cp lamp's, while practically the same number of lamps 
was installed in each of the other parks. A fair idea of the 
arrangements employed can be gained from the illustration. 

The "Electrical Fourth" proved so successful in New 
York that it will doubtless be continued from year to year. 
Credit for substituting electrical illumination for fireworks 



A recent decision handed down in the District Court of 
Iowa, for Mills County, relating to the safe minimum sepa- 
ration between parallel telephone and high-tension trans- 
mission lines, and the proper form of construction to be 
employed in such cases, is of considerable interest. The 
plaintiffs, comprismg the Mills County Telephone Com- 
pany and the Iowa Telephone Company were decreed to be 
lawful prior occupants of the highways in the city of Glen- 
wood, in the towns of Mineola and Silver City and of Mills 
County intervening between these places, and also entitled 
to use their telephone lines in the aforesaid highways free 
from substantial interference by and danger from the high- 
tension lines erected by the defendants. The decision re- 
cites that the defendants, comprising the Central Station 
Engineering Company and Messrs. Joseph A. and Anton J. 
Bortenlanger, had lately constructed certain high-tension 
lines in these highways which interfered with and en- 
dangered the telephone lines of the plaintiffs and the patrons 
thereof. 

Verdict was rendered in favor of the plaintiffs, ordering 
the defendants to make certain specified changes in their 
lines within thirty days. After reciting a number of detail 
changes to be made in Glenwood with reference to reguying 
a number of poles, double-arming, relocating a transformer 
and setting a new pole, the decision states that the high- 
tension lines were built above and parallel to the lines of 
the plaintiffs at three different locations, for a total dis- 
tance of lyi miles. It was ordered that the defendants 
shall remove the telephone pole lines of the plaintiffs to 
the opposite side of the road, at the defendants' cost and 
under the supervision of an agent for the plaintiffs, without 
interfering with the service. 

The decision then sets forth that the high-tension line 
crosses the telephone lines at eleven locations and orders 
that the defendants shall reconstruct their line so as to 
provide for and maintain: 

(i) "A vertical clearance over plaintiffs' lines of not less 
than eight (8) feet. But where practical in the judgment 
of plaintiffs' division engineer, plaintiffs will consent to 




Mulberry Bend on the Evening of Fourth of July. 



must be given not only to Mayor Gaynor but in a large 
measure to the New York Edison Company, which donated 
all of the energy consumed as well as the wiring used on the 
City Hall, Manhattan, and the Borough Hall, Bronx. The 
illumination schemes were carried out in detail by Mr. 
Clarence L. Law, illuminating engineer of the New York 
Edison Company. 



defendants doing the work of lowering plaintiff's' wires to 
aid in obtaining said clearance. But in no case shall plain- 
tiffs' wires be placed lower than 18 ft. above crown of 
adjacent highway. 

(2) ''All high-tension crossings to be above telephone 
lines at all points. 

(3) "Poles supporting the crossing span and the adjoin- 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. 2. 



ing span on each side of said crossing span shall, where 
practical, be in a straight alignment. 

(4) "Poles supporting crossing spans shall be side-guyed 
in both directions at right angles with high-tension line 
wherever practicable and be head-guyed away from the 
crossing span. 

(5) "All anchors shall be iron at least 3^ in. in diameter; 
all guy wires to be of 5/16-in. stranded steel wire. 

(6) "All poles supporting crossing spans shall be double- 
armed — arms to be provided with metal plate and ground 
wire sufficient to carry the short-circuit capacity of the 
high-tension curent carried on said lines. 

(7) "The wire in crossing spans shall be stranded equal 
in size to a No. 4 B. & S. gage wire. Or 5/16-in. stranded 
wire may be used at defendants' option, and said wires shall 
be dead-ended on insulators on the cross-arms supporting 
crossing spans. 

(8) "All poles supporting crossing spans shall be sound 
and of sufficient size and strength to sustain J4 in. of sleet 
per wire with wind blowing 50 miles per hour. The parties 
to this proceeding shall inspect all crossing poles and any 
rejected as insufficient by two engineers of plaintiffs shall 
be replaced by defendants within sixty days by sound poles 
not less than 7 in. in diameter at top and 36 in. in circum- 
ference at a point 6 ft. from butt of pole. 

(9) "All new pins in crossing spans shall be of selected 
locust. 

(10) "All of the changes herein specified to be made by 
defendants at their own expense and in a first-class work- 
manlike manner, defendants furnishing all labor and mate- 
rial at their own expense." 

The plaintiffs also received judgment against the de- 
fendants for the costs of the case. 



PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION NEWS. 



NEW YORK COMMISSION, FIRST DISTRICT 

The Public Service Commission, First District, has just 
served notice on the estate of William Astor, as owner of 
the Putnam Building, and the United Electric Light & Power 
Company that a contract entered into between them for 
supplying electrical energy to the Putnam building, dated 
July. 1910, is illegal and void because of undue and unrea- 
sonable preference or discrimination, in violation of section 
65 of the Public Service Commission law. The matter first 
arose over a complaint of overcharge, and investigation 
developed that certain clauses in the published standard con- 
tract forms, for this class of service, had been omitted or 
altered ; that the consumer claimed that a general reduction 
of rates which became effective on July i, 191 1, was retro- 
active under his particular contract, and that the United 
Company leased about 270 sq. ft. of basement space in the 
building for $1,500 per annum or over $5.50 per sq. ft. The 
commission held that the published form of contract and 
the published rates, as filed with them, are the only legal 
forms and rates and must apply to all alike. The rental 
price for basement space was also declared excessive and 
held to be a factor in securing the customer's business, 
amounting practically to a rebate. 

Justice Page, of the New York Supreme Court, in a 
recent decision, signed an order for a writ of peremptory 
mandamus compelling the New York Railways Company to 
construct, in accordance with its franchise, a 700-ft. addi- 
tion to the ii6th Street crosstown line. The writ was 
ordered at the instance of the commission, after the com- 
pany had refused to obey a formal order from the commis- 
sion to make the extension, which was needed to serve the 
public. This was, in part, a test case and establishes an 
important precedent. 

NEW YORK COMMISSION, SECOND DISTRICT. 

The Public Service Commission, Second District, has 
ordered the New York Telephone Company to discontinue 



the use of the word "telegram" as a call word for the 
Western Union Telegraph Company or for any other tele- 
graph company within this State. The telephone company 
is directed and required to assign call numbers to the Postal 
Telegraph Cable Company and the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company, as is usual with other subscribers to its 
service, and that in addition thereto the word "Postal" be 
assigned as a call word for the Postal company and the 
words "Western Union" be assigned as a call word for the 
Western Union company. The call word for each company 
is ordered to be printed in the subscribers' directories of 
the telephone company hereinafter issued, in such manner" 
and with such explanation as to show clearly that a person 
desiring to send a telegram over the lines of the Postal 
company may call that company by the use of the single 
word "Postal," and that a person desiring to send a tele- 
gram over the lines of the Western Union Company may 
call the company by the use of the words "Western Union." 
The commission has dismissed a complaint in reference 
to alleged dangerous conditions in the plants of the Ticon- 
deroga Home Telephone Company and the Ticonderoga 
Electric Light & Power Company, because the conditions 
complained of have been remedied since an inspection was 
made by an engineer for the commission. 

CALIFORNIA COMMISSION. 

The Railroad Commission has handed down a decision in 
the case of the Pacific Gas & Electric Company versus the 
Great Western Power Company, granting to the latter cer- 
tificates of public convenience and necessity and authoriza- 
tion to exercise rights or privileges under franchises or 
permits granted or hereafter to be acquired in the counties 
of Sonoma, Solana and Napa and numerous cities under 
the provisions of the public utilities act. The California 
Telephone & Light Company, the Cloverdale Light & Power 
Company, the Napa Valley Electric Company, the Vallejo 
Electric Light & Power Company and the Vacaville Water 
& Light Company each interposed objections to the granting 
of the certificates of public convenience and necessity in 
addition to the Pacific Gas & Electric Company, setting up 
that they possessed modern, complete, efficient and 
economical plants in their respective territories for the 
generation and distribution of electricity, which are 
adequate to serve the future needs of the territories, and 
that the rates in force are fair and reasonable and the 
respective services efficient, steady and dependable. 

The order permits the Great Western Power Company 
to operate in all sections of Solano County outside of the 
incorporated cities and towns, except the territory served 
by the Vacaville Water & Light Company; all sections of 
Napa County outside of incorporated cities and towns other 
than the territory now served by the Napa Valley Electric 
Company ; all sections of Sonoma County outside of in- 
corporated cities and towns other than the territory now 
served by the Cloverdale Light & Power Company and the 
California Telephone & Light Company except the southern 
end of the Sonoma Valley in and about Shellville ; also the 
cities and towns of Napa, Santa Rosa, Sebastopol, Petaluma, 
Dixon, Suisun and Fairfield, and the city of Vallejo in so 
far as affects the sale of energy to the city for municipal 
purposes. It should be mentioned in this connection that 
the commission does not possess power to regulate utilities 
in incorporated cities except where cities have expressly 
granted it. 

KANSAS COMMISSION. 

The Kansas Public Utilities Commission has denied the 
application of the Farm & Grange Telephone Company for 
permission to engage in the business of a public utility in 
and around the city of Westphalia. After hearing the testi- 
mony the commission decided that public convenience and 
necessity would not be promoted by allowing a second tele- 
phone company to commence its operations in a territory 
already served. At the same time the commission finds that 



ULY 13, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



89 



le service now rendered by the Westphalia Telephone 
"ompany is inadequate to meet the public needs, and it has 
lierefore been ordered that the Westphalia company be 
iven thirty days in which to place its lines in good condi- 
ion to furnish adequate service. If at the expiration of 
liat period the service is not satisfactory and adequate, the 
ommission will consider a motion for a rehearing. 

OHIO COMMISSION. 

The Sycamore Telephone Company has been refused 
uthority by the Ohio Public Service Commission to change 
ts form of organization from a partnership to a corpora- 
ion and sell the original plant to the new company for 
60,000. Representatives of the commission made an in- 
estigation and reported that the value of the physical 
iroperty is not more than $35,000. The same decision was 
endered in this case on Feb. 27, the company having made 

new application after the reappraisement of the property. 

WISCONSIN COMMISSION. 

The commission has just refused a rehearing in the case 
)f the city of Waupaca versus the Waupaca Electric Light 
i Railway Company, in reference to charges for street 
ighting, and the city has paid bills in arrears amounting to 
54,579.20 for thirty street lamps for twenty-four months, 
rhis closes a case which has attracted wide attention among 
ill who are interested in street lighting. 

The commission has recently published the decision of the 
A'isconsin Supreme Court in the case of the Calumet 
service Company versus the city of Chilton, upholding the 
efusal of the commission to grant the city a certificate of 
)ublic convenience and necessity, clothing it with authority 
erect a municipal plant and compete with the company, 
rhe latter was found to be meeting its public obligations 
:fficiently, and, having obtained an indeterminate permit, 
iccording to law, was entitled to protection from 
:ompetition.; 



Current News and Notes 



Philadelphia N. E. L. A. Officers. — At the last annual 
meeting of the Philadelphia Electric Company Section of 
Ihe National Electric Light Association the following 
officers were elected for the ensuing year: Mr. B. Frank 
Day, chairman; Mr. Frank A. Birch, vice-chairman; Mr. 
H. R. Kern, treasurer, and Mr. Jos. B. Seaman, secretary. 

* * * 

Rubber-Covered Wire Specifications. — Mr. Ray Pal- 
mer, the city electrician of Chicago, has issued a notice to 
the effect that on and after July i, 1912, all rubber-covered 
wire for use in Chicago must comply with the 191 1 specifica- 
tions of the National Electrical Code. This ruling applies 
to rubber-covered wire in all sizes and includes fixture wire, 
flexible cords, etc. 

* * * 

Boulder (Col.) Wiring Ordinance. — The city of 
Boulder, Col., has passed an ordinance requiring all electric 
wiring installations on and after Sept. i, 1912, to be made 
exclusively with rubber-covered wire under the rules of the 
1911 National Electrical Code. The passage of this or- 
dirfance followed the recent action of the Rocky Mountain 
Fire Underwriters' Association adopting the same rule. 

* * * 

University of Illinois Bulletins. — Three bulletins re- 
cently issued by the University of Illinois present addresses 
delivered before the College of Engineering on several in- 
teresting topics. Bulletin No. 25 contains an address by 
Mr. C. A. Seley, on "Conference Committee Methods in 
Handling Railway Legislation on Mechanical Matters"; 
Bulletin No. 2y contains an address on "Organization in 



Engineering," by Mr. H. M. Byllesby, and Bulletin No. 28 
contains an address by Mr. C. F. Loweth on "Personal 
Efficiency." Prof. W. F. M. Goss, dean and director of 
the Engineering College, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111., 
should be communicated with by anyone desiring to obtain 
copies of these addresses. 

Report of Chicago Board of Supervising Engineers. — 
The third annual report of the Board of Supervising Engi- 
neers, Chicago Traction, covering the fiscal year ended 
Jan. 31, 1910, has recently appeared. This is a compre- 
hensive document of 529 pages and sixteen chapters. In 
general the scope of the report is similar to that of previous 
ones, and it has been the special object to incorporate 
therein accurate data conveying information not only as 
to the board's activities, expenditures, etc., but also to make 
a permanent record of the more important work carried 
out, the precedents established, the standards developed and 
the technical investigations which it was necessary to make. 
The statistical material has been supplemented by numerous 
inserts of maps, charts and drawings showing the various 
types of construction employed. Those desiring copies of, 
this report should address the Board of Supervising Engi- 
neers, Chicago Traction, Chicago, 111. 
* * * 

Inspection of Appalachian Plant. — General Manager 
H. W. Fuller of the Appalachian Power Company, Blue- 
field, W. Va., was host to more than 100 mine operators and 
others interested in the large application of power on a trip 
recently to developments Nos. 2 and 4 of the company, on 
the New River. A special train was engaged, leaving 
Bluefield early in the morning and returning in the evening. 
The special dinner menu card was in the form of a folder, 
the outside cover being black, setting off in contrast the 
white outline of the large sign of the Appalachian Power 
Company recently erected on the hill overlooking Bluefield. 
Sketched through the card inside were the outlines of a 
high-tension transmission line. Representatives of the com- 
pany personally conducted the party over the developments, 
making explanations and describing the work. It was an- 
nounced that development No. 4 will be ready to furnish 
service on Aug. i, and development No. 2 on Oct. i. The 
former will have an equipment rating of 9000 kw and the 
latter one of 20,000 kw. A thirty-six page booklet detailing 
the history of the company and containing photographs and 
statistics showing the progress of the work to date was 
given each guest as a souvenir. Besides Mr. Fuller, other 
representatives of the company in the party were Messrs. 
H. W. Buck, M. A. Viele, L. G. Gresham, B. W. Lynch, 
D. M. Bunn, A. Felio and H. E. Shed. 



State Managers for Central Division Bell Telephone 
Companies. — Commencing July i the Bell telephone com- 
panies in the several states comprising the central division 
— Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan and Wisconsin — have 
been placed under separate state managers, all of whom 
will report to the vice-president and general manager, Mr. 
Alonzo Burt, at Chicago. Mr. B. E. Sunny, who is vice- 
president of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company 
and a director in the General Electric Company, continues 
as president of the Chicago company. In order to devote 
all his attention to the new plan of supervision, Mr. Burt has 
resigned his duties as treasurer to Mr. C. E. Mosley, for- 
merly secretary. Mr. W. I. Mizner, formerly assistant 
secretary of the Michigan company, has succeeded Mr. 
Mosley as secretary of the Chicago company. Mr. H. F. 
Hill, formerly general manager for the five states, has been 
appointed general manager for Illinois under the new ar- 
rangement. The other state managers and their headquar- 
ters are: Indiana, Mr. L. N. Whitney, Indianapolis; Ohio, 
Mr. E. A. Reed, Columbus; Michigan. Mr. E. A. Von 



90 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. 2. 



Schlegell, Detroit; Wisconsin, Mr. H. O. Seymour, Mil- 
waukee. Mr. J. G. Wray continues as chief engineer of 
the company. 

* * * 

The Cost of Illumination in Labor. — On page 1421 of 
our issue dated June 29, it was stated that the author gave 
estimates showing that in a certain factory operating ten 
hours per day for three hundred days per year the cost of 
good iHumination per man amounts to $1.72 per day, or the 
equivalent of a man's time for 2.9 months. The statement 
of the estimates is evidently in error. The actual values 
given by the author were $0.0172 per day or the equivalent 
of a man's time for 2.9 minutes. 

* * * 

International Association of Municipal Elec- 
tricians. — The proceedings of the sixteenth annual con- 
vention of the International Association of Municipal Elec- 
tricians, which was held at Atlantic City, N. J., last year, 
have recently been distributed in bound-volume form. 
Eight papers read before the convention are presented in 
full, together with the discussion of each one. The presi- 
dent of the association is Mr. John W. Kelly, Jr.. of Cam- 
den, N. J., and the secretary is Mr. Clarence R. George. 
Houston, Texas. 

* * * 

Automatic Telephone Aids Gamblers. — According to 
recent reports from Chicago the use of the automatic tele- 
phone by handbook operators has greatly increased this 
form of gambling. The police say that the absence of 
manual operators makes it necessary to conduct a "blind" 
hunt for the gambling places. They also report that the 
automatic signals or ticks which indicate the called numbers 
occur in such rapid succession that it is impossible for any- 
one listening on the circuits to count them. It is also re- 
ported that a number of gambling places recently raided 
have been found equipped with automatic telephones. 

* * * 

Chicago Telephone-Rate Reports Delayed. — At a 
meeting of the gas, oil and electric-light committee of the 
Chicago City Council on July i Prof. E. W. Bemis. the 
expert employed by the city to review the Hagenah report 
on the Chicago Telephone Company's valuation, announced 
that his own report will be delayed until after the Council's 
vacation period, pending the filing of the appraisals which 
are being made by the H. M. Byllesby and Arnold com- 
panies. These reports are now scheduled for July 15, and 
Prof. Bemis offered to have his review ready by Aug. i. 
since he will depend for some of his valuation figures on 
the engineers' reports. On account of the Council vacation 
period, however, the rate expert was given until Sept. I to 
complete his analysis. The Chicago Telephone Company 
has offered the Council assurances of the completeness of 
the valuation reports under way, on which, it is said, nearlv 
$200,000 will have been expended when they are finished. 

* * ♦ 

Railway Wages and the Cost of Living. — The Bureau 
of Railway Economics, which was established by the rail- 
ways of the United States for the scientific study of trans- 
portation problems, has just published and distributed a 
bulletin entitled "A Comparative Study of Railway Wages 
and the Cost of Living in the United States, the United 
Kingdom and the Principal Countries of Continental 
Europe." The bulletin embraces seventy-seven pages, and 
the countries from which statistics were gathered include 
the United States, United Kingdom, France. Germany, 
Austria-Hungary, Belgium and Italy. The summary con- 
tains the statement that it is well within the truth to esti- 
mate, in a general way, that while the cost of living of a 
railway employee in the United States is less than 50 per 
cent higher than that of a corresponding employee in the 
United Kingdom or on the Continent, his compensation 
averages more than twice as much. Anvone desiring a 



copy of the bulletin should address Mr. Logan C. McPher- 
son, director of the Bureau of Railway Economics, Wash- 
ington. D. C. 

* * * 

Progress o.\ D.a.m at Keokuk. — The romance and trials 
of battles with ice and flood, as well as the steadily advanc- 
ing progress of the construction work on the Mississippi 
River dam at Keokuk, la., are interestingly indicated in the 
June Bulletin just issued by the company which is carrying 
out the development. May has been the record month of 
progress thus far, about 1000 cu. yd. of concrete being 
placed each day, bringing the work on the power-house 
superstructure within 70 per cent of completion, while the 
lock stands ^5 per cent finished. Although the cofferdam 
was entirely submerged from March 19 to May I, work has 
been resumed and the entire structure will be completed 
well within the original time limit, and within the estimated 
cost. Severe ice and flood conditions have marked the re- 
cent winter and spring. On April 6 the power-house coffer- 
dam, although designed for a total depth up to 25 ft. 6 in., 
was within 3 in. of being overtopped by the flood, and only 
the most heroic and resourceful work on the part of the 
men saved the thin wall from being cut through. The 
damage was confined to the loss of a small building used as 
a powder house, the entire amount not exceeding $1,000. 
.■\lthough the cofferdam was originally designed for a 12-ft 
stage, it was fortunately heightened by several feet and 
strengthened before the height of the flood, 17.8 ft., was 
reached. Nearly 65,000 sand bags were employed in stop- 
ping slides and protecting the banks against wash. 



SOCIETY MEETINGS. 
Mai.ne Electric Convention. — The annual meeting of 
the Maine Electric Association will be held on July 25 and 
26 at Portland, Maine. Mr. Walter S. Wyman, Augusta, 
Maine, is secretary of the association. 

* * * 

.\ssociATioN OF Edison Illuminating Companies. — The 
annual meeting of the Association of Edison Illuminating 
Companies will be held from Sept. 10 to 12, at Hot Springs, 
\'a. Mr. Walter Neumiller, 55 Duane Street, New York, 

is the assistant secretary. 

* * * 

Georgia Section N. E. L. A. — The Georgia Section of 
the National Electric Light Association has planned its 
annual convention for Aug. 15 to 17 at Tybee. Mr. I. S. 
Mitchell, Georgia Railway & Power Company, Atlanta, Ga., 
is the secretary. 

* ♦ * 

Kansas Convention. — The annual meeting of the Kansas 
Gas, Water. Electric Light and Street Railway Association 
will be held at Manhattan, Kan., Oct. 17, 18 and 19. Prof. 
B. F. Eyer. of Manhattan, is president of the association, 
and Mr. J. D. Nicholson, Newton, is the secretary. 

* * * 

CoLOR.\Do Electric Convention. — The ne.xt annual meet- 
ing of the Colorado Electric Light, Power and Railway 
-Association will be held about the middle of September at 
Glenwood Springs. The secretary of the association is 
^Ir. Thomas F. Kennedy, 900 Fifteenth Street. Denver, Col. 

* * * 

Electrical Contractors' Association of Wisconsin. — 
The annual meeting of the Electrical Contractors' Associa- 
tion of Wisconsin will be held at Chain-of-Lakes, Wis., on 
Aug. 15, 16 and 17. Members of the organization and their 
families will assemble at Oshkosh on the evening of Aug. 14, 
and early the following day they will board a steamer for 
Gills Landing. From that point the "Soo" train is scheduled 
to take the party to Waupaca, arriving at Chain-of-Lakes 
about 5 p. m. Mr. Albert Petermann, 66 Cawker Building, 
Milwaukee. Wis., is secretary of the association. 



HYDROELECTRIC PLANT AT ESTACADA, ORE. 



New Generating Plant of the Portland Railway, Light & Power Company 
on Clackamas River, 30 Miles from Portland. 



Station Operated in Tandem With the Older Plant at Cazadero, 3.5 Miles Further Up the River — 
Design and Cost Data of 935-Ft. Dam of Hollow Ambursen Type and Generating 
Station, Ultimately to Contain Five 6000-hp Units. 




URING the early part of November, 
191 1, the Portland (Ore.) Railway, 
Light & Power Company put into 
operation the first unit m t»ie second 
hydraulic plant on ihe Clackamas 
River. This plant is located about 30 
miles from the center of Portland and 
j.25 miles below the Cazadero devel- 
opment. The dam itself is considered 
very remarkable in that the structure 
is of the hollow Ambursen type. The 
total length is 935 ft., with a spill- 
way 407 ft. long. The generating plant and step-up trans- 
formers are under the same roof. 

The water storage supporting this large development is 
found in the Clackamas basin, which extends from the 
Willamette River east, southeast and south, up the western 
slope and into the foothills of the Cascade range, finding 
its source in a plateau-iike area that extends from Mount 
Jefferson on the south to Mount Baker on the north. The 
area drained by the stream and its tributaries is about 934 
sq. miles, of which approximately 75.5 per cent is above 
the Estacada development. 

The south and west slopes of the Clackamas basin are of 
a rocky, precipitous character, making steep slopes with a 
relatively light cover of soil on the underlying rock. This 
condition results in a rapid delivery of the rainfall to the 
stream. The easterly slope from the source to the Oak 
Grove River is of the same character. From there to the 
north fork of the Clackamas River a number of small lakes 
abound. The country hereabouts is very marshy and is 
mainly in the National Forest Reserve, the heavy timber of 
which naturally retards the melting of the heavy winter 
snows. The records of flow obtained from the streams 



draining this area into the Clackamas tend to show that a 
large percentage of the total Clackamas flow during the 
low-water months comes from this district. 

RAINF.\LL RECORDS. 

Below are tabulated the average yearly records obtained 
from the points designated, together with the period of 
time covered: 





Years. 


Average Rainfall, 
in Inches. 


Portlanrl 

Government Camp 

Ca^.idcro 


62 
17 
3 


42.45 
S1.S9 
54.41 



The average monthly records of rainfall in inches for 
dry, wet and average years are as follows : 





Dry. 


Wet. 


.Averace. 


Years. 


Portland 

.Albany 


2.8 
2.8 
5.5 
7.5 
2.S 
2.8 
4.. 5 
2.0 


4.2 

4.2 

1(1.2 

5.1 

4.4 
4.1 
5.5 
5.1 

4.S 


3.71 

3.73 

7.1 

6.31 

3.76 

3.42 

5.02 

3.9 

4.12 


39 
35 
13 


Bull Run 


8 


Mount Angel 

Maramonte Farm 

Cazadero 

McMinnville 

.Stafford 


20 
9 
2 

8 
S 



STORAGE. 

The pond formed above the dam is located in a rocky 
gorge the precipitous sides of which make an admirable 
reservoir about 3J4 miles long with a storage space for 1600 
acre- ft., having an area of 80 acres. 




Fig. 1 — Estacada Dam and Power House. 



92 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol, 6o, No. 2. 



On account of its swiftness the stream never freezes, 
making it comparatively easy to obtain accurate stream- 
flow data, and records have been made for a number of 
years. From this fact it will be noted that the engineers 
were well fortified with a great amount of extremely valuable 
mformation, enabling them to give the proposed sites the 
most careful consideration before making the final selection. 



full advantage can be taken of the storage above the 
Cazadero plant during the low-water months. 

Third, it was possible to use short penstocks, thereby 
obtaining a high hydraulic efficiency and good regulation 
of the turbines. 

An exhaustive study was made of the three prospective 




Fig. 2 — Map Showing Clackamas River and Drainage Basin. 

The stream-flow records of the past five years expressed 
in cu. ft. per second are as follows : 





1906. 


1907. 


1908. 


1909. 


1910. 


Maximum flow 


20,400 

774 

3 , 109 


34,000 

500 

3,4 19 


36,500 

740 

2,741 


3 7 , 600* 
825 
3,290 


18,600 

819 

2,560 


Minimum flow 

Average flow 



PRELIMINARY SURVEY. 

The development under discussion in this article is not the 
first made on this stream. One other plant, the Cazadero, 
has been operated since February, 1907. In addition to 
these two developments other available sites are under 
investigation by the company's engineers. 

There were three reasons for selecting this particular 
site at the time: 

First, its suitability from a construction standpoint, quick 



Fig. 4 — Estacada Plant and Dam. 

sites at River Mill. The one finally chosen offered advan- 
tages from a construction and foundation standpoint. For 
about six months prior to the starting of actual construction 
work the foundation material was investigated, "diamond" 
and "shot" core drills being used to obtain samples of the 
underlying formation. The holes made were used for 
hydraulic testing of this formation and later for forcing 
grout into the interstices and crevasses of the bedrock. 

W.\TER INT.\KE, 

The water of the pond, formed directly back of the dam, 
can be discharged in three different ways. One is over the 
spillway section of the dam. another is through the sluice- 
ways under the dam, and the third is through one or all of 
the five penstocks that furnish water to the wheels in the 
power plant below. 

The penstocks are made of steel plates 11 ft. in diameter 
and varying in thickness from J^ in. at the intake to "/^ in. 
at tlie discharge. They run in alternate bays of the dam 









t> 








-g^iar- ^v<fe 




1 


n 


Bib 








*^^ 




^ 








■^ 


^S. 


«■ til _/- 


m- 


i' 




MsHHEBMiBy^' 



Fig. 3 — Ambursen-Type Dam with Hollow Construction. 

development here being possible as it is adjacent to the rail- 
road, thus reducing transportation difficulties to a minimum 
with resulting low costs in the handling and shipping of 
materials. 

Second, being in tandem with the Cazadero development 

•The high 1909 maximum was attributed to a flood condition that 
occurred in November of that year 




Fig. 5 — Fish Ladder at Estacada Plant. 

Structure and are supported at different points in their 
length by reinforced concrete beams. 

The penstock openings in the upstream face of the dam 
are of rectangular cross-section 1 1.5 ft. in diameter, with 
rounded corners. This rectangular section is not over 6 ft. 
long. The main part of the penstock is circular in cross- 
section. 



JLI.Y 13, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



93 



The supply gates are arranged for either hand or motor 
control. By means of tlie motor control the gates can be 
raised and lowered from the switchboard gallery. Each 
gate consists of six horizontal 15-in. 8o-lb. I-beams secured 
to two is-in. channels, one at either end, by means of 
angles making a square gate 12.5 in. on the side. The inner 
face of the head gate is covered by a J/^-in. steel plate 
riveted to the I-beam structure. A great deal of study was 
put in on the operating features of the supply gates, all 
available data were gone over, and the company's engineers 
visited many plants in order to obtain the best features 
of all. Of course the company's own plants offered much 
opportunity for this study. 

The raising and lowering of the gates is accomplished by 
means of two 15-in., 6o-lb. I-beams, approximately 50 ft. 
long, secured to the I-beam structure of the gate bv means 



THE DAM PROPER. 

The total length of the dam is 935 ft., of which 407 ft. 
forms a spillway. It is constructed of reinforced concrete. 
In construction it consists of a series of buttresses spaced 
on from 14-ft. to i8-ft. centers, running back under the 
whole depth of the dam and increasing in thickness from 
the top downward. In the dam under discussion the top 
thickness is 15 in., increasing to 48 in. at the bottom in the 
case of the highest buttresses. The buttresses are laterally 
braced by reinforced concrete beams, 18 in. by 12 in. The 
bays between the buttresses are provided with vents to 
relieve vacuum stresses at times of heavy floods. 

On account of the foundation material it was decided to 
install a cut-off wall running the entire length of the face 
of the dam. A trench was excavated 8 ft. wide and from 
S ft. to 10 ft. below the foundations. Three rows of holes 




Fig. 



-Interior View of Ectacada Plant. 



of fishplates. These two stems are spaced 5.5 ft. center to 
center. On these two stems are attached two cast-steel 
racks, meshing with the mechanism shown in Fig. 7. The 
teeth on the racks and pinions are staggered and shrouded. 

TRASH RACKS. 

