1™!.!?^ "^^ Presbyterian Church in th
3 1924 012 522 961
The original of tiiis book is in
tine Cornell University Library.
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the United States on the use of the text.
FORKS OF BRANDYWINE, CHESTER COUNTY, PA.,
(BBANDYWINB MANOK PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH,)
FEOM A.D. 1735 TO A.D. 1885,
THE DECEASED PASTORS OF THE CHURCH,
AKD OF THOSE WHO FREFABED FOB THE CHBISTIAN MINISTBY UNDEB THE
_,y. SIBECTION OF THE BET. NATHAN GBIEB.
By jambs M'CLUNB, LL.D.,
MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY.
"The Lord our God be with ua, as He was with our fathers; let Him not leave ub, nor
forsake us."— 1 EiNOs Tiii. 6T.
PRINTED BY J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY.
The preparation of the following work has been
delayed by the difficulty of obtaining authentic data,
no regular records of the Church having been kept
until a comparatively recent period. The delay,
however, has enabled the writer to state some interest-
ing facts which otherwise would have been omitted,
and to continue the work to a later period. The
authorities on which he has mainly relied . are given
at the close of each article.
For the information of those who may not have an
opportunity to consult works on Ecclesiastical History,
brief historical notices of the Puritans, the Huguenots,
the Scotch, and the Scotch-Irish have been prefixed.
In order to prevent them from being forgotten, or
to make them better known, several matters but re-
motely associated with religious organizations have
been stated in foot-notes and appendices.
The writer thankfully acknowledges his obligations
to the ministers of the Gospel and others who aided
his researches and assisted him in placing on record a
number of remarkable incidents connected with a
" Pioneer Church" which has received many tokens
of Divine guidance and approval.
Philadelphia, June 8, 1885.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Academy, Brandywine 173
Academy, Howard 174
Academy, New London (Appendix) 232
America, discovery of 9
Black, Eev. Samuel ' . 57
Boyd, Rev. Alexander 180
Boyd, Rev. Adam 65
Buchanan, Eev. James .' 131
Bull, Rev. Levi, D.D 128
Carmichael, Rev. John 79
Central Presbyterian Church, Downingtown .... 169
Coatesville Presbyterian Church 159
Collins, Rev. Britton E 148
Davidson, Eev. Patrick 119
Dean, Rev. William 73
Elders, Ruling 106
Fairview Presbyterian Church 166
Graveyards . 215
Grier, Eev. John F., D.D 135
Grier, Rev. John H. 140
Grier, Rev. John N. C, D.D. . . '. . . . .99
Grier, Rev. John W 142
Grier, Rev. Matthew B., D.D 144
Grier, Rev. Nathan 90
Grier, Rev. Robert 8 137
Grier, Rev. Thomas 122
Happersett, Rev. Rees, D.D. 151
Heberton, Rev. William . . ' 34
Honeybrook Presbyterian Church 163
Hood, Rev. Thomas 126
Kennedy, Eev. William 134
Knight, Eev. Joshua 124
6 TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Liggett, Eev. John A., D.D 178
McCachran, Eev. Eobert 145
Meeting-House, First 37
Meeting-House, Second 39
Meeting-House, Manor 41
Meeting-House, New 47
McOoU, Eev. John 35
M'Conaughy, Rev. David, D.D., LL.D 118
Moore, Eev. David W 177
Nyce, Eev. Benjamin M 149
Parke, Eev. Samuel ' . . . 138
Pew-Holders, 1792-96 201
Pinkerton, Eev. John 157
Pinkerton, Eev. William 155
Quay, Eev. Anderson B 146
Ealston, Eev. James G., D.D., LL.D. ....... 153
Scotch and Scotch-Irish 17
Seceder Meeting-House 52
Temperance Societies 204
Templeton, Eev. William H 156
Theological Students 116
Thompson, Eev. John C 176
Umstead, Eev. Justus 152
Walker, Eev. Eichard 150
Wallace, Eev. Matthew G 12i
White, Eev. Eobert . ' '. _ 132
Woods, Eev. William lyj
BRANDYWINE MANOR PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.
Rev. Samuel Black, installed November, 1736 ; pastoral relation
dissolved July, 1741.
Ebv. Adam Boyd (Old Side), installed August, 1741 ; pastoral
relation ceased October, 1758.
Eev. William Dean (New Side), installed May or June, 1745 ;
died July, 1748.
Rev. John Carmichael, installed April, 1761 ; died November,
Rev. Nathan Grier, installed August, 1787; died March, 1814.
Rev. J. N. C. Grier, D.D., installed November, 1814; resigned
Rev. William W. Heberton, installed October, 1869; pastoral
relation dissolved October, 1872.
Rev. John McColl, installed July, 1873 ; present pastor.
DISCOVERY OF AMERICA.
The believer in a Superintending Providence, and
especially the Christian, cannot fail to perceive the
wise arrangements of Deity in the period at which
America became generally known to the inhabitants
of the Eastern Continent. If it had been discovered ,
when tbe darkness of the Middle Ages enshrouded
Europe, when the feudal system was strong in its
enormity afld an intolerant church held unlimited
sway, superstition, oppression, and bigotry would have
been increased and strengthened. The credulous
monk, the lord and his vassal, and the " persecutor of
heretics" would have peopled the Western shores of
the Atlantic, and re-acted on a wider arena scenes
which History blushes to record.
On the other hand, if this continent had not been
discovered until a few centuries more had passed,
thousands and tens of thousands who found refuge
and a home in its wilderness solitudes would have
perished by the sword or on the scaffold. The relent-
less cruelty of rulers and prelates would have crushed
the advocates of Truth. But God in His wisdom had
determined otherwise. He had decreed that the
crimes of Europe should be a source of blessings to
America ; that those who had been subjected to fines.
10 DISCOVERY OF AMERICA.
imprisonment, mutilation, and banishment for His
name's salie should lay the foundations of a Great
Republic, which would afford a home to the exile from
every land and protection to men of every creed ;
that here a Christian nation should arise throughout
whose wide domain the sound of the loom and the
anvil and the hum of business would cease on every
returning Sabbath, — a nation which would annually
present to the world the sublime spectacle of its
Chief Magistrate calling on its citizens to unite in
giving thanks to Him, the Author of All Good, for
blessings so freely bestowed, and so generally enjoyed.
Will it, then, be irrelevant to advert, briefly, to the
history of some of those who, like Hagar, were driven
by persecution into the wilderness ; those whom the
Angel of Mercy comforted and sustained during the
whole period of Colonial weakness and despondency,
and whose descendants have become more numerous
than the posterity of Ishmael, but with the hand for
not against every man ?
Although every Protestant denomination has con-
tributed to give tone and character to the civil and
religious polity of our country, yet those to whom we
as Presbyterians are chiefly indebted for liberty of
conscience, for our doctrinal standards and our form
of church government are the Puritans, the Hugue-
nots, the Scotch, and the Scotch-Irish. Of these in
The storm of religious persecution which swept with
increasing violence over Europe during the Seven-
teenth Century forced thousands of her best citizens to
flee to other lands. The arbitrary measures of James
I. of England caused the Pilgrims to seek a refuge
first in Holland and finally on the bleak shore of New
This colony, so feeble in the beginning, was rapidly
increased by the despotic conduct of his son, Charles
I., who abetted measures which the timidity of his
father led that monarch to reject. The religious intol-
erance of Archbishop Laud, and the disturbed con-
dition of the mother-country until Charles perished
on the scaffold, added yearly to the population of the
New England colonies.
But while their numbers were rapidly increasing, and
they had built towns, subdued portions of the wilder-
ness, and gathered around them the comforts of civil-
ized life, they were not unmindful ' of the interests of
learning and religion. In less than thirty years after
the landing at Plymouth they had originated a system
of public schools, established a college, now the oldest
and best endowed in our country, and erected nearly
fifty churches in which divine service was held every
12 THE PUEITANS.
During the able sway of Cromwell. England enjoyed
comparative quiet, and emigrants to the American
colonies were few. Four years, however, had not
elapsed after the death of the Great Protector before
the Act of Uniformity drove upwards of two thousand
Puritan clergymen from their pulpits, and placed such
men as Baxter, Flaval, Howe, Allein, Calamy, Char-
nock, and Bunyan under the ban of ecclesiastical
censure. Fines and. imprisonment alike awaited the
divine who proclaimed the truth and those who as-
sembled to hear him. Under such circumstances, all
that could obtain the means to do so sought a home
among their brethren on this side of the Atlantic, and
joyfully added to the wealth, intelligence, and prosper-
ity of a country where there was " freedom to worship
These oppressive measures, which continued until
the accessiou of, the Gustavus Adolphus of England,
William itl., peopled the Eastern States with those
who have made the sterile soil of New England a land
of plenty and the fixed abode of enterprise, activity,
and , intelligence.
But the benefits which the first settlers of New
England conferred on the land of their adoption have
not been confined within its narrow limits. Wherever
the descendants of the Pilgrims have found an abiding
place, whether in the valleys of the Ohio, the Mis-
souri, and the Mississippi, or on the shores of the
Pacific ; whether as miners, husbandmen, or manufac-
turer, they have carried with them their ancestral
love of freedom, and their reverence for the precepts
of the Bible. The printing-press, the school, and the
THE PURITANS. 13
church have followed in the wake of their advance ;
the wilderness has given place to cultivated fields, and
cities have grown with magic speed beneath their
If, as Hume has observed, the precious spark of
liberty was kindled and preserved by the Puritans, —
and to them the English owe the whole freedom of
their Constitution, — the citizens of a republic which
spans a continent are indebted to those God-fearing
men and their descendants for much of the civil and
religious liberty which they enjoy.*
* Neal, "Hist, of the Puritans;" Baird, "Religion in America;"
Bancroft, " Hist, of U. S. ;" Sanford, " Puritan Revolution ;" Calamy,
" Account of Ejected Ministers."
Owing to the zeal and ability of Calvin, Beza, Co-
ligny, and their coadjutors, aided by the patronage »f
Margaret, Queen of Navarre,^ the principles of the
Eeformation became widely known and were eagerly
embraced by many of the inhabitants of France.
And although the .bigoted opposition of her rulers
and the fiend-like massacre of St. Bartholomew for a
time diminished their number and forced many of them
to obtain safety by flight, yet at the close of the six-
teenth century they were sufiiciently numerous and
powerful to extort from Henry IV. the Edict of Nantes.
This Edict guaranteed to the Protestants the free ex-
ercise of their religion. That it was often violated by
the successors of Henry, even before it was formally
revoked, the history of France during the Seventeenth
Century fully attests. Nowhere in Europe did the
spirit of religious intolerance exhibit greater malice or
give rise to greater atrocities than in the persecution of
the Huguenots, as the French Protestants were gener-
ally called.* Hunted like wild beasts, exposed to
* It is reckoned, says President Edwards, that there were martyred '
in this kingdom, Prance, for the Protestant religion, thirty-throe
princes, one hundred and forty-eight counts, two hundred and thirty-
four barons, one hundred and forty-seven thousand gentlemen, and
THE HUGXJENOTS. 15
ignominy, torture, and death, they were fortunate who
found in foreign lands the exile which their cruel
rulers sedulously endeavored to prevent. England,
Holland, Switzerland, Germany, and other portions of
Europe, not only afforded them an asylum, but gladly
welcomed them, and those countries owe many of the
mechanic arts which have increased their wealth and
importance to the orderly and industrious strangers.
But the thousands of Frenchmen who were forced
to abandon their native land did not find safety and a
home in Europe only. A large number of them
crossed the Atlantic, and sought a peaceful abiding-
place among those who had planted the standard of
civil and religious freedom in the Western wilderness.
The colonists of New England and New York wil-
lingly received and aided them, but the milder climate
of the Carolinas being more congenial to those who
had been reared amid the fertile plains and vine-clad
hills of France, a majority of them became citizens of
what are now the Southern States. There they dis-
seminated and practised the religious principles which
had caused their exile, and contributed, by their in-
dustry, skill, and sobriety, to increase the wealth and
prosperity of the country which they had made their
Many who have held high positions ih 'our govern-
ment, and who have discharged the duties of important
trusts with uprightness and ability, could trace their
lineage to the persecuted Huguenots. At the present
seven hundred and sixty thousand of the common people, all within
16 THE HUGUENOTS.
time the Presbyterian churches of New England,
New York, and especially of the Carolihas, number
among their most useful and influential members the
descendants of the countrymen of Calvin, Beza, Mor-
nay, and Saurin.*
* Marsh, '' Hist, of the Huguenots ;" Browning, " Hist, of the
Huguenots;" D'Aubigne, "Hist, of the Reformation."
THE SCOTCH AND THE SCOTCH-IRISH.
Although the Puritans and the Huguenots did
much towards forming the religious character and
implanting a love of liberty in the breasts of those
who made America their home, they were not the
only laborers in the important work. There were
others who aided, by also diffusing a reverence for
truth and a fear of God, the real foundations of
The Scotch and the Scotch-Irish, as those who
came from the North of Ireland were called, qmi-
grated to this country in large numbers, bringing
with them their strong attachment to learning and
the doctrinal standards of the Presbyterian Church.
The Scotch had been subjected to every variety of
suffering, not merely on account of their opposition to
the dogmas of the Church of Home, but because they
refused to subscribe to the doctrines and forms of
, Episcopacy. The High Commission appointed by
Charles II. exercised Inquisitorial powers, and even
equalled the dread tribunals of Spain and Portugal
in acts of oppression, malice, and cruelty.
In consequence of these arbitrary measures many
went from Scotland to Ireland, and others sought
safety on this side of the Atlantic. But it was not
until the, beginning of the Eighteenth Century that
18 THE SCOTCH AND THE SCOTCH-IKISH.
the Scotch and their descendants in Ireland emigrated
in large numbers to America.
Driven from their homes by fanatical zeal and
ecclesiastical tyranny, they naturally directed their
course to the only two colonies, Maryland* and Penn-
sylvania, in which toleration prevailed.
In 1729, upwards of six thousand emigrants from
Scotland and Ireland arrived in this State, and from
that time until the middle of the "century as many as
twelve thousand, it is said, came over every year. A
majority of them made their way into the interior,
and, on account of the early frosts in the valleys and
the water being less pure, they generally settled on
the higher lands.
Their principal business was farming, though they
were far from being skilful husbandmen. When the
productiveness of the soil had been exhausted by fre-
quent tillage, instead of resorting to fertilizers, they
cleared the timber from another portion of their
lands. If this resource also failed, they sought local-
ities where the unimpaired soil of the wilderness
gave a return for labor which their former possessions
had ceased to afford. They therefore became the-
pioneers in the, settlement not only of this State and
of Maryland, but also of a large portion of Central
Virginia and the western counties of North Carolina.
Moving in the van of civilization, with the musket
in one hand and the axe in the other, they had scarcely
* Tribitarians only were tolerated in Maryland. No enactment
abridging religious liberty has ever been placed on the statute books
THE SCOTCH AND THE SCOTCH-IEISH. 19
repressed Indian hostility or subdued a small part of
the wilderness, when they organized the church and
the school. The meeting-house was generally built
of unhewn logs, and a smaller, but an equally rude,
structure, served, in most instances, for a session-house
and a school-house. But in these rustic church
edifices men proclaimed the words of Truth whose
learning and whose familiarity with the Scriptures
would astonish the graduates of our theological semi-
naries, while the " schoolmaster from Ireland" faith-
fully imparted the elements of knowledge. No daily
mail nor weekly newspaper kept them in communica-
tion with the • rest of the world. The wilderness was
their honie. The broad Atlantic rolled between them
and the land of their fathers. Want and danger
were continually present. Nevertheless, their much-
worn Bibles showed that, amid all their loneliness
and privations, they sought and obtained consolation
from the Holy Book which has brought joy to many
a mourner and removed the shadow from many a
During the struggle for National Independence, no
one whose ancestry could be traced to Scotland or the
North of Ireland was found among the adherents of
royalty. Their patriotism and unflinching bravery
were so well known that Washington, in the midnight
hour of the Revolution, expressed his determination,
if all other resources failed, to make his last stand
among the Scotch and Scotch-Irish of the frontiers.
These races have furnislied eight Chief Magistrates
of the Union, twenty Governors of States, and up-
wards of thirty Presidents of American Colleges.
20 THE SCOTCH AND THE SCOTCH-IRISH.
They gave us Wayne, Mercer, Montgomery, Irvine,
Knox, St. Clair, Sullivan, and Morgan, of the Conti-
nental Army; the statesmen Hamilton, Madison, and
Webster; the orators Patrick Henry, Calhoun, and
McDuffie. To them the Presbyterian Church is
indebted for the Tennents, the Blairs, the Smiths,
the Allisons, Finley, Rodgers, Witherspoon, and
others prominent in the annals of the struggles and
the triumphs of the Church in America during the
greater part of the Eighteenth Centiiry.*
* Chambers, " Irish and Scotch-Irish JEarly Settlers ;" Proud,
" Hist, of Pennsylvania ;" Gordon, " Hist, of Pennsylvania ;" Hodge,
" Hist, of Presbyterian Church;" Webster, " Hist, of Pres. Church."
"THE FORKS OF BRANDYWINE."*
The first European settlers in what are now the.
"Western and Central parts of Chester County were,
with a few exceptions, natives of Wales. The name
of a neighboring mountain and the names of several
townships in this county and those adjoining would
sufficiently prove this, even if history and tradition
were silent.f Some of' these immigrants came on
account of their attachment to the principles of Penn ;
* The term " the Forks" in early colonial annals refers not only to
the point at the immediate confluence of two rivers, but to the ter-
ritory included between the two streams for some miles above. Thus,
"the Forks of the Delaware" comprises nearly the whole county of
Northampton ; " the Forks of the Susquehanna," the tract for some
distance above Northumberland. (Day, " Hist. Col. Penna.") In
this instance the Forks appears to have included all between the head
waters of the Brandywine and the confluence of its two branches.
f Tredyffrin, Uwchlan, and Nantmeal in Chester County ; Caernarvon
and Brecknock, in both Berks County and Lancaster ; Cymry (Cumru)
in Berks County.
■22 HISTOEY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
others, to enjoy the religious freedom accorded to all.
Among them were several Presbyterian families, and
as early as 1710 the records of Presbytery make
mention of the church in Tredyffrin, or the Great
This section, however, which was known by the
name of Cain,* had but few inhabitants for several
years afterwards.f The first township officer, a con-
stable, was elected in 1720. From that date, however,
and especially in 1729, the Scotch and Scotch-Irish
arrived and settled in considerable numbers. They
were nearly all Presbyterians, or in sympathy with
the Presbyterian form of church government. At
first they were too few and too much scattered to
organize churches, and therefore depended, for the
most part, on occasioiial visits from the pastors of the
Welsh Presbyterian churches who could address them
Among those who itinerated through this section
at that period, and preached in a grove or in private
houses on the Sabbath, was David Evans, subsequently
pastor of the church at Tredyffrin. J
In October, 1824, the Eev. Adam Boyd was in-
stalled pastor of the churches of Octoraro (Upper
* It was divided into East and West Cain in 1728.
f See Appendix P.
J Samuel Evans, a son of David Evans, succeeded his father at
Tredyffrin, but relinquished his charge without the consent of Pres-
bytery, and was disowned by the Synod in 1751. His son Israel
served as chaplain from 1777 to the close of the Eevolutionary war,
and died in 1807. He published several sermons. His great-grand-
father was a minister in Wales.
IN " THE FOEKS OP BliANDYWINE." 23
Octoraro) and Pequea. As these were frontier
churches, Mr. Boyd, in compliance with the directions
of Presbytery, visited and preached in portions of the
country where Preshyterians had settled, but where
no church had been organized. Many of the residents
of these places in time came to be regarded as mem-
bers of his congregation, and contributed to his support.
This appears to have been the case with those who
were subsequently organized as a church in this place,
for, at a meeting of the Presbytery of Donegal, held
at Octoraro, June 5, 1734,* the following record was
placed on the minutes : " The people at the Forks of
Brandywine, being a part of Mr. Boyd's congregation,
put in a supplication to the Presbytery for liberty of
erecting a meeting-house for Mr. Boyd to preach
in when sometimes he comes to them, which was
It ought perhaps to be stated, in this connection,
that the Synod or Presbytery for the limits of the
authority of each were not well defined at that time,
and for several years afterwards claimed and exercised
the right to say where and when a meeting-house
should be built. If one was erected without their
consent they refused to send supplies or install a
pastor; and even went so far as to censure any
member of either body who conducted divine service
in a building erected without their approval. A case
of this kind occurred at New London, where the
* All dates in the last century before September, 1752, are Old Style,
or eleven days earlier than they would be by the present method of
reckoning time, New Style.
24 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
Presbytery ordered the doors of a meeting-liouse
which had been built to be closed. This caused
several appeals to the Synod and the Presbytery to
reverse their decision, gave rise to much angry feeling,
and delayed the organization of the church and the
settlement of a pastor for several years. The exercise
of such authority to the same extent at present would
be deemed arbitrary, but then it seems to have been,
and still is, in a measure, necessary, in order to prevent
the erection of buildings and the organization of
churches unable to support a stated ministry. But,
to return to the history of this Church.
Having received permission to build a meeting-
house, and, as they supposed, to organize as a distinct
congregation, the members obtained a triangular lot
of ground containing six and a half acres, built a
house for public worship, elected elders, and applied
to Presbytery at its meeting in April (4), 1735, held
at Chestnut Level, for supplies. At the same time an
application was made by the congregation of Octoraro
" desiring the subscription of these people (those in
the Forks of Brandywine) may be continued for Mr.
Boyd's support." The Presbytery, after hearing the
statements of the parties, came to the following, among
other, conclusions :
"First. That the said people (the people in the
Forks) had quite mistaken the matter in deeming
themselves already erected, whereas it is not so ; only
they were granted leave to build an house for their
more convenient enjoying the visits of Mr. Boyd."
"Secondly. The Presbytery judge that said people
be contented as part of Mr. Boyd's charge as formerly ;
IN "the forks op bkandywine." 25
and, further, Presbytery judge that said people have
acted ungratefully towards Mr. Boyd and the congre-
gation of Octoraro for his former kindness and care
The Presbytery also ordered them to make a " list
of all the people of our communion or profession
dwelling in the confines of said designed erection
next to the border of Octoraro, and send said list to
At a meeting of the Presbytery of Donegal, held
June 10, 1735, Jno. Hamilton, as commissioner from
the Forks of Brandywine, presented a " supplication"
to be erected into a distinct congregation, a list of
the people according to the order of Presbytery,
and a paper, unsubscribed, alleged to be from said
people, casting groundless reflections on Mr. Boyd.
"With this paper the Presbytery find great fault."
The Presbytery ordered the usual perambulations,
and also selected two persons, who were directed to,
choose a third, to act as arbitrators in settling the
difficulty with William Craige, " who complained of
being wronged in relation to his interest in a part of
On the 15th of September, 17,35,* another " sup-
plication" from the Forks of Brandywine was pre-
sented to the Presbytery, and also a request that
Presbytery would concur with them in endeavoring
to procure a visit from some of the young gentlemen
lately arrived from Ireland and connected with New
Castle Presbytery, in order to give such visitor a call.
* 26th of September, New Style.
26 HISTORY OP THE PKESBYTEBIAN CHURCH
The Presbytery, after observing that they had been
badly treated, and having received an apology from
the Commissioners for their " misdemeanor," and an
assurance that all arrearages to Mr. Boyd would be
paid until the next November, " erected said people
into a distinct congregation."
The Presbytery also complained of the location of
the naeeting-house, and recommended that no dead be
buried there until the matter was finally settled.
In April, 1736, Jno. Hamilton and James Ward
appeared as Commissioners from the Forks of Brandy-
wine, with a list of subscriptions and a call to Mr.
Samuel Black, one of the young men above referred
to. The Presbytery did not consider the call to be in
proper form, and also disapproved of the sum of fifty
pounds mentioned in the call, when the subscription
was nearly sixty-six, but placed the consideration of
it with Mr. Black.
May 23, 1736, at a meeting of the Presbytery held
at Nottingham, Bobert Hamilton and Edward Irwin,.
Commissioners from the Forks of Brandywine, pre-
sented a call to Mr. Black, with the amount increased
to fifty-fi.ve pounds Pennsylvania currency ($1461).
" The call was placed in the hands of Mr. Black, and
he accepted it."
On the 10th of November, 1736, the Presbytery
met at the Forks of Brandywine, and ordained and
installed Mr. Black as pastor of the congregation.
No records remain of the number of members of
the Church when Mr. Black became pastor. Nor are
there any means of ascertaining the attendance on
the Sabbath, or the interest manifested in the subject
of religion. That the members were few, and the
weekly assemblages far from large, may be inferred
from the condition of the country, which was still, to
a great extent, a wilderness. This is shown by the
report of the Commissioners who laid out the Paxtang
Road* in ,1735-36. In that report they make no
mention of farms or buildings of any kind, except the
" Presbyterian's Meetirig-House," in the entire dis-
tance from the Welsh Mountain, or Lancaster County
line, to several miles northeast of this place.
Indeed, even so late as the close of the Revolu-
tionary war, the roads were little more than " bridle-
paths" through the forest. Those, therefore, whom
business detained to a late hour at Chester, then the
"seat of justice," were often obliged to leave the
"finding of the way home" to that sagacious animal,
Mr. Black had been settled but a short time as pas-
tor, when the difference of views which prevailed in
the Presbyterian Church, and which finally led to the
" Great Schism," caused dissensions between him and
his people, and gave rise to - charges and counter-
charges which were far from creditable to either the
pastor or the members of his flock. This state of
affairs, alike unfavorable to the growth of the Church
and the promotion of piety, continued in this and
other congregations until the Protest of June 1,
1741, closed the controversy, and the Presbyterian
* Peixtan, spelled Peichong, Pechetan, Paxtang, and Paxton, in old
records, once an Indian wigwam or village where Harrisburg now
stands. (Rupp, " Hist, of Lancaster Co.")
28 HISTORY OP THE PKESBYTERIAN CHTJECH
Church became two separate bodies with a distinct
Immediately after this event a majority of Mr.
Black's charge withdrew, and, those who remained
being too few to sustain weekly services oh the Sab-
bath, the pastoral relation was dissolved.
The minority. Old Side, either by an amicable
arrangement or a determined' resistance, kept posses-
sion of the meeting-house and ground, and obtained
permission from Presbytery to engage the services of
Mr. Boyd, of Octoraro, one-half of his time, at a
yearly salary of twenty pounds, Pennsylvania cur-
Mr. Boyd was installed on the 12th of August,
1741, and continued to be their pastor until a few
months after the reunion. May 28, 1758, when he
ceased to occupy their pulpit, although the pastoral
relation was not formally dissolved.
In the mean time, those who seceded. New Side,
were not inactive. They purchased a rectangular lot
of ground containing three acres, a little to the east
of the former church property, and erected a com-
fortable building for public worship. They were
regularly supplied by the Synod of New Brunswick
until May or June, 1745, when the Kev. Mr. Dean
became their pastor. He remained until his death, in
Of the condition of this church during his short
ministry no record can be found,* but, from the tra-
* The Minutes of the " New Side" Presbytery of New Castle are
m " THE FOKKS OF BKANDYWINE." 29
ditional popularity and faithfulness of Mr. Dean, the
conclusion may be drawn that it was highly pros-
After his death, although the congregation gave a
call to a Mr. John Todd, and perhaps to some others,
they remained without a stated pastor, but, as the'
heat of the controversy cooled with the lapse of years,
many of them attended the ministry of Mr. Boyd.
From the withdrawal of Mr. Boyd, in the autumn
of 1758, until the installation of Mr. Carmichael, in
the spring of 1761, the pulpits of both the churches
were vacant, and public worship seems to have been
in a measure suspended.
After the settlement of Mr. Carmichael, an almost
immediate change took place. Energetic, zealous, and
faithful, he soon acquired a commanding influence,
which resulted in the erection of a large and con-
venient meeting-house, the restoration of harmony
among the people, and ' the addition of many to the
During the struggle for National Independence,
when, as happens in almost all wars, inroads are made
on morals and piety languishes, the religious fervor of
his people was not permitted to cool, nor the efforts
to arrest the torrent of vice to become either few or
Believing with the Hebrew King, that he who win-
neth souls is wise, Mr. Carmichael, after the close
of the Revolutionary conflict, labored with increased
diligence for the conversion of sinners, until his death
left his congregation to mourn the loss of their beloved
30 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTEEIAN CHURCH
From the commencement to the end of his ministry,
although there were few copious showers, yet the
outspread fleece was always wet with the dews of
A few months after the decease of Mr. Carmichael
the church building was destroyed by fire. As this
occurred at a period of financial depression and un-
certainty, the hand of affliction seemed to be laid
heavily upon the flock without a shepherd. Trusting,
however, that the Great Head of the Church would
temper His chastisements with mercy, they obtained
supplies from the Presbytery of New Castle and also
of Philadelphia, engaged energetically in the collec-
tion of funds, and soon commenced the reconstruction
of their meeting-house.
Among those who supplied the vacant pulpit, was
Nathan Grier, a licentiate of the Presbytery of Phil-
adelphia. His preaching was so well received that
before the building was completed the congregation
gave him a unanimous call. This he accepted, and,
having placed himself under the care of the Presby-
tery of New Castle, to which the church belonged^ was
ordained and installed the twenty-second of August,
Mr. Grier entered with zeal on the discharge of
the duties of his pastorate, and the results of his in-
dustry and faithfulness soon became manifest. The
rebuilding of the meeting-house was finished. The
difficulties which arose from the unsettled monetary
condition of the country were overcome, and the
burden of sorrow was lifted from the hearts of
those who, adopting the plaintive language of the
IN " THE FORKS OF BRANDYWINE." 31
prophet,* had refused to be comforted on account of
the destruction of the house of God and the death
of him who had ministered at its altar.
Having the reputation of an able divine, " apt to
teach," members of his congregation and others who
were preparing for the Christian ministry gladly
placed themselves under his direction. They were
faithfully traiiled, and near a score of young men
went forth prepared to battle with the arch-enemy of
But the labors of Mr. Grier as a teacher and a
pastor were unexpectedly ended. While his eye was
scarcely dimmed and his natural force unabated, he
was removed from his abode on earth to his Heavenly
home. The grief on account of his death was wide-
spread, and a greater number followed his remains to
the grave than the most aged had ever seen assem-
bled on a similar occasion.
How many were connected with the Church at the
commencement of the ministry of the Rev. Nathan
Grier cannot be ascertained. ' At its close the num-
ber of members was two hundred and thirty-two.
A record of those admitted annually to the Church
the last ten years of his pastorate has been pre-
served. Taking the addition to the membership
each year of that period as the annual average, not
less than six hundred became connected with the
Church during the nearly twenty-seven years of his
Shortly after the death of Mr. Grier, a call from
* Isaiah Ixiv. 11.
32 HISTOEY OF THE PE.ESBYTEEIAN CHUECH
the congregation was placed in the hands of his
younger son, the Rev. J. N. C. Grier. This call he
accepted, and on the twenty-fourth of November,
1814, entered on his pastoi:ate of upwards of fifty-
At that period many of the customs and habits of
the first settlers prevailed. The members of the con-
gregation came on horseback or a-foot to attend the
services of the sanctuary, a large number of them
clothed in garments of domestic manufacture. Visits
to the cities, or intercourse with the world at a dis-
tance, w6re limited. There was no post-office nearer
than Coatesville or Downingtpwn, and few religious
periodicals. Sunday-schools were not organized in a
single church connected with the Presbytery, and
societies for the suppression of intemperance were
unknown. But an increase of facilities for travel
and the general advance of improvement wrought
changes. A post-office was established at a convenient
distance in 1816. A Sunday-school was organized in
1820, a missionary society in 1829, and a temperance
association formed in 1831. A religious newspaper,
published at Wilmington, Delaware, was taken by
several members of the Church, and the taste for
reading created among the young by the publications
of the Sunday-School and the Tract Society* led, a few
years later, to the general support and perusal of the
'Presbyterian, Presbyterian Journal, American Messen-
ger, and other religious periodicals.
In several of these movements Dr. Grier took an
Organized in 1825.
IN " THE FOKKS OF BBANDYWINE." 33
active and in others a leading part, while all of them
had his cordial support.
But his labors were not confined to merely bettering
the temporal condition, or in improving and increas-
ing the facilities for acquiring knowledge. In the
pulpit he faithfully preached Jesus Christ and Him
crucified as the sinner's only hope of safety, and
earnestly besought the impenitent to lay hold of the
salvation offered in the Gospel. At every communion
there was an addition to the church membership, but
in 1822, and especially in 1831 and several yeai's
immediately following, there was a copious " refresh-
ing from the Lord," and a large number became
members of his charge. Such was the success of
his labors that, notwithstanding four Presbyterian
Churches which "live and flourish," and ten belong-
ing to other denominations were organized within
what had been the bounds of his charge, the mem-
bership of the Church at the close of his ministry
was about the same as when he entered on the dis-
charge of his duties as pastor.
Although Dr. Grier was not called upon, as Mr. Car-
michael had been, to aid in the struggle for National
Independence, nor, like his father, to train young men
as ambassador^ for Christ, yet he added by his faith-
fulness to the number of those who went forth as
heralds of the everlasting Gospel. During his pas-
torate sixteen young men to whom he first broke the
" Bread of Life" devoted themselves to the Christian
ministry. Two of them, Mr. David Templeton and
Mr. Matthew Brown, were removed to the "better
land" before they had finished their theological
34 HISTOKY OF THE PBESBYTERIAN CHTJKCH
course. The other fourteen, of whom short bio-
graphical sketches are given in this work, became
faithful soldiers of the Cross. Eight of them have
fought the good fight and finished their course re-
joicing. One, after a successful pastorate of twenty-
one years, was forced by ill health to withdraw from
active service at the altar; another was the founder and
for a long period the principal of a popular educational
institution, and a third is the senior editor of a widely-
circulated and influential religious newspaper. The
remaining five are engaged in making known "the
unsearchable riches of Christ" in each of the Middle
and one of the Western States.
But while Dr. Grier was zealously and earnestly
engaged in the discharge of the duties of his sacred
calling, the lapse of more than half a century brought
changes. The members of Presbytery with whom he
first met had passed away. A majority of his hearers
on the Sabbath were the descendants of those who had
invited him to take the spiritual oversight of the con-
gregation. The infirmities of more than threescore
and ten pressed heavily upon him, and, feeling that he
was no longer able to labor in the Master's vineyard,
he requested and obtained a dissolution of the pastoral
After the retirement of Dr. Grier the congregation
was dependent on supplies. Among those who oc-
cupied the vacant pulpit was the Eev. Wm. W.
Heberton, a licentiate of the Central Presbytery of
Philadelphia. The services of Mr. Heberton were
* Appendix H.
IN " THE FORKS OF BEANDYWINE." 35
SO well received that a call made on the 18th of July,
1869, by the congregation, to become their pastor, was
placed in his hands, which he accepted, and was
ordained and installed October 28, 1869. The
pastoral relation was dissolved in October, 1872, by
the Presbytery of Chester.
During the ministry of Mr. Heberton the parson-
age was built, twenty-nine were added to the member-
ship of the Church, and three of the Ruling Elders
were removed by death.
In June, 1873, Mr. Heberton was installed pastor
of the Presbyterian Church at Elkton, Md., where
"the work of, the Lord has prospered in his hands."
Near a hundred have united with the Church during
Ms ministry. Christian harmony prevails, and the
influence for good of both the pastor and his people
is daily increasing.* >
After the withdrawal of Mr. Heberton the pulpit
was supplied by the Rev. Mr. Bingham, of Oxford,
Pa., and by some young men who were candidates for
settlement. Among them was the Rev. John M'Coll,
a graduate of the University of Toronto, Canada, and
of the Theological Seminary at Princeton.
* Mr. Heberton is a native of Columbia County, in this State. His
classical studies were pursued at Media, Delaware County, and bis
collegiate at Lafayette, Easton, where he was graduated in 1865. He
spent the next eighteen months after bis graduation in the study of
medicine, and then entered the Theological Seminary at Princeton.
He finished his preparation for the ministry in the spring of 1869,
and was licensed in April of that year. His pastoral oversight of
this congregation was his first charge.
36 HISTORY OF THE PBESBYTEEIAN CHTJECH
The ministrations of Mr. M'Coll were so satisfac-
tory that he received a call from the congregation to
become their pastor,, and was ordained and installed
by a committee of the Presbytery of Chester on the
24th of July, 1873. On that occasion the Eev. J.
Collier presided, Rev. Mr. Totheroth preached the
sermon, Rev. Mr. Pomeroy charged the pastor, and
Rev. Mr. Collier the people. The trial-sermon of
Mr. M'Coll was from Heb. iv. 12.
The ministry of Mr. M'Coll has been successful, and
the membership of the church under his discreet over-
sight has increased. Two Sabbath-schools have been
organized in the outlying districts of his charge.
The new church edifice is filled on the Sabbath, and
a growing interest in the subject of religion is daily
becoming more manifest.
The meeting-house having become scarcely safe for
public worship and the congregation having resolved
to build another, Mr. M'Coll aided greatly in the
furtherance of the work by the collection and disburse-
ment of funds, the arrangement of plans, and encour-
agement at periods of difficulty and despondency.
Finally, his efforts, seconded by the liberality of his
congregation, were crowned with success. When the
new meeting-house, free from debt, was dedicated to
the service of the Triune God, he could thankfully
and reverently have asked, in the words of the
Psalmist, " Who am I and what is my people that we
should be able to offer so willingly after this sort ?"
May the pastorate so auspiciously begun be long
continued, and on the Great Day may many, very
many, whom he had gathered into the fold of the
IN " THE rOEKS OF BRANDY WINE." 37
Redeemer, shine as stars in the " Crown of his rejoic-
Of this building we have no authentic information,
except such as some remains of the foundation which
existed at a comparatively recent period afforded of
its size and situation, and a few collateral statements
which have escaped the ravages of time. In all else
tradition is the only authority. But in this instance
tradition agrees with the recorded description of
buildings erected for the same purpose in the pioneer
settlements of Virginia, North Carolina, and the
western counties of our own State.
This meeting-house, which was built either in the
summer or fall of 1734, stood in what is now a part
of the " upper graveyard," a few rods east from the
northwest corner of the ground which the congrega-
tion had obtained for church purposes. The size was
about forty feet by twenty-five. It was placed, like
nearly all buildings erected at that period, with the
front to the south, and north of the Indian trail, then
used as the highway. The material used was un-
* Minutes of Presbytery of Newcastle ; Minutes of Presbytery
of Donegal ; Dr. Grier's " Historical Discourse ;" Cburoh Records ;
■f Buildings set apart for public worship by the early settlers, Bap-
tists, Presbyterians, and Friends, were called meeting-houses, as they
still are by the last-named denomination. In England the places of
worship of the Dissenters are uniformly called meeting-houses.
38 HISTOEY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHTJKCH
hewn logs, ridged and notched at the corners, and let
into what workmen call a king-post in the middle of
each side. It was low, dimly lighted, unplastered,
and without any means of obtaining heat. Logs cleft
in two and smoothed on one side served as seats, and
the pulpit was little more than a rough, elevated table.
Rudely constructed and poorly furnished, it was also
far from being a substantial building. This is shown
by the fact that, although it was used, at least twice a
month, during twenty-five years for divine worship,
and considerable repairs must have been made, yet at
the end of that period it was wholly unfit for the
public services of the sanctuary.
That comfortless structure would contrast strangely
with the commodious edifice which has recently been
built ; and yet many interesting events, events which
ought never to be forgotten, are associated with that
primitive meeting-house. In it those worshipped who
organized a church in this portion of what was then
a wilderness. There Samuel Black entered on the
arduous labors of a pioneer minister of the Gospel ;
and there Adam Boyd, during seventeen years, broke
the Bread of Life to those who had come for Spiritual
nourishment through pathless forests and from laumble
homes, and who devoutly thanked God that they could
worship Him without the dread of banishment, the
dungeon, or the stake.
More than a century has passed since Black and
Boyd were called to their reward, and the features of
all and even the names of the greater part of their
hearers are no longer remembered ; but the germs of
truth which they planted continue to flourish and
bear immortal fruit. The ground which they devoted
to sacred purposes is still hallowed ground, and along
the course of one hundred and fifty years are strewn
blessed proofs that the Most High has had the Church
then organized in His Holy Keeping.
This was probably built in 1744, and may have
been one of the inducements which led the Rev. Mr.
Dean to accept a second call from the New Side con-
gregation. It stood on the vacant ground immediately
above the " lower graveyard," with the front to the
south. It was a well-constructed frame building,
about forty-five feet by thirty-five, one story high,
with a hipped or angular roof, and without a gallery.*
There does not appear to have been any means for
affording heat in the building ; but this inconvenience
was probably obviated, to some extent, by the Session-
House, which was placed near' the southeast corner of
the property. This, like the Session-Houses built at
an early period in other parts of this State, may have
been furnished with a fireplace, where persons could
have the benefit of heat before they entered the main
When the union of the Presbyterian Church took
place, in 1758, and the first meeting-house was aban-
* The difference between the first and the second meeting-house
shows the advance which had been made in ten years in the prepara-
tion and use of materials. The first saw-mill in the vicinity, accord-
ing to tradition, was built about 1Y40, on the West Branch of the
Brandywine, above the Beaver Dam.
40 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
doned, this building was too small to accomiitfodate all
who assembled on the Sabbath, and after the erection
of the Manor Meeting-House it was no longer used
as a place for public worship. It remained unoccu-
pied several years, until the members who resided in
the eastern bounds of the congregation moved it to
the ground connected with the new church edifice
and placed it about sixty yards to the east of that
building. There it served, partly as a shed for stand-
ing horses, partly as a place for depositing saddles
and umbrellas in stormy weather, and remained
until the winter of 1812 or '13, when it was blown
down and the materials used for fuel.
