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Full text of "Cooling towers"

LIBRARY 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Class 



> 

Cooling Towers I 



BY- 



OSWALD GlETH, M. E 




I 



PRICE 



THEORY AND PRACTICE 

with tables and other useful data. 



REPRINTED FROM THE ENGINEERS' IIST. 



F 

I 



TWENTY-FIVE CENTS 



: SPON & CHAMBEBLAJN, 

BOOKS ON 

[ Mechanics, Engineering, 
iiiiiiiiiimmiiiiiimiiminiimi 



ANALYSIS AND TREATMENT OF 

Boiler Waters 



O U R SPECIALTY 



Gallon Sample ent to the 

Dearborn Laboratories 

will be analyzed and reported to you and a solution sug- 
gested for the troubles caused in your boilers by its use* 

Scale, Corrosion, Pitting and Foaming successfully 
prevented. 

Our analytical testing department solicits your work 
on any subject of engineering chemistry. 



DEARBORN DRUG & CHEMICAL WORKS 



WM. H. EDGAR, Founder. 



E. W. EDGAR. President. 

CHAS. M. EDDY, Secy, and Treat. 



ROBT. F. CARR, Vice Pres. and Gen. 
WM. B. McVICKER. 2nd Vice Pres. and East. Mgr 



NEW YORK 

299 BROADWAY 



CHICAGO 

POSTAL TELEGRAPH BLDG 



20 BRANCHES IN U. 3, 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



MICHAEL FOG-ARTY 
Manufacturer of Marine and Stationary Boilers 

RETUBING OF WATER TUBE BOILERS 

Tanks of Every Description, Smoke Stacks, Breechings, Etc. Lard Rendering Tanks a Specialty 

531 AND 535 WEST 33D ST., BET. 1OTH AND 11TH AVES., NEW YORK 
PERSONAL ATTENTION GIVEN TO REPAIRS TELEPHONE CALL, 8465-38th ST. 

Something Different! 

Call around and see the 

Davidson 
Elevator 
Pump 

AT THE NEW 

Title Guarantee 6 Trust Co. Building 

176 Broadway. 

M. T. DAVIDSON, TRIBUNE BUILDING. 154 NASSAU ST., NEW YORK 

Telephone 4671 

eSCTE 

ELEVATORS! 

GEORGE I. ROBERTS & BROS., Inc. 

471 and 473 Fourth Avenue 

Beg to announce that this department of their business is now under the 

superintendency of MR. JOHN CLANCY, in whom our patrons 

will recognize an able and efficient mechanic. 

YOUR CALLS WILL RECEIVE PROflPT ATTENTION. 




Telephone 
746 Columbus 



Established 
1880 



685, 687, 689 11TH AVE,, AND 603 W. 49TH STREET 






STEAM BOILERS, SMOKE STACKS & TANKS SS 

REPAIRING OF STEAM AND WATER TUBE BOILERS 
LARD RENDERING AND BREWERS' TANKS A SPECIALTY 

IIsT ^.LL ITS 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



One Dollar Is All 



Jill U I J\ 



Just one dollar is all that it will cost you for one year's sub- 
scription to The Engineer. It is published twice a month (24 
times a year) and each copy is chock-full of illustrations and articles 
showing and telling you how things are being done in the power 
plants of the world. These things are worth knowing. You can 
apply the wholesome, practical in- 
formation contained in The En- 
gineer to your various tasks every 
working day of your life, and the 
manner in which it solves the many 
knotty problems that daily confront 
you makes it a paper worth far 
more than its price. 

The editors of The Engi- 
neer are themselves engineers 
they know what you want, what 
you need, and what you like in 
the way of engineering facts, and 
you get them fresh and reliable. 
Cut out that coupon, send it in 

today, and you'll never wish you hadn't. Why not act as 
x x our agent in your vicinity ? Every engineer wants The 
Engineer when he once knows what it is. We will 

\ pay you big cash commissions. 

Taylor \^ x 
Publishing 

Her^id, I hand you $1 00 "S*^ Tlte Ta^OF PubHshiflg CO. 





Send (or 
free sample 
copy. 




ioc a year's subscription to The 
Engineer, beginning with next issue. 



MAME 



ADDRESS. 
CITY... 



800 Ellsworth Building 

Chicago, Illinois 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



Geo. I. Roberts & Bros. 



Inc. 




471 and 473 Fourth Avenue 

Between 31st and 32d Streets 

New York City 



Telephones:] 307 " adison 
j 308 Square. 




THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 

BENJ. F. KELLEY & SON 

HANUFACTURERS OH 

Kelley's Patent Improved Berryipan [Water 
Tube] Feed Water Heater and Purifier 

The Old Type Steam Tube, ferryman, 
(Side or bottom Torts). 
Economical Boiler Feed Pump. 
Exhaust Pipe, Heads. 

We Exchange and have the Best Facilities in the U. S. for Repairing and 
Removing Feed Water Heaters. 



OFFICE AND WORKS: 

76 40th ST., SO. BROOKLYN 

Near 39th St. Ferry. 
Telephone 141 South. 



NEW YORK OFFICE: 

120 LIBERTY STREET. 

Telephone 1 lOCortlandt. 




PURE RUBBER MOULDED GASKETS 

ARE THE BEST. 




No More Trouble With 
Leaking Manholes. 

No matter how rough the surface or how 
warped the plates, the 



will allow for all irregularities, stop all leaking and resist all pressure. These Gaskets are 
soft and pliable, of uniform thickness, and vulcanized to stand high pressure without melt- 
ing or blowing out. They are particularly adapted for use on old boilers. Owing to their 
being made in moulds, they are uniform, smooth and true in every respect, and are applied 
with ease. We sinlply ask the favor of a trial. Put one or two on your boilers. We are 
not solicitous as to your future action. One trial will answer all purposes. 



Mechanical Rubber Goods : BRIDGEPORT. CONN. 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



Empire State Engineering Company, 

Engineers and Machinists. 

Builders of Engines, Ice and Refrigerating Machinery, 
Fans and Blowers. 




Manufacturing 

and Repairing 

in all Phases. 

Our Refrigeration and Ice Machine Department is under the direct supervision of Messrs. 

Karl Vesterdahl & Co., 95 Liberty St., who are prepared to give 

expert advice and furnish estimates. 