At certain times of the year the river rises to such an 
extent that a great quantity of loose wood, leaves, etc., is 
picked up and carried along by the current. For this reason 
it was necessary to install trash racks before each of the 
supply gates. The racks in each section are 37 ft. long and 
4 ft. 8 in. wide, made up of 3.5-in. by 5/16-in. steel bars 
spaced 1.25 in. apart. The spacing is accomplished by means 
of iron-pipe spools on '^-in. rods spaced 20 ft. apart longi- 
tudinally. The racks are supported by a framework of 
channel iron and I-beams anchored in the concrete of the 
dam. There is approximately 260.000 lb. of iron riveted and 
bolted together and covered with two coats of paint. 



were drilled in the bottom of the trench for its entire length, 
averaging in depth 50 ft. below the bottom of the concrete 
cut-off. The holes were approximately 3 in. in diameter, on 
6-ft. centers. Where necessary the spacing was reduced 
by the introduction of intermediate holes, resulting in an 
ultimate spacing of 3 ft. The holes on the primary line 
were located opposite each other and the intermediate or 
proving row of holes was staggered with relation to the 
primaries. 

After drilling, iron pipes threaded at one end for a cap 
were driven in each hole and cement grout of the con- 
sistency of gruel was forced into the holes under about 200 
lb. per inch pressure. The purpose of this grouting was to 
fill up the voids in the foundations to prevent seepage and 
consequent erosion. The scheme proved successful as 
shown by the fact that after the dam had been closed and 
the pond filled comparatively little seepage developed in 
the lest holes put down for the purpose. 



'M 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. 2. 



For waterproofing the deck, crest and apron of the dam, 
hydrate of lime was used in the proportion of 30 lb. per 
cubic yard of concrete. In this grouting work 34,038 linear 
ft. of drilling was done and 7778 bags of cement were used. 
The average cost per foot of drilling and grouting was 
made up as follows: 



Cement 

Labor, drilling 

Labor, grouting 

Repairs to equipment shot, oil, fittings, etc 

Plant cost, no allow.ince for salvage* 

Use of general constniction plant and energy cost. 



50. 12 
0..iS 
CIS 
0.17 
0..'0 
0.37 

51. 72 



The total excavation was 105.383 cu. yd., made up of 
73,549 from dam and power house, 19,440 from tailrace, 
10,039 from railroad spur and 2355 from diverting ditch. 

The average cost per cubic yard for excavation, including 
all overhead charges, e.xplosives and proportion of plant 
charge, was $1.72. 

The total of concrete placed was 57,231 cu, yd., made up 
of 16,248 cu. yd. of 1 12:4 and 40,983 cu. yd. of i :3:6. 

The form work for this type of dam made a total 
obviously of considerable magnitude, 1,593,098 linear ft. of 
lumber being used. The form cost per cubic yard of con- 
crete for the dam was $3.91 and for power house $2.57. 

The concrete costs, per cubic yard, exclusive of forms 
and reinforcing steel, were $7.05 for the 1:2:4 and $5.95 
for the 1:3:6 mixture, including the costs of forms and 
reinforcing steel. The plant and overhead charges were 
$14.60 per cubic yard for 1:3:6 in the dam and $16.96 in 
the power house and $15.70 pfr cubic yard for i :2:4. There 
was used 10,495 cu. yd. of concrete, in a mixture of 30 lb. 
of hydrate of lime to the cubic yard of concrete, for water- 
proofing the deck of the dam. This increased the cost per 
cubic yard $0.23. Altogether 2,050,514 lb. of reinforcing 
steel was used. The cost of placing this steel amounted to 
15 cents per cubic yard of concrete. 

POWER HOUSE. 

The power house is constructed of reinforced concrete. 
The roof is of reinforced concrete covered with paper and 
tar and gravel and supported by a steel truss. The dimen- 
sions of the building are 175 ft. by 60 ft. Some idea of the 




Fig. 7 — Main-Gate Hoist. 

arrangement of the apparatus and of the plant can be gained 
by a study of Fig. 6. 

The generating apparatus is located on the main floor, 
the switchboard on a gallery, and all other devices are placed 
in compartments suitably arranged in bays between the 
hydraulic equipment buttresses of the dam proper. 

Although provision has been made in the building for 
five units, at present there are only three, of 6ooo-hp rating. 



consisting of two Victor-Francis bronze runners, 51 in. in 
diameter on one shaft — one left-hand and the other right- 
hand. The runners are flanged to bolt on to the forged 
shaft, and the flanges are so designed as to allow the dis- 
mantling of both runners through the rear end of the turbine 
unit. The runners are perfectly balanced. 

Each wheel casing is made up of four parts and is of 




Fig. 8 — High-Tension Oil Switch. 

scroll type, having a diameter at the inlet of 6.5 ft. At the 
point of inlet to the runners the casings are stiffened by 
ribs cast in one piece with the casing. These ribs are so 
placed as to facilitate the entrance of the water and increase 
its velocity in its passage from the casing to the runners. 

The gates on each prime mover are cast of one piece of 
steel, the pivoting stems being so placed that the hydraulic 
pressure on the gates will tend to close them. The wheels 
discharge in the center of the unit into a common draft 
tube 8 ft. in diameter. The wheels are provided with tw^o 
self-aligning, self-oiling, generator-type bearings heavily 
babbitted and grooved for oil. Water-cooling coils have 
been placed in the oil space. All bearings can be easily re- 
moved, permitting of substitution of all or part of the- 
bearing. The swivel gates on each runner are operated by 
arms and links attached to cast-iron gate rings. The 
strength of these links and arms is less than that of the gate 
itself, to insure an external rather tlian an internal breaking, 
to the turbine casing in case of accident. 

Lombard oil-pressure governors are used of a normal 
rating of 30.000 ft.-lb. The oil pump is belt-driven from 
the unit on which it is installed. The governor is equipped 
with a 125-volt direct-current motor regulated from the 
switchboard. These governors are "dead-beat" in action 
and are so adjusted as to open completely or close the gates 
in two seconds. 

In addition to the governor each unit is provided with an 
emergency closing device, which is mounted on the back 
bearing. 

The guaranteed efficiency of the waterwheels at 8i-ft^ 
head was : Full load, 80 per cent ; three-fourths load, 82.5 
per cent: one-half load, 72 per cent. During actual tests 
the efficiencies secured were as follows: Full load, 81 per 
cent: three- fourths load, 84.25 per cent: one-half load, 7J 
per cent. The load was calculated from the generator out- 
put. The generators had been thoroughly tested by the 
Electrical Testing Laboratories prior to shipment, and the 
data thus secured were used in determining the wheel out- 
put, while the input to the wheels was determined fronts 
the actual vertical head of water and Pilot tube measure- 
ments. Moreover, one of the runners had been tested in- 
the Holyoke flume. The computed efficiency for 240 r.p.m. 
and 8i-'ft. head from the Holyoke tests for three-fourths 
gate gave 84 per cent, while the actual tests gave 84.25 per 
cent. At the outset it was not supposed that the two re- 



LY 13, I9I2. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



95 




Ficis. 9 and 10— Plan VicAi and Cross-Section Through Bulkhead Section of Dam and Power House. 



96 



ELECTRICAL WORLD, 



Vol. 6o, No 



suits would check so closely, as the test conditions at 
Holyoke were not the same as the conditions imposed under 
actual operatiflri. The runaway speed of the wheels is 
410 r.p.m. and they are designed to withstand this speed, 
although the regular running speed is only 240. 

The draft tubes are circular in section at the point of 
connection to the bedplate and elliptical in section at the 
point of discharge into the tailrace. They are made of 
5/16 in. steel plate, rolled; all points are securely riveted, 
beveled and calked and made air-tight. 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. 

The generators are located on the main floor of the 
power station and are directly connected to the waterwheels 
described above The present installation includes three 
of the ultimate installation of five generators. They are 
of the revolving-field type rated at 3667 kva, ii,ooo-volt, 
three-phase, 6o-cycle, with thirty poles, and operate at 240 
r.p.m. The generators are mounted over deep openings in 
the floor which connect with two tunnels or passageways 
running longitudinally under the station floor. These tun- 



full 



per cent efficiency at from three-fourths to 
opening. 

The switcliboard is located on a gallery over the m 
floor on the downstream wall at one end of the plant. 1 
panels are of natural black slate and are of the two-sect 
type with beveled edges. They are mounted vertically w 
pipe supports having adjustable struts at the top for brae; 
to the rear wall. The panels are 90 in. high and 2 in. th 
and vary from 20 in. to 32 in. in width. Each panel 24 
wide or less has a bracket lamp and shade, and panels ra( 
than 24 in. wide have two lamps and shades. These Ian 
are arranged so as not to occupy space on the front of 1 
panel. 

The switchboard instruments are of the horizontal edj 
wise type, with scales ample to meet maximum operati 
conditions. Watt-hour meters are mounted on bracket si 
ports on the rear of the panels. Direct-current voltmeti 
are arranged for indicating polarity. Instruments operati 
in connection with series transformers are designed w: 
5-amp windings. Each alternator and outgoing line pat 
is equipped with a six-point synchronizing receptacle, a 



THE PORTLAND RAILWAY LIGHT & POWER CO., PORTLAND, ORE, 



-<^<:i—^-j^T^d'-cy-< 



I / S.vn, 

* 6 Trans, 



I' 




37.000 V. Bus 



Y^ Choke Coil 



7? //Disc. Switches Z/ /_/ r_J 

i. i. If i. o, 

r~l CZD-oii Swi 



r Trans. ^ ^ 
■ 7 Choite Coil S 

"■ ' /ll.OCO V. liua V»M 

-T- 1 



Vi 



Ind. Motor^ vvl^V 
Transt. 




o, o. 6, Of. c\ e» or. JLmei'seiic.v 

( f I f f iT^ rrr 

OQ Power Circuits (C «V o^ o» 



i— I I I I Ualter: 



Station 
Lighting 



Switchboard Liahting 




Fig. 11 — Diagram of Connections of Estacada Plant. 



Fig. 12 — High-Tension Transformer 



nels contain hydraulic piping and electrical conduits and 
cables and afford an excellent natural ventilation for the 
generators. The main generator leads are insulated with 
varnished cambric covered with lead. They are single- 
conductor cables incased in fiber conduit installed in the 
foundations. 

The exciters are overhung on the end of the generator 
shaft and are rated as follows: Six-pole, 60 kw, 240 r.p.m., 
125 volts, with compound winding adjusted for Tirrill regu- 
lator operation. 

In addition to the directly connected exciters on each unit, 
there is also a motor-generator exciter set consisting of a 
six-pole, 85-kw, 600-r.p.m., 125-volt compound- wound gen- 
erator directly connected to and mounted on the same base 
with an induction motor with the following rating : twelve- 
pole, 125 hp, 600 r.p.m., 230 volts, three-phase, 60 cycles. 
This complete motor-generator set is arranged for direct 
connection to a waterwheel not yet mentioned. This wheel 
consists of a Victor-Francis runner mounted on a horizontal 
shaft in a volute casing. The turbine is capable of de- 
veloping 150 b.h.p. at 600 r.p.m. under 8i-ft. head with 80 



the control circuits for closing the respective oil switche 
are electrically interlocked through this receptacle, requirini 
that the proper synchronizing plug be in position before an; 
oil switch may be closed. An unusual feature is the usi 
of a double-pole, double-throw switch on the alternate 
panels for rendering the alternator switches automatic whil< 
being synchronized but non-automatic thereafter. Tht 
universal time-limit overload relays serve to indicate over 
loads or short circuits by lighting a special red lamp, thereb} 
calling the operator's attention to the conditions when tht 
operation of the alternator oil switch is rendered non-auto- 
matic by the above-mentioned switch. 

The high-tension step-up transformers, the alternator field 
rheostats, the step-down transformers for the exciter motor- 
generator set, all oil switches and both 11,000-volt and 
57,000-volt buses, together with all high-tension disconnect- 
ing switches and outgoing line connections, are located be- 
tween the supporting buttresses of the bulkhead section of 
the dam. This is an advantageous arrangement since the 
main power station is built adjacent to this section of 
the dam. 



fuLY 13, igi2. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



97 



The step-up transformers are 3667-kva units of the three- 
jhase, oil-insulated and water-cooled type and step up the 
sressure of 11,000 volts to 57,100 volts. The 11,000-volt 
;oils are delta-connected and the high-tension windings star- 
ronnected. The water-cooling coils are of brass, and each 
ransformer has three separate coils. The oil outlets at the 
jottom of each transformer are connected to a header in- 
stalled in the foundations. The header connects to a large 
steel tank placed in concrete under the dam so that the 
ransformers can be quickly drained of oil. A pump and 
liter press are arranged to filter this oil and redistribute 
t to the transformers. 

The transformers and generators have the same rating, 
md the ordinary method of operation is to connect each 
generator to its corresponding transformer and then to the 
;7,ooo-volt tus. However, an 11,000-volt bus has been 
nstalled, and each generator may be connected to either the 
ii,ooo-volt bus or directly to the step-up transformer. This 
!i,ooo-volt bus serves to furnish energy for the motor- 
jenerator transformer and in case of emergency is large 
enough to be used as a transfer connection between one gen- 
■rator and a transformer in another section. Air discon- 
lecting switches are used in selecting the 11,000-volt bus or 
he step-up transformer. 

Both the 11,000-volt and the 57,000-volt buses are mounted 
n a horizontal plane, on post-type insulators, underneath 
I concrete protecting shelf. There are no barriers between 
he three phases of the buses. The outgoing lines pass 
hrough high-tension steel-tank oil switches with discon- 
lecting switches on both sides of the oil switch. The 
.witches are rendered automatic by means of inverse-time- 
imit series relays operating the low-voltage control circuit 
)f the oil switch by means of a small contact switch on the 
md of an insulating rod made of treated wood. The series 
elays. which are in the high-tension circuit, are of the 
irdinary bellows type, similar to those used in secondary 
ircuits of series transformers. There are no series trans- 
ormers in the high-tension connections, and in the place 
if these ammeters have been installed in each of the three 
ihase leads of the outgoing line. These ammeters are of 
he series type and are mounted directly on the terminals of 
he high-tension switches. The high-tension lines enter 
ligh-tension compartments over the roof of the power sta- 
ion through wall entrance bushings, three of these being 
ised for the lines and three for the lightning-arrester con- 
lections. The lightning arresters are of the aluminum 
•lectrolytic type and the horn-gaps are mounted outside of 
he station. The tanks are mounted near the top of the 
ligh-tension compartments on the concrete shelf protecting 
he 57,000-volt bus. 

As was stated before, the low-tension windings of the 
ransformers are connected in delta and the high-tension 
.vindings in star. Therefore, a feature of the installation 
.vas the necessity of installing a shunt instrument trans- 
tormer on the outgoing line between one phase and ground 
n order to obtain a potential in time phase with the pressure 
obtained from the shunt instrument transformer on the 
ilternator connections, for the purpose of synchronizing, 
rhis required one shunt instrument transformer on each of 
:he two outgoing lines with the potential ratio of 33,000 to 
no volts. 

Two shunt instrument transformers with the potential 
ratio of 57,000 to no volts were installed on each end of 
:he sectionalized 57,000-volt bus for Tirrill regulator opera- 
tion. The Tirrill regulators are operated to give constant 
potential on the high-tension busbars and do not compensate 
for line drop. 

The headgates are motor-operated and controlled from 
the station switchboard. The gates are arranged with limit 
switches at both ends of travel and can be stopped or started 
at any point of their travel, either at the switchboard or in 
the headgate house, which is situated over the bulkhead sec- 
tion of the dam. 



FLEXIBLE SUPPORTS FOR OVERHEAD TRANS- 
MISSION LINES. 



Derivation of Some Simplified Methods for Calculating 

the Stresses in the Remaining Conductors 

When One of a Group Breaks. 



By Alfred Still. 

CALCULATIONS of stresses in transmission lines are 
usually based on the assumption that the ends of 
each span are firmly secured to rigid supports. This 
condition is rarely fulfilled in practice; there is some "give" 
about the poles or towers, especially when the line is not 
absolutely straight, and the insulator pins will bend slightly 
and relieve the stress when this tends to reach the point at 
which the elastic elongation of the wires will be exceeded. 
Then, again, the wires will usually slip in the ties at the in- 
sulators, even if these ties are not specially designed to 
yield or break before damage is done to the insulators or 
supporting structures. The use of the suspension type of 
insulator, which is now becoming customary for the higher 
voltages, adds considerably to the flexibility of the line. 

In regard to the towers themselves, all steel structures for 
dead-ending lines or sections of lines are necessarily rigid, 
and the usual light windmill type of tower with wide base 
is also without any appreciable flexibility. The latticed 
steel masts, as used more generally in Europe than in 
America, are slightly more flexible, and the elastic proper- 
ties of the ordinary wooden pole are well known. The de- 
flection of a wooden pole may be considerable, and yet the 
pole will resume its normal shape when the extra stress is 
removed. 

The present-day tendency is undoubtedly toward the in- 
creased use of the so-called flexible steel structures; that is 
to say, of steel supports designed to have flexibility in the 
direction of the line, without great strength to resist stresses 
in this direction, but with the requisite strength in a direc- 
tion normal to the line to resist the side stresses due to wind 
pressures on the wires and the supports themselves. 

Such a design of support has the important advantage 
of being cheaper than the rigid tower construction, in addi- 
tion to which it gives flexibility where this is advantageous, 
with the necessary strength and stiffness where required. 
The economy is not only in the cost of the tower itself but 
in the greater ease of transport over rough country, the 
preparation of the ground, and erection. 

The advantages of flexibility in the direction of the line 
are considerable. Probably the most severe stresses which 
a transmission line should be capable of withstanding are 
those due to the breakages of wires. Such breakages may 
be caused by abnormal wind pressures, by trees falling 
across the line, or by a burn-out due to any cause. Sud- 
denly applied stresses such as are caused by the breaking of 
some or all of the wires in one span are best met by being 
absorbed gradually into a flexible system. The supports on 
each side of the wrecked span will bend toward the adjoin- 
ing spans, because the combined pull of all the wires in the 
adjoining spans is greater than the pull of the remaining 
wires, if any, in the wrecked span. This movement of the 
pole top results in a reduction of tension in the wires of the 
adjoining span owing to the increased sag of these wires; 
there will be an appreciable deflection of the second and 
third poles beyond the break, but the amount of these suc- 
cessive deflections will decrease at a very rapid rate and 
will rarely be noticeable beyond the fourth or fifth pole. 

It is obvious that as the remaining wires in the faulty 
span tighten up the stress increases; but the combined pull 
of these wires on the pole top is smaller than it was before 
the accident, since it is assisted by the pull of the deflected 
poles, and these joint forces are balanced by the combined 
pull of all the wires in the adjoining sound span, which pull, 



98 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. 2. 



as previously mentioned, is smaller than it was under normal 
conditions. 

The greater the flexibility of the supports in the direction 
of the line, the smaller will be the extra load which any one 
support will be called upon to withstand ; on the other hand, 
it is usual to provide anchoring towers of rigid design about 
every mile or three-quarter nule on straight runs, and also 
at angles, in addition to which every fifth or sixth flexible 
tower may be head-guyed in both directions. It is not un- 
usual to carry a galvanized Siemens-Martin steel strand 
cable above the high tension conductors on the tops of the 
steel structures. This has the double advantage of securely, 
but not rigidly, tying together the supports, and of provid- 
ing considerable protection against the effects of lightning. 
The disadvantages are increased cost and possible — but not 
probable — danger of the grounded wire falling onto the con- 
ductors and causing interruption of supply. 

The dead-end towers should be capable of withstanding 
the combined pull of all the wires on one side only, when 
these are loaded to the. expected maximum limit, without 
the foundations yielding or the structure being stressed be- 
yond the elastic limit. The flexible supports must with- 
stand with a reasonable factor of safety the dead weight of 
conductors, etc., and the expected maximum side pressures; 
but in the direction of the line their strength must neces- 
sarily be small, otherwise the condition of fle.xibility cannot 
be satisfied. 

It is easy to design braced A-frame or H-frame steel 
structures of sufficient strength to withstand the dead load 
and lateral pressure and yet have great flexibility, with cor- 
respondingly reduced strength, in the direction of the line. 
Great care must be used in designing a line of this type so 
that strength and durability shall not be sacrificed to light- 
ness and flexibility without very carefully considering the 
problem in all its aspects. As an approximate indication 
of present practice, it may be stated that a load of from one- 
twentieth to one-tenth of the total load for which the rigid- 
strain towers are designed should not stress the intermedi- 
ate flexible structures beyond the elastic limit. It is well 
to bear in mind that at the moment of rupture of one or 
more wires on a "flexible" transmission line the resulting 
stresses in the structures and remaining wires will be in the 
nature of waves or surges until the new condition of equi- 
librium is attained, and the maximum stresses immediately 
following a rupture will generally exceed the final value. 

The mathematics required for the exact determination of 
stresses and deflections in a transmission line consisting of 
a series of flexible poles is of a very high order, even 
when many assumptions are made which practical conditions 
may not justify; but the limiting steady values of these 
stresses and deflections can be calculated in the manner 
about to be described, and as the range between these limits 
will usually not be very great, the probable maximum 
Stresses under given conditions can be estimated with a rea- 
sonable degree of accuracy. 

CALCULATIONS OF FLEXIBLE-POLE LINES. 

Consider a series of poles as in Fig. i, the end one being 
rigid while all the others are flexible and of equal height 
and stiffness. It is assumed that all spans were originally 
of equal length /, and that there were b wires in each span, 
strung to a tension of T pounds per square inch and having 
a corresponding sag S. In span No. i, terminating at the 
rigid support some of the wires have been severed, leaving 
only a wires in this span. It is assumed also that there is 
no slipping of the wires in the ties and no yielding of pole 
foundations. 

The elastic deflection of a pole or tower considered as a 
beam fixed at one end and loaded at the other is 

~~3 MI 
where P is the load, H the height, M the elastic modulus 
and / the moment of inertia of the cross-section. 



In the special case considered the value of P, which pro- 
duces the deflection S, of the first fle.xible pole, is 

P = A{bT,-aT,) 
where A is the cross-section of one conductor and T, and 
T"j are the stresses in th« conductors of spans No. i and 
No. 2 respectively. It is assumed that all the wires are 
attached to the pole tops at a point H in. above ground level. 




Rigid 
Support 



Fig. 1 — Flexible Pole Line. 



IP 



By putting K = — — , the successive deflections may be 

written : 

Z, = KA{bT,-aT,) (i) 

l, = KAbiT.-T,) (2) 

and the sum of the deflections of a series of flexible poles 

of the same height and stiffness is 

^ = KA{bT„-aT,) (3) 

where it is the number of the last span. It is usually safe to 

assume that T„ is equal to the initial tension T in from the 

fourth to sixth span from the break. 

DEFLECTION OF POLE TOP IN TERMS OF CONDUCTOR ELONGATION. 

Fig. 2 shows the conductors in the first span with a sag 
S under normal conditions with b wires in the span, and a 
smaller sag S^ after some of the wires have been cut, leav- 
ing only a wires in the span. For simplicity in calculating 
the movement of the point of attachment of the wires on 
the flexible pole, instead of considering the span to increase 
in length from / to (/-|-8), the span / may be supposed to 
remain unaltered while the length of the conductor is re- 
duced by pulling it through the tie of the insulator, G, on 
the flexible pole until the sag is reduced from 5" to S,.- The 
length of wire pulled through in this manner may, for all 
practical purposes, be considered equal to the actual pole top 
deflection, 0. This assumption is justifiable since the deflec- 
tion S is always small relatively to the span /. 

The length of the (parabolic) arc with sag 5" is 

and with sag 5", 




Fig. 2— First 
The difference is 



Span in Flexible Pole Line. 



L-L = 



8(S' — S,') 

3/ 



to which must be added the elongation due to the stretch of 
the wire under increased tension; this is 

M 
or, with quite sufficient closeness. 



July 13, 191: 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



99 



M 

Hence the deflection of the first flexible pole expressed in 
terms of the sags and tension of the conductors in the first 
span is : 



K = 



(45X12)' 



= 0.0428 



S, = 



3' 



M 



(4) 



Returning again to the arrangement of line depicted in 
Fig. I, it is necessary to consider (i) the total pull of all 
the wires in span No. 2 and the effect of this pull on pole 
No. I if all the wires are broken in span No. i, and (2) the 
effect on the first flexible pole and the stresses in the re- 
maining wires in No. i span on the assumption that all the 
wires in the faulty span are not broken.' 

If the particulars of the poles are J^nown so that the 
factor K in the formulas for deflection can be determined, 
it is desired to calculate the stresses in poles and wires 
corresponding to the new conditions of equilibrium; or, if 
the poles have yet to be designed, the factor K must be 
determined in order that the stiffness of the poles shall 
satisfy certain necessary or assumed conditions such as the 
maximum deflection of pole top which will not stress the 
remaining wires in span No. l beyond the elastic limit of 
the conductor material. (A factor of safety must be used 
to allow of momentary increased stresses due to probable 
mechanical surges previously referred to.) 

No attempt will be made in this article to obtain an exact 
mathematical solution of these problems, but close approxi- 
mations can be obtained with sufficient accuracy for prac- 
tical purposes, especially when it is considered that many 
possible influencing factors such as the yielding of founda- 
tions and the slipping of wires in the ties cannot be taken 
into account even in the most complete mathematical treat- 
ment of the subject. 

It is assumed that the poles are equidistant and in a 
straight line, and that the first support is rigid, all as indi- 
cated in Fig. I. Four separate limiting conditions will be 
considered : 

(A) All wires are severed in the first span, and the 
second pole beyond the break is considered to be rigid. 

(B) All wires are severed in the first span, but the sec- 
ond pole beyond the break and all subsequent poles are 
considered to be infinitely flexible. 

(C) There are a wires remaining in span No. i and b 
wires in all other spans. The second pole beyond the break 
is considered to be rigid. 

(D) There are a wires in the first span, but the second 
and all subsequent poles beyond the break are considered to 
be infinitely flexible. 

In order to illustrate the calculations by means of numeri- 
cal examples, the transmission line will be supposed to have 
the following characteristics: 

Six No. 2-0 aluminum conductors. 

Cross-section of conductor, A = 0.1046 sq. in. 

Length of span, I = 400 ft. 

Normal sag = 9.76 ft., which corresponds to 

Stress T = 2400 lb. per sq. in. 

It is assumed that there is no grounded guard wire above 
the conductors, and that the average height of the point of 
attachment of the wires above ground level is 45 ft. = H. 

The modulus of elasticity of aluminum cables for the 
purpose of these calculations is assumed to be 7,500,000 
= M. The flexible towers are in the form of braced A- 
frames, each vertical limb consisting of one 7-in. steel 
channel of light section (gf^ lb. per foot). The moment 
of inertia of the section of such a channel is 21. i, and 
since there are two channels the value of / is 21.1X2 



= 42.2 and the section modulus 



42.2 



= (say) 12 = Z. The 



3-5 

elastic modulus for steel is iW = 29 X 10'. The factor for 
use in pole deflection formulas as previously given is 



3 X 29 X 10" X 42.2 

The maximum deflection of this particular structure before 

permanent deformation would take place will occur when 

the difference of pull or wires is such as to stress the metal 

to (say) 30,000 lb. per square inch. The resisting moment 

is rXZ = 30,000 X 12 and the resultant pull at the pole 

top will be 

30,000 X 12 ^^ ,, 

~ = 667 lb. 

45 X 12 

The maximum allowable deflection is, therefore, 

3 = /i: X 667 

= 0.0428 X 667 

= 28.5 

Case {A). All wires broken in span No. i ; second pole 
beyond break considered rigid. 

Since all the wires are severed in span No. i (a = o) it 
is not possible to make use of formula (4), but a similar 
formula can be used by expressing 'the deflection in terms of 
the constants for span No. 2. This formula is 

{S:-S^) + {T-T,)4r (5) 



S, = 



3^ 



M 































60 


























^-^ 


















r^ 


^A^ 


■l^- 






_ ^ 
















VO.S 






J 














^-l 


r^ 


^ 












1 « 








o»^ 


o'§2^ 






















^^ 


^^ 




















|30 




^ 






















































\ 




























^ 






















10 








^^ 


^u 


'"*■'-' iV, 




























lieii 


i!£_£e 


-iMoQ 


7^- 


























■iiLiy£i 







1200 



2400 



1400 liMO ISOO 2000 2200 

Stress in wires of span No.2 ^T -i lbs. per sq. inch 

Fig. 3 — Relation Between Pole Deflection and Wire Tensions In 
Second Span. 

By calculating 8, for various arbitrary values of T^ smaller 
than r, curve No. i of Fig. 3 can readily be drawn. This 
gives the relation between the stress T, in the wires of the 
second span and the pole-top deflection 3, on the assumption 
that the second pole beyond the break is rigid. On the same 
diagram draw the straight line marked curve No. 2 which 
gives the relation between pole deflection and the stress T", 
as given by formula (l) when the tension T", in wires of the 
first span is equal to zero. The point of crossing of curves 
No. I and No. 2 evidently indicates the deflection corre- 
sponding to the condition of equilibrium. This deflection 
is Sj = 29.5 in. and stress T, = iioo. 

It will be noted that in this particular example the de- 
flection is about the same as the maximum allowable deflec- 
tion (28.5) previously calculated; but even if allowance 
is made for shocks and mechanical surges, it is probable 
that the pole would not suffer serious injury, because some 
of the wires would be liable to slip in the ties and so relieve 
the tension. If wind pressures acting on snow or ice 
deposits are added to the stresses due to weight of con- 
ductor material only, the strain will be greater, but on the 
other hand, much sleet deposit is liable to be shaken off 
the wires in the event of a sudden severing of all the wires 
in the first span. 

The above results are, however, based on the assumption 
that the second pole beyond the break is rigid, which may 
not be in accordance with practical conditions. 

Case (B). Conditions as above; but the second and sub- 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. 2. 



sequent poles beyond the break are supposed to be infinitely 
flexible (A" = 00). 

In this case the tension 7", will not depend upon the de- 
flection of the first flexible pole; it will be equal to the 
original tension T = 2400 for all values of the deflection S,. 
The deflection obtained when T". = 2400 is of course readily 
calculated by means of formula (i), or it can be read off 















\ 






























































,.^ 
























/ 






















iff^* 


^X 






















'^ 


f^ 






















/^°*^ 


)y 






















•if 


r 
























l^ 




















c 


^^^ 


y 






















^ 


^ 














1 Ai 








y 


^ 




.pSo. 


1 sivi' 


Lg rcl: 


tiou 


nag 


il^ 






^ 






















/^ 




^ 


--' 








i 











2000 4000 

Htress in wires 



GOOO 8000 10000 ISOCC 

span X-t.l = T\ lbs. per sn. inch 



Fig. <f — Relation Between Pole Deflections and Wire Tensions In 
First Span. 

Fig. 3, since it is the deflection indicated at the point where 
curve No. 2 meets the vertical ordinate for T". = 2400. This 
value 8, is 64.5 in., which would lead to permanent deforma- 
tion of the flexible structure. The actual deflection of the 
first pole in a series of flexible poles of equal stiffness would 
lie somewhere between these limiting values of 29.5 in. and 
64.5 in. if the law of elasticity may be considered to apply 
in the case of the higher deflections. As a general rule the 
breaking of all wires in one span will lead to the wrecking 
or permanent deflection or uprooting of the first pole, which 
cannot be at the same time flexible enough greatly to reduce 
the combined pull of all wires in span No. 2, and yet strong 
enough to resist the ultimate combined pull of these wires. 
There would be an exception in the case of short spans with 
tall flexible poles ; and in any case it is probable that only 
the first pole would be damaged or moved in its foundations. 

It is rare that all the w-ires in one span are broken 
simultaneously unless the design of the line is such that the 
severing of one or more wires leads necessarily to the 
rupture of the remaining wires owing to the excessive 
stresses imposed on them. The calculation of stresses and 
deflections when a certain number of wires remain in the 
faulty span is more difficult than in the cases already con- 
sidered, but the solution is of more practical value. 