Although this building stood upwards of two-thirds
of a century, public worship was not conducted in it
more than fifteen or sixteen years ; but during those
years many incidents worthy of record took place
within its walls. In it Dean performed his last
labor ere he was called to his Heavenly rest; and
Samuel Blair, John Blair, William Tennent, and
others scarcely less eminent, dwelt with awakening
earnestness on the condition of the lost. There John
Carmichael was installed as pastor of the united con-
gregations, and entered on that important relation
which ended only .with his life, and from its sacred
desk was diffused a warm, active piety, alike opposed
to cold formality and a listless profession.
THIRD MEETING-HOUSE. " MANOB, MEETING-HOUSE."*
The erection of this meeting-house, as is stated else-
where, was due in a great measure to the energy and
popularity of the pastor, Mr. Carmichael. The united
congregations rightly judging that the number attend-
ing on the services of the sanctuary would be largely
increased, determined to erect a building which would
accommodate all. They immediately made eflforts to
obtain the means, and were so successful that the
work was commenced in the latter part of the summer
of 1761. Their recently installed pastor, whose labor
in forwarding the undertaking had been unceasing,
delivered an animated address when the corner-stone
was laid, and at the conclusion of the ceremonies, in
accordance with the custom of the time, threw a
Twenty-Shilling note on the stone to treat the masons.
The building was erected under the direction of
Samuel Cunningham,f chief carpenter. No cut stone
* It received the name of the Manor Meeting-House because it
was placed within the limits of Springtown (Springton) Manor.
This Manor was laid out in 1729, but its boundaries were not finally
determined until near a score of years afterwards. It included nearly
the whole of the present Township of Wallace, and portions of
West Brandywine, West Nantmeal, and Honeybrook. The first set-
tlers in this Manor were, with two or three exceptions, Scotch and
Scotch-Irish. The misnomer, Brandywine Manor, given to the first
post-office established near the Church edifice, gradually led to its
being applied to the Church itself, by which name, except in ecclesias-
tical records, it is now generally known.
"j" Samuel Cunningham, whose remains were interred in the " lower
graveyard," was a Member of the Assembly from Chester County in
1776-77 ; a Delegate to the Convention which formed the First
Constitution of Pennsylvania ; a Collector of the Excise, and many
42 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
was used in the construction, nor any lumber which
was not obtained from the neighboring forests, except
the outer covering of the roof.
This Meeting-House was sixty-five feet by forty-
five, two stories high, and at the time of its erection
was the largest stone edifice in the northwestern part
of Chester County.
The Pulpit was placed in the South side of the
building. There was an entrance at the East end,
and another at the West, connected by an aisle which
equally divided the lower part of the building or
audience-room. Another aisle led from this to an
entrance on the North side opposite the Pulpit. All
the pews were arranged from North to South. Those,
therefore, who occupied the pews North of the main
aisle sat with a side to the Pulpit. There were no
flues nor any arrangement made in the construction
of the building for supplying heat.
This Meeting-House was never completed accord-
ing to the original plan ; the gallery and some other
parts being omitted on account of a want of funds.
In order to afford some degree of warmth vessels
made of sheet-iron and shaped like a mill-hopper
were placed in the aisles and filled with live coals.
Some of the coals falling on the floor caused the
destruction of the building in February, 1786. The
sexton, it was said, saw the light when the fire might
have been extinguished, but being a believer in ap-
years a Justice of the Peace. His death occurred June 22, 1806,
aged seventy-four. A great-grandson of Esqr. Cunningham, Matthew
Brown, died while preparing to enter the ministry.
IN " THE FORKS OF BE ANDY WINE." 43
paritions, he did not venture near until others attracted
by the light arrived, when nothing could be done to
arrest the progress of the flames.
The members of the congregation, deeply grieved
by the recent death of their beloved pastor, Mr. Car-
michael, were now subjected to the additional affliction
of seeing all that was combustible in their Meeting-
House reduced to ashes. They were dismayed but
not disheartened. In the beginning of the next
month, March, 1786, they addressed a well-written and
earnest appeal* to their Christian brethren for assist-
ance, and appointed agents to solicit aid.
Among the most diligent of those engaged in
collecting funds was Eider William Hunter. He
called for that purpose not only at every house within
a distance of several miles, but even accosted persons
on the highway, earnestly requesting and thankfully
receiving even the smallest amount. He also visited
Chester, the Turk's Head, now West Chester, and
Philadelphia, then the seat of the general government,
where he obtained assistance from the following well-
known citizens :
Dr. Rush and Dr. Frankliuj Signers of the Declara-
tion of Independence.
David Rittenhouse, the celebrated mathematician,
and the first Director of the Mint of the United
Edward Shippen, the first Mayor of Philadelphia,
and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of this State.
William Shippen, a Professor in the University of
* See Appendix A.
44 HISTORY OF THE PKESBYTERIAN CHURCH
Pennsylvania, and the first who delivered a course of -
Medical Lectures in America.
William Bradford, Attorney-General of the United
Colonel Andrew Porter, an ofiicer in the army
of the Kevolution, and Surveyor-General of Penn-
Tench Coxe, an able writer on Political Economy.
General John Potter, a distinguished officer in the
John Nicholson, the well-known land agent.
Jonathan D. Sargent, at that time the leading
member of the Philadelphia Bar.
Mark Wilcox, an influential merchant.
Joseph and Colonel William Dean, sons of the
Rev. William Dean, and many others less known,
but not less benevolent.
These names are given to show that at a period
when the country was impoverished by war, when it
had only a depreciated and depreciating currency,
and was without a stable form of government, men
of all classes contributed to the fund for the restora-
tion of the venerable building which withstood the
storms of more than a century and around which so
many hallowed associations clustered.
But to return to the history of the reconstruction
of the Church edifice. When sufficient funds had been
collected, as the members of the congregation supposed,
to restore their Meeting-House, the work was com-
menced. The walls, with the exception of the gables,
having been found on examination to be so far unin-
jured as not to require them to be taken down, the
IN " THE FORKS OF BKANDYWINE." 45
reconstruction was confined mainly to roofing the
building and restoring the interior. In doing this
several alterations and some additions were made.
A gallery was placed along each end and the side
opposite the Pulpit. The pews North of the Main
Aisle, which formerly ran from North to South, were
arranged in a direction East and West, or at right
angles to those South of that avenue. Flues were
built in the gables, and ten-plate stoves, the gift of
Colonel Grubb, of Lancaster County, were placed in
the aisles. The Pulpit was remodelled, made to
occupy less space, and furnished with a "sounding-
board," or projection from the wall over the head of
the speaker. At the base of the Pulpit and not un-
like it, though smaller, a stand was arranged for the
use of the precentors, or those who led the choir. To
prevent accidents by fire in the same manner as had
occurred, the aisles were laid with mortar or cement
instead of boards.
The reconstruction was done under the direction of
Samuel Cunningham, Esq., who, as before stated, had
the oversight of the building when it was first erected.*
Although the work was commenced in the summer of
1786, it progressed slowly, and the building was not
entirely completed when the E.ev. Nathan Grier was
installed as pastor, in August, 1787. The cost, as
appears by the Treasurer's account, was a little more
than a Thousand Pounds Pennsylvania currency, or
about twenty-seven hundred dollars.
* He superintended the erection of the second Meeting-House at
Fagg's Manor, and probably of the third Meeting-House at Octoraro,
built/ in 1769.
46 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
This meeting-house remained without any change
in the interior and with trifling repairs, except a new
roof (in 1827), until 1839. In that year it was re-
modelled and made to conform in a consideral^le
degree to the plan adopted in the arrangement of
Church edifices at the present time. As the alterations
then made remained until the building was taken
down, in 1875, it is unnecessary to state them ex-
cept as matters of record. Suffice it to say that the
door at the North side, and also the one at the East
end, were walled up. Instead of these a door was
made on the South side about twelve feet from the East
corner. An aisle led from this door in front of the
Pulpit, which was placed in a recess at the East end of
the building. A gallery was constructed along both
sides and the end opposite the Pulpit. This gallery
was reached by a flight of stairs on each side of the
vestibule, which adjoined the main entrance at the
West end. Aisles with a row of pews on each side led
from the vestibule to the aisle in front of the Pulpit.
Such are the main facts connected with a building
whose walls stood one hundred and fourteen years-,
and whose size and situation remained unchanged
during that long period. When it was erected there
was no other house for public worship within ten
miles in any direction except the Seceder Meeting-
House, no longer in existence, and the Friends' Meet-
ing-House "up on the hill from the valley," Old
Cain, built in 1756. Now, in addition to -four other
Church edifices belonging to Presbyterians, there are
in the same bounds twenty buildings for Divine wor-
ship, occupied by five different denominations.
iw "the foeks of beandywine." 47
It may be stated as a fitting close to the history of
the Manor Meeting-House, that from the dedication
of the building in 1761 until it was taken down in
1875,* the congregations worshipping in it were not
more than three years without a stated ministry.
Also that during one hundred and five years of that
interval its pulpit was occupied by three pastors only,
— the Rev. John Carmichael, the Rev. Nathan Grier,
and the Rev. J. N. C. Grier, D.D. An example of
Christian harmony and of attachment between pastors
and people which has few parallels even in the annals
of the Presbyterian Church.f
The Manor Meeting-House having become in a
measure unsafe, and in need of extensive repairs, the
question arose, whether it would be better to place that
building in a proper condition for public worship or
to erect another. On the one hand, it was evident
that repairing it would only be a postponement for
some years of the erection of a church edifice, and
that, if refitted in the best manner possible, it would
still be wanting in a lecture-room and other conven-
iences, now deemed necessary in houses set apart for
the services of the sanctuary. On the other hand, the
expense of erecting a building at a period of pecun-
iary embarrassment, and the desire of many to preserve
* The last sermon was preached in the building June 13, 1875, by
the pastor, Mr. M'Coll, from Jeremiah vi. 13.
■j" Local Memoranda ; Records of Session ; Minutes of Presbytery
48 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
the meeting-house in which they and their fathers
had worshipped, were subjects for earnest and thought-
Several meetings were held, at which the matter was
discussed and carefully examined in all its bearings,
but without arriving at a definite conclusion. At last
a committee was appointed to report on the condition
of the meeting-house, and to state whether it would be
best to repair or to build.
On the 24th of March, 1874, the committee re-
ported that after hearing the opinion of competent
men, Messrs. Sloan and Bunn, of Honey Brook, who
had examined the meeting-house, it had been unan-
imously resolved to recommend the erection of a new
church edifice. The report was accepted, and a reso-
lution adopted to proceed as soon as possible in con-
'structing a building. The pastor, Mr. McColl, was
appointed to solicit funds for that purpose, and re-
quested to report when, according to his judgment, an
amount sufficient to warrant a commencement of the
work had been secured.
Having entered on the performance of the task
assigned him with ancestral Scotch zeal and persever-
ance, Mr. McColl was able to state at a meeting of the
congregation, held the next September (15th), that
in addition to many offers of labor gratuitously, up-
wards of ten thousand dollars had been subscribed.
It was therefore determined to commence the work
early the next spring. At the same meeting Messrs.
John Ralston, William Templeton, and Baxter B.
McClure were chosen a committee to procure plans
and have the general oversight in the construction of
IN " THE FOKKS OF BEANDYWINE." 49
the building. Mr. McColl was also appointed treas-
urer of the funds collected for the " new erection."
The members of the committee, in compliance with
their instructions, examined several church edifices,'
and engaged Mr. Samuel Sloan, an architect of Phila-
delphia, to furnish plans. They likewise invited
proposals from builders, and, after careful deliberation,
awarded the contract for the greater portion of the
work to Mr. William Poole, of Philadelphia."
The masons began work on the foundation the 28th
of June, 1875, and the corner-stone was laid with
appropriate ceremonies* on the 7th of August in the
same year. Owing, however, to unfavorable weather,
the limited means of the contractor, and other causes,
the work progressed slowly, and in the beginning of
July, 1876, after all the stone had been laid, Mr.
Poole abandoned the contract. The members of the
committee were therefore obliged to take upon them-
selves the completing of the building. They em-
ployed Ulysses K. Beam, who superintended the
carpenter work, Samuel B. Buchannan the plaster-
ing, and S. B. Williams the painting.
The building, with the exception of a part of the
tower and the spire, having been at last finished, the
14th of December, 1876, was appointed for the dedica-
tion of it to the service of Almighty God.
On that occasion Dr. J. N. C. Grier made the
opening prayer. Dr. Matthew B. Grier read a portion
of Scripture, Dr. N. G. Parke, of Pittston, Pa., led
in prayer, and Dr. Dickey, pastor of the Calvary
* See Appendix B.
50 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTEEIAN CHURCH
Church, Philadelphia, preached the sermon from II.
Cor. iii. 18. Remarks were also made by Rev. J. C.
Thompson, then of Hagerstown, Md., Rev. J. A.
Liggett, of Rahway, N. J., Rev. Thomas S. Long, of
Bloomsbury, in the same State, and Rev. David W.
Moore, at that time a resident of McVeytown, Pa.
As a considerable amount was still needed to pay
the indebtedness, after the close of the religious ex-
ercises>an effort was made to procure funds sufficient
for that purpose. When about three thousand six
hundred dollars had been subscribed, it was concluded
to postpone the dedication until the next Sabbath,
in order that the building might, if possible, be con-
secrated to the service of the Most High free from
On Sabbath, December 17, after a sermon by the
Rev. J. C. Thompson, and addresses by the Rev. David
W. Moore and the pastor, the amount needed to pay
all arrearages was pledged. The dedicatory prayer
was then offered by the Rev. Mr. Moore, and the
congregation, after singing the 187th Psalm, was
The building thus happily completed and freed
from debt stands a short distance south of the site
occupied by the Manor Meeting-House, with the
front towards the North and parallel to the public
road. It is seventy-three feet by fifty-four feet, with
a recess for the pulpit, and contains a lecture- and
Sabbath-school-rooms below, and an audience-room,
with a gallery at one end, above. The audience-room
is sixty-eight feet by forty-nine including gallery,
with a height of thirty-seven feet to the apex in the
IN " THE FORKS OF BRANDYWINE." 51
centre. This room is neatly and appropriately fur-
nished, and the pews, which afford seats for about four
hundred and fifty, are convenient and well arranged.
A striking feature, and one which adds beauty and
interest to the building, is the memorial windows.
Of these, there are no less than nine commemorative
of the Rev'ds John Carmichael, Nathan Grier, and
J. N. C. Grier, D.D., Elder James Ralston, Elder
James K. Grier, Joseph Mackelduff, Benjamin and
Agnes McClure, the Manor Sunday-School and the
Sunday-School at Eockville.
The entire structure presents an imposing appear-
ance, and, owing tp the elevated situation, is visible at
a distance of several miles in almost every direction.
The cost of the building and improvement of the
enclosure may be jilaced at twenty-one thousand
dollars. Of this, about one thousand dollars was con-
tributed in labor. The ladies of the congregation
raised nearly fourteen hundred dollars by festivals,
a fair, and a su2i2>er. The memorial windows were
presented by the members of the Sunday-Schools and
by the friends or relatives of the godly persons whose
names they are intended to perpetuate.
Although .great credit should be given to the
members of the Building Committee for the careful
manner in which they j^erformed the duty assigned
them, and also to those who so liberally contributed
funds for the erection of the building, yet much is
due to the popularity, zeal, and perseverance of the
pastor, Mr. McColl. Like his predecessor, Mr. Car-
michael, he has been instrumental in obtaining the
construction of a large and substantial building for
52 mSTOKY OF THE PKEBBYTEEIAN CHTJKCH
public worship, which will remain long after he has
been removed to a " house not made with hands."
Such is a brief history of the Fourth Meeting-
House. What the record will be when it shall have
been so much impaired by the destroying hand of
time as to require another in its stead, is known only
to Him " who sees the end from the beginning." But
trusting that He will watch over and bless the Church
established in this place, in the future as He has done
in the past, may it not be hoped that those who
assemble the last time within this consecrated build-
ing will be able truthfully to say, ' Here the Gospel
has been preached with faithfulness and power. Here
many have been brought to a knowledge of the Saviour.
From these hallowed precincts an influence has been
diffused whose beneficial results will never be fully
known until the " Book of Remembrance" shall be
opened, and all the descendants of Adam shall stand
before their Final Judge.' *
Messrs. Gellatlyf and Arnott, the first missionaries
sent by the Seceder Church to America, arrived in
1753. Being energetic, faithful, and well received,
especially by those of the early settlers who had been
connected with that denomination in the fatherland,
and favored by the schism in the Presbyterian Church,
they, Henderson, Mason, Annan, Smart, and others,
* Minutes of Building Committee ; Records of Session ; Com.
from the Pastor, Mr. McColl ; Local Memoranda.
t Gellatly died in April (12th), 17G1.
IN " THE PORKS OF BKANDYWIWE." 63
gathered congregations and erected buildings for
public worship. One of these was placed on the
southern slope of the Barren Hill, where the Wagon-
town Road intersects the road leading to Coatesville,
and a few hundred yards from two Presbyterian
Meeting-Houses. This building, erected in 1766 or
'57, was poorly constructed, and had become so much
out of repair in 1780 that a board tent was placed
in front of it and used in its stead. Religious ex-
ercises, were conducted in the tent by men of learning
and ability until about the beginning of the present
century, when the older members being dead and
others having connected themselves with the Manor
Presbyterian Church, those who remained were too
few to support a stated ministry, and finally ceased to
be a distinct organization. As a consequence the
buildings were neglected and soon decayed. Owing
to its being used as a school-house, and receiving
some repairs, the Session -house, which was built of very
small logs, remained a few years after the other struc-
tures were in ruins. No traces either of it or of the -
Church edifice and tent are visible.
The graveyard, which occupies about one-eighth of
an acre, is kept in repair by some of the descendants
of those who obtained the site, and is still used as a
burial-ground. It contains a number of graves, many
of them unmarked. The first memorial stone placed
in it bears the date of 1768, the last of 1880.
John Gilleland, who owned the adjoining farm,
probably gave the land occupied by the buildings and
graveyard. His only son, who was murdered by
some Hessian marauders shortly after the battle of
54 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTERIAN CHURCH.
Brandywine, was laid to rest in this enclosure, but no
lettered stone preserves the name of the victim of
hireling barbarity. A grandson of Mr. Gilleland,
the Rev. James Buchanan, was long a faithful min-
ister of the Presbyterian Church. Nathaniel Erwin,
a soldier of the Continental army and a son of one
of the first settlers, and several of his descendants,
are buried in this graveyard.
While the futility of attempting to support three
churches, differing in non-essentials only, within a
short distance of one another, is shown by their
becoming merged in one, it nevertheless makes mani-
fest the determination of our fathers to sustain a
preached Gospel, and their adherence to the doc-
trines and modes of worship which they had learned
and practised before their settlement in the wilds of
* McKerrow, " Hist, of Secession Church ;" Buck, " Theological
Dictionary;" "Reminiscences of James Dorian;" Local Memoranda.
DECEASED PASTORS OF BRANDYWINE MANOR
" And I will give you pastors according to mine heart, whicli shall
feed you with knowledge and understanding."— Jer. iii. 15.
EEV. SAMUEJ. BLACK.
Born 1700. Died 1770.
As has been already stated, the pulpits of the
Presbyterian Church, during the first half-century of
its existence in America, were mainly supplied by
natives of Scotland and the North of Ireland. Some
of ' them came in answer to the Macedonian cry,
" comq over and help us," others actuated by the
spirit which guided Martyn, Heber, Birney, and their
fellow-laborers to the inhospitable regions of Asia and
Africa. They were mostly young men, who left home
and its comforts to share the privations and promote
the spiritual interests of their countrymen whom
penury or oppression had driven to the Western
Among those who were led to devote themselves to
ministerial labor on this side of the Atlantic was
5 . 57
58 HISTOEY OF THE PRESBYTEEIAN CHUKCH
Samuel Black, who was born in the Highlands of
Scotland, and educated at Edinburgh.
Mr. Black came to America in 1734 or '35, with
credentials, it is said, from the Synod of Glasgow,
and was received, as a probationer, by the Presbytery
of New Castle.
The Presbytery of Donegal, which was formed
October 11, 1732, consisted at first of but four mem-
bers.* This necessarily left a number of churches
within its bounds without any stated ministry. In
order to afford these destitute congregations an oppor-
tunity of hearing the preached word, the Presbytery
of New Castle, in 1735-36, sent several of its proba-
tioners and others to supply the vacant pulpits. The
Presbytery of Donegal resented this, and required
all who occupied pulpits within its jurisdiction to be
members of that body or, if probationers, that they
should be examined and licensed by the Presbytery.
Accordingly, when the congregation in this place
applied for Mr. Black , to preach for them as a can-
didate for " settlement," he obtained his dismissal from
the Presbytery of New Castle, and placed himself
under the care of the Presbytery of Donegal.
He was taken on " trials" May 23, 1736, preached
before Presbytery on Romans viii. 31, lectured on
the CXIX. Psalm, and read an Exegesis in Latin on
De supremo judice contraversiam religionis.
At the next meeting of the Presbytery, October
27, 1736, after further examination and the delivery
* They were Anderson, of Donegal ; Bertram, of Derry ; Orr, of
Lower Octoraro (Nottingham) ; and Boyd, of Upper Octoraro.
IN " THE FOKKS OF BEANDYWINE." 59
of discourses on Romans v. 1, and also on Romans
viii. 8, he was licensed to preach the Gospel.
Mr. Black having accepted a second call from the
Congregation in this place to become their pastor, the
Presbytery, at the same meeting, appointed the second
Wednesday in the November following for his ordina-
-tion and installation.
According to this appointment, he was ordained
and installed pastor of the Presbyterian Church in
the Forks of Brandywine on the 10th of November,
1736. James Anderson, of Donegal, presided and
preached from 1 Thess. v. 12 and 13. The only other
ministers present were Alexander Craighead, of
Middle Octoraro, and Ghelston, late the pastor of New-
London, who had recently joined the Presbytery of
Donegal, and was then supplying Pequea and other
Mr. Black had been settled but a short time in the
pastorate when the controversy which agitated and
finally divided the Presbyterian Church caused dis-
sensions among his people. Firmly attached to the
doctrines and practices of the Old Side, he, perhaps,
was not as reserved in expressing his opinions of the
"Revivalists" as prudence dictated, nor as guarded in
conduct as his position and the watchfulness of those
who differed from him in their religious views de-
manded. These mistakes, however, would scarcely
have led a majority of the members of his church to
bring forward and earnestly press rancorous charges
against him if the flames of discord had not been
fanned by some of his ministerial brethren.
Foremost among these was David Anderson, who,
60 HISTOEY . OF THE PEESBYTEKIAN CHTJECH
in October, 1739, had been installed pastor of the
church in Pequea. Being a zealous partisan of the
New Side, and believing it to be his duty, as he said,
to carry the Gospel to a people burdened with a life-
less ministry, he intruded without hesitation within
the bounds of Black's charge, and caused the es-
trangement of many of his flock from their pastor.
Black appealed to the Presbytery for redress, but An-
derson refused to obey a citation to appear before that
In consequence of these alienations and dissensions,
twelve charges against Mr. Black were presented to
the Presbytery at its meeting in September, 1740.
The principal, of these charges were drunkenness,
sowing dissensions among his people, and a neglect of
ministerial work. In the beginning of the Novem-
ber next following the Presbytery heard the charges,
and rebuked, but did not suspend him.
As the manifest intention of the accusers of Mr.
Black was to have his pulpit declared vacant, and the
decision of the Presbytery did not accomplish that ob-
ject, the charges, accompanied by the assertion that
much important testimony had been kept back, were
renewed at the meeting of Presbytery, in May,* 1741.
The Presbytery postponed the hearing until inquiries
could be made on the spot, but, in deference to the
importunities of his accusers, suspended him until the
examination had taken place.
In the mean time the Synod, then the highest ju-
dicial tribunal of the Presbyterian Church, met in
Philadelphia, the celebrated Protest, signed by Robert
Cross and others, was read, June 1, 1741, the New
IN " THE rOEKS OP BUANDYWlNE.'* 61
Brunswick brethren withdrew and formed a separate
Synod, and the Presbyterian Church was " rent in
In the following month the Presbytery met in this
place, heard the testimony in support of the charges,
and after a careful investigation, considered them
unsustained, and restored Mr. Black. As a majority,
however, of the congregation had attached themselves
to the New Side, and those who remained were too
few to support a stated ministry, the Presbytery dis-
solved the pastoral relation.
In October, 1738, the people of Conewago asked
and obtained leave to be erected into a congregation.
They also received permission to build a meeting-
house in what is now the southern part of Dauphin
County.* August 1, 1741, they presented a call to
Mr. Black to become their pastor. This he accepted
at the meeting of Presbytery in the October following
(27th), and was installed on the second Wednesday
of May, 1742.
In 1743 he spent part of his time laboring in
Central Virginia, then the missionary field of both
branches of the Presbyterian Church. For reasons
which have not been stated, he applied for a dissolu-
tion of the pastoral relation in June, 1744, which the
March 26, 1745, he received a call from the congre-
* The congregation of Conewago remained but a comparatively
short time as a distinct organization. The riiecting-house, which stood
near to where the turnpike road leading from Downingtown to Har-
risburg crosses Conewago Creek, has long since disappeared. Traces
of the graveyard belonging to it were visible in 1852.
62 HISTOKY OF THE PRESBYTEEIAN CHURCH
gations of Nortli and of South Mountain, Virginia,
and again asked to be released from his charge at Con-
ewago, assigning as reasons for removal the weakness
and fewness of the people. ' The next April Pres-
bytery granted his request and assigned him to North
and South Mountain. But his people at Conewago,
desirous of retaining him, made proposals which were
satisfactory, and he remained with them. The Pres-
bytery, at its meeting in September, ordered him to
be reprimanded for not obeying his instructions, but
complied with the request of the Congregation of
Conewago and reinstated him as their pastor.
Owing to the loss of a part of the Minutes of the
Presbytery of Donegal, it cannot be ascertained when
Mr. Black left Conewago. He seems, however, while
occasionally supplying vacancies in Virginia, to have
remained until the death of Hindman, whom he suc-
ceeded in the pastorate af Eockfish and Mountain
Plain, Virginia. This was probably in the latter
part of 1746, or early in 1747. During his connec-
tion with Rockfish and Mountain Plain, he supplied
several of the vacant congregations in North Caro-
' In 1756 the Presbytery of Hanover, New Side,
appointed supplies for Rockfish, and directed them
"not to interfere with Mr. Black and his labors."
These orders availed but little, for at a meeting, in
July, 1759, of the lately reconstructed Presbytery of
Hanover, with which he was then connected, " Some
charges were brought against him by portions of
his congregations as reasons why the Presbytery
should send them another pastor." The Presbytery
IN " THE PORKS OF BKABTDYWINE." 63
proceeded with great tenderness and caution, and the
difficulties were in part adjusted, when he resigned.
After this, although occasionally occupying the pul-
pit, he appears to have remained without any stated
charge until his death, which occurred August 9,
In justice to Mr. Black, it should be borne in mind
that although his conduct on some occasions was
blameworthy, yet his ministry was embraced in a
period of extreme agitation, when the bitterness of
controversy divided not only every congregation of
which he was the pastor, but also every congregation
connected -with the Presbytery of Donegal, and even
the whole Presbyterian Church. A period when ac-
cusations were preferred and placed on record which
in " peaceful times" would never have been made.
Dr. Foote, in his " Notices of Virginia," states that
Mr. Black " was Orthodox in doctrine, and correct in
his views of religious action and Christian principles,
as was proved by the fact that a goodly number of
pious people were found at Rockfish, and his succes-
sors in the pastorate there saw evidence that God had
blessed the ministry of His word by him."
In 1740 he was directed to supply the church at
Norriton once a quarter until the next meeting of
Synod;* and in 1744 was appointed one of the
* Norriton, the oldest Presbyterian Church edifice in Montgomery
County, and now in ruins, was built about 1720. Like many of the
Churches of that denomination, it was injured during the Revolutionary
war, and money was raised to repair it by a lottery. It was probably
placed on land which had been previously set aside and used as a
64 HISTOKY OF THE PKESBYTEKIAN CHUKCH
Trustees of the school established by the Synod at
New London, Chester County.* He was reappointed
in 1745 and 1746, and in the latter year was placed
on the committee chosen to answer the letter of
President Clapp, of Yale College, respecting the
admission of students to that institution. The next
year he, Thompson, and Craige were directed by
the Synod " to have the oversight of the vacancies in
The remains of Mr. Black were interred on a farm
which he purchased after his permanent settlement
in Virginia, where his grave, with no other me-
morial than an unlettered stone, may still be seen.
The farm, now in the possession of his only surviving
grandson, Thomas Black, lies in Albemarle County,
Va., a few miles from the eastern base of the Blue
He left a family of four sons and two daughters.
Some of them settled in Kentucky and other Western
States. The youngest, Samuel, remained at the home-
stead. Many of his descendants still reside in that
part of Virginia, and it is due to them to state that
a majority of them adhere to the church of which
their great-grandfather was a Pioneer Minister in
Pennsylvania, Virginia, and North Carolina.f
graveyard. The Centennial Presbyterian Church, dedicated in 1876,
was erected on ground belonging to the Norriton Church.
* See Appendix C.
f Minutes of the Synod of Philadelphia ; of the Old Presbytery of
Donegal ; of the Presbytery of Hanover ; Com. from Rev. Hugh
Henry ; Poote, " Sketches of Virginia, Second Series."
IN " THE FORKS OF BEANDYWISTE." 65
EEV. ADAM BOYD.
Born 1692. Died 1768.
During the closing years of the Seventeenth Cen-
tury and the first quarter of the Eighteenth, a num-
ber of emigrants from Scotland and the North of
Ireland landed in New England. Owing, however,
to the country being, to a considerable extent, pre-
occupied by other denominations, and to some legal
restrictions on religious freedom, the Irish and Scotch-
Irish Presbyterians found a settlement there less con-
genial than they had anticipated. Many of their
clergymen, as a consequence, became dissatisfied, and
either returned to their native land, or chose the la-
borious duties of a pioneer minister, in comparatively
unsettled colonies, where greater opportunities for the
establishment of churches were afforded.
Among the latter was the Rev. Thomas Craighead,
who came to New England in 1715, but, near the
close of 1723, removed to Southeastern Pennsylvania,
now the State of Delaware.
About seven years after Mr. Craighead's arrival in
New England, Adam Boyd came as a probationer
from the North of Ireland. Where Mr. Boyd was
educated is not known, but as a majority of the Pres-
byterian clergymen, who first emigrated to America
from Ireland and Scotland, were graduates of the Uni-
versity of Glasgow, he may have been an Alumnus
of that venerable institution.
He supplied, for some time, the pulpit left vacant
66 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTERIAIir CHURCH
at Dedham, Mass., by the death of the Eev. Joseph
Belcher, and also oflS dated in other churches near
Boston ; but, having been disappointed in his ex-
pectation of a settlement, he concluded to return to
his native country. An attachment, however, to a
daughter of Mr. Craighead caused him to relinquish
his design and seek a pastorate near to that gentleman
In pursuance of this determination Mr. Boyd came
to this State, and having presented , credentials from
Ireland, and commendatory letters* from Cotton Ma-
ther and other clergymen of New England to the
Presbytery of New Castle, he was received as a licen-
tiate by that body, July 29, 1724. At the same
time he was sent as a supply to Octoraro, and di-
rected to collect a congregation at Pequea. His la-
bors at both places were so well received that at the
meeting of the Presbytery in the September imme-
diately following, Arthur Parke and Cornelius Ro-
wan, Commissioners from Octoraro and Pequea, pre-
sented a call for him to become their pastor. This he
accepted on the 6th of October, 1724, and as the rep-
resentatives of the congregations urged his immediate
installation, the Presbytery appointed Wednesday of
the. next week for that purpose.
In accordance with this arrangement the Presby-
tery met at Octoraro the 13th of October, 1724, and
ordained and installed Mr. Boyd as pastor of the
congregations of Octoraro and Pequea.
Craighead presided, and Hook, of Drawers, preached
* See Appendix D.
m " THE FOEKS OF BEANDYWINE." 67
the ordination sermon. The other members of the
Presbytery, present, were Gillespie, Thomas Evans,
The country being, at that time, sjiarsely settled,
the ministry of Mr. Boyd extended over a large area.
A score of Presbyterian Churches, and upwards of
eighty belonging to other denominations are now or-
ganized in what were the bounds of his charge. He
was truly a pioneer minister of the Gospel ; in fact,
the only stated pastor in all the territory now in-
cluded in the Western part of Chester County, and
what was then settled of the present county of Lan-
In the large field thus intrusted to his care, his
industry, zeal, and faithfulness produced abundant
fruit. Donegal became able to sustain a pastor in
1727. Middle Octoraro was organized in the same
year, and Fagg's Manor in 1730. Bertram was set-
tled at Paxson and Derry, and Thompson at Chestnut
Level, in 1732. Craighead was installed at Pequea in
1733, and the Forks of Brandywine obtained the ser-
vices of Black in 1736.
But while the bounds of his charge were diminished
by the organization of churches, and the settlement
of pastors over congregations which he had been
largely instrumental in gathering, his labors were
interrupted by the division of the Presbyterian
Church, which took place in 1741.
This Schism, which was caused chiefly by a diflfer-
* At that time there were np settlements " over the river," tliat is,
West of the Susquehanna.
68 HISTOKY OF THE PKESBYTEEIAN CHUKCH
ence of views in regard to revivals and the qualifica-
tion of candidates for the ministry, though ultimately-
overruled by the Great Head of the Church for good,
retarded the progress of Presbyterianism in America.
" Congregations were' divided. Two churches were
established in many places where there was not sup-
port for one. Clergymen personally esteeming one
another were debarred from an exchange of pUlpits,"*
while energy and ability which should have been em-
ployed in the furtherance of the Gospel were wasted
in needless debate and acrimonious controversy.
But, in time, both parties saw their mistake. The
New Side, or those who had considered a liberal edu-
cation of minor importance as a qualification for the
ministry, acknowledged their error by founding the
College of New Jersey, with the avowed purpose of
preparing young men to become heralds of the Gospel.
On the other hand, their opponents, the Old Side,
were convinced by the increasing number and ability
of those who were leaders of the " great awakening"
in the churches that learning, unaccompanied by
earnest, vital piety, is insufiicient for the extension of
the Redeemer's Kingdom. As a consequence, after
seventeen years of separation, the breach was healed.
In the mean time, Mr. Boyd ministered to the
members of his flock who had not wandered from the
fold, and on the 11th of August, 1741, accepted an
invitation to preach one-half of his time to those in
this place who had been left without a pastor by the
withdrawal of Mr. Black.
' * Dr. Miller's Life of Rodo;crs.
IN " THE FORKS OF BRABTDYWINE." 69
As a majority of the congregation had seceded, the
number that remained was not large ; but after the
death of Mr. Dean, and the failure of the New Side
to obtain a settled pastor, the attendance on Mr.
Boyd's ministrations increased. Indeed, it could
hardly have been otherwise, since many of them had
been brought to a knowledge of the Saviour by his
preaching before the organiz;^ation of a church in this
part of his charge. During his connection with the
congregation upwards of one hundred and twenty,
many of them heads of families, contributed toward
the payment of his salary, and they may not have
been a majority of his hearers.*
In October, 1758, the pastoral relation was, as he
has recorded, " dissolved in a most irregular manner."
Why is not known. Perhaps some members of the
church were displeased with his assent to the terms
of the Union, and requested that another should be
sent in his stead, or the Presbytery may have acted
without being fully acquainted with the wishes of the
larger portion of the congregation. But whatever
may have been the cause of his irregular and abrupt
dismissal, all will admit that it was undeserved. He
surely was worthy of kind and respectful treatment
who, during seventeen years, had travelled ten miles
every other Sabbath and conducted religious services
for the annual stipend of a little more than fifty
After the close of his pastorate at "the Forks,"
the members of the Old Side congregation at Octo-
* See Appendix E.
70 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTEEIAN CHTJECH
raro agreed to pay for two-thirds of his time, instead
of one-half as they had previously done. This ar-
rangement continued until April, 1768, when Mr.
Boyd, " by reason of his feeble health, requested the
Presbytery to send supplies for his pulpit as often as
A few months afterward, the congregation united
with the New Side in a call to the Rev. William
Forster to take charge of bpth congregations. This
call, which Mr. Boyd heartily approved^ Mr. Forster
accepted, and on the 1,9th of October, 1768, was in-
stalled pastor of the " United Congregation of Upper
Octoraro." On account of his long connection with
the congregation and his faithful services, the pastoral
relation of Mr. Boyd was not dissolved, and his people
agreed to pay him twenty-five pounds yearly during
the remainder of his life. But the "time of his
departure was at' hand." He died on the 19th of
November, 1768, in the forty-sixth year of his min-
His remains were interred in the adjoining grave-
yard, and the record on his tombstone states that he
was " eminent through life for modest piety, diligence
in his office, prudence, equanimity, and peace."
He left a widow, five sons, and five ' daughters.
His widow survived him nearly eleven years, or until
November 9, 1779. His eldest son, John, studied for
the ministry, but died shortly after his licensure.
Thomas was settled by his father on an adjoining
farm. He died in 1778. The property is still in the
possession of his descendants.
Andrew inherited the homestead. He was an ar-
IN " THE FORKS OF BEANDYWINE." 71
dent patriot during the Kevolutioiiary War, attained
the rank of colonel, and acted as commissary for Ches-
ter County nearly the whole of that trying period.
■ Adam became a resident of North Carolina, was
editor of the Cape Fear Mercury in 1767, a leading
member of the Committee of Safety of that State, and,
in 1776, chaplain of a North Carolina Brigade.
Samuel pursued his preparatory studies at McDow-
ell's School, Maryland; entered the Medical Depart-
ment of the University of Pennsylvania in 1764, and
settled as a physician in Virginia.
Three of the daughters were married to clergymen :
Janet to the Rev. Robert McMordie, then pastor of
Marsh Creek and Round Hill, in Lancaster, now York,
County ; Agnes to the Rev. Sampson Smith, pastor at
Chestnut Level; and Margaret to the Rev. Joseph
Tate, at that time pastor of Donegal.
The Rev. Matthew Tate, son of the last mentioned,
was licensed by the Presbytery of New Castle, and
employed as a supply by that and other Presbyteries.
He subsequently entered the Episcopal Church, and
some years previous to his death, in October, 1795, was
rector of a parish in South Carolina.
The Rev. Andrew B. Cross, an able and popular
clergyman of Baltimore, Mrs. Webster, widow of the
lamented historian of the Presbyterian Church, and
many of the most influential and respectable citizens
of Sadsbury, and the adjoining Townships of Chester
County, are descendants of Adam Boyd.
In the management of his worldly affairs, Mr. Boyd
was economical, exact, and careful. Although his
salary never exceeded three hundred dollars a year.
72 HISTOEY OF THE PEESBYTEEIAIiT CHTJECH •
and was frequently less, and a part of that was paid in
produce and some in labor, yet he acquired considera-
ble property. His daughters received marriage por-
tions, which were regarded as large " in those days." •
Three of his sons were educated for the learned profes-
sions, and his other sons were comfortably settled on
farms which their father had purchased.
Like pioneer ministers in general, Mr. Boyd was too
much occupied with the discharge of his pastoral du-
ties to prepare any of his discourses for the press.
Some of his sermons have been preserved, but they
are .written in a kind of short-hand, which is difficult
to decipher. We are, therefore, without the means of
knowing either the arrangement, style, or tenor of his
pulpit exercises ; but his discretion, piety, and faith-
fulness lead to the conclusion that his remarks in the
pul|)it were well calculated to confirm the faith, arouse
the conscience, and enliven the hopes of those whom he
addressed. Following the example of the Apostle to
the Gentiles, he, no doubt, " reasoned of temperance,
righteousness, and judgment to come." But his hear-
ers, unlike the profligate viceroy of the Roman Em-
peror, were not ignorant of that blessed Gospel for
whose sake many of them had abandoned the land of
their birth and made the wilderness their home.*
* Futhey, " Hist, of Upper Octoraro Church ;" Webster, " Hist,
of Presb. Church;" Minutes of Donegal Presbytery; Com. from
Rev. Andrew B. Cross.
IN " THE FOEKS OF BKAWDYWINE." 73
KEY. WILLIAM DEAN.
Born 1719. ' Died 1748.
The exciting controversies, self-denying labor, and
severe trials of the Presbyterian Churches in Scotland
and Ireland during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Cen-
turies were succeeded towards the close of the latter by
listlessness and a lack of earnestness. Warm appeals
to the impenitent, and the zeal for the extension of the
Kedeemer's kingdom, which characterized the earlier
history of the church, gave place to doctrinal explana-
tions and long sermons delivered in a cold and didactic
manner. Learning and orthodoxy were more regarded
in the selection of pastors than vital piety. As a con-
sequence a laxity of morals prevailed. Intemperance
became common, and profanity was often heard from
those who were the professed followers of the Divine
author of the command, " Swear not at all."
This indifference to spiritual interests continued until
the close of the first quarter of the Eighteenth Cen-
tury, when both pastors and people were aroused from
their lethargy by the faithful labors of the Wesleys
and Whitefield in the British Islands, and of Whitefield
and the Tennents in America. The Log College, es-
tablished by the last mentioned, sent forth a number of
young men, whose warmth, earnestness, and energy
were in strong contrast with learned but frigid dis-
courses which failed to arouse the conscience or amend
the heart. Their hearers retired not to discuss the bear-
ing and correctness of creeds or the errors of Roman-
74 HISTORY OF THE PBESBYTEKIAN CHXJKCH
ism, but anxiously inquiring, " What must we do to be
Among those who were deeply imbued , with the
spirit and zeal of Whitefield and the graduates of the
Log College was William Dean, who came from the
North of Ireland to America in 1739 or '40. Where
he was educated is not known. He probably received
his academical training in his native country, and his
theological under the direction of the Tennents.