Manufacturers of 

MAXFIELD ENGINE. 



Office and Works, Foot of EAST 116th [STREET, 

NEW YORK. 



Boilers, Tanks and Sheet Iron Work. 
Newburgh Steam Boilers. 



IF. JDEIL^IfcT-X- & GO. 

Works at Newburgh, N. Y. New York Office, 38 Park Row. Phone 1866 Cort. 

Marine, Export and Repair Work a Specialty. 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 




Pump Governors 

The best Pump Governor on the market. Why? Because our 
valve will not leak or stick and if lubricated we guarantee it to abso- 
lutely govern the plimp and remain tight for five years. Compare 
the construction of our valve with any other on the market and by 
adopting the "Utility" you can save coal and get a higher tempera- 
ture from your heating or drying systems. 

We have heard of a plant using another make of governors spend- 
ing $300 i'or new valves inside of four years. 



Our Record 




We have replaced nearly every 
make of Pump Governor with 
ours. 

We have never heard of one 
of the "Utility's" being replaced 
by another make. 

We never had a call for a new 
valve for one of our Governors. 



In Response to a Demand 

We are selling separately the Valve and Float of the 
"Utility Combination" Pump Governor. It may be 

bolted upon ANY tank or receiver where level is to be 
automatically maintained, and does its work to per- 
fection. 




The Standard Steam Specialty Co 

542-544 West Broadway, City of New York 

Telephone 4902 Spring 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



CHALK IT UP 

WHERE YOU WILL SEE IT 

Eureka Packing 

^i^^^^^c 

With this Diamond <^]EUREKA'' J> anc * on *^ e 

on the Label '^T^^^^^^^f^ Packing 

Is the Standard *ffiff of the World 

That EUREKA RED SHEET 

Carries this GUARANTEE: "This packing is not offered as a substitute for any 
ofher brand but on it- merits. That it will wMist nd heat, gas and ammonia, 

make a perfect joint and not crack while in siock within a year." 



' T ^T CD \-J TFR"^ IT 



That The Hine Steam 
Separator 



Will remove moisture in live steam, giving it more 
energy and increasing engine efficiency. When placed 
in exhaust line will extract oil in the steam and cleanse 
the condensation. 




That Spencer Damper Regulator 

Will do you more good and save more fuel than any other device in a steam plant. 

That Our Exhaust Head, Oil Filler, Flue Cleaners, &c 

Are the best made and moderate in price. 



Our Telephone 3266 Will Bring Us to Tell You More. 

Jas.L Robertson & Sons, lnc 

48 Warren Street, New York. 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



Some Important Books for 

DYNAMO TENDERS 



All the bookn listed below are of the practical kind, written In 
Mimple language and largely illuMtratlve. They are all Mclenttflcally 
accurate and are Intended mainly for the ue of the men who are 
closest to the dynamo or motor both when It in running, and when it 
wants repairing. 

MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRICAL MACHINERY. Containing simple directions 
for the practical . use and management of dynamos and motors. By 
FRANCIS B. CROCKER and SCHUYLER S. WHEELER. Sixth edition. 
223 pages, 131 illustrations. Price, $1.00 net. 

NEW DYNAMO TENDERS' HANDBOOK. By F. B. BADT. 226 pages, 140 
illustrations. Price, $1 net. 

DYNAMO TENDING FOR ENGINEERS. A clear and comprehensive treatise 
on the principles, construction and operation of dynamos, motors, lamps, 
storage batteries, indicators and measuring instruments. By HENRY C. 
HORSTMANN and VICTOR H. TOUSLEY. 12mo, cloth. 207 pages, 100 
illustrations. Price, $1.50. 

THE DISEASES OF ELECTRICAL MACHINERY. By ERNST SCHULTZ. Ed- 
ited, with a preface, by SILVANUS P. THOMPSON. 84 pages, 42 illus- 
trations. 12mo, cloth. Price, $1.00. 

MODERN ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION. A guide in electrical construction 
showing methods of installing work according to the rules of the National 
Board of Fire Underwriters. By HENRY C. HORSTMANN and VICTOR 
H. TOUSLEY. 245 pages. Illustrated. Price, $1.50. 

MODERN WIRING DIAGRAMS AND DESCRIPTIONS. A handbook full of 
practical diagrams and information for electrical construction work. By 
HENRY C. HORSTMANN and VICTOR H. TOUSLEY. 157 pages. Illus- 
trated. Price, $1.50. 

ELECTRICAL WIRING AND CONSTRUCTION TABLES. Easy up-to-date ta^ 
bles for electric wiring. By HENRY C. HORSTMANN and VICTOR H. 
TOUSLEY. 120 pages, illustrated. Price, $1.50 net. 

THE WIRING HAND BOOK. With complete labor-saving tables and digest 
of Underwriters' Rules. By CECIL P. POOLE. Leather. Pocket size. 
85 pages, 61 illustrations. Price $1.00 net. 

ALTERNATING CURRENT WIRING AND DISTK1IH TION. By WILLIAM LE- 
ROY EMMET. Second edition. 96 pages, 33 illustrations. Price $1.00 
net. 

KEYS FOR THE PRACTICAL ELECTRICAL WOKKER. Giving electric light, 
power, street railway, telephone, telegraph and every-day tables. By F. J. 
ROBINSON. Cloth. 194 pages. Mostly diagrams. Price, $2.00 net. 

Any of these books sent anywhere postpaid 
on receipt of price. 







We can supply any Engineering Book published. Send us \<>ur inquiries. 

McGRAW PUBLISHING COMPANY 

Publishers, Importers and Booksellers I 14 Liberty Street, New York 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 




THE 



ROBERTSON 



THOMPSON 
INDICATOR 



Victor Reducing Wheel 

and Willis Planimeter 
ARE THE FINEST 
INSTRUMENTS MADE 

For the purpose of ndmg out how much an engine 
is doing and how well it is doing it. 

No Ambitious 
Engineer 

Can afford to overlook the value to him of a 
knowledge of the indicator. 





EASY TERMS AND PRICES MAKE BUYING EASY. 

Shall We Send You Catalog ? or Shall We Call With Outft to Show You ? 