Case (C). There are a wires in faulty span and h wires 
in sound spans. The second pole beyond break is considered 
rigid. (For the purpose of working out numerical examples 
it will be assumed that only one wire remains in faulty 
span ; thus = 1 and 6 = 6.) 

Instead of only two equations, there are now three equa- 
tions to be satisfied simultaneously; these are: 

(a) Formula (i) : 

8, =KA (bT,—aT,) 
— 0.0269 T, — ■ 0.00448 T, 

(b) Formula (4). giving deflection in terms of elonga- 
tion of remaining wires in span No. i : 



^^ = Y5o-^^^-^-^'^ 



2400 



18,750 

(c) Formula (5), giving deflection in terms of the short- 
ening of the wires in span No. 2. (This relation is given by 
curve No. i already plotted in Fig. 3.) 

It should be mentioned in connection with formulas (4) 
and (5) that by assuming a constant length of span the 



sag 5 is always inversely proportional to the stress T. The 
assumption of a constant length of span for the purpose of 
simplifying the relation between sag and tension introduces 
no appreciable error in practical calculations, in the par- 
ticular example from which the curves are plotted and the 



numerical results obtained the relation is 5" ■■ 



2 3.420 

T ' 



Proceed, now, to plot curve No. 3 in Fig. 4 from formula 
(4) by assuming various arbitrary values of T, from the 
lowest possible limit of 1\ = T = 2400 up to the elastic 
limit of about 13,000. For a reason to be made clear here- 
after this curve should be drawn on transparent paper ; the 
horizontal scale used for the values of T, may be arbitrarily 
chosen, but the scale of ordinates giving the deflections 3, 
must be exactly the same as used for Fig. 3. On the same 
diagram (Fig. 4) draw also the straight line marked curve 
No. 4, giving the relation between T^ and the quantity 
KAaT^. This latter quantity when subtracted from the 
quantity KAbT^ will give the pole deflection to fulfil the 
condition of formula (i). The reason for drawing the 
curves of Fig. 4 on transparent paper will now be clear. 

The transparent paper with the curves of Fig. 4 is placed 
over Fig. 3 with the horizontal datum lines of zero deflec- 
tion coinciding, as shown in Fig. 5. The point of intersec- 
tion of curves No. I and No. 3 will give the corresponding 
values of the stresses T^ and T,,' but with a pole having 
definite elastic properties there is only one value of the 
deflection which will satisfy the three conditions previously 
referred to. The deflection as a function of the pole stiff- 
ness is the distance EF (Fig. 5), being the difference be- 
tween the corresponding ordinates of curves No. 2 and 
No. 4. By moving the tracing paper with the curves No. 3 
and No. 4 over the other curves until the distances HG 
and FE on the same vertical ordinate are equal, the deflec- 
tion corresponding to the condition of equilibrium is readily 
obtained. If preferred, the curve OPRE, representing the 
sum of the quantities of curves No. 3 and No. 4, may be 
drawn on the tracing paper instead of the curve 4, and 
when the point of intersection (£) of this new curve with 
curve No. 2 on the lower sheet lies on the same vertical 
ordinate as the junction (G) of the curves No. I and No. 3, 
the distance HG will be the required deflection. 



. Lower sheet with eurves Nos.l :ind 2 




~ Transparent paper with curves Nos.3 and 4 
Fig. 5 — Showing Diagram Fig. 4 Superimposed on Diagram Fig. 3. 

The solution of the numerical example worked out in this 
manner is 

8, = 10.2 in. 

T, = 7400 lb. per square inch. 

T. = 1500 lb. per square inch. 



^There is a definite value of Ti for any given value of T-j independent of 
all considerations ot pole stiffness and size of wire and number of wires 
in adjoining spans This is the relation which will satisfy formulas (4) j 
and (5) simultaneously; it is expressed by the equation 



fi^''-- 



-5-1-5=') =^(2r- 



■A— r,) 



July 13, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



lOI 



Case (D). Same conditions, with the exception that the 
second pole beyond the break, instead of being rigid, is 
assumed to be infinitely flexible. This assumption is made 
also in the case of all subsequent poles. This means that 
T, = T = 2400 whatever may be the amount of deflection 
of the first flexible pole, and the problem can be solved 
graphically as indicated above, the only difference being 
that curve No. i giving the relation between 8^ and T". when 
the second pole beyond the break is rigid must be replaced 
by the vertical line SIV (Fig. 5), being the ordinate corre- 
sponding to a tension T„ = 2400. 

The numerical solution in this case is : 

3, = 13.2 in. 

[ r, = 11,450 

It is interesting to note that there is little difference between 
the deflections for the two extreme cases (C) and (D) ; 
the average value for 3j is 11.7 in., corresponding to a stress 
T^ = 9400 in the remaining wire of the faulty span. This 
is well below the elastic limit, and it is probable that this 
wire would not break even if the five other wires were 
severed. The figures chosen for illustrating the calcula- 
tions relate to a practical transmission line, and it will be 
seen that the stresses and deflections corresponding to the 
state of equilibrium after the severing of some or all of 
the wires in one span can, by the use of simple diagrams, 
be predetermined within reasonably narrow limits. 



SIMPLIFIED SAG FORMULAS FOR OVERHEAD 
WIRES AND CABLES. 



Logarithmic Chart for Showing the Relation Between 

the Tension, Sag and Span-Length in Copper and 

Aluminum Transmission Lines. 



By H. V. Carpenter. 

Several recent papers have given solutions for the prob- 
lem of determining the proper sag or tension to allow in 
stringing a span of wire or cable. The greatly increased 
importance of the problem, due to the more common use of 
long spans, may, however, be sufficient excuse for present- 
ing another method. It is thought that the following treat- 
ment will be found considerably more direct and more 
easily understood than any of the others and hense better 
suited to the needs of the man who solves only an occa- 
sional problem of this sort. 

The conditions under which the problem usually appears 
for solution are as follows : A line of a certain size, 
material and length of span is to be erected during warm 
weather, and the problem is to determine what sag, or ten- 
sion, shall be allowed in order that the tension in the cable 
may not exceed a certain assumed maximum when exposed 
to sleet, wind and the lower temperatures that may be 
expected. The fact that only rough assumptions can be 
made as to the lowest temperature, heaviest sleet and 
greatest wind pressure which will ever occur makes ex- 
treme accuracy in the solution unnecessary and fully justi- 
fies the following approximations, which greatly simplify 
the equations. First, the parabola is assumed to represent 
the curve taken by the wire. As no sags in practice will 
exceed 5 per cent, the errors due to this assumption are 
negligible. Second, in the expressions for change of length 
of the wire due to temperature and stress variations, the 
length of the wire is assumed to be equal to the length of 
span. For a sag of 5 per cent the length exceeds the span 
by only 0.6 per cent and the error in results due to this 
assumption is less than this percentage. Third, the elonga- 
tion due to rise of temperature is assumed to be independent 
of that due to increase in stress, and vice versa. The error 
due to this assumption is entirely negligible. 



Let 5" = area of cable in square inches (actual cross- 
section of material) ; w = weight of bare cable in pounds 
per foot ; k = ratio of equivalent weight of cable, sleet and 
wind to weight of bare cable (based on assumed sleet and 
wind) ; M = modulus of elasticity of the cable, pounds per 
square inch, taken as 12,000,000 for copper cable hard- 
drawn, 16,000,000 for solid copper hard-drawn, 9,000,000 
for solid aluminum, 7,500.000 for aluminum cable; x = dis- 
tance between poles in feet ; X = distance between poles in 
loo-ft. units; a = coefficient of expansion per degree 
Fahrenheit, taken as 0.0000096 for copper, 0.0000128 for 
aluminum ; d = drop in temperature to be expected below 
that of erection, in degrees Fahrenheit; Tm = maximum 
allowable tension in pounds per square inch, taken as 30,000 
for copper, 14,000 for aluminum ; Te = tension to be used in 
erecting the cable, pounds per square inch ; ye = sag at the 
middle of the span in feet, to be used in erecting; jim = sag 
at the middle under maximum stress conditions ; Le, Lm 
= lengths of the cable in the span, as above; yo, Lo = sag 



Sag in Feet 
6 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 



16000 
12730 



7000 



4000 



3000 



1273 
1200 



800 



600 



300 
250 



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k 


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4000 



3000 



2000 



1500 



1200 



600 E 



200 



150 



100 



400 500 600 700 800 90010001200 14001600 
Span in Feet Ekari^ai ni,-i,j 



200 250 300 
Chart Showing Transmission Line Sags and Tensions. 



and length respectively if cable were to become weightless. 
Using these symbols and the approximations mentioned 
above, one may write : 

Contraction in the wire due to a drop in temperature 
= xad. 

Elongation due to an increase of tension of 7" lb. per 
square inch = xT/M. 

The length of tlie wire as erected = 



Le = X ■ 



yt' 



2,x 



(from the theory of the parabola) (l) 



J'e" 



or, Lf — ;r = = the excess of length over span. 

3 X 

If the stress due to gravity could be removed entirely. 

the result would be 

, 8 y,; 

Lo — X = 

3 X 

which is also equal to — '-^ .i- ——, 

Z X M 



(2) 



102 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. 2. 



Imagining a change from this ideal weightless condition 
to that of maximum load and minimum temperature, the 
excess length would become 



r„: 



m — X = — — = — +-1' ^r^ — -vad (3) 

The tension is related to the sag, weight and span by the 
formula TS = .t'"jt'/8 y, 
or there may be written, TmS = .r'ytjcf/'8j)„ 



Substituting the value of Vm from (4) and of — 
from (2) in equation (3), 



(4) 

" yl 
3 ^ 



¥+^(^-'m~^') (5) 



24 S'Tm' 3 

Substituting for Te its value from (4), multiplying 

3 



ye- 



3 xw 
are all constant 



through by -5- .rye and rearranging, 
o 

3,3 X / Tm , k'x-zi.^ \ 

S y M 24 s-T„: J 

It will be noted that -r^, a,—-, and 7,,; 

and known for any given material. Substituting the proper 
values for each of these and also replacing the span in feet, 
X, by the span in 100 ft. units, A'.- 
for solid hard drawn copper, 

J'e° + X'(7 — 0.036 d — o.02.tk^X'-)ye — 1.13X' = o 
for stranded hard drawn copper. 

yi -\-^'{.9-Z7 — 0.0360? — 0.026 fe'X"-) ye— 1.5 X' = o 
for stranded aluminum, 

yi -\-X^{-j — o.o48d — 0.0107 k-X'')ye — 0.72 X* = 

As all of the values in these fornuilas are known or as- 
sumed except ye, one can solve for its value, which will be 
the proper sag at which to erect the span under the assumed 
conditions. 

Similar expressions can be derived for other materials, or 
for the same materials with different values used for r„,, 
M, etc. 

A slight change in the substitutions will give a similar set 
of formulas for the tension, Te, to be used during erection. 
They contain both Ti and Te, however, and so are not quite 
so easily solved. 

It will be noted that, in spite of the steps taken to 
simplify, the resulting expression for ye is in the form of a 
cubic equation. The difificulty commonly found in the solu- 
tion of this form has caused most investigators to turn to 
some graphical method for representing the relation. In 
doing so, however, it is necessary to sacrifice clearness of 
derivation and accuracy of result. In view of this it may 
be well to submit the following method for handling the 
type of cubic equation involved. 

The equations above derived contain only the third and 
the first power of the unknown and will always be of the 
form, 

/-f Py — e = o 

or, 

f — Py—Q = 
Only one positive value of y will satisfy either of these 
forms and this value may be easily approximated by the 
method of inspection and trial. Dividing each by y and 
transposing, 

Q/y — f = P; or y — Q/y = P. 

Taking the first form and supposing P to equal 300 and 
Q to equal 400, for example, 400/y — y' = 300, inspection 
shows that y must have a value between I and 2, and a few 
trials will show that 1.33 is close enough. Taking the second 
form and assuming P = 40 and = 2000, y — 2000/y = 40. 
Here it is easily seen that the result lies between 10 and 20 
and two or three trials establishes the value of 13.6 as the 
approximate root. 

Tlie same process can be carried out more rapidlv and 



accurately on the ordinary Mannheim slide-rule, a single 
setting giving the result. Consider the example just given 
and assume the value of y to be known by inspection to be 
between 10 and 20. Then set the cross-hair or runner over 
2 (calling it 2000), on scale D, and shift the slide until 13, 
for e.xample, on scale C is under the runner. This shows 
13" under the runner on scale B and 2000/13 on scale D 
opposite I on scale C. Having 13° and 2000/13 before one, 
it is easy to tell whether 13" — 2000/13 is equal to 40 or not, 
and if not the slide may be shifted until the desired equality 
is attained giving a result of 13.67. In the same way, for 
the first problem given, 400/y — y^ = 300, the rule is set as 
before except that it must be adjusted until (the number on 
D opposite I on C) minus (the number on B under the 
runner) is equal to 300. If y is known to be between I and 
2, then 400/y must be roughly 300 and y" must be between 
I and 4; a little shifting of the runner shows the result to 
be 1.33. Unless y is known approximately, so that the 
decimal points in the values of Q/y and y° are known the 
slide-rule will give several apparent solutions and so can- 
not be relied upon. 

As an illustration of the entire problem let us consider the 
tollowing case: A line is to be constructed at a tempera- 
ture of 80 deg. Fahr., using No. 4-0 stranded copper, and a 
span of 600 ft. {X = 6). Experience indicates that 0.5 in. 
of sleet, a maximum wind velocity of 40 miles per hour and 
a minimum temperature of -j- 10 deg. Fahr. may be ex- 
pected, and the problem is to determine the sag to be used 
in erection, k may be found by calculation to be equal to 
2.1. d, the drop in temperature, = 70. Substituting X = 6, 
k = 2.1, and d = 70, in the formula for stranded copper, 

y/ + 6=(9.37 — 0.036 X 70 — 0.026 X 2.f X 6')ye 

— 1.5 X 6* = 
or, 

y/ + 97-9 3'e — 1944 = 
or. 

1944/ye — ye' = 97.9 
By inspection y^ is seen to be about 10 ft., and by the slide- 
rule method we get r^ = 9.92 ft. 

In order to aid in determining the tensions corresponding 
to a given sag, span and size of wire, the accompanying 
chart has been prepared. This is based on the formula for 
total tension : 

T =TS = xV/8y = xWS/8y = zc//8 X ^S/y 
where zt/ is the weight of the wire per unit cross-section. 
Since it//8 is a constant for any given material, the variables 
are "P, S, x, and y, and the logarithmic form, log T' -1- 
log y = constant + 2 log x -\- log S, may be plotted as shown. 
Following the dotted lines of the chart, a span of 800 ft., 
with No. 3-0 copper cable stretched to a sag of 8 ft., will 
have a total tension of 5100 lb. To find the tension in 
pounds per square irich simply look for the total tension on 
a cable of I sq. in. cross-section, or of o.l sq. in. cross- 
section, for the same conditions of sag and span. No values 
need be assigned to the diagonal lines of the chart as they 
are simply loci of constant values of sag multiplied by 
tension, or of the square of the span multiplied by the cross- 
section of the conductor. 



TRAIN RESISTANCE AND TONNAGE RATING 



Bulletin No. 59 of the Engineering Experiment Station 
at the University of Illinois, describes an investigation made 
to determine the effect of cold weather upon train resist- 
ance and tonnage rating carried out by Prof. Ed- 
ward C. Schmidt and Mr. F. W. Marquis. In connection 
with the investigation considerable information was col- 
lected from the railroads of the country concerning tonnage 
rating practice. This has been summarized and presented in 
tabular form for reference. Persons desiring copies should 
address the Engineering Experiment Station, Urbana, 111. 



JLY 13, I912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD, 



103 



Central Station 

Management, Policies and Commercial Methods 



ELECTRICITY IN THE HOUSEHOLD. 



"Comfort in the Home" is the title of an attractive book- 
;t issued by the Pubhc Service Electric Company of New 
ersey. The attractive cover gives only a hint of its inter- 
sting contents. Full-page illustrations, with the home set- 
ng showing the various household appliances in actual use, 
nd short paragraphs referring to them make up the booklet, 
t will be of interest to every homemaker who can use 
lectricity and might serve as a model to other central- 
tation companies desiring to increase their day load. 



HE ELECTRIC VEHICLE AND THE POOR MAN. 



Operation of an electric automobile need not be confined 
3 the well-to-do class of people, as too large a part of the 
ublic has come to believe. Many electric vehicles are being 
sed at a cost for charging of from $5 to $6 a month. If 
vvo members of a .family use the street car downtown and 
ack each day, the cost of car fare would be $6, or as much 
s the cost of keeping the automobile. Meanwhile the 
treet-car passengers miss the pleasure of morning and 
vening spins over more attractive streets in an uncrowded 
ehicle, besides having a conveyance handy for short runs 
bout town during the business day. The electric can be 
epended upon, too, to deliver its passengers on time for 
n important appointment, whether street cars or other 
ehicles run or not. 



VERY CENTRAL-STATION MANAGER HIS OWN 
SCULPTOR. 



The resourceful plant manager, even in the small com- 
■unity, need not look far for an attractive window display 
t he will but use his ingenuity to adapt to his purpose 
leans at hand. The illustration shows a display carrying 
ut the "Liberty-enlightening-the-world" idea which is in- 




Central-Station Show Window at Livingston, Mont. 

;talled in the window of the Madison River Power Com- 
)any at Livingston, Mont. This was exhibited at the time 
)f a recent tungsten-lighting campaign and attracted much 
ittention. 

The female figure, which staqds on a base of tungsten- 
amp boxes, is made up of several and very diverse parts. 
riead and shoulders are formed by an old parlor ornament — 



a plaster bust with a cracked pedestal. A pasteboard band 
pierced with eightpenny nails, and the whole gilded, serves 
as a passable crown. The hand which holds aloft the 
lighted tungsten lamp was carved by Mr. J. E. Findley, 
local manager, from a plaster of paris blank cast around 
the lamp socket and fi.xture tubing. The other hand is 
deftly hidden in the folds of the dress which is skilfully 
draped over the box-wood framing that forms the figure. 

Various other display features have been used with effect 
in these windows from time to time. The interior of the 
office is handsomely fitted up. On a center table surrounded 
by easy chairs are kept recent issues of the technical and 
popular electrical press, offering a friendly invitation to 
the visitor to rest and inform himself on matters of elec- 
trical progress, with which the Livingston company itself 
keeps well abreast. 



OLD HOUSE WIRING IN BALTIMORE. 



Some weeks ago the Maryland Public Service Commission 
rendered a decision in a controversy between the Consoli- 
dated Gas, Electric Light & Power Company, of Baltimore, 
and the local wiring contractors over the right of the Con- 
solidated company to engage in the wiring and fixture busi- 
ness, approving the company's position. One of the features 
of the Consolidated company's plan was the offer of a propo- 
sition to wire old houses and accept payment in monthly 
instalments. This feature made it difficult for the contrac- 
tors to compete in securing this class of business. In order, 
however, to promote a more friendly spirit, the Consolidated 
company now offers to every member of the Baltimore 
Electrical Contractors' Association a proposition as novel 
as it is practical. Any contractor who is a member of the 
association may secure a contract for wiring an old house 
under the same plan of payment, by instalments, as the com- 
pany has been offering. The company agrees to pay over 
to the contractor the full amount of the contract, as soon 
as the work is done, and will then collect the monthly instal- 
ments from the consumer. This means in effect that all 
Baltimore contractors in the association can now solicit old 
house-wiring business on the instalment plan, and thus com- 
pete with the company on an equal basis. It is anticipated 
that this policy will do much to remove the unfriendly feel- 
ing which hitherto existed and open the way for more 
effective co-operation between the central-station company 
and the contractors. 



EXPERIMENT IN HOUSE HEATING BY 
ELECTRICITY. 



The Hartford (Conn.) Electric Light Company has re- 
cently been conducting an e.xperiment in heating a thirteen- 
room frame house of modern construction located near the 
outskirts of the city on a rather unprotected hillside. The 
regular heating system is of the hot-water type, and electric 
units were installed directly in the radiators by inserting in 
the bottom circulating pipe an electrical heating unit. The 
radiators in the hall, parlor and dining-room on the first 
floor and in the front bath and nursery on the second floor 
were equipped in this manner, giving a total radiating sur- 
face of 351 sq. ft. The electric units were arranged for 
two "heats," giving a total of 7300 watts on the high heat 
and 1800 watts on the low heat, or 21 watts and 5.2 watts 



104 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. 2. 



per sq. ft. of radiation, respectively, with switches provided 
so that the heat could be turned off and on readily as 
needed. As normally operated, the power was continuously 
applied during the night at a low or high heat, according 
to the weather, and either shut off entirely or operated at 
the low heat during the day. In this way the house was 
warm in the morning and the excessive waste of heat which 
usually accompanies the morning openmg up of a coal fur- 
nace was avoided entirely. The furnace fire was allowed 
to go out on April 15 and was not relighted. 

The table reproduced shows wind and weather and the 
number of kilowatt-hours used each day to maintain the 
room temperature within the house between 66 and 70 
deg. Fahr. 

HOUSE-HEATING DATA. 



Wiring and Illumination 

THE REWIRING OF A LARGE WOODWORKING 
ESTABLISHMENT. 





OUTOOOR 






s 




1^ 




Tempkr.iturb. 


_ 




i^ 

s 


to 


j^ 










>^ 




bD 


^ 
















B 


M 


Date. 








11 


Weather. 


1 


1 


_ 










V 




High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


•s's 




B 




& 
a 










•^s 




& 


S" 


April 13 


58 


40 


49 


12 


Cloudy 


70 


No meter r 


ead. 


14 


48 


41 


44 


13 


Cloudy, rain 




No meter r 


ead. 


IS 


71 


42 


56 


17 


Cloudy, rain 




No meter r 


ead. 


16 


76 


55 


66 


26 


Cloudy, rain 




No meter r 


ead. 


17 


60 


48 


54 


14 


Cloudy, rain 




No meter r 


ead. 


18 


48 


39 


44 


21 


Cloudy, rain 




No meter r 


ead. 


19 


51 


37 


44 


25 


Cloudy, rain 




No meter r 


ead. 


20 


61 


38 


50 


21 


Cloudy, clear 




,^27 


327 


21 


67 


39 


53 


25 


Clear 




No meter r 


ead. 


; 22 


59 


46 


52 


-21 


Cloudy, rain 




No meter r 


ead. 


23 


55 


39 


47 


36 


Cloudy, rain 


■ & 


No meter r 


ead. 


24 


56 


40 


48 


21 


Cloudy, rain 


S' 


No meter r 


ead. 


25 


62 


44 


53 


10 


Clear 


827 


500 


26 


64 


38 


51 


17 


Cloudy 


Xi 


870 


43 


27 


66 


44 


55 


24 


Cloudy, rain 


a 


937 


67 


28 


56 


36 


46 


10 


Clear, cloudy 


2 


No meter r 


ead. 


29 


46 


37 


42 


5 


Rain 


U 


1105 


168 


30 


54 


37 


46 


8 


Clear, cloudy 




No meter r 


ead. 


May 1 


71 


38 


54 


12 


Clear. 


1,370 


265 


2 


71 


49 


60 


9 


Cloudy 





1413 


40 


3 


71 


46 


58 


8 


Clear 


la 


1429 


16 


4 


69 


45 


57 


IS 


Clear 


•s 


1435 


6 


5 


57 


46 


52 


g 


Rainy 


c 


1462 


27 


6 


54 


47 


SO 


12 


Rainy 


'5 


1533 


71 


7 


64 


47 


56 


6 


Rainy 


a 


1591 


58 


8 


51 


47 


49 


9 


Rainy 


E 


1633 


42 


9 


68 


48 


58 


12 


Rainy 


S 


1701 


68 


10 


74 


47 


60 


26 


Rain, cloudy 


3 


1745 


44 


11 


65 


53 


59 


22 


Clear 


2 


1759 


14 


12 


65 


53 


59 


14 


Rain 


I 


1784 


25 


13 


69 


59 


64 


IS 


Cloudy 


ii 


1827 


43 


14 


66 


42 


54 


10 


Clear, rain 


E- 


1864 


37 


IS 


67 


49 


58 


8 


Cloudy 




1904 


40 


16 


56 


52 


54 


6 


Rain 




1945 


41 


17 


70 


52 


61 


8 


Clear 




1977 


32 


18 


75 


53 


64 




Clear 




2007 


30 


19 


77 


57 


67 


ii 


Clear 




2007 





20 


66 


51 


64 


7 


Clear 




2007 





21 


87 


46 


66 


22 


Clear 




2010 


3 


22 


66 


52 


59 


6 


Cloudy 




2010 





23 


68 


50 


59 


12 


Cloudy, clear 




2010 






It is evident from the table that with an outdoor tem- 
perature averaging 50 deg. Fahr. and above this form of 
heating may be substituted for a coal-burning equipment 
with a saving in money, care and convenience in places 
where central stations are ready to make a low rate for this 
kind of load. An outside temperature averaging 50 deg. is 
found in spring and fall in very many districts in this 
country, and in some districts is even the lowest tempera- 
ture experienced. It is also very probable that in summer 
in many districts some heat of this kind will be found to be 
invaluable, since it is ready at call without any preparation. 
Moreover, it may be true that coal heaters can be run in 
quite severe weather at their normal and most economical 
efficiency supplemented by a few kilowatts of electric heat 
in the radiator wherever additional heat is found necessary, 
inasmuch as this form of heat can be applied without inter- 
fering in any way with the regular operation of the hot- 
water-heating system. 



In pursuance of a general plan of reduction in fire hazard, 
the American Lumber Company undertook a complete re- 
wiring of its yards and mills at Albuquerque, N. M. The 
earlier installation consisted mainly of poorly supported 
open wires, indoors and out, with bad cord conditions, oper 
fuses, overloads and wires much damaged by mechanical 
interference in many instances. 

In the rewiring the machine shop, pipe shop, stable anc 
two power houses, representing a value of approximateh 
$100,000, were placed in complete iron conduit construction 
with condulets, fuses in steel cabinets and all cords rein- 
forced. Box factory, sawmill and sash and door factory 
with their auxiliary buildings, were provided with condui 
feeds, steel cabinets for service and for all distributiot 
centers, and conduit run to these points. All "risers" t( 
points 10 ft. above the floor were placed in conduit, will 
condulet terminals, and where close to belting or passin; 
to platforms conduit protection was installed. In othe 
portions of these buildings, representing a value of ove 
$450,000 and covering over four acres, open knob wirin; 
was used, with pendants — necessitated by the high ceiling 
— soldered directly to the circuit wires, but independentl; 
supported. 

In the wet-log sawmill and on all platforms reinforcei 
portable cord and keyless composition sockets were installec 
Circuits are controlled by switches in convenient cabinet; 
All circuit wires are of No. 12 B. & S. gage. All feeder 
are of 25 per cent excess area. Each building is provide 
with main fuse and switch, this being a much better emer 
gency control arrangement than dependence on the power 
house switchboard, which might necessitate telephoninj 
All main switches are located immediately within or withoi 
the buildings and are quickly accessible day or night. Prac 
tically all lighting is done by incandescent lamps, a few arc 
being used, however, in the sash and door factory. 

The lumber yards, covering twelve acres, six acres ati 
two acres respectively and valued at $250,000, are pre 
vided with accessible main switches and cutouts in watei 
proof steel cabinets, the feed wires to the circuits bein 
openwork on petticoated glass insulators under trams, spl 
into the final circuits in steel cabinets at cross trams. Tli 
branch circuits to the lamps are secured by conduit risci 
with gooseneck above the trams and condulet beneath ; 
the juncture with the open wiring. These goosenecks ar 
spaced at intervals of about 50 ft. They replaced aboi 
twenty arc lamps on wooden poles, the maintenance and fir 
hazard of which formerly constituted a considerable es 
pense. 

The plant inclosure covers about a quarter of a squar 
mile, and 2300-volt distribution is employed with step-dow 
transformers to iio/220-volt three-wire distributing circuit 
for each building or yard. 

The total lighting load is about 370 kw. Owing to th 
low cost of fuel for steam service, slabs and dust being en 
ployed, all woodworking is done by steam-driven shaftin 
from cut-off engine houses, except that a 50-hp, 2300-vo 
induction motor is employed to drive each of the ''hogs, 
or wood shredders, and fans are used to force the prodw 
to the steam boiler rooms, where conveyors (engine-driven 
feed the furnaces automatically. Surplus wood is blow 
several hundred feet to the generating station of th 
Albuquerque Gas & Electric Company, which is locate 
within the inclosure. 

The improvements in .wiring have cost somewhat mor 
than $12,000, but the saving in insurance alone has bee 
$1,600 a year. Moreover, there has been a great reductio 



July 13, igi2. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



lOS 



in the maintenance and depreciation. The company is now 
contemplating the gradual replacement of the remaining 
open wiring of the sawmill by iron conduit, purely as a 
saving in maintenance, the wiring being very difficult to re- 
pair because the mill usually operates continuously night 
and day. 

The above-mentioned changes were made upon the 
recommendation of Mr. W. J. Canada, engineer of the 
Rocky Mountain Fire Underwriters' Association. 



WIRING OLD HOUSES— I. 



The New-Business Campaign Inaugurated by the Alle- 
gheny County Light Company. — Co-opera- 
tion with Local Electrical Contractors. 



By Terrell Croft. 

On Jan. i, 1911, the Allegheny County Light Company, 
which serves the city of Pittsburgh, Pa., and the many 
boroughs and towns that surround it, started an aggressive 
campaign for the wiring of old houses. It was considered 
that this was the only way to secure lighting business in 
the many unwired buildings in the territory. As a result 
of the efforts put forth, approximately 1000 old houses have 
been wired at a recent date. 

The company has maintained a wiring department since 
1907, but it is only within the last year that the wiring of 
old houses has been promoted through extensive adver- 
tising. The results are indicated in dollars and cents by 
the following figures, which show the amounts collected 
during the last four years for wiring: 1907, $3,000; 1908, 
$4,500; 1909, $15,000; 1910, $30,000, and for 191 1 the 
amount was approximately $65,000. The above sums in- 
clude all charged work, and all repairs and additions, as 
well as the wiring done under new contracts, but do not 
include considerable free work, or advertising work, or the 
work in connection with flaming-arc lamp and electric-sign 
maintenance, which is handled by the lamp renewal and 
wiring department. 

Shortly after the campaign was inaugurated the com- 
pany advertised extensively in the local daily papers. Half- 
page advertisements were inserted at the start, but so many 
inquiries resulted that it was impossible to handle them 
properly. A typical example of one of these advertise- 
ments was reproduced in the May 4 issue of the Electrical 
World, on page 976. Later small advertisements, one of 
which is reproduced herewith in Fig. i, were used sparingly, 
but these have been discontinued for the present. The last 
advertisements stated that houses would be wired at cost 
until Oct. I, 1911. The time limit was specified to induce 
prospective customers to close promptly. During the period 
that advertisements were being run as many as 80 requests 
for estimates were received during a single day. Parties 
who were furnished with estimates prior to Oct. I were 
allowed until Nov. i to accept them on the wiring-at-cost 
basis. The wiring rates were increased by about 10 per 
cent on Oct. I, but those who had received estimates on 
the cost basis prior to that time were, in accordance with 
the agreement, allowed until Nov. i to acept them. 