He was taken on trials by the Presbytery of New
Brunswick, August 3, 1741, and assigned the following
subjects "to found discourses upon." For an English
sermon, Rom. iii. 19 ; and for an Exegesis, An homo
justificatur ah eterno an tfimpore ?
At a meeting of the Presbytery, held at Freehold,
N. J., in October, 1742, he and Charles Beatty hav-
ing passed satisfactory trials and exaniinations, were
licensed (October 13) " to preach the everlasting Gospel
where Providence may direct them."
Mr. Dean was sent by the Presbytery, immediately
after his licensure, to Neshaminy, Bucks County, and
the settlements on the Forks of Delaware. These
were made, in 1730 or '32, by Presbyterians from the
North of Ireland. The one on the West Fork, the
Lehigh, being called Craig's settlement, and the one on
the North Fork, the Delaware, Hunter's settlement.
The country was mostly a wilderness, inhabited by
the Lenni Lenape, or Delaware Indians. Efforts were
made by the devoted Brainerd and others to bring
them to a knowledge of the saving truths of the Gos-
pel, though with little apparent success. They were
strongly attached to their favorite places of abode and
m " THE FORKS OP BEANDYWINE." 75
hunting-grounds, and did not abandon them until they
were forced to remove by the " Five Nations."
In 1743, Dean was appointed to supply Craig's and
Hunter's settlements and Cape May, and in the Fall of
the same year he wassent by the New Side Presbytery
of New Castle, with which he was then connected, to
Pequea and the " Forks of Brandy wine."
In 1744 he was directed to preach at Cohansey, now
Fairfield, N. J., and the Forks of Delaware, and in
the following year he went, with Byram, of Mendham,
N. J., to Augusta County, Va., where their labors
were followed by a great revival.
In 1745 he received and accepted a second call from
the New Side Congregation in this place to become
their pastor, and was installed in May or June of that
year. But his labor in a field which seemed likely to
produce an abundant harvest was soon ended. In a
little more than three years his flock was left without
a shepherd, and the New Side Presbytery of New
Castle had sustained the loss of one of its youngest
and most promising members.
The invitations which Mr. Dean received to remain
in the settlements to which he was sent as an occasional
or a stated supply ; the revival which followed his mis-
sionary efibrts in Virginia, and the regret expressed
on account of his early death by some of the ablest of
his contemporaries, confirm the uniform tradition that
he was a popular, zealous, and faithful minister of the
In 1743 three calls for his services were presented
to Presbytery, — one from the Forks of Delaware, an-
other from the Forks of Brandywine, and a third from
76 HISTOKY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHTJECH
Cape May. These he held under consideration for a
time and dedined. In May, 1748, a few weeks before '
his death, a similar request* was sent to the Synod of
New Brunswick from Timber Bridge and the Forks of
James River, Virginia.
The Rev. Samuel Davies, afterwards President of
the College of New Jersey, writing from Virginia to
Dr. Bellamy, of Bethlehem, Connecticut, in 1751,
speaks of the death of Mr. Dean in the same affec-
tionate terms in which he records the loss of those
" eminent men of God," William Robinson and Sam-
uel Blair. He also states that the blessed effects of the
revival which had followed the labors of Byram and
Dean were still manifest.
During his connection with the congregation in this
place, Mr. Dean resided in a house which stood a short
distance east of the dwelling of Mr. Francis Growe, in
West Nantmeal Township. That house, which, like
all in the neighborhood, was built of unhewn logs, the
members of his church caused to be wainscoted and
weather-boarded, thus making it superior, both in
comfort and appearance, to the rude and unplastered
structures which constituted their own places of abode.
The remains of Dean were interred in the " lower
graveyard," where his tomb, which bears the following
inscription, may be seen :
" Here lieth the Body of
The Reverend William Dean
Who departed this Life
July 9th 1748.
Aged 29 Years.
* See Appendix F.
IN "the forks of beandywine." 77
In yonder sacred House I spent my Breath
Now silent, mouldering, here I ly in Death
These silent Lips shall wake and yet declare
A dread Amen to truths they published there."
It is, perhaps, worthy of remark, that this inscription,
with the omission of the word silent in the line pre-
ceding the last 'and the necessary change of name,
date, and age, is the same as the record on the tomb of
the Rev. Samuel Blair in the burial-ground at Fagg's
Manor, also on the gravestone of the Rev. John
Campbell in the church-yard at Providence, Mont-
gomery County, and with a slight change on the tomb-
stone of the Rev. Owen Thomas in Vincent burial-
ground. It -was probably written by the Rev. Samuel
Although all that was mortal of Dean has mingled
with the earth in this " Country Church- Yard," far
from kindred and his native land, yet He who never
slumbers watches his dust, and the Church cherishes a
grateful remembrance of one who was so quickly spent
"laboring to save and to bless."
Dean left a widow, four sons, Joseph, Benjamin, who
died when near his majority, William, John, and a
daughter, Sarah. After the death of her husband Mrs.
Dean resided some years on the farm which they had
patented, but probably on account of the education of
her children removed to Philadelphia.* There, Joseph
became a successful importing merchant and a noted
actor in the stirring events of the latter half of the
Eighteenth Century. He was one of the signers of the
* Her name is on the list of taxables in West Nantmeal Township
78 HISTORY OP THE PEESBYTEKIAN CHURCH
Non-Importation Resolutions adopted October (25th).
1765, and at the beginning of the Revolutionary War
loaned the General Government sixty thousand dollars,
which were never returned.
He was selected by the Assembly in December, 1776,
to serve on the Committee of Safety, and was an active
member of the Board of War from its organization, in
March, 1777, until it was discontinued, in August of the
In January, 1781, Joseph Dean was appointed one
of the auditors to settle and adjust the accounts of the
troops of the State of Pennsylvania in the service of
the United States, and in the Autumn of the same year
a Warden of the Port of Philadelphia.
John held the rank of Major in the Continental
Army, and William as Colonel in the same service was
actively engaged in all the battles which were fought
in New Jersey.
Sarah was married to the Rev. John Slemmons, a
native of Chester County and a graduate of the
College of New Jersey, who, in 1765, became pastor of
Lower Marsh Creek Church in York, now Adams,
County, Pennsylvania. Mr. Slemmons was subse-
quently pastor of Piney Creek Church, Maryland, where
he remained until his death, in 1814. Mrs. Slemmons
died in June, 1823, and her ashes rest beside those of
her husband in the Piney Creek graveyard.
A grandson of Colonel William Dean, William F.
Dean, Esq., a gentleman of wealth and influence, has
long resided in Philadelphia.*
* Minutes of Synod of New Brunswick ; Archives of State, vol. i.
p. 9 ; Memoraiicja of Springton Manor ; Hist, of Piney Creek Ciiurch.
IN " THE FORKS OF BEANDYWIBTE." 79
EEV. JOHN CARMICHAEL.
Born 1728. Died 1785.
Civil war had ceased in England and a stable govern-
ment had been established in that portion of Great
Britain more than half a century before discord and
violence were repressed in Scotland. The attachment
of many of the nobles to the " House of Stuart," the
hereditary feuds of the clans, and the inroads of heart-
less marauders were a continual source of disorder and
bloodshed. The oppression and suffering which the
inhabitants as a consequence endured led many of
them to emigrate to countries where law and order
were supreme, and where man could enjoy the fruits of
his labor without annoyance from petty chiefs or the
followers of royal pretenders.
Among those whom the " troublesome times" caused
to leave their native land were David and Elizabeth
(Alexander) Carmichael, who came from Argyleshire
to America in 1737. They settled first at Hackensack,
New Jersey, but after a short residence there removed
to Newark in the same State.
Having been exemplary members of the estab-
lished church in Scotland, Mr. Carmichael and his wife
connected themselves with the Presbyterian Church
in Newark, then or shortly afterwards under the pas-
toral charge of the Rev. Aaron Burr. The preaching
of this able divine, and especially his earnest appeals
to the unconverted at the administration of the Lord's
Supper, made a deep impression on the mind of their
80 HISTOKY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH ,
eldest son, and induced a serious consideration of his
condition as a sinner. The counsels of Christian
friends, aided by the prayers and example of his pious
mother, led him as an humble penitent to the Throne
of Mercy, where he obtained pardon and peace. Anx-
ious that others should be brought to a knowledge of
the Saviour and share in the comfort and reconcilia-
tion which he had found, he determined to devote him-
self to the Christian ministry. He became a member
of the College of New Jersey in 1755, and received
the degree of A.B. in August, 1759. Where he
pursued his studies previous to entering the College is
not known. But as the institution was then located at
Newark, he probably received .his preparatory train-
ing under the direction of his pastor, the Rev. Aaron
Burr, President of the College.
Nine of the eighteen members of his class entered
the Gospel ministry. All of them living at the time
proved faithful to their country in its hour of trial, and
the suffering patriotic efforts and tragic death of one of
them, the lamented Caldwell, of Elizabethtown, have
become matters of history.
"Immediately after he was graduated Mr. Car-
michael commenced the study of theology under the
direction of the President of the College, the Rev.
He pursued his theological studies with so much
diligence and success that at a meeting of the Presby-
tery of New Brunswick, held in May, 1760, he was
licensed to preach the Gospel.
Mr. Carmichael spent the remainder of that year
in supplying vacancies by the direction of the Synod.
IN " THE FOKKS OF BE ANDY WINE." 81
Among them was the unoccupied pulpit of this church.
His preaching here was so acceptable that on the 18th
of September, 1760, the members of session ad-
dressed him a letter entreating him to become their
pastor.* This he seems, while continuing to occupy
the pulj)it, to have held for consideration. The con-
gregation, however, determined, if possible, to obtain
his services, and on the 13th of April, 1761, presented
a call to Presbytery, which was referred to him.
Having sought Divine Guidance by fasting and prayer,
he accepted it, and on Thursday, the 23d of April,
1761, was ordained and installed pastor of the Church
of the Forks of Brandywine by the Presbytery of New
At that period the country was sparsely settled and
the inhabitants for the most part in moderate circum-
stances. One of the meeting-houses was no longer in a
condition to be used as a place for public worship, and
the other, though in a better state of repair, was too
small to accommodate all who assembled on the Sab-
bath. The efforts, therefore, of Mr. Carmichael, im-
mediately after his installation, were directed to obtain
the erection of a building suitable for the services of
the sanctuary. Infusing his own zeal into every one
with whom he came in contact, he succeeded, during
the first year of his pastorate, in having the large and
commodious meeting-house built which has recently
been taken down.
In the pulpit his manner was earnest and impressive.
While he dwelt with frequency and power on the ter-
rors of the law, he also faithfully reminded those who
* See Appendix Gr.
82 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHTtROH
were weighed down by the burden of sin, " that there
was balm in Gilead, and a Physician there."
Although strongly attached to the creed and form
of church government in his fatherland, he considered
them of small importance in comparison with Godli-
ness and an interest in the Atoning Sacrifice. His
labors among the people of his charge were greatly
blessed. Harmony was restored, the wanderers re-
turned to the fold, and not a few who had been cavil-
ling about points of doctrine were led to make the all-
important inquiry, " How shall we be made partakers
of the blessings of the Covenant of Grace ?"
He visited the members of his congregation not only
statedly but frequently. On these occasions the house-
hold was called together for prayer, and the younger
members of the family recited the Shorter Cate-
chism, and happy were the little ones who could "say
their questions" in a manner which received the ap-
proving smile and kind words of Mr. Carmichael.
As many of his people resided at a distance of seven
or eight miles from the place for public worship, and
buildings for school purposes were few, he frequently
preached at private houses on the afternoon of the Sab-
bath. He also made missionary journeys into parts of
this and some of the adjoining States where no church
was organized, besides frequently assisting his ministe-
rial brethren at the administration of the ordinances,
and by occupying their pulpits when sickness or other
circumstances caused them to be absent from their
charge. But these were not his only labors.
The detail of kingly and ecclesiastical tyranny which
Mr. Carmichael had often heard from parental lips
made him the determined foe of oppression in every
form. Before the Revohitionary Conflict he observed
the cloud of war which loomed in the horizon, and by
a series of articles in the public papers warned his
fellow-citizens of their danger. And when the storm
did come, he was among the foremost to breast its fury
and provide means to repair the devastation which it
caused. In the pulpit and at the fireside, among the
members of his flock and where he was known only
by name, he was equally bold in the denunciation of
tyranny and faithful in portraying the blessings of
When the First Congress* met in Philadelphia he
called on the members personally urging them to ac-
tion, and after they adjourned he admonished those who
remained and others from the pulpit, as is shown by
the following extract from the journal of John Adams :
"Sunday, March 26th, 1775, went to hear Mr. Car-
michael preach at Mr. Duffield's church on Trust in
the Lord, and do good ; so shalt thou dwell in the land,
and verily thou shalt be fed."f
In June, 1775, he preached a sermon from Luke iii.
14, to the militia of Lancaster, in which he strongly
advocated the lawfulness of self-defence. This sermon
was published, had a wide-spread salutary effect, and
soon passed to a second edition. J
* The First Congress, composed of delegates from all the Colonies
except Georgia, met in Philadelphia, September 5, 1774. It consisted
of fifty-two members, and was in session fifty-two days.
f Psalm xxxvii. 3.
J It is the only production of his pen, except some articles in the
newspapers, that was ever printed.
84 HISTOKY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
Mr. Carmichael delivered a spirited address shortly
before their departure to the Volunteers from the
upper part of Chester County, who left their homes on
the 8th of July, 1776, to join the army near New
York. As many of them were members of his church,
and a number of them had been led to volunteer by
his appeals to their love of country, he seems to have
visited them not long after they had reached their des-
tination, for he and the Rev. Robert Smith, of Pequea,
were present at the battle of Long Island, which took
place on the 27th of the next August.
But if his ardor, activity, and influence were so fully
required immediately after the Declaration of Inde-
pendence, they were still more needed in the following
year, when his adopted State became the theatre of
The cannonading at the battle of Brandywine was
distinctly heard throughout all this section of the
country. During the progress of that engagement
wives, daughters, and mothers stood at the doors of
their dwellings listening with fearful anxiety, and as
the report of each discharge of artillery fell on the ear,
were rendered almost frantic by the thought that it had
caused the death of a husband, a father, or a son.
T)xe disastrous result of that battle, the appearance
of parties of British horsemen in search of forage, and
the conveyance of a large number of wounded Ameri-
can soldiers along the Paxtang Road to Ephrata for
medical treatment, caused general consternation and
terror.* Some whose fears were greater than their
* Upwards of One Hundred and Fifty of them died and were
buried at Ephrata.
IN " THE FOKKS OF BRANDYWINE." 85
patriotism passed over to the enemy ; others sought
safety by flight ; while the loyal few that had remained
at home, who were capable of performing military duty,
hastened to join their brethren in the field. During
this trying period, when there was a vacant chair at
almost every fireside, the labor and the trials of the faith-
ful pastor and ardent patriot were unceasing. At one
time consoling those whose relatives had fallen in the
conflict, at another reviving the hopes and dispelling
the fears of many who were ready to exclaim, " All is
lost." On week-days assisting aged men, women, and
children in the out-door employments of the farm ; on
the Sabbath fervently beseeching the Supreme Dis-
poser of events to end the evils of war by the final
triumph of the cause of Liberty and of Humanity.
Mr. Carmichael visited the American army when it
lay at Valley Forge, and having learned from Gen-
eral Washington that the wounded were suffering from
a want of linen for bandages, he returned home, called
his congregation together, stated the fact, and earnestly
besought the female members of his charge to furnish
a supply, even if it should require an abbreviation of
portions of their clothing. The appeal was successful.
A sufficient number of packages of linen were obtained
to fill two bags. These he conveyed on horseback to
A letter is extant in which the Commander-in-chief
thanks Mr. Carmichael and his congregation for the
supply of clothing and other necessaries which they
had furnished for the use of the army.
The war was finally brought to a close, the inde-
pendence of our country was acknowledged, and Mr.
86 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTEEIAN CHUECH
Carmichael thankfully devoted himself to a discharge
of the duties of his Sacred Office. But his physical
system, never strong, had been weakened by his un-
ceasing exertions in the cause of religion and of civil
liberty. His health declined, and he became aware
that the time of his departure was near. He arranged
his temporal affairs,* and with increased zeal in his
Master's service, preached a course of sermons on
Haggai i. 10. " The design of these discourses was to
show that there are times when the servants of God
should more than ordinarily engage in the promotion
In the latter part of October, 1785, he assisted the
Rev. Dr. Smith, of Pequea, in the communion of that
church. His efforts during the service, and the fatigue
of the journey, brought on an illness from which he
had not recovered when the administration of the ordi-
nances to his own people took place. On that occasion
his bodily weakness, increased by the exertion which
he had then made, led him to express the opinion " that
he would no more drink wine with them until he drank
it new in his Father's Kingdom." An opinion whose
correctness was too soon verified. Exposure to the
rain on his return home, together with his previous
debility, induced an attack of pleurisy, which caused
his death on the 15th of November, 1785, when he
had entered less than three weeks on his fifty-eighth
His last words were, " Oh that I had a thousand
* See Appendix H.
t He was born on the 28th of October, 1728.
IN " THE FOKKS OF BRAND YWINE." 87
tongues, that I might employ them all in bringing
sinners to Christ !"
His remains lie in the Upper Graveyard beside the
ashes of his eldest daughter, and those of the two part-
ners of his joys and sorrows, " who preceded him to
the eternal world."
The labors of Mr. Carmichael as a patriot and a pas-
tor, his energy, faithfulness, and success, lead to the
belief that, like holy men of old, he was raised up and
specially prepared for the work which God had ap-
pointed for him , to do. He seems to have combined,
in a remarkable degree, the glowing zeal and vital
piety of Whitefield and the Tennents, with the bold
advocacy of civil and religious liberty which dis-
tinguished Scotland's great reformer, "the fearless
Mr. Carmichael was married in May, 1761, to Miss
Phoebe Cram, of Newark, New Jersey, a grand-
daughter of the Rev. Jonathan Dickinson, first Presi-
dent of the College of New Jersey. She died Octo-
ber 21, 1772, in her forty -second year, leaving a son
and a daughter. Two other children having died in
The son, John Flavel, studied medicine under Dr.
Scott, of New Brunswick, New Jersey, practised for
some time in this neighborhood with success, entered
the army as a surgeon in 1788, and after holding the
ofiice several years settled in the State of Mississippi,
where he accumulated considerable property, and died
The daughter, Phoebe, for nearly sixty years an
humble and upright member of the Presbyterian
88 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTEEIAN CHUECH
Church at Cedar Grove, Lancaster County, died
March 24, 1859, at the advanced age of ninety-two
years and nearly two months.
In June, 1773, Mr. Carmichael married Miss Cath-
arine Mustard. But this union was of short duration.
She died in August, 1774, leaving a daughter fifteen
days old, who received the name of her mother.
That daughter, on the death of her father, was taken
in charge and kindly cared for by Elder William
Hunter, a leading member .of the congregation. She
subsequently resided with the Rev. Dr. Smith, of
Pequea, and also in the family of Mr. Buckley until
her marriage, in September, 1799, to the Hon. Robert
Jenkins, a gentleman of wealth and refinement.
Mrs. Jenkins closed a life noted for kindness to the
poor, a liberal support of churches and benevolent
associations, and a consistent Christian course, on the
23d of September, 1856, in the eighty-third year of
her age. Both of her sons had preceded their mother
to the grave. Four of her daughters were married
to ministers of the Gospel eminent for learning and
By his marriage, in April, 1775, to a daughter of
the Rev. Samuel Blair, of Fagg's Manor, Mr. Car-
michael had three children. Elizabeth, who became
the wife of the Rev. Samuel Donnell, subsequently a
pastor in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. They
removed to Tennessee, where her death occurred
shortly after their arrival. Washington Gates, born
about the time of Burgoyne's surrender, and named
in honor of the commander-in-chief and the hero of
Saratoga, entered the army, but died soon afterwards
IN " THE FORKS OF BE ANDY WINE." 89
near the mouth of the Mississippi. Francina, the
youngest, was married to a Captain Allan.
Mrs. Carmichael survived her husband nearly a
quarter of a century, or until May, 1810 ; and Mrs.
Allan died in the latter part of December, 1870.*
* Sprague, " Annals of American Pulpit ;'' Minutes of Presbytery
of Newcastle ; of Synod of New Brunswick ; Dr. Leaman, " Me-
morial of Mrs. C. M. Jenkins;" Local Memoranda ; Dr. S. Alexander,
" Princeton College in the Eighteenth Century."
90 HISTOEY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
EEV. NATHAN GEIER.
Born 1760. Died 1814.
Biography often aflPords manifest and instructive
proofs that the Author of All Good watches over,
guides, and blesses not only those who serve Him and
keep His commandments, but also their children to
the third, fourth, and succeeding generations.
Among American statesmen tliere has been no one
who was more upright in public and in private life
than John Adams, and of him only can it be stated
that the Presidential Chair, in which he was placed
as the immediate successor of Washington, was also
occupied by his son. Nor is this all. His son and
grandson discharged with ability the duties of Min-
ister Plenipotentiary to England, where ■ he had ap-
peared as his country's first Ambassador.
As might be expected, however, the lives of those
who specially devote themselves to the service of the
altar present numerous instances of the Providence
of God in blessing their descendants, and not unfre-
quently in making them " shepherds and bishops of
A number of pulpits, both in the Presbyterian
Church and those of other denominations, are occu-
* Dr. Spring stated in 1849, that not less than seventy ministers
in the American Church could trace their lineage to the elder Ed-
wards, who was himself the son of a clergyman.
IN " THE FOKKS OP BEANDYWINE." 91
pied at the present time by the sons and grandsons of
men who passed their lives in the same sacred calling.
A notable example, however, of pious ancestors,
and of children who trod in the footsteps of their
fathers, is afforded by the parentage and descendants
of the Rev. Nathan Grier.
John and Matthew Grier came to America from the
North of Ireland in 1732. Shortly after his arrival
John married Agnes Caldwell, and settled in Bucks
County, Pa. Like their Scotch ancestors, they were
strongly attached to the doctrines and institutions of
the Presbyterian Church, of which they were for
many years exemplary members. Their children
were trained " in the nurture and admonition of the
Lord," and as a reward for their faithful oversight
they had the satisfaction of seeing two of them enter
the ministry, and all of them become worthy and
useful members of society.
Nathan, the younger of those who entered the
ministry, was born in September, 1760. Naturally
amiable and contemplative, while still quite young
his thoughts were turned to the subject of religion,
and, like Josiah, he early gave his heart to God.
Having resolved to devote himself to the preaching
of the Gospel, he passed through his preparatory
training under the direction of his brother James,*
who was also his theological preceptor, entered the
University of Pennsylvania 'in 1781, and was gradu-
ated in 1783. After leaving the University, he taught
a school at Pitt's Grove, N. J., pursuing at the same
time his studies in theology.
* See Appendix M.
92 HISTOBY OF THE PKESBYTEEIAN CHUKCH
Mr. Grier was licensed by the Presbytery of Phila-
delphia in October, 1786, and passed the remainder
of that year and a part of the next in supplying
■ churches without a pastor. Among them was the
congregation worshipping in this place. His labors
here led to a unanimous call from' the members of the
church to become their pastor being placed in his
hands and accepted.
On Wednesday, the 22d of August, 1787, the
Presbytery of New Castle, with which he was then
connected, met here, and ordained and installed him
pastor of the Presbyterian Church of the Forks of
Brandywine. The Rev. Alexander Mitchell, pastor
of Doe Run Church, preached the sermon; the
other ministers present were Robert Smith, D.D.,
James Anderson, William R. Smith, Nathaniel W.
Sample, John E. Finley, John McCreery, James
Monroe, David Jones, and John Burton.
Mr. Grier, at that time in the full vigor of his
powers, was well adapted to carry on the work which
Mr. Carmichael had so auspiciously begun. Ear-
nest, impressive, and practical, his ministrations were
greatly blessed. The attendance on the Sabbath
rapidly increased, and his influence, aided by his pop-
ular manners, soon reached far beyond even the
large area contained within the bounds of his charge.
Having early perceived that the services of the
sanctuary are but a part of the duties of a pastor, he
frequently called at the residences of the members of
his congregation. These visits were not permitted, to
pass unimproved, but were used as opportunities for
pious instruction. Parents were mildly but faithfully
IN " THE FORKS OF BRAND YWINE." 93
reminded of the obligations resting upon them; the
children were questioned in regard to their acquaint-
ance with the Catechism and their knowledge of re-
ligious principles ; and the whole household humbly
and reverently bowed in prayer, while their pastor
earnestly invoked the Divine Blessing on the heads of
the family and their offspring.
Instructed by the glimpse of the Eternal World
afforded by the parable of Dives and Lazarus, he
avoided the mistake which clergymen often make, of
frequent visits to the mansions of the wealthy while
the dwellings of those of stinted means are passed un-
noticed. Such, too, was his amiability and warmth of
feeling that he was equally welcomed at the homes of
the poorest and the richest members of his congrega-
In addition to the weekly ministrations of the pulpit,
he preached during the Summer, on the afternoon of
the Sabbath, either in school-houses or at the residences
of the aged and infirm. He also assisted his clerical
brethren at Communion seasons and on other occa-
sions, and frequently supplied the pulpit of congrega-
tions without a pastor. Among the latter was the
church at Upper Octoraro, during the fourteen years
it was without a regular ministry, before the installa-
tion of the Rev. James Latta. On these .occasions
the house was crowded, the attention close, and the
impressions made deep and often lasting.
As his predecessor, Mr. Carmichael, adding the du-
ties of the patriot to those of the pastor, labored with
assiduity to aid the cause of civil liberty and enlist
soldiers to combat the enemies of national independ-
94 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTEBIAST CHTJECH
ence, Mr. Grier, combining the pastor and the theo-
logical instructor, and working with equal zeal and
watchfulness, prepared young men to engage in a
holier war under the Great Captain of Salvation.
It is well known that a hundred years were per-
mitted to pass, after the establishment of the Presby-
terian Church in America, before a Seminary was or-
ganized and endowed by the Church for the special
study of theology. Candidates for the ministry were,
therefore, trained by eminent divines in schools opened
for that purpose. The Log College, Blair's School at
Fagg's Manor, Allison's School at New London, and
Smith's School in Pequea, were established mainly
with this object in view.
/TVIr. Grier, a well-read theologian, following their
example, received a number of young men, and espe-
cially those of his own congregation, under his care,
for the study of Theology.
This Divinity School, though not formally known
by that name, took the place of Dr. Smith's School in
Pequea. It was commenced in 1792, when the in-
firmities of Dr. Smith, who died in April, 1793,.
rendered him incapable of directing the studies of
young men preparing to enter the ministry.
The following synopsis of the course pursued by the
students under the supervision of Mr. Grier is from
the pen of the most eminent of his pupils, the Pev.
Dr. McConaughy :
"Those who studied under his direction were ac-
customed to divide their time between the study of
the Scriptures, Ecclesiastical History, and a series of
questions about One Hundred in number, in the
IN " THE FORKS OF BEANDYWIIfE." 95
usual order of the System of Theology. On these
questions they were required to write pretty fully and
submit the result to his examination and criticism.
In like manner they composed sermons, on which they
had his opinion as to matter and style.
" Besides this, they had the advantages of his Chris-
tian example, the genial influence of his well-ordered
household, and his daily counsel and guidance."
Of the twenty young men who studied Theology
under the direction of Mr. Grier, one, Mr. John
Ralston, died (in 1804) before the completion of
his studies, and ill-health prevented another, Mr.
John M'Clure, from entering on the active duties
of the ministry. The remaining eighteen, as may
be learned by the biographical sketches appended, be-
came workers in the Gospel field. Seventeen of them
were pastors of churches, and one passed upwards of
thirty years as a Chaplain in the Navy of the United
Three received the honorary title of D.D., and one
of both D.D. and LL.D., at a period when collegiate
honors were not so frfeely dispensed as they are at
They occupied pulpits in six States of the Union,
and all, with one exception, faithfully discharged the
duties of their sacred office until they were unfitted by
the infirmities of age or removed by death.
But his fellow-laborers in the Master's vineyard were
suddenly deprived of an associate and the congregation
of its pastor. He died, after a short illness, on the
30th of March, 1814, at the comparatively early age
of fifty-three years and six months.
96 HISTOKY OF THE PEESBYTEEIAN CHURCH
The inscription on his tombstone, in the Upper
Graveyard, closes with the following terse and beautiful
lines of Goldsmith, which have seldom been so correctly
" But in his duty prompt at every call,
He watched and wept, he prayed and felt for all.
He tried each art, reproved each dull delay,
Allured to brighter worlds, and led the way."
Mr. Grier was punctual in his attendance on the
councils of the church, in which he took an active,
though not a forward, part. A leading trustee of
Dickinson College during the latter years of his life,
he watched over its interests with paternal solicitude,
warmly advocated the establishing of a Theological
Seminary, and ably sustained all the religious enter-
prises of his day.
Although his sermons, prepared with care, were
evangelical and well illustrated by references to the
Scriptures, they were practical rather than doctrinal
or controversial. Gifted with a voice of more than
ordinary power, Mr. Grier could be heard by a large
audience, and he seldom failed to enchain the atten-
tion of his heaj-ers by his earnestness, warmth, and
direct appeals to the conscience. Indeed, if he dis-
played greater power in the pulpit in one direction
more than another, it was in his ability to call forth
the finer feelings of our nature, and arouse the dor-
mant sympathies of the heart. He, therefore, often
made salutary impressions which the lapse of years
failed to erase. As an instance of this, the writer
may state that he has heard the aged relate, while
IN "the foeks of beandywine." 97
tears gathered in their eyes as the solemn scene came
in remembrance before them, his touching appeals at
the close of each Communion to the members of his
church to live consistently with their profession, and
the melting tenderness with which he besought those
who " were strangers to the Covenant of Grace" to
flee from the wrath to come.
Mr. Grier was united in marriage, November 13,
1787, to Miss Susannah Smith, daughter of Colonel
Robert and Margaret Smith, members of his congre-
gation. She was eminently worthy of his choice, and
by her piety, prudence, and careful family oversight
strengthened his hands and lessened his worldly cares.
" But he was not permitted to enjoy her counsel and
aid to the close of his life." On January 2, 1812,
she exchanged the probation of time for the blessedness
Their children were two sons and three daugh-
ters. Both of their sons entered the ministry,
and stood as faithful sentinels for more than half a
century on the watch-towers of Zion. Their eldest
daughter was married to Mr. White, a quarter of a
century the popular pastor of the church in Fagg's
Manor. Another became the wife of Mr. Parke,
who ministered with acceptance upwards of thirty
years to the churches of Slate Bidge and Centre, in
York County, Pa. ; and the third, the much-esteemed
widow of Dr. Thompson, of Fagg's Manor, was for
several years previous to her decease a member of this
Six of the grandsons of Mr. Grier became minis-
ters of the Gospel, and five of them are still engaged
98 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTEEIAN OHITKCH
in proclaiming the glad tidings of Salvation. Those
who survive are the eldest son of Mr. White, two
of the sons of Mr. Robert 8. Grier, one of the sons
of Mr. Parke, and the younger son of Dr. Thompson.
Another grandson. Dr. Nathan G. Thompson, is now
a Ruling Elder in this congregation, where his grand-
f9.ther and uncle declared the whole counsel of God
upwards of fourscore years.
A discourse entitled " The Man of Bethany," com-
memorative of Mr. Grier, was delivered shortly after
his death by the Rev. William Arthur, at that time
pastor of the Pequea Presbyterian Church.*
* Sprague, " Annals of Pres. Church ;" Eev. J. N. C. Grier, D.D.,
" Historical Discourse ;" MS. Collections ; Minutes of the Presbytery
IN " THE FORKS OF BKANDYWINE." 99
EEV. JOHN N. C. GRIEE, D.D.
Born 1792. Died 1880.
In the Presbyterian Churches of Ireland and Scot-
land the settlement of a pastor in charge of a con-
gregation is generally a settlement for life. The
shepherd and his flock are seldom separated except
by death. The hearers of " the man of God," ven-
erable for years and piety, are frequently the grand-
children of those who welcomed him as their youthful
This unbroken, harmonious, and Christian rela-
tion between the people and their spiritual adviser,
from his entrance on his ministry until its close, has
not been confined to the Eastern shore of the Atlan-
tic. Instances of the pastor " who ne'er had changed
or wished to change his place" are not uncommon in
the history of the Presbyterian Church in America.
The remains of James Grier, Nathaniel Irwin, John
King, Robert Smith, John F. Grier, Robert White,
William Latta, John Carmichael, Nathan Grier, and
of many others, await the resurrection of the Just in
the graveyards belonging to the congregations which
were their only charge.
Such long-continued labor in the same portion of
Zion, which Dr. A. Alexander correctly regarded as
a strong proof of ministerial faithfulness, is well exem-
plified in the pastorate of the Rev. Dr. J. N. C. Grier.
From his installation until weighed down by the
100 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTEEIAN CHUKCH
burden of years he made known " the truth as it is
in Jesus" from the pulpit of the same church. Surely
much that is interesting and worthy of remembrance
must have occurred in connection with him, and with
the people among whom he " served God in the Gospel
of his Son" for nearly sixty years. Shall the pages
of history be crowded with the deeds of warriors and
statesmen, and no place be found for even the names
of those who have disseminated and impressed the
precepts of that Holy Book, which are the sources of
individual and national well-being ?
John Nathan Caldwell, second son of the Rev.
Nathan Grier, was born the 8th of June, 1792, on a
farm in West Brandywine Township, then the prop-
erty of his father, and now occupied by his daughter,
Mrs. Louisa Parke. He received his classical educa-
tion at the Brandywine Academy under the direction
chiefly of the Rev. John F. Grier, and his collegiate
at Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa.,, where he was
graduated in September, 1809. Shortly after his
graduation he became the subject of Divine grace,
and his thoughts being turned towards " the ministry
of reconciliation," he began the study of theology in
the school established for that purpose by his father.
Having successfully applied himself to the prescribed
preparation for a herald of righteousness, he was
licensed to preach the Gospel by the Presbytery of
New Castle on the 7th of April, 1813.
Mr. Grier passed the next year and a half as a
probationer, supplying vacant pulpits within the
bounds of the Presbytery, and after the death of his
father, received a unanimous call to become his sue-
IN " THE FORKS OF BKANDYWINE." 101
cessor. This he accepted, and on the 24th of No-
vember, 1814, was ordained and installed by the
Presbytery with which the Church had been long
connected. On that occasion the Rev. Mr. Arthur, of
Pequea, presided, and the Rev. Mr. Graham, of New
London, preached the sermon.
With the example of his godly father to guide and
animate, and the fervent prayers of the congregation
that the mantle of the father might fall on the son,
the youthful pastor entered on the discharge of the
duties of his sacred office. But although he made
known the great truths of the Gospel with earnest-
ness and power, and there were manifest tokens of the
divine approval of his labors, yet there was no general
awakening until 1822, when forty-one were added to
the membership of the Church.
This was followed by a dearth of spiritual blessings,
but in 1831, seemingly in answer to the earnest wrest-
ling with God in prayer by the members of the Pres-
bytery of New Castle, there was a copious outpouring
of the spirit.
Like the revival which began in Freehold, New Jer-
sey, a century before, " this refreshing from the pres-
ence of the Lord" was not confined to this church in
which its glorious effects first became manifest, but it
extended to the neighboring congregations of all de-
nominations. Under its blessed influence one hundred
and twenty-seven were added in that year to the
number worshipping here, and two hundred and
thirty-three in the six years next following.
Owing to the large increase the meeting-house was
crowded on the Sabbath. This was relieved to some
102 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTERIAN CHTJRCH
extent in 1833 by the organization of a church, at
Coatesville, made up in part of those who had been
connected with this congregation.
But in 1835, the number of members being nearly
seven hundred, it became necessary either to enlarge
the Meeting-House or to divide. After a discussion
of the subject at several congregational meetings held
for the purpose, it was finally resolved to separate.
As a consequence of this determination a building was
erected, and a church composed entirely of those who
had been under the pastoral supervision of Dr. Grier
was organized at Waynesburg, now Honeybrook. The
large attendance was further reduced, in 1839, by the
establishment of Fairview Presbyterian Church in
Thus in the short period of seven years three Pres-
byterian Churches, which have grown and prospered,
were organized by those a majority of whom had pro-
fessed their faith in Christ, and united with the con-
gregation worshipping in this place.
During tlie remainder of Dr. Grier's ministry,
although there was no special manifestation of the
Divine presence, there was an ingathering at every
Communion season, and notwithstanding the organiza-
tion of a church at Downingtown in 1863, the mem-
bership of his charge equalled that of fifty years be-
fore. The whole number received into the fellowship
of the church during his pastorate being about thirteen
In addition to the preparation and delivery of up-
wards of five thousand sermons, the baptism of nearly
one thousand, infants and adults, pastoral visits, attend-
IX " THE FOEKS OF BKANDYWI>"E." 103
ance on the sick, conducting the services at funerals,
and Sunday-school superintendence, Dr. Grier took an
active part in the temperance reformation, and fre-
quently addressed the public on that subject. A de-
termined foe of intemperance, no one did more to
guard both the old and the young against its insidious
advance than he who stood for more than half a cen-
tury on the watch-tower of human welfare and hap-
But the toil, the trials, and even the triumphs of
his long ministry at last unfitted him for further labor
in the Gospel field, and on the 14th of April, 1869,
the pastoral relation was dissolved at his request* by
the Presbytery of New Castle.
His work was done, but not until the children and
many of the children's children of those to whom he
first ministered, had been brought by his faithfulness
to know " th6 God of their fathers, and to serve Him
with a perfect heart and with a willing mind."
During the remainder of his sojourn on this side of
Jordan, although enduring much bodily suffering, Dr.
Grier patiently and prayerfully awaited the dividing
of the waters, and on the- 16th of September, 1880,
entered the promised land,f to which all, except two,
of those with whom he first met at the " table of the
Lord," had preceded him. His death cast a gloom
over the community, and a large number assembled to
pay the last tribute of respect to him whom they had
* See Appendix I.
■j" He was the last survivor of those who prepared for the ministry
under the direction of his father.
104 HISTORY OF THE PKESBYTEEIAN CHtTECH
often seen, on a like occasion, standing beside the un-
closed coffin or the newly-niade grave, warning the
impenitent or consoling the bereaved. The funeral
services were conducted in the church. After some,
feeling remarks by the pastor, Mr. McCoU, and the
delivery of an impressive Commemorative Address by
Dr. Bingham, of Oxford, Pa., the oldest of the six-
teen clergymen present, the members of the congrega-
tion, and many besides, took leave of the remains.
They were then borne by the most aged pastors in
attendance to their last resting-place in the Upper
Dr. Grier firmly upheld what he believed to be right,
was punctual in meeting his engagements, and aided
the Councils of the Church, from which he was rarely
absent, by his sound judgment and experience. He
took a lively interest in the various religious institu-
tions of his day, and every feasible plan for their
extension received his cordial support.
His manner in the pulpit was earnest and solemn,
and his plain, practical discourses, decidedly evangeli-
cal and pervaded by a tone of unaffected piety, " were
blessed for the conversion of many."
No productions of his pen have appeared in print
except a Historical Discourse delivered in 1849, and
an Address to those who had assembled to congratu-
late him on the completion of the fiftieth year of his
pastorate. In both of these publications, but especially
in the last mentioned, many interesting occurrences of
his ministry are given.
The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred on
him by Washington College, Pa., in 1841.
IN " THE FOEKS OF BRANDYWINE." 105
Dr. Grier was united in marriage, on the 9th of Sep-
tember, 1813, to Nancy R., eldest daughter of Captain
James Ralston, a leading member of his congregation.
She died on the 7th of November, 1873, after having
for more than sixty years contributed by her prudence,
discretion, and piety to increase his means of usefulness
and promote the beneficent operations of his charge.
They had a family of four daughters : Susannah, the
eldest, died while young ; Louisa was married to Rich-
ard Parke, then a resident of Chester Valley ; Frances
to Thomas G. Happersett, late of Baltimore, Md. ;
and Agnes to G. Washington Neely, recently deceased,
and long a resident of Ohio.*
* Minutes of Pres. of Newcastle; Dr. J. N. C. Grier, "Hist. Dis-
course ;" Obituary Notice, by Rev. J. C. Tiiompson ; by Eev. John
McColl ; Local Memoranda.
106 HISTORY OF THE PKESBYTERIAN CHURCH
Ruling Elders being the governing body in a
Presbyterian Churcb, and tbose on whose prudence,
zeal, and piety the prosperity of a congregation largely
depends, it might be supposed that at least their
names and the time of their ordination could be ascer-
tained by the Church Register. But, unfortunately,
no records of Session during the first eighty years
of the existence of this Church can be found. It is,
therefore, impossible to state many things which it
would be desirable to know respecting the godly men
who upheld the hands of the pastors during that
long period, and whose faithfulness may be traced in
the growth and vigor of the Church.
The following list, gathered from a variety of
sources, contains, it is believed, the names of nearly
all who have been Ruling Elders since the organization
of a Church in this place. But in regard to several
of them the writer, after diligent inquiry, has been
unable to learn the date of their ordination, and in
some instances of their resignation or death.
Earliest Periods at which they are hnown to have been Ruling Elders.
Edward Irwin Died about 1750.
.John Hamilton, ceased to act in 1741 ... "in May, 1761.
IJSr ' THE FOKKS OF BEAIfDYWIXE.
Robert Hamilton, ceased to act in 1Y41.
James Ward, ceased to act in 1Y41.
John Henderson, ceased to act in 1759.
Francis Alexander Died in Aug., 1778,
Thomas Reese, M.D.
Matthew Robertson, resigned before 1760 . . Died July 30, 1792.
Samuel Allen, removed to Mercer County about
William Brown . Died in Jan., 1786.
• . " Sept. 2, 1794.
. William Denny, Sr,
David Denny .
William Brvin .
" Oct. 8, 1784.
" Nov. 4, 1820.
'' in Sept., 1783.
" Dec. 18, 1794.