TELEPHONE 3266 CORTLAND 



Jas.L. Robertson & Sons 

48 Warren St., New York 



10 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



SMOOTH-ON 



TRADE: ttA.PfK-.RE,G.vj..s. PAT,;:OI 



IRON CEMENT No. 1 




Cements sold in 5, 10, and 25 Ib. cans. 



Repaired this pump 6 years ago, and 
it is still in use. 

Smooth-on makes permanent repairs. 
This cement is prepared in powder 

form for use mix with water. 



It is unequalled for stopping leaks of 
steam water fire or oil because it be- 
comes metallic iron thus keeping tight 
at all temperatures. 

Our new Illustrated Catalogue is Free 



SMOOTH-ON MFG. CO. 

Jersey City, N. J., U.S. A. 





Turline 



Exhaust Head with Turbine Separator 

WILL SAVE YOU MONEY, 

INCREASE YOUR DRAFT, 

RELIEVE ENGINE OF BACK PRESSURE, 

INCREASE CAPACITY OF BOILER, 

Born Soft Coal, Shavings or Rubbish 

WITHOUT SMOKE. 

UNIQUE SMOKELESS FURNACE or 

ACCELERATED DRAFT SYSTEM 



LIVE MEN WANTED TO;PUSH THESE GOODS. 

J. B. HACKETT, Sales Manager, 
f 5-7 Beekman Street, New York 



UNIQUE ENGINEERING CO 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



11 



li New England Roller Grate 




This Grate will burn any kind of 
coal and all of it. It has more air 
space than any other grate and is 
the only grate that does not 
change its op'ening when you 
shake it. It rests on rollers; is 
easy to shake; removes the ashes 
without disturbing the surface 
and does not drop coal into the ash 
pit. 

Made in all sizes, for all types 
ft boilers, and is easily installed 
without changing the fire box or 
cutting away of boiler front. It 
costs practically nothing for re- 
pairs and it must and does save 
coal. 

Catalogue 
for the asking. 

Also Shaking & Dumping, and a 
new type of the Stationary Grates 



New England Roller Grate Co., Springfield, Mass. 

J. B. Hackett, 5-7 BEEKMAN ST., N. Y. 



IDOIfcT'T 



TJ 



T !R, O XT IB UL IE 



U3TTT TJSE 

STERLING METALLIC PACKING 

For Ammonia, Steam, Oil or Air. 

BEATS THE BEST. GUARANTEED FOR 5 YEARS 



Ruggles Perfection. Flue Cleaner 

CHESTERTON'S OIL FILTER 

PACKING TOOLS, SCRAPING TOOLS and COLD CHISELS in Sets. 

LINDSTROM'S Corliss Valve Steam Traps 
Superheater Steam Separators 

WATTS REGULATOR CO.'S 

Damper Regulator Steam Regulator Spring Regulator Pump Regulator 

Reducing Valves Boiler Oil Feeder Vacuum Pressure Regulator 



J. B. 



r Beekman St. 

Temple Court Building. N6W York 



12 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 




Trade Mark. 




Style No. 99 



GARLOCK PACKINGS 

are made in more than two hundred styles for every 
conceivable purpose. 

Packings guaranteed for all conditions when full 
particulars are furnished. 

PABTfW WATFRPRnOl? HYIlRAIIITf 1 

uAnLUuKlfifflltjnrtiuul 1 HlUnflULlu 

is the outcome of numerous experiments and hun- 
dreds of practical tests on outside packed plungers, 
accumulating piston rods, elevators, both with and 
without leather cups, and in fact, is absolutely 
guaranteed to meet all requirements on high, 
pressure hydraulic work. 




Garlock Alabestine 



Style No. 17. 

Especially adapted for small globe 
valves and valve stems. Made from long 
fibre asbestos treated with the celebrated 
style NO. IT. Garlock Compound. Made in sizes as 

follows: 1-lt), 1-8, 3-16, 1-4, 5-16, 3-8, 7-16 and 1-2 inch. 

GARLOCK DUO PACKINGS 

For medium high steam. Especially adapted for high 
speed engines, flat bottom stuffing boxes, Corliss valves, 
air pumps, rock drills, and every place where a strong 
elastic and durable packing is required. 
Made in twenty different styles. 




Style No. 444. 



xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx< 



The Garlock Packing Co. 

136 Liberty St. : : New York 

MAIN OFFICE AND WORKS: 
PALMYRA, NEW YORK : HAMBURG, GERMANY 

BRANCH. FACTORIES: 
Atlanta, Ga.; Denver, Colo., and San Francisco. 



NEW \'ORK 
BOSTON 



CHICAGO 
PHILADELPHIA 



OFFICES: 

PITTSBURG 

CLKVKLAND 



ST. LOUIS 
DENVER 



SAN FRANCISCO 
ATLANTA 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



GEORGE FOX 



BENJAMIN FOX 



M. FOX LAW 



GEORGE FOX'S SONS 

ESTABLISHED B7 GEOBGE FOI, 1856 

STEAM BOILER MAKERS 

Nos. 509-511-521-523-525 W. 34th St., near 10th Ave., New York 

Patentees and Manufacturers of IMPROVED WATER SPACE ARCH PLATES for 
Steam Boilers. No Bricks. No Cast Iron, It is STEEL, and Always Full of Water in 
Circulation. STEAM BOILERS, GRATE BARS, BOILER CASTINGS, TANKS, 

STACKS ETC 

Personal Attention to All Work and Repairs to Boilers. Telephone 38-232 



Telephone 3496-3497 38th St. 



ESTABLISHED 1M 5 6 



BENJAMIN FOX'S SONS 

Iron and Brass Founders and Machinists 

GRATE BARS FOR HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL BOILERS 



Sec- 
tional 




Boiler 
Fronts 
and 

Furnace 
Castings 



RUBBING BEDS AND HACH1NERY CASTINGS A SPECIALTY 
513 to 519 WEST 34th ST. : : NEW YORK CITY 

illIIIIIIBIIIIl!lllllllllliMIIIIIillllllllllllllllliBI M " 

| McNab # Harlin Manufacturing Go. ' 

| MANUFACTURERS OF | 

i VALVES, FITTINGS, COCKS, ETC., FOR | 

STEAM, WATEB AND GAS. 