It was realized at the outset that it would be poor policy, 
both from an ethical and a business standpoint, to adopt 
any plan that would antagonize the local electrical con- 
tractors. Hence the company has co-operated with the con- 
tractors wherever possible. Although many buildings are 
wired by the company's own wiremen — it has now thirty- 
five men — many jobs have been sublet to contractors. The 
contractors are paid by the company in thirty days, but 
the customer is permitted to pay in monthly installments 
extending over a period of a year. The company does all 
soliciting and estimating and assumes all expense in con- 



nection therewith, relieving the contractor of all costs ex- 
cept those involved in actually doing the work. 

In general, the company wires only houses that con- 
tractors cannot wire with profit at the rates at which the 
company is doing wiring. Inasmuch as the company's men 
wire old buildings exclusively they have become so expert 
at this work that they are able to make installations that 
would ordinarily be considered impossible of execution. 

When an inquiry is received requesting an estimate on the 
cost of wiring an old building, an estimator is sent to 
interview the prospective customer. The estimators are 
practical old-building wiremen. They go over the work 
with the prospect, making suggestions as to locations of 
fixture and switch outlets and do all that they can to 
encourage a first-class installation and one that is within 
the means of the owner. When the number and the loca- 
tions of the outlets are determined the estimator, from 
notes taken in the building under consideration, fills in a 
blank estimate form, which is so prepared that it makes a 



lenses liredl At Cost 

Tliere is no reason why the owner of the 
house you desire to rent cannot have it wired 
for electricity for you. We will wire all old 
houses at cost until June 1, 1911, and will allow 
payment to be made with a small amount down 
and 12 equal monthly payments thereafter. The 
be.st work by first class workmen will insure 
safe, permanent wiring, at the lowest possible 
cost. No damage will be done to ceilings, wall 
paper or woodwork. 

Every woman desires to use an electric 
vacuum cleaner at house cleaning time and the 
way women are buying electric washing ma- 
clrines indicates that they will no longer tolerate 
wash day drudgery. Electric light is coof in 
summer and absolutely safe all of the time. 

If your prospective landlord will not give 
you an opportunity to use electric light by hav- 
ing the house wired look for one who will. Have 
him call 898 Hiland, wiring department, and 
get an estimate made of the cost of wiring your 
house. So many landlords are doing this that 
if you delay longer you will be disappointed. 

Alleglieny County llgU Conpaiy 

435 Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh. 
Highland Building, East Liberty. 
West Diamond Street, Allegheny. 
Masonic Building, Bellevue. 



Fig. 1 — Typical Old- House-Wiring Advertisement. 

full record of the job, from start to finish. This form 
provides for complete information concerning the general 
features of the building, including its location, type of 
construction, character of wiring to be employed, number 
of circuits, location of tablet board and meter, kind and 
length of service connection, service entrance and the 
number of the service pole. Columns are then provided 
for listing the individual rooms, height of ceiling, size, 
character of walls, floors and ceiling, number and location 
of outlets, number and details of fixtures, and number and 
kind of switches. Space is also provided for a detailed 
description of the work, including the necessary materials. 
When the job is complete, the wiring foreman enters his 
account of materials and labor in another space set aside 
for the purpose. Provision is further included for a record 
of the permit from the city authorities to make the service 
connection, and lastly a detailed statement of the whole 
cost of the job. 

The next step which the estimator takes is the preparation 



ic6 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. 2. 



oi a detailed estimate for presentation to the owner, siiow- 
ing just what the company proposes to do and exactly how 
much the installation will cost. These estimates are type- 
written in duplicate, one of which is mailed to the customer 
and one kept for the files. A sample estimate, in the form 
submitted to the owner, is reproduced herewith. 



Sept. 7, 191 1. 

Mr. John Jones, 

110 Hamilton Street, City. 
Dear Sir: 

Below we are submitting an estimate of the cost of elec- 
trical wiring to be installed at the above address: 

FIRST FLOOR. 

Porch. — Wire for one center outlet controlled by one S. P. snap 
switch. 

Hall. — Wire for one center outlet controlled by 2-3 way snap switches. 

Parlor. — Wire for one center outlet controlled by one D. P. snap 
switch. 

Dming-Room. — Wire for one center outlet controlled by one D. P. snap 
switch. 

Kitchen. — Wire for one center outlet controlled by one D. P. snap 
switch. 

Pantry. — Wire for one center outlet controlled by one D. P. snap 
switch. 

Cellar. — Wire for one cord drop controlled by one S. P. snap switch. 

SECOND FLOOR. 



Hall. — Wire for one center outlet controlled by 2-3 way snap switches. 
Small Front Bedroom. — Wire for one center outlet controlled by one 
D. P. snap switch. 



Large Front Bedroom. — Wire for one center outlet controlled by one 
D. P. snap switch. 

Back Bedroom. — Wire for one center outlet controlled by one D. P. 
snap switch. 

Bath Room.- — Wire for one center outlet controlled by one D. P. snap 
switch. 

FOR THE SUM OF $68. 

If this estimate is satisfactory, kindly sign the attached 
form, and return same to the Allegheny County Light Com- 
pany, 5929 Kirkwood Street, city. The amount specified on 
this estimate is subject to your acceptance until Xov. i, after 
which time all estimates furnished at cost will be void. 
Very truly yours.. 

Wiring Department. 

The benefits that have come to the company through the 
old-building-wiring campaign may be shown by citing a few 
examples. A group of twenty old houses, averaging six 
rooms each, in a suburb that had not previously been served 
with electricity, was recently wired. Gas mains did not 
reach the group and the residents used coal-oil lamps. The 
group was located possibly yi mile from the company's pole 
lines. One resident made a request for an estimate for 
wiring his house. The estimator explained when he called 
for an interview that it would not be very profitable to run 
a pole-line % mile long to serve one consumer, while if it 
were possible to secure several the lighting company would 
doubtless build a pole line to serve the group. On this basis 
the wiring estimator canvassed the district and was able 
to get twenty householders to have their houses wired if 
the company would extend its lines to serve them. Con- 
tracts were secured for wiring all of the twenty houses on 
this basis. The wiring contracts having been secured, the 
estimator again called on the owners with a contract agent 
and service contracts were obtained. 

In cases where the foregoing group-method of securing 
business is not feasible and it is necessary to wire a certain 
number of houses before a pole line can profitably be ex- 
tended, the prospective consumer is not permitted to accept 
a house-wiring contract until the company has secured his 
service contract. 

It has been found that the old-building wiremen are ex- 
cellent solicitors for the installation of auxiliary electrical 
apparatus. The men work in a house for several days and 
are very likely to become acquainted with the occupants. 
The wiremen often have opportunities to explain the con- 
venience and economies of energy-consuming devices such 
as vacuum cleaners, fans, washing machines and electric 
irons. Considerable business of this kind has resulted from 
their efforts. 

The company does not endeavor to sell fixtures, but 
usuallv refers customers to the local dealers. Nevertheless 



the company does carry in stock and can furnish at a 
moderate advance over cost a line of tungstoliers for both 
combination and straight electric service. These fixtures 
harmonize well with the furnishings in middle-class homes 
and have given excellent satisfaction where a low-priced 
fixture of good appearance meets the taste or needs of the 
owner. 

The installation of wiring within the corporate limits 



Service 

(Entmnce 



'./j/^}/i,'r7-. 



i>>'/ff^.',';j>'f>f'r'.-j^f>fff>j'j''fffj 




CROSS. SECTION. 



5ZZE 



Porch 



^. 



Kitchen 



5m; 



—ryy^yyy'y'.^//////y////^/y/^ 



Oomi 



; Dining Room 



Two Light 
Fixture 



5x; 



Up 



':■ Living Room 
(2) 






W 



m 



■>////.^/y/yy/-y///'yy/7?///////J 



3zz 






s' 



v^f^/:jr / //^f^:fy/ > ^/f^/^^A- 



FIRST FLOOR. 



v/^/!^/////////,^////ij/j/////////fjf//ti>:rii//////>//i/i.- 



Roof of 
Kitchen 



1 

Bed Room 
I 



rZ floor boards 
'— 1 removed 




^ 



"^ZF/oor 
boards 

/W7WVB ' 



Bed I Room 



Closet I /-^ fioor boards 



remorec^ 



Closet'', 

•2z2zzzzzzznz 



RooFoF 
Porch 



SECOND FLOOR. 
Figs. 2. 3 and 4 — Wiring of an Old Frame House. 

of the city of Pittsburgh is governed by local or "city" rules j 
which differ in some details from the national code rules, jf 
although in general the two sets of regulations are similar. ( 
In Pittsburgh no wire smaller than No. 12 B. & S. gage is 
permitted, whereas the code allows the use of No. 14 gage. 
Slow-burning wire — that is. wire having an inner slow- 
burning serving and an outer smooth black moisture-repel- 
ling coating — is permitted for concealed work in dry places 
where supported on porcelain, but rubber-insulated wire is 
required by the code for such locations. Double-pole 
switches are required in Pittsburgh for controlling all cir 
cuits to gas-pipe combination outlets, and for circuits pass 
ing over or through metal ceilings. No. 8 gage is the 
smallest size of wire permitted from the entrance to the 
main fuse block, even if the capacity of the installation is 
such that a smaller wire would safely carry the current. 
The main switch must be on the house side of the meter 
and not at the entrance, as required by the National Elec- 
trical Code. 

The provision permitting the use of slow-burning wire 
decreases the cost of an installation of knob and tube work 
below what it would be in cities where rubber-insulated 



'July 13, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



107 



wire is required. But the requirement that double-pole 
switches must be used for controlling combination gas and 
electric outlets increases the cost of a job in a building 
piped for gas above what it would be where code rules are 
in force. 

As in all other communities, two general classes of build- 
ings are encountered — frame and brick. Frame houses are 
obviously the easier to wire inasmuch as the spaces in the 
outside walls can be used for wire runways, and outlets 
can readily be cut in the outside walls. Where outside walls 
are of brick it is usually very difficult to install outlets in 
them without doing considerable damage, unless the walls 
are furred. But residence walls in Pittsburgh are seldom 
furred. 

Figs. 2, 3 and 4 show the section and plans of a typical 
five-room, old-frame house and, in general, the methods 
used in wiring it. Some of the e.xpedients employed in 
installing the wiring will be described in the following 
paragraphs. Referring to Fig. 2, the wires enter at the 
rear of the kitchen and pass through the wall to the main 
fuse block. The point of entrance is determined in any 
case by the location of the nearest available tapping-in point 
on the pole line and by the location of the meter. It is 
always desirable to locate the meter as near the entrance 
as feasible, making the unmetered run within the house 
very short. From the fuse-block the wires pass within the 
wall to the meter and thence again within the wall to the 
main switch. Leaving the main switch the conductors rise 
within the wall, forming the distributing circuit for the 
house. 

In the case of a small house, such as that shown in Fig. 2, 
the total connected load is less than 660 watts, and so no 
branch cut-outs are necessary. The one cut-out at the 
point of entrance serves for the whole house. Fig. 2 indi- 
cates how the wiring to the switches and fixtures is con- 
cealed within floors, walls and partitions. It is seldom that 
it is necessary to expose any wire in wiring an old frame 
house. The spaces within the walls of a frame house are 
rarely "blocked" — that is, obstructed with bridges or tim- 
bers so vertical circuits cannot easily be run within them. 

Fig. 3 shows the locations of the switches and fixtures 
for the first-floor rooms and Fig. 4 indicates the routes of 
the wires serving the first-floor equipment. Fig. 4 also 
shows the floor boards which it was necessary to remove to 
run the wiring through and between the joists. The meth- 
ods used in removing and replacing floor boards are de- 
scribed later. Where floor boards must be removed for 
quite a distance in one continuous line, through several 
rooms, it is best to select an unobstructed route such as that 
through the doorways in Fig. 4. If a route is selected that 
passes under partitions there will be difficulty in getting the 
boards up without considerable sawing. 

Another installment will continue the description of the 
practical features of wiring installations in old houses, with 
numerous illustrations showing in great detail the methods 
employed. 



SPECTACULAR ILLUMINATION AT BALTIMORE 
CONVENTION. 



Effective use was made of the illumination obtained from 
the electric search-lamp during the recent National Demo- 
cratic Convention in Baltimore. One of the most attractive 
displays was made on the tower of the Fidelity Building, 
where a 24-in. projector lantern was arranged for sending 
its beam in all horizontal and partly vertical directions 
through vari-colored screens. An electric motor was used 
for revolving the lanterns to throw the beam in all hori- 
zontal directions. In its motion through the horizontal 
plane the beam encountered four "projectors," which served 
to deflect the beam to any desired angle in a vertical plane. 
Thus, with the steady movement of the lantern around its 



axis the beam would frequently be deflected from a hori- 
zontal direction through various vertical angles. By use of 
horizontally revolving color screens the color of the beam 
was changed from red and green to orange, to pink and 
yellow and to white in rapid succession. One can easily 
appreciate the great variety and untiring lighting effects 
that were obtained with the apparatus. 




Tower with Electric Search- Lamps at Baltimore. 

The equipment arrangement was designed by Mr. Frank 
L. Perry, of the executive staff of the Fidelity Trust Com- 
pany. Superintendent Noah R. Pierson, of the Fidelity 
Building, and Thomas W. Rogan, were in direct charge of 
the construction and operation of the apparatus to produce 
the novel electrical effects. The search-lamp proper was 
managed during the illumination by Messrs. Joseph 
Fischeffer and J. C. Denn, of the Consolidated Gas, Electric 
Light & Power Company. 



ILLUMINATION OF ST. LOUIS PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



By G. T. Hadley. 

The new central building of the St. Louis Public Library 
is a substantial structure in the style of the early Italian 
renaissance, with three stories, ground floor, main floor, 
second floor and basement. The main ■ entrance is ap- 
proached by a flight of steps leading up to three large 
arches at the head of the outer stairway, and there is also 
a staff entrance on the ground floor. The structure is of 
Maine granite, and there is a ridged tile roof surmounting 
the whole, four outer pavilions, and a flat roof with parapet 
over the central pavilion in wliich is located the deliverv 
hall. Between the windows of the upper story on three 
sides are circular medallions, twelve of which are carved 
with the signs of the zodiac and others with the seals of 
the city and library, the heads of Minerva and Janus, and 
representations of Pegasus, an hour glass, an owl and an 
eagle. 

Beneath each large window of the main floor the trade- 
marks of the old printers are carved upon tablets of stone, 
beginning with Johann Gutenberg, Fust and Schoffer. 



io8 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. 2. 



These old trade-marks represent important historical trade 
truths and illustrate the progress and gradual evolution of 
the art of printing, as each trade-mark stands for a man 
who advanced printing. All the carving of these thirty 
tablets as well as the inscription of the great literary names 
was done with chisels operated by means of compressed 
air, power for which was furnished by an electric motor. 
Above the arched doorways on the main pediment four 
fine busts of Homer, Dante, Virgil and Shakespeare are 
carved within wreaths over spandrels. On the beveled 
jambs of the three arches are small panels on which are 
carved in relief figures of the nine Muses and the three 
Graces. 




Fig. 1 — St. Louis Library. 

A prime consideration in a library building is the il- 
lumination. The distinctive features of library illumina- 
tion are: First, sufficient illumination on the reading tables 
and the bookshelves to meet the demands of a large class 
of readers of various ages and varying conditions of eye- 
sight ; second, low intrinsic brightness of light without 
glare ; third, sufficient illumination for the library stafif to 
oversee the entire floor; fourth, sufficient illumination to 
provide a moderate reading light in all parts of the room; 
fifth, economy of operation, simplicity of construction and 
convenience; sixth, esthetic design of fixtures and at- 
tractive appearance of the reading rooms at night. 

Passing through the bronzed grill gates of the main en- 
trance, one comes into the outer lobby with vaulted mosaic 
ceiling, which opens directly into a large rectangular hall 
with marble walls, columns and floor. Here the ceiling is 
decorated in color. On the left of entrance hall is the art 
collection room and on the right the periodical reading 



main hall broad flights of stairs lead right and left to the 
floor above. 

Through a carved marble doorway one passes north into 
delivery hall, a magnificent rom which occupies the en- 
tire area of the center pavilion and extends upward two 
stories. The walls and floor of this hall are of Tennessee 
marble, hone-finished and are a subdued dove-colnr. Five 




Fig. 3 — Room for Art Collection. 

large windows in the north wall and three at each end 
admit daylight. Eight handsome bronze chandeliers with 
twenty-four bowl frosted lamps afford direct illumination 
by night and ten marble floor standards with bowls con- 
taining eight 25-watt lamps are the indirect lighting units. 
On the delivery desk illumination is provided by branch- 
ing bronze standards equipped with frosted globes. In the 
reference room on the left of the delivery hall general 
illumination is secured through sixteen fixtures suspended 
from the beam ceiling, each fixture having six lamps with 
frosted globes. 

In the art collection room the decorations are adapted 
from the church of La Badia in Florence, Italy. Six mag- 
nificent bronze chandeliers of the new chain and rigid circle 
type are suspended from the ceiling. Each fixture has 
twelve lamps with frosted bowls. The wiring is tied 
to every other link by threads so as to be in a straight 




Fig. 2— Delivery Hall. 

room, both rooms of noble proportions. The doorways to 
each are protected by beautiful bronze grilles, flanked by 
high carved standards of Italian marble bearing translucent 
basins which contain eight 25-watt lamps. The main col- 
umns in the stair hall are surmounted by i6-cp linolite 
lamps arranged below the spring of the vaulting for the 
special illumination of the decorated ceiling. From this 



Fig. 



-Newspaper Room. 



line; thus it cannot be pinched by links turning on each 
other as would be the case if woven through the links of 
chain. On both sides of the ceiling are a series of plaques 
fitted into the ceiling motif and equipped with frosted 
globes. 

In the periodical reading room the ceiling is a copy of 
the Laurentian Library in Florence, Italy, based on designs 



July 13, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



109 



by Michael Angelo. There are ten ceiling fixtures similar 
to those in the art room. The tables in the reading room 
are supplied with standard fixtures, each containing two 
tungsten lamps so arranged and concealed that a soft, dif- 
fused light is provided, uniformly distributed over every 
square inch of working surface in the space allotted to the 
fixture. 

The news room has standard fixtures for indirect-light- 




Flg. 



-Main Hall. 



ing and direct-lighting units over the inclined paper racks. 
The indirect system is used in the applied science room 
and largely in the other rooms of the building with local 
lamps wherever necessary. The stack room is seven stories 
high and is equipped with eight push-button lifts, or elec- 
tric dumb waiters of the Burdett-Rowntree system. Drop 
lamps are used in front of each stack, but an entire series 
of lamps may be instantly lighted by pressing a button on 
the local switchboard. 

The Union Electric Light & Power Company, of St. 
Louis, furnishes the new library building with light and 
motor service, 165,000 kw-hr. per year, varying from 12,300 
kw-hr. in July to 15,000 kw-hr. in January. The connected 
load is 90 kw for light and 74 kw for motor service. 



RECENT TELEPHONE PATENTS. 



AUTOMATIC SYSTEMS. 

With many of the automatic systems the knocking down 
or disconnection of an existing connection follows simul- 
taneous grounding of both sides of the calling line. The 
contacts are usually arranged so that this occurs with each 
depression of the hook lever. Again, automatic systems 
must have a busy control of some kind so that if a line be 
busy no other line may be inadvertently connected to it. 
It will therefore be appreciated at once that modifications 
must be made if party lines are to be used, as connections 
would be unreliable owing to other than the talking station 
on the line having caused the hook lever to knock down an 
existing connection. Moreover, the usual busy control 
would prevent any station calling to another one on its 
own line. Mr. G. Deakin, of Berkeley, Cal, had these 
features in mind in the arrangement of his automatic sys- 
tem recently patented. In his system the disconnection or 
knock-down apparatus is so arranged that it responds only 
when the line is left clear after the dual grounding. Thus 
if there is a telephone in use the line is not clear and no 



other station can effect a disconnection. The busy difficulty 
is met by arranging as many different classes of connectors 
as there are stations on any one line. Thus any connector 
can select a station of a class different from its own, and 
reverting calls — that is, calls to one's own line — become 
possible. There is another good feature in this arrange- 
ment : As each connector only calls stations of one kind 
or code, it always requires the same kind of ringing current. 
The ringing current supply may therefore be permanent to 
each connector. 

The semi-automatic exchange is the subject of a patent 
granted to Mr. E. E. Clement, of Washington, D. C. Ac- 
cording to his system, the subscriber has the usual common- 
battery telephone set. This signals an operator at an in- 
termediate station, who learns the connection wanted and 
obtains it by operating distant automatic apparatus. 

COMMON-BATTERY SYSTEM. 

In the common-battery circuit system described in a 
patent issued to Mr. H. P. Claussen the multiple jack cir- 
cuits are three-wire and the cord circuits are two-wire. 
The line relay is connected between two springs of the jack 
in such a way that the plug short-circuits it and thus pre- 
vents its operation and the display of the line lamp. This 




Clausen's Common-Battery System. 



circuit is shown in Fig. i, the tip of the plug registering 

with both jack springs. This patent has been assigned to 

the Stromberg-Carlson Telephone Manufacturing Com- 
pany. 



Letter to the Editors 



OIL ENGINES FOR IRRIGATION SERVICE. 



To the Editors of Electrical World: 

Sirs: — In the issue of the Electrical World dated June 8 
there appeared an interesting article entitled: "Electric 
Irrigation Pumping in Southern California." After con- 
demning steam plant for irrigation purposes on account of 
the "constant attendance required" the writer stated that 
"another reason why electricity is driving out the distillate 
engine in this service is found in the skilled attention which 
internal combustion equipment demands as the price of any- 
thing like reliable service." This statement seems remark- 
able in view of the proved worth of the internal combustion 
engine of the Diesel type. I am, of course, aware that with 
the ordinary type of roughly made gas motor, troubles are 
not entirely unknown, yet with regard to a carefully con- 
structed real combustion engine in which first-cost is placed 
second to reliable service, the case is quite different. Had 
the comments been confined to the "common or garden" gas 
engine they would have been more convincing, but they are 
not properly applicable to the Diesel oil engine which is 
not of the explosion type. 

London, Eng. E. Owen. 



no 



ELECTRICAL WORLD, 



Vol. 6o, No. 2. 



Digest of Current Electrical Literature 

ABSTRACTS OF THE IMPORTANT ARTICLES APPEARING IN THE ELECTRICAL PERIODICAL PRESS OF THE WORLD 



Generators, Motors and Transformers. 

Single-Phase Railivay Motor. — In an account of this 
year's convention of the British Institution of Electrical 
Engineers mention is made of a single-phase railway motor 
of J. S. Nicholson and B. P. Haigh. The motor is fitted 
with pole-changing windings and can be worked as a repul- 
sion motor with either eight or four poles, according to the 
speed required. Up to half speed (500 r.p.m.) the eight- 
pole connections are employed, while for higher speeds the 
windings are changed over to four poles, and the field mag- 
netism is obtained by passing a magnetizing current through 
the armature. It was pointed out that as a repulsion motor 
works best when running at a speed close to synchronous 
value, the use of a pole-changing winding allows of the best 
results being obtained over a wider range of speed than 
usual, as two synchronous speeds are available. The action 
of the pole-changing motor when running at full speed is 
similar to that of other "compensated repulsion'' motors, 
thus the power-factor approximates unity, and the motor 
may be used with shunt connections, in which case regen- 
erative braking may be employed. It was suggested that 
the motor is suitable not only for multiple-unit trains on 
account of its high acceleration, but also for locomotives 
handling high-speed passenger traffic by day and heavy 
freight trains by night. The method of changing the num- 
ber of poles involves the use of switches, but as each trans- 
former tapping gives two speed ranges instead of one, the 
total number of contactors is not greater than usual. — 
London Electrician, June 21, 1912. 

Lamps and Lighting. 

Flame-Arc Lamp. — An illustrated description of a new 




Fig. 1 — Sections Showing General Arrangement of Lamp and 
Regulating IVleciianism. 

flame-arc lamp of German make. It is illustrated in 
Fig. I, the diagram on the left being a section through 
the plane of electrodes showing the general arrangement 
of the lamp, while the diagram on the right is a section 
showing the regulating mechanism. The electrodes pass 



to the economizer through the plates b b, which are screwed 
on to the insulating base of the case, and a practically 
frictionless passage is obtained without the necessity for 
cleansing. The electrode holders hang from the cross- 
arm t, on which they travel laterally to allow for the slope 
of the girder by means of rollers. No blow-out magnet 
is employed, and there are no working parts exposed to 
the heat of the arc. The regulating mechanism in the 
head of the lamp is better seen in the right-hand section. 
It consists essentially of a chain wheel and a regulating 
solenoid with its movable core fitted with a dashpot. The 
feeding of the electrodes is effected in a simple manner 
by a lever and clutch arrangement acting on the chain 
wheel. An important feature of the lamp is that the 
electrodes touch one another when the lamp is not in 
circuit and do not have to be brought together by a special 
striking mechanism. The mechanism is entirely without 
clockwork. A dioptric inner globe and a well-ventilated 
outer globe are fitted. — London Elec. Eng'ing, June 6, 
1912. 

Heterochromatic Photometry. — H. E. Ives. — An ab- 
stract of an American Physical Society paper on the 
addition of luminosities of different colors. The most 
satisfactory test consists in the measurement of the dis- 
persed light of a source color by color against the un- 
dispersed light. The sum of the brightness of the colors 
should equal the brightness of the undispersed light. A 
special slit on the spectrometer made it possible to obtain 
successively adjacent portions of the spectrum to be 
measured against the "white" comparison standard by the 
flicker method. At the end of the measurements the slit 
was opened until the whole spectrum fell upon the eye 
slit, when both sides of the photometric field appeared of 
the same color and a photometric match could be obtained 
by all methods of photometry with necessarily identical 
results. The experiment was carried out at an illumina- 
tion of 300 units, photometric field 2 deg. in diameter, 
with bright surroundings. The result proved the physical 
and arithmetical summations to be identical. It follows 
that the flicker photometer is an instrument which under 
proper conditions offers a practical solution of the prob- 
lem of heterochromatic photometry. There remains only 
to be determined the luminosity curve of the normal eye, 
by measurements on numerous individuals, in order that 
standard conditions for the photometry of different colored 
lights may be specified and made the subject of legislation. 
— Phys. Reinew, May, 1912. 

Selenium Cell and Photometry. — A. H. Pfund.— An ac- 
count of an experimental investigation which shows that 
the selenium cell, when used as a photometer, will yield 
accurate results when the following conditions are ful- 
filled: (a) Monochromatic liglit must be used; (b) an 
accurate sensibility curve must have been established; 
(c) exposures to light must be made automatically and 
must be of short duration. Talbot's law holds (within 
the limits of accuracy of measurement) throughout the 
visible spectrum. The range of frequencies covered was 
from 10 to 60 interruptions per second. For moderate 
intensities of illumination and for a range of intensities 
of I to 18, the relation between the incident energy E 
and the galvanometer deflection P is represented by the 
expression D = KE^. As a consequence of determining 
the various values assumed by b, it is found that with a 
wave-length of from 450 ]j.]x to 650 \i.\x. the deflections are pro- 
portional, approximately, to the square root of the energy, 
while from 700 (xja to 830 u.a the deflections are directly pro- 
portional to the energy. As a consequence of the varia- 



i 



July 13, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



111 



tioiis of b with the wave-length the form of the sensibiHty 
curve varies with the absolute intensity of illumination. 
Under very faint illumination the selenium cell is most 
sensitive toward yellowish-green light, while under intense 
illumination the cell is by far the most sensitive toward 
red light. — Phys. Review, May, 1912. 

Generation, Transmission and Distribution. 

Economy of Water-Pozvcr Electric Stations. — R. Rinkel. 
— A long paper with tables and diagrams on the economy of 
hydroelectric stations. The commercial success of a gener- 
ating plant depends on four factors, namely, the specific first 
cost in dollars per kw, the load-factor in useful kw-hr, 
per kw, the receipts per kw-hr., and the expense per kw-hr. 
The interrelation between the four factors is rather com- 
jilicated. .For instance, a generating plant the specific first 
cost of which is high may be more successful commercially 
than a plant with a low specific first cost, if the load-factor 
of the former is much higher than that of the latter. For 
this reason the ratio of the specific first cost to load factor 
or what is the same, the ratio of first cost in dollars to the 
number of useful kw-hr. (not kw) is important and is made 
the abscissa in the various diagrams. Some conclusions are 
drawn from the results of existing central stations and a 
diagram is given which permits a rapid determination of 
the conditions under which steam is cheaper than water 
power. Under the conditions existing in Germany the 
author believes that for the electrification of trunk railways 
steam plants will be at least as economical as water-power 
plants, where there is an opportunity to sell energy for 
lighting and for motor service to a reasonable extent. 
Only in case the load-curve can be fully equalized by using 
energy for electrochemical purposes at times of low load is 
water power able to afford a better financial result. — Elek. 
Zeit., June 20, 1912. 

Power Plant. — In an account of this year's convention of 
the (British) Institution of Electrical Engineers mention is 
made of a visit to the plant of the Clyde Valley Electrical 
Power Company. Its main feature is the long pipe line for 
obtaining circulating water from the river, the return flow 
of water being utilized to drive a turbine on the same shaft 
as the electric motor driving the circulating pump; in this 
way 40 per cent of the energy is recovered. The present 
plant installed consists of two 2500 kw and two 5000 kw 
steam turbo-alternators, and it has been decided to install an 
additional 5000-kw set. — London Electrician, June 21, 1912. 
Traction. 
Hamburg. — W. Mattersdorff. — A continuation of his de- 
tailed illustrated description of the Hamburg elevated rail- 
road. In the present installment the two substations are 
described. Each contains three cascade converters, each 
rated at 1000 kw, transforming three-phase currents of 3 x 
6000 volts to direct current of 800 volts, two Pirani 
machines and a 1258-amp-hr. storage battery of 86 cells for 
making the load curve practically uniform. Details are 
given of the construction of the third rail with the under 
running contact shoe. The paper is to be concluded. — Elek. 
Zeit., June 20, 1912. 

Railless Traction. — W. A. T. Muller. — An illustrated de- 
scription of the railless omnibus road from Berlin to Steg- 
litz, energy being delivered by a double trolley. The omni- 
bus weighs 3000 kg (6600 lb.) and has 20 seats. It is in 
charge of a motorman without a conductor. The entrance 
is at the front next to the seat of the motorman. — Elek. 
Zeit., June 20, 1912. 