Samuel HoUiday, resigned in 1783.
Colonel Robert Smith Died in Dec, 1803.
William Hunter Died Dec. 18, 1804.
William Kennedy " Feb. 18, 1814.
Samuel Culbertson Died in April, 1788.
. Died Nov. 4, 1846.
1801 OR 1802
John Robeson, resigned before 1814 . .
Joseph Grier Died Nov. 10, 1830.
108 HISTOEY OF THE PEESBYTEEIAN CHURCH
James Lockhart, resigned in 1829 ; removed
in October, 1829, to the western part of
Richard Templin Died in Nov., 1824.
William Denny " Jan. 14, 1819.
Joseph M'Clure, Sr., resigned in 1825 ..." Oct. 15, 1827.^
James Ralston, Sr " Jan. 28, 1834.
Matthew Stanley, resigned in 1840 .... Died June 15, 1844.
John Buchanan, resigned in 1837 . . . . " Aug. 22, 1856.
William Templeton " Sept. 1, 1849.
Robert Ralston " Aug. 14, 1844.
Dan Kirkpatrick . Died Sept. 19, 1829.
John Templeton " July 27, 1865.
William Lockhart, resigned in 1829 ; removed
in October, 1829, to the western part of
Robert Molntyre Died Feb. 18, 1844.
David Buchanan, resigned in 1835 . . . . " Feb. 20, 1875.
Samuel Ralston Died Jan. 1, 1859.
James H. Long " July 13, 1857.
Joseph M'Clure, resigned in 1839 " Nov. 11, 1861.
John M'Clure, resigned in 1839 "- Feb. 9, 1873.
John Ralston Died Apr. 21, 1880.
William N. Long " July 13, 1862.
David Williams « Feb. 7, 1849.
Caleb Liggett » ' March 2,1876.
William Robeson Died Nov. 27, 1871.
James K. Grier " Jan. 8, 1867.
IX "the fokks of bkandywixe." 109
John Dauman Died Oct. 5, 1871.
Andrew Buchanan " Oct. 2, 1872.
John F. Templeton, resigned in 1876.
Gordon Lallock, resigned in 1871.
Baxter B. M'Clure, resigned in 1882.
Nathan Or. Thompson.
Benjamin Kea, resigned in 1883.
F. H. Irwin.
Charles T. Forrest.
Samuel Allen, Thomas Brown, William Brown,
John Culbertson, William Denny, Sr., Francis Gard-
ner, and Francis Alexander were members of the
Session when Mr. Carmichael was installed.
William Denny, Sr., Francis Gardner, and Francis
Alexander died during his pastorate ; Samuel HoUi-
day, who settled in the neighborhood in 1765, and
Colonel Robert Smith were elders in 1776, and Wil-
liam Hunter, William Kennedy, David Denny, and
Samuel Culbertson in 1787. It is, therefore, altogether
likely that Samuel Culbertson, Samuel Allen, David
Denny, William Hunter, William Irwin, Thomas
Brown, and Colonel Robert Smith composed the
bench of Elders when the Rev. Nathan Grier be-
came pastor. But owing to removal, resignation, or
110 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTEEIAN CHITKCH
death, all of them had ceased to be members of Session
before Mr. Grier's decease.
When Dr. Grier was installied the Ruling Elders
were James Lockhart, Richard Templin, James Rals-
ton, Joseph Grier, William Denny, and Joseph Mc-
Clure, Sr. During his pastorate he ordained twenty-
one elders, and in the same period eighteen of those
with whom he had taken such sweet counsel " in the
household of faith" went to their graves in peace.
When Mr. Heberton became pastor the members
of Session were John Ralston, Caleb Liggett, Andrew
Buchanan, William Robeson, John Dauman, James
Liggett, and John F. Templeton.
When he withdrew the members of Session were
John Ralston, Caleb Liggett, James Liggett, and
John F. Templeton.
The Ruling Elders at the present time are James
Liggett, John Weber, Nathan G. Thompson, Lewis
Worrall, Charles T. Forrest, and Frederick H. Irwin,
all of whom, except James Liggett, have been ordained
by Mr. McColL
Edward Irwin was among the first who settled in
what is now West Brandywine Township. He was
one of the Commissioners sent by the congregation in
1736 with the second call for Mr. Black. After the
separation he attended the ministry of Mr. Boyd.
John Hamilton, Robert Hamilton, and James Ward
took an active part in the organization of the church.
They withdrew with the New Side in 1741, and per-
haps were members of Session in Mr. Dean's congre-
gation. John Hamilton was one of the witnesses to
Mr. Dean's will.
John Henderson was a Ruling Elder in Mr. Boyd's
church until 1757, which seems to have been the time
of his decease.
Francis Alexander was a supporter of Mr. Boyd
during the whole of his pastorate, and probably a
member of Session.
Francis Gardner, a native of the North of Ire-
land, settled near the Beaver Dam, in Nantmeal, now
Honeybrook Township, in 1733. He was a Ruling
Elder a part of Mr. Boyd's and nearly the whole of
Mr. Carmichael's pastorate. Like all the Scotch-
Irish, Mr. Gardner was an active patriot during the
struggle for national independence.
112 HISTOKY OF THE PKESBYTEEIAN CHTJKCH
Matthew Kobertson (Robeson), who died at the age
of ninety-two, was upwards of half a century a faithful
member of the church, and one of those to whom the
land first owned by the congregation was patented by
the heirs of Penn.
William Brown was a Ruling Elder more than a
quarter of a century. His youngest daughter, Cath-
arine, was married in 1776 to Dr. McMillan, and
shared with him the trials and privations of life on
the frontier, upwards of forty years.
Colonel Robert Smith was an active patriot during
the Revolutionary War, sheriff of Chester County, a
Justice of the Peace, and a member of the State Legis-
lature in 1785.
William Hunter was a successful agent in collecting
funds' for restoring the Meeting-'HoUse after it had
been destroyed by fire ; a Justice of the Peace, and one
of the executors of Mr. Carmichael's estate.
Joseph Grier was a lieutenant in the Continental
Army, and one of the "Thirty Men" who were left to '
keep up the camp-fires, near Trenton, while the Amer-
ican army moved to the attack at Princeton.
John Culbertson, Esq., and David Denny were
active in arresting the suspected, and did good service
by forwarding supplies to the " Continental Army"
and assisting the families of those in the field.
Matthew Stanley was a member of the State Legis-
lature in 1829, '30, and many years a Justice of the
Robert Ralston held the office of Prothonotary dur-
ing Governor Wolf's administration, 1829-35. He
took an active part in the organization of the Presby-
terian Church at West Chester, and was one of its first
Andrew Buchanan was a member of the State Leg-
islature in 1855, '56, and one of four brothers who
were Ruling Elders in the Presbyterian Church.
A son of each of the following Ruling Elders en-
tered the Gospel Ministry : William Kennedy, Joseph
Grier, Samuel Ralston, John Templeton, and Caleb
The fathers of the Ruling Elders whose names are
subjoined were also Ruling Elders : William Denny,
William Lockhart, David Buchanan, John McClure,
Joseph McClure, John Ralston, Andrew Buchanan,
John F. Templeton, and James Liggett.*
* Dr. Grier, " Historical Discourse ;" Records of Session ; Penna.
Magazine ; Local Memoranda ; OfiBce of Register of Wills.
114 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTERIAN CHURCH
As it has been found impossible to obtain the names
of many who held the office of Trustee, lists of them
are given at those periods only when either, their ser-
vices being most needed, or some incidental circum-
stance caused their names to be placed on record.
The Trustees when the Manor Meeting-House was
built, in 1761, were E,ev. John Carmichael, John Cul-
bertson, JUsq., James Moore, Esq., William Denny,
Samuel McKinly, and Francis Gardner.
When the Meeting-House was destroyed by fire, in
1786, those who, as Trustees, took an active part in its
restoration were Samuel Cunningham, Esq., John
Culbertson, Esq., James M'Clure, David Denny,
James Dunwoodie, William Anderson, and Robert
In 1839, when the interior of the building was re-
modelled, John Templeton, Esq., John Ralston, James
Dorian, Thomas M'Clune, James K. Grier, William
W. M'Clure, Joseph Mackelduflf, and John M'Cach-
ran composed the board of Trustees -
' James G. Templeton, Charles T. Forrest, John
Weber, Lewis Worrall, James G. M'Clure, David
Harris, Isaac Sahler, Zebulon W. Davis, and Baxter
B. M'Clure held the office when the new church
edifice was commenced in 1875. Three of them were
IN " THE rOKKS OF BKAISTDYWINE." 115
the sons of those who were Trustees thirty-six years
The Trustees at the present time are James G.
M'Clure, Charles A. Robeson, W. P. Moore, Charles
T. Forrest, Zebulon W. Davis, Joseph P. Graham,
Robert Shields, Samuel C. Mackelduff, and Francis
The Sextons, so far as can be ascertained, have been
John M'Cachran, Isabella M'Cachran, James Neal,
James Millegan, Sr., James Millegan, Jr., Joseph
Sims, Samuel Parsons, John Sinn, Griffith Sinn,
William Ballentine, and Robert Cairns.*
* Local Memoranda ; Sessional Records in part.
116 HISTOEY OF THE PEESBYTEEIAN CHURCH
"How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that*
bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace, that bringeth good
tidings of good, that publisheth salvation." — Isaiah lii. 7.
Those whose names are appended prepared for the
Christian Ministry under the direction of the Rev.
Nathan Grier. The Biographical notices of them
have been arranged 'in the order of their license to
preach the Gospel.*
Rev. William Woods Licensed in June, 1794.
" David MConaughy,D.D., LL.D. . . " " Oct., 1797.
" Patrick Davidson " " Oct., 1797.
" Matthew G. Wallace " " April, 1799.
" Thomas Grier " " April, 1800.
" Joshua Knight " " Oct., 1800.
" Thomas Hood " " Aug., 1802.
" Levi Bull, D.D " " Sept., 1805.
" Alexander Boyd ~ " " Sept., 1806.
" James Buchanan " " Sept., 1806.
" Robert White " " April, 1809.
" William Kennedy " " April, 1809.
" John F. Grier, D.D " " June, 1810.
" Robert S. Grier " " Sept., 1812.
" Samuel Parke " " April, 1813.
" John H. Grier " " April, 1813.
" John N. C. Grier, D.D " " April, 1813.
" John W. Grier " " Sept., 1818.
* Minutes of Pres. of Newcastle.
IN -"the forks of beandywine." 117
REV. WILLIAM WOODS.
The Rev. William Woods, who appears to have been
the first that pursued his Theological studies under the
direction of the Rev. Nathan Grier, was a native of
Lancaster County, Pa. His academical education was
obtained at Dr. Smith's school in Pequea, and his col-
legiate at Dickinson College, of which he became an
Alumnus in 1792. He was licensed by the Presby-
tery of New Castle, June 17, 1794, and spent some
years after his licensure as a missionary in the western
counties of this State.
Mr. Woods accepted a call from the united churches
of Bethel and Lebanon, in Alleghany County, Pa.,
as the successor of the Rev. John Clark, and was in-
stalled as their pastor by the Presbytery of Redstone,
June 28, 1797. The pastoral relation was dissolved
in 1831, and he died October 17, 1834.
Bethel, of which Mr. Woods became sole pastor
some years before his death, was organized by Dr.
McMillan, and is one of the oldest churches in West-
ern Pennsylvania. " It shared largely in the blessed
influences of the revivals of 1803-04."*
*-Smith, " Old Redstone ;" Minutes of Presbytery of Newcastle.
118 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHTJReH
EEV. DAVID M'CONAUGHY, D.D., LL.D.
Kev. David M'Conaughy, D.D., LL.D., was born
in Adams County, then a part of York County, Pa.,
in September, 1775. He was graduated at Dickinson
College, Carlisle, September 30, 1795, standing the
first in his class. After the usual course in Theology
under the direction of the jRev. Nathan Crier, he was
licensed by the Presbytery of New Castle, October 5,
Having received a call from the united congrega-
tions of Upper Marsh Creek (now Gettysburg) and
Great Conewago, he was installed as their pastor in
October, 1800. He continued in this relation, faith-
fully and acceptably discharging his ministerial duties,
until the spring of 1832, when the pastoral relation
was dissolved at his request.
In May, 1832, he was inaugurated President of
Washington College, Pa., an ofiice which he filled
with dignity and ability until October, 1849, when
the infirmities of age caused him to resign. He con-
tinued to reside at Washington until his death, Janu-
ary 29, 1852.
Dr. M'Conaughy was an early and zealous advocate
of the temperance cause, and his influence, both as
a pastor and as the President of a college, was wide-
spread and beneficial. He left the congregations com-
mitted to his oversight in a prosperous condition, and
" every year of his administration added strength and
reputation to Washington College."
IX " THE FORKS OF BEAXDYWIXE." 119
After his retirement from the Presidency, Dr.
M'Conaughy published a volume of Discourses, chiefly
Biographical, of Persons eminent in Sacred History ;
a Brief Summary and Outline of the Principal Sub-
jects comprehended in Moral Science; a few Bacca-
laureate Addresses, and some Sermons.
His style is generally vigorous, although somewhat
diffuse, and his writings exhibit clearness in the state-
ment of facts, a judicious selection of the subjects
discussed, and an earnest desire to promote knowledge
The degree of D.D. was conferred on him by Jef-
ferson College in 1833 ; of LL.D. by the Trustees of
Washington College on his retirement from the
Presidency of that Institution.*
KEY. PATKICK DAVIDSON.
Patrick Davidson was born in 1775, and completed
his collegiate course at Dickinson College, Carlisle,
September 30, 179o.f He was licensed by the Pres-
bytery of New Castle, October 5^ 1797, and passed
the next twelve months in supplying churches with-
out a pastor.
In April, 1798, Mr. Davidson received a call from
* Dr. Nevin. " Churches of the Valley ;" Sprague, " Annals of
American Pulpit ;" Rev. Dr. Elliott's Com. Discourse.
f Among his classmates were Chief Justice Taney, Judge Kennedy,
of the Supreme Court of this State, Dr. McConaughy, President of
Washington College, and Dr. Williams, President of Jefferson College.
120 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
the congregation of Fagg's Manor, Chester County,
Pa., which he declined on account of the smallness
of the salary. The call, acconipanied by a promise
of increased support, was renewed at the meeting
of Presbytery in October of the same year, and
He was installed in April, 1799, and remained
about a year. He then applied for a release from his
charge, alleging " that although the congregation had
done all that was reasonable, yet certain unpleasant
circumstances had occurred which destroyed his com-
fort and hindered his usefulness."
The Presbytery granted his request, and on the 19th
of October, 1800, he was installed pastor of the church
at Toms Creek, Maryland, by a committee of the
Presbytery of Carlisle. In 1801 he also became
pastor of the church at Piney Creek in the same State,
giving to each of these churches one-half of his time.
His pastoral relation with both congregations seems
to have been harmonious and pleasant until the close
of the summer of 1809. In August (15th) of the same
year he was elected Principal of the Academy at
Fredericktown, Md., and removed there shortly after-
wards. This caused dissatisfaction among his people,
who complained that the preaching of the Word
was neglected, and at the meeting of Presbytery in
the Spring of 1810, they asked for supplies. Mr.
Davidson being absent, the Presbytery deferred action
until its meeting the next September (26th), when the
pastoral relation was dissolved.
At the same meeting of Presbytery a number of
charges against Mr. Davidson were presented by a
IN " THE FORKS OF BBAWDYWINE." 121
member of one of his congregations. A Committee
of Presbytery, after a careful examination, considered
them unfounded and censured his accuser.
He was dismissed at his own request on the 25th
of September, 1814, to the Presbytery of Baltimore.
During his connection with the Academy at Frederick-
town " he supplied the Presbyterian Church at that
place, and preached occasionally at Pipe Creek and
Creagertown in the vicinity."
Mr. Davidson died October 9, 1824. He was the
first that was called to his reward of those who entered
the ministry from the Divinity School of the Eev.
EEV. MATTHEW G. WALLACE.
The Rev. M. G. Wallace was -born about the year
1774. Where he received his academical training
is not known. He was graduated at the College of
New Jersey in September, 1795, and succeeded the
Rev. Mr. McPherson as principal of the Brandy wine
Academy, where he remained about three years.
While he had charge of the Academy he pursued the
study of Theology, and was licensed by the Presby-
tery of Newcastle, April 4, 1799. He removed im-
mediately afterwards to Ohio, and was one of the first
Presbyterian ministers who settled in that State.
* Minutes of Presbytery of Carlisle ; Kev. W. Simonton, " History
of Toms Creek Church ;" Eev. W. Noble, " History of Faggs Manor
122 HISTORY OP THE PEESBYTERIAN CHURCH
About 1802, Mr. "Wallace became pastor of the
First Presbyterian Churcli in Cincinnati. Subse-
quently he preached at Springfield, Hamilton, and
other places in Ohio. In the latter part of his life
he resided at Terre Haute, Ind., without a charge, and
died there August 12, 1854.
Mr. "Wallace was an excellent classical scholar, a
sound theologian, and a faithful minister of the
KEV. THOMAS GKIEE.
Middletown, the oldest, and for nearly a century
and a half the only, Presbyterian Church in what is
now Delaware County, Pa., was established before
1724. It seems to have been among the first organ-
ized outside of Philadelphia. As the records are
lost, its early history is obscure. A copy, however,
of "Watts's Psalms and Hymns, presented to the
church by the author, has escaped the ravages of time,
and is justly regarded as an interesting memento of
that eminent and godly man.
In the latter half of the first year of the present
century the congregation known by the name of
Middletown presented a call to the Eev. Thomas
Grier to become their pastor. This call he accepted,
and was ordained and installed December 16, 1801.
Mr. Grier was graduated at Dickinson College in
1797, studied divinity under the Rev. Nathan Grier,
* Dr. S. Alexander, " Princeton College in the Eighteenth Cen-
tury ;" " Reminiscences of Rev. Dr. J. N. C. Grier."
IlSr " THE FOKKS OF BRAND YWINE." 123
and was licensed by the Presbytery of Newcastle,
April 3, 1800.
He remained at Middletown until the close of Sep-
tember (30th), 1808, when he resigned and accepted a
call from the church at West Town, Orange County,
New York, in the bounds of the Presbytery of
Of his pastorate at Middletown little is known ;
but taking his subsequent ministry as a guide, it may
be inferred that it was faithful, laborious, and suc-
He was installed at West Town, February 7, 1809.
The bounds of the congregation were large, embrac-
ing the territory now occupied by four churches.
He labored with great diligence and acceptance until
difficulties arose with some of the members of his
charge on the subject of baptism. The matter was
finally brought to the notice of the Presbytery, and
in April (18th), 1827, the whole matter was referred
to a Committee, which accepted his resignation in
September (12th) of the same year.
Shortly afterwards Mr. Grier became pastor of the
church at Milford, Pike County, Pa., and remained
about a year. He then settled at Centreville, N. J.,
where a meeting-house was built for him. After a
pastorate of nearly three years in that place, he re-
moved to Cold Spring, on the Hudson, where he
continued to occupy the pulpit until his death.
" He was taken sick while preaching from the text,
' Weep not for me, but weep for yourselves and your
Mr. Grier preached without the aid of notes, and
124 HISTOKY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
with such earnestness and solemnity as frequently to
melt his audience to tears. His sermons were practi-
cal, sound in doctrine, and imbued with much of the
spirit of his Divine Master. His labors, especially
during his pastorate at West Town, were greatly
In 1815 there was a copious outpouring of the
Spirit among the people of his charge, one hundred
and three being added to the church in that year, and
j&fty-seven in the year immediately following ; all on
a profession of their faith. In, 1820 a still greater
awakening took place, and a hundred and ninety-four
became members of the visible church.
Mr. Grier married a Miss McCullough, of Little
Britain, Lancaster County, Pa., and one of his sons,
George W. Grier, resides in Goshen, Orange County,
REV. JOSHUA KNIGHT.
About the middle of the last century a number of
Presbyterian families associated together and emi-
grated from Connecticut to Southwestern Central New
York. They purchased a quarter township of land,
and settled on the Chenango River, a tributary of the
Susquehanna, near where the town of Sherburne now
stands. They arrived on Thursday, and by the next
Sabbath they had built a log meeting-house, in which
divine service was held every week. This building
* Com. from Rev. T. Sheelar, Orange Co., N. Y. ; Smith, " Hist,
of Delaware Co. ;" Minutes of Presbytery of Hudson.
IN " THE FORKS OF BEAXDYWINE." 125
having in the course of time become no longer fit for
public worship, they determined to erect another. A
difference of opinion, however, about the site of the
new meeting-house led to a division. A part of the
congregation withdrew, organized as a second church,
and built a house at some distance from the town. '
In 1802 the Rev. Joshua Knight, a graduate of
Dickinson College in 1798, and a licentiate of the
Presbytery of Newcastle in 1800, was installed pas-
tor of this church. He discharged the duties of the
office with acceptance until 1823. In that year he
married the daughter of his first wife, step- daughter,
and as a consequence was dejjosed from the minis-
try by the Congregational Association of Chenango
County. He removed shortly afterwards from Sher-
burne to a farm belonging to his wife on the Mohawk
River, in Herkimer County, where he spent some years
in agriculture. He subsequently engaged in mercan-
tile pursuits, but his property having been destroyed
by fire, he was reduced to penury. His wife died of
grief, and he, after having, as reported, officiated as a
Universalist clergyman, closed his earthly existence
as a pauper.
That the evening of a life whose morning and noon
were passed prosperously and respectably should have
been clouded by poverty and disgrace, gives rise to
many sad and monitory reflections. But the duty of
the biographer is the stating of facts, not the j)enning
of meditations on the errors and frailties of humanity.
His children by the last marriage all died when
young. A son by his first marriage, it is said, resides
126 HISTOEY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
The second church at Sherburne was small, never
numbering more than two hundred members. It
shared largely in the revival of 1816. In 1830 it
disbanded and formed another organization in a vil-
lage five miles distant.*
EEV. THOMAS HOOD.
Thomas Hood was born on the farm now in the
possession of the family of the late Matthew Stanly,
July 2, 1781. He was awakened to a sense of his
lost condition by the preaching of the Rev. Nathan
Grier. After he had been connected for some time
with Mr. Grier's congregation, he determined to enter
the ministry. His preparatory training was received
at the Brandywine Academy, and his collegiate at
Dickinson College, where he was graduated in Sep-
tember, 1799. He was licensed by the Presbytery of
Newcastle, August 3, 1802, and spent about three
years as an occasional supply in the central counties
of this State.
In October, 1805, Mr. Hood was installed by the
Presbytery of Huntingdon pastor of the united con-
gregations of , Buffalo and Washington, in North-
umberland, now Union, County, Pa. At first he
gave to each of these congregations half his time.
But the congregation at Washington having been
* New York Hist. Collections ; Hotchkin's " Hist, of Western
New York;" MS. Com. from Rev. J. Chambers, Pastor of Cong.
IN " THE FOEKS OF BKAFDYWINE." 1 27
reduced by the change of residence of many of its
members, they consented, in 1809, to an agreement for
Mr. Hood to preach there every fourth Sabbath.
At a meeting of the Presbytery held at Bellefonte in
1810, the residents of Milton and vicinity, in North-
umberland County, requested permission for Mr. Hood
to preach for them one-fourth of his time. This
request was granted by the recently-formed Presbytery
of Northumberland, and he conducted religious services
at Milton once a month as a stated supply until Octo-
ber 7, 1812, when he was installed as pastor.
On the 20th of April, 1819, he accepted an invita-
tion to give the congregation at Milton one-half of his
time. " This arrangement continued until he resigned
the pastorate, April 21, 1835." Mr. Hood was noted
for the excellence and solidity of his matter rather
than for elegant diction or an attractive delivery.
After his withdrawal from the active duties of the
ministry, Mr. Hood resided for some years on his
farm in Bufialo Valley, Union County, but he finally
removed to Lewisburg, the seat of justice of the same
county, where he died March 17, 1848.
He was married in April, 1803, to j\Iiss Mary
Hazlitt. His second wife was Miss Hannah M'Clure,
to whom he was married in March, 1848, a short time
before his decease.*
* Com. from Kev. J. C. Wattson, D.D. ; " Hist, of Presbytery of
Huntingdon ;" " Reminiscences of Ex-Governor Pollock."
128 HISTOEY or THE PRESBYTERIAST CHURCH
EEV. LEVI BULL, D.D.
The Rev. Levi Bull was born in Warwick, then a
part of East Nantmeal Township, Chester County,
November 14, 1780. He manifested an aptitude for
learning at an early age, and was graduated at Dick-
inson College in September, 1798, before he had
completed his eighteenth year.
He commenced the study of Law in the office of
James Hopkins, Esq., Lancaster, Pa., but before he
was admitted to the Bar his religious opinions under-
went a change, and he resolved to devote himself to
the service of the Altar. With this object in view
he passed through the usual theological course in the
Divinity School of the Bev. Nathan Grier, entered
the ministry of the Episcopal Church, and was or-
dained by Bishop White in 1805.
Instead of seeking a rectorship at a distance, he
devoted himself to the preaching of the Gospel in
the vicinity of his native place. His earnestness
and faithfulness, together with his popular manners,
caused his ministrations to be largely attended, and
resulted in the organization of several Episcopal
Churches, which still exist.*
The possessor of ample means both by inheritance
and marriage, Dr. Bull generously assisted every be- '
nevolent object, and the deserving poor never sought
* Dr. Bull was rector in 1833 of St. Mary's Church, Warwick
Township, Chester County; Bangor Church, Churchtown, Lancaster
County ; and St. Thomas' Church, Morgantown, Berks County.
his aid in vain. Imbued by a truly Christian philan-
thropy, he regarded ministers of the Gospel of every
orthodox denomination as his brethren, and mingled
freely "with men of every creed. He is the only
Episcopal clergyman whom the writer remembers to
have seen occupying a Presbyterian pulpit. At his
death, which took place August 2, 1859, he was the
oldest rector of the Episcopal Church in Pennsyl-
vania. The degree of D.D- was conferred on him in
1844 by the Western University of Pennsylvania,
located at Pittsburg.
The father of Dr. Bull, Colonel Thomas Bull, was
a soldier in the " Continental Army ;"* a Representa-
tive from Chester County in the State Legislature
nine sessions, 1793 to 1801 inclusive, and a delegate
to the Convention which framed the Constitution of
Pennsylvania, adopted in 1776.
The eldest son of Dr. Bull, Colonel Thomas K.
Bull, a gentleman of liberal education and pleasing
address, resides on the paternal estate. He was a
member of the State Legislature three years, — 1846,
'47, and '48. Another son, James, held the office of
Prosecuting Attorney for Chester County, and a third
son, William, recently deceased, was a member of the
A grandson of Dr. Bull, the Rev. Levi Bull, is a
rector in the Episcopal Church.
* Colonel Bull was among those taken prisoners by the surrender
of Fort Washington in November, 1776, and endured all the priva-
tions and suflferings of that Libby of the Revolutionary War, the
British prison-ship. He is said to have broken his sword rather than
130 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
A discourse commemorative of Dr. Bull was de-
livered by the Kev. Dr. May in 1859.*
EEV. ALEXANDEE BOYD.
Alexander Boyd, a native of Cumberland County,
Pa., was born about 1780. When quite young he re-
moved to 'the vicinity of Pittsburg, and prosecuted
his academical studies at Cannonsburg, before Jeffer-
son College was founded. His collegiate course was
completed at Dickinson College in 1799.
Having spent some years in teaching, and passed
through the usual course in Theology under the direc-
tion of the Rev. Nathan " Grier, he was licensed by
the Presbytery of Newcastle, September 30, 1806.
In 1808 he was installed pastor of the church in Bed-
ford, Pa., by the Presbytery of Carlisle. After labor-
ing there about eight years he accepted a call from
the Presbyterian Church at Newtown, Bucks County,
where he was installed by the Presbytery of Phila-
delphia in 1817. Owing to a difference of views
between him and a number of the leading members
of his congregation on the subject of temperance, he
resigned his charge at Newtown, in 1838, and settled
at Lock Haven, Clinton County, Pa. He remained
there until a year before his death, which occurred in
Mr. Boyd " was a man of faithfulness, prayer, and
power," and left an impression on the community at
* Futhey, " Notae Cestriensis ;" May, Com. Piscourse ; Commu-
nication from Colonel T. Bull.
IN " THE FOKKS OF BKANDYWIXE." 131
Newtown which is not yet eflFaced. During his Pas-
torate the congregation was blessed with several re-
vivals, and not a year passed without the addition of
members to the church, and many of them on a pro-
fession of their faith.
Mr. Boyd was twice married. His^ first wife was
Miss Margaret Watson, daughter of Dr. John Wat-
son, of Lancaster County. His second wife was Miss
Ann Beatty, daughter of Dr. Reading Beatty, of
REV. JAMES BUCHANAN.
The Rev. Mr. Buchanan was a native of Sads-
bury Township, Chester County, Pa., where he was
born in 1783. He received his academical training at
the Brandywine Academy, and his collegiate at Dick-
inson College, where he was graduated September 28,
1808. Having completed his theological course, he
was licensed by the Presbytery of Newcastle, Septem-
ber 30, 1806.
In April, 1809, he was installed as pastor of the
united congregations of Harrisburg and Middle Pax-
ton, where he labored about six years with " faithful-
ness and success." Failing health having compelled
him to resign his charge, he spent some time in trav-
elling. His health having been in a measure restored,
he accepted a call in 1816 from the Presbyterian
Church at Greencastle, Franklin County, Pa. He
* Com. from Eev. J. C. Bush, of Newtown, Pa.; Com. from Rev.
Dr. Watson, of Milton, Pa. ; Minutes of Northumberland Presbytery.
132 HISTOEY OF THE PRESBYTEKIAN CHUECH
sustained this relation upwards of twenty years, when,
owing to ill-health and a belief that a change of place
would be beneficial both to himself and the people of
his charge, he resigned, and became pastor of a church
at Logansport, Indiana. He remained in connection
with it until his death, in September, 1843.
Mr. Buchanan was much beloved by the members
of the congregations of which he was pastor, and was
highly esteemed by his brethren in the ministry.
Dr. Elliott, who knew him well, states in a bio-
graphical notice of him that his sermons in their
structure were neat, systematic, and short ; in their
matter solid, evangelical, and practical ; and in their
manner grave, solemn, and earnest.*
KEV. KOBEET WHITE.
Robert White was born in Montgomery County,
Pa., in 1783. He pursued his preparatory studies at
Norristown, and was licensed to preach by the Pres-
bytery of Newcastle, April 4, 1809.
Shortly after his licensure calls were placed in his
hands from Upper Octoraro, Fagg's Manor, and the
united congregations of White Clay Creek and head
of Christiana. He accepted the call from Fagg's
Manor, and was ordained and installed December 14,
1809. He continued to be the pastor of that church
until his death, in September, 1835.
His sermons were plain and practical, sound in
* Dr. Nevin, " Churclieg of the Valley ;" Rev. David Elliott, D.D.
doctrine, and delivered in an earnest, impressive man-
ner. Mr. White was well acquainted witli history in
general, and lie frequently drew illustrations of the
Providence of God from the records of the past which
were both apt and striking.
The only production from the pen of Mr. White,
which the writer has seen, is a sermon entitled " ^lel-
chisedek," delivered August 11. 1814. In it he ad-
vances the opinion that Job and Melchisedek were the
same pereon. His views are well sustained, and the
whole discourse is, perhaps, as clear an exposition as
can be given of a subject from which the veil of mys-
tery cannot be removed.
Mr. White married, in 1809, Xancy, eldest daugh-
ter of his theological preceptor, the Rev.' Xathan
Grier. Both of the sons of Mr. White entered the
The eldest, Xathan Grier White, after finishing his
theological course at Princeton, was licensed by the
Presbytery of Newcastle, October 2, 1833. He was
ordained and installed pastor of the church at ^NIc-
Connelsburg, Bedford, now Fulton, County, Pa., June
11, 1834, a relation- which he sustained "until the
fall of 1864, when he accepted a call to Williams-
burg, Blair County, Pa., where he is now laboring."
The younger, Robert ]M. White, was graduated at
Amherst College in 1834, standing the second in his
class. Having completed his theological course in
1837, he was ordained and installed pastor of the
church at Fairview, West Virginia, in the autumn of
In September, 1 848, he became the pastor of the
134 HISTORY OF THE PKESBYTEEIAN CHUKCH
Presbyterian Church of Chartiers, Washington
County, Pa. But his ministry there was short. He
died on the 14th of December, 1848.
A daughter, now deceased, of Mr. White was mar-
ried to the Kev. John Moore. Another passed several
years as a missionary in Northern India with her
husband, the late Kev. Robert S. Fullerton.*
EEV. WILLIAM KENNEDY.
William Kennedy, whose father was many years a
Euling Elder of the congregation worshipping in this
place, was born July 4, 1783. Through the influence
of his pious parents, aided by the faithful and earnest
admonitions of his pastor, Kev. Nathan Grier, he was
brought to a knowledge of the saving truths of the
Gospel, and finally led to devote himself to the min-
istry of Keconciliation. He received his preparatory
training at the Brandywine Academy, and having
passed the usual time in the study of Theology under
the direction of the Kev. Nathan Grier, was licensed
April 6, 1809, by the Presbytery of Newcastle. On
the 3d of October in the following year he was or-
dained and installed pastor of the united congrega-
tions of Lewistown and West K^shacoquillas, Pa., by
the Presbytery of Huntingdon.
In April, 1822, charges were brought against him
of conduct unbdcoming a clergyman. These charges
* Puthey, " Notse Cestriensis ;" Kev. W. ¥. Noble, " Hist, of Pres.
Church of Fagg's Manor ;" Kev. J. F. Collier, " Hist, of Chartiers
the Presbytery considered unsustained, but he was
induced as a consequence to resign his pastorate.
" On the first of October, 1822, Mr. Kennedy was
dismissed at his own request to the Presbytery of
Erie, but finally settled within the bounds of the
Presbytery of Clarion."
He supplied the congregation of Mount Tabor, in
Jefferson County, and of Mill Creek, in Clarion
County, until a short time before his death, which
took place November 2, 1850.
Mr. Kennedy married, in 1809, Mary, third
daughter of Benjamin McClure, an active member of
this Church, and many years the leader of the choir.
Four of their children, two sons and two daughters,
reside within a ^hort distance of Brookville, Jefferson
In regard to the charges which were preferred
against Mr. Kennedy, it is no more than just to state
that his contemporaries believed him to be a good and
godly man, and that his subsequent lengthened min-
istry " was without suspicion and without reproach."*
EEV. JOHN F. GEIEE, D.D.
John Ferguson Grier, only son of the Rev. James
Grier, of Deep Run, Bucks County, Pa., was born in
1784. He received his preparatory training at the
Academy in this place, entered Dickinson College,
* Gibson, " Hist, of Huntingdon Presbytery ;" Com. from William
B. Kennedy ; Minutes of Presbytery of Newcastle.
136 HISTOEY OF THE PEESBYTEKIAN CHUECH
Carlisle, in 1799, and was graduated in 1803, at the
head of his class. He subsequently taught in Pequea,
was principal nearly five years of the Brandywine
Academy, completed his Theological course under the
direction of his uncle, the Rev. Nathan Grier, and
was licensed to preach the Gospel by the Presbytery
of Newcastle, June 26, 1810.
Dr. Grier settled at Reading, Pa., where he was
instrumental in gathering together and organizing the
First Presbyterian Church in that city, of which he
was installed pastor November 23, 1814. In addition
to the conscientious discharge of his pastoral duties
he conducted a Classical School, which obtained a high
reputation and was well patronized. A warm friend
of education, he was several years an active Trustee of
Dickinson College, and it is altogether likely if his
life had been prolonged that the College would have
remained under Presbyterian control. The honorary
degree of D.D. was conferred on him by the College
Dr. Grier's manner in the pulpit was dignified and
solemn, but close attention to his manuscript during
the delivery of his sermons, which were models of
diction and close thought, made them less attractive
and impressive than their excellence merited.
He died suddenly, January 26, 1829, during the
progress of a revival which added many to the mem-
bership of the church of which he had been the
faithful and only pastor.*
* Sprague, " Annals of American Pulpit ;'' C. B. Penrose, Esq.,
IN " THE FORKS OF BKANDYWINE." 187
KEY. EGBERT S. GRIER.
The eldest son of the Rev. Nathan Grier, Robert
Smith Grier, was born May 11, 1790. In answer, no
doubt, to the prayers of his godly parents, he was
hopefully converted at an early age, and led to de-
vote himself to the divinely-appointed work of win-
ning souls to Christ.
Mr. Grier passed, from 1802 to 1807, in prepara-
tory studies at the Brandywine Academy, and in the
last-mentioned year entered Dickinson College, where
he was graduated September 27, 1809. He studied
Theology under the direction of his father, and was
licensed by the Presbytery of Newcastle in Septem-
He preached as a supply to congregations without
a pastor until the winter of 1814, when he received
a call from the churches of Toms Creek, now Em-
mittsburg, and Piney Creek, Md. This call he ac-
cepted, and was ordained and installed by the Pres-
bytery of Carlisle, November 14, 1814. He remained
in the pastoral charge of these congregations until his
death, on the 28th of December, 1865, closed his pas-
torate of fifty-one years.
The Christian fellowship which subsisted between
Mr. Grier and the members of the churches of which
he had the spiritual oversight is shown by his long
residence among them, and his faithfulness, by the
number gathered into the fold at each communion
season. In the sanctuary, his manner was earnest
138 HISTOEY OF THE PEESBYTERIAlSr CHUECH
and solemn, his language plain and direct, and his
discourses argumentative, practical, and convincing.
It is worthy of remark that both the sons of the
Rev. Nathan Grier, and also his sons-in-law, the Rev.
Messrs. White and Parke, remained during the en-
tire period of their ministry in charge of the congre-
gations over which they were first installed. Like
the pastor of Goldsmith's " Deserted Village,"
" Remote from towns, each ran his godly race,
And never changed, nor wished to change his place."
Both the sons of Robert S. Grier entered the min-
istry, and are laboring with acceptance in West Vir-
ginia. The elder, Smith F. Grier, as pastor of the New
Cumberland Presbyterian Church, where the twenty-
fifth anniversary of his installation has recently been
celebrated, and the younger, Lafferty Grier, as pastor
of the Elm Grove' Presbyterian Church, where he has
been stationed the last eighteen years.*
REV. SAMUEL PARKE.
Samuel Parke was born in Sadsbury Township,
Chester County, November 25, 1788. His parents
being members of the Upper Octoraro Church, he
was early brought to a sense of his lost condition, and
having experienced a change of heart, resolved to
devote himself to the work of the Gospel Ministry.
* Rev. W. Simonton, " Hist, of Emmittsburg Pres. Church ;" Min-
utes of Presbytery of Carlisle. '
IK " THE FORKS OF BEANDYWINE." 1 39
After careful preparation, lie entered Dickinson Col-
lege, Carlisle, and was graduated in September, 1809.
Having completed his theological course, he was
licensed by the Presbytery of Newcastle, April 7,
In August, 1814, Mr. Parke was ordained and in-
stalled Pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Slate
Ridge, York County, Pa., and also of Centre Church
in the same County, giving to the latter one-third of
his time. He ministered to both of these congrega-
tions about thirty years, when he resigned the Pas-
torate of the Centre Church, but continued to occupy
the pulpit of the Slate Ridge Church.
In 1857 the infirmities of age led him to obtain a
dissolution of the Pastoral relation, and he remained
without a charge until his death, December 20, 1869.
Mr. Parke faithfully performed the duties of his
sacred oflfice, and was much beloved by the members
of his flock. During his ministry of more than forty
years there were many tokens of the Divine approval
of his labors, and the congregations of which he had
the oversight annually increased. His manner in the
pulpit was peculiarly solemn and impressive. Prac-
tical piety rather than doctrinal controversy formed
the chief subject of his discourses.
Mr. Parke married Martha, the second daughter of
the Rev. Nathan Grier.
His son, the Rev. Nathan Grier Parke, D.D., was
graduated at Jefferson College in 1840, completed his
theological course at Princeton in 1844, and is now
Pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Pittston, Lu-
zerne County, Pa.
140 HISTOEY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHtTKCH
In 1867, Dr. Parke, with others, represented the
Old School Presbyterian Church in the Assembly of
the Free Church of Scotland, and also in the United
Presbyterian Church of the same country.*
EEV. JOHN H. GKIEE.
John Hays Grier, the eldest son of John and Jane
(Hays) Grier, was born about seven miles from
Doylestown, Bucks County, Pa., February 7, 1788.
When he was quite young, his parents, who were mem-
bers of the Deep Run Presbyterian Church, removed
from Bucks County and settled on the farm recently
owned by their grandson, Elder Baxter B. McClure.
Mr. Grier received his preparatory training at the
Brandywine Academy, and completed his collegiate
course at Dickinson College, Carlisle, in September,
1809. Among his classmates were James Buchanan,
late President of the United States, Robert S. Grier,
John W. Grier, and J. N. C. Grier, well-known min-
isters of the Gospel.
Mr. Grier studied Theology under the direction of
his uncle, the Rev. Nathan Grier, and was licensed
to preach the Gospel by the Presbytery of Newcas-
tle, April 7, 1813. He was installed pastor of the
United Churches of Pine Creek and Great Island,
Lycoming County, Pa., in the Fall of 1814. He con-
tinued in charge of both these churches until 1827,
* Futhey, " Hist, of Upper Oct. Church ;" Mioutes of Presbytery
of Carlisle ; Presbyterian Banner.
IN " THE FORKS OF BRAND YWINE." 141
when he resigned the pastorate of Great Island, now
Lock Haven, and divided the time previously devoted
to it between a charge in Nij)enose Valley and an-
other at New Berry, now included in the town of
In 1840 the members of the Pine Creek Church
built a house for public worship in the village of
Jersey Shore, and the congregation was afterwards
designated by the name of that village, the term
Pine Creek being dropped.