DOUBLE BRANCH ELBOW TEE 

Our long turn Fittings are well made and we pay particular attention to the 
ping. We also carry a good stock both at Paterson and New York warerooms. 



t FACTORY: 

\ Paterson, N. J. * 



tap- | 



OFFICE and SALESROOMS: 

5O-56 John St., New York 

iiitimiiniiiiniiimuinimiii 



York | 

HiiiHiiimiiiiHs 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



THE LATEST IMPROVED DAMPER REGULATOR 

THE CARMICHAEL 







Contains the only valuable patented improvements made in this 
type of Kegulator in the past fifteen years. Packings so arranged 
that ports cannot become displaced or closed. Valve easily removed 
for cleaning or oiling. 

GET OUR CATALOGUE AND TERMS 



Up* 

flf; % 




THE SOOT SUCKER 

Cleans the Boiler Tubes 
Quickly and Thoroughly 




NO STEAM ADMITTED TO THE TUBES 



INDICATORS, REDUCING WHEELS, PLANIMETERS, 
CORD-TAKE-UP, FURNACE BLOWERS 



John S. Bushnell <a Co. 



Tel. 1960 Cortlandt. 



123 LIBERTY ST., NEW YORK 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



15 



STEEL MIXTURE 

BOILER DOOR ARCHES 
AND FIRE BOX BLOCKS 



GROOVED 



PATENT BACK 
COMBUSTION 
CHAMBER ARCH 



M C LEOD B HENR 

INQUIRIES SOLICITED. TPOYNY. 



CD CD T E: 

MANAGER NEW YORK OFFICE, 

I 1 6 WEST 39th STREET : : 1 4O2 BROADWAY 

Fire Box Blocks are Tongued and Grooved and measure 
12 in. and 24 in. Long. 12 in. and 18 in. High. 6 in. Thick. 

*^-Guaranteed for High Temperatures-^* 

Arches, Jambs or Back Connection Arch sold separately or together 

One trial of our Arches will convince you that we are IT. 
Telephone 3105-Sth. 



16 THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



Tel. 1593 Franklin 




122-130 Centre St., New York. 

c % 

New York's Model Machine Shop. 

A combination of the best practical engineering talent a broad state- 
ment, but one in which our customers uphold us, and our fast increasing 
business warrants us in making. A trial order will convince you our 
methods are the correct ones. 

SOME OF THE THINGS WE DO; 

General repairing to steam, electric and elevator plants 

Engine and pump cylinders rebored in position, 

Valves resea.ed and repaired in position, 

Boilers retubed and reset, 

Pipe fitting and cutting to sketch for all purpcses. 

Complete Installation for entire power plants-steam, electric, etc., 

Steam and hot water heating. 

Repair Shops Ready for Operation Day or Night. 
Dealers in all kinds of ENGINEERS' SUPPLIES. 

ESTIMATES CHEERFULLY FURNISHED. 

Engines Indicated and Valves Adjusted. 



TELEPHONE 44 o CORT. 

}. S. HUMBERT 

in CEDAR ST., NEW YORK 
GENERAL CONTRACTOR 

FOR 

PUMPING MACHINERY AND REPAIRS 



WE DON' WANT YOU TO HAVE 

A LIPPINCOTT INDICATOR 




Unless we can convince you that it is the BEST. We 
are ready, on receipt of a postal card, to send an Indi- 
cator Reducing Wheel and Planimeter for you to ex- 
amine, and if you don't think they are the only ones 
to own, DON'T BUY. Send for that new catalogue, 
and prospectus of the Mail Course of Indicator Instruc- 
tion. 

Address, Lippincott Steam Specialty and Supply Bo. 

97 Richardson Building, Newark, N. J. 




Copyrighted 1906. by Engineers' List Publishing Co. 



Vol. XVI. No. 3. 



MARCH, 1907. 



Published Monthly. 



JOc.Copy. 50c Per Year. 



COOLING TOWERS. 



Their Prominence Theory History and Development The Open Type The 
Forced or Fan Draft Type The Natural Draft Chimney Type- 
Advantages of Cooling Tower Economy and Re- 
sults in Cooling Capacity and Size. 



BY OSWALD GUETH, M. E. 




AMONG the many marvelous devices which have 
been brought forth by great engineers tending to- 
wards a greater economy in industrial enterprises, 
the modern Cooling Tower undoubtedly takes a most 
prominent place. 

Unfortunately the literature on this important sub- 
ject is very scanty, although articles have appeared from 
time to time in various magazines, dealing with one or 
the other system of a cooling tower and praising its par- 
ticular merits. 

In presenting this article, it has been the aim of the 
writer to offer to the readers of THE ENGINEERS' LIST, 
many of whom have manifested a keen interest in this 
question, a comprehensive treatise on cooling towers, 
riot with the intent to bring forth anything absolutely 
original, but to give a summary of the best that 



written on the subject, embodying at the same time 



182011 



18 THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 

the opinions of the foremost men in this particular field, together with the 
practical experience of the writer, a number of practical results and illustrated 
descriptions of the leading types of cooling towers. 



Prominence of Cooling Towers* 

The ever increasing number of large electric light and power plants with 
their highly economic condensing engines, the constantly growing demand 
for refrigerating machines in breweries, packinghouses and cold storage 
plants, have brought about the need of large quantities of water for con- 
densing and cooling purposes. The economic advantages of condensing the 
exhaust steam from the engines in power plants at the lowest possible temper- 
ature are too well known. For marine work, wherein condensing was first 
practiced on a large scale, an unlimited supply of water was readily obtained, 
while for power plants on land, a sufficiently copious supply of water is in many 
cases unattainable at any price. In refrigerating plants large quantities of cool 
water are required for the liquefaction of the refrigerating medium; in addi- 
tion thereto, water is needed to condense the steam, as this steam is now in 
most cases used for the manufacture of the ice. 

In all places where large quantities of water are needed, the local public 
water supply must be relied upon, unless a river is near enough to furnish the 
vast quantities of water required. The local water supply is generally found 
quite expensive and the river water is frequently impure, or if near the ocean, 
is affected by_Jhe tides and__be^ojBs_^mcJkish. 