Installations, Systems and Appliances. 
Auto->Converter for Balancing Three-Wire Systems. — An 
illustrated article on the use of the "C. M. B." auto-con- 
verter as a balancer on three-wire systems (Fig. 2). The 
armature of such a machine may be considered to be divided 
into two parts along a plane which passes through the 
short-circuited brushes, and is parallel to the axis of the 
armature shaft. The part between the plane passing 



through the short-circuited brushes and the positive main 
brush may be considered the motor part of the armature, 
and the part between the plane passing through the short- 
circuited brushes and the negative main brush may be con- 
sidered the generator part of the armature. The potential 
difference induced in the generator part of the armature, 
that is, between the negative main brush and the short- 
circuited brushes, is proportional to the number of con- 
ductors lying on the armature between the negative main 
brush and the plane passing the short-circuited brushes and 




Fig. 2 — Coupling-up Diagram of Balancer. 

also the quantity of magnetic flux passing through the sur- 
face of the armature from the generator poles between the 
negative main brush and the plane passing through the 
short-circuited brushes. Similarly, the potential difference 
generated in the motor part of the armature, that is, between 
the plane passing through the short-circuited brushes and 
the positive main brush, is proportional to the number of 
conductors on the armature surface between that plane and 
the positive main brush, and also to the quantity of mag- 
netism of magnetic flux passing through the armature sur- 
face from the motor poles between that plane and the posi- 
tive main brush. In order, therefore, to vary the secondary 
potential difference between the negative main brush and 
the short-circuited brushes, without altering the position of 
the short-circuited brushes on the commutator, it will be 
necessary to alter the relative values of the magnetic flux 
passing the surface of the armature on either side of the 
plane passing through the short-circuited brushes. This is 
conveniently done by dividing each of the poles into two 
distinct parts, and providing each part with independent 
windings, the magnetomotive force of which can be 
adjusted independently, either automatically or otherwise, 
to give the required value of magnetic flux on each side of 
the aforesaid plane. It is, however, useless to alter the 
relative values of magnetic flux on either side of the afore- 
said plane in order to vary the secondary potential differ- 
ence unless a machine of this type is provided with a ring 
armature, because although the relative quantities of mag- 
netism on either side of the aforesaid plane would be 
changed, this could have no effect on the value of this 
secondary potential difference. If in a machine constructed 
in accordance with these principles the current in the motor 
portion of the armature is not exactly equal and opposite 
to that in the generator portion, a circulating current will 
be provided between the short-circuited brushes. Owing to 
the losses in the machine the motor current is larger than 
the generator current, and the resultant magnetomotive 
force when superimposed on the field system opposes the 
magnetomotive force of the motor pole and helps the mag- 
netomotive force of the generator pole on one side of the 
main brushes, while the opposite effects take place on the 
motor and generator pole on the other side of the main 
brushes; hence that short-circuited brush which is on the 
side where the magnetomotive force of the generator pole 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. 2. 



has been augmented will pick up a higher potential than the 
other short-circuited brush, causing a circulating current to 
be produced between the short-circuited brushes. This 
circulating current would be objectionable and is therefore 
controlled in the following way. Assuming the lower por- 
tion to be running as a generator, the generator poles are 
provided with a series winding connected in series with the 
short-circuited brushes, the connection to the middle wire 
being made at a point mid-way between the series winding. 
If there is a circulating current between the short-circuited 
brushes the magnetomotive force on one generator pole will 
be decreased by one series coil, while the magnetomotive 
force on the other generator pole is increased by another 
similar coil, thus constituting a differential action which 
will tend, if these coils are properly connected up, to prevent 
the effects of the resultant armature reaction, and thereby 
reduce the circulating current to any desired value. At the 
same time the middle-wire current flowing out of the 
short-circuited brushes passes through these coils in such 
a manner as to increase the strength of the generator field 
as a whole, thus keeping the voltage constant. Two such 
auto-converters have been installed for the Calcutta Supply 
Corporation. They deal with an out-of-balance load of 
60 kw on either side of the middle wire, the voltage of the 
outers varying from 460 to 580 volts. The machines balance 
the voltage to within I per cent of the mean value on either 
side of the middle wire at all voltages between 460 and 
580. — London Electrician, June 21, 1912. 

Rates of Poplar Electricity Supply.- — -A review of progress 
made in the electricity supply of the Bureau of Poplar. In 
1906-7 the number of kw-hr. sold was 4,200,000, of which 
2,400,000 was sold for industrial purposes. In 1911-12 the 
kw-hr. sold totaled 9.600,000,' of which 7,400,000 was for in- 
dustrial purposes. The total cost of production, excluding 
capital charges was reduced from 1.82 cents per kw-hr. in 
1907 to 1.42 cents in 191 1. Considerable details are given on 
the rates employed. As regards motor service, the charges are 
based on $20 per kilowatt of maximum demand and i cent 
per kw-hr., the latter item being subject to 2V2, 5 or 10 per 
cent discount in the case of large consumptions. The maxi- 
mum total charge is fixed at 3 cents per kw-hr., with a 
minimurn revenue of $8.33 per year. Maximum-demand in- 
dicators are not usually installed, but the maximum load 
IS assessed, according to running conditions, at from 50 
to 70 per cent of the connected load. In the case of 
domestic supply a very progressive policy is being fol- 
lowed. The system of charging is based on a fixed annual 
charge of $20 per kilowatt for lamps installed in what 
may be termed living rooms, $5 per kilowatt for bedroom 
and "occasionar' lighting, and $5 per "set" for cooking 
apparatus, together with I cent per kw-hr. for all energy 
consumed. There is also a further fixed charge to cover 
capital charges on the service, meter and wiring (which is 
usually supplied by the electricity department) ; this charge 
is 12.5 per cent on the actual cost of the service meter 
and wiring, including switches and ceiling rosettes, but not 
lamps and fittings. It might be thought that the above rate 
would confuse the consumer, but in practice this is not the 
case. What happens usually is that the electricity depart- 
ment approaches a consumer considering the question of 
electric light by ascertaining what his existing gas bill is. 
It then guarantees that with electric lamps giving equal 
candle-power his bill should not exceed a certain amount, 
which is, in most cases, materially less than the existing 
gas bill. The above system of charging lends itself very 
well to this method, for the greater proportion of the 
charge can be calculated beforehand, and any unusual con- 
sumption is, of course, reckoned at i cent per kw-hr., 
thereby effecting to only a small degree the total cost. — 
London Electrician, June 14, 1912. 

Cooking Load. — F. M. Long. — .\ paper read before the 
(British) Municipal Electrical Association. The author 
first discusses the character of the load provided by cooking 



apparatus and the cost of this load to the central station, 
both as regards running expenses and capital charges. The 
questions of hot-water supply and the charges that should 
be made for energy are also dealt with. — London Elec- 
trician, June 21. 1912. 

Electric Cooking Apparatus. — H. H. Holmes. — A (Brit- 
ish) Municipal Electrical Association paper in which the 
author discusses what should be the size, output and design 
of electric cooking apparatus for domestic and commercial 
use. Valuable data are also given as regards consumption 
of energy, comparative cost, etc. — London Electrician, June 
21, 1912. 

Organisation in Electrical Undertakings. — C. M. Shaw. 
— A (British) Municipal Electrical Association paper. The 
author deals with the need for a proper organization of the 
staff in an electricity undertaking, the scheme including a 
chief engineer as responsible head, assisted by departmental 
managers on both the engineering and commercial sides. 
The methods of carrying out the work of an undertaking 
organized in this way are also described. — London Elec- 
trician, June 21, 1912. 

Reliability and Continuity of Supply. — F. Ayton. — A 
paper read before the (British) Municipal Electrical Asso- 
ciation. The author suggests a few precautions, attention 
to which would prevent some interruptions to supply and 
add to the reliability of both the steam and the electrical 
plant. — London Electrician, June 21, 1912. 

Electrophysics and Magnetism. 

Ions from Hot Salts. — O. W. Richardson. — An abstract 
of an American Physical Society paper. The first part of 
this paper deals with further measurements of the specific 
charge c/m of the ions from salts. The principal object of 
the investigation has been the determination of the nature 
of the negative ions which are emitted at low temperatures. 
Experiments have been made on CdL, BaL, SrL, Cal,, 
Fe^Clj and MnCL The negative thermionic currents from 
the iodides of the alkaline earth metals are surprisingly 
large, and apparently larger at low temperatures than those 
given by the corresponding oxides. Heavy negative ions 
from all these substances have been detected, but as a rule 
they are mixed with an excess of electrons. In the case of 
these substances the electric atomic weight of the heavy 
ions is in good agreement with the view that the ions are 
atoms of iodine carrying a single electronic charge (or, of 
course, molecules carrying two charges). The proportion 
of heavy ions to electrons is greatest when the salts are first 
heated and falls off with lapse of time. The proportion of 
heavy ions to electrons also diminishes as the temperature 
is raised, independently of the time effect. Generally speak- 
ing, the large negative emission which has been observed is 
not accompanied by any appreciable positive emission. The 
second part of the paper is devoted to a brief discussion of 
the time changes which the ionization from heated salts 
exhibits. Some hypotheses proposed for the explanation of 
these facts are critically discussed. — Pltys. Reviezu. May, 
1912. 

Ions in Metallic Vapor Flames. — E. N. da C. Andrade. — 
An account of an experimental investigation of the nature 
and velocity of migration of the carriers of electricity in 
flames containing metallic vapors. The chief results are as 
follows: The positive carrier in a flame containing metal 
vapors is of metallic nature, very probably the metal atom. 
The positive carrier has two different definite velocities of 
migration in the electric field, according as it is present in 
the streak of metallic vapor or in the free flame; in both 
cases it alternates the positive with the neutral state. In 
the former case it is charged for about 1/400 of the time, 
in the latter for 1/6 of the time. For strontium the greater 
velocity of migration is 2.5 cm per second for unity electric 
field intensity in volts per cm. There seems no reason to 
doubt the results of other experimenters, that the velocity is 
the same for dift'erent metals, which agrees with the author's 



VLY 13, igi2. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



113 



heory. Hence this value probably gives the velocity of 
nigration of an atom of any metal in the free flame. The 
iresence of glowing platinum in the vapor causes the libera- 
ion of electrons from it in large quantities. There exist, 
lesides the free electrons, negative carriers of the second 
:ind, which are metallic, in relatively small numbers. This 
;ives an analogy with the canal rays.— Philos. Mag., 
une, 1912. 

Resistivity and Temperature. — A. A. Somerville. — An 
irticle giving in tables the results of measurements of the 
lectric resistivity of oxide powders with temperature, the 
emperature being varied from zero to over 1000 deg. C. 
Diagrams are given for the oxides CuO, Cu,0, MgO, ZnO, 
"e.Oj, and MnO.. At room temperature these oxides are 
)ractically non-conductors, but they become good con- 
luctors at high temperatures, and the general form of the 
;urves showing the change of resistance with temperature 
s the same. — Met. and Chem. Eng'ing, July, igi2. 
Electrochemistry and Batteries. 

Pig Steel. — J. W. Richards. — An abstract of a paper on 
I certain phase of the work done in Sweden and Norway 
m the reduction of iron ore in the electric furnace. If in 
he electric furnace the amount of carbon used for reduction 
s cut down, the furnace works better, consumes less energy 
md less carbon, and works more rapidly. It is possible to 
ibtain a product containing o.l per cent silicon, o.l per cent 
nanganese, and as low as 1.5 per cent of carbon. To des- 
gnate this product as pig iron would be incorrect. It is 
:alled pig steel, because in composition it is simply crude 
;teel. Pig steel is a metal with 2.2 per cent or less of 
:arbon, a very small amount of silicon and manganese, low 
n sulphur and phosphorus, made directly from iron ore in 
he electric pig iron furnace. If this is used in the open- 
learth furnace the output of the latter can be increased 
learly 50 per cent. This fact opens new prospects for the 
ise of the electric furnace for iron ore reduction. — Met. 
md Chem. Ending, July. 

Electric Reduction of Iron Ores at Trollhdttan. — J. A. 

Leffler ANf) E. Nystrom. — A paper read before the Jer- 

contoret (Swedish Association of Iron Masters) on the 

atest results obtained with their electric furnace for the 

•eduction of iron ore. They have installed an entirely new 

jas circulating system. Analyses are given of the fuel, 

ime stone, and ores used, also data of the electrodes. The 

following are average figures summarizing the contents of 

:wo large tables giving the detailed running for the whole 

period : 

ron iii ore, per cent 60 . 95 

Ton in burden, per cent 56 . 84 

Afeight of slag per ton of iron, kg 323 

A^eight of fuel per ton of iron, kg 404 

imf on furnace, volts 7Z.6 

Current in furnace 1 1,423 

r'ower in furnace 1,482 

Energy, kw-hours per ton of iron 2,225 

Output of iron per kw-year, tons 3.94 

Per cent CO2 in throat gas, per cent 23.49 

Volume circulating gas, cw meters, per sec 0.24 

Pressure of gas in furnace, mm. mercury 225 

Temperature at bottom of shaft, deg. cent 441 

remperature at middle of shaft, deg. cent 279 

Temperature at top of shaft, deg. cent 17 

Electrode consumption in kg per ton of iron: 

Gross 5.72 

Net 5.18 

A diagram is given showing the extent of the reductive zone 
and the different temperature zones in the furnace shaft. — 
Met. and Chem, Ending, July, 1912. 

Electrotyping. — An illustrated description of a modern 
electrotyping plant in New York City describing the various 
steps in the process of electrotyping. — Met. and Chem. 
Eng'ing. July, 1912. 

Units, Measurements and Instruments. 

Radiation and Optical Pyrometers. — G. A. Shook. — 
After a discussion of black-body standards the author deals 
in detail with the calibration of radiation and optical pyro- 
meters, especially the Wanner pyrometer, the Le Chatelier 
pyrometer, and the Holborn-Kurlbaum pyrometer. — Met. 
and Chem. Eng'ing, July, 1912. 



Telegraphy, Telephony and Signals. 

Subtnarine Telephone Cables. — Devaux-Charbonner. — 
A mathematical article giving a review of the present situ- 
ation of submarine telephone cables, the possibilities of in- 
crease of the self-induction either by the Pupin or the 
Kraupp system, and some data from recent cable experi- 
ence. — La Lumiere Elec, June 15, 1912. 
Miscellaneous. 

Pacinotti. — L. Finzi. — An account, with portrait, of the 
life and work of the late Antonio Pacinotti who died on 
March 25, 1912. His first experiments with a ring machine 
were made in January, 1859, and in 1862 he published the 
first description in which he also showed the reversibility 
of dynamo electric machines according to which they may 
be used as generator or motor. The present author sug- 
gests that in justice to the historical facts the "Gramme 
ring" should be called in future the Pacinotti ring. — Elek. 
Zeit., June 20, 1912. 

Magnetic Concentration. — M. Ruthenburg. — An illus- 
trated description of a new method of dressing Cornish tin 
ores in which use is made of the author's magnetic separa- 
tors. — Met. and Chem. Eng'ing, July, 1912. 

British Institution of Electrical Engineers. — An account 
of the Glasgow meeting of the (British) Institution of Elec- 
trical Engineers. The retiring president is S. Z. de Fer- 
ranti and the president-elect is W. Duddell. An account of 
the different visits is given. London Electrician, June 14, 
1912. This is continued and supplemented by an account of 
the other proceedings, including an abstract of a general 
lecture by S. P. Thompson on the magnetism of permanent 
magnets, in London Electrician, June 21, 1912. 



Book Reviews 

Claims: Fixing Their Value. By George F. Deiser and 
Frederick W. Johnson. New York: McGraw-Hill 
Book Company. 140 pages. Price, $2. 
A carefully written, short textbook on claims over acci- 
dents, intended for the average employer and member of 
the public. A perusal of the book shows how rapidly 
legislation has recently been growing on the subject of 
accident claims and how different is the legislation in the 
various states of the Union. About twenty-five years ago 
very little direct legislation existed and the matter rested 
on common law. Already, however, a large amount of 
direct legislation exists and the tendency seems to be in 
the direction of allowing claims for injuries derived in 
employment, no matter what negligence may have existed 
on the part of the complainant. Whether there will be a 
continuance in or a reaction from this policy in the near 
future is difficult to foresee. The book will be of interest 
to all employers and to most employees. 



Die Krankheiten des Stationaren Elektrischen Blei- 
Akkumulators By F. E. Kretzschmar. Munich : R. 
Oldenbourg. 162 pages, 83 illus. Price, $2. 
A very practical little textbook on the diseases of lead 
storage batteries. It is with storage batteries as with hu- 
man beings. One does not realize among how many dis- 
eases one may choose to suffer until a complete schedule of 
pathology is drawn up and itemized. One is then grateful 
for moderate health and feels a new sense of pride. The 
subjects discussed in the successive chapters are as follows: 
Introduction; the origin of real disease in a storage battery; 
the origin of seeming disease in a storage battery; determi- 
nation of the cause of disease; the removal of a disease in a 
battery; the prevention of disease in a battery. The book 
is clearly written and well illustrated. It will be of especial 
value to attendants in charge of large storage batteries and 
also to storage-battery engineers as well as central-station 
managers. 



114 



ELECTRICAL WORLD, 



Vol. 6o, No. 2. 



New Apparatus and Appliances 



INDUCTION- TYPE SWITCHBOARD METERS. 



In modern switchboard practice it is desirable for the 
indicating meters to possess compactness, readability, rug- 
gedness and simplicity. It is claimed that all of these 
desirable characteristics are found in the induction meters 
recently introduced by the Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company. East Pittsburgh, Pa. The meters are 





Fig. 1 — Induction Ammeter 
with Scale Removed. 



Fig. 2 — Moving Element of 
Meter. 



only 7 in. in diameter, yet the scale is 14.5 in. in length. 
The damping is such that the pointer does not pulsate or 
overswing the mark even with a sudden change in the load 
equivalent to full scale of the meter. All parts are very 
simple, no moving coils or flexible connections being re- 
quired. 

The stationary part consists of an electromagnetic struc- 
ture so designed as to produce a rotating magnetic field in 
an annular air-gap, and the moving element consists of 
a light metal drum symmetrically pivoted in this air-gap. 
The arrangement of electric and magnetic circuits is such 
that a high torque is produced by induction in the pivoted 
drum, proportional to the square of the current in the meter 
independent of temperature, wave-form, or frequency within 
wide limits. This torque is opposed by the restraining 
force of a comparatively heavy spiral spring, so that the 
deflection is proportional to the square of the current. The 
scale is said to be clearly legible from 10 per cent to full- 
scale indication. 

Damping is obtained by means of an aluminum disk 
mounted on the shaft and moving between the poles of two 
permanent magnets. As the torque of the meter depends 
entirely on the rotating field produced by the current in the 
windings, it is practically independent of any stationary 



,y 

1 99 

* 98 

■» Cy 

tMin in C 
t Air Tern 








25 Cycle ammetlr 














5 Amp 








\ 




_. 1 












1 1 ^^ 




No? 






. — ' 

No 3 


\l 






\zycli 


'^* 


; 1 i /vo/\ 
y.nufes f \ Air fernperatare * \ 






e'o 30 10 50 60 70 
•les for Curve No 1, Mhich shows the effect of cncnqes in freauency 
ircuit forCurve No 2. which snows the effect of self heating at ^/j load 
in °C forCurve No 5.which shows the effect of variations in roomTemp 



Fig. 3 — Frequency, Temperature and Self- Heating Characteristics 
of Induction Ammeter. 

external field ; the damping magnets can, therefore, be made 
of the strength required without affecting the accuracy. 

The moving part is inherently strong, since it consists 
of a shaft, an aluminum cup, a damping disk, and the 
pointer. 

The entire electromagnetic element of the meter is 
mounted on a die-cast allov frame, which also contains the 



rear sapphire jewel and provides a mounting for the from 
bridge to wliich are fastened the spiral hair spring which 
controls the movement, the zero-adjusting clip and screw, 
and the front sapphire jewel. The damping magnets are 
mounted on a metal clip which is fastened by four screws 
to the die-cast frame. This method of mounting permits 
the ready removal of the damping magnets with the cer- 
tainty of having them exactly at the proper position relativt 
to the rest of the mechanism when replaced. The rigiditj 
of the mounting prevents any displacement of the magnets 
and damage to the movement, or contact with the aluminuir 
damping disk due to rough handling in shipment. 

The weight of the moving element of the meter is claimec 
to be as light as is consistent with rugged construction 
The torque is very high, the result being a ratio of torquf 
to weight that is exceptionally high — from four to sij 
times that found in alternating-current meters of othei 
types. The accompanying curves indicate that the meter i; 
practically free from temperature and self-heating errors 
They show that for any change in frequency that is likely t( 
occur on a commercial circuit the accuracv is not affected 



STEEL-CASING WIRING SYSTEM. 



A system of wiring introduced in England but of interes 
to American electrical wiring contractors is the one invente( 
by Mr. A. E. \\'oodhouse and patented in both the Unitec 
States and Canada. It is said to combine the advantage 



Figs. 1 and 2 — Steel Casing and Trough. 

of the old discarded cleat system and the modern stee 
tubing system. Fig. i shows the casing consisting of : 
trough with a removable cover. The troughs are pushed o 
sprung into close-fitting joint pieces (Fig. 2), which an 
nailed or screwed to the wall. At the corners or bends 
either elbows or bendable casing, Fisr. "?. are used. Thi 



Fig. 3— Bendable Casing. 

is a verv interesting and ingenious piece of work. Briefi; 
it consists of a trough and cover, each of which is madi 
of two layers of metal clamped together. Each layer is s( 
notched and tongued as to be readily bent, although mad< 
from the same steel as the ordinary casing. The notche: 
of one layer are covered by the tongues of the other. Limit 
ing lugs prevent the notches being opened wider than thi 



^ 




Figs. 4 and 5 — Elbow and Locking Joint Cap. 

covering tongues. When bending this casing the coverei 
notches close up on the side in compression and open out oi 
the side in tension. This bendable casing is neat in ap 
pearance and is, of course, most useful, as it can readih 
be bent by hand without tools, to suit curves, obstruction: 
and awkward places, so frequently encountered in wiring 
buildings. 



July 13, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



115 



Fig. 4 shows an ordinary elbow wliich may be frequently 
used in place of bendable casing. After the troughing has 
been installed the insulated wires are simply laid in and 
the covers are then pushed on. Before the covers are put 
on, however, the wires can be secured in the trough, if 
desired, by means of the temporary use of the locking caps 
which can be sprung over the troughs alone. 

The joints in the covers are hidden by simple push-on 
caps, or if the covers are required to be very securely 
fastened on, locking joint caps are used (Fig. 5). The 
clips hold the casing to the walls, etc., and are made so 
that a space of about % in. may, if desired, be left between 
the casing and the wall. 

The British rights of the invention are held by the Wood- 
house Steel Casing Co., Ltd., Craven House, Kingsway, 
London, W. C. 



ELECTRIC FLAT-IRONS IN RECORD QUANTITIES. 



As an example of the growing popularity of the electric 
flat-iron can be cited the delivery of 10,000 flat-irons to 
the Commonwealth Edison Company, at Chicago, by the 
General Electric Company. These irons are not to be held 
in stock awaiting orders, but are being distributed for 
free trial to any person expressing a desire to operate one 
for a limited period. An iron is delivered at the home of 
each prospective customer, who is given permission to use 
it without cost for thirty days, at the expiration of which 
time permanent possession can be obtained by paying only 
the actual cost of the iron. 



IMPROVEMENTS IN CARBON DIOXIDE METERS. 



In order to avoid the defects of carbon dioxide meters, 
which operate with a liquid caustic solution, the Uehling 
Instrument Company, of Passaic, N. J., has been experi- 
menting for some time past with the object of developing a 
dry absorbent. Inasmuch as the COj meters placed on the 
market by this company operate on the principle, not of 
measuring the volume of samples of gas, but of the measure- 
ment of a drop in pressure between two orifices where CO, 
is removed, a method of drv absorption can be utilized. The 




Fig. 1 — Boiler-Room with Meter Installation to the Left. 

general appearance of the latest type of machine is shown in 
Fig. 2. The dry absorber cartons are cylindrical in shape 
and about 3 in. in diameter and iVi ft. long, inclosed in 
waxed pressboard. The absorbent is a flaky substance 
termed "natron," carefully packed in layers within the 
carton. This is placed in a cylindrical chamber, which is 
shown at the right in Fig. 2, the operation of inserting it 



consisting simply in loosening a few wing nuts, removing 
the used carton and inserting a new one. This view shows 
the style SC waste meter, which is a combination of the 
CO, meter and a flue-gas pyrometer. The recent CO, 
machines of this make placed on 
the market have been equipped 
with the dry absorbers, and the 
general appearance of a typical 
installation is shown in Fig. i. 

Other improvements in this ap- 
paratus recently made have to do 
with recording devices. The COj 
equipment itself consists of the 
machine in which CO^ is absorbed 
and the percentage of CO^ meas- 
ured pneumatically by changes in 
vacuum between two orifices. The 
degree of vacuum is registered by 
recording instruments or by in- 
dicators, as may be desired. The 
type M recorder employed in con- 
nection with this apparatus is 
merely a low-pressure or vacuum 
recorder, arranged to register 
vacuums or pressure, or both, 
from o in. to 60 in. of water. 
When the recording type is sup- 
plied the charts are calibrated 
from to 20 per cent of COj, 
and when the temperature record 
is also desired the calibration is 
ordinarily extended up to 1000 
deg. Equipment is now supplied 
by means of which the percentage 
of COj and the temperature may 
be recorded, if desired on the 
same chart, with the type DM 
apparatus. The type M recorder 
employs the same principle as 
the earlier forms of instruments, 
utilizing the familiar U tube, which is filled with a special 
oil and avoids the use of levers, pins, springs and like 
devices. 




Fig. 2 — Combination 
COm iVIeter and Flue-Gas 
Pyrometer. 



THE JUNKERS OIL ENGINE. 

By Joseph B. Baker. 

The Junkers oil engine is a new internal-combustion 
engine of the type igniting the cylinder charge by the heat 
of compression, as in the Diesel engine,* and burning the 
cheapest grades of liquid fuel. This engine, which has 
been developed by Prof. H. Junkers, of Aix-la-Chapelle, 
Germany, after years of private experimentation, is dis- 
tinguished by several features which, from the point of 
view of first cost, efficiency and maintenance, are claimed 
to make it the most economical prime mover. 

A general view is given in Fig. I. The engine is of 
remarkable simplicity of design, being without valve 
mechanism, cylinder heads or stuffing boxes, and of equally 
remarkable simplicity of operation inasmuch as it burns 
the very cheapest grades of fuel, down to asphaltum resi- 
dues, with unexampled ease of lubrication, cooling and 
attendance. The cylinder is a simple tube casting, a pipe 
open to the atmosphere at both ends, and it is of compara- 
tively small diameter, securing superior heat efficiency and 
scavenging and lower cooling losses. The use of two pistons 
in the cylinder gives a high aggregate piston speed with 
low separate piston speeds. There is a marked reduction 
of weight per horse-power — down to one-half the weight 
of the best internal-combustion oil engine of any other 

•It is generally conceded that Dr. Diesel is the father of the oil en- 
gine in the same sense that all forms of the steam engine are to be 
credited to Watt. 



Il6 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. 



J 



type — due to the simplicity of design and to the balancing 
of stresses in the operation of the engine, which permits 
the use of an extraordinarily light bedplate or engine 
frame. The engine is well adapted to marine and loco- 
motive work, as compared with other types, by its ability 



indicator card showing the distribution of pressures 
throughout one revolution. 

The two pistons move alternately outward — that is, away 
from each other — and inward or toward each other. The 
left-hand piston F (Fig. 3) is connected to the middle one 




Fig. 1 — 1000-hp Junkers Oil Engine. 

to run at higher speeds, its greater range of control of 
speed, higher efficiency when underloaded and greater over- 
load range. 

The Junkers oil engine works on the two-stroke-cycle 

iF €h 




Figs. 2 to 6 — Diagrams Showing Successive Cylinder Events 
Throughout One Revolution. 

principle. Its operation may be traced by inspection of the 
annexed diagrams (Figs. 2 to 6) of a single-cylinder engine. 
These diagrams show the cylinder events in five successive 
positions of the piston throughout one revolution, and should 
be examined in connection with Fig. 7, which is a typical 



Fig. 7 — Typical indicator Card. 

of three cranks, and the right-hand piston H (Fig. 4) is 
connected to a cross-head and a pair of parallel connecting 
rods to the two outer of these cranks, 180 deg. from the 
middle crank. In Fig. 2 the pistons are at the inner dead 




Fig. 8 — Side Elevation and Plan of Two-Cylinder Tandem Engine. 

center, and the combustion space between them is filled with 
highly compressed, highly heated air as the result of the 
previous compression stroke. The fuel is sprayed into 
this hot atmosphere and ignites and burns under constant 
pressure, as in the Diesel engine, during the first part of 
the outstroke, that is, from ^ to fi on the indicator card 
(F^ig- ?)• At B the supply of fuel is cut off and the stroke 
continues, with expansion of the gases doing useful work, 
from B to C, bringing the pistons into the position of Fig. 3. 
At this point piston V is just about to open a ring of ex- 
haust ports a. The line C D on the card (Fig. 7) shows 
the variation of pressure as the outward motion continues, 
the spent gases escaping at about atmospheric pressure. 
When the position of Fig. 4 is reached the exhaust ports are 
opening wider, and piston H is just about to uncover a ring 
of air ports b, allowing fresh air to enter and scavenge the 
cylinder by sweeping through it and out at the exhaust 
ports. This condition is maintained until the pistons, hav- 
ing passed the outer dead center (Fig. 5) begin their re- 




Fig. 9 — Power Impulses During One Revolution of the Junkers 

Engine. 

turn stroke. In Fig. 6 the in movement of the pistons has 
closed both rings of ports, and the compression stroke be- 
gins on a cylinder full of fresh air. The line FA, com- 
pleting the cycle, shows the rise of pressure on the com- 
pression stroke. 



July 13, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



117 



It will be noted that scavenging is thorough, and that both 
the exhaust and the scavenging are accomplished without 
valves having moving parts. The compressed air for the 
scavenging and for the fuel spraying is supplied by auxilia- 
ries directly connected to the linkage. In the operation of 
the engine one side of each piston is always exposed to the 
atmosphere and comes to rest at every outward stroke in 
a well-cooled region of the cylinder which has not been 
exposed to the burning gases. 

For electric generation purposes the design of the multi- 
cylinder type, whereby every stroke of the engine is made 
a working stroke, is especially interesting. The unit multi- 
cylinder Junkers engine is a two-cylinder (four-piston) 
form, which may be built as a vertical or horizontal tandem 
engine with great simplicity of design. In this form the two 
inner pistons of the set of four move 'together, being linked 
to a single cross-head connected by a pair of rods to the 
two outside cranks of the set of three cranks before de- 
scribed, the two outer pistons, which also move together, 



COLOR-CHANGING REFLECTORS. 









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Fig. 10 — Power Impulses During One Revolution of Ordinary Oil 
Engine. 

being linked by cross-head and rods to the center crank at 
180 deg. This construction is shown in Fig. 8. 

The unit four-piston form, giving balanced engine stresses 
which are taken by the linkages — not by the engine frame, 
which can therefore be made very light — is of especial 
interest in electrical work. In driving alternating-current 
generators for parallel operation it is important to secure 
as nearly as possible constant torque and speed throughout 
each revolution of the prime mover. Here is where internal 
combustion reciprocating engines, with their strong power 
impulse in the working stroke followed by a compression 
stroke involving absorption of power, have appeared to 
disadvantage as compared with reciprocating steam engines 
and especially as compared with the steam turbine. The 
improvement effected in this respect is indicated in Fig. 9, 
as compared with Fig. 10, the former being a graphic rep- 
resentation of the number of power impulses during one 
revolution of the Junkers engine and the latter showing the 
number of power impulses during one revolution of the 
ordinary oil engine. In arrangements of several units of 
the Junkers type — that is, in large-power engines of several 
pairs of cylinders for central-station generating work — 
owing to the natural balancing of the reciprocating parts, 
explained above, the positions of the cranks are not re- 
stricted to any particular spacing relatively to each other in 
order to obtain inertia balancing. The cranks of an aggre- 
gate of Junkers units can be set at angles producing the 
most uniform turning moment at the shaft — that is, at the 
rotor of the generator — without reference tn balancing 
at all. 