Mr. Grier resigned the pastorate of Jersey Shore in
1848, but continued to supply the congregation in
Nipenose Valley until 1863, when he withdrew from
the active duties of the ministry.
When he commenced his labors in Lycoming
County it was sparsely settled, church buildings were
few, and the opportunities for hearing the preached
Word limited. At the close of his half-century of
ministerial work the county was populous, churches
were largely multiplied, and a band of devoted men,
representing all the orthodox denominations, pro-
claimed the words of truth in cities and villages, oc-
cupying places where he had declared " the whole
counsel of God" in an almost unbroken wilderness.
Unassuming and genial, Mr. Grier was always de-
servedly popular with the young people, not only of
his charge but also of other denominations. This is
evident from the fact that he solemnized a greater
number of marriages than any other clergyman within
the bounds of the Presbytery, being frequently called
a distance of several miles to perform the interesting
142 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTERIAN CHURCH
After the dissolution of the pastoral relation Mr.
Grier resided at Jersey Shore. He was probably the
oldest Presbyterian clergyman in this State, and,
although his physical and mental powers were some-
what impaired, he entered on his ninetieth year in
the enjoyment of comparatively good health.*
Mr. Grier died February 3, 1880, within four days
of having completed his ninety-second year.
EEV. JOHN W. GRIEE.
John Walker Grier was born in Bucks County, Pa.,
in 1789. When he was quite young his parents re-
moved from Bucks County and settled within the
bounds of this congregation, of which his father. Col-
onel Jos. Grier, was upwards of twenty years a Ruling
Having been hopefully converted during a season
of refreshing in the church, Mr. Grier, in obedience
to his own sense of duty and the wishes of his pious
parents, resolved to devote himself to the work of the
Christian ministry. With this object in view, he
passed through a preparatory course at the Brandy-
wine Academy and entered Dickinson College, where
he was graduated in 1809. His theological studies
were commenced in the Divinity School of his uncle,
the Rev. Nathan Grier, and completed under the
direction of Dr. Mason, of New York City, and in
the Seminary at Princeton, N. J.
Mr. Grier then turned his attention to teaching,
* Com. from R. H. Grier ; Min. Pres. of Newcastle ; Personal Rem-
IN " THE FOKKS OP BEANDYWINE." 143
reopened the Brandywine Academy, which had been
closed since the withdrawal of Dr. J. F. Grier, and
continued in charge of it until the Spring of 1822,
when he resigned, and became principal of the Ches-
ter County Academy. He retained his connection
with that Institution until 1826, when he was ap-
pointed by John Quincy Adams a Chaplain in the
navy of the United States. This office his amiable
disposition, gentlemanly manners, and uniformly
Christian deportment eminently qualified hirn to fill,
and he discharged its duties to the satisfaction of all.
He held the position until 1857, when the infirmi-
ties of nearly threescore and ten caused him to resign,
and he passed the remaining seven years of his life
in literary leisure and the enjoyment of the society
of his numerous friends.
During his connection with the navy, Mr. Grier
visited nearly all of the commercial cities and many
of the most interesting localities in both hemisjaheres ;
and his stores of information gathered during his
voyages and travels made his conversation highly
interesting and instructive. He was an excellent
Hebraist, a good classical scholar, and a well-read
Mr. Grier was one of a Committee of eight who,
in 1831, signed, in behalf of an association formed for
the purpose, the contract for the publication of the
first number of that widely-known and influential
periodical the Presbyterian. He was also the first
superintendent of the Manor Sunday-School.
Mr. Grier was licensed by the Presbytery of New-
castle, September 30, 1818, and ordained in 1826 by
144 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTERIAN CHTJECH
the Presbytery of Philadelphia, when he was about
to enter the navy.
His only surviving son, the Rev. Matthew B. Grier,
D.D., well known as the senior editor of the Presby-
terian, was licensed by the Presbytery of Newcastle
at Wilmington, Del., in 1843, and ordained and in-
stalled pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Ellicott's
Mills, Md., by the Presbytery of Baltimore, in No-
The pastoral relation was dissolved at his request in
November, 1852, and he accepted a call to the First
Presbyterian Church, "Wilmington, N. C. Dr. Grier
remained at Wilmington, laboring faithfully and ac-
ceptably, until the outbreak of the Rebellion, when
he was forced, on account of his loyalty to the Union,
to withdraw to a Northern city. He has now been
for many years the leading editor of the Presbyterian,
and is at present supplying the church at Ridley Park,
near the city of Philadelphia.*
The following members of his Congregation became
Ministers of the Gospel during the Pastorate of Dr.
J. N. C. Grier :
Kev. Robert M'Cachran.
" Anderson B. Quay.
" Britton B. Collins.
" Benjamin M. Nyce.
" Richard Walker.
" Matthew B. Grier, D.D.
" Bees Happersett, D.D.
Rev. Jas. G. Ralston, D.D.,LL.D.
William H. Templeton.
John C. Thompson.
David W. Moore.
* Minutes of Newcastle Pres. ; Minutes of Pres. of PhiladelpTiia ;
Cruise of the " Potomac ;" Personal Reminiscences.
IX '' THE FOKKS OF BEANDYWINE." 145
KEV. ROBERT M'CACHRAN.
Robert M'Cacliran, of Scotch-Irish ancestry, was
born and grew to manhood almost within hearing of
the weekly services of the sanctuary. Having become
hopefully pious, and believing it to be his duty to
enter the Christian ministry, he commenced the study
of the classics at the Brandy wine Academy, then under
the direction of the Rev. John W. Grier.
After the retirement of Mr. Grier and the discon-
tinuance of the Academy, Mr. M'Cachran finished his
preparatory training at the Rev. Dr. M'Graw's Acad-
emy, in Cecil County, Md. His collegiate course was
completed at Dickinson College, during the presi-
dency of Dr. Mason, and his theological in the Semi-
nary at Princeton, N. J.
He was licensed to preach the Gospel by the Pres-
bytery of Newcastle in 1827, and having spent some
time in suj)plying churches without a pastor, he ac-
cepted a call from the congregation of Big Spring,
now Newville, Cumberland County, Pa., and was in-
stalled in the Spring of 1830. He remained in this
connection until October, 1851, when a chronic affec-
tion of the chest compelled him to resign his charge.
After his withdrawal from the active duties of the
ministry, Mr. M'Cachran resided in Newville, and
devoted a portion of his time to the superintendence
of a classical school. The congregation at Newville
during his pastorate received many tokens of Divine
favor. While he had charge nearly five hundred
146 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
members were added to the church, seventy -three of
them the fruits of a revival which occurred the second
year of his ministry.
Mr. M'Cachran resided at Newville without a charge
until his death, February 15, 1885, having been for
some years the oldest member of the Presbytery of
Carlisle, with which he had been connected upwards
of half a century. He was the first member of the
congregation who entered the ministry during the
pastorate of Dr. Grier.*
EEV. ANDERSON B. QUAY.
Anderson B. Quay, a native of Chester County, Pa.,
was born in 1802. He had married and was engaged
in business when a change in his religious views led
him to consider it his duty to preach the Gospel. He,
therefore, after due preparation in the Academy at
Reading, Pa., entered the Seminary at Princeton in
1827, where he remained until September, 1829.
Mr. Quay was licensed by the Presbytery of New-
castle, October 7, 1829. On the 6th of April, 1830,
he was dismissed to the Presbytery of Carlisle, and
passed the next two years as a probationer, supplying
the united congregations of Monaghan, now Dillsburg,
and Petersburg, both in York County, Pa. In the
Spring of 1832 he was installed pastor of those
Churches by the Presbytery of Carlisle. His labors
among the people of his charge continued with in-
* Dr. Nevin, " Churches of the Valley ;" Com. from James M'Cach-
ran ; Minutes of Presbytery of Carlisle ; Local Memoranda.
IX " THE FORKS OF BEAXDYWIXE." 147
creasing benefit until the Autumn of 1839, when the
pastoral relation was dissolved at his request, and he
accepted an Agency from the Presbyterian Board of
In May, 1840, he became pastor of the First Pres-
byterian Church at Beaver, Pa., continuing to act a
part of the time as Agent of the Board. His pastorate
at Beaver lasted until February, 1842, when he re-
ceived an appointment from the Board of Foreign
Missions and resigned his charge. The members of
the congregation parted with much regret from the
pastor whose services, owing to their pecuniary cir-
cumstances, they were unable properly to recompense.
Mr. Quay held the position of Agent of the Board
of Missions about a year, when he accepted a call to
Indiana, Pa., where he remained until 1849. In the
last-named year, at the request of the Colonization So-
ciety of Pennsylvania, he became their Agent, and re-
tained the position until his death, which took place at
Beaver in 1 856.
Mr. Quay united with pleasing manners great firm-
ness of purpose and warmtli of feeling. He faithfully
discharged the duties of pastor to the congregations in-
trusted to his oversight, and labored diligently for the
promotion of Education, Foreign Missions, and Afri-
can Colonization. His eldest son, ]Matthew Stanley
Quay, was recently the able and popular Secretary of
* Min. of Pres. of Newcastle ; Min. of Pres. of Carlisle ; Eev. J.
J. Scatterfield, " Hist, of First Pres. Church of Beaver."
148 HISTORY OF THE PKESBYTERIAlSr CHUKCH
KEV. BRITTON E. COLLINS.
Britton Estol Collins was born in Philadelphia,
February 2, 1802. Having settled within the bounds
of this congregation, he was brought to a knowledge of
Jesus Christ as the only Saviour, and led to devote
himself to the ministry of Reconciliation by the
preaching of the Rev. Dr. J. N. C. Grier.
Mr. Collins pursued his classical studies under the
direction of the Rev. John W. Grier, and in the Fall
of 1824 entered the Seminary at Princeton, where he
remained two years. He was licensed by the Presby-
tery of Philadelphia in April, 3828, and passed the
next two years preaching as a probationer.
On the 7th of April, 1830, Mr. Collins was received
as a licentiate by the Presbytery of Huntingdon, and
in June (16th) of the same year was ordained as an
Evangelist. He received a call from the church at
Millerstown, Perry County, Pa., April 4, 1832, and
was installed in October of that year.
Mr. Collins resigned his charge at -Millerstown
April 9, 1839, and the next October received a call to
Shirleysburg, which he declined, but consented to act
as a stated supply. He remained at Shirleysburg until
October, 1853, when he retired, but continued to labor
as a missionary within the bounds of the Presbytery
of Huntingdon until the infirmities of age unfitted
him for the active duties of the ministry. . At his
death, which took place at Shirleysburg, April 12,
1876, he was the oldest member of that Presbytery.
IX " THE FORKS OF BRAXDYWIXE." 149
A faithful servant of the Master, after a life of
usefulness, with the petition on his lips, " Thy will be
done," he entered into rest.*
EEV. BENJAMIN M. NYCE.
Benjamin M. Nyce was born near Pughtown,
Chester County. While he was still a minor his
father, John Nyce, removed and settled near Wagon-
town, within the bounds of Dr. Grier's charge.
Having become connected with the congregation wor-
shipping in this place, Mr. Nyce was finally led to
consider it his duty to make known the glad tidings of
salvation. He passed some time in the study of the
classics in the Brandy wine Academy, then under the
direction of the Bev. John W. Grier, and entered Dick-
inson College, where he was graduated in September,
He taught the next three years in the Deaf and
Dumb Asylum, Philadelphia, and in the Autumn of
1833 entere4 the Seminary at Princeton, where he
remained one year. But of his subsequent history the
writer after diligent inquiry has been unable to obtain
any reliable information. The probability is that he
died shortly after completing his preparation for the
* " Hist, of Presbytery of Huntingdon ;" Xecrology of Princeton
Seminary ; Presbyterian Banner.
f Records of Princeton Seminary ; Records of Deaf and Dumb
Asylum ; " Reminiscences of Rev. R. M'Cachran."
150 HISTORY OF THE PEESBt'TEEIAN CHTJECH
EEV. EICHAKD WALKER.
Richard, eldest son of Richard and Sarah (Hen-
derson) "Walker, was born at Indian Town, "Wallace
Township, May 1, 1812. He was engaged for some
years in mechanical pursuits, but finally relinquished
them to enter the Gospel ministry. After due prepara-
tion he was licensed by the New School Presbytery of
Philadelphia, and supplied for a time the church at
"Womelsdorf, Berks County.
In April, 1842, he was sent as a supply to the Pres-
byterian Church at Allentown, Lehigh County, Pa.
His ministry there was so successful that in May, 1844,
he was installed as pastor of the congregation worship-
ping in that church. He remained in charge until
1859, when bodily infirmity compelled him to with-
draw from continuous ministerial labor.
He subsequently preached in different places when
his health permitted until a short time before his death,
which occurred at Allentown on the 10th of May,
Mr. Walker -was unassuming, earnest, and sincere,
and the members of his charge parted with regret from
the pastor whose unreruitted endeavors to promote their
spiritual interests had rendered him incapable of any
but partial labor in the Gospel field.*
* Necrology of Princeton Seminary ; Obituary Notice, Graphic ;
Com. from Samuel Walker.
IN " THE FORKS OF BEANDYWINE." 151
EEV. REES HAPPEESETT, D.D.
Dr. Happersett, the youngest son of Melchi and
Rebecca (Graham) Happersett, was horn in West
Nantmeal Township, Chester County, July 31, 1810.
He became the subject of Divine Grace during the
great revival of 1831 in Dr. Grier's congregation, of
which his parents had long been members. His aca-
demical studies were prosecuted at New London in this
County, and his collegiate at Washington College, Pa.,
where he was graduated in 1836. He completed his
theological course in the Seminary at Princeton, N. J.,
three years afterwards, and was licensed by the Pres-
bytery of Newcastle in September, 1839.
Shortly after his licensure. Dr. Happersett became
pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Havre de Grace,
Md., where he remained about a year. He then
entered the service of the Board of Domestic Missions,
and for upwards of twenty years was diligently en-
gaged in increasing its means and usefulness.
While he was connected with that Board, Dr. Hap-
persett visited and preached in many of the Southern
States. He also supplied, at different times, the vacant
pulpits of several churches in Pennsylvania, among
others the church, at Waynesburg (Honeybrook)
upwards of six months.
Having observed, during his visits to California, the
scarcity of laborers in the Gospel field of that State,
he determined to aid the efforts which were making to
unfurl and uphold the banner of Presbyterianism in
152 HISTOKY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
the settlements on the " Pacific Slope." He, therefore,
resigned his office in the Board of Missions in the Fall
of 1861, proceeded immediately to San Francisco,
and passed the next six months preaching in that city
In the Spring of 1862 he accepted a unanimous
call to the pastorate of the Fii'st Presbyterian Church
at Stockton, Cal., where he ministered with increasing
acceptance and benefit until his death, in September,
The degree of D.D. was conferred on him by Jef-
ferson College in 1856.*
EEV. JUSTUS UMSTEAD.
Rev. Justus Umstead, whose parents were members
of Dr. Grier's congregation, is a graduate of the Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania, and of the Theological Sem-
inary at Princeton, New Jersey.
He was licensed by the Presbytery of Philadelphia
in July, 1847, and settled shortly after at South Bend,
Ind., where he remained about a year. He then
became pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Musca-
tine, Iowa, and after a successful ministry of three
years removed to Keokuk in the same State. Mr.
Umstead remained at Keokuk, in the faithful discharge
of his pastoral duties, until the Fall of 1860, when he
* Com. from the late Mrs. Agnes Happersett ; Minutes of Pres. of
Newcastle ; Minutes of Board of Domestic Missions.
IN " THE FORKS OF BKANDYWIXE." 153
accepted a call from the diurch at Fagg's Manor, Pa.,
where he was installed in November, 1860.
His labors at Fagg's Manor were not without en-
couragement. In 1865 there was an awakening, by
which one hundred and fifty-seven " were added to
In May, 1872, the pastoral relation was dissolved,
and he took charge of the Presbyterian Church at
St. George's, Delaware. He remained until 1876,
when he resigned and became pastor of the church
at Smyrna in the same State, where he is still engaged
in ministerial work with marked success.*
KEV. JAMES G. KALSTON, D.D., LL.D.
Dr. Ralston, widely known as a successful educator,
and a minister of the Gospel, was born in Wallace
Township, Chester County. He united at an early
age with the congregation worshipping in this place,
and directed his attention to a preparation for the
ministry of the New Testament. His academical
training was obtained at- New London and Hopewell
Academies in this County, and his collegiate at Wash-
ington College, Pennsylvania, where he was graduated
September 26, 1838.
He taught the next two years after his graduation
in an academy at Steubenville, Ohio, pursuing at the
same time the study of Theology under the direction
of the principal of the academy, the Rev. John W.
* Rev. W. B. Noble, " History of Fagg's Manor;" MSS.
154 HISTOKY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHTJECH
Scott, D.D. In June, 1840, he entered the Theo-
logical Seminary at Princeton, New Jersey, where he
completed his studies for the ministry.
Dr. Ralston was licensed by the Presbytery of New-
castle, April 14, 1841, and accepted a mission to the
Winnebago Indians. But his health failing before he
reached his destination, he was obliged reluctantly to
abandon the undertaking. His health having been in
a measure restored, he preached for some months as a
supjaly to the Church at Florence, in the bounds of the
Presbytery of Washington.
In October, 1841, Dr. Ralston entered on what
proved to be the main business of his life, as principal
of the Female Seminary at Oxford, Chester County, Pa.
He remained at Oxford until the close of October, 1845,
when he opened the now well-known Oakland Female
Institute at Norristown, Montgomery County, Pa.
There his industry, ability, and faithfulness as an in-
structor soon resulted in a large and annually increas-
ing patronage. The upwards of twenty-five hundred
ladies who have been educated wholly or in part in
that institution have exerted and are exerting an in-
fluence whose usefulness can never be fully estimated.
At the fireside, in the school-room, and the church,
and among the benighted of heathen lands, the results
of their judicious mental and religious training must
In addition to the discharge of his onerous duties
as principal of a large educational institution. Dr.
Ralston frequently supplied the pulpits of churches
without a pastor, and assisted his clerical brethren
during revivals and on other occasions. He was also
IN " THE FORKS OF BEANDYWINE." 155
during the last seventeen years of his life an efficient
member of the Board of Publication of the Presby-
The degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by
Lafayette College, Easton, Pa., in 1865, and of D.D.
by his Alma Mater two years afterwards.
Dr. Ralston died !N^ovember 10, 1880, in the sixty-
fifth year of his age.*
REV. WILLIAM PINKERTON.
William Pinker ton, an elder brother of the Rev.
John Pinkerton, was born in October, 1809. Having
been hopefully converted during the great refreshing
from on High in 1831, he resolved to dedicate himself
to the work of the Gospel ministry.
His preparatory studies were pursued at New London
Academy, Chester County, and his collegiate at Wash-
ington College, Pennsylvania, where he was graduated
in September, 1836. His theological course was com-
pleted at Princeton in 1839. On the lOth of the next
September he was licensed by the Presbytery of New-
castle, and settled shortly afterwards as Pastor of the
Cove Church, Albemarle County, Va. He also min-
istered to the High Bridge Church, Rockbridge County,
Va., and to Collierstown Church in the same county.
During the last sixteen years of his life he had
* Futhey, " Hist, of Chester County ;"' Com. from John K. Kalston.
156 HISTOEY OF THE PKESBYTEKIAN CHURCH
the pastoral oversight of Mount Carmel Church,
Augusta County, Va.
Mr. Pinkerton was a diligent worker in the Master's
vineyard. Uniting a ready command of language
with fervid piety, his services in the Sanctuary were,
largely attended and blessed by the conversion of
Besides the faithful discharge of his duties to the
congregations committed to his care, he established
and conducted a classical school, and also successfully
labored in the revival of churches which had either
grown feeble or been partially abandoned. Among
these was Mountain Plain, where, more than a hundred
years before, Mr. Black, the first pastor of Brandy-
wine Manor Church, had spent the last years of his
Mr. Pinkerton died March 13, 1875.*
EEV. WILLIAM H. TEMPLETON.
William H. Templeton, eldest son of John Temple-
ton, Esq., who was upwards of thirty years a Ruling
Elder of this church, commenced his academical studies
at New London, Chester County, in 1841. He entered
Washington College, Pennsylvania, in November,
1843, and was graduated in 1845. He passed the next
two years teaching, and then became a member of the
* Futhey, " History of Upper Oct. Church ;" Com. from Frank D.
DSr " THE FORKS OF BEANDYWIXE." 157
seminary at Princeton, New Jersey, where his theo-
logical course was completed.
Mr. Templeton was licensed by tlie Presbytery of
New Brunswick in September, 1850, and the next
October went as a missionary to the Creek Indians,
Indian Territory. He remained in that Territory
until 1857, when the death of his wife and his impaired
health caused him to return to Pennsylvania.
Being unable to endure the labor to which he had
been subjected, Mr. Templeton withdrew from the
missionary field ; but in 1858 settled in Illinois, where
he is still engaged in ministerial labor.*
EEV. JOHN PINKERTON.
John Pinkerton, third son of John W. and Agnes
Pinkerton, was born near Sadsburyville, Chester
County, Pa., in November, 1811. When he was
about six years of age his parents, who were members
of the Upper Octoraro Presbyterian Church, removed
to Honeybrook Township, and connected themselves
with the congregation worshij)ping in this place.
Mr. Pinkerton passed his early years, like many
young men, without any serious thoughts on the
subject of religion until 1831, when he was awakened
to a sense of his lost condition during the remarkable
revival which commenced in that year. His convic-
tions were deep and pungent, and he was so weighed
down by the burden of sin that his health became
* Minutes of Presbytery of New Brunswick ; Com. from the late
J. G. Templeton; MS. Collections.
158 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTERIAN CHUKCH
impaired. But obeying the Saviour's command, " Come
unto me all ye that are weary and heavy laden," he
found pardon and peace.
Having determined to obtain a classical education,
Mr. Pinkerton entered the Academy at Lewisburg,
Union County, Pa., May 15, 1837. He completed his
preparatory studies in it and the Academy at Mifflin-
burg in the same county at the close of 1841, and was
graduated at the College of New Jersey in 1843. After
the usual Theological Course at Princeton, he taught
some time in a classical school which his brother, the
Rev., William Pinkerton, had established.
The Presbytery of Greenbrier licensed him to
preach the Gospel in October, 1849. He assisted the
Rev. Samuel R. Houston, of Monroe County, Va.,
in teaching and ministerial labor until October, 1853,
when he accepted a call from the congregation of
Mossy Creek Presbyterian Church, Augusta County,
Ya. Mr. Pinkerton was ordained and installed No-
vember 5, 1853, and this relation continued until his
death. May 31, 1871, left the people of his charge to
mourn the loss of their zealous, beloved, and faithful
The possessor of abilities and acquirements which
would have enabled him to attain eminence in almost,
any department of literature, Mr. Pinkerton devoted
the talents committed to his dare to the service of his
Divine Master, and instead of earthly honors, chose
rather to be an humble disciple of Him " who went
about doing good."*
* Memorial by Kevi William T. Price ; Kecords of Lewisburg
Academy ; Personal Reminiscences. '
IX " THE FORKS OF BRANDYWINE." 159
COATESVILLE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.
CoATESViLLE, though. Settled at an early period,
remained without a house for public worship until
1831. In that year the members of Baptist, Episco-
pal, Friends', Methodist, and Presbyterian Churches
residing in and near the village, with a Christian har-
mony worthy of record, uniting their efforts and means,
built a meeting-house.
Among those who occupied its pulpit, on the part of
the Presbyterians, when his other duties permitted, was
the Rev. A. G. Morrisson, pastor of the congregations
of Doe Run and Union. His services were so accept-
able, and the number of his hearers increased so much,
that in 1833 a petition was j^resented to Presbytery for
the organization of a Church at Coatesville. The re-
quest was not granted, but being renewed at the next
meeting of Presbytery, it was favorably received and
a Committee appointed, which met in September
(4th), 1833, and organized the Presbyterian Church
The congregation, which had been gathered princi-
pally by the care and faithfulness of Mr. Morrisson, in
March of the next year presented a call for one-half
of his time. This he accepted, and having obtained a
release from the pastorate of the Union Church, was
installed on the 24th of April, 1834.
Under his ministry the number of members became
160 ' HISTOEY OF THE PKESBYTEKIAN CHUKCH
SO large that they found it necessary to have a meet-
ing-house of their own. They therefore obtained the
interest in the building and lot of those who had
contributed funds for the .purpose.*
Having increased facilities for public worship, the
congregation became sufficiently numerous to sustain
weekly services in the sanctuary, and a call was ac-
cordingly presented to Presbytery on the 14th of April,
1857, for the whole of Mr. Morrisson's time. The re-
quest was granted, his relation at Doe Run dissolved,
and he devoted the whole of his labor to the church at
How faithfully he performed the duties of an " am-
bassador for Christ" is shown by the increasing mem-
bership of the church, the flourishing condition of its
Sunday-School, its liberal contributions for benevolent
purposes, and the warm affection which existed between
the pastor and his people.
But "the prophets do not live forever," and, in
1868, the infirmities of nearly threescore and ten
caused Mr, Morrisson to offer his resignation. The
members of his flock, however, could not endure the
thought of parting with the pastor who had been con-
nected with the church from its beginning, and who,
for a third of a century, had been to many of them a
guide and counsellor, a " more than friend." They
therefore generously resolved to provide a colleague
and to continue to pay Mr. Morrisson a portion of his
salary during his life.
* They occupied this building until 1849, when it was replaced by
a new church edifice, and this, in 1867, was enlarged to its present
IN " THE FORKS OP BRAND YWINE." 161
In accordance witli this resolution, the congregation
gave a call in January (15th), 1868, to the present
pastor, the Hey. James Roberts, who was ordained
and installed May 28, 1868. The relation thus es-
tablished between the aged servant of God and his
younger brother continued " harmoniously and pleas-
antly" until the death of Mr. Morrisson, October 27,
Dr. Roberts, who is a native of Montrose, Scotland,
received his classical education at ]\Iedia, Delaware
County, Pa., where he passed some time as an in-
structor. He was graduated at Lafayette College,
Easton, Pa., in July, 1865, and at the Theological
Seminary, Princeton, N. J., a few weeks before his
installation at Coatesville.
During his pastorate the membership of the church,
now upwards of three hundred, has annually in-
creased. The Sunday-School, which was conducted
many years by the same Superintendent, continues to
flourish, and in numbers, influence, and liberality the
Presbyterians, under the guidance of Dr. Roberts, are
the leading denomination in that borough.
Dr. Roberts, who is equally and deservedly es-
teemed by his clerical brethren and the people of his
charge, was sent as a Commissioner to the General
Assembly in 1872, and also in 1877. Since April,
1869, he has been the stated clerk of Presbytery, and
in 1883 received the honorary degree of D.D. from
Lafayette College, Pennsylvania.
A centre of manufacturing industry, and situated
on one of the great thoroughfares of trade, Coatesville
must necessarily increase in wealth and population.
162 IIISTOKY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
But from the nature of their occupations many of its
inhabitants will be only transient residents. With-
drawn from the kindly influence of home, exposed to
numerous temptations, and often suddenly deprived of
employment by the vicissitudes of business, they, above
most others, will always need the restraining, consoling,
and saving influence of the Gospel. It is, therefore, a
cause for thankfulness that, in Coatesville, the oppor-
tunities to hear the words of truth have kept pace
with the growth of the population. Where, in 1830,
there was not a single building set apart for public
Avorship, the voice of prayer, admonition, and praise
may now be heard, on every returning Sabbath, in
six meeting-houses dedicated to the service of the
* Minutes of Presbytery of Newcastle ; Dr. Roberts, " Pastoral of
Coatesville Pres. Churcb."
IN "the forks of beandywine." 163
HONEYBROOK PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.
When Dr. Grier's congregation had become so
large that it was necessary for a portion to withdraw,
those residing near the western boundary of his charge
obtained a site in the village of Honeybrook, erected
a house for public worship, and having received
permission from the Presbytery, were organized as
the Honeybrook Presbyterian Church, November 28,
They were dependent on supplies until May, 1837,
when the Rev. William W. Latta, who had been
given a unanimous call to become their pastor, was
ordained and installed. Mr. Latta remained, with
increasing popularity and usefulness, until the Fall
of 1858, when failing, health caused him to obtain a
release from his charge.
Unassuming, kind, and faithful, Mr. Latta was
much beloved by the members of the congregation,
and they parted with regret from the pastor under
whose guidance many of them had found "joy and
peace in believing."
Mr. Latta was succeeded by the Rev. John G.
Thorn, who was installed May 19, 1859. Mr. Thom,
like the Apostle to the Gentiles, "was in labors
abundant." Besides the services of the sanctuary, he
preached and conducted weekly prayer-meetings in
different parts of his charge, and was active in the
164 HISTOKY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHTJECH
furtherance of Sunday-Schools and temperance. He
also aided his fellow-citizens by his counsel and ex-
ample during the struggle to maintain the Union.
Having declined several invitations to take the over-
sight of congregations without a pastor, Mr. Thorn at
last accepted a call to St. Louis, Mo., and was in-
stalled in October, 1865. But he had scarcely entered
on his field of labor when, enfeebled by his previous
discharge of pastoral duties, he sunk under an attack
of typhoid fever and entered into rest.
The successor of Mr. Thorn was the Rev. J. H.
Young, who became pastor in 1866, and remained
until March 7, 1869, when the pastoral relation was
dissolved by the Presbytery of Donegal.
Mr. Young is a ready speaker, a sound theologian,
and a good classical scholar. He is now professor of
Languages in the Normal School in Indiana, Pa.
The congregation next presented a unanimous call
to the Rev. William Ferguson, of Dubuque, Iowa,
which he accepted, and was installed in October, 1869.
In the Fall of 1871, Mr. Ferguson was released at
his own request by the Presbytery of Chester. The
ministry of Mr'. Ferguson was not without its fruits,
eighty-six having been added to the church while he
He is now pastor of the Presbyterian Church at
Pittsgrove, N. J., where his labors have met with en-
In June, 1872, the congregation gave a unanimous
call to the Rev. William W. Totheroth, who was in-
stalled by a Committee of the Presbytery of Chester
on the last day of Octo'ber, 1872. In 1883, Mr.
IX " THE FORKS OF BKATiTDYWINE." 165
Totheroth received and accepted a call to become
pastor of a Churcli at Le Roy, N. Y.
The pastorate of Mr. Totheroth was eminently bene-
ficial. His zeal, prudence, and industry promoted
harmony, increased the membership of the church,
and imparted renewed activity to its benevolent opera-
In the amount of its donations for charitable pur-
poses, the number of its members, and of children at-
tending its Sabbath-Schools, this church ranks among
the first of the rural Presbyterian Churches in our
State. It has contributed to the growth of the village
in which its meeting-house is placed, and, like ortho-
dox churches in general, is a nucleus around which en-
terprise, refinement, and intelligence have clustered.*
* Minutes of presbytery of Donegal ; Kev. Mr. Totheroth, " Hist,
of Church ;" Local Memoranda.
166 HISTOKY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHXJECH
FAIRYIEW PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.
On account of the distance which they had to travel
in order to attend the services, of the sanctuary, and
for other reasons which need not be stated, the mem-
bers of Dr. Grier's congfegation who resided in the
northeastern part of his charge resolved to erect a
building , for public worship and obtain a distinct
organization. Accordingly, having procured an ele-
vated and beautiful site, easy of access, and convenient,
they comm,enced in 1839 the erection of a meeting-
house, which was completed and dedicated on the first
day of the next year.
In May, 1840, a Committee of the Third Presbytery
of Philadelphia met and organized a church under the
name of the West Nantmeal Presbyterian Church.*
The same month (May, 1840) the Rev. Alexander
Porter, who had received his classical and theological
education in the College and Seminary at Princeton,
N. J., was ordained and installed as pastor. Mr.
Porter was released from his charge in May, 1843.
During his pastorate forty-three were added to the
membership of the church.
Mr. Porter was succeeded, in October, 1843, by the
Rev. William H. McCarter, a graduate of Jefferson
* The name of the Township in which it is situated h'&ving been
changed, it is now called Fairview Presbyterian Church.
Ilf " THE POEKS OF BRANDYWIXE." 167
College, Pennsylvania, and of Union Theological Sem-
inary, Xew York. Mr. McCarter labored with fidelity
and acceptance until October, 1849, when he received
a call to the pastoral oversight of a Presbyterian Church
at Edwardsville, Indiana, and removed to that State.
The successor of Mr. McCarter was the Pev. B. B.
Hotchkin, late pastor of Marple Presbyterian Church,
Delaware County. While Dr. Hotchkin, who is well
known as an author and an earnest, impressive speaker,
had charge the church was highly prosperous. In
June, 1869, Dr. Hotchkin, always desirous of enlarging
his sphere of usefulness, accepted a call to his late pas-
torate, where his ministrations were greatly blessed.*
The next year the church was dependent on supplies,
but in October, 1860, the Pev. D. C. Meeker became
pastor. Mr. Meeker, who received his collegiate train-
ing in the University of New York, and his theologi-
cal at Union Seminary in Kew York State, remained
until October, 1868, when he was called to labor in
another part of the Master's vineyard. His relations
with the members of his flock were harmonious and
pleasant, and they parted with regret from their faitli-
After the retirement of Mr. JMeeker, the congrega-
tion obtained the services of the Rev. A. Xelson Hol-
lifield, who discharged his pastoral duties with much
ability until the close of 1875, when he accepted a
unanimous call to the Presbyterian Church of Hunt-
ingdon, Pa., where he was installed in January, 1876.
* Dr. Hotchkin died October 13, 1878, in the seventy-second year
of his asre.
168 HISTOKY OF THE PEESBYTERIAN CHURCH
During his ministry one hundred and thirty- three
■were added to the membership of the church, and the
meeting-house, which had become much impaired, was
replaced by a large and commodious structure, at a
cost of thirteen thousand dollars.
In May, 1876, the Kev. William Boyd, who was
graduated with honor at the University of Pennsylva-
nia, and completed his theological course in the Semi-
nary at Princeton, was installed. Young, ardent, and
gifted, Mr. Boyd soon won the confidence of the com-
munity, and his field of usefulness rapidly increased.*
Besides a well-attended Sunday-School, conducted
in the church building, another is maintained during
the summer season in an outlying portion of the con-
gregation, a short distance from Loag's Corner, where
there is also stated preaching every month.
Surrounded by a rural but thrifty and intelligent
population, with a new church edifice, a parsonage, and
a beautiful cemetery, all without incumbrance. Fair-
view Church cannot fail to increase in numbers and
usefulness, nor cease to diffuse the blessings of order,
temperance, and piety.f
* In March, 1883, Mr. Boyd, much to the regret of his congrega-
tion, received and accepted a call to become pastor of the Second Pres-
byterian Church of Camden, N. J. He was succeeded in September
of the same year by the Rev. William P. Breed, Jr., a son of the
Rev. Dr. Breed of the West Spruce Street Church, Philadelphia.
■f " History of Fairview Church," by Rev. W. Boyd; Local Mem-
IN "the forks of BKANDYWIjSTE." 169
CENTRAL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, DOWN-
DowiNGTOWN, one of the oldest towns in Chester
County, was settled by members of the Society of
Friends who had emigrated from Wales. The site
was well chosen, being near to the "Indian Trail"
leading from the Delaware to the Susquehanna, and
in the midst of a beautiful and fertile valley. Besides,
it was supplied by one of the main branches of the
Brandywine with abundance of water-power, so im-
portant in a new settlement.
Possessing these advantages, it might have been sup-
posed that the growth of Downingtown would be rapid,
and that, like Lancaster, Reading, and other inland
towns, it would, ere long, rise to the dignity of a city.
But its inhabitants, satisfied with their possessions and
pursuits, not only advanced slowly in the march of
improvement, but even rejected proffered sources of
wealth and importance; among others a proposition
to make their village the seat of justice when Chester
County was divided.
There was consequently little opportunity or induce-
ment for the active and enterprising Scotch and
Scotch-Irish to make it their home and establish the
church of their fathers. It should, therefore, not ex-
cite surprise that near a century and a half passed
170 HISTORY OF THE J'EESBYTEKIAN CHUKCH
after the first settlement of Downingtown before a
Presbyterian Church was organized within its limits.
In 1843 some God-fearing men, whom the activity ,
and business introduced by the Pennsylvania Railroad,
and the spirit of enterprise in general, had caused to
settle at Downingtown, adopted measures leading to
the establishment of a Presbyterian Church. Neigh-
boring clergymen of that denomination were invited
to preach, and religious services were held at private
residences and in school-houses and halls obtained for
the purpose. Their number increased slowly, but in
1860 they felt sufficiently encouraged to undertake
the building of a church edifice. Accordingly, they
obtained a lot and erected a meeting-house.
Owing, however, to causes which it would be neither
beneficial nor perhaps possible to trace, dissensions
arose, many withdrew from the church, pecuniary
difficulties increased, and the building was finally sold
and occupied for secular purposes.
But the Christian men and women who were at-
tached to the doctrines and government of the Pres-
byterian Church did not despair. Believing that the
Most High would cause light to shine out of darkness,
they faithfully and prayeifully continued the good
work, and in October, 1861, had the satisfaction of
seeing the Central Presbyterian Church of Downing-
town organized by a Committee of the Presbytery of
The congregation was dependent for some time on
supplies, but in 1862 extended a call to the Rev. Mat-
thew Newkirk, who was ordained and installed April
IN " THE FOEKS OF BKANDYWiyE." 171
Under his faithful oversight the membership of the
church increased so much that it was determined to
erect a house for public worship. The building was
commenced in June, 1863, but, owing to unforeseen
causes of delay, it was not completed and dedicated
until August, 1864.
Mr. Newkirk, who considered no labor too humble
or too severe provided it furthered the interests of his
people, remained until 1868, when he became pastor
of a church in Philadelphia.*
Mr. Newkirk was succeeded by the Rev. John Eae,
a licentiate of the Western Theological Seminary, at
Alleghany, Pa. Mr. Eae continued in charge until
April, 1872, when he obtained his release and went
as a missionary to "Washington Territory.
The pastorate of j\lr. Eae, though short, was not
without its beneficial results. While he occupied the
pulpit fifty united with the church, several of them in
the morning of life.
The present pastor, the Eev. Francis J. Collier, a
graduate of Jefferson College, Cannonsburg, Pa., and
of the Theological Seminary at Princeton, succeeded
Mr. Eae, and was installed October 7, 1872.
Mr. Collier is a ready speaker, and his expositions
of Divine truth are well calculated to arouse the con-
science and impress the heart. Since his connection
with the church its membership has continually in-
creased. Seasons of awakening have occurred, in
* Mr. Newkirk has recently resigned the pastorate of Bethlehem
Presbyterian Church, corner of Broad and Diamond Streets, Phila-
172 HISTORY OF THE PKESBYTEEIAN CHURCH
which many " have been born again." The well-con-
ducted Sunday-School is becoming more and more
efficient, and both the pastor and his people are earn-
estly engaged in extending the blessed influence of
the Gospel of Him at whose advent was proclaimed
peace on earth and good will to men,*
* " History of the Church," by the present pastor ; Minutes of Pres-
bytery ; Local Memoranda.
IN " THE FOKKS OF BEANDYWINE." 173
A SCHOOL was opened for instruction in the classics
and the higher branches of science about 1792 in a
part of the building, which stood until 1863, imme-
diately West of the Upper Graveyard.
This school, which was a necessary adjunct to the
Theological School, was placed at first under the di-
rection of the Rev. Mr. McPherson, a native of Ire-
land, who was subsequently deposed from the ministry
on account of intemperance and died in the Chester
After the withdrawal of Mr. McPherson, Mr. Mat-
thew G. Wallace, a graduate of the College of New
Jersey in 1795, became principal. He remained,
pursuing at the same time his studies in theology
under the direction of the Rev. Nathan Grier until
his licensure, in 1799, when the school was closed.
In 1802 it was reopened by Mr. John Ralston, of
Cumberland County, Pa., also a theological student.
He died in the fall of 1804, and Dr. John F. Grier,
who in the spring of that year had opened a classical
school in Pequea, took charge of it. He discharged
the duties of principal with much ability until his
settlement at Reading, in 1809, when the school was
174 HISTOEY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
suspended. It was subsequently conducted about
three years by the Kev. John W.Grier, who resigned
in March or April, 1822, and renaoved to the Chester
County Academy. After the retirement of Mr. Grier
the school was finally closed.
At this Academy, which was the first institution of
a higher grade than a common school opened in this
part of Chester County, the Rev. Drs. D. Elliott, J.
F. Grier, J. N. C. Grier, and the Eev. Messrs. Hood,
Kennedy, J. H. Grier, J. W. Grier, R. S. Grier, J.
Buchanan, J. E. Grier, M.D., Matthew Grier, M.D.,
Benjamin Grifiith, M.D., and the Hon. David Potts
received the whole of their preparatory training in
the classical languages and English Literature.
The Rev. Messrs. A. G. Morrison, Robert M'Cach-
ran, and Benjamin M. Nyce also passed some time
in studying the Greek and Roman Classics at this
So far as is known this Academy was well con-
ducted, and its pupils exerted a wide-spread, bene-
This Institution was opened for the reception of
pupils November 13, 1848, in the village of Rock-
ville. It was under the direction of Elder John
Ralston and his brother James, as proprietors, and a
graduate of the College of New Jersey, who had
* " Reminiscences of Rev. Dr. Grier ;" Com. from Rev. R. McCach-
IX " THE FORKS OF BRAND YWINE." 175
spent several years in teaching, as principal. At
first this school was regarded by many as a doubtful
experiment. But it soon became favorably known,
and attracted pupils from every part, not only of
Chester County, but also from the cities of Lancaster,
Reading, and Philadelphia.
The instruction was thorough, and the course of
study embraced all that is required for admission to
our best colleges or for an entrance on the study of
any of the learned professions.