The great saving~effected by cooling the water and using it over and 
over again, has been recognized for a considerable time, and means for 
obtaining this effect have been invented, which finally led to the construction 
of the modern cooling tower. That the experimental stage has been passed, 
/ is evidenced by the fact that numerous steam plants have been located where 
there is no natural water supply for condensing purposes, and have been 
equipped with condensing engines and cooling towers. This selection of site 
has been influenced by better coaling facilities, more favorable distribution of 
the electric current, the lesser cost of land away from water fronts, and the 
knowledge that results practically equal to those obtainable with a. 
natural water supply can be had with properly applied cooling towers. 

Theory of Cooling Towers* 

The principle upon which cooling towers operate is simply the spreading 
of the water to be cooled in such a way as to bring the greatest surface in 
contact with the greatest quantity of air, so that evaporation may take place 
quickly and effectively. In actual operation the water coming from the 
condenser in a heated condition, when exposed to the air, is enveloped in a 
coating of vapor which is carried away by the air currents in contact with 
its surface. This vap is continually replaced and carried away by successive 
contacts with fresh quantities of air. Each cubic foot of air has a vapor- 




THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



19 



carrying capacity which is governed by the percentage of moisture already 
in it, or, as it is called, its relative humidity. When the air is dry, its heat- 
absorbing efficiency measured by its vapor carrying capacity is high as com- 
pared to a similar quantity of air at or near the point of saturation. In other 
words, the drier the air and the greater the velocity with which it is moved 
over the surface of the water, the greater will be the vaporization of the 
water, and consequently the more effective will be the cooling of the water. 

The capacity of the air for carrying moisture increases with the rise of 
temperature. Saturated air, i.e., air which holds all the water in vapor form 
that it is capable of holding, would at a temperature of 200 F. hold 100 
times as much moisture as air in a saturated state at a temperature of 32 F., 
To vaporize a pound of water at atmospheric pressure requires the absorption 
of 966 B. T. U., and the heat thus required must be derived from the re- 
maining water, consequently its temperature is lowered unless it receives 
sufficient heat again from its surrounding air. 




Fig. 1. Klein Cooling Tower With Injector. 

There is a maximum of density for each temperature and hence of pres- 
sure which the vapor exerts. The rate of vaporization is proportional to the 
difference between the elastic force of the vapor at the surface of the liquid 
and that of the vapor actually present in the surrounding air. From this it 
follows that the vaporization will be the faster, the greater this difference. 

The efficiency of a cooling tower depends therefore greatly on 

1. The amount of water surface. 

2. The amount of air brought in contact with that surface. 

3. The difference of pressure of the vapors at the water surface and" 
the surrounding air. 

These three conditions mainly govern the rate of vaporization. The 
lowering of temperature of the water depends on the dryness of the air. 



20 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



History and Development of the Cooling Tower. 

The oldest and most simple method of cooling water was to expose the 
warm water sufficiently long to the atmosphere by running it into large open 
ponds, and a large number of such ponds can still be seen in European coun- 
tries, although they take up a considerable ground space and are not really 
satisfactory. 

An improvement on these ponds were spray coolers, that is, an arrange- 
ment to throw the warm water in a fountain-like spray into the air. It was 
soon noticed that the vapor raised in this process caused a considerable nuis- 
ance, and these coolers accordingly can only be used in a very open space. 
.Further, with even moderate air currents, a considerable portion of the water 
is blown beyond the pond. 

Klein, in Germany, has tried to overcome these defects by enclosing the 
cooling towers (Fig. 1). Here the water is drawn from a jet against slabs of 
wood, and by dropping down the tower amongst the air rushing in between 
the laths, is so thoroughly cooled that it can be drawn from the tank below 
the tower perfectly cool and be used over again for the same purpose as 
before. 

Before the modern cooling tower came into a more general use, various 




Fig.2. Fig. 3. 

Fig. 2. Cooling Device Having Corrugated Partitions. 
Fig. 3. Cooling Device Having Inclined Metal Sheets. 



other devices were employed to cool the water. Fig 2 shows corrugated sheet 
metal partitions, placed over the water tank. The water trickling down forms 
a thin film on each side of the partitions, thus offering a large cooling surface 
to the air passing through between the partitions. 

Fig. 3 shows slightly inclined metal sheets, over which the hot water 
flows in a thin layer and is caught in gutters, while the air is blown in counter 
currents through the spaces, or forced through them by natural draft by 
attaching a draft chimney to the other end, a device which is described later on. 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



One of the earlier apparatus, but which is still used to some extent iir, 
European countries on account of its high efficiency, is illustrated in Fig. 4. 
It is a water cooling device in connection with a submerged ammonia con- 
denser. It consists of a number of sheet metal disks, which are fastened to a. 




Pig. 4. Cooling Arrangement in Combination With Ammonia Condenser. 



horizontal shaft and dip at their lower edge to about one-third of the diameter 
into the cooling water of the condenser. These disks have a diameter of 4 
to 5 feet, and are arranged in groups from 50 to 80 on one shaft. The disks 
revolve slowly, 5 to 8 revolutions per minute, and become covered with a 
thin film of water and thus form a series of narrow channels, through which 
the air is blown. The condenser coils are directly underneath the system of 
disks and submerged in the tank. The water is kept in constant circulation 
around the condenser pipes by a special agitator. 





Fig. 5. Type of Rain Cooler. 



Fig 6. Type of Rain Cooler. 



Figs. 5 and 6 show two types of what is called a rain cooler. These 
coolers have the advantage that it is easy to produce a counter current between 
the air and the hot water, which, like cascades, has a downward flow from 
tray to tray. A cooling effect is also obtained in bringing the air in contact 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



with the dry underside of the trays. Both coolers may be equipped with draft 
chimneys. 

Another type of a rain cooler is illustrated in Fig. 7. The principle is 
easily understood from the drawing. A cylindrical tank is provided with a 




Fig. 7. Cylindrical Rain Cooler. 



perforated partition spirally wound around the axis of the tank. The hot 
water is showered over the highest part of the partition and is dissolved into 
an immense number of drops, which come into close contact with the air 
passing through the apparatus in countercurrent. 