Jimkers stationary units are now under construction by 
several prominent European manufacturers. A 2000-hp, 
l2S-kw per hour locomotive, weighing less than a steam 
locomotive, and the propelling equipment for twelve ocean- 
going vessels, are also being built in Europe. 

Of special interest to electrical engineers is the promising 
career which may be expected for the Junkers engine as 
a generator of electric energy in the great oil fields of this 
country for transmission to distant points, a development 
analogous to the great hydroelectric generation and trans- 
mission systems. 



To secure an effective and economical system of reflec- 
tion, much experimental work and thought have been given 
by the Reynolds Electric Flasher Manufacturing Company, 
of Chicago and New York. This company has designed a 




Reflector and Flasher. 

reflector, described in our issue of Oct. 7, 191 1, which used 
in combination with its flasher provides an attraction in 
color-changing effects which should increase the advertis- 
ing value of a sign board. The flasher is furnished with a 
weatherproof cabinet attachable to the back of any sign. 
The reflector is lined with white porcelain, and diffuses the 
light evenly over the board. 



A MAGNETO DOORBELL. 



A batteryless electric doorbell newly brought out by the 
Service Electric Company, 1x56 Monadnock Block, Chicago, 

makes use of a com- 
pactly designed min- 
iature magneto gen- 
erator which is 
operated through 
gearing from the 
twist handle. From 
this generator wires 
lead to the polar- 
ized-type bell which 
may be located any- 
where with respect 
to the generator. 
The magneto is ar- 
ranged with an ex- 
tension shaft so that 
it can be installed on 
a door casing of any 
thickness, only the 
handle and the 
escutcheon plate showing from the front. If desired, the 
generator may also be mortised into the brick or woodwork. 
The bell operates easily, only a fraction of a turn being 
required to sound the signal. In respect to cost the outfit 
compares favorably with a bell-ringing transformer system. 
Since it does not require alternating-current service, it can 
be installed anywhere and requires no connections to out- 




Knob and Generator of Batteryless 
Electric Bell. 



ii8 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. 2. 



side sources, battery renewals, etc. For signaling systems 
in factories a selective calling system is provided, by means 
of which any individual one of a number of bells can be 
rung at will. 



BALL-BEARINGS IN RAILWAY SERVICE. 



That ball bearings are suitable for the severest kind of 
service has been proved conclusively by the operation for 
three and one-half years of an equipment of Hess-Bright 
ball-bearing journals on an interurban electric car which 
has covered during that time about 150,000 miles on the 
Atlantic City & Shore Railroad. When one of the journal 
boxes with its two bearings was examined and measured 
recently no visible evidence of wear was discovered and 
the change in size was truly negligible. During service the 
bearings received no attention except that required in re- 
packing with grease about once in ten or twelve months. 



ELECTRIC IRRIGATION EQUIPMENT. 



The advantages of motor-driven pumps, supplied with 
energy from an isolated generating plant employing oil 
engines, for the irrigation of rice plantations, are exempli- 
fied in the installation on the 1700-acre plantation owned 
by Mr. Floyd Williams. Ellis, La. 

The prime-mover is a 200-hp. four-cylinder, four-cycle, 
quick-starting, slow-speed oil engine running on low-grade 
oils, direct-connected on the same cast-iron base to a 170- 
kva, 2300-volt, three-phase, 6o-cycle alternator, with ex- 
citer and switchboard. 









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1 












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supplies about 250 acres. The illustration herewith shows 
a vertical-shaft pumping equipment. 

Provisions were made so that additional generating units, 
as well as motors and pumps, can be added in the future if 
wanted, without materially adding to the cost of attendance. 
The electrically driven pumps replaced steam-driven equip- 
ments, which required at least one attendant at each pump. 
The present arrangement permits locating the wells and 
pumps at the most convenient point for the rice fields 
flooded, regardless of such conditions as good roads or 
easy access for coal transportation, etc. 

The electrically driven pump fits into the rice irrigating 
problem very nicely, as a well that is pumped 65 to 75 
twenty-four-hour days per season has considerable sand 
and sediment drawn from it, and in a few years the pump 
and column sink and get out of line. A belted vertical 
pump is hard to keep in line under these conditions, while 
the electrically driven vertical pump with a motor mounted 
on the same frame overcomes this difficulty. 

When a well ceases delivering water, a new one can be 
sunk not far distant and the pump and motor easily moved 
without having to transport an engine, boiler and smoke- 
stack. Furthermore, the operation of the pumps can be 
manipulated to suit the water supply, that is, one pump can 
be stopped in one field and another one started in some 
other field, without additional prime-mover equipment. The 
equipment illustrated and described herewith was furnished 
and installed by Fairbanks, Morse & Company, 608 Maga- 
zine Street, New Orleans, La. 



Vertical-Shaft Motor-Driven Pump. 

The generating set provides energy for operating three 
75-hp, vertical, squirrel-cage, 2200-volt motors direct-con- 
nected to vertical centrifugal pumps. One pump is located 
at the power house, the second three-quarters of a mile 
away, and the third a half-mile further, or one and one- 
quarter miles from the power house. The energy is trans- 
mitted over a private pole-line on Mr. Williams' property 
at 2300 volts, without transformers, excepting a small 
transformer at each pump house which provides iio-volt 
circuits for lighting. 

Each motor is direct-connected to centrifugal pumps 
throwing lo-in. streams. The water stands in the wells 
from 40 to 60 ft. below the surface, each pump discharging 
from 3000 to 4000 gal. of water per minute. Each well 



PANAMA-PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION. 



As previously announced, the Panama-Pacific Interna- 
tional Exposition will be held at San Francisco from Feb. 
20 to Dec. 4, 1915, to celebrate the completion of the 
Panama Canal. The board of directors of the Panama- 
Pacific International Exposition Company has just pub- 
lished a pamphlet containing a set of general rules and 
regulations which are promulgated for the information and 
guidance of both foreign and domestic exhibitors, as finally 
amended and approved by President Charles C. Moore and 
attested by Secretary Rudolph J. Taussig. These rules are 
embodied in twenty-two articles. 

A site having a frontage of 15,000 ft. upon the bay at 
Golden Gate and comprising 625 acres has been granted by 
the United States Government. There will be twelve ex- 
hibition departments covering fine arts, education, social 
economy, liberal arts, manufactures and varied industries, 
machinery, transportation, agriculture, live stock, horticul- 
ture, mines and metallurgy, and discoveries and maritime 
development of the Pacific area. 

The qualified exhibitors will be those corporations, firms 
or individuals who have produced the particular article, 
object or substance exhibited. It is announced that no 
charge will be made for space allotted to exhibits in the 
exhibition palaces. Applications for space must be filed not 
later than the following dates : For machinery and me- 
chanical appliances intended for exhibition in operation, 
Aug. 15, 1914; for similar appliances not intended for ex- 
hibition in operation, Oct. I, 1914; for works of art, natural 
products and manufactured materials not expressly in- 
dicated in the rules, Oct. i. 1914, and for special conces- 
sions to individuals, associations or corporations. Oct. I, 
1914. All applications for space must be addressed in 
writing to the president of the exposition, and should be 
presented on forms which will be furnished on application. 
All communications relating to the exposition should be 
addressed to the president of the Panama-Pacific Interna- 
tional Exposition, San Francisco, Cal., U. S. A. Copies of 
the pamphlet of rules and regulations may be obtained in 
the manner just indicated. 



July 13, 1912. ELECTRICAL WORLD. 

Industrial and Financial News 



119 



STEADY increase in the amount of general merchan- 
dise carried by the railroads, favorable crop develop- 
ments, expansion of over 4 per cent in bank clearings 
last week as compared with the total in the correspond- 
ing week last year, with continuation of activity and tend- 
ency toward still higher prices in the metal markets are 
reported from all parts of the country. Growth of public 
confidence and broadening of the buying movement are 
both causes and effects of this highly encouraging record, 
and now that the political issues are fairly well defined, 
nearly all pi the elements needed for a period of good 
business seem to be at hand. Inasmuch as this rate of 
expansion is exceptionally high for this time of the year, 
the prospects for the balance of 1912 are regarded as 
decidedly bright. Improvement in business placed with 
the majority of electrical manufacturing companies, large 
gains in the earnings of electric light, power and traction 
companies over the returns in the corresponding period 
last year, and a broad demand for the securities of public 
service corporations as compared with summer dullness 
in the stocks and bonds of many other industrial con- 
cerns speak well for the future of the electrical industry 
during the rest of the year. Despite the large amount 
of funds incident to July disbursements, interest rates have 
not changed appreciably. Rates July 10 were; Call, 
3(&3y2 per cent; ninety days, 3H@3^ per cent. 



Cedar Rapids (Que.) Manufacturing & Power Personnel. 

— The Cedar Rapids Manufacturing & Power Company, of 
Montreal, which is planning to develop several hydroelec- 
tric sites on the St. Lawrence River, near Cedar Rapids, as 
was noted in the Electrical World Jan. 27, 1912, has elected 
the following officers, who with D. Lome McGibbon, are, 
in addition, the board of directors: President, J. E. Aldred, 
and vice-president, Howard Murray, who are, respectively, 
president and secretary of the Shawinigan Water & Power 
Company; secretary and treasurer, J. S. Norris, general 
manager, secretary and treasurer of the Montreal Light, 
Heat & Power Company; chief hydraulic engineer, J. C. 
Smith, general superintendent and chief engineer of the 
Shawingan company; chief electrical engineer, R. M. Wil- 
son, general superintendent and chief electrical engineer of 
the Montreal Light, Heat & Power Compay; consulting 
engineer, H. Holgate. The capitalization of the company 
consists of $10,000,000 5 per cent first mortgage, forty-year 
sinking fund gold bonds, of which $5,000,000 is issued, and 
of $10,000,000 capital stock, of which $8,000,000 is issued. 

Southern Pacific to Extend Electrification. — Plans for 
electrification of about 340 miles of its road in the Willa- 
mette Valley. Oregon, from Portland to Eugene, at an im- 
mediate cost of $8,000,000 have been completed by the 
Southern Pacific Company. Besides this interurban electric 
system, the company will also have an additional thirty-five 
miles of electric road in the cities of Salem, Albany, Eugene 
and Corvallis. According to E. E. Calvin, vice-president 
and general manager of the Southern Pacific Company, the 
work of converting lines between Portland and McMinnville 
for electric operation is already under way, and electrifica- 
tion of the West Side line from McMinnville to Corvallis. 
and of the Corvallis & Alsea Railroad thence to Eugene 
is to be undertaken at once. Consummation of these plans, 
and of other plans which it has under consideration for 
further development and extension of electric service will 
give the Southern Pacific Company a first class electric sys- 
tem in a highly productive territory. 

New York Telephone Company Buys Independents. — 
The physical property and business of the Onondaga 
(N. Y.) Independent Telephone has been purchased by 
the New York Telephone Company for $700,000. This 
property was consolidated with the New York Telephone 
Company on June 30. The latter has also acquired the 
physical property and business of the .A.lbany Home Tele- 
phone Company, in Green County, for $50,500, subject to 
existing mortgages; the property of the Baldwinsville 



Telephone Company, for $13,100; the Newburgh Home 
Telephone Company, for $11,800; the Home Telephone 
Company of Frewburg, Chautauqua County, for $8,000, 
and the Deposit Home Telephone Company, of Deposit, 
N. Y., for $6,000. The companies purchased have ceased 
business and the business formerly conducted by them 
is now being carried on by the New York company. 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Preferred Stock. — W. E. 
Hutton & Company, of New York and Cincinnati, are of- 
fering $1,100,000 6 per cent cumulative preferred stock of 
the Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, of Akron, 
Ohio, at loi and dividend. The total authorized issue of 
this stock is $3,000,000 and the amount now offered is the 
unsold portion of the present preferred issue of $2,640,000. 
It is redeemable after April i, 1919, at no and dividend. 
The properties of the company consist of electric lighting 
plants at Akron and Barberton, and about 215 miles of 
electric road connecting Cleveland, Akron, Canton, Massil- 
lon and a number of other important cities in the state. 
The proceeds of the present stock issue will be used in 
financing the 20.000 hp steam and hydroelectric plant which 
the company is now constructing at Cuyahoga Falls. Gross 
earnings of the company in 191 1 were $2,694,024 as com- 
pared with $2,437,426 in 1910. and the surplus for stock was 
$670,466 as compared with $567,394 in the preceding year. 

Walpole Rubber Company Increases Its Manufacturing 
Facilities. — Although extensive additions were made last 
year to the plant of the Walpole Rubber Company, of Wal- 
pole, Mass., the additional space has not been sufficient to 
keep abreast of the demand for the company's products, 
which include automobile tires, mechanical and other rubber 
goods and insulating tapes and compounds used in the 
electrical industry. Owing to the immediate need for larger 
space, the company has secured the plant originally de- 
signed for the use of the Van Coate Electrical Company, in 
Foxboro, Mass., which is about five miles from Walpole. 
About three acres of floor space is contained in this plant, 
--is soon as the installation of machinery is completed auto- 
mobile tires will be made in the Foxboro plant, and the 
additional space released in the plant at Walpole will be 
devoted to manufacture of the company's other products on 
a larger scale. 

Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Earnings Improve. — 

Earnings of the Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company 
in the month of May show considerable improvement as 
compared with those in May, 191 1. Gross returns were 
$1,505,493 as compared with $1,257,477, an increase of 
$248,016, and net earnings were $379,551, which compares 
with $279,429 in May. 191 1, an increase of $100,122. In 
the five months ended May 31, 1912, net earnings were 
$1,666,717, as compared with $1,369,658 for the correspond- 
ing period of 191 1, which is a gain of $297,059, and is 
equivalent to an increase of about 21 per cent in net earn- 
ings for the five months of this year. 

Inawashiro (Japan) Hydroelectric Power Company. — Con- 
tracts have been let by the Inawashiro Hydroelectric Power 
Company, which is building a 144-mile 100,000-volt system to 
transmit energy from the Nippashi River to Tokyo, Japan, 
to Dick, Kerr & Company, London. England, for alternators 
and exciters; Voith & Company. Heidenheim. Germany, for 
water turbines, and to Thyssen & Company, Miihlheim, Ger- 
many, for welded pipe. The consulting engineers for the 
company are J. Tachihan, Tokyo; Ralph D. Mershon, New 
York; B. M. Jenkin, London, and Sir Alex. B. W. Kennedy, 
London. An outline of the development plans appeared on 
page 524 of the Electrical World, March 9, 1912. 

Allis-Chalmers Receiver Resigns. — D. W. Call, formerly 
president of the Allis-Chalmers Company, and one of the 
receivers, has resigned the receivership to become president 
of the Hale & Kilburn Manufacturing Company, of Phila- 
delphia and New York. General Otto H. Falk, who was co- 
receiver with Mr. Call, is now sole receiver of the Allis- 
Chalmers Company. June bookings of the company were 
the largest for any one month in several years. 



120 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. a 



New Directors for Electric Properties Company. — Fol- 
lowing transfer of control of the Electric Properties Com- 
pany to a syndicate composed of the Westinghouse Elec- 
tric & Manufacturing Company, the Equitable Trust Com- 
pany and William Morris Imbrie & Company, as was noted 
in these columns last week, a reorganization of the board 
of directors of the Electric Properties Company has been ef- 
fected. Henry R. Hayes, of Stone & Webster; Guy E. Tripp, 
chairman of the board of the Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company; Alvin W. Krech and A. Ludlow 
Kramer, president and vice-president, respectively, of the 
Equitable Trust Company, have been added to the board. 
James Imbrie will continue to represent his firm on the 
board, of which he has been a member for some time. 
Other directors of the Electric Properties Company are: 
Paul D. Cravath, John Seager, John F. Wallace, F. Q. 
Brown, Charles H. Allen, H. H. Westinghouse, George 
Westinghouse, T. L. Brown, H. M. Breckenbridge, J. R. 
McGinley, E. G. Tillotson, Horace E. Smith and Homer 
Loring. John F. Wallace, president of the Electric Prop- 
erties Company and of Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Com- 
pany, will be chairman of the board of directors, in which 
capacity he will have general supervision of the affairs of 
the corporation and the active direction of the affairs of 
Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Company, which is owned 
by the Electric Properties Company. Albert M. Chambers, 
formerly associated with W. C. Langley & Company, has 
been elected first vice-president of the Electric Properties 
Company. 

Southern Sierras Power Company Bonds. — A. B. Leach 

& Company, of New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Chi- 
cago; McCoy & Company and the Continental & Commer- 
cial Trust & Savings Bank, of Chicago, Ussing, Scoville & 
Company, of Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, and a number 
of other bankers are ofifering at par and interest $2,000,000 
first mortgage sinking fund, 6 per cent gold bonds of the 
Southern Sierras Power Company, unconditionally guar- 
anteed as to principal and interest by the Nevada-Cali- 
fornia Power of which it is a subsidiary. Reference to the 
properties, capitalization and earnings of the parent com- 
pany was made in these columns May 4, 1912. A sum- 
mary of a letter by D. A. Chappell, of Los Angeles, vice- 
president and general manager of the company, states that 
the Southern Sierras Power Company owns and operates 
a 5000 hp steam turbine generating station and distrib- 
uting system at San Bernardino, Cal, a distributing sys- 
tem at Corona, Cal., and a distributing system covering 
the San Bernardino, Riverside, Corona, San Jacinto 
and Perris Valley districts. It has recently completed 
a double three-phase high-tension steel-tower trans- 
mission line extending from the San Bernardino plant to 
Bishop, in Inyo County, where the company has two 
hydroelectric plants on Bishop Creek, each rated at 2,000 
hp. One of these is now in operation and the other will 
be completed within a short time. Upon completion of 
the No. 2 reservoir of the Nevada-California Power Com- 
pany the ratings of each of these plants will be increased 
to 6,000 hp. 

Annual Meeting of Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Com- 
pany, Ltd.— At the annual meeting of Marconi's Wireless 
Telegraph Company, Ltd., which was held in London on 
July 9, William Marconi reviewed the progress made in the 
past year by the various wireless telegraph companies bear- 
ing his name. Extensive reference was made by Mr. Mar- 
coni to the rapid advancement made by the .American 
Marconi company and to the clearing of the situation in 
America by acquisition of the United Wireless Telegraph 
Company. Mr. Marconi attributed the slow progress made 
by the American company in previous years to the facts 
that the telegraph service in this country is not a state 
monopoly as is the case in Great Britain; that there was no 
legislation regarding wireless telegraphs; that as the United 
States was not an adherent of the Radio-telegraphy Con- 
vention of Berlin of 1906 a state of chaos existed as regards 
wireless matters; that the complexity of the patent situation 
was a hindrance; and finally the existence of the United 
Wireless company furnished strong competition. Mr. Mar- 
coni also said that he looks to the American Marconi com- 
pany to become one of the "big, important industrial insti- 
tutions of the United States." 



New York Commission Authorizes Bond Issues. — The 
Public Service Commission for the Second New York Dis- 
trict has authorized the Olean (N. Y.) Electric Light & 
Power Company to use $76,929, derived from the sale of 
bonds, for constructing a steam power station in Olean. 
Authority has been granted to the Katonah Lighting Com- 
pany, which operates at Katonah and Bedford, in West- 
chester County, to execute a mortgage upon all of its prop- 
erty, franchises and rights to secure the payment of $125,000 
6 per cent, thirty-year bonds. The company is authorized 
to issue bonds shortly to the amount of $75,000 to be sold 
at not less than par. The proceeds of the issue are to be 
used for payment of construction work on the company's 
new steam plant and extensions to South Salem, Penndridge 
and Bedford and to discharge the lawful capitalizable obli- 
gations of the company. 

American Gas & Electric Buys Fremont (Ohio) Coip- 
pany. — The properties of the Fremont Yaryan Company, 
which does an electric lighting, steam heating and motor 
service business in Fremont, Ohio, have been purchased by 
the American Gas & Electric Company. R. E. Breed, presi- 
dent of the American Gas & Electric Company, has been 
elected president of the Fremont company; George W. 
Tidd, of New York, has been elected vice-president, and 
F. B. Ball, secretary and treasurer of the American Gas & 
Electric Company, will perform the same offices in the Fre- 
mont company. The American Gas & Electric Company 
has three other properties in Ohio. These are the Ohio 
Light & Power Company, of TiflSn, Ohio; the Licking Light 
& Power Company of Newark and the Canton Electric 
Company at Canton, Ohio. 

New Hydroelectric Plant Near Columbia (S. C). — Con- 
trol of the Parr Shoals Power Company, which was formed 
to build a hydroelectric plant at Parr Shoals on the Broad 
River, about twenty miles above Columbia, has been ac- 
quired by the Columbia (S. C.) Railway, Gas & Electric 
Company. J. G. White & Company are to build the new 
plant, which is to have a rating of 25,000 hp. Surveys have 
been made and construction is to be started at once. Trans- 
mission lines will be extended from the plant to Columbia, 
where the energy will be used by the Columbia Railway, 
Gas & Electric Company. 

Changes in Dividend Rates. — The Electric Company of 
America has declared a dividend of 30 cents a share, which 
is a reduction of 5 cents from the last previous semi-annual 
disbursement. The Montreal Light, Heat & Power Com- 
pany has declared a quarterly dividend of 254 per cent, on 
its stock, payable Aug. 15 to holders of record July 31. 
This represents an increase of ;4 of I per cent, over the last 
disbursement, and places the stock on a yearly basis of 9 
per cent. 

Decision in American Gas & Electric-Doherty Suit Sus- 
tained. — The Appellate Division of the Supreme Court has 
affirmed the decision of the lower court which denied an 
application of H. L. Doherty & Company for an injunction 
to restrain the American Gas & Electric Company from 
disposing of $1,000,000 common stock upon which the 
petitioners claimed to hold an option, as was mentioned 
in these columns April 13 and June 8. 1912. 

Westinghouse Electric's Showring for First Quarter. — Net 
earnings of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company for the first three months of the fiscal year were 
at the rate of nearly 15 per cent on the common stock, as 
compared with 6 per cent last year, and with 12.34 per cent 
in 1910. The manufacturing plants of the company are be- 
ing operated at full capacity, and some scarcity of labor 
is reported. 

Pennsylvania Light & Power Company Increases Capital 
Stock.— Stockholders of the Pennsylvania Light & Power 
Company, of .Allegheny, Pa., will vote at a special meeting 
to be held on Sept. 10 upon a proposition to increase the 
capital stock of the company from $1,000,000 to $2,000,000 
and to authorize the creation of a bonded indebtedness of 
$5,000,000. The company has no bonded indebtedness at 
present. 

Omaha Independent Telephone Company Sold.— On July 
I the plant of the fndependent Telephone Company, of 
Omaha was sold at receivers' sale to the Nebraska (Bell) 
Telephone Company for $995,000. 



July 13, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



121 



Pittsburgh Subway Plans. — A new subway plan, which 
will involve the ultimate expenditure of $100,000,000, has 
been filed with the council of the city of Pittsburgh for con- 
sideration. The United Terminal System Painters Run 
Railroad Company, which is furthering the project through 
its representative, A. E. Anderson, recently asked for an 
amendment to the present subway ordinance so as to permit 
the use of the subway for freight traffic. A subway ordi- 
nance recently drawn up by the city council makes no pro- 
vision for the carrying of freight. The plans and policy of 
the company are summarized in the proposition which the 
company submitted to the council. The proposition calls 
for an expenditure of $100,000,000 over a period of ten years, 
which shall be represented by approximately $40,000,000 of 
capital stock and $60,000,000 in bonds, all to be placed as 
nearly at' par as possible, thus providing for present con- 
struction and future extensions. From the nature of the 
work and the character of the equipment it is estimated that 
80 per cent of the money will be expended in the Pitts- 
burgh district. The rapid transit portion of the system will 
receive the first consideration to meet local traffic condi- 
tions as soon as possible and will consist of a two and 
eventually a four track tunnel from the eastern city line 
to the western. Extensions outside the city will be surface 
lines of standard railroad character. The equipment used 
will be modern and operated by electricity, or other satis- 
factory motive power, but not steam, although steam lines 
will be permitted to bring their trains to points of transfer 
within the city limits. The company concludes its proposi- 
tion with a request that such needful amendments be made 
to the present ordinance, or that a further bill be drawn up, 
as will permit the company to engage in freight traffic, the 
company expressing its belief that a rapid transit system 
depending solely upon passenger traffic can not be made 
profitable for a period of ten or more years after operation 
is begun. 

Vicksburg (Miss.) Light & Traction Bonds. — Chas S. 
Kidder & Company; Yard, Otis & Taylor; H. T. Holtz & 
Company; the Central Trust Company of Illinois; the 
Peoples Trust & Savings Bank, and the Ft. Dearborn 
Trust & Savings Bank, all of Chicago, are offering $600,000 
first mortgage, 5 per cent gold bonds of the Vicksburg 
(Miss.) Light & Traction Company at 95 and interest, 
yielding about s^i per cent. These are dated July i, 1912, 
and are due July i, 1932, but are redeemable at 105 on any 
interest date on 105 and interest. They are, according to 
the bankers, an absolute first mortgage on all property now 
owned or hereafter acquired by the company, which oper- 
ates without competition the street railway and electric 
light systems in Vicksburg and its suburbs. The franchises 
continue for ten and twelve years after maturity of the 
bonds. The capital stock of the company, authorized and 
outstanding, is $1,000,000. The authorized issue of the first 
mortgage bonds is $1,500,000, of which $900,000 is reserved 
for additions and extensions, and $600,000 is outstanding. 
The $900,000 bonds in escrow can be issued for only 85 per 
cent of the cost of additions, provided the annual net earn- 
ings are lJ4 times the interest charges for the preceding 
twelve months on all bonds outstanding, including those 
applied for. These bonds are followed by $200,000 of ten 
year 6 per cent debenture bonds, all of which are outstand- 
ing. Net earnings of the company in 191 1 were $60,002 and 
the surplus after payment of bond interest was $30,002. 



JUNE STATEMENT OF COPPER PRODUCERS' ASSOCIATION 
The June statement of the Copper Producers' Associa- 
tion, issued July 8, compares with the May statement as 
follows: 

r .Tune, Pounds. ^ ,. May, Pounds. ^ 

Stocks on hand in the 

United States on first 

of month 49,615,643 65,066,029 

Production 122,315,240 126,737,836 

171,930,883 191,803,865 

Domestic deliveries 66,146,229 72,702,277 

Export deliveries 61,449,650 69,485,945 

Total deliveries 127,595,879 142,188,222 

Stocks on hand at the 

end of the month.. 44,335,004 49,615,643 



PRICES IN THE NEW YORK METAL MARKET, 

Copper: , July i ^ , July 9 , 

Standard: Bid. Asked. Bid. Asked. 

Spot I6.37y2 17.37yi 16.50 17.00 

.l"ly 17.00 17.50 16.50 17.00 

August 17.00 17.50 16.50 17.20 

September 17.30 17.35 16.50 17.25 

October 15.50 17.00 

London quotation: £ s d £ s d 

Standard copper, spot 77 7 6 74 2 6 

Standard copper, futures 78 5 75 

Prime Lake 17.50 17.25 

tlectrolytic 17.50 17.00 

Casting 17.15 1575 

Lead 4.50 4.75 

Sheet 2inc, f.o.b., smelter 8.65 8 75 

Spelter, spot 7.15 7'.25 

Nickel 39.00 to 40.00 39.00 to 40.00 

.Aluminum : 

No. 1 pure ingot 21 to 22 21 to 22 

Rods and wire, base 31 31 

Sheets base 33 33 

OLD METALS. 

Heavy copper and wire 16.50 16 50 

Brass, heavy 10.25 10.25 

Brass, light 8.50 8.50 

Lead, heavy 4.2s 4.25 

Zinc, scrap S.75 5.75 

COPPER EXPORTS IN JULY 

1 otal tons, including July 9 6,248 

STOCK MARKET PRICES. 

,„. ^, , July 2. July 10. 

.Mhs-Chalmers j^* 1 j^ 

Allis-Chalmers. pf 2J^* 4J4 

Amalgamated Copper 85 J^ 81 

Amer. Tel. & Tel 145H 144Ji 

Boston Edison 290* 293* 

Commonwealth Edison 138^ 139}4 

Electric Storage Battery 55J.^ 55 

General Electric 180 176^ 

Mackay Companies 88J4 90 

Mackay Companies, pf 69^* 68H 

Philadelphia Electric 22 }i 21 Ji 

Western Union 82^ 81 J^ 

Westinghouse 77 76 

Westinghouse, pf 121* 119* 

*Last price quoted. 



Personal 



Mr. Merwyn J. K. Allen, formerly assistant engineer of 
roadways for Toronto, Can., has been appointed city en- 
gineer for Regina, Sask., to succeed Mr. W. A. Thornton, 
who was recently appointed commissioner of works for 
Regina. 

Mr. Albert B. Morton, formerly manager and superin- 
tendent of the Municipal Electric Light Plant at Wake- 
field, Mass., has been appointed superintendent of the Rome 
Gas, Electric Light & Power Company of Rome, N. Y., 
to succeed Mr. R. A. Field. 

Mr. Kenneth Windram Endres, formerly associated with 
the Western Electric Company at New York as railway 
sales engineer, has resigned from that company to become 
assistant treasurer of the Windram Manufacturing Com- 
pany of 40 Oliver Street, Boston. 

Mr. Maurice H. Flexner has been appointed illuminating 
engineer for the Commonwealth Edison Company, Chi- 
cago. Mr. Flexner is a 1908 graduate of the Purdue Uni- 
versity School of Electrical Engineering, and recently re- 
ceived the degree of E. E. from his alma mater. 

Mr. J. Tachihara, electrical engineer of the Mitsu Bishi 
Company, Tokyo, Japan, and consulting electrical engineer 
for the Inawashiro Hydroelectric Power Company, that is 
building the first ioo,ooo-volt system in Japan, is visiting 
this country in the interests of the last-mentioned company. 

Mr. A. M. Klingman, who, for some time past, has been 
connected with the Adanis-Bagnall Electric Company of 
Cleveland with the title of efficiency engineer, has returned 
to the engineering department of the National Electric 
Lamp Association to assume the position of assistant com- 
mercial engineer. 

Mr. J. A. Donaghy, formerly illuminating engineer and 
salesman for the Montreal (Can.) Light, Heat & Power 
Company, has been placed in charge of the sales depart- 
ment of the Monterrey Railway, Light & Power Company, 
which distributes water, gas and electricity throughout the 
city of Monterey, N. L., Mexico. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. Co, \'o. 2. 



Prof. William L. Hooper, head of the department of 
electrical engineering at Tufts College, has been appointed 
acting president of the institution. Dr. Hooper is well 
known for his work in physics and electricity in collabora- 
tion with the late Prof. A. E. Dolbear and Mr. F. S. 
Pearson. He has lately been chairman of the Boston 
section of the A. I. E. E. 

Mr. W. W. Freeman, vice-president and general manager 
of tlie Kings County Electric Light & Power Company and 
Edison Electric Illuminating Company of Brooklyn, has 
been appointed a director and an officer of the .\labama 
Interstate Power Company, which will operate several elec- 
trical properties in the south. Mr. Freeman will retain 
his financial interest and official relations with the Brook- 
lyn properties in which he has been actively identified for 
twenty-three years and of which he has been general man- 
ager for seven years. 