With the exception of three months, when his
place was supplied by the E-ev. Mr. Ogden, of
Easton, it continued with increasing patronage and
usefulness under the superintendence of the first
Principal, until September, 1855, when, having ac-
cepted a professorship in one of our large cities, he
After his withdrawal a select school was kept in
the building by Miss Louisa Ralston, of Honeybrook.
It was subsequently conducted as an academy by Mr.
Watson, of Milton, Pa., who was succeeded by the
Rev. Mr. Kirkland, a native of Scotland, noted for
his superior classical attainments and his accurate
acquaintance with history. But owing to the institu-
tion having been several times discontinued and to
other causes which it is neither important nor perhaps
possible to trace, its popularity declined, and in Sep-
tember, 1862, it was finally closed.*
In addition to upwards of thirty who have been
successful as teachers and others who engaged with
'^ See Appendix L.
176 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTERIAN CHXTECH
advantage in agricultural, mechanical, or mercantile
pursuits, the following members of the- learned, profes-
sions received a part or the whole of their preparatory
training in this Academy :
KEY. JOHN C. THOMPSON.
Mr. Thompson was graduated at Lafayette College
in 1855, completed his theological course at Princeton
in 1858, and was licensed by the Presbytery of New-
castle in the Spring of the following year.
Shortly after his licensure he accepted an invitation
to supply the First Presbyterian Church, Nashville,
Tenn., and resided in that city until the Rebellion
forced him to withdraw. He then settled as pastor of
the Presbyterian Church at Smyrna, Del., but in 1864
took charge of the Presbyterian Church at Pottstown,
Montgomery County, Pa. He remained there, ear-
nestly and faithfully discharging the duties of his
charge, until 1873, when he accepted a call from the
Presbyterian Church at Hagerstown, Md. During
his pastorate the church edifice was replaced by a
beautiful and commodious structure, and his ministra-
tions there as elsewhere were greatly blessed.
On the 1st pf January, 1879, Mr. Thompson took
charge of the Southwark Presbyterian Church, Phila-
delphia. In June, 1880, he was called to the South
Broad Street Presbyterian Church, and in 1885, by a
union of Broad Street Church with the Scotch Pres-
byterian Church, became pastor of the united church,
which is rapidly increasing its membership and means
of doing good.
IN " THE FOKKS OF BEAjSTDYWINE." 177
EEV. DAVID W. MOOEE.
Mr. Moore received his diploma from the College of
New Jersey in 1858, and was graduated at the Theo-
logical Seminary at that place in April, 1861. On the
5th of the succeeding May he was ordained and in-
stalled pastor of the Lower Brandywine Presbyterian
Church, Delaware. While he had charge of that
church Mr. Moore passed some months as a chaplain
with the Army of the Potomac, then lying near Pe-
tersburg, Va. The pastoral relation was dissolved at
his request in October, 1872, and he resided in the
Southwestern States, chiefly in MississipjDi, until Oc-
tober, 1873, when he accepted a unanimous call to
become the pastor of the congregation at McVeytown,
Mifflin County, Pa. In 1883 he resigned and became
pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Kennett Square,
Chester County, where he is laboring with great
Mr. Moore has always taken a warm interest in
education, and his plain, practical discourses prove
him to be an earnest and faithful disciple of his Di-
EEV. THOMAS M. GEIFEITH.
Mr. Griffith entered Dickinson College in the
Autumn of 1854, and received the degree of A.B.
four years later, standing the second in his class. He
passed the next winter as a teacher at Chester, Pa.,
and in the Spring of 1859 was licensed to preach the
Gospel by the Philadelphia Conference of the Metho-
dist Episcopal Church.
178 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTEBIAN CHURCH
Since his licensure Mr. GriflSth has been engaged
in the faithful discharge of the duties of his sacred
office, with the exception of a part of one year, which
he spent travelling through Europe, Egypt, and the
Holy Land. He is one of the most popular pastors
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and is daily in-
creasing his reputation and usefulness.
REV. JOHN A. LIGGETT, D.D.
Dr. John A. Liggett, a son of the late Elder Caleb
Liggett, entered Lafayette College, Easton, in 1853,
and was graduated in 1857. His theological studies
were completed in the Seminary at Danville, Ken-
In 1861 he accepted a call to the Presbyterian
Church at Crittenden, Ky., where he remained until
1864, when he became pastor of the Second Presbyte-
rian Church of Rahway, N. J.
Since his connection with the church at Kahway
there have been several outpourings of the Spirit
among the people, and the membership of the church
during his pastorate has been more than doubled.
Dr. Liggett's discourses in the pulpit exhibit a ready
command of language, a familiar but not unpolished
style, and an earnest desire to promote the everlasting
welfare of his hearers.
The degree of D.D. was conferred on him at its last
Commencement by Lafayette College.
REV. ISAAC MAST.
Mr. Mast was born near Morgantown, Berks County,
Pa., October 14, 1835. After leaving the Academy,
in September, 1855, he entered the Ohio Wesleyan
University, where he was graduated in the Autumn
of 1859. He taught the next winter at Reading,
Pa., and joined the Philadelphia Conference of the
]\Iethodist Episcopal Church in 1860.
In 1871 his health failed and he passed a year in
California. Having returned with renewed strength,
he engaged, with his usual zeal and faithfulness, in
ministerial work until the winter of 1875-76, when,
being unable to continue his pulpit labors, he spent
some months in Florida. But the balmy breezes of
the Peninsula did not reinvigorate his physical system,
and in June, 1876, he sank the victim of that wide-
wasting disease, consumption.
While a student in the Academy, INIr. Mast was
noted for the genial disposition, modesty, and earnest
desire to do right, which endeared him in after-years
both to his ministerial brethren and to the members
of the congregations of which he had the pastoral
He published an account of his observations and
adventures while sojourning in California. This
work, entitled " The Gun, Rod, and Saddle," may be
read with advantage by all who desire to increase
their knowledge of the land of gold and romantic
WILLIAM IRWIN, M.D.
Dr. Irwin studied medicine under the direction of
Dr. Josej)h Gaston, of Honey brook (Waynesburg) ,
* MSS. Collections ; Personal Keminiscences.
180 HISTORY OP THE PRESBYTERIAN CHtTRCH
and received the degree of M.D. from Jefferson Col-
lege in 1856. He married a daughter of the late John
M. Mullin, Esq., of West Brandywine, in 1857, and
settled the same year as a physician at Smyrna, Lan-
caster County, Pa. He remained at Smyrna with in-
creasing patronage until 1865, when he removed to
Christiana, on the southeastern boundary of the same
County, where he soon obtained an extensive practice.
Dr. Irwin continued in the active discharge of his
professional duties until his physical system, never ro-
bust, became so much impaired as to render him un-
able to satisfy the increasing demand for his services.
Such, however, was his attachment to his calling, and
his desire to assist those who needed medical aid, that
he did not relinquish his attendance on his patients,
when his health permitted, until a short period before
his death. This took place on the 13th of November,
1877, in the fifty-first year of his age.
Dr. Irwin was a diligent student, who spared neither
time nor money to make himself familiar with the re-
quirements of his profession. He died much regretted
by those who had shared his friendship and experi-
enced the benefit of his medical skill.
H. CLAY MEREDITH, M.D.
Dr. Meredith completed his classical course at Oak-
land Institute and Poughkeepsie, N. Y. He pursued
the study of medicine under the supervision of his
father, the late Dr. Stephen Meredith, and was grad-
uated at the Medical Department of the University of
Pennsylvania in 1864. Immediately after his grad-
uation Dr. Meredith entered the Army of the United
IN "the forks op bkandywine." 181
States as an assistant surgeon. He remained actively
engaged until the close of the war, when he resigned
and commenced the practice of his profession at Pugh-
town, Chester County.
Dr. Meredith, like his father, has the reputation of
being a skilful, well-read physician, and his success
justifies the confidence which is placed in his knowl-
edge and ability.
JOHN WELLS, M.D.
Dr. Wells, after the close of his preparatory course
at the Academy, entered the ofiice of Dr. J. Eode-
baugh, Charlestown Township, Chester County, as a
student of medicine. He commenced his attendance,
on the lectures at the University of Pennsylvania in
1852, and received the degree of Doctor of Medicine
from that institution in March, 1854.
Dr. Wells settled as a physician at his native place
in Charlestown Township, and owing to his genial dis-
position and acknowledged ability was soon largely
patronized. He continued the practice of his profes-
sion with increasing reputation and usefulness until
his death, August 15, 1871.
The decease of Dr. Wells while still in the prime
of life cast a gloom over a large circle of friends and
acquaintances, who esteemed him as an upright citi-
zen, and appreciated his worth as an attentive and
JOHN N. C. HAPPEKSETT, M.D.
Dr. Happersett, a grandson of the Pev. Dr. J. N.
C. Grier, read medicine with Dr. A. K. Gaston, of
182 HISTOEY OF THE PRESS YTEBIAJST CHTJECH
West Brandywine Township, Chester County. He
entered the Medical Department of Jefferson College
in the Fall of 1857, and was graduated in March,
Dr. Happersett commenced the practice of his pro-
fession at Hollidaysburg, Pa., in the sj)ring of 1860.
His skill as a surgeon brought him into notice, and
he was soon largely patronized.
On the outbreak of the Rebellion his patriotism led
him to seek an appointment in the army. His appli-
cation was successful, and in August, 1861, he was
commissioned as an Assistant Surgeon. He served
with distinction during the campaigns of the army of
the West, and at the close of the war was assigned to
the Department of the Carolinas. June 26, 1876,
he was commissioned as " surgeon in full" and sta-
tioned at Fort Hamilton, in the Department of the
Dr. Happersett deservedly ranks high as a skilful
surgeon and a successful practitioner, and the respon-
sible position which he now holds in the army of the
United States shows that he discharged the arduous
duties of previous appointments with faithfulness and
EUGENE GASTON, M.D.
Eugene, eldest son of the late Dr. A. K. Gaston,
of West Brandywine, completed his classical education
at the West Chester Academy. He read medicine
under the direction of his father, entered the medical
dej)artment of the University of Pennsylvania in
1863, and received tlie degree of M.D. from that
Institution in March, 1865.
Beheving with Horace Greeley that the West
affords the best opportunities for the employment of
energy and ability. Dr. Gaston determined to become
a resident of the Great Valley of the Mississippi, and
settled as a practising physician in Vermilion County,
Illinois, near the eastern boundary of that State.
His success has justified the choice of his location,
and the extensive and increasing demand for his
services, has exceeded the most sanguine expectations
of both himself and his friends.
If length of days should be allotted him. Dr. Gaston,
when near his threescore and ten, will no doubt merit
and retain, as his father did, the patronage which he
received during the preceding forty years.
ALFRED JOXES, M.D.
When he withdrew from the Academy, where he
had pursued his studies with diligence and success.
Dr. Jones engaged in teaching a common school, but
finally turned his attention to a preparation to enter
the medical profession. Three years of close applica-
tion were rewarded by the degree of M.D. from the
University of Pennsylvania.
Immediately after his graduation he commenced
the practice of medicine, which he pursued with en-
couraging success until the breaking out of the civil
war, when his patriotism led him to enter the army.
He received a commission as quartermaster from
Governor Curtiu, and accompanied the expedition to
Beaufort, South Carolina. In July, 1864, he was
184 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTEEIAN CHTJKCH
taken prisoner while bearing despatches to General
Hartranft, and did not obtain his release till near
the close of hostilities, when he was mustered out of
Before he resumed the practice of his profession
Dr. Jones visited Europe, where he remained two
years. While abroad he became a graduate of the
Medical College of Paris, and attended the clinics of
the hospitals of Vienna and Berlin. After his return
he settled as a physician in Philadelphia, where his
energy, perseverance, and faithful discharge of his
professional duties have secured a large and lucrative
Dr. Jones stands high in the estimation of the
medical fraternity as a physician of skill, ability, and
great moral worth.*
THOMAS BUCHANAN, M.D.
Thomas Buchanan, the younger son of the late
Elder David Buchanan, of Honeybrook, passed three
years at Millers ville Normal School, Lancaster County,
entered the freshman class of Amherst College, Mass.,
in 1864, and was graduated in 1868. He studied medi-
cine under the direction of Prof. A. Pillou, of New
York City, and attended the clinics in the hospitals of
Paris, London, and St. Louis, Missouri.
Dr. Buchanan practised medicine several years, but
on account of failing health relinquished his profession
and became connected with the manufacturing inter-
ests of St. Louis, where he now resides. Like most
* MS. Collections.
IN " THE FORKS OF BRAND YWINE." 185
patriotic young men, he passed 1861 to 1863 in the
Dr. Buchanan has diligently employed the advan-
tages which he enjoyed, and is a learned and able
physician. His withdrawal from the practice of his
profession is a source of regret to his medical brethren
and a loss to the community.*
DAVIS F. GROUSE, M.D.
Davis F. Grouse was born , in Wallace, then a
part of West Xantmeal Township, Chester County,
April 29, 1836. His early instruction was received
in the common schools, until the opening of Howard
Academy, which he attended several sessions with
marked diligence and improvement. In 1856 his
parents removed to Illinois, where they had been set-
tled but a short time when he commenced the study
of medicine while teaching a public school. His
studies were pursued with so much zeal and perse-
verance that three years afterwards he received the
degree of M.D. from the Medical College at Cincin-
nati. In 1861-62 he attended the lectures of Belle-
vue Hospital, New York.
Dr. Grouse followed his profession with success in
Carroll County, 111., and subsequently in Joe Daviess
County in the same State, but finally removed tp
Waterloo, Iowa, where he practised, in connection with
a younger brother, until his retirement in 1878, after
eighteen years of arduous professional labor. He then
undertook the supervision of a nursery and a farm, in
* MS. Collections.
186 HISTORY OF THE PKESBYTERIAN CHUECH
which he was engaged until his decease, in October,
Dr. Grouse's medical skill and attention to his pa-
tients caused him to be liberally patronized, while his
amenity, upright conduct, and general culture gave
him a high place in the estimation of both the public
and his professional brethren.*
WILLIAM HUNTEB, M.D.
William, only son of David Hunter, Esq., of Honey-
brook Township, was born in July, 1833. Having
completed his preparatory training at this Institution
and the Academy at New London, he entered on the
study of medicine under the direction of Dr. Atlee, of
Lancaster, and received the degree' of M.D. from the
University of Pennsylvania in March, 1864.
Dr. Hunter settled as a physician at White Haven,
Luzerne County, Pa., and pursued his profession with
encouraging success and marked ability until the
Spring of 1856, when he sunk under a chronic dis-
ease of the alimentary organs. His early death was
the cause of much sorrow, not only to his bereaved
sisters, but also to the many friends whose seemingly
well-founded hopes of his professional eminence and
usefulness, were unexpectedly blasted.
Dr. Hunter was the first of the students of Howard
Academy who passed from the activity of professional
life to the rest of the grave. His death, and the de-
cease in less than thirty years of more than one-third
* MS. Collections.
of those who were pupils of the Institution, are mel-
ancholy proofs that youth is no protection against the
shafts of the destroyer.
Howard Academy to a large number afforded the
means of obtaining a better education than otherwise
they could have done, and its discontinuance was a
source of regret to the friends of intelligence and cul-
ture in Honeybrook and the neighboring Townships.
Besides weekly lectures by the principal on histor-
ical, literary, and scientific subjects, addresses to the
students were delivered by the Rev. Drs. J. N. C.
Grier, Lehman, Crowell, and Hotchkin, and the Rev.
Messrs. W. W. Latta, Harry, Holland, Flowers, J. C.
Thompson, and Dr. A. K. Gaston*
* Reminiscences of First Principal ; Records of Academy ; Coms.
from Elder John Ralston and others.
188 HISTORY OF THE PKESBYTEEIAN CHURCH
In May, 1820, the first Sunday-School withiti the
bounds of this congregation was organized in a build-
ing that stands a short distance north of Eockville,
and which was long known by the name of Walker's
School-House. Elder James E-alston, Elder William
Templeton, Thomas M'Clune, and Obadiah Robinson
were chosen Superintendents. As the first three were
Presbyterians and the last named a Methodist, it was
not strictly denominational, but was what would now
be called a Union Sunday-School.
Elder John Ralston • and his brother James, Jno.
Dorian, James Lockhart, Washington Righter, John
Lockhart, Jos. Donnell, Master John W. Pinkerton,
and perhaps some others, were selected as teachers.
Master Pinkerton acted as Secretary.
Two of the Superintendents attended every Sab-
bath. One of them opened the School with prayer,
and the other closed it in the same manner. The ex-
ercises consisted principally of the recitation of por-
tions of the Scriptures and of Psalms and Hymns.
There was a generous rivalry among the scholars in
regard to the number of verses which each could recite
on a Sabbath, and this emulation was carried so far that
IN "the forks of beandywine." 189
upwards of three hundred verses of the Bible were
repeated by some of the pupils at one time.
The School assembled in the afternoon, and as it
was somewhat of a novelty, the attendance was large,
the children being accompanied in most instances by
The School building often proving too small to ac-
commodate the scholars and spectators, the exercises
were not unfrequently conducted in a grove which
stood West of the road leading from the School- house
Dr. Grier, the pastor, occasionally attended, and
gave the scholars some religious instruction and ad-
vice ; but as he generally preached on the afternoon of
the Sabbath, either in a school-house or at the resi-
dence of some aged member of the congregation, his
engagements seldom permitted him to be present.
Tickets or cards with a text of Scripture printed on
them were given to the scholars. Some of these
tickets were printed on red paper, and others on blue.
The recitation of a hymn, or of a fixed number of
verses of Scripture, entitled a scholar to a blue card,
and a certain amount of these could be exchanged for
a red one. When the fortunate holder had obtained
as many of the latter as were required, a book was
given in their stead.
As the School had to be closed in the Fall, the dis-
continuance proved unfavorable, and when it was
opened the next Spring the attendance was smaller,
and the interest manifested much less. This became
so apparent towards the end of the Summer, that those
who were mainly instrumental in carrying it on were
190 HISTOKT OF THE PRESBYTEKIAN CHURCH
disheartened, and no arrangements were made for
conducting it the next year.
In 1828 the School was reopened with but partial
success. After that no effort was made to revive it
until 1832, when it was reorganized by Elder William
Templeton, who continued to be its efficient and faith-
ful Superintendent until his death, in 1849. Ever
since that time the School has been regularly kept
open during the Summer season. Messrs. Thomas
Walker, William Rgbinson, John F. Templeton, and
Lewis Worrell have acted as Superintendents.
A Sunday-School was opened in 1821 in the School
building which stood near the Upper Graveyard. John
Templeton, Esq., James K. Grier, Joseph F. Grier,
M.D., John McCathran, James McCathran, William
Major, William Stanly, and some others performed the
duties of teachers. James Hindman filled the office
of Secretary. The Rev. John W. Grier, who was at
that time the Principal of the Brandywine Academy,
acted as Superintendent. This School was in opera-
tion about two years, when it was discontinued.
In the Spring of 1828 a number of young people
of the neighborhood met at the residence of General
Matthew Stanly and organized a Sunday-School,
which was held in a large spring-house loft belonging
to the-'' General. This School was mainly conducted
by the same teachers as the one which had been kept
in the school-house. It was continued during the
IN " THE FORKS OF BRAND YWINE." 191
Summer season of two years, 1828 and 1829, when,
owing t6 the unsafe condition of the walls of the
building, it was thought imprudent to reopen it in the
same place, and no other suitable building could be
After the lapse of several years a Sunday-School
was opened in the Manor Church, under the superin-
tendence of the Pastor, Dr. Grier. It was held in
the morning, before the customary services of the day
were commenced. Dr. Grier occupied a part of the
time in explaining portions of the Scriptures and
other religious exercises. This School, which was con-
tinued during the remainder of his pastorate, has been
watched over and aided by his successors in the
ministry. It has at present 112 scholars and 16
teachers and officers, with Mr. B. G. Ilea as Superin-
Both it and the school at Rockville, which has 85
scholars and 11 teachers and oflBcers, are regarded not
only as important auxiliaries to the Church, but as a
means of benefiting many who otherwise would receive
no religious instruction.
The superintendents, all of the teachers, and many
of the scholars connected with those fii-st Sunday-
Schools have passed away, while the survivors, with
few exceptions, have numbered the allotted threescore
and ten. But in reviewing the incidents of seventy
years, there are scarcely any which they recall with
more pleasure and gratitude than the associations and
instruction of the weekly gatherings on the Sabbath
which they attended more than half a century ago.
How many those primitive Sunday-Schools led
192 HISTOEY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
to become partakers of the blessings of the New
Covenant, or how often the texts of Scripture and'
Psalms of prayer and thanksgiving, then impressed on
the memory, may have guarded against temptation or
lightened the burdens and smoothed asperities in the
pathway of life, the " Great Day" alone will reveal,*
* Keminiscences of James M'Cachran ; of Elder John Kalston ;
Local Memoranda ; Communication from Rev. Mr. McCoU ; from
In Scotland the Manse is considered almost equally
essential with the Kirk. As a majority of the minis-
ters of the churches there are not the owners of any
means for passing from place to place, it is deemed im-
portant that he whose duties require him to be present
in the House of God twice or thrice a week should
reside near to the scene of his labors.
For many years after the settlement of Presbyte-
rians in America, in consequence of the necessity for
every one to be provided with a means of conveyance
of his own, parsonages were not considered absolutely
essential. The funds of most of the congregations
having been exhausted in building a meeting-house
and a session-house, no provision was made for a
This was particularly the case with the churches
first established. Hence it often happened that
churches whose organization was but yesterday, when
compared with those of an early date, were furnished
with a dwelling appropriated for the use of the pastor,
while the church of which they were in many in-
stances colonies had made no provision of the kind.
Of this the congregation worshipping in this place
affords an example. The churches at Coatesville,
Waynesburg, and Fairview composed, at first, either
194 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
wholly or in part of members from this church, had
each a parsonage before it was determined to erect one
lyCr. Black having no family when pastor of the con-
gregation, made his home with some of the members of
his charge. The house in which Mr. Dean dwelt in
West Nantmeal Township, as stated elsewhere, is no
longer in existence, and Mr. Boyd, while supplying
the Old Side, continued to reside near his church in
Octoraro. Mr. Carmichael, with Scotch thrift and
frugality, acquired considerable property, and passed
his last years on a farm in West Brandywine Town-
ship, which was long the residence of the late Squire
M'Clellan. Mr. Nathan Grier, shortly after his mar-
riage, in 1787, bought the farm now belonging to the
estate of the late Richard Parke, and resided there
until his death. When his son, the Eev. J. N. C
Grier, succeeded him in the pastorate he purchased
the homestead, and it continued to be the parsonage
until 1841. In that year he erected, on land adjoin-
ing the church property, the mansion in which he
passed the remainder of his life.
After the resignation of Dr. Grier the necessity of
providing a residence for . the pastor became so ap-
parent that efforts were made to accomplish it. With
the energy and liberality which have always been
shown by the members of this Church when they
were convinced that any measure was needed for the
prosperity of their beloved Zion, funds were collected
and a suitable building erected in 1869-'70. The
main structure, which is carefully and neatly finished,
stands East of the Lower Graveyard, on a part of the
IN " THE FORKS OF BEANDYWINE." 1 95
land originally owned by the New Side. It is thirty-
five feet in front by twenty-six feet deep on the East
side ; forty-four feet deep on the "West side, and two
and a half stories in height. The entire cost of the
dwelling, out-buildings, and improvement of the
ground was about four thousand dollars.
The situation of the parsonage is retired, healthful,
and elevated, affording an extensive view in almost
every direction, and needs but a tasteful arrangement
of the lawn, and the addition of trees and shrubbery,
to compare favorably with buildings erected for a
similar j^urpose by rural churches in general.
Like " the ministers' home" in other lands, this par-
sonage, in the course of years, will become closely con-
nected with the remembrance of the pastors who have
occupied it and passed away. Around it associations
will gather scarcely less salutary and less solemn than
those which pertain to buildings specially dedicated to
the service of the Most High.*
* MSS. ; Church Eecords.
196 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTERIAN CHTTRCH
As the Presbyterians who first settled in America
generally considered the Session-House or Study almost
equally important with the Meeting-House, and seldom
erected the latter, however rude, without, at the same
time, placing the former near by, it is altogether
likely that there was a Session-House belonging to the
First Meeting-House. But as even tradition is silent
respecting such a building, it would be futile to inquire,
if it did exist, where it was situated, and whether it
served both as a school-house and a place for the
meetings of the members of Session.*
The Session-House belonging to the Second Meeting-
House stood near the Southeast corner of the ground
belonging to Mr. Dean's congregation. It was placed
with the front parallel to the Road leading to Down-
ingtown, and was probably furnished with, a fireplace,
This Session-House having become nearly unfit for
use, and being inconveniently situated in respect to the
Meeting-House erected in 1761, a log Session-House
about sixteen by eighteen feet, with a large fireplace
in one end, was built a few rods South of the new
church edifice. The entrance was on the side most
distant from the church.
This building, like nearly all the Session-Houses of
* Some remains of the foundation of what seems to have been a
small building, recently noticed near the entrance to the Upper Grave-
yard, may have been part of a primitive Session-House.
IK " THE FOEKS OF BRANDYWIKE." 197
the Presbyterian Churcli at tliat day, was used as a
school-house. A man by the name of Bowser, who was
not remarkable for the purity of his morals or his
amiable disposition, taught a school in that Session-
House upwards of one hundred years ago. The late
John Strong, Major George Dorian, Nathan Dorian,
Alexander Nesbit, and others whom some now living
remember, were among his pupils. Both Bowser and
Stephen Wray, who taught towards the close of the
last century in the Session-House of the Seceder
Meeting-House, were firm believers in the efficacy of
the rod. Consequently the frequent applications of it,
as an aid to discipline and a spur to mental activity,
were a part of their daily programme.
In 1827 the log Session-House was removed, and a
stone building about eighteen feet by twenty, with a
fireplace in the west end, was erected , on the ground
occupied by the former Session-House, and stood, like
it, with the front to the South. This served for the
meetings of the Session until 1875, when it was taken
down to afford room for the site of the recently-erected
In the construction of the New Meeting-House, a
room was set apart in the basement for the transaction
of all business belonging to the government of the
church. The members of the congregation, therefore,
instead of having their Session-House in one place,
their Meeting-House , in another, and their Sunday-
School room at a considerable distance from both, as
was formerly the case, have these all conveniently
arranged in the same building.*
* Local Memoranda ; Church Records.
198 HISTORY OP THE PRESBYTERIAN CHXTROH
Although there has been a number of wealthy
members of the congregation who contributed lib-
erally for benevolent purposes and the keeping of
the buildings and enclosures belonging to the church
in a proper condition, yet many of them failed to
make any provision for assisting to defray the ex-
pense of repairs, improvements, and other beneficent
objects, after their decease. The bequests, therefore,
have been comparatively few and the amount small ;
the whole sum not exceeding three thousand dollars.
This is to be regretted, as not only the cost of pre- ^
venting the grounds and buildings from becoming
impaired, but the purchase of books for t*he Sunday-
Schools, the circulation of tracts and temperance doc-
uments, and support of missions require funds which
are often difficult to be obtained, and the smallness of
which frequently confines these means of doing good
within narrow limits.
Those whom the bounty of Providence has blessed
with plenty might be the almoners of that bounty
when life has ceased by endowments for charitable
purposes, the spread of. religious intelligence, and the
extension of the Redeemer's Kingdom.
bequests so far as known.
Joseph Mackelduff", who died in 1750, left five
pounds for the benefit of the Church.
IN " THE FORKS OF BRAND YWINE. " 199
Jolin Beaton, in 1776, bequeathed thirty pounds
" for tlie use of the Meeting-House." This was ap-
plied towards defraying the cost of restoring the
church edifice after its injury by fire.
Elder William Irwin, whose death occurred in 1794,
devised a small sum, six pounds, for the purpose of
renewing the fence around the Upper Graveyard.
Hugh Morton, long an active member of the con-
gregation, in 1811 left fifty pounds, which were ex-
pended, under the direction of General Stanly, for
the iron gate and marble posts at the eastern entrance
to the Upper Graveyard.
Isaac Smith directed about one hundred dollars to
be placed by his executors in the hands of the trustees
of the church to be applied towards keeping the Lower
• Graveyard and the wall surrounding it in suitable
order. A portion of this sum was used to purchase
the gate and the pillars that bear the initials of his
name which are placed at the entrance, and the bal-
ance appropriated towards paying for the repairs and
' extension of the wall in 1860.
About one hundred and fifty dollars were directed
by the will of John Craig, in 1825, to be invested by
the trustees of the church, and the interest applied
from time to time in keeping the Lower Graveyard
in good repair. A part of this was expended for the
extension of the enclosure on the South side, and
the remainder (two hundred and twelve dollars) in
restoring and flagging the wall.
Peter Kurtz, who died March 19, 1880, left five
hundred dollars for the benefit of the church, and
a like amount was devised for the same purpose
200 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
by Mrs. Elizabeth Christman, whose death took place
in February of the same year.
Mrs. Mary Ann Grier directed in her last Will
and Testament that five hundred dollars should be
invested by the trustees of the church, and the in-
terest expended in keeping up the graves of herself
and her husband, Elder James K. Grier. She also
bequeathed five hundred dollars to aid the operations
of the church.
A bequest of one hundred dollars was made by
Augustus J. Dowlin, who died in April, 1884.
About one hundred and fifty dollars were devised
by Thomas Lomas, whose decease occurred in 1883,
for keeping the Lower Graveyard in repair.
By the will of William Moore, his executors were
directed to place five hundred dollars in the hands of
the trustees, a part of it, or the interest accruing, to be
expended in keeping his family burial-lots in repair,
and the balance to be expended for the benefit of the
The sums devised by Mrs. Kurtz, Mrs. Christman,
and Mrs. Grier, together amounting to fifteen hundred
dollars, less the collateral inheritance tax, were used
for the payment of debts arising from the improve-
ment of the enclosures and other necessary expenses
connected with the church property.*
* Records of Session; Local Memoranda; Office of Register of
IN " THE FORKS OF BKANDYWISTE." 201
PEW-HOLDERS IN 1792-96.
In no part of the world are changes of residence
more frequent than in the United States. New fields
for adventure are continually being laid open. New
enterprises which promise much are again and again
presented, and real or fancied advantages foster the
desire " to better their circumstances," which seems to
be the leading idea in the minds of a large portion of
our countrymen. As a consequence many abandon
the homes of their childhood, and the places where
their youthful years were passed, for more inviting
and distant localities.
Although this " disposition to wander" is more char-
acteristic of the Scotcli-Irish, the Irish, and their pos-
terity, than of any class of our citizens, yet an exam-
ination of the following list of pew-holders will show
that a considerable number of the supporters of this
church at the present time are the descendants of those
who sustained a Gospel ministry here fourscore and
ten years ago.
All whose names are comprised in this list, and with
a few exceptions the generation which immediately
succeeded them, are dead, but the Church still lives.
The influence of their example and of their pious
instruction has reached to the third and even to the
fourth generation. How much of encouragement does
202 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTEEIAN CHURCH
this afford to those who are " never weary in well-
doing," and especially to those who have aided in the
construction of the building which has recently been
dedicated to the service of the Great Head of the
They, like their fathers and forefathers, are leaving
a memorial of their good works and an influence, which
will be seen and felt long after the " places which now
know, shall know them no more."
The following is a list of the pew-holders in 1792-
96, as near as can be ascertained from imperfect
Church Records and other sources :
Samuel Byers, Sr.
Samuel Craige. ,
Samuel Cunningham, Esq.
Dr. Isaac Gibson.
Rev. Nathan Grier.
William Hunter, Esq.
Alexander Lockhart, Esq.
James Lockhart, Sr.
James Moore, Esq.
William Moore, Jr.
Col. Robert Smith.
Matthew Stanly, Esq.
William Sterrett, Sr.
William Sterrett, Jr.
204 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTEKIAN CHUECH
The Lectures of Dr. Lyman Beecher and others
had directed public attention in New England to
the increase of intemperance, and measures had been
adopted to arrest its progress before any means were
devised to stay its ravages in the Middle States. The
first Temperance Society was formed in Boston, Feb-
ruary 13, 1826, and some years later a few associa-
tions having the same object in view, were formed
The first Temperance Society within the bounds of
this congregation, and among the earliest organized in
Chester County, was formed in 1831. Towards the
close of April in that year, a number of residents in the
neighborhood assembled for that purpose, in what was
long known by the name of Walker's School-House,
near the village of Rockville. The meeting was or-
ganized by calling the Bev. Dr. J. N. C. Grier to the
chair, and the appointment of Master John W. Pink-
erton as Secretary. After some remarks by the Chair-
man, and an interchange of views on the subject, a
Temperance Society was formed and a constitution
adopted and signed, pledging those whose names were
appended* to abstain from making, selling, or using
* See Appendix J.
IN " THE FORKS OF BEANDYWISE." 205
Of the twenty-eight who then came forward and
avowed their determination to aid in lessening or re-
moving the manifold evils of intemperance, twenty-
six are dead. Some of them were men whose heads
were whitened by the frosts of time, and who had
long witnessed and deplored the direful consequences
arising from the use of spirituous liquors. Others
were men of middle age, around whom families were
clustering, and who desired to guard their households
against a fruitful source of poverty and disgrace. The
majority, however, were young men about to go forth
to meet the trials and temptations which beset the
pathway of life, and who wisely girded themselves
with the armor of total abstinence before they engaged
in the conflict.
So far as is known no ooe violated the obligations
entered into on that day, while some of them advo-
cated temperance, both orally and through the me-
dium of the press, with ability and faithfulness.
Meetings were held and addresses on the subject
delivered for several years, but although much good
was accomplished the enthusiasm subsided, the most
active workers became gradually dispersed, and the
Society as a distinct organization ceased to exist.
Before closing an account of the first temperance
society, it ought to be stated that the use, or more cor-
rectly the abuse, of intoxicating liquors was, at that
time, far different from what it now is. Then, a la-
borer would refuse employment unless he received
a morning dram, and a building could scarcely be
erected or a harvest gathered without the use of ar-
dent spirits. Even aged and otherwise respectable
206 HISTORY OF THE PKESBYTEEIAN CHURCH
men often found it difficult to preserve a steady gait
when returning from vendues, elections, or other
public gatherings. The smoke of five distilleries
daily rose within the bounds of this congregation, and
to get drunk occasionally was scarcely a disgrace.
In 1851 a meeting for the furtherance of tem-
perance was held at Howard Academy, Roekville,
and a society formed, of which Elder John Rals-
ton was chosen President. A large number signed
the pledge. Public meetings were frequently held,
and addresses delivered by the Rev. Dr. J. N.
C. Grier, Dr. Lehman, Dr. Hotchkin, Dr. A. K.
Gaston, Rev. George Chandler, Rev. William W.
Latta, the Principal, and some of the leading students '
of Howard Academy. Finally, however, this society,
like its predecessor of tw.enty years before, was per-
mitted to languish and die, but not until, through the
influence of it and kindred associations, the- distilla-
tion of ardent spirits in Chester County had ceased,
and intoxicating liquors were no longer furnished to
those employed in the workshop or the field.*
* Local Memoranda ; Records of Howard Academy ; Personal
IS THE FOKKS OF BKANDYWIXE.
OF SUBSCRIBERS TO THE FUND FOR ENCLOSING THE GRAVEYARDS
BY A STONE WALL, IN 1794-95.
Samuel Byers, Jr.
Robert & Samuel Craige.
208 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTEEIAN CHURCH
Dr. Isaac Gibson.
Rev. Nathan Grier.
William Hunter, Esq.
John Irwin, Jr.
IN "THE FORKS OF BRANDYWrNE.
John Smith, Jr.
Colonel Robert Smith.
210 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
Legislators who resided within the bounds of the congregation*
MEMBERS OF CONGRESS.
Robert Jenkins was a Member from 1807 to 1811. Two terms.
David Potts " " " 1831 to 1839. Four terms.
Abraham Mclllvaine " " 18i3 to 1849. Three terms.
MEMBERS OF STATE LEGISLATURE.
Col. Robert Smith was a Member in 1785.
James Moore, Esq.,
Col. Thomas Bull
Gen. Matthew Stanly
Jesse James, Esq.,
Dr. Benjamin Griffith
Bernard Way, Esq.,
Col. Thomas K. Bull
James M. Dorian
Capt. Levi Fetters
from 1793 to 1802.
in 1802, 1803, 1804, 1805, and 1806.
' 1829, 1851, and 1852.
' 1830, 1831, and 1832.
' 1836 and 1837.
' 1846, 1847, and 1848.
' 1883 and 1885.
* State and Congressional Records.
IN " THE F.OKKS OF BKANDYWINE." 211
It is a matter of surprise and regret to every one,
when examining the annals of the past, to find that
so little has been placed on record of physicians, and
especially of those who practised in rural districts.
While much that is noteworthy in the lives of clergy-
men, members of the bar, legislators, and military
men has been preserved, materials for biographical
notices of physicians, for the most part, must be
sought by the dim light of tradition or gathered from
the fading recollection of friends who have survived
them. This is particularly the case with those who
have practised medicine within the bounds of this
The earliest whose name has reached the present
time is Dr. Thomas Rheese, who appears to have been
engaged as a physician previous to the middle of the
last century and some years afterwards.
Dr. Rheese was succeeded by Dr. John Flavel Car-
michael, a son of the Rev. John Carmichael, and Dr.
Joseph Gardner, a son of Elder Francis Gardner.
Dr. Carmichael followed his profession in the bounds
of his father's congregation until 1788, when he
entered the Army of the United States as a surgeon.
Dr. Gardner was engaged principally in the southern
and western portions of Mr. Carmichael's charge. In
1790, he removed to Maryland. He acquired a high
212 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTEEIAN CHURCH
reputation as a physician, and his professional en-
gagements extended over a large area.
About 1780, Dr. Thomas Harris, who was much
esteemed for his medical skill, commenced the practice
of his profession at Indian-town, in Wallace Township.
He seems, after the removal of Dr. Carmichael md
Dr. Gardner, to have had no competitor nearer than
Dr. Sturgis, of Downingtown.
Dr. Thomas Kennedy, the friend and pupil of Dr.
Harris, succeeded to his practice in 1796 or '97. Dr.
Kennedy soon became noted for his skill and attention
to his patients. His practice consequently embraced
a large extent of country. Several years before his
death, in April, 1814, he was the only resident
physician within the bounds of the Rev. Nathan
Grier's charge.* •
Dr. John E. Grier, a graduate of Dickinson Col-
lege and of the University of Pennsylvania, began
the practice of medicine in 1813. Being well edu-
cated and having a good reputation as a surgeoq,
he was largely patronized. Dr. Grier remained
until about 1825, when he removed to the State of
Ohio. He took up his residence in the Miami Valley,
where and in other parts of that State, he remained
until his death, in 1844.
In 1814, Dr. Benjamin Griffith began the practice
of medicine near Glen Moore, and continued in the
active discharge of his professional duties upwards of
forty-four years. He died May 12, 1858. Unas-
* Dr. Todd was practising in West Brandywine Township in 1800,
but in what part or how long, the writer has been unable to learn.
ly "the forks of bkandywine." 213
suming and attentive to those who needed medical
aid, Dr. Griffith was much esteemed as a physician
and respected as a friend and a neighbor.
Dr. John M'Calmont, who, in 1810, settled near
Waynesburg, in the Western part of the congregation,
practised with much ability and success until a few
years before his death, in 1870. Like his contempo-
rary, Dr. Griffith, he enjoyed the entire confidence of
In 1818, Dr. Isaac Pennington, a well-read physi-
cian, who had been a surgeon in the Army of the
United States during the last War with England, lo-
cated a little below Waynesburg. He soon obtained
a lucrative practice, which he retained until his re-
moval, in 1832, to one of the Southern States. After
an absence of several years he returned, and remained
in the practice of his profession until his death, near
Compassville, May 6, 1849.
Dr. Joseph F. Grier, a younger brother of Elder
James K. Grier, finished his medical studies in 1828.
Dr. Grier erected the building lately owned by Mrs.
Agnes Happersett, in which he resided and gave the
community the benefit of his medical skill, until the
Fall of 1837. He then removed to Lewisburg, Union
County, where he continued in the discharge of his
professional duties until a short time before his death,
in February, 1858.
About three years after the withdrawal of Dr. Grier,
Dr. A. K. Gaston removed from Easton, Pa., to where
he lately resided, and engaged in the practice of medi-
cine. Being not only an able physician, but also a
gentleman of general culture, he was soon in the en-
214 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
joyment of an extensive practice, which he retained
until his death, December 22, 1882.
Dr. Nathan G. Thompson, eldest son of the late
Dr. Thompson, a prominent physician of Fagg's
Manor, commenced the study of medicine with Dr.
A. K. Gaston, and after his graduation, February 28,
1852, engaged in the practice of his profession, in
which he has been eminently successful. He is now
the principal physician actively engaged within the
bounds of the congregation.
Dr. Isaac Gibson, about 1786, and Dr. Effinger
Happersett, about 1816, commenced the practice of
medicine ; but as neither of them had received a med-
ical education they were not largely patronized.
Such is a brief record of the laborious, self-denying,
and, in many instances, gifted men, who have practised
the healing art within the varying bounds of this con-
gregation, during the last hundred and twenty-five
It is a meagre and imperfect sketch, but should it be
considered strange that it is so, when even the Medical
Department of the University of Pennsylvania cannot
furnish a complete list of its graduates prior to the be-
ginning of the present century, when degrees began to
be annually conferred ? *
* MS. Collections.
IN " THE FORKS OF BEANDYWINE." 215
OwiKG to their situation at a different level along
the Turnpike E,oad, the graveyards belonging to this
church were named accordingly ; the one South of
that Road being generally known by the name of the
Upper Graveyard, while the one North of the same
highway is usually called the Lower Graveyard.
Shortly after the erection of the first Meeting-
House, a piece of land immediately to the East of
that building was appropriated for a burial-place.
This continued to be used as the graveyard until that
Meeting-House was abandoned. The burial-ground
was then enlarged, chiefly by extending it towards the
South and East, and enclosed by a board fence. In
1794. or 1795 it was again enlarged, and the board
fence replaced by a stone wall.