Modern Cooling Towers* 

The modern cooling tower embodies all the principles underlying the 
various cooling devices heretofore described, but it differs greatly from them 
in its general appearance. The method of operation is nearly alike with every 
type and consists in the principles as follows : The hot water is pumped to 
the top of the tower, where it generally first flows into a la'rge trough, which 
runs over the whole length of the tower. From there it passes into smaller 
cross troughs, from which it falls in fine streams on to cooling hurdles below. 
By this arrangement the water is distributed equally over the whole area of 
the tower, which can be controlled and regulated while at work. This dis- 
tribution is so efficient that with only one water inlet, either in the centre or at 
one end of the tower, exactly the same quantity of water descends at every 
point of the tower. The main point is to distribute the water so that the 
greatest amount of surface is exposed, and to provide the necessary circulation 
of air. To this end various means have been employed, by letting the water 
run over cooling hurdles made in different forms. But it appears that the 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



form of these hurdles is not of such great importance as the arrangement to 
ensure a thoroughly even distribution over the entire cooling area without 
obstructing the air passage. 

At first, all the manufacturers of modern cooling towers relied for air 
circulation on the natural draft. The tower is built as an open structure with 
an open space left in the centre, which acts like a flue. ' 

In order to increase and maintain a constant air circulation, the use of 
fan blowers was employed in many cases. But the cost of p6wer necessary to 
operate the fans resulted in a third type, the natural draft; chimney type of 
cooling tower, where the tank containing the water-distributing device is 




Fig. 8. Open Cooling Tower With Brushwood.' 

carried up sufficiently high to induce draft enough to supply the required 
quantity of air. 

Modern cooling towers may therefore conveniently be divided into three 
distinct groups: 

1. The open type. 

2. The forced or fan draft type. 

3. The natural draft chimney type. 

As we have seen from the foregoing, the principle applied in all these 
three types is virtually the same, that is, to expose the, water a maximum 
length of time to a maximum amount of air. These three types will be dis- 
cussed at length in the following in their proper order. 

Open Air Type* 

This type can be well recommended where sufficient "ground area is 
available. It is' simple and cheap, as it dispenses not only with the fans, but 
does away with any enclosure entirely. 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



In its crudest form it is built up of a frame filled with bundles of brush- 
wood, which offers to the water a very large evaporation surface (Fig. 8). 

This form has now almost entirely given way to structures provided with 
wooden hurdles, the latter being so constructed that the water runs over this 
surface in thin sheets. On the under side of these hurdles there are numerous 
projections, which separate the water into drops and pass it on to the next 
hurdle, and so it is passed on from hurdle to hurdle, until there is a fine arti- 
ficial rain made, which comes into intimate contact with the outside air, the 
openings between each hurdle giving ample opportunity for free draught? 
of air. 




Fig. 9.- "Acme" Cooling Tower. 

One trouble with this style of tower lay in the fact that with moderate 
or high winds, a considerable quantity of water will blow oft". This not only 
iv c expensive from the standpoint of the cost of water, but it also seriously 
affects the operation Of the machine, besides creating more or less of a nuis- 
ance in the immediate vicinity by showering water to the ground. 

To decrease this difficulty, some manufacturers provide splash boards, 
but it seems that their efficiency is not very great and that they also impede 
the circulation of ^ air. On some of the latest towers erected, this difficulty 
has been overcome, by making the' splash boards movable. One side and one 
end of the tower are supplied with what are practically a system of Venetian 
.blinds on a large scale. These blinds are placed between the supports of the 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 25 



tower. Each slat is a seven-eighths of an inch board, eight feet long and eight 
inches wide. These slats or boards have a casting screwed to each end of the 
board and the casting forms a pin which is inserted into a hole or journal in 
another casting screwed to the tower supports. A strip is placed vertically on 
each section of slats running from top to bottom and stapled loosely to each 
slat. In this way any section of blind can be closed tightly or opened to any 
degree, just as a Venetian blind is handled. When the wind is light, the slats 
are set in a horizontal position and absolutely no obstruction to the air is of- 
fered. If the wind increases, they can be adjusted accordingly, so that at all 
times the maximum circulation of air can be realized without losing any 
water by blowing off. All connections are loosely made, so that the slats may 
shrink or swell without binding. 

The Acme Self-Cooling Water Tower, manufactured by B. F. Hart r 
New York, embodies some peculiar characteristics, which will be easily de- 
tected by looking at the illustration (Fig. 9). 

The method of operation is as follows : The hot circulating water, when 
discharged from the condenser, is pumped to the top of the tower, where it is 
distributed into a shallow pan. This pan is the upper one of a series that are 
equipped with the Acme patented spray device. The pans are carried by a 
structural steel tower strongly braced and gusseted, and open to the air on all 
sides. The heated water passes by gravity through the pans, where it is 
divided into minute particles so that a maximum surface is exposed to the 
evaporative and cooling effect of the surrounding air. The cooled water is 
caught in a receiving basin under the tower, whence it is returned to the 
condensers. 

Before concluding the chapter on the open type cooling tower, we will 
not fail to briefly mention the tower built by the Triumph Ice Machine Co., 
of Cincinnati, which is illustrated in Fig. 10. The principle is the same as 
employed in every other type, the exposure of the water in a thin sheet to the 
cooling effect of the atmosphere. This result will be increased by giving the 
tower a rotary motion against the direction of the air draught. 
. . - ' 

Forced or Fan Draught Type. 

In order to accelerate the evaporation and thus increase the efficiency of 
the cooling tower, most manufacturers of modern cooling towers obtain 
the necessarily lighter air circulation by the use of fan blowers. Fan towers 
are always recommended in cases where the quantity of hefct to be removed 
is great and where the duty is especially severe in the hot summer months. 
But the cost of power necessary to operate the fans and the wear and tear 
due to moving parts are disadvantages which have to be taken into consider- 
ation in selecting a cooling tower. The fan tower, however, is well suited for 
ammonia condenser work and for steam condensers where the space available 
is limited, or where the tower can be placed to advantage upon the roof of 
the engine or boiler house. While, of couse,' the power required to operate 
the fan is a constant charge, still, by running the fan at a reduced speed when 
the load is light or the weather is cold, and by returning the heat of the ex- 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



haust steam from the fan engine to the boiler by way of the feedwater, the 
actual charge is reduced to an inconsiderable amount. 