Dr. Richard C. MacLaurin, president of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, sailed from Boston for 
Europe on July 3 on a combined vacation and business trip 
which will include journeys to many prominent educational 
institutions of technical interest. Dr. MacLaurin will pay 
special attention to the architectural featuers of school 
buildings, and upon his return in the fail a consultation 
of architects will be held in relation to the preparation of 
plans for the new buildings of the institute which are 
to be erected in Cambridge, Mass., on the west side of 
the Charles River Basin. 

Mr. Russell H. Ballard, assistant general manager of the 
Southern California Edison Company, Los Angeles, is the 
author of an article entitled "No Honest Corporation Fears 
Honest Regulation" in the July number of "Edison Current 
Topics," published by the company. Mr. Ballard was born 
in Hamilton, Ontario, Can., in 1875. The family moved to 
Minneapolis, Minn., in 1883, where he obtained a common 
school education. He started his business career with 
Thomson-Houston Electric Company in Chicago in 1890 
as office boy; continued at Chicago with that company and 
its successor, the .General Electric Company, until 1894. 
During part of this period he attended night school. In 
1894 was transferred to the treasury department of the 
General Electric Company at Schenectady, N. Y., and con- 
tinued with that company at Schenectady, Newburg, N. Y.. 
Toledo, Ohio, and Atlanta, Ga., until 1897. when he secured 
a position as bookkeeper with Westside Lighting Company 
of Los Angeles, the original of the present Southern Cali- 
fornia Edison Company. He left the company in 1900 to 
accept a position as cashier and office manager with the 
Butte Electric & Power Company, Butte, Mont. He re- 
turned to Los .\ngeles in 1904 to accept a position as as- 
sistant secretary with the Edison Electric Company, the 
predecessor of the Southern California Edison Company. 
Through various stages he has been promoted to his pres- 
ent position as secretary and assistant general manager. 
Mr. Ballard was the chief speaker before the Electrical 
League of Southern California on June 25, his subject be- 
ing. "The Seattle Convention of the N. E. L. .\." 



Obituary 



Mr. Arthur J. Morgan, secretary of the National X-Ray 
Reflector Company, and of the Curtis Leger Fixture Com- 
pany, Chicago, 111., died of pneumonia at his home in 
Evanston, III., July 5, 1912. Mr. Morgan has been known 
in electrical circles through his work in connection with 
indirect lighting and show-window lighting. He was ac- 
tively engaged in both the commercial and technical work 
connected with developing indirect lighting during the past 
four years. .•Mthough not professing to be a technical man 
Mr. Morgan was one who had a keen appreciation of the 
value of engineering and technical knowledge as applied 
to illumination problems. He was in no small degree re- 
sponsible for the rapid growth of the indirect lighting sys- 
tem advocated by his companies. .-X large engineering de- 
partment was built up within a few years under his man- 
agement for the proper marketing of direct and indirect 
lighting appliances. He constantly made use of the engi- 
neering advice of others, and was himself a designer and 




A. E. STEVENS 



inventor of considerable skill and originated a number of 
appliances and methods of manufacture, not only in the 
lighting field, but in other enterprises with which he was 
connected. He was in the prime of business life and his 
loss will be much felt in the illumination circles. For 
some time he served as manager of the Chicago Section 
of the Illuminating Engineering Society. 

Mr. Andrew E. Stevens, manager of the Consumers 
Power Company, Minot, N. D., who met death in an auto- 
mobile accident as noted in our issue dated July 6, was 

born in Rushford, Minn., 
Feb. 7. 1869. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of 
Winona, Minn., and in the 
University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis. At an early age 
his father died throwing upon 
him full responsibility as the 
oldest son of the family. Mr. 
Stevens had been in the em- 
ploy of H. M. Byllesby & 
Company since January, 191 1. 
Before entering the service 
of the Byllesby company he 
had had several years' e.x- 
perience in shop and street- 
railway work in Minneapolis 
and St. Paul. He also had 
been manager of several tele- 
phone exchanges for the Wisconsin Telephone Company, 
and had served on the sales force of the Fort Wayne Elec- 
tric Works. Chicago office He was a member of the Beta 
Theta Pi Fraternity. In Minot he was an active member of 
the Commercial, Elk and Minot Gun clubs. He was mar- 
ried to Miss Emma Howard and is survived by her and one 
son. fourteen j'ears old. The deceased was a brother of 
Eugene M. Stevens of the banking firm of Stevens, Chapman 
& Company, Minneapolis, and of Mr. Arthur Stevens of the 
same city. The funeral was held Tuesday afternoon, June 
25, from the home of Mr. Stevens' mother, Minneapolis. 

Mr. Cecil B. Smith, head of the engineering firm of 
Smith, Kerry & Chace, who died at his home in Toronto, 
Can., on June 29, as noted in our issue for July 6, was 
born in Winona, Ont., in 1865. His first noteworthy work 
was as constructing engineer of the Canadian Niagara Pow- 
er Company, with which he was associated from 1901 to 1905. 
In the latter year he was appointed consulting engineer of 
the Temiskaming & Northern Ontario Railway Commission. 
The Ontario government, recognizing his ability as an 
administrator as well as a constructing engineer, appointed 
him chairman of the Railway Commission with oversight 
of the Ontario government railways. His study of the 
problem of electrical development and transmission in 
Ontario led him to outline a scheme which afterward de- 
\ eloped into the Hydro-Electric Power Commission, which 
was the first extensive experiment in the world of elec- 
trical development under government auspices. Mr. 
Smith's services were now in demand, and he was con- 
sulted by electrical experts in foreign countries as well as 
in Canada and the United States. He was appointed to 
lay out the hydro-electric plant for the city of Winnipeg. 
He then formed the engineering firm of Smith, Kerry & 
Chace, carrying out many hydro-electric developments all 
over the continent, some of them being the plants of the 
Seymour Power Company, the Trenton Power Company, 
the Nipissing Power Company and the British Canadian 
Power Company, supplying energy to the mines at Cobait 
and municipal plants at Lethbridge, Nelson, Revelstoke and 
other places. He was engaged to organize the Mount 
Hood Railway & Power Company and installed that com- 
pany's plant at Portland, Ore., carrying out also an im- 
portant land reclamation work in Idaho, under the name 
of Crane Falls Power & Irrigation Company, of which he 
v.-as elected president. He was also president of the 
Nipissing Power Company and general manager and vice- 
president of the Mount Hood Railway & Power Company. 
.■\mong Mr. Smith's other activities he was the author of 
several engineering works and contributed several valuable 
papers to the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers of which 
he was vice-president, and chairman of the Toronto Section. 



July 13, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



123 



Construction 



ATHENS, ALA. — The City Council has purchased two 250-hp turbines 
direct connected to generators, which are to be installed in September. 
When improvements are completed a 24-hour will be established. 

BIRMINGHAM, ALA.— The Kelley St. Ry. Co. has petitioned the 
city commissioners for a franchise to build an electric railway in Birm- 
ingham. George C. Kelley and N. L. Miller are interested in the company. 

TUCKERMAN, ARK. — The city is contemplating the construction of 
an electric-light plant and water-works system and would like to receive 
bids for same. E. V. Holt is chairman of committee on bonds and 
construction. 

ALAMEDA, CAL. — As no bids were received for the erection of 
electroliers in district No. 7 the Department of Electricity will do the 
work. 

ALTA, CAL. — The Pacific Gas & El. Co. contemplates the construc- 
tion of a hydroelectric power plant on the Bear River, about 6 miles 
from Alta. 

COLUSA, CAL. — The Oro El. Corpn. is planning to enter the electrical 
field in this district. A substation and distribution system will be in- 
stalled. 

DIXON, CAL. — The Great Western Pwr. Co. is planning to extend 
its transmission lines to Dixon, for which surveys are now being made. 

FOREST CITY, CAL.— The South Fork Mine Co. is contemplating 
the installation of electrical machinery. Fred W. Kuhfield will have 
charge of the work. 

LODI, CAL. — Preparations are being made by the Oro El. Corpn. to 
enter the local field. A large amount of transforming and distributing 
apparatus will be installed. 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. — The river substation of the Southern Cali- 
fornia Edison Co., on East Ninth Street, was recently destroyed by fire 
causing a loss of about $10,000. 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. — The Inter-City Commission is considering the 
plans for the installation of the festoon system of lighting between the 
cities of Pasadena, South Pasadena, Alhambra and Los Angeles. 

LOS ANGELES. CAL.— Bids will be received by the Board of Public 
Works until July 29 for furnishing the city of Los Angeles with all neces- 
sary riveted steel pipe sections, valves and special fittings for the con- 
struction of the San Francisquito No. 1 and the Bee Canyon syphons, 
according to plans and specifications. 

LOS ANGELES, CAL.— Bids will be received by the Board of Public 
Works until July 26 for furnishing the city of Los Angeles with auxiliary 
electrical equipment, consisting of switchboard panels, meters and ac- 
cessories, oil switches, local service transformers, storage batteries, motor 
generator sets, disconnecting switches, etc. 

MANTECA, CAL. — The Sierra & San Francisco Pwr. Co. will soon 
begin work on the construction of a new substation in Manteca. The 
new plant will have an output of about 5000 kw and will cost about 
$100,000. 

MARTINEZ, CAL.— The Board of Supervisors of Contra Costa County 
has voted to pay half of the cost of the installation and maintenance 
of lighting the tunnel connecting Contra Costa and Alameda Counties. 

OROVILLE, CAL. — The Oro El. Corpn. has begun work on the con- 
struction of a large power plant at the mouth of Yellow Creek on the 
Feather River. The site is near Belden on the Western Pacific Railroad, 
and a short spur will be built to the power plant. The company is 
capitalized at $10,000,000 and is a reorganization of the Oro Wtr., Lt. & 
Pwr. Co. 

PETALUMA, CAL.— The Great Western Pwr. Co. has purchased a 
tract of land in East Petaluma, to be used as a site for a substation. 

SACRAMENTO. CAL.— The Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Ry. Co. has 
secured a franchise to operate in Sacramento. Some new lines will be 
built, but a large part of the operation will be over the local company's 
tracks. 

SAN DIEGO. CAL.— The San Diego Consol. Gas & Elec. Co. is ex- 
tending its high-tension transmission lines to La Mesa, a distance of 
about 10 miles, to furnish electricity for lamps and irrigation projects. 

SAN JACINTO, CAL.— The City Trustees have decided to install an 
automatic electric pumping station at the municipal pumping station. 

SAN JACINTO, CAL.— The Southern Sierras Pwr. Co. has taken 
over the franchises for the erection of transmission lines in Riverside 
County originally obtained by B. F. Mechling. 

SANTA BARBARA, CAL.— The Coalinga Wtr. & Lt. Co. has applied 
to the Board of Supervisors for a franchise to operate in Santa Maria, 
Santa Ynez and Lompoc Valleys. 

STRATHMORE, CAL. — Arrangements have been made by the ranch 
and orange grove owners for the formation of another telephone line in 
the Strathraore district, to be operated under the name of the Magnolia 
Tel. Assoc. N. A. Clifford is president and H. M. Stutzman secretary and 
treasurer. 

WOODLAND, CAL.— Work will begin on the installation of the 
proposed system of the Yolo Wtr. & Pwr. Co. as soon as 50.000 acres 
are pledged. The work will include the construction of new dams, 
installation of power plants, cleaning out old ditches and building new 



ones. Permanent daiiis and power plants will be erected at Runisey and 
Capay, and the dams at .\dama and Moore will be reconstructed. 

WOODLAND, CAL. — Preparations are being made by the Pacific Gas 
& El. Co. for the construction of an electric plant here. The power 
house will be of reinforced concrete, 36 ft. x 64.6 ft. The equipment 
will consist of one bank of 750-kw, 60 to U kv, transformers, one bank 
of four 230-kw, 60 to 2i kv, transformers, one 400-kw motor-generator, 
switchboard and switches for two 1100-volt feeders and three 2300-volt 
feeders. The cost of the plant is estimated at $50,000. 

WILMINGTON. DEL.— The Wilmington & Philadelphia Trac. Co. has 
decided to install about 40 additional street lamps throughout the city. 

WASHINGTON, D. C— Bids will be received at the Bureau of Sup- 
plies and Accounts, Navy Department, Washington, D. C, until Aug. 6 
for miscellaneous supplies to be delivered at the various navy yards and 
naval stations as follows: Puget Sound, Wash., schedule 4690 — two 
motor-driven centrifugal blowers. Brooklyn, N, Y., schedule 4698 — 
2000 ft. twin conductor, armored cable; 50,000 ft. incandescent lamp cord; 
1000 lb. copper trolley wire. Mare Island, Cal., schedule 4689 — two 
centrifugal air compressors. Norfolk, Va., schedule 4705 — induction 
motor. Puget Sound, Wash., schedule 4690 — equipped industrial railway. 
Application for proposals should designate the schedule desired by 
number. 

JACKSONVILLE, FLA. — The Womanda Land Association, Jackson- 
ville, has been organized with a capital stock of $300,000 to develop 
18,000 acres of land. The work will include townsite, experimental farm, 
electric-light plant, etc. 

AMERICUS, GA. — The City Council has granted the American Pwr. 
Co. a franchise to establish and operate an electric-light plant here. 
Frank Lanier is president of the company. 

AMERICUS, GA.— The City Council has accepted the bid of the 
Americus Pwr. Co. for lighting the streets of the city. The new 
contract provides for 130 street lamps, of which 21 are to be fiaming-arc 
lamps and the remainder tungsten lamps, to cost $5,000 per year. Bids 
will be received by the company until July 16 for material and equip- 
ment for the new plant. 

AUGUSTA, GA. — Preparations are being made by the Augusta- Aiken 
Ry. & El. Co. to begin work on the Stevens Creek power development. 
The proposed plant will develop about 30,000 hp and will cost about 
$200,000. E. C. Deal is general manager. 

BLACKSHEAR, GA. — At an election held June 25 the proposition to 
issue bonds for the installation of an electric-light plant, water- works 
and sewerage system was carried. Work will begin as soon as bonds 
are sold. 

DALTON, GA.— The City Council has authorized the Board of Water 
and Light Commissioners to purchase a generator and complete equip- 
ment to duplicate the equipment in the municipal electric plant. 

DECATUR. GA. — The question of issuing bonds to the amount of 
$1 5,000 for the installation of a municipal electric-light plant in con- 
nection with the water- works system is under consideration. 

VALDOSTA, GA. — The Georgia Railway Commission has granted 
the Valdosta Lt. & Pwr. Co. permission to issue $600,000 in bonds for 
improvements to its plant. Of this amount only $365,000 will be avail- 
able at present. 

WEST POINT, GA.— The West Point Mfg. Co. is planning to install 
considerable new machinery at its mill in Shawmut. Ga., including 5408 
spindles, 36 cards, etc., which will be equipped for electric motor drive. 
Orders have been placed for machinery. The company Ivis also pur- 
chased a 2000-kw Curtis turbine and generator, necessary transformers, 
etc., for its steam plant at Langdale, Ala., to be used as an auxiliary 
to its present hydroelectric plant. 

BURLEY, IDAHO. — Preparations are being made for the installation 
of a municipal electric-light plant. The city electrician will have charge 
of the work. 

CAMBRIDGE. IDAHO.— The village of Cambridge has entered into a 
contract with J. H. Ricker, Weiser, to supply electricity here. A com- 
pany will be organized by Mr. Ricker to develop the water power on the 
Weiser River, about 2 miles above Cambridge. The town will install the 
distributing ?ystem. 

SHOSHONE. IDAHO.— The property of the Shoshone Lt. & Wtr. 
Co. has been purchased by Kuhn interests. It is understood that the 
new owners will erect a transmission line either from the Sugar Loaf 
pumping plant, north of Jerome, or from Gooding to Shoshone. J. H. 
Seaver is superintendent of the local plant. 

TWIN FALLS. IDAHO. — Steps have been taken for the installation 
of a cluster-lamp lighting system on nine blocks in the business district. 

BELLMONT, ILL. — The citizens have voted to appropriate $500 for 
lighting the streets of the village by electricity. 

BLOOMINGTON, ILL. — A movement has been started for the in- 
stallation of an ornamental street-lighting system on Franklin Avenue, 
which is to become part of the boulevard system. The secretary of the 
Hioomington Commercial Club is interested. 

BONDVILLE, ILL. — A company has been organized under the name 
of the Bondville Ltg. Co. to distribute electricity here, which will be 
secured from the Illinois Trac. system. Gorman Young is president and 
Charles Barker manager. 

CH.AMPAIGN, ILL. — The contract for installing the new street- 



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ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. 2. 



lighting system has been awarded to the Champaign Gas & EI. Supply 
Co., Champaign, for $32,180. J. K. Cravath, Chicago, is consulting 
engineer. 

CHATHAM, ILL.— The Union Tel. Co. will act as distributors for the 
electrical power which will be purchased from the Illinois Trac. system. 
The Village Board has appropriated $800 a year for lighting the village 
streets. 

CHICAGO, ILL. — Preparations are being made to replace the gas 
lamps in the Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Wards with electric arc and 
tungsten lamps with circuits to tlie lake. About 3300 lamps will be 
erected in this district. Electricity for maintaining the lamps will be 
supplied by the Sanitary District of Chicago. The cost of the work is 
estimated at $214,000 and will include the installation of underground 
conduits. Ray E. Palmer, city electrician, has charge of the work. 

EAST ST. LOUIS, ILL.— The East St. Louis. Columbia & Waterloo 
Ry. Co., Mo., will soon award contract for the construction of a new 
substation, 55 ft. x 30 ft., in East St. Louis. 

GALENA, ILL. — The citizens of Elizabeth and farmers residing be- 
tween Galena and Elizabeth have petitioned the Interstate Lt. & Pwr. 
Co. to erect a transmission line to that city to supply electrical service. 
The residents of Hanover and Stockton are also interested in the project. 

MOLINE, ILL.— The People's Pwr. Co. has applied for a 30-year 
franchise in Port Byron. If granted a franchise in that town, the 
company will make an effort to secure franchises in the towns of 
Rapids City and Hampton to furnish electrical service to those towns. 
F. W. Reimers is superintendent. 

PARIS, ILL. — A tentative offer has been submitted to the City Coun- 
cil by Marshall E. Sampsell, who recently purchased the property of the 
Paris Trac. Co. for lighting the street of the city at the rate of $60 
per lamp per year on a moonlight schedule. He also proposes to furnish 
electricity to pump the water for the waterworks system. The new 
company is planning to increase the output of its plant to supply power 
to operate its interurban railway and supply electricity to nearby towns. 

ROCKFORD, ILL. — Property owners on one block on South Church 
Street have secured permission from the City Council to erect ornamental 
electric lamps. 

SPRINGFIELD, ILL. — The city commissioners have agreed to install 
ornamental lamp clusters in Oak- Knolls addition instead of arc lamps. 

WASHINGTON, ILL. — The property of the Washington City & Rural 
Tel. Co. has been purchased by E. S. Sterrett and Charles Camp, Henry. 
111., and C. N. Cheadle, Joliet, 111. 

COLUMBUS, IND.— The Interstate El. Co. has applied to the City 
Council for a franchise to erect transmission lines to supply electricity 
here. The company is developing a water power near Edenburg to 
generate electricity which will be transmitted to Columbus. Application 
has also been made to the County Commissioners for a franchise to erect 
transmission lines along the highways of the county. 

BELMOND, lA. — Steps have been taken by the Council for improve- 
ments to the street-lighting system. 

COLFAX, lA. — The Colfax El. Co. has been granted a franchise to 
operate here. 

DES MOINES, lA. — The erection of a combined heating and lighting 
plant here, to cost $400,000, is under consideration. Wl H. Schott, 
Chicago, 111., is interested. W. B. Storkey, Des Moines, is secretary 
of the company. 

DES MOINES, I A.— The Des Moines- Perry Interurban Co., it is 
reported, contemplates the construction of a railway from Woodward to 
Ogden, and equipping the tracks of the M. & St. L. tracks for electrical 
operation from Ogden to Des Moines. A petition has been circulated 
by the Greater Des Moines committee to call an election to vote on a 
special tax to build an interurban railway to Red Oak. 

GEORGE, lA. — Work has begun on the construction of the new power 
house for the electric plant here. 

HUXLEY, lA. — The City Council has called a special election to be 
held July 31 to vote on the proposition to grant a franchise to the 
Boone El. Co., Boone. 

LE CLAIRE, lA. — The Town Council is negotiating with the Tri-City 
Ry. & Lt. Co., Davenport, to supply electricity for lighting the streets, 
business houses and residences here. The company proposes to extend 
the transmission line from its plant at Sears to Le Claire. 

LINEVILLE. lA. — Plans are being considered by the City Council 
for the installation of an electric-light plant. 

ARGONIA, KAN. — Plans are being prepared by Rollins & Westover. 
Rialto Building, Kansas City, Mo., engineers, for an electric-light plant 
and water-works system in Argonia, to cost about $25,000. 

NORTON, KAN. — Preparations are being made for the installation of 
a municipal electric-light plant, for which bonds to the amount of 
$20,000 have been voted. R. W. Hemphill is city clerk. 

COOLIDGE, KY. — The City Council is planning to establish an 
electric-light plant and water-works system, the latter to include stand- 
pipe and pumping station. 

LEXINGTON, KY.— The Kentucky Trac. & Terminal Co. has applied 
for a franchise to operate in Fayette County, outside of Lexington. The 
company will also furnish electrical service to residents of the county. 

PINEVILLE, KY. — The Black Mountain Coal Co., it is reported, is in 
the market for a 125-kw to 200-kw. 250-voU, direct-current generator; if 



belted, an engine for operating same; one or two ISO-hp return tubular 
boilers, and one 75-hp, 220-voh direct-current motor. 

RICHMOND, KY. — Surveys are being made by the Dix River Pwr. 
Co. for the purpose of locating power sites with a view of beginning con- 
struction work in the near future. J. G. White & Co., of New York, 
N. Y., are reported to be interested in the project. The company, it » 
stated, will take over the lighting plants in a number of central Kentucky 
cities, including Richmond, Paris, Danville and Frankfort. 

NEW ORLEANS, LA. — Sealed proposals will be received by F. S. 
Shields, secretary Sewerage and Water Board, 508 City Hall Annex, 
New Orleans, until Aug. 16 for furnishing and installing one 40-ton 
electrically operated traveling crane and one 10-ton hand-operated crane. 
George G. Earl is general superintendent. 

LEWISTON, MAINE. — The City Council has authorized the com- 
mittee on street lights to secure plans and specifications for the installa- 
tion of a 250-kw generator in the municipal electric-light plant. 

AMESBURY, MASS.— The Amesbury El. Lt. Co. is planning to install 
a new turbine in its plant. 

EAST LONGMEADOW, MASS.— The town of East Longmeadow has 
awarded the Central Massachusetts El. Co., Palmer, a contract for light- 
ing the streets of the town for a period of three years. The contract 
calls for about 90 tungsten street lamps. 

LEE, MASS. — Arrangements are being made by the Lee El. Co. to 
secure electricity to operate its system from the hydroelectric plant 
of the Monument Mills, located in Glendale, and from the steam plant 
at Alger Furnace, owned by the Monument Mills. The transmission line 
will be about 10 miles in length and will cost about $60,000. As soon 
as the system is completed a 24-hour service will be established. The 
Rogers El. Co., Lenox, has the contract for the installation. 

LENOX, MASS. — The Lenox El. Co. is planning to secure electrical 
power from the hydroelectric plant of the Monument Mills, located in 
Glendale and the steam plant at Alger Furnace, owned by the same 
company, to operate its plant. A 24-hour service will be established as 
soon as the system is completed. 

LEOMINSTER, MASS.— The Selectmen have granted Whitney & Co. 
permission to erect a transmission line across Whitney and Water Streets 
for the purpose of transmitting electricity to their shops for lamps and 
motors. The company has developed the water-power of the old fiber- 
board mill property to furnish power for their works. 

NORTH ADAMS, MASS.— The New England Constr. Co. has de- 
cided to enlarge plant No. 5, located near the Hoosac Tunnel, and con- 
vert it into a hydroelectric plant. It is proposed to install all of the 
electrical equipment and use the station as frequency-changer. Later the 
company will build a dam near Monroe Bridge, from which a 3-mile 
conduit and canal to the plant will be built. Three water-wheels units 
will be installed and about 12,000 hp developed. Work will soon begin 
on the dam and canal. The total cost of the plant is estimated at 
$1,000,000. 

NORTH ATTLEBORO, M.A.SS.— The Electric Light Commissioners 
have entered into a contract with the Union El. Co., Franklin, Mass.. to 
supply electricity to operate the local system. The company will deliver 
the power to the Plainville Line. The local plant will be held for use 
in emergencies. 

NORTH RROOKFIELD, MASS.— The Central Massachusetts El. Co.. 
Palmer, is planning to erect a central substation in a triangle bounded 
by Brookfield, North Brookfield and West Brookfield for the purpose 
of furnishing electricity in those places. The company, it is said, has 
taken over the franchise granted Frank E. Winchell in North Brook 
field. Franchises have not yet been secured in Brookfield and West 
Brookfield. 

W.'XRE, MASS. — The Ware El. Co. is extending its transmission line 
to Wheelwright to furnish electricity there. Forty street lamps will be 
installed in the new extension, 25 of which will be erected in the town 
of Wheelwright and 15 on the road between Hardwick and Gilbertville. 

\\T:ST RRIDGEWATER, mass.— Arrangements have been made with 
the Edison El. Illg. Co. for lighting the streets of the town. Work 
will begin at once on installation of the system. 

DETROIT, MICH.— The Michigan Central R. R. Co. is planning 
to build a power house, to cost approximately $80,000. 

WYOMING. MICH.— The Grand Rapids- Muskegeon Pwr. Co. has been 
granted a franchise to furnish electricity in Wyoming Township. It is 
proposed to extend the transmission line from Grandville. 

COKATO, MINN. — Plans are being made by the Central Minnesota 
Lt. & Pwr. Co. for the erection of a distributing system here. 

MADISON, MINN. — Plans are being considered for the installation 
of an electric-Hght plant, for which bonds have been voted. 

MONTGOMERY, MINN.— The installation of an electric-light plant 
in Montgomery is under consideration. 

MOUNT IRON. MINN.— Bonds to the amount of $50,000 have been 
voted for the installation of an electric plant. 

PIERZ. MINN. — Bonds to the amount of $5,000 have been voted, the 
proceeds to be used to erect a transmission line to Little Falls to con- 
nect with the system of the Little Falls Wtr. Pwr. Co. 

RICHMOND, MINN.— The Public Service Co., St. Cloud, will extend 
its transmission lines to Richmond, where it has been granted a franchise. 

ROCKVILLE. MINN.— The Village Council has granted the Public 



July 13, 19(2. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Service Co., St. Cloud, a franchise to supply electricity here. A. G. 
Whitney, St. Qoud, is president. 

VIRGINIA, MINN. — The property owners on Mesaba Avenue have 
petitioned for ornamental street lamps for eight blocks. Lamps have 
been ordered for the ornamental lighting system on Central Avenue. 

STEWARTS\ ILLE, MO.— A franchise has been granted by the 
town of Stewartsville for the installation of an electric-light system, work 
on which will begin at once. 

McCOOK, NEB. — The construction of an electric-light plant in 
McCook is under consideration. L. C. Stool is city clerk. 

ELY, NEV. — Preparations are being made for the construction of a 
hydroelectric power plant on dive Creek to furnish power for irriga- 
tion purposes in that district. 

WELLS, NEV. — A movement has been started to establish an electric- 
light plant in Wells. George T. Toombs, Jr., is interested. 

BROOKLYN, N. Y.— Sealed bids will be received by C. B. J. Snyder, 
superintendent of school buildings, Department of Education, corner of 
Park Avenue and Fifty-ninth Street, New York, until July 22 as follows: 
No. 1 — For .repairs, alterations and additions to electric equipment in 
public schools 4, 15, 39 and 105, borough of Brooklyn. No. 2— For re- 
pairs, alterations and additions to the electric equipment in public 
schools 55, 70, 75 and 84, borough of Brooklyn. Blank forms, plans 
and specifications may be obtained or seen at the above office and also 
at the branch office, 131 Livingston Street, borough of Brooklyn. 

ELMIRA, N. Y. — The Thatcher Mfg. Co. has closed a contract with 
the Elmira Wtr., Lt. & R. R. Co. to furnish electricity for lamps and 
motors for its new plant now in course of construction just north of 
Eldridge Park. The contract is for a period of tliree years and calls 
for 350 hp. 

HUDSON, N. Y. — Plans are being considered by the Albany Southern 
R.R. Co. for the construction of an extension from Albany to Pittsfield. 
It is proposed ,to build the extension from the present terminus at Scho- 
dack Point to the State line, where it will meet the proposed extension to 
be built by the Pittsfield EI. St. Ry. Co. 

KENMORE, N. Y. — The Public Service Commission has authorized the 
Buffalo General El. Co. to exercise franchises granted by the village of 
Kenmore to supply electricity for lamps and motors. 

NEW YORK, N. Y.— Bids will be received by C. B. J. Snyder, super- 
intendent of school buildings, Department of Education, corner of Park 
Avenue and Fifty-ninth Street, New York, N. Y., until July 22, for in- 
stalling electric equipment in new public school 45 on l89th Street, be- 
tween Lorillard Place and Hoffman Street, borough of the Bronx. Blank 
forms, plans and specifications may be obtained at the above office. 

NEW YORK, N. Y. — Bids will be received by the Department of 
Public Charities, foot of East Twenty-sixth Street, New York, until July 
22 for furnishing material and constructing new ward wing extension, 
including plumbing, steam heating, electric work, vacuum cleaning, ele- 
vators, refrigerating plant, etc., to the east tuberculosis infirmary, of the 
Metropolitan Hospital District, Blackwells Island. Blanks, forms and 
further information may be obtained at the office of J. H. Freed- 
lander, architect, 244 Fifth Avenue, New York, where plans and speci- 
fications may be seen. Michael J. Drummond is commissioner. 

PERRY, N. Y.^Work has commenced on the construction of the new 
plant of the Perry El. Lt. Co. to replace the one recently destroyed by 
fire. The gas engine will be remodeled and used to run a new 80-arc 
lamp machine, which will be installed in the temporary structure. 

ROCHESTER, N. Y.— The Rochester Ry. & Lt. Co. is preparing to 
install luminous magnetite-arc lamps on East Avenue. The plans call 
for 86 lamps, orders for which have been placed with the General El. Co. 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. — Sealed proposals will be received by the Com- 
missioners of Public Buildings of Monroe County until July 15, at the 
office of the purchasing agent. Court House. Rochester, N. Y., as follows: 
(a) For brick chimney for the Monroe County power house; (b) For 
breeching at the power house; (c) one 50Q-hp feed water heater for the 
power house. Plans and specifications for the above may be procured 
from Walter Mercel, chief engineer, at the power house, South Avenue, 
Rochester. Thomas J. Bridges is chairman of the commission. 

ROCHESTER, N. Y.— The Rochester Ry. & Lt. Co. is extending its 
service to various suburban districts and will undertake the installation 
of street-lighting circuits at Lincoln Park, in the town of Gates. Another 
circuit south of the New York Central tracks between West Avenue 
and Chili Avenue is being erected. Grand View Beach, on the Manitou 
line, has asked the company for street-lighting service, and an estimate 
has been submitted to the Grand Beach Association for the installa- 
tion of 22 lamps of 40 cp along the main drive. The association has 
agreed to pay $500 toward the cost of erecting the lighting system. The 
company has applied to the Town Board of Chili for a franchise to furnish 
electricity in that town. 