The entrance, which was on the North side, next to
the public Road, remained there until 1822, when the
marble posts and iron gate, still in use, were procured
by the late General Matthew Stanly. The entrance
was then placed where it now is, on the Eastern side
of the burial-ground, and near to the church building.
In 1853, mainly through the exertions of Elder
James K. Grier, another addition was made to this
216 HISTOKY OF THE PRESBYTEKIAN CHUECH
graveyard. The wall was also repaired, and a gate-
way placed on the Southwestern side.
At present this burial-place is an irregular six-
sided plot of ground, containing about two acres, and
from the dryness of the soil and the absence of sub-
stances which render excavation difl&cult, is admirably
adapted to the purpose.
For upwards of three-quarters of a century after it
had been set apart as a burial-ground, the remains of
a suicide were not permitted to be interred within its
limits. But the custom, derived from a barbarous age,
of denying the usual rites of burial to those who had
died by their own hand, gave place to more enlight-
ened and Christian sentiments.
The first lettered headstones placed in this yard are
those at the graves of Mrs. Jane Sterling and the in-
fant children of Mr. Carmichael, although they were
not the first persons buried within this enclosure.
These stones were prepared at Burlington, N. J., then
the rival of Philadelphia.*
Until a recent period no record of the interments
was kept, and many of those buried there sleep with-
out even an unlettered stone to mark their last regting-
place.f It is, therefore, impossible to ascertain how
many have been buried in this graveyard. Taking
the average at twenty-five annually, — and some years
it was much greater, — the whole number cannot be less
* The oldest tombstones are tliose which cover the remains of the
first proprietor oi' Springtou Forge, Robert M'Conaughy, and of his
wife and son. The first monument, except a very small one, was
erected about 1840, by Gleneral Stanly, in memory of his wife.
j" See Appendix R.
IN " THE FOEKS OF BKANDYWINE." 217
than three thousand five hundred. Among them are
the remains of the Rev. John Carmichael, the Rev.
Nathan Grier, the Rev. John W. Grier, the Rev. J. N.
C. Grier, D.D., of more than twenty who were Ruling
Elders in this church, and of several who fought, and
some who fell in the Revolutionary and other national
Unfortunately, no plan has been followed in the in-
terments, each member of the congregation having,
in most instances, selected his family burial-place as
he thought proper, and therefore the attraction which
regularity would have added to the naturally beauti-
ful site cannot be obtained.
This burial-ground is now furrowed with graves and
white with the memorials which affection has placed to
perpetuate the names and the virtues of the departed,
and only a few years can pass before another ad-
dition to it will be required.* But whatever the ex-
tension may be, or however great the number which
will be laid there to await the Second Coming of
the Son of Man, we have the pleasing assurance
that it will never be desecrated. The recent erec-
tion of a large and costly Meeting-House adjoining
it, and the determination which has been shown by
the present members of the congregation to keep the
fire continually burning which was kindled on the
altar in the wilderness by their forefathers, are guar-
antees for its preservation. No greedy owner of ad-
* It has recently been enlarged by an extension south. The new
enclosure has been laid out in lots and arranged in accordance with
the plan of modern cemeteries.
218 HISTORY OP THE PKESBYTEEIAN CHURCH
jacent land will be permitted to call it his own, nor
the hand of an unfeeling husbandman be allowed to
remove the memorials of the departed, and change
places, often wet by the tears of sorrow and affection,
into cultivated fields. That such an event might
occur may seem to many the offspring of a highly-
wrought imagination. An examination, however,
would show them that covetousness and vandalism
have removed every trace of several graveyards which
belonged to Presbyterian Churches established at an
early period in Lancaster, Berks, Dauphin, and other
When those who withdrew from Mr. Black's con-
gregation and placed themselves under the direction
of the Synod of New Brunswick built their Meeting-
House, they set apart a portion of the land which they
had obtained for a burial-ground, and it is still used
for that purpose. Among the first interred in this
graveyard was their lamented pastor, the Rev. William
Dean. The tombstone which covers his remains was
probably placed there several years after his death.
There are circumstances which lead to the conclusion
that his age is incorrectly stated. It bears an earlier
date than any memorial stone in either graveyard.
This graveyard, which occupies a rectangular space
of about half an acre, was enclosed by a stone wall in
1796. It has remained without any enlargement,
except a small extension on the Southern side in 1860,
when the wall was also repaired and capped with
IN " THE FORKS OP BEAJSDYWINE." 219
In 1821 the iron gate and marble posts at the
entrance were placed there, in accordance with the
will of Isaac Smith, who also left a small sum for the
purpose of keeping the yard and its surroundings in
a proper condition.
Like the Upper Graveyard, this burial-ground
possesses the advantages of dryness of soil and of
freedom from obstructions beneath the surface; but
owing, probably, to its greater distance from the
Church building, the interments in it have been much
fewer than in the other burial-place.
The Lower Graveyard, the Meeting-House which
then stood near it, and the whole of the ground, for
which payment was made by Mr. Dean only the May
before his death, became after the Union the property
of the United Congregation. It, together with the
land previously obtained, still remains in the pos-
session of the Church.*
* Local Memoranda ; Eeminiscences of aged Residents.
220 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTEEIAN CHUECH
Sixty years ago but four vehicles could be seen at
the Manor Meeting-House on the Sabbath, and these
were the old-fashioned two-wheeled gig, with leather
springs. A majority of the congregation came afoot,
the rest on horseback. For convenience in mounting
and alighting, " upping blocks" were placed under
almost every shade-tree or place suitable for the stand-
ing of horses. Fans were commonly used, umbrellas
were few, and parasols almost unknown.
The pews until quite a recent period were personal
property, and generally owned by those who occupied
them on the Sabbath. Sometimes when the owner
did not need the whole of his pew, he either sold a
part or rented it to those who were unable to obtain
sitting, as it was called, elsewhere. On one occasion,
the creditors of a man, who, had become bankrupt,
seized and sold his pew, but instances of such rapacity
Owing to the nearness of the turnpike road to the
meeting-house, the noise occasioned by heavy vehicles
passing along the rough highway on the Sabbath was
frequently a source of great annoyance. During the
period that the turnpike road was the principal route
for the transportation of merchandise to Pittsburg
and other Western cities, the disturbance caused by
the heavily -loaded wagons, often closely following one
IN " THE FOEKS OP BKANDYWINE." 221
anotlier, was so great as sometimes to interrupt public
worship. A iiumber of the teamsters were arrested
and fined for pursuing their occupation on the Lord's
Day, but this proceeding rather increased than dimin-
ished the evil, as after that many of them made it an
object to pass along the road during divine service.
In 1798 the school-house on the church property,
on account of its size, and being near to the point
where the three townships of West Nantmeal, Honey-
brook, and West Brandywine joined, was selected
for holding the annual election. As political contests
were then conducted with a bitterness and a resort to
personal violence now comparatively rare, much oc-
curred on "election day" which ill comported with
the sacredness of the place. Fighting was not un-
common. Ardent Democrats and Federalists did not
hesitate to use staffs and clubs as " knock-down argu-
ments." The liquorrstands caused the steps of many
to become unsteady. Boisterous and profane language
was freely used, and altogether a scene was presented
in sickening contrast with the precepts of that Gospel
at whose advent was proclaimed. Peace on earth and
good-will to man. Finally the impropriety of using
any of the property belonging to the congregation for
a secular purpose which was attended with disorder and
contention, became so manifest that another place was
selected where the citizens of the three townships
could meet, wrangle, and cast their votes.
The salaries of clergymen during many years were
low, and after making allowance for the difference in
the price of the necessaries of life, when compared
with the cost of like articles at the present time, it is
222 HISTOKY OF THE PEESBYTEEIAN CHTJECH
often difficult at first sight to understand how they ac-
quired property as many of them did. .This difficulty
■is due to overlooking tl;ie fact that the amount promised
as salary was but a part, and frequently the smallest
part, of what was received. The farmers in the Fall,
especially, did not forget to furnish the minister with
flour, potatoes, wood, meat, and in some instances
material for clothing, sufficient for the greater part of
the year ; those, too, who expected to call occasionally
at the manse, generally included among their gifts a
keg of peach-brandy, then a much-esteemed beverage.
Another source of income was marriages. As a
marriage performed by a magistrate was generally
considered less respectable, and by some less binding
than when it was solemnized by a minister, well-
known clergymen were called upon to perform the
interesting ceremony not only by members of their
own congregation, but by many others. On these
occasions,' although the bride frequently adjusted her
attire by the aid of a pail of water as a looking-glass,
and the thoughtful bridegroom carried in rude sad-
dle-bags " a bite for the horses" during the delay at
the parson's, yet those who rewarded the pastor with
less than a one-pound note were commonly regarded
as having made a bad start on the road to connubial
Psalm-books being scarce and some of the congre-
gation being unable to read, the precentor or clerk
usually lined the psalm ; that is, he read two lines
aloud, and when these had been sung, the next two,
until the conclusion of the exercise. This man-
ner of conducting the singing was continued long
IN " THE FORKS OF BEANDYWIXE." 223
after the necessity for it had ceased. During the
pastorate of the Kev. Nathan Grier, Watts's Psalms
and Hymns became the text-book, much to the dis-
satisfaction of the older members of the congregation.
This, as is well known, has been forced to give place
in many churches to the Hymnal, for what reason is
difficult to discover. If the sturdy founders of Pres-
byterianism and their immediate descendants adhered
somewhat tenaciously to an almost literal translation
of the inspired anthems of the " man after God's own
heart," the Presbyterians of the present day have
gone to the opposite extreme in discarding even the
title, and to a great extent the songs, of " the sweet
singer of Israel."
The names of but a few of those who " led the sing-
ing" have been preserved. Mr. Benjamin McClure
was precentor during a considerable part of the Rev.
Nathan Grier's pastorate. Major George Dorian also
officiated until near his decease, in 1829. He was
succeeded by Mr. William Forrest. For more than
thirty years the singing was conducted by Elder John
Ralston. After the remodelling of the Meeting-
House in 1839, the choir was seated in the front of
the gallery, instead of at the base of the pulpit The
introduction of the choir was considered quite an in-
novation on time-honored custom, but within the last
few years the departure from Puritan simplicity has
been further increased by invoking the aid of instru-
It has been said that a Presbyterian Church never
dies. While this is true in the main, and especially
in Chester County, where the number of Presbyterian
224 HISTORY OF THE PEESBYTEEIAN CHURCH
Churclies has been nearly doubled during the pre-
sent century, yet a change in the location of meet-
ing-houses has become manifest. This iis seen not only
in the erection of buildings for public worship where
none previously existed, but also in the replacing of
old meeting-houses by new. There being no villages,
the first settlers generally erected their church edifices
on high ground, and
" The decent church that topped the neighboring hill"
could be seen here as well as in the fatherland. But
the march of improvement has caused the new meet-
ing-house in many instances to be placed at a distance
from the site occupied by the one first erected. The
employment of water-power, the advantage of streams
for navigation, and of railways which necessarily pass
where the least grade must be overcome, have caused
cities and villages to spring up in valleys and Jow
grounds. Hence new meeting-houses, whenever it
can be done, are placed wh^re easiness of access by
the present means of travel is most readily obtained.
This change of site, while it has often been a means
of increasing the number in attendance, and in some
instances has saved weak churches from being dis-
banded, has also caused a neglect of the graveyard
connected with the first meeting-house. New bui^ial-
places are sought, and the enclosure where the re-
mains of the founders of the church were laid is too
frequently left with no Old Mortality to restore the
time-worn epitaphs on its tombstones, or Nehemiah to
rebuild the broken-down walls of the "city of the
IN " THE FOEKS OF BRANDYWINE." 225
Before the Revolution, and years afterward, tlie
cocked bat, knee-breeches, and silver shoe-buckles
extending across the foot were the favorite costume of
the elderly and middle-aged gentlemen of the con-
gregation. The hat was three-cornered, one corner
being on each side in front, and another usually
adorned with a tassel behind. As breeches left the
part extending from the knee to the ankle exposed,
those who were not furnished with well-proportioned
limbs frequently attempted to remedy the defect by
placing a pad or bandage on the back part of the ex-
posed member. But this, like many attempts at im-
provement, sometimes failed. The pad would become
displaced and mar the appearance, instead of adding
to the proportions of the part which it was intended
to aid. The face was close shaven, but a part of the
hair of the head was allowed to acquire its full length.
This was plaited or surrounded by a ribbon and per-
mitted to hang down the back. It was not unlike the
Chinese appendage euphoniously styled a pig-tail, ex-
cept that it depended from the back of the head in-
stead of from the top. As the hair in the queue, as it
was called, required oiling occasionally, in the course
of time it imparted a shining appearance to the upper
part of the well-worn coat.
The ladies generally attended meeting dressed in a
short gown not unlike the modern sacque, and another
article of dress which has given the prefix to the gov-
ernment of those ladies who usurp the control of the
household. On this part of the attire the most care
was bestowed, and the variety and brilliancy of its
colors was often the pride of the wearer. The hair
226 HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTEEIAN CHURCH
which was not permitted to fall over the back, was
covered by a sufl&ciently capacious, plain bonnet,
which added to instead of detracting from the mod-
esty of the wearer. Rings on the fingers were not
common, and appendages from the ears were rarely
seen. Even after these fashions, derived from the
fatherland, had passed away, almost every one was
attired in clothing of domestic manufacture. The
" Sunday suit" was made to last as long as possible,
and when it had been obtained by those who had not
reached their full growth, the care with which it had
been preserved was shown by its failure to cover a por-
tion of the arms and lower extremities of the wearer.
From the organization of the Church until the es-
tablishment of Sunday-Schools rendered them, in a
measure, unnecessary, public examinations of the
children whose parents belonged to the congregation
were annually made by the pastor. These examina-
tions, directed mainly to ascertaining the familiarity
of the young with the Shorter Catechism, and their
knowledge of religious truth, were occasions of inter-
est and benefit to both the children and their parents.
The latter being forcibly reminded of the duties de-
volving upon them, and the former aided in becoming
acquainted with the Scriptures and the doctrines
taught and maintained by the Presbyterian Church.
After the ingathering of the Summer crops, a day
was appointed to return thanks for the blessings of
plenty and the fulfilment of the promise that seed-
time and harvest should never fail. The day of the
month was not always the same, but the day of the
week was invariably Thursday. Why Thursday and
m " THE FORKS OF BRANDYWINE." 227
no other day was selected is difficult to ascertain. , It
is most likely connected with some of those linger-
ing superstitions respecting lucky and unlucky days
which held such a conspicuous place in heathen my-
thology, and which have not been entirely banished
from Christian communities. The number is not so
small as many suppose who still regard Friday as an
unlucky day, and it is but recently that the execution
of criminals ceased to be ordered on that day of the
week exclusively. It was probably owing to the cus-
tom of the Puritans and Presbyterians that Governors
of States and the Chief Magistrate of the Union* have
always selected Thursday for the day of State and
National thanksgiving. The custom so becoming an
agricultural community of appointing a thanksgiving
after the harvest has been gathered is still observed
by the congregation.
The Communion was held twice a year, in May and
in October. The Sabbath immediately preceding the
administration of the ordinances was called the prepa-
ration Sabbath. On Friday of the same week, which
was commonly observed as a Fast Day, there were re-
ligious exercises, and also on Saturday and Monday.
On the Sacrament Sabbath some pastor of a neighbor-
ing congregation usually assisted, and after a sermon
by the minister in charge the sacrament was adminis-
tered. The communicants seated themselves at tables
placed in the aisles, and, as the number was generally
* A national thanksgiving was appointed by President Lincoln in
1863, and his example has been followed by each of his successors.
A thanksgiving was first appointed by the Governor of Pennsylvania
228 HISTORY OF THE PKESBYTEKIAN CHURCH
too large to be seated at one table, those first seated,
after the elements had been served, retired, and others
took their places, so that there were frequently three
or four tables. Every one entitled to participate
was furnished with a token, as it was called. This
was a 'small square piece of lead with the letter C
(Communicant) stamped upon it. These were taken
up by the members of the Session after those desir-
ing to commune had seated themselves in the aisle.,
Before commencing to serve the tables, an invitation
was always given by the pastor to those who were in
good standing in other orthodox denominations to unite
with the members of his charge in commemorating
the suffering and death of their common Saviour.
During the division of the Presbyterian Church
into Old and New School, Dr. Grier and his congrega-
tion remained with the Old Side. Unlike the schism
of 17:41, the division of 1837 was a division of
churches, but rarely of congregations.
In 1838 the Meeting-House was broken into, and
the Communion Service, hymn-books, and whatever
could be conveniently carried were taken, and the
furniture damaged. The perpetrators of the sacrilege
were never detected.
For sixty years after the erection of the Meeting-
House the congregation was dependent for water on
a spring several hundred yards distant. , In 1794,
chiefly through the exertions of the Rev. Nathan
Grier, a well was sunk near the church building. As
the situation is elevated and the well consequently
deep, it was used for upwards of a quarter of a century
as a draw-well.
m " THE rOEKS OF BEANDYWINE." 229
It is worthy of notice that last year a long-needed
improvement was made by the erection, at a cost of
but little exceeding one thousand dollars, of thirty-five
sheds, each nine feet by twenty, for the sheltering of
horses and vehicles.
That the first settlers were consistent members of.
the church, and esteemed by their neighbors and
acquaintances in their native land, is shown by the
following certificate, which is a specimen of many that
were brought by those who came to America to better
their circumstances and enjoy the liberty to worship
God without " let or hindrance" :
Whereas the bearers here of John long & his wife design for
America, these are to Certifie that they have lived in this Congrega-
tion the most part of their time and still behaved themselves Soberly,
and now at their departure from hence are free of all publick Scandall
known to us. as wittness my hand this 8th of July 1736.
This closes an imperfect history of a church which
during one hundred and fifty years has been a beacon-
light guiding to the haven of eternal safety. When
those who attend the weekly services of its sanctuary
shall meet to celebrate the three hundreth anniversary
of the organization of a church in this portion of
Zion, one hundred and fifty years will have been
added to the list of centuries, and all now living, their
children, and their children's children will have made
the pilgrimage journey from the cradle to the grave.
That long interval now the unwritten future will
then be the recorded past. A past in which they will
230 HISTORY OF THE PKESBYTEKIAN CHTJECH.
devoutly recognize, as we do, the guiding hand of the
God of their fathers. , A past which will contain
many memorials of faithful pastors, of sincere worship-
pers, and of sons and daughters of the church who
aided in diffusing the cheering light of the Gospel in
the now benighted regions of Asia, Africa, and the
Islands of the Ocean.
To all Charitable and well Disposed Persons to whom thes presents
may Come :
The Petition op the Presbtterian Congregation in the
Forks op Brandtwine
Humbly showeth : That your petitioners have lately ben brought
as a Society, into afflictive and Trying Circumstances, By our Meet-
ing house, an excellent and Commodious billding Beeing Reduced to
ashes, Shortly after the Death of our Rev* Pastor — We wish to have
the public worship of God, Decently and Profitable Conducted
amonghst us, in order to which the Erection of a house of Worship
is Necessary. But by reason of the Scarcity of Cash ; and the Sev-
eral heave taxes we have paid and have To pay we ar Rendered unable
to attain that valuable object without the assistance of our Christian
Brethren in other places. We must hope for Success in our address
to the Inhabitants of a Christian Country who know that Charity
and compassion to the afflicted is the very Image of the Saviour, that
God loveth a cheerful Giver and promiseth that those who Caste their
Bread on the waters, shall find it after many Days : We therefore
Relying on your Goodness and Generosity most Respectfully and
Humbly request your kind assistance.
Signed in the Name of the Society By us the Trustees of the Con-
Samuel Cunningham, David Denny,
Jno. Culbertson, Jas. Dunwodies,
Jas. McClure, William Anderson,
Porks of Bkandtwinb, March 7, 1786. I
CEREMONIES AT THE LAYING OF THE CORNER-
STONE OF THE NEW CHURCH EDIFICE, AUGUST
The exercises were opened with an impressive prayer by the Rev.
J. N. C. Grier, D.D. ; a Historical Sketch of the Church, prepared by
a former member, was then read by the pastor, Mr. McCoU, and short
addresses delivered by the Rev. Messrs. Roberts, Totheroth, Hollifield,
and Collier, pastors of the Churches organized originally either wholly
or in part by members of the Manor Church.
The Box deposited in the Corner-Stone contained a copy of the
New Testament, a Hymn-Book, Historical Sketch above mentioned.
Historical Discourse, and Semi-Century Sermon of Dr. Grier, a list
of the Church Officers, the Act of Incorporation, and specimens of
the Silver Coins struck in 1875, presented by ex-Governor Pollock,
Director of the United States Mint, the different Postage-Stamps, a
Letter and Postal Card to our Children's Children, and a copy of each
of the following periodicals : The Presbyterian Weekly, Presbyterian
Banner, Woman^s Work for Woman, The Village Record, Jeffer-
sonian, Daily Local, and North American Gazette*
PLAN OF SCHOOL AT NEW LONDON.
ESTABLISHED IN 1744 BY THE SYNOD OF PHILADELPHIA.
1. That all persons who please may send their children and have
them instructed gratis in the languages, philosophy, and divinity.
2. That the school be supported by yearly contributions from
the congregations under their care.
3. That if any funds remain after paying the salaries of the Mas-
ter and Tutor, they shall be expended in the purchase of books and
other necessaries for the school.
* Church Records ; Local Memoranda.
The Kev. Francis Allison, D.D.,* subsequently Vice-Provost of
the University of Pennsylvania, and the successor of Andrews as pas-
tor of the First Presbyterian Church, who had opened an Academy
near the village three years before, was appointed Master at a yearly
salary of 20£ ($53.33i) Pennsylvania Currency.
This school became justly celebrated. Besides furnishing the
church with well-educated ministers, it afforded instruction to many
who became eminent as statesmen and scholars. Among its pupils
were Charles Thomson, Secretary of the Continental Congress, and
author of a translation of the New Testament remarkable for its
fidelity; Rev. John Ewing, D.D., Provost of the University of Penn-
sylvania ; David Eamsay, the Historian .; Hugh Williamson, M.D.,
LL.D., a distinguishe4 patriot and miscellaneous writer ; Rev. James
Latta, D.D., an eminent divine and teacher ; George Reed and James
Smith, signers of the Declaration of Independence ; Thomas McKean,
nine years Governor of Pennsylvania, and one of the seven natives of
Chester County on whom the honorary degree of LL.D. has been
Although the school was under Presbyterian control, it afforded
gratuitous instruction of a high order to all denominations alike.f
* Dr. Allison died November 28, 1779, and his remains were interred
in the burial-ground adjoining the First Presbyterian Meeting-House
erected in Pennsylvania. That Meeting-House, commonly known by
the name of Old Buttonwood, stood at the Southeast corner of Bank and
Market Streets, Philadelphia. It was built in 1704, rebuilt in 1794,
abandoned and sold in 1821-22. The burial-ground remained until
about 1840, when the dead of a hundred years were removed and its site
occupied by warehouses. The first Presbyterian Church in America
was built at Snowhill, Md., in 1685.
f Minutes of Synod of Philadelphia; Eev. E. Dubois, " Hist. New
London Pres. Church;" " Biography of Eminent Pennsylvanians."
COMMENDATORY LETTER GIVEN ADAM BOYD BY
Boston, N. E., June 10, 1724.
Our worthy friend, Mr. Adam Boyd, being on a return to Europe,
it is hereby certified on his behalf, that for the years' of his late so-
journing in these parts of the world, his' behavior, so far as we under-
stand, has been inoffensive and commendable, and such as hath justi-
fied the testimonials with which he arrived hither. And we make no
doubt that he will- make a report of the kind reception which he and
others of his and our brethren coming from Scotland and Ireland
hither (whereof more than two or three are at this time acceptably ex-
ercising their ministry in our churches), have found in this country,
that will be very contrary to the misrepresentations which some dis-
turbers of the peace have given of it.
We implore the blessing of our gracious Lord upon his person
and his voyage and hope that wherever he may be disposed of, he may
have the rewards and comforts of a patient continuance in well doing
to attend him.
NAMES OF THOSE WHO SUBSCRIBED FOR THE SUP-
PORT OF MR. BOYD WHILE HE WAS PASTOR OP
THE CHURCH IN THE FORKS OF BRANDYWINE.
COPIED EEOM HIS MEMORANDUM BOOK BY REV. A. B. CROSS.
' When Subscription When it
N*^®- was made.
John Henderson Aug. 11, 1741 1757
James Wilson " " 1758
Joseph Mackelduff " " 1750
" Paid to his death," in September,
1750. "His brother, Samuel, paid
up until 1757."
When Subscription When it
Ifame. iiras made. ceased.
Francis Long Aug. 11, 1741 1752
Paid until 1752. The last two or three
years by his brother Joseph, he being
William Dunbar " " 1746
" When he moved over the river'' (the
Samuel McKinly " " 1758
Edward Irwin . ". " " 1756
" Paid by his widow to 1756."
Eobert Irwin " " 1758
" Paid by his widow to 1758."
Patrick Lockhart " " 1758
" Paid by his widow to 1758."
John Bryan " " 1758
" Paid by his widow to 1758."
JohnMcDermid " " 1758
" Paid by his widow to 1758."
Francis Alexander " " 1758
David Denny " " 1758
" Subscription doubled last five years."
Abraham M'Connell " " 1751
" Moved over the Susquehanna."
" Increased his subscription in 1749
and '50. Moved over the River."
James Stewart " " 1758
John Dunwoody " " 1758
William Wilson "
" October, 1747, moved with his friends
Eobert Steel " "
" Moved out of place."
James Porter " " 1757
Samuel Carroll " " 1750
" Moved to Virginia.''
Andrew Donaldson " " 1758
When Subscription When it
^*™®* wae made. ceased.
James Mitchell ..... v , . Aug. 11, 1741 1749
" Moved to Virginia."
Joseph Carroll ......... " " 1755
"Moved to Carolina."
George Irwin " " 1757
George Gordon " " 1747
Andrew Wilson ' " " 1758
John White " " 1758
James Love " " 1746
John Long " " 1757
Paid by publications and riddles,* ex-
cept one year, until 1757.
John Little " " 1753
Matthew McKorkell " « 1746
Kemoved to Leacock.
The above Thirty-one subscribers appear to have been those who
guaranteed to Mr. Boyd the Salary of Twenty Pounds, when he took
charge of the congregation in August, 1741.
Hame. ^ Commenced, Ceased.
John Lewis 1742 1758
William Ferguson 1742 1758
George Ahill Aug. 11, 1744
" Died." Probably that year.
John Elliott . Feb. 3", 1745 1757
Joseph Poag . Sept. 1, 1745 1758
Alexander Laverty Nov. 4, 1745 1746
George Little 1745
* The " publications" were notices of marriages, which the law re-
quired to be publicly announced when performed by a clergyman. The
" riddles" were sieves for winnowing mills.
APPENDIX. ' 237
Name. CommeDced. Ceased.
Francis Gardiner 1745 1757
David Watson April, 1746
David Henderson April 14, 1746
" In October, 1747, he moved to Vir-
Alexander Maclean April 27, 1746 1757
"Moved to Carolina."
Mary Dariington Oct. 1746 1758
William Mains 1746 1750
" Moved to Carolina."
James Jack 1746 1758
William Irwin 1746 1758
Andrew Wilson, Sen 1746 1756
"Dead. Family Extinct."
Dougal Melntire 1746 1752
Thomas Wilson 1746 1757
John Wilson 1746
John M'Clure 1746 1753
William Nprris 1746
Isaac McKinly 1746 1752
" Moved over river."
John McCorkle 1746 1748
Hugh McCrary 1746
" Moved to Virginia."
Thomas Karson 1746 1751
Elizabeth Graham (widow) 1746 1752
James Scott 1746 1757
Hugh Morrison 1746 1758
James Watson 1746 1748
" Gone to Virginia."
Robert Woodrow . ., = 1746
" Moved out of Congregation."
Robert Smith 1747 1758
John McHenry March, 1747 1757
Name. Commenced. Ceased.
David Shearer 1747
" Moved to Middle Octoraro."
Thomas McNeal 1747 1751
" Moved over the river."
James Laird 1747
James Gibson 1747 1751
" Moved out of Congregation."
John Gibson ' ' . . . 1747 1755
Frederick McCaskie 1747
Alexander Maxwell 1747
" Absconded." ,
William Dunviroody ....... Sept. 1749 1758
Fraley McKewan 1749 1752
John Gardiner 1749 1758
James Koss 1749 1758
John Harper 1749
" Moved to Octoraro."
Samuel Byers 1749 1757
William Little 1749 1758
James Koss 1750 Nov. 1751
George Ligate 1750 Nov. 1757
Thonaas Scott 1750 1756
John Bell 1750 1754
Hugh Shearer 1750 ' 1752
Jane Jennings May, 1750 1751
William Katchford Nov. 1750 1751 v
"Moved to Carolina."
John MoParlane : " 1750 1752
George Robison ~ Oct. 1750 June, 1753
Ludwick Ligate y. April 20, 1751 1758
Cormick MoDermond " "
Kame. Commenced. Ceased.
Patrick Mairork April 26, 1Y51 1755
"He is an apostate."
Robert Wilson 1752 1756
EobertFuthey 1752 1758
James Moore May 24, 1752
No date given, probably paid untU 1758.
Theophilus Irwin " « 1752
No date given, probably paid until 1758.
Matthew Harbison 1752
No date given, probably paid untU 1758.
Francis Gardiner, Jr 1752
No date given, probably paid until 1758.
James and Eobert McClure 1752
No date given, probably paid until 1758.
Joseph Long 1752 1757
James Beatty 1752
No date given, probably paid until 1758.
Thomas Hope May, 1753
" Moved over the river."
Eobert Eobinson June 27, 1753 1756
William Eoss and Alexander Nesbit . . 1753 1757
Andrew Spence 1753 1757
"By work, etc., to 1757."
Thomas Byle 1753 1758
George Campbell May, 1753 1754
William Allan 1754
Alexander Gorden 1755 1758
" Part in work."
James Spence 1155 1757
Eobert Eobison Sept. 15, 1755 1757
Alexander Donaldson May 26, 1755 1758
Kame. Commenced. Ceased.
Patrick Stewart May. 26, 1755 1756
William "Wallace 1755 1758
John Withrow, , 1755 1758
John Craige 1755
" One and a half years."
John Patterson 1755 1758
John Smith May, 1756 1757
Samuel Byers May 26, 1756 1758
" Eobert Piersol paid one year."
" John Young and his brother, Archibald, generally pay me with-
out subscribing." Also Samuel Ross, Samuel Long, " and Thomas
" Received from the congregation in the Forks of Brandywine all
I expected from them."
" My relation to Forks of Brandywine dissolved in a most irregu-
lar manner, October, 1758."
It will be observed by the above list that during the last two or
three years of Mr. Boyd's pastorate the names added to the list of
subscribers for the payment of his salary were few. This was proba-
bly owing to the fact that from 1756 or '57, when the " Seceder
Meeting-House'' was built, three churches,^TMr. Boyd's, the New
Side, and the Seceder, — were attempted to be sustained within a short
distance of one another.
LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS FOR MR. BOYD'S SALARY AT OOTORARO,
SEPTEMBER 1, irsS.
James Fleming, Sr.
Robert Kincaid (carpenter).
Robert Kincaid (weaver).
Adam Hope (weaver).
John Miller, Esq.
John Miller, Sr.
John Kincaid, Jr.
The above subscription was made when the Congregation at Octo-
raro agreed to take two-thirds of Mr. Boyd's time.
EXTRACT FROM THE MINUTES OF THE SYNOD OP
Maidenhead,* May 18th, 1748.
A call was brought into the Synod to be presented to the Rev. Mr.
Dean from Timber Ridge and Forks of James River, the Synod refer
the consideration thereof to the Presbytery of New OaStle to which
Mr. Dean doth belong, and do recommend it to said Presbytery to
meet in Mr. Dean's meeting-house on Wednesday next upon said
affair, and that Mr. Dean and his people be speedily apprised of it.f
September 18th 1760
Deak S*, Circumstances of Brandywine Again Oblidge us to
Renew our Adress. Sr. we have the pleasure to Inform You that
your one Visit has been Remarkably Blessd for the Uniting this people.
Each person upon All Occasions Expressing their warmest Sentiments
& Close Attachmt & Looks upon You as the only Gentleman that has
preached in this place soe Every way Adapted to its Sittuation & are
Morally Assured that your taking the pastoral Charge of this people
wile Under Divine providence have the Most Effectual Tendency to
Remove all our Distractions & perhaps be one of the Most Able
& flourishing Congregations Belonging to our Synad and if Settlemt
I as a Vacent people is Attended with some particular Advantages
& that few others in the Same Sittuation Can pretend to Viz it Ly"
Near the Seat of the Synad as wele as the Bosom of ye Prsb' where
You wile have a near Access & Correspondence with your Bretherin
upon Every Emergency and has Been Ever Reputed one of the Most
Healthy places As it is high Land & fule of good springs it is a Com-
pact Congregation & few of Different Denominations Intermixed
* Now Lawrenceville, New Jersey.
t The Will of Mr. Dean is on record. It is a plain, well-written docu-
ment, and remarkably free from the irrelevant verbiage so common at
that time in legal documents,
You wile have but one people & one Meeting house & from a Long
Acquaintance We are Morally Assurd You wile find a Loving Kind
people that will Certainly be a pleasure to you and wile Exert the in-
fluence to Render you Comfortable & if Distressing Circumstances
wile be admitted a place of Argumt where is the Vacency but Bran-
dywine wile Turn the Scale we have Been an Orderly Congregated
people Near Thirty year & for Near Twenty a Body of us has Been
a Destitute people Except three years that Mr. Dean Laboured
Amongst us & Now has Been Twelve Years Vacent we have made
Many Attempts for the Settlemt of a Minister which proved Abor-
tive Which Influenced Some to Leave the place Discouraged & a
general Indifierence took place Even in the Midst of all those Dis-
tresses or Case was Not soe peculiarly Dangerous an now by Reason
of the Ceceder's Unwearied Industry to propigate their Scheme &
Make a party which in Some Measure they have Efi'ected and some
has said that if we Cannot obtain your Settlemt Necessity wile oblidge
them to Joyne the Ceceders & if this is the Case Brandywine has
Done and we May only sit Down & Lament over the Ruins of the
Congregation & Seeing the house of Grod turned to a Draught house
& our Children left to Rove A Number of Meer Scepticks without
any Regard to God or Religion A Dismel Reflection but Likely to be
the Case if Mr Carmichael Shuts his ears to the Crye Throw Bran-
dywine oiF as a Vessale of Distruction unless God Interposes in a way
we know Not Now Dr Sr we wo" Unitedly Renew our Application
to you in the Language of Ruth to Naomi Intreat us not to Leave
you nor from following after you in Earnest Entreaties to take the
pastoral Charge of our Souls & our Children. May You be soe im-
prest with the Justice of our Needy Case soe as to determine your
Settlemt hear & May God preside over the whole that his Glory May
be advanced & his young Sern" Made to Rejoice in Seeing the pleasure
of the Lord prosper in his hand May God be Ever at your right
hand to Aid You in Every Attempt for his Glory & Beggs Leave
to subscribe Yours Affectionately
Samll. Allen francis Alexandke,
Thos. Brown francis Gardner
John Culbertson William Denny
Wji. Brown William Irwin
David Denny Ruleing Elders
JNO. CARMICHAEL'S WILL.
In the name of God, Amen. I Jno. Carmichael, of this Township
of East Cain, in this County of Chester, of this State of Pennsyl-
vania, Clergyman, being Weak in Body, & very sickly, but in the
proper exercise of my reason, and realizing my mortality, that it is
appointed for all Men once to die : Do make this my last Will &
Testament, in manner as foUoweth, (viz*) After committing my
Soul to God who gave it, in hope of the pardon of all my Sins, and
a gracious acceptance of ,it, through the merits, mediation, and
imputted Righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ, my dear and
JBlessed Saviour : And my Body to the Grave, to be interred as my
surviving friends shall see proper, in a decent manner, without any
needless parade or vain show whatever, as I die in the Hope of a
Blessed Resurrection to eternal Life for this my mortal Body in God's
good time and way, according to the Articles of the Christian
Religion, as professed by the Calvinists in these latter ages in the
general, but by the Presbyterian Divines in perticular, whose system
of Principles as expressed in our Confession of Faith & Catechisms,
shorter & larger, made at Westminster, in England, by the Assembly
of Divines appointed for that purpose, and have been and now is,
adopted by the Synod of New York and Philadelphia, in America, I
give my Testimony to, on this my Death Bed, as expressive of the
mind & will of God, contained in the Holy Scriptures, with the
exceptions the aforesaid Synod have ordinarily made, but more espe-
cially & particularly, do I desire to give my Death Bed Testimony, to
the necessity of an experimental knowledge of those Doctrineg, con-
tained in the aforesaid Systems, called the Doctrines of Grace, to be
applied to and impressed on the soul by the Holy Ghost, in a saving
manner, to Prepare the soul for that eternal felicity which consists in
the enjoyment of God in Heaven. But as to the few things of this
Life or Worldly Substance with which God has blessed me, I Will
to have them disposed of, for the good of my surviving Family,
my Widow and Children, in the following manner : — I Will that
that piece of Land which was Run out & measured by Thomas
Haslet the survayer last Spring, which contains near One Hundred
Acres of Land & lies on the East side of this Plantation, joining the
Land & Lines of William Wilson, Adam Guthery, William Headings
& Widow Rachel White, be sold to the highest bidder and a good
authentick tittle made to the purchaser by my Executors hereafter
mentioned : and the Money that arises from the Sale of said Land, to
be divided into three equal parts; one third part to my Oldest Son
John Flavel Carmichael, as soon as the money can be got, the other
third part to Washington Gates Carmichael, my second son, to help
him in Education, and to be in the hands of his mother or Guardian
for that purpose, as I desire this son may receive a good Education,
fit for the Gospel Ministry, if he has a turn for it. And the other
third part to be given to my oldest daughter, Phebe, when she comes
to the Age of Twenty two years, to be hers forever. As to the rest of this
Plantation, which contains the most valuable part of the improvements,
such as the House, Garden, meadows, Barn & Orchard &c" my will
is, that the premisses be apprized, together with all & singular the
goods & Chattels of every kind ; and then a just estimate taken of
the whole, and one whole third part thereof to belong to my dear and
loving Wife, then a Widow, to be hers forever, which I will & appoint
to her, in lieu of the whole of all her dower, be the same more or less.
My Will further is, that the other two thirds of the whole apprized
Estate, be divided equally among my Six Children, John Plavel,
Phebe, Catherine Mustard, Washington Gates, Elizabeth Sarah, &
Francina, Share & Share alike, be the same more or less, each child
to receive his Share when come to the Age of Twenty one years ; the
mother is to receive the benefit of the profits of the Minor Children's
Shares, while they continue to live with her & no longer, whether
her own or her Step Children. Also my Will is, that if any of my
Children to whom I have thus divided my Estate, depart this Life
before he or she comes to legal Age, to heir his or her portion, his or
her Share be equally devided among the surviving Children, Share &
Share alike. Also my Will is, that if my Widow and the Executors
shall conclude & judge, that it will be better for the Widow &
Children to sell these premises or plantation, and to move to some
place such as Princeton, where the Education of the Children can be
more easily assertained, or whereever they shall judge proper, in such
case, let the place be sold to the best Advantage; and may the
kind good providence of the God of Abraham, Isaac & Jacob direct
them. I do hereby appoint, & ordain & constitute, my very trusty dear
& worthy friends to be Executors of this my last Will & Testament,
(viz*) the Hon : William Clingan Esq', the Hon" John Beaton Esq',
together with my Son John Flavel Carmiohael, hereby declaring this
to be my last Will & Testament, and hereby cancelling and disanulling
all preceding' ones as null and void. In Witness whereof, I have
hereunto set my Hand & Seal, this I7th day of August, One
Thousand Seven Hundred & Eighty-five.
John Carmiohael [Seal]
Barnabas Curly his V Mark
I, John Carmiohael within named, continuing Weak & Sick in
Body, but through the divine goodness, of sound disposing mind &
Memory, do think proper to make this Codicil, or Addition to my
last Will and Testament, in the manner following, viz' Whereas, I
have certain sums of money in the Fund of the Corporation for the
relief of Presbyterian Ministers their Widows & Children, which by
the Rulps of the said Corporation, will be productive of a certain
Annuity or yearly allowance to my Family after my decease. Now it
is my Will and I order, that all the Monies that may be drawn yearly
from the said fund, be paid to my beloved Wife, to be applied towards
her support, and the support Education and maintenance of my
minor Children, to wit, Catherine Mustard, Washington Gates, Eliza-
beth Sarah & Franeina, during their minority, to be apply'd to her
& their use afores* while She continues my Widow, and the said
Children remain under her care and management ; but in case they
the said Children should be taken from under her care by their Guar-
dian or otherwise, In that Case I will & order that the said yearly
Annuity be divided between my said Wife and Children in the fol-
lowing manner, viz' One third thereof to my beloved Wife, and the
remaining two thirds to be equally divided among my Four Children
above named. I Likewise give and devise unto my Son John Flavel
Carmiohael, all that my Ope undivided moiety or equal half part
of Fourteen Acres of Valuable, Woodland, situate in the Town of
Newark, in the County of Essex, in New Jersey, which came to me
as a part of the Dowry of his deceased Mother ; to hold to him the
said John Plavel Carmichael & to his Heirs & Assigns forever, I
Likewise Give & bequeath unto my said son Plavel, my wearing
Apparel and Cane. And I do hereby declare this Codicil to be part
& parcel of my last "Will and Testament, hereby ratifying & confirm-
ing the same and every part thereof. In Witness whereof, I have
hereunto set my Hand & Seal, this eleventh day of November, in
the year of our Lord One Thousand, Seven Hundred & Eighty-five.