As we have seen, the temperature and relative humidity of the atmos- 
phere are the elements which govern the quantity of air necessarily delivered 
to the towers, and the speed of the fans must be regulated accordingly. A 




Fig. ..JO. Rotary Cooling Tower. 



great volume of air must be delivered, when the temperature and humidity 
of the air are high. The maximum figures and those on which the air de- 
livery is based, are 95 F. in the shade, with 80 per cent, saturation, as we 
will see from a table given later on. These conditions, being extreme, are 
seldom met with and are then but of comparatively short duration, but any- 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



27 



thing approaching this calls for the highest fan speed. This should vary from 
25 revolutions per minute in a 10 foot fan to 670 revolutions per minute where 
a 4 foot fan is used. 

Fans are driven most advantageously by an independent steam engine, 
where the speed may be regulated at will. Motors are used in many insia-- 
lations and make a very compact and economical fan driver where current is 
plentiful. They should be arranged for changes of speed. Shafting, when, 
located handily, is often used. 




Fig. 11. Alberger Cooling Towers. 



A good example of a fan tower is shown in Fig. 11. This cooling tower 
is made by the Alberger Condensing Co., of New York. It is cylindrical in 
shape and constructed of sheet steel. The filling consists of boards of swamp 
cypress, geometrically arranged in a regular manner, so as to positively deter- 
mine a complete and ultimate distribution of the water and the air. The fans 
of the tower are operated by a steam engine which also drives by direct con- 
nection a centrifugal circulating pump, that withdraws the hot water from 
the hot well and discharges it to the distributor of the cooling tower. The dis- 
tributor is shown in Fig. 12. It will be seen that the water issues from the 
arms of the distributor through tubes so arranged as to cause the water to 
retain its jet form until it reaches the filling, upon which it adheres and 
spreads. As each tube has to supply water for all the filling over which it 
passes during a revolution, it is of necessity of comparatively large diameter 
and does not become clogged with leaves or other similar material. The hub 
of the distributor, which carries the arms, is rotated upon a roller bearing by 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



the reaction of the jets of water, and the small amount of resistance offered 
permits of a steady and constant rotation with a very small velocity of water 
in the spouts. 

The illustration (Fig 13) shows an Alberger cooling tower as applied to 
an ice manufacturing plant, where it is not only applied for the liquefaction 
of the ammonia, but also for the water fore-cooler and the steam condenser. 
By tracing the course of the water, we see that the cold water is taken by 
the circulating pump and discharged over the ammonia condenser. After 
being partially heated, it then passes over the steam condenser and falls into 
the cooling tower, where it is cooled for re-use. When a water cooler is 
employed, a portion of the cold water is taken directly from the tower and 
allowed to pass over the water cooler, while in its coolest condition. As the 




Fig. 12. View in Top of Alberger Cooling Tower. 

circulating water, after passing over the condensers, immediately returns to 
the tower, it is evident that during a given time any amount of water up to 
the capacity of the circulating pump can be passed over the condenser. There 
is practically an unlimited supply available and there is no necessity of trying 
to cut down to the lowest possible amount, as is the case when it has to be 
pumped from a deep well or paid for when taken from the city supply. It 
will be found, therefore, that by circulating an ample amount of water, the 
final temperature of the ammonia condenser can be lowered, with a corre- 
sponding reduction of ammonia pressure and power demanded by the com- 
pressor. 

Probably one of those most frequently found is the cooling tower manu- 
factured by the Ruemmeli-Dawley Mfg. Co., of St. Louis. This tower is 
made up entirely of wood. The essential feature of this construction is an 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 




Fig. 13. Alberger Cooling Tower Installed in Ice Plant. 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 




Fig. 14. Sectional View of Ruemmeli-Dawley Cooling Tower. 



even distribution, over flat surfaces, of the water to be re-cooled. It does 
not run clown these surfaces in streaks, but flows in a uniformly thin sheet, 
over which air is blown by a fan, thus offering a large surface of water to the 
current of air that blows over it. The air causes part of the warm water to 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 




Tig. 15. Ruemmeli-Dawley Cooling Tower at Plant of Griesedieck Ice Co., St. Louis. 

evaporate, and the heat which changes the water into vapor is taken from the 
remaining body of water which is thus cooled, while the air carries away 
this heat in the form of vapor. 



32 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 




L_ - 

Fig. 16. Ruemmeli-Dawley Cooling Towers at Anheuser-Busch Ice Plant, St. Louis. 



Illustration (Fig. 14) shows a cooling tower cooling the water used over 
the ammonia condensers. The tower is located in such a manner that the 
distributing troughs are directly connected with the condenser pan, from 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



33 



which the water runs directly into and over the filling of the tower, gathers 
in the basin below and is forced from there to the top of the ammonia con- 
densers by a rotary pump driven by the same little engine which drives the 
air circulating fan of the cooling tower. 

A great number of these cooling towers are in operation in all parts of 
the United States. The tower represented in Fig. 15 is erected at the plant 
of the Griesedieck Artificial Ice Co., St. Louis, and has a capacity of 1,200,000 
gallons daily. The largest cooling tower plant is located in St. Louis, at the 
plant of the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Ass'n, where with twenty towers 
14,000,000 gallons of water are cooled per day. The photo (Fig. 16) has 





Fig. 17. Cooling Tower of International Steam Eng'g Co., New York. 



been taken at the Anheuser-Busch plant, showing a battery of five cooling 
towers, with a capacity of 3,500,000 gallons daily. 

The International Steam Engineering Co., of New York, has put a 
cooling tower on the market, in which the system of percolation seems to be 
quite a departure from the average cooling tower. While in the old method 
the precipitation of water in sheets or layers with a series of air currents im- 
pinging against the flowing water afforded but a slight contact of the air 
current against the constituent elements of the water to be cooled, the system 
of percolation adopted by this kind of cooling tower seems to have met with 
great success, according to its manufacturers. The water is pumped into 



34 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



troughs (see Fig. 17), from which lateral pipes extend, and the water is 
allowed to fall by gravity from these lateral pipes in drops to the first ro\ of 
troughs. The area of air contact in a drop of water is immediately seen to be 
large. On dropping to the first row of troughs the water is disintegrated and 
again allowed to flow from these troughs, through lateral holes in them, in 
drops of water presenting an entirely different area of contact for the ex- 
traction of heat units contained therein. This procedure is carried on con- 
tinuously throughout a series of troughs until the water has arrived at tht 




M*# UP *AL V 



OUTLC.T 

Fig. 18. Sectional Views of Barnard Wheeler Cooling Tower. 




greatest possible coolness obtainable with air currents, and the manufacturers 
claim to have obtained in practice as low as !." decrees below atmosphere. 