SCHUYLERVILLE. N. Y.— The Barrows-Stewart Co., Boston, Mass., 
has been awarded the general contract for the construction of a 
hollow reinforced concrete dam, 300 ft. long and 22 ft. high, with 
remforced concrete valve chambers and gate equipment for the American 
Wood Board Co., for storage and power purposes at its Trionda Mill on 
the Eattenkill River, at Schuylerville. The Ambursen Hydraulic Constr. 
Co., Boston, Mass., is designing engineer; H. S. Ferguson, New York, 
is consulting engineer for the owners. 

SMITHFIELD, N. C. — Preparations are being made by the city of 



Smithlield for the construction of an electric-light plant, water-works 
and sewer system, bids for which will be received until July 31. Gilbert 
C. White, Charlotte, N. C, is engineer; James A. Wellons is Mayor. 

DEVILS LAKE, N, D.— Frank E. Carson, of Fargo, has applied for a 
franchise to install and operate an electric-light, central heating and tele- 
phone plants and water works system here. 

HATTON, N. D. — Sealed bids will be received by Edward Nyhaus, 
city auditor, Hatton, until July 19 for furnishing and installing a gen- 
erator and switchboard for the electric-light plant at Hatton. 

NORTH \\X)OD, N. D.— Bids will be received by the city of North- 
wood until July 20 for one 50-hp oil engine, one 40-kw generator and 
switchboard. H. G. Lykken, Grand Forks, N. D., is engineer in charge. 

AKRON, OHIO. — The City Council is considering the installation of 
municipal electric-Hght plant if satisfactory arrangements cannot be 
made with the Northern Ohio Trac. & Lt. Co. for street lighting. 

BELLEVUE, OHIO. — The City Council has passed an ordinance to 
issue bonds to the amount of $35,000 for the installation of a municipal 
electric-light plant. The proposition will probably be submitted to a 
vote. 

COLUMBUS, OHIO.— The City Council has passed the ordinance 
authoriznig an issue of $35,000 in bonds, the proceeds to be used for 
the erection of two electrical substations and the installation of more 
than 400 arc lamps in connection with the municipal electric-light plant. 

DAYTON, OHIO.— The Algonquin Lt., Ht. & Pwr. Co. has been 
authorized to issue $1,000 in capital stock, the proceeds to be used to buy 
meters and feed lines. The company was formed to sell surplus power 
from the plant in the Algonquin Hotel and will furnish electrical service 
within a small business area. 

LAKEWOOD, OHIO.— Sealed bids will be received by the director 
of public safety, City Hall, Lakewood, until July 13 for furnishing and 
installing a signal system for the fire department, and also for a com- 
bined signal system for the fire and police departments. Each of said 
systems is to consist of a central equipment, together with connections 
and communications from central station to not more than 30 signal 
boxes. John Brown is director of public safety. 

MOUNT VERNON, OHIO.— The Public Utilities Commission has 
granted the Mount Vernon El. Co. permission to sell its plant to Frank 
B. Ball for $200,000, the proceeds to be used to retire its outstanding 
bonds. 

ORRVILLE, OHIO.— The electric plant of the Orrville Lt., Ht. & 
Pwr. Co. was recently destroyed by fire, causing a loss of about $10,000. 
At present the town is without electrical service. 

ZANESVILLE, OHIO.— The 'Chamber of Commerce has appointed 
a committee to negotiate with the Ohio El. Co. to secure lower rates 
for electricity for lighting. If satisfactory arrangements cannot be 
made, plans for the installation of a municipal plant will again be taken 
up. 

MARSHFIELD, ORE.— M. J. Anderson, of Grant's Pass, and othcri 
are promoting a water-power project in Coos County, which will involve 
an expenditure of about $1,000,000. 

PORTLAND, ORE.— Announcement has been made by the Southern 
Pacific Co. that it is ready to begin work on equipping 340 miles of road 
in the Willamette Valley for electrical operation, involving an expen- 
diture of about $8,000,000. This means the construction of numerous 
connecting and branch lines in the valley, which will extend from Port- 
land as far south as Eugene. The company has acquired the Portland, 
Eugene & Eastern Railway, and through it, the Cornvallis & Alsea Rail- 
road, which is under construction south to Eugene, and the street car 
system in Salem. E. E. Calvin is vice-president and general manager 
of the Southern Pacific lines west of El Paso. 

SALEM, ORE.— The Oregon El. Ry. Co. is planning to build a line 
from Salem to Roseburg. 

SALEM, ORE. — Surveys have been completed by the Portland, Eugene 
& Eastern Ry. Co. for its proposed electric railway from Salem to Silver- 
ton, a distance of about 15 miles, work on which will soon begin. 

BENTLEYVILLE, PA.— The Borough Council has granted the Bent- 
leyville Pwr. Co. and the Bentleyville St. Ry. Co., both subsidiaries of 
the West Penn El. Co., a franchise to operate here. The franchise of 
tlie street-railway company provides for an electric railway along the 
main street of the town. 

WARREN. PA.— The Board of Trustees of the State Hospital for the 
Insane will ask the State Legislature for an appropriation of $125,000 
for a power plant for the institution, plans for which have been 
prepared. 

BARNWELL, S. C. — The Council has engaged Edward Hawes, Jr., 
Orangeburg, consulting engineer, to prepare plans and construct munici- 
pal electric-light plant and water works system. 

COLUMBIA, S. C. — Surveys are being made for the construction of 
a hydro-electric power plant at Parr Shoals, on Broad River, about 25 
miles from Columbia, where about 25,000 hp will be developed. This 
development had previously been planned by the Parr Shoals Pwr. Co., 
which has sold its interests to Edwin W^ Robertson, president of the 
Columbia Ry., Gas & El. Co., and associates. The project includes 
the construction of a concrete dam 34 ft. high and a power house. 
Transmission lines will be erected from the power house to Columbia. 
The contract for construction of plant has been awarded to J. G. 



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ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. 6o, No. 



White & Co.. Xew York, X. Y. Edwin W. Robertson is president and 
treasurer of the reorganized company and Guy K. Dustin, vice-president 
and general manager. 

EGAN, S. D. — Steps have been taken toward the organization of a 
company for the purpose of establishing and operating an electric-Hght 
plant here. Local business men are interested in the project. 

UEDFIELD, S. D. — Preparations are being made to extend the new 
lighting system and to install cluster lamps on Humboldt Street. 

KNOXVILLE, TENN.— The Knoxville Ry. & Lt. Co. has been granted 
a franchise by the county court to build an electric railway from the 
terminus of the Kingston pike to Lyon's View, and to erect a transmis- 
sion line to supply electricity for lamps, motors and fuel. 

LENOIR, TENN. — The Conservation Marble Co. is planning to equip 
a marble factory. The machinery will be operated by electricity. 

MEMPHIS, TENN. — Steps have been taken toward the installation 
of an ornamental street-lighting system on Madison Avenue. Kenneth A. 
Stewart and John Bullington are interested. 

BEAUMONT, TEX. — Application has been made to the City Council 
for an extension of the franchise of the Beaumont El. Lt. & Pwr. Co., a 
subsidiary of the Stone & Webster Engineering Corpn., of Boston, Mass. 
If the franchise is extended the latter company agrees to immediately 
proceed to carry out its plans for the construction of an electric inter- 
urban railway between Beaumont and Port Arthur, a distance of 25 miles. 

GALVESTON, TEX. — The County Commissioners have granted the 
League City Tel. Co. a franchise to erect telephone lines through several 
school districts in the county. 

HOUSTON, TEX. — The Houston El. Co. is contemplating extensive 
improvements, which will involve an expenditure of $250,000. The work 
will include the laying of more than 20,000 ft. of new standard SO-Ib. 
rails on concrete foundations, erection of bridges, etc. 

KIXGSVILLE, TEX. — Funds have been raised by the Commercial Club 
for the installation of an ornamental lighting system on Kleberg Avenue. 
The plans call for 40 concrete lamp standards to cost about $1,000. 

OAKWOOD, TEX. — An electric-lighting system is being installed here 
by J. C. Howeth. 

PALESTINE, TEX. — Plans are being considered by the city com- 
mission and the Young Men's Business League for the installation of an 
ornamental street-lighting system in the business district. 

SAN ANTONIO, TEX.— The San Antonio Trac. Co. will purchase a 
new 300-kw generator for its substation on Grove Avenue. 

SAN ANTONIO, TEX.— The District Court of San Antonio has 
authorized William A. Morris, receiver of the Terrell Well Co., to issue 
$57,000 in receiver's certificates, the proceeds to be used to complete the 
construction of the electric railway to Terrell Well. 

TEMPLE, TEX. — The City Council has adopted a resolution author- 
izing the transfer of the franchise of the Temple Lt. & Pwr. Co. to 
the Texas Lt. & Pwr. Co., which recently took over the local plant. 

TRINITY, TEX.— The local electric-light plant, owned by A. R. Mac- 
Donald, recently destroyed by fire, will be replaced by a new plant. 

SALT LAKE CITY', UTAH.— The contract for the electrical work 
for the new high school building has been sublet by P. T. Moran, general 
contractor, to the Salt Lake El. Co., for $32,000. 

BURLINGTON, VT.— The Burlington Trac. Co. has been granted per- 
mission by the Public Service Commission to issue $500,000 in bonds, to 
be secured by a mortgage on the property of the Burlington Trac. Co. 
and of the Vergennes Pwr. Co.. of Vergennes. The proceeds of $200,000 
are to be used to purchase the property of the Vergennes Pwr. Co. Of 
the remainder $150,000 is to be used to retire bonds of the Burlington 
system and the remainder to be held in the treasury until further order 
of the commission. 

FREDERICKSBURG, VA. — A committee composed of members of the 
City Council and citizens has decided to recommend the Council to enter 
into a contract with the Fredericksburg Wtr. Pwr. Co. to supply elec- 
tricity for lighting the city and for pumping the water supply for a 
period of 27 years. 

TACOMA, WASH. — It is stated that final surveys have been com- 
pleted for the 140-mile line of the Harriman road, between Y'akima and 
Tacoma, and construction work will begin this year. The road will be 
operated by electricity across the Cascade Mountains through Natchez 
Pass. The road has been incorporated under the name of the West 
Coast R. R. Co. 

MORGANTOWN, W. VA.— The Morgantown & Dunkard Valley R.R. 
Co. is asking for bids for the construction of the extension from Cass- 
ville to Blacksville, a distance of 14% miles. 

THERMOPOLIS, WYO.— The Big Horn Collieries Co., it is reported, 
contemplates extending its transmission lines to this city to furnish 
electricity for lamps and motors. 

BASSANO, ALTA., CAN.— Bids will probably be called for the latter 
part of July for the electrical generating equipment for the plant of the 
Bassano El. & Trac. Co. Mowring & Logan, Winnipeg, Man., are 
engineers. 

VANCOUVER, B. C, CAN.— The International Ry. Co. has applied 
to the provincial government for permission to erect a dam on the 
Fraser River, near Yale, to generate electricity to operate electric tram- 
ways on the lower mainland. 



BEDFORD. X. S., CAN. — Steps have been taken toward the installation 
of an electric-light system here. An option has been secured on a water 
power site in this vicinity which it is proposed to develop to provide 
power to operate the plant. 

COOKSVILLE, ONT., CAN.— Plans are being considered by Toronto 
Township to secure electrical service from the Hydro-Electric Com- 
mission. The cost of installing the system is estimated at about $20,000. 
GALT, ONT., CAN. — The by-law appropriating $45,000 for the comple- 
tion of the street-lighting system, to be operated by electricity furnished by 
the Hydro-Electric Commission, was carried. The ratepayers also voted in 
favor of the by-law renewing the franchise of the Gait, Preston 4 
Hespeler St. Ry. Co., Ltd., for a period of 10 years. 

HAMILTON, ONT., CAN.- The Hydro-Electric Commission has au- 
thorized E. I. Sifton, engineer, to prepare plans for increasing the output 
of the Trolley Street power house from 1000 hp to 3000 hp. 

HAMILTON, ONT., CAN.— The property of the Dominion Pwr. Co. 
of Canada has been purchased by Mackenzie & Mann interests for 
$12,000,000, and will ultimately be absorbed by the Electrical Develop- 
ment Co. of X'iagara Falls, which will probably mean a large exten- 
sion of the interurban electrical service in Western Ontario. Chief among 
these, it is stated, w^ill be electrical lines from Toronto to Niagara Falls 
and from Niagara Falls and Hamilton to London. 

KINGSTON, ONT., CAN.— The Civic Utilities Committee has prac- 
tically decided to follow the advice of R. S. Kelch, electrical engineer, 
Montreal, to enlarge the present steam plant rather than to secure elec- 
tricity through the Hydro-Electric Commission. Steps will be taken 
at once to purchase additional machinery for the steam plant. 

OMEMEE, ONT., CAN.— The Electric Pwr. Co., Confederation Ufe 
Bldg., Toronto, is asking for tenders for the construction of a switching 
station and operator house at Omemee. 

PORT COLBORNE, ONT., CAN.— The Ontario Pwr. Co.. Niagara 
Falls, is planning to erect a large transformer station here. Francis V. 
Greene, Fidelity Bldg., Buffalo, is president. 

PORT CREDIT, ONT., CAN.— The proposition to secure electricity 
from the Hydro-Electric Commission is under consideration. 

RIDGETOWX, ONT., CAN.— The Town Council has purchased the 
local electric-light plant. Elxtensions will be made to the plant and 
lighting system. D. Cochrane is clerk. 

TORONTO, ONT., CAN. — The Hydro- Electric Commission is negoti- 
ating with the Y'ork Township Council to supply electricity to the 
Leaside district lying between Woodbine Avenue and Dawes Road, and 
is also endeavoring to make arrangements to furnish electricity in the 
Todmorden district. 

TORONTO, ONT., CAN. — Steps have been taken by the Hydro- 
Electric Commission to connect Collingwood, Barrie and Coldwater with its 
system. Tenders for equipment for erection of transmission lines to 
supply the three towns will be asked for at once. Electricity will be 
secured from 'the plant of the Simcoe Pwr. Co. at the Big Chute on 
the Severn River. The cost of the transmission lines is estimated at 
about $198,000. It is expected that the towns of Stayner and Elmvale 
will soon vote to contract with the commission for electricity. 

WELLAND, ONT., CAN.— The Town Council has decided to make a 
contract with the Hydro-Electric Power Commission for power and to 
submit a by-law to the ratepayers to appropriate $45,000 for the installa- 
tion of a municipal electric light and power system. 

DRUMMONDVILLE, QUE., CAN.— The South Shore Pwr. & Paper 
Co., recently organized by Charles W. Tooke, D. Raymond Cobb, 
William P. Rafferty and Delmar E. Hawkins, of Syracuse. N. Y,, 
has acquired several water-power sites on the St. Francis River and is 
now developing about 10,000 hp within 10 miles of Drummondville. 
Arrangements have been made with the town to take over the municipal 
electric-light plant. The company also proposes to build a large paper 
mill here. The company has also acquired charter rights to furnish with 
electricity for lamps and motors practically all the villages and towns 
within 50 miles of Drummondville. W. I. Bishop. Montreal, is one of 
the directors. 

SCOTTSTOWN, QUE., CAN.— Plans are being prepared for rebuild- 
ing the power house of the Emberton Lumber Co. 

HUMBOLDT. SASK., CAN.— The Council has decided to submit a 
by-law to the ratepayers appropriating $30,000 for the installation of 
an electric-light plant, 

REGINA, SASK., CAN.— The electric light and power plants in 
Regina were badly damaged by a tornado on June 30. 

SANTA ROSALIA. CHIHUAHUA, MEX.— The Mexican Northern 
Pwr. Co. has resumed work on construction of dam across the Conchos 
River and the installation of a hydroelectric plant, 18 miles from Santa 
Rosalia. The cost of the enterprise is estimated at $10,000,000. Owing 
to the revolutionary troubles construction work had to be temporarily 
abandoned. 

TAMPICO. TAMAULIPAS, MEN.— The Tampico El. Lt., Pwr. & 
Trac. Co. has taken over the electric plant and system of the 
Compania de Fuerza de Tampico and the electric plant owned by J. F. 
Dorde and also the street railway system operated by mules. The new 
company will extend the street railway system to Lacarca, 6 miles distant, 
and equip it for electrical operation. A new electric plant will also be 
installed by the company. The cost of the entire work is estimated at 
about $1,250,000. 



July 13, 1912. 



ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



127 



New Industrial Companies 

THE AUTU ELECTRIC LIGHTING COMPANY, of Chicago, 111., 
has been incorporated with a capital stock of $10,000 to manufacture and 
deal in gasoline engines, electric-light and power generating machines, 
etc. The incorporators are: IVJ. W. Uussell, Victor Longhead and 
Glenn M. Hobbs. 

THE CITY LIGHT & WATER COMPANY, of Dover, Del., has 
been incorporated with a capital stock of $125,000 for the purpose of 
manufacturing and dealing in pipes and conduits for the transmission of 
electricity, water or gas. 

THE CONNECTICUT TURBINE MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 
of New London, Conn., has been organized with a capital stock of 
$75,000. The officers are: Thomas Hamilton, president; C. B. Rearick, 
vice-president, and William T. Hopson, secretary and treasurer. 

THE ELECTRIC-DOT MANUFACTURING COMPANY, of Pitts- 
field, Mass., has been incorporated with a capital stock of $25,000 by 
DeWitt C. Conkling. Joseph M. McMahon and Alice J. Conkling. 

THE ELECTRIC SALES COMPANY, of Los Angeles, Cal., has been 
incorporated with a capital stock of $10,000 by W. C. Caffray, H. E. 
Caffrey and A. C. Barrett. 

THE MARTIN TRACTOR COMPANY, of Indianapolis, Ind., has 
been incorporated with a capital stock of $350,000 for the purpose of 
manufacturing the "Martin Tractor." The incorporators are: Charles 
H. Martin, Hugh R. Richards, F. B. Davenport, Edward D. Moon and 
George D. Thornton. 

THE JOSEPH REID GAS ENGINE COMPANY OF CALIFORNIA, 
of Los Angeles, Cal., has been incorporated with a capital stock of 
$10,000 by S. R. Shoup, A. B. Ritchey and George G. Murray. 

THE SOUTHWESTERN ELECTRIC & MACHINE COMPANY, of 
El Paso, Tex., has been chartered with a capital stock of $8,000 by 
Robert McGarraugh. E. E. Slaughter, M. F. Crossette and J. H. Knost. 

THE WESTERN CONDUIT COMPANY, of Youngstown, Ohio, has 
been incorporated by C. D. Hine, C. A. Manchester, L. J. Campbell, 
Richard Garlick and W. E. Manning. The company is capitalized at 
$250,000 and proposes to manufacture and deal in conduits and fittings. 



Trade Publications 



New Incorporations 

MONMOUTH, ILL.— The Monmouth Gas & El. Co. has been granted 
a charter with a capital stock of $10,000 to construct and operate a gas 
and electric lighting plant. The incorporators are: John Heron, Oscar 
Mertz and E. P. Seibt. 

PETERSBURG, IND.— The Pike County El. Lt. & Pwr. Co. has been 
incorporated with a capital stock of $15,000 by W. D. Hudson, W. F. 
McKasey and S. F. Seager. The company proposes to build an electric 
plant to supply electricity in Petersburg and vicinity. 

CLINTON, KY.— The Qinton Wrt. & Lt. Co. has been incorporated 
with a capital stock of $15,000 by Thomas Emerson, J. L. V. Grenier 
and P. H. Porter. 

IRVINE, KY. — The Estill General Utilities Co. has been incorporated 
with a capital stock of $2,500 for the purpose of establishing an electric- 
light plant. The incorporators are: Grant E. Lilly, W. H. Lilly, V. M. 
Gaines and J. F. West. 

CANAAN, N. H. — The Canaan Lt. & Pwr. Co. has been incorporated 
with a capital stock of $50,000 by Lester P. French and Henry H. Fol- 
som. 

DOVER, N. J.— The Consolidated Cities, Lt., Pwr. & Trac. Co. has 
filed articles of incorporation under the laws of the State of Delaware. 
The company is capitalized at $10,000,000 and the incorporators are: 
J. M. Satterfield, J. S. Collins, Jr., and W. F. Cook, of Dover. 

CAMDEN, N. Y.— The Long Beach El. Lt. & Pwr. Co. has been in- 
corporated with a capital stock of $50,000 to distribute electricity for 
lamps, heat and motors. 

NEW YORK, N. Y.— The Columbia Lt., Ht. & Pwr. Co. has been 
incorporated with a capital stock of $25,000 by G. Leary and A. W. 
Bailey, of New York, and F. H. Schomburg, Brooklyn. The company 
proposes to generate and distribute gas and electricity. 

NEWBERN, N. C— The Newbern-Ghent Street Ry. Co. has been 
chartered with a capital stock of $25,000 to construct an electric railway 
between Newbern and Ghent. The incorporators are: B. SeMerding, 
J. W. Brown, Jr., C. E. Armstrong, C. J. Carthey and others. 

BRILLIANT, OHIO— The JefTerson El. Co. has been incorporated 
with a capital stock of $10,000 for the purpose of supplying electricity 
for lamps and motors in Brilliant. The incorporators are: Alonzo M. 
Snyder, Irvine K. Schnaitter, Roy E. Moffett, W. J. Budd and M. Mel- 
vin Roberts. 

COLUMBUS, OHIO. — The Columbus Depot Co. l.as been incorporated 
with a capital stock of $250,000 for the purpose of building the union 
electric interurban terminal depot. The incorporators are: W. F. Bur- 
dell, H. M. Dougherty, F. R. Huntington, E. R. Sharp, Jr., and L. D. 
Hagerty. 



MOTORS. — ^Self-starling synchronous motors are illustrated and de- 
scribed in a leaflet issued by the Westinghouse Electric St Manufacturing 
Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa.; a two-page leaflet is devoted to a cut 
and description of an electrically operated brake designed especially for 
null and crane service, and another leaflet gives information and curves 
relating to motors for crane and hoist service. 

RAILWAY MOTORS.— The General Electric Company's Bulletin No. 
4935 illustrates and describes a railway motor of the commutating-polc 
type, which embodies new features of construction developed with a 
view to effecting greater economy in railway motor operation. This 
motor is nearly 500 lb. lighter than commutating-pole motors of the 
same hourly rating now in use. Many of the details of construction are 
clearly shown, as is also the system of ventilation. 

AMPERE-HOUR METERS.— The Sangamo Electric Company, of 
Springfield, 111., is distributing a twenty-four-page treatise on the 
use of ampere-hour meters in connection with electric vehicles and 
storage batteries. The bulletin is of particular interest at this time 
when central-station managers are advocating the use of electric 
vehicles. In addition to a description of several new meters, the bulletin 
also contains information on the subject of battery operation. 

PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS OF WATER SUPPLY.— Catalog 2023 on the 
Paul pneumatic systems of water supply has been issued by the Fort Wayne 
Engineering & Manufacturing Company, Fort Wayne, Ind. It contains 
specifications and dimensions of shallow-well and deep-well pumps, systems, 
accessories and gasoline engines, and gives also illustrations and prices. 
Value is added to this catalog by the tables giving the capacity, weight, 
specifications and other data of importance to the prospective purchaser. 

CALENDAR. — "Wagner, Quality," is the slogan prominently displayed 
on a calendar got out for the Wagner Electric Manufacturing Company, 
St. Louis, Mo. A picture of a child reading the eight-page leaflet "See 
the Comma," also got out by this company, is shown on the calendar. 
This leaflet emphasizes the importance of the comma between "Wagner" 
and "Quality." Miniatures of Bulletins Nos. 94 and 96 have been issued, 
the former on single-phase motors and the latter on instruments of pre- 
cision. 



Business Notes 



GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY.— The New York oflice of the 
Flux Miniature Lamp Works of the General Electric Company has been 
moved from Bible House, on Eighth Street, to 324 Lafayette Street. Mr. 
H. K. .^nnin is general manager of the works. 

THE ELECTRIC STORAGE BATTERY COMPANY, of Philadelphia, 
has opened an office at 1329 Walnut Street, Kansas City, Mo., for 
handling "Exide," "High-Cap Exide," "Thin Exide" and "Iron-Clad 
ICxide" batteries for electric vehicles, as well as battery renewals and 
parts. 

GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY. — A conference of oflicers of the 
Nelite Works of the General Electric Company will be held at the Clifton 
Hotel, Niagara Falls, Canada, during the week of July 8. Addresses will 
be delivered by Messrs. J. Robert Grouse, L. H. Brittin and V. R. 
Lansingh. 

THE HESS-BRIGHT MANUFACTURING COMPANY, Philadelphia, 
Pa., owing to its increasing business, has removed to Front Street and 
Erie Avenue, where the new site covers about thirteen acres, and the 
buildings thus far erected embody the most advanced ideas in modern 
factory arrangement and construction. 

J. F. BUCHANAN & COMPANY.— A store devoted to the sale of 
electrical appliances intended for the home has been opened at 1719 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, by J. F. Buchanan & Company. The store- 
room is equipped to illustrate a modern system of semi-indirect lighting 
and is provided with circuits for demonstrating the electrical heating 
and lighting devices under actual service conditions. 

LAMAR LYNDON, consulting engineer, has opened a branch office 
in the Chandler Building, Atlanta, Ga., under the direction of Mr. Cecil 
P. Poole, formerly editor of the "American Electrician" and "Power." 
His New York office at 60 Broadway will be under the management of 
Dr. A. S. Chessin. The scope of the work conducted from these offices 
embraces the design, installation and investigation of the operation of 
steam, gas and hydroelectric generating plants, distributing Lj'steras, 
railways, etc. 

THE AMERICAN DISTRICT STEAM COMPANY, North Tona- 
wanda, N. Y., has organized a general engineering department under the 
management of Mr. Byron T. Giflord, who was formerly associated with 
the Central Station Engineering Company, of Chicago. Associated with 
its engineering staff will be Mr. Arthur E. Duram, who was also for- 
merly connected with the Central Station Engineering Company. The 
American District Steam Company has removed its Chicago office from 
the Monadnock Block to the First National Bank Building. Mr. Charles 
A. Gillham, formerly of the Central Station Engineering Company, is 
now associated with the contracting department of the .American District 
Steam Company, as is also Mr. James A. Bendure, formerly connected 
with the Economy Light, Fuel & Power Company, Lockport, N. Y. 



128 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



Vol. 6o, No. 2. 



Weekly Record of Electrical Patents 



UNITED STATES PATENTS ISSUED JULY 2, 1912. 

[Prepared by Robert Starr Allyn, 16 Exchange Place, New York.] 

1,030,858. MEANS FOR SUPPORTING SPARK-COIL CASES; B. 
Ames, Lowell, Mass. App. filed Sept. 5, 1911. Screw socket in a 
dashboard of an automobile, etc. 

1,030,860. ELECTRIC PUSH-SWITCH; E. Anderson, Bridgeport, Conn. 
App. filed Dec. 21, 1911. Single button door type. 

1,030.872. TELEPHONE RECEIVER; C. N. Church, Camden, N. J. 
App. filed Nov. 3, 1909. Concentric magnetic rings and bands for 
increasing vibration of the diaphragm. 

1,030,901. ELECTRIC HEATING DEVICE FOR RUNNING WATER; 
H. Lofquist, Stockholm, Sweden. App. filed Oct. 6, 1911. Con- 
nected valve and switch. 

1,030,904. ELECTRIC FURNACE FOR SMELTING AND REDUC- 
TION OF ORE- H. B. Lorentzen, Notodden, Norway. App. filed 
Dec. 2, 1910. Non-conducting bridge wall type. 

1,030,915. TELEPHONE TRANSMITTER; G. R. Morris, Buffalo, N. Y. 
App. filed July 22, 1909. To^e modifying details. 

1,030,925. SYSTEM OF OPERATION FOR SYNCHRONIZING 
RECORDERS; E. O. Schweitzer, Chicago, 111. App. filed Dec. 10, 

1910. For recording phase relation between alternating emfs. 

1,030,929. PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING ALUMINUM NITRID; 
O. Serpek, Pans, France. App. filed April 6, 1911. The aluminous 
material is fed over heated resistance elements in the presence of 
nitrogen. 

1,030,953. ELECTRIC IGNITION APPARATUS FOR GAS BURN- 
ERS; H. Wlasserzier, Karlshorst, Germany. App. filed March 20, 

1911. Operated by gas pressure. 

1,030,961. RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROLLING SYSTEM AND 
APPARATUS; \V. H. Arkenburgh, Westfield, N. J. App. filed Nov. 
2, 1906. Home and distant railway block signals. 

1,030,972. PROCESS FOR DIRECT NICKELING OF ALUMINUM 
OR ALLOYS CONTAINING ALUMINUM; M. Chirade and J. 
Canac, Paris, France. App. filed Nov. 6, 1911. Special washing, 
scouring and plating steps. 




1,030,858.— Means for Supporting Spark Coil Cases. 

1,030,999. REFRACTORY ARTICLE AND METHOD OF MAKING 
IT; S. F. Hall, Niagara Falls, N. Y. App. filed Dec. 26, 1908. A 
carbon mold is dipped in the fused oxid, withdrawn and the adher- 
ing layer separated. 

1,031,009. DYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINE; B. G. Lamme, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. App. filed Sept. 6, 1910. Multiple-wound armature, 
commutator type. 

1,031,026. PROCESS FOR THE CLOSING OF THE SEAMS OF 
TUBES BY MEANS OF ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE WELD- 
ING; E. Presser, Berlin, Germany. App. filed May 2, 1911. Trans- 
former winding and connection. 

1,031,031. ELECTRICAL SWITCH; O. S. Walker, Worcester, Mass. 
App. filed Nov. 30, 1909. For use with the magnetized cores of a 
chuck, such as Patent 564,296. 

1,031,038. ELECTROMOTIVE DEVICE; C. F. Burgess, Madison, 
WSs. App. filed Feb. 12, 1910. Magnetic core of the "vibrator," 

1,031,071. AD7USTAELE BRUSH SUPPORT; E. C. Ketchum and 
D. H. Andrews, Boston and Newton Center, Mass. App. filed June 
28, 1911. Pivoted brush-holder and adjustable brush with mercurv 
amalgam supply. 

1,031,076. ELECTRIC LAMP; W. J. Lusted, Los Angeles. Cal. App. 
filed April 10, 1911. Reflector in the bulb with incandescent fila- 
ments. 

1,031,081. ELECTROMAGNETIC CLUTCH; K. Miran and L. Seidel, 
Aachen, Germany. App. filed Feb. 13, 1911. Two relatively rotat- 
able members carrying the parts of the clutch. 

1,031,096. SYSTEM OF CONTROL; H. A. Steen, Milwaukee, Wis. 
App. filed July 24, 1911. Automatic circuit control to prevent arcing 
at the contacts of gages, etc. 

1,031,101. LIGHTING SYSTEM; E. F. Wackwitz. Cleveland, Ohio. 
App. filed Nov. 17, 1911. For automobile lighting, etc. 

1,031,114. INCANDESCENT ELECTRIC LAMP; H. Gilmore, Brook- 
line, Mass. App. filed June 7, 1909. The filament is transverse to 
the neck of the bulb. 

:.031,191. ELECTRIC FOOT-SWITCH; C. A. Lundgren, Detroit, Mich. 
App. filed Sept. 19, 1910. For motor-equipped adding machines, etc. 



1.031.204. RESISTANCE NET; F. Schniewindt, Neuenrade, Germany. 
App. filed Oct. 10, 1910. Stiffe