Before signing, & sealing, I nominate & appoint Mr. "William Hunter
of "West Nantmeal, to be one of the Executors of my last "Will &
John Carmichael [Seal]
Signed, Sealed, published & declared by the Testator as a Codicil
to his last "Will & Testament in the presence of Us
DK. GKIER'S RESIGNATION.
Dr. Grier's request for a dissolution of the pastoral relation was
brought before Presbytery for its action April 14, 1869. It was in
writing, and as follows :
To THE Moderator and Presbytery op New CaStle.
Dear Brethren, — In the year of our Lord 1813, in the twenty-
first year of my age, I was licensed by this Presbytery to preach the
Gospel, and on the 24th day of November, a.d. 1814, 1 was ordained
to the full work of the Ministry, and installed Pastor of the Congre-
gation of the Forks of the Brandywine.
Now, in the seventy-sixth year of my age, and having labored
amongst you for fifty-four years and seven months, and paralyzed
both in my speech and limbs, and no longer able to fulfil the duties
of the Pastorate, I ask this Presbytery, not one of whom was a
member of it when I was ordained and installed, to dissolve the pas-
toral relation existing now between me and the Congregation of the
Forks of Brandywine.
J. N. C. Grier.
March 30, 1869.
At a meeting of the Presbytery of Newcastle, held May 6, 1869,
the subjoined resolutions were presented by the Kev. John M. Dickey,
D.D., and adopted :
Resolved, That in accepting the resignation of Dr. J. N. C. Grier
of his charge of the Brandywine Manor Church, the Presbytery of
New Castle desire to express their grateful acknowledgment of God's
goodness and mercy in permitting this pastoral relation to continue
so long ; reaching over more than fifty-four years, marked by many
precious seasons of special religious interest, and by a continual in-
gathering of souls, the Presbytery would note the fact ; and now as
growing infirmity renders it necessary that Dr. Grier be released from
his charge,- they ofier him their heartfelt sympathy, and pray that
the joys of a faithful minister may, through the merits of our Lord
and Saviour, be his now and in the church above.
Resolved, That the above be entered on the minutes, and that a
copy be handed to the Elder of Brandywine Manor Church, to be
presented to Dr. Grier.
CONSTITUTION OF THE HONEYBEOOK TEMPERANCE
The undersigned, inhabitants of Honeybrook and its vicinity,
impressed with a sense of the incalculable injury resulting to society,
in all its present and eternal interests, from the existence and preva-
lence of Intemperance, in the use of intoxicating liquors, feel them-
selves called upon as good citizens to make all the efibrts within their
ability, by fair and honorable means, to lessen and if possible to ex-
tirpate the vice. And for this purpose do associate together, under a
pledge of mutual co-operation, according to the provisions of the
following articles, viz. :
I. To abstain from all use of intoxicating liquors, excepting when
we conscientiously believe they are necessary as a medicine.
II. To refrain from offering thetn to our friends and visitors, in
our families, as marks of hospitality.
III. Entirely to cease giving them to workmen and laborers, in
harvest or any other season, excepting as above specified.
IV. To refrain under the strictest caution from selling, or giving
them in greater or smaller quantities to persons known to be in the
habit of making a bad use of them, except when known to be needed
V. That we will neither sell nor cause to be sold any of our grain
for the purpose of distillation.
VI. That we will hold the vice of intemperance in utter abhor-
rence, and use every proper means to bring it into the disrepute and
destruction due to its hatefulness, and yet regarding its victims and
its advocates with deep compassion, and to use all our efforts to reclaim
Any person making application, and being at the time sober, may
become a member of this association ; and any person known to the
society to have violated any of these articles shall be conversed with
on the subject, and for a repetition of the oflFence shall be dismissed.
John N. C. Grier, John Clemenson,
Samuel Jones, John Btjohanan,
John W. Pinkerton, William Ewing;
John Ballentine, James K. Mendenhall,
C. KoBiNsoN, James Quin,
Thomas G-. Happersett, John Wright,
David Skeen, Nathan G-rifpith,
James M'Clune, Benj. Talbot,
Joseph Brown, Joseph Crilet,
John Stewart, Joseph Whitaker,
Wm. Templeton, Geo. Cowan,
James Ealston, David Buchanan, Jr.
James Ralston, Jr. Wm. Kobeson.*
COPY OF DEED FOE THE LAND FIRST OBTAINED
FOR CHURCH PURPOSES.
This Indenture, made the eighteenth day of May in the year of our
Lord one thousand seven hundred and sixty-one, between Matthew
* The only survivors are Mr. Ballentine and he who records the fact.
Robertson, of West Nantmel and John Smith the younger of East
Cain in the County of Chester and province of Pennsylvania, Yeo-
men of the one part and The Reverend John Carmichael, Clerk, John
Culbertson, James Moore, William Denny, Samuel McKinley, and
Francis Grardner, all of the said County of Chester, Yeomen of the
other part. Whereas the Honorable The proprietaries of the s^id ,
province by their Letter Patent the fifth day of this Instant, May, did
grant and confirm unto The said Matthew Robertson and John Smith
in Fee, A certain piece of Land situated in their Manor of Springton
in the said County of Chester, and Township of Westnantmell, Be-
ginning at a post in the Line of the Manor afore"* Corner of the tract
of land part of the said manor surveyed ,unto James McCoskry
thence by said McCoskry's land and along the great road leading
through the said Manor from Philada. to Harris's Ferry on the River
Susquehannah called Paxtang Road North fifty five degrees, East
fifty perches to a post and South fifty one degrees, East forty six
perches to a post in the Manor Line — thence along the Manor Line,
^rest seventy seven perches to the Place of Beginning, containing six
acres and eighty six perches with the appurtenances (except as therein
excepted) To hold to the said Matthew Robertson and John Smith
theit Heirs and Assigns forever, to and for the Use of Intent and
Purpose of erecting and continuing thereon a Church or House of
Religious Worship for the use of the said Congregation of Presbyte-
rians and their Desoendents and Successors for ever, in suoh Manner
as the Minister, Elders, and majority of such Congregation for the
Time being shall from Time to Time order, direct and appoint, under
the yearly Quit Rent of one Shilling Sterling Money of Great Britain
to the said proprietaries their Heirs and Successors for ever as in and
by the said recited patent record at Philadelphia in Patent Book A. A.
vol. 2, pa. 285, more fully appears. Now this Indenture witnesseth
that the said Matthew Robertson and John Smith at the special in-
stance and Request of the said Presbyterian Congregation and by and
with the Privjty, Consent, Approbation and Direction of them or the
major part of them who now statedly worship in the Church or Meet-
ing House erected on the said described and granted piece of Land
under the pastoral Charge of the Reverend the said John Carmichael,
testified by his and the rest of the said parties hereto of the Second
Part being the Trustees chosen and appointed by the said Congrega-
tion for that purpose signing and sealing the presents hereby acknowl-
edge and declare that' the names of the said Matthew Robertson and
John Smith were made use of in the said recited Patent or Grant and
the same was so as aforesaid made or intended to be made to them,
the said Matthew Kobertson and John Smith and their Heirs in trust
only to and for the use, Benefit and Behoof^of the People who are
and shall be members of the said Presbyterian Congregation accord-
ing to the tenor and true meaning of these presents for ever. And
the said Matthew Robertson and John Smith by and with the like,
consent, privity, and direction of the said Congregation or the Major-
ity of them as aforesaid and in consideration of the sum of five shil-
lings apiece ^o them in hand paid by the said parties hereto of the
second part (the receipt thereof, is hereby acknowledged) have granted,'
bargained, sold, enfeofi"ed released and confirmed and by these pres-
ents, do grant, bargain, sell, enfeoff release and confirm unto the said
John Carmichael, John Culbertson, James Moore, William Denny,
Samuel McKinley, Francis G-ardner and their Heirs and Assigns,
All that the said herein before described piece or parcel of land con-
taining six acres and eighty six perches of land be the same more or
less, together with all the buildings, improvements rights members,
and appurtenances thereto belonging and the reversions and remain-
ders thereof, and the said sealed Patent to have and to hold the said
described six acres and eighty six perches piece or portion of ground
Hereditaments and premises hereby granted or mentioned or intended
so to be with the appurtenances unto the said John Carmichael, John
Culbertson, James Moore, William Denny, Francis Gardner, and
Samuel McKinley their Heirs and Assigns forever In Trust and of
intent and purpose that the said described and granted piece of land
shall be and continue a place for the site of a House of Public Wor-
ship and for a burial place, and that the whole of the said premises
shall be, continue, and remain for the use and service of the said con-
gregation of people called Presbyterians forever, who do or shall hold
and continue to hold the system of Doctrine contained in the West-
minster Confession of Faith and Directory agreeable to the present
Interpretation of the Synod of New York and Philadelphia to which
they are now united, but under and subject nevertheless to the follow-
ing conditions and limitations viz. : Provided always that no person
shall be deemed to belong to the said Congregation until he has
statedly attended upon the Public Worship of God in ,the said Con-
gregation for the space of twelve months and shall have regularly con-
tributed to the support of the ministry and other charges of the same
according to the usage of Presbyterians, nor shall be deemed any
longer a member thereof than he continues to hold and conform to
the Westminster Confession of Faith and Directory aforesaid, and
shall continue to attend statedly in an orderly manner upon the public
Worship of God in the said Congregation and be ia Communion with
the said Synod as before expressed. And provided also that neither
the said parties hereto of the Second Part nor either of them nor any
other person or persons succeeding them in this Trust who shall here-
after fall from or change his or their religious Principles aforesaid or
separate from the said Synod or depart from the said Congregation, or
who shall refuse or neglect to contribute toward the support of the
same, shall be capable to execute this Trust or stand secured to the
Uses aforesaid nor have any right or interest in the said described or
granted piece of land and premises or in the House or other buildings
and improvements thereon erected or to be erected as aforesaid while
he or they shall so continue but that in such cases as also when any
of them or other person or persons who shall succeed in the Trust
aforesaid shall happen to depart this Life ,that then it shall and may
be lawful for the said congregation the time being and from time to
time and as often as the occasion shall require to make choice of others
to manage the said Trust instead of such that as shall fall away, se-
cede, separate or be deceased. Provided further, in order to prevent
law suits in case it shall be disputed in time coming whether any par-
ticular persons or members of the said Congregation or any debate
shall arise in relation to Pews iu the said House of Worship that all
such debates and all others of a civil nature respecting the said Tract
of Land and House of Worship shall be finally determined by a ma-
jority of votes of the adult male members of the said congregation
being such afore convened after Public Notice in which Public Con-
ventions, the minister of the said Congregation for the time being if
present, shall always preside as Moderator or by Arbitrators holding
the Principles aforesaid chosen by them for the purpose aforesaid.
And the said Matthew Robertson and John Smith or either of them
do further acknowledge and declare by these presents that they neither
claim nor have by virtue of the said Patent or Grant to them any
right, Title or Interest in the said described and granted piece or por-
tion of Ground and premises or any part thereof, their own particular
order and benefit but only to and for the Trust, Uses, Purposes and
Services herein before mentioned and to no other use and service
whatsoever and therefore in further accomplishment and performance
of the Trust and Confidence aforesaid, they the said Matthew Rob-
ertson and John Smith do for themselves and every of them and for
each of their heirs severally and respectively warrant, promise, grant,
and agree to and with the said parties hereto of the Second Part their
heirs, executors, Assigns and every of them by these presents that
they the said Matthew Eobertson, and John Smith their Heir and
Assigns shall and will at all or any time or times hereafter upon the
request of the said congregation or a majority of the male members
thereof convened as aforesaid make, do execute and acknowledge all
such further and other act and Acts conveyance and assurance what-
soever in the Law as shall be advised by Council learned in the Law
to be needful for the better conveying and vesting the said premises
in the Succeeding Trust and further assuming of the said described
Tract or piece of Land with the appurtenances to and for the Uses,
Interests, and Purposes aforesaid. In witness thereof the parties
aforesaid to these presents have hereunto interchangeably set their
hands and seals the day and year first above Written.
Wm. Denny Matthew Eobertson
Samuel McKinlet John Smith
Frans. Gardner John Culbertson
John Carmichael James Moore.
Sealed and Delivered
Before me William Clingan one of the Justices for said County
came the above named Matthew Robertson and John Smith, the
above grantors who did acknowledge the above Instrument of Writing
to be their Act and Deed by them signed, sealed and delivered for
the uses and purposes above mentioned.
Acknowledged Deo' 21st 1761
INSTKUCTORS IN HOWARD ACADEMY.
James M'CIune, LL.D.
Eev. Mr. Ogden.
Rev. Mr. Kirkland.
Assistants in Toung
Mr. Isaac M'Dermond.
" John C. Thompson.
" Samuel JR.. Forrest.
" John K. Ealston.
" James B. Ralston.
In Young Ladies'
Miss Gwenny Rowland.
" Elizabeth Sims.
" Alice Hotchkins.
" Louisa B. Ralston.
" Marion Thibeaudeaux.'
REV. JAMES GRIER.
The Rev. James Grier was born in Bucks County, Pa., about 1750.
Where he received his academical training is not known. He was
graduated at the head of his class by the College of New Jersey in
1772, and passed a year as a tutor in that institution. He was
hopfully converted by the preaching of Whitefield, and studied
theology under the direction of Dr. Witherspoon.
Mr. Grier was licensed by the Presbytery of Philadelphia in 1775,
and installed as pastor of Deep Run Presbyterian Church, Bucks
County, Pa., in 1778, where he remained until his death. He
preached his last sermon November 18, 1791, and died the next day.
Mr. Grier was an excellent scholar, a faithful and instructive
minister of the Gospel. His only son, John Ferguson Grier, organ-
ized and became pastor of the first Presbyterian Church in Reading,
Although fully competent both by learning and ability to prepare
works worthy of remembrance, Mr. Grier, like nearly all of the
Presbyterian clergymen of his day in the Middle States, gave no
production of his pen to the public. This is the more remarkable as
the press of New England, during the last century, especially, teemed
with Thanksgiving Sermons, Funeral Orations, Patriotic Addresses
and less ephemeral productions.")"
* Eecords of Howard Academy ; Eeminispenoes of First Principal.
f Sprague, "Annals of American Pulpit ;" Dr. S. Alexander, " Prince-
ton College in the Eighteenth Century;" Elliot, "Biographical Dic-
This stream, the Susquehanna of Chester County, retains the name
given it by the Dutch, while they held possession of the country
around its outlet. Brandywein Kill, clear-water river, is mentioned
by the First Governor under the Duke of York in 1665. On account
of the abundance of fish in its waters this stream was much fre-
quented by the Indians, and its banks were among their favorite
camping-grounds. Many of the sites for propelling machinery
afforded by its rapid current were utilized at an early period. Several
of the first grist-mills erected West of the Delaware Kiver were
dependent on this water-course for their motive-power.
Owing to the clearing away of the forests, giving rise to greater
evaporation, and the removal of fallen timber and other obstructions
from its channel, permitting the rain-fall to pass off more rapidly, this
stream is much smaller than it was a century ago. A ferry was kept
several years by Chadd at the crossing which bears his name, and
when the Hessians attempted to force a passage at that place daring
the ill-starred battle fought on its banks, they were obliged to carry
their muskets on a level with the shoulder, and many of the wounded
by Wayne's artillery were drowned.
There are few streams of no greater length nor volume of water
more noteworthy than the Brandywine. This is manifest whether
attention is directed to the conflict which bears its name, the numerous
factories for which it supplies the motive-power, or the well-tilled
farms of the moral and intelligent communities which people the large
portion of Chester County which it drains.
The Presbyterians indicated the locality of their first Meeting-
Houses and the religious associations connected with them by giving
them the names of the nearest known natural objects, as streams,
valleys, levels, etc. Thus G-reat Valley, Neshaminy, Deep Run, Head
of Christiana, Octoraro, Doe Bun, Chestnut Level, and Porks of
Brandywine, or in the quaint style and orthography of Adam Boyd,
The Priends rejecting the Indian names as savoring of heathenism,
called their houses for public worship after the Townships in which
tliey were placed, as Birmingham, Grosben, Uwohlan, Nantmeal, Cain,
etc. That they did so is a matter for regret, as it has caused the
original names of nearly all the streams in Chester County to be
forgotten. In Lancaster, Berks, and other Counties a majority of the
water-courses retain, with some modifications, the names they received ,
from the Aborigines, but in Chester County two streams only, the
Pocopson and Octoraro, perpetuate the remembrance of the most
friendly and unwarlike of the Indian tribes.
While the annals of many portions of this State contain details of
" Indian outrages," the history of one of the oldest Counties shows
that the Lenni Lenape and their " white brothers" dwelt peaceably
together along the Brandywine and other streams upwards of a
This Township, now divided into five, was formed and some set-
tlements made along its Western limit by Welsh immigrants in
1720-22. It included a large area, being bounded on the North by
French Creek, West by the mountain (Welsh Mountain), Southeast
by the Barren Hill, and Northeast in part by Marsh Creek. When
Lancaster County was set ofi' from Chester, in 1729, the division line
between the two Counties became the Western limit of Nantmell,
while the Southeast boundary of Springtown Manor, laid out in the
same year, separated it from Cain.
Nantmell remained almost an unsettled wilderness until the Scotch
Irish, who landed at Newcastle in 1729, and the years immediately
following, passing up the Brandywine and along the " Indian Trail"
which led from the Great Valley to Conestogo Valley, chose this
township as their places of abode.
The Scotch and Scotch-Irish were the poorest in worldly goods and
the least refined of the first settlers, but being energetic, economical,
and industrious, they soon dotted the Township with humble but
* Smith, "History of Delaware County;" Day, "Historical Collec-
tions;" " Hazard's Kegister of Pennsylvania;."
comfortable homes. As they, like all who came to America at that
period, sought " freedom to worship God" rather than wealth, a church
was soon organized and a building for public worship provided. The
Manor Meeting-House, the first in Nantmell Township, and for a
hundred years the only Presbyterian Church within its boundaries,
was built in less than three years after records prove that those who
erected it had become settled residents.
The first dwellings were made of unhewn logs ; the barns were
small and thatched with straw. The buildings were placed near a
spring, no wells having been sunk until at least half a century after-
wards, and the now common suction-pump unknown till upward of
thirty years later. Coming from countries where timber was scarce
and valuable, and not being skilled in wielding the axe, they spared
the forests, making ditches the boundaries of farms, and using the
privet for the separation of fields.
The section of country included in Nantmell being elevated, and
the currents in the streams rapid, the purity and abundance of the
water, an object of particular interest with the first settlers, caused it
to be named and settled sooner than many other portions of the
Cdunty. As further evidence of this, it may be stated that the
name of the Township, Nantmell, or good water, of the principal
stream, Brandywine Kill, clear-water river, and Springtown, the name
of the Manor, all refer to the water, and what is worthy of remark, each
of these names was given by immigrants of difierent nationalities.
Nantmell by the Welsh, Brandywein by the Dutch, and Springtown
by the English.
The Indians appear to have appreciated the advantages of the
bracing air, pure water, and abundance of fish and game which
Nantmell afforded, as one of their principal towns and burial-places
was situated in this Township.
The influence of the Manor Church, which, after the lapse of one
hundred and fifty years, still flourishes, is manifest both in the general
morality of the inhabitants and in the fact that eigl],t out of every
ten of those who own the farms occupied by their forefathers are
descendants of members of that church.
Although Nantmell has produced few literary or scientific men, yet
two natives of it have received the degree of D.D., two of LL.D.,
and at least four members of the Chester County bar, three editors of
ably-oonduoted periodicals, nine physicians and two well-known edu-
cators claim Nantmell as the home of their infancy.*
As evidence of the sparse population at that period, the following
list of those who settled between 1720 and 1740 in that part of Cain
now included in East and West Brandy wine, is given :
In 1722 there were but eight thousand inhabitants in what was
then Chester County ; that is, all of Pennsylvania except the Coun-
ties of Bucks and Philadelphia.
* Local Memoranda ; Colonial Records.
EXTRACT FROM MINUTES OF PRESBYTERY.
Meetings or Presbyteries constituting one annually as a synod, to
meet at Philadelphia or elsewhere, to consist of all the members of
each subordinate Presbytery or meeting for this year at least. There-
fore, it is agreed by the Presbytery after serious deliberation, that the
first subordinate meeting or Presbytery do meet at Philadelphia, or
elsewhere, as they shall see fit, to consist of these, viz., Messrs. An-
drews, Jones, Powell, Orr; Pradner, and Morgan, and the second to
meet at New Castle, or elsewhere, as they shall see fit, to consist of
these, viz., Messrs. Anderson, Magill, Grillespie, Wotherspoon, Evans,
and Conn. The third to meet at Snowhill, or elsewhere, to consist of
these, viz., Messrs. Davies, Hampton, and Henry.
Of the above Fifteen Presbyterian Clergymen, only one, Andrews,
was a native. All of the others were immigrants from Scotland,
Ireland, or Wales.
LIST OF THOSE BURIED IN THE GRAVEYARDS FROM
MARCH, 1849, TO APRIL, 1863, FOURTEEN YEARS.
Date of Burial.
Date of Burial.
Not. 13, 1849
George W. Nelson,
John C. Thompson,
Dee. 9, "
William H. Lookart,
Child of J. Sheneman,
" 26, "
" of Charles M'Cann, Feb. 11, "
Sarah S. Sides,
" 12, "
Jane H. Grier,
Mar. 1, "
Child of David Bunn,
tt 24, "
Child of Walter Lilly,
April 11, "
William Templeton, Sr
" 29, "
May 2, "
June 16, "
Child of John Grier,
Susanna S. Torbet,
July 9, "
Child of Wm. Guthrie,
" 16, "
" 30, "
Grenabaum Jews, ,
Aug. r, "
Child of James Long,
Josiah P. Dowlin,
Theodore S. Torbert,
Child of John Bradly,
Elizabeth D. Dorian,
Child of M. Osborn,
Child of Robert Neely,
Soloman A, Smith,
Child of Robt. Dowlin,
it tt tt
Child of R. Smith,
Sarah J. McKim,
Child of Jas. Millegan,
Mary J. Neely,
Child of James Way,
John Arters, #
Child of John Shingle,
John H. Long,
Walter B. Lilly,
Date of Burial.
Date of B
Child of Robert Dorian
Mrs. Robert Dowlin,
Child of Jas. Millegan,
Child of Wm. Watson,
Child of Bzekiel Rigg,
Child of Walter Lilly,
Mary Ann Clour,
John K. Clour,
Child of B. Baldwin,
Child of K. Clour,
Matthew A. Stanly,
Child of D. West,
Child of J. Dauman,
Child of Alex. Maitland
Samuel S. Barford,
Child of T. Matlaok,
Child of J. Gibbony,
Date of Burial. [
Date of Burial,
3, 1854. 1
Child of T. Sellers,
Mary J. Walkinshaw,
Child of R. Walkinshaw
Child of L. Hammond,
Child of S. Dorian,
Child of L. Hammond,
Child of C. Maffett,
Emma M. Martin,
Child, of Wm. Dowlin,
" , 28,
Child of Wm. Dowlin,
Child of J. Sterrett,
Child of James Neely,
Child of H. Swinehart,
Joseph Martin, Jr.,
James W. Brown,
. Child of A. Martin,
Child of Clark Guiney,
Child of Jno. Dauman,
Child of Wm. Loag,
Child of R. Mason,
Jane A. Galligher,
Child of J. McCurd'y,
Childof J. Williams,
James H. Long,
Child of J. Mason,
Date of Burial.
Sate of Burial.
Margaret A. McKim,
Child of S. Way,
Jane R, Walker,
Child of R. Serril,
William W. Elliott,
Eliza R. Thomas,
James Welch, Jr.,
Child of J. Strong,
Nancy F. Grier,
Child of G. Wonderly,
Thomas G. Ralston,
Child of Wm. Kingj
Child of J. MoCirdy,
Jane L. Grier,
Child of J. Sterrett,
. Child of Chas. McCann
, « 19,^
Child of A. Ludwick,
Child of Clark Guiney,
Margaret A. Weber,
Robert |L. Grier,
Child of C. Guiney,
Child of John Dorian,
Child of J. Bssiok,
Mrs. J. MeCurdy,
Child of John Hughes,
Child of T. McAdams,
Philip B. TJmstead,
Son of B. Hatfield,
Child of B. Hatfield,
Child of J. G. McClure,
Child of J. Rice,
Child of B. Stringfellow,
Child of E. Dunwoody,
Sate of Banal.
Bate of Burial.
Mar. 19, 1862
Child of William Boyce, April 1, "
Mary Ann Walker,
May 18, "
June 6, "
" 13, "
Two children of T. Mc
" 20, "
William N. Long,
July 14, "
" 24, "
Child of J. Dunn,
" 24, "
" 25, "
Child of J. Dauman,
Aug. 9, "
Child of John Clonr,
Sept. 4, "
" 8, "
Child of Wm.Dowlin,
" 12, "
Child of Geo. Dowlin,
" 19, "
" 29, "
" 30, "
Child of S. Mendenhall
Deo. 10, "
Jan. 8, 1863
" 22, "
Robert Ralston, '
Feb. 10, "
" 26, "
Mar. 1, "
tt 4^ „
John C. Marshall,
" 15, "
" 26, "
NAMES OF THOSE BUKIED IN THE GKAVEYARDS
BELONGING TO THE CHURCH, DURING NINE
YEARS, MAY, 1876, TO MAY, 1885.
Sate of Burial.
Bate of Burial.
Dec. 20, 1876
Jan. 9, 18
Child of David Brnner,
" 17, '
Feb. 20, '
April 4, '
" 20, '
William C. Lewis,
Harry J. McLaughlin,
May 21, '
Esther M. Sinn,
June 8, '
Lydia M. Thomas,
" 26, '
Child of Wm. Carpenter
, Aug. - 7, '
" 14, '
Child of George Ayres,
" 24, '
Sarah A. Pinkerton,
Child of J. M. Bavr.
Howard C. Matlack,
Yearsly C. Matlaok,
Mary J. Matlack,
Eva M. Granger,
Mary A. Swinehart,
Mary R. Da.vis,
Anna B. Ballentine,
Child of John Guthrie,
William C. Long,
Child of Wm. Tregoe,
Child of Dr. H. Evans,
Date of Burial.
Date of Burial.
Anna L. Amole,
Zaccheus H. Davis^
Margaret A, Strong,
Joseph Mackelduflf, Jr.,
James C. Irwin,
[ Elizabeth Hatfield,
. Rev. Dr. J. N. C. Grier
Esther J. Baldwin,
Joseph G. Maitland,
Esther A. West,
A. M. Eachus,
James M. Dorian,
Lydia E. Thomas,
Sarah A. Thompson,
Tilla R. Forbis,
Annie B. Moore,
Catharine J. Forbis,
Date of Bnrial.
Date of Bnrial.
Child of P. H. Irwin,
Emma A. Vance,
Mary Ann Grier,
Lewie V. Reeser,
Ann E. Malin,
Anna E. dower.
A. H. Umstead,
Thomas J. Dorian,
Liza M. Nelson,
Augustus J. Dowlin,
Dr. A. K. Gaston,
Eliza A. M'Clune,
Mary J. Graham,
John M. Neely,
Esther J. Pinkerton,
Mary H. Dunwoody,
Sarah H. Gillespie,
Ethel M. McGlaughlin,
E. H. Melon,
Anna M, F. Reaser,
Child of John Baldwin,
Mary M. Dowlin,
James G. Tenipleton,
James Ralston, Sr.,
Child of Charles Ahmole, " 8,
The above list includes every age, from the infant of !' a few days"
to the " mother in Israel" of more than fourscore and ten.
It is worthy of remark, as showing the healthfulness of the sur-
rounding country, that more than one-eighth had reached ages vary-
ing from seventy to ninety-one years.
ACT OF INCOKPORATION.
ACT TO INCOEPOEATE THE PEESBTTEEIAN" CONGEE-
UATION OF BEANDYWINE, IN THE TOWNSHIP OP
WEST NANTMEAL, IN THE COUNTY OF CHESTEE.
Section 1. — Wheeeas, divers members of the Presbyterian Con-
gregation of Brandywine, in the' township of West Nantmeal, in
the County of Chester, have humbly petitioned the General Assembly,
praying that the said Congregation may be incorporated, and thereby
enabled to recover, receive, and hold bequests, legacies and donations
which may be made to the use of the same Congregation, and that
Samuel Cunningham, John Culbertson, Nathaniel Porter, Eobert
Smith, David Denny, Robert Lockhart, James Dunwoody, James
M'Clure and Wm. Anderson, members of the aforesaid Congregation,
may be constituted the first Trustees by Act of General Assembly, to
be passed for that purpose.
And whereas, this General Assembly hath consented that the same
Congregation be incorporated, and vested with such powers and privi-
leges, as have been heretofore granted to other religious societies which
have been incorporated by acts of the Legislature : Therefore,
Section 2. — Be it enacted, and it is hereby enacted by the Repre-
sentatives of the Freemen of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in
General Assembly met, and by the authority of the same. That the
said Samuel Cunningham, John Culbertson, Nathaniel Porter, Robert
Smith, David Denny, Robert Lockhart, James Dunwoody, J^mes
M'Clure and William Anderson, and their successors, to be nine in
number, and to be duly elected as hereinafter is directed, be, and
they are hereby made and constituted one body politic and corporate
in law and in fact, to have continuance forever, by the name, style
and title of " The Trustees of the Presbyterian Congregation of
Brandywine, in the township of West Nantmeal, in the county of
Section 3. — And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid.
That the said Trustees and their successors, by the name, style and
title aforesaid, shall forever hereafter-be capable in law, as well to take,
receive and hold all and all manners of lands and other real and per-
sonaJ estate, which have at any time or times heretofore been granted,
bargained, sold, enfeoffed, released, devised or otherwise given, granted
or bequeathed to the said religious society and congregation of Bran-
dywine, in the county of Chester, or to any person or persons in
trust for the said society and congregation. And the said Trustees
and their successors, are hereby declared to be seized and possessed of
such estate therein, and for the same uses and intents, as in and by
the respective grant, devise or other instrument is set forth and
limited. And moreover, the said Trustees and their successors, at all
times hereafter, shall be able and capable to purchase, take, hold and
enjoy for the use of the said Congregation, any real estate in fee
simple or less estate, by gift, gran^, alienation, devise or other act or
instrument, of and from any person capable to make the same. And
further, the same Trustees and their successors, shall apply the rents,
profits and yearly income of the said Congregation, for the time being,
for repairing and enlarging, if need be, the house of public worship
and the enclosure of the burying ground of the same, and to erect
and repair the schoolhouse, and for such other pious and charitable
purposes, as shall be directed by the major vote of the regular mem-
bers of the said society and congregation duly assembled, upon public
notice thereof the Sunday preceding, from the pulpit or desk of the
said house of worship.
Section 4. — Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That
all and singular the powers, privileges, regulations, provisions and
directions, subject to the limitations and restrictions contained in an
Act of the General Assembly, entitled " An Act for incorporating
the Presbyterian Congregation of Pequea, in the county of Lancaster,"
enacted on the fifth day of February, in the year of our Lord one
thousand seven hundred and eighty-five, mutatis mutandis, shall be,
and the same are hereby extended and applied to the said Congrega-
tion of Brandywine and to the nine Trustees herein before mentioned,
and their successors :
Section 5. — Provided, nevertheless, That no sale or alienation of
the real estate of the said Corporation, made by the said Trustees or
their successors, bona fide and for valuable consideration, in case the
possession thereof pass immediately to the purchaser thereof and
continue in him or his assigns, shall be impeached or called in
question, for want of the consent of the majority of the regular
memberB of the said society and congregation, ^ren as required by
the Act aforesaid, unless the same be done within seven years from
and after the sale and delivery of possession to the said purchaser.
Signed by order of the House.
Thomas Mifflin, Speaker.
Enacted into a law at Fhila4elphia, on Friday, the first day of
September, in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and
Samuel Bryan, Clerk of the General Assembltf.
A true copy from the original, by
January 14, 1831.
ACT FOE INCOKPOEATING THE PEESBYTEEIAN CONGEE-
GATION OP PEQUEA, IN THE TOWNSHIP OP SALIS-
BURY AND COUNTY OF LANCASTEE.
Section 1. — Whereas, the Presbyterian Congregation of Pequea,
in the county of Lancaster, have prayed that their said Congregation
may be incorporated, < and by law enabled as a body corporate and
politic, to receive and hold such charitable donations and bequests as
have been, or that hereafter may be made to their society, and vested
with such powers and privileges as are enjoyed by other religious
societies, who are incorporated within this State. And whereas, this
house is disposed to exercise the powers vested in the Legislature of
the Commonwealth for the encouragement of pious and charitable
purposes : '
Section 2. — Be it therefore enacted, and it is hereby enacted by
the Representatives of the Freemen of the Commonwealth of Penn-
sylvania, in General Assembly met, and by the authority of the same.
That Isaac M'Calmont, Amos Slaymaker, James Armour, Thomas
Slemons, Andrew Caldwell, Robert Byers, David Jenkins, Thomas
Patton and the Rev. Robert Smith, and their successors duly elected
and appointed in such manner as herein after is directed, be, and they
are hereby made and constituted a corporation and body politic, in
law and in fact, to have continuance forever, by the name, style and
title of "The Trustees of the Presbyterian Congregation of Pequea,
in Salisbury township and county of Lancaster."
Section 3. — And be it farther enacted by the authority aforesaid,
That the said corporation and their successors, by the name, style and
title aforesaid, shall forever hereafter be persons able and capable in
law, as well to take, receive and hold, all and all manner of lands,
tenements, rents, annuities, franchises and other hereditaments, which
at any time or times heretofore have been granted, bargained, sold,
enfeoffed, released, devised or otherwise conveyed to the said Presby-
terian Congregation of Pequea, in the township and county aforesaid,
or to the religious society or congregation worshipping therein, now
under the pastoral care of the Rev. Robert Smith, or to any person
or persons to their use or in trust for them ; and the same lands,
tenements, rents, annuities, liberties, franchises and other heredita-
ments are hereby vested and established in the said corporation and
their successors forever, according to the original use and intent, for
which such devices, gifts and grants were respectively made : And
the said corporation and their successors are hereby declared to be
seized and possessed of such estate and estates therein as in and by
the respective grants, bargains, sales, enfeoffments, releases, devises,
or other conveyances thereof, is, or are declared, limited or expressed :
As also that the said corporation and their successors aforesaid, at all
times hereafter, shall be capable and able to purchase, have, receive,
take, hold and enjoy, in fee simple, or of lesser estate or estates,
any lands, tenements, rents, annuities, liberties, franchises and other
hereditaments, by the gift, grant, bargain, sale, alienation, enfeoffment,
release, confirmation or devise of any person or persons, bodies politic
and corporate, capable and able to make the same : And further that
the said corporation may take and receive any sum or sums of money,
and any portion of goods and chattels, that have been or hereafter
shall be given or bequeathed to them by any person or persons, bodies
corporate and politic, able and capable to make a bequest or gift
thereof, such money, goods and chattels to be laid out and disposed
of for the use and benefit of the aforesaid Congregation, agreeable to
the intention of the donor.
Section 4. — Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid,
That the rents, profits and interest of the said real and personal estate
of the aforesaid corporation and congregation, shall by the said
Trustees and their successors, from time to time, be applied and laid
out by them for the maintainance and support of the Gospel Ministry
■ in the said congregation, for repairing and maintaining their house of
public worship, lots of land, burial ground, and such other pious and
charitable uses as shall be thought proper, by a majority of the
Trustees and other regular members of the said congregation, on due
notice met, to give their free vote in such case.
' Section 5 Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid,
That when and as often as it may become necessary to rebuild,
enlarge or otherwise alter the house of public worship belonging to
the said congregation and corporation, or to erect any new building,
or to make any new purchase for the use of the said congregation,
then and in such case it may be lawful for the aforesaid Trustees and
their successors to make sale of such part or parcel of the real or
personal estate of the said corporation, as a majority of the Trustees
and of the regular members of the said congregation shall by their
votes direct, the money arising from such sale to be laid out and
applied, agreeably to the vote of a majority met as aforesaid.
Section 6. — Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid,
That the said Trustees and their successors shall not by deed nor any
otherwise grant, alien, convey, or otherwise dispose of any part or
parcel of the estate, real or personal, in the said corporation vested,
or to be vested, or charge or incumber the same to any person or
persons whatsoever, except in the manner and for the purposes herein
Section 7. — Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid,
That the said Trustees, their successors, or a majority of them, may
from time to time meet as often as they shall think necessary for the
benefit of the said corporation, either on their own adjournment, or
on public notice from the pulpit the preceding Sabbath immediately
after divine service, and before the congregation is dismissed, or on
regular notice in writing, left at the house of each of the Trustees,
and that the said Trustees, or a majority of them, being so met, be
authorized and empowered, and they are hereby authorized and em-
powered to elect and appoint from among themselves a President, and
a,lso to elect and appoint from among themselves, or other members of
the said congregation, a Treasurer and Secretary, and to remove,
change or continue all or either of them at their pleasure, as shall
seem to be most for the benefit of the said corporation.
Section 8. — Provided, nevertheless. That the meeting or meetings
of the said corporation be not called without the concurrence of two
or more Trustees, or of three or more respectable members of the said
congregation, with the President, or without the particular business
and reasons of the meeting being specified with the notification.
Section 9. — Be it further enacted bj the authority aforesaid, That
the said Trustees, or a majority of them, met, as is herein before di-
rected, shall be authorised and empowered, and they are hereby au-
thorised and empowered, to make rules, by-laws and ordinances, and to
do every thing needful for the government and support of the secular
affairs of the said corporation and congregation : Provided that the said
by-laws, rules and ordinances, or any of them, be not repugnant to the
laws of this commonwealth ; and also that all their laws and proceed-
ings be fairly and regularly entered in a book to be kept for that
Section 10. — Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid,
That the said corporation and their successors shall have full power
and authority to make, have and use one common seal, with such de-
vice and inscription as they shall think fit and proper, and the same
to break, alter and renew at their pleasure.
Section 11. — Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid.
That the said corporation and their successors, by the name of " The
Trustees of the Presbyterian Congregation of Pequea, in the township
of Salisbury and county of Lancaster," shall be able and capable in
law to sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded in any Court, or be-
fore any Judge or Justice, in all and all manner of suits, complaints,
pleas, matters and demands of whatsoever kind, nature or form they
may be, and all and every matter and thing therein to do, in as full
and effectual a manner as any other person or persons, bodies politic
or corporate, within this Commonwealth, may or can do.
Section 12. — Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid,
That the said corporation shall always consist of nine members, ex-
cept as ia herein after provided, called and known by the name of
" The Trustees of the Presbyterian Congregation of Pequea, in the
township of Salisbury, and county of Lancaster," and the said mem-
bers shall at all times hereafter be' chosen by ballot by a majority of
such members (met together) of the said congregation as shall have
been enrolled as stated worshippers with the said congregation for at
least the space of one year, and shall have paid one year's pew rent, or
other annual sum of money not less than ten shillings, for the use and
benefit of the said corporation and congregation, and shall not at any
time of voting, be more than one half year behind or in arrears for
the same : Provided, always, that the Pastor or Minister of the said
congregation for the time being, shall be entitled to vote equally with
any member of the said congregation, and also, that all and every per-
son or persons qualified to vote and elect as aforesaid, shall and may
be also capable of being elected as a Trustee as aforesaid.
Section 13. — Be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the
said Isaac M'Calmont, Amos Slaymaker, James Armour, Thomas Siem-
ens, Andrew Caldwell, Kobert Byers, David Jenkins, Thomas Patton,
and the Rev. Robert Smith, the first and present Trustees hereby in-
corporated, shall be and continue Trustees aforesaid, until they be re-
moved in manner following, that is to say : One third part in number of
the Trustees aforesaid, being the third part herein first named and ap-
pointed, shall cease and discontinue, and their appointment determine
on the first Monday in the month of April, which will be in the year
of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-six, and the
second third part herein named shall cease and discontinue, and their
appointment determine on the first Monday in April, which will be in
the year one thousand seven "hundred and eighty-seven, and in like
manner the last third part herein named shall cease and determine on
the first Monday in April, which will be in the year one thousand
seven hundred and eighty-eight, on which days in each of the afore-
mentioned years respectively, new elections shall be held of other
Trustees, instead and in place of those whose appointments shall have
ceased and terminated ; which manner of discontinuance, determina-
tion and new appointment or election shall be continued on the first
Monday in April every year hereafter forever, so that no person shall
be or continue a Trustee longer than three years together, without
being re-elected, which may be done whenever and as often as the
members of said congregation qualified to vote as aforesaid, shall
Section 14. — Provided, always, nevertheless. That whenever any
circumstance or concurrence of circumstances shall happen, to prevent
the holding of an • election at the periods aforementioned, for Trus-
tees instead and in place of those whose appointments shall have
ceased and terminated, also whenever any vacancy shall happen by the
death, refusal to serve, or other removal of any one or more of the
Trustees of the said corporation, an election shall be held as soon as
conveniently can be done, in the manner before directed, for other
Trustees in the stead and in place of those whose appointments shall
have ceased and terminated, or for supplying such vacancies that may
happen as aforesaid, and that the remaining Trustees have power to
call a meeting of the electors of the Congregation for such purposes.
Section 15. — Provided, always, and it is hereby enacted by the
authority aforesaid. That the clear yearly value, interest or income of
the lands, tenements, rents, annuities, or other hereditaments and real
estate of the said Corporation, shall not exceed the sum of five hundred
pounds, gold or silver money, at the present current value thereof in
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, exclusive of pew rent and other
free contributions belonging to the aforesaid congregation, which said
money shall be received by the said Trustees, and disposed of by them
for the purposes and in manner herein before described and directed.
Signed by order of the House.
John Batard, Speaker.
Enacted into a law at Philadelphia on Saturday the fifth day of
February, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and
Samuel Bryan, Clerk of the General Assembly.
A true copy from the original, by
January 14, 1831.