These towers are preferably built of brick, owing to its indestructibility 
and imperviousness to disintegration. The cupola arrangement is a particular 
feature, whereby the loss by evaporation is said to be reduced to less than 4 
per cent, of the total amount of water cooled, as the cupola retains much of 
the moisture and evaporation being held in suspension in the cupola by the 
air currents and slowly projected against the lower hoards which drain back 
to the tower. 

One of these cooling towers is built for the U. S. Government at Federal 
Prison, Atlanta, Ga. It is cooling water to seven degrees F. below surround- 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



35 






ing atmosphere with 98 per cent, humidity. The tower has a capacity of 
about 100 H.P. condensing plant, and is driven by direct slow speed motor, 
operating on the remarkably small amount of 2.9 H.P. at maximum load. 



BARNARD'S COOLING TOW.ER 




Fig. 20. Barnard Cooling Tower in Combination with Jet Condenser. 

The "Barnard" cooling tower is in a class by itself. It is constructed of 
steel plate, but may be built of brick or wood, as it is only a receptacle for the 
"mats" and system of water distribution. 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 




Fig. 19. Barnard Cooling Tower in Combination With Surface Condenser. 



The sectional views (Fig 18) show the rectangular form, within which 
are suspended vertically, and properly spaced, the required number of mats. 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 37 



These mats are made of special steel wire cloth, galvanized after weaving. 
This arrangement is said to have proven in practice to be an ideal one, as 
the mats are practically a metallic sponge capable of holding in semi-suspen- 
sion a large quantity of water, which flows slowly over the surfaces of the 
wire. The formation of the wire cloth is such that it compels a holding back 
or partial interruption of the flow and brings about a "change of front" to 
the outside films of water. 

As the quantity of water held by a square foot of the mats is small, the 
passage of the water over and through the mats is necessarily slow, affording 
ample time for the evaporative and refrigerative effect of the air currents. 

The water distribution at the top of the tower is extremely simple, each 
mat receiving its proper proportion of the total volume of circulating water, 
which is equally distributed over the upper edge of the mats and flows uni- 
formly from top to bottom. 

The fan is placed below the mats, and by reason of the uniform spacing, 
the air meets with a minimum of obstruction in its vertical path between the 
mats, thereby requiring but little power to circulate the necessary volume 
of air. 

The illustration (Fig. 19) shows a "Barnard" cooling tower in combi- 
nation with a Wheeler condensing system. The tower may be located on the 
roof of the building or other place elevated more or less above ground, where 
ground space is not available, or too expensive. Practically, there is no limit 
tc the height of a building, or structure, on which the tower may be located 
above the condenser, as the only additional duty imposed upon the circulating 
pump in lifting the water to the roof, owing to the up and down water 
columns being balanced, is caused by the friction pf the water passing through 
the pipes and condenser, and the difference in height between the top of the 
tower and the reservoir or tank at base of same. 

The Wheeler surface condenser, fitted with independent pumps, is 
claimed to be well adapted for this service and has been in use for a consid- 
erable time. The manufacturers are referring to plants in successful operation 
sufficiently long to demonstrate its unqualified success, particularly where the 
cooling towers were placed on the top of high buildings, and where there is 
a difference of fully 90 feet between the Wheeler condenser and the top of 
the Barnard cooling tower. 

In Fig. 20 the Barnard cooling tower is shown in combination with an 
independent air pump and jet condenser, the tower being located on the 
ground. In most cases the air pump, under the jet system, can be depended 
upon to maintain a fairly good vacuum, say from 22 to 24 inches, and at the 
same time elevate the water to the top of the tower. It. is not possible, 
however, to load the air pump with this double duty and obtain as high vacuum 
and maximum efficiency as would result if the air pump was confined to its 
legitimate duty and the work of elevating the water was performed by a 
water cylinder attached to the air cylinder or by a separate pump. In the 
interest of higher duty and lower cost of operation, it would seem advisable 
to use the three-cylinder type of direct-acting pumps, which is employed in 
combination with the Wheeler surface condenser, previously described. With 



38 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 











Pig. 21. Battery of Barnard Cooling Towers at Liverpool, England. 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



this arrangement a much better vacuum can be maintained and at no extra 
fxpense for power. A battery of five of these towers operating at Liverpool, 
England, is illustrated in Fig. 21. 

A novel feature is embodied in the Worthington cooling tower, which 
careful study. The sectional view (Fig. 22) shows a cylindrical steel 




HOT WATER. 



COLD WATEfy 



Fig. 22. Sectional View of Worthington Cooling Tower. 



shell open at the top, supported upon a suitable foundation, and having fitted 
at one side the fan, which circulates the current of air through the tower and 
its filling. This filling consists of layers of cylindrical tubular tiling, which 
rests upon a grating supported by a brick wall extending around the cir- 
cwmference of the tower. The heated discharge water from the condenser 



40 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



enters the tower at the side, passes up the central pipe, is delivered on the 
upper layer of tiling and over the whole cross-section of the tower by a dis- 
tributing device consisting of four pipes, which are caused to rotate about the 
central water pipe by the simple reaction of the jets of heated water issuing 
from one side of each pipe. The water thus delivered spreads over the out- 
side and inside surfaces of the walls of the tiling, and forms a continuous 
sheet, which is presented to the action of the air. The tiling are placed on 
end in horizontal layers, one upon the other, and packed as closely as possible, 
the walls of each individual tile of each succes'sive layer being disposed so as 
to come opposite the air spaces of the next lower layer, breaking joints, as it 
were, the object being in this disposition to break up both the currents of air 
and water, so that the most thorough and extended contact will take place 




Pig. 23. Worthington Cooling Tower Operating in Power Plant. 



If there are ten layers of tiling in a tower, then there are nine places, in 
addition to the original spreading at the top, at which there is a complete 
distribution of the water. It will be seen that each tile must rest on at least 
two, and possibly three in the next lower layer. Assuming, however, that 
each tile rests on only two others, a given quantity of water, placed on any 
one tile in the top layer, will be divided over at least two tiles in the second 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



layer, three in the third, four in the fourth, and so on, until it becomes spread 
over fifty-four in the lowest layer on the grating. 

The air is distributed in an equally good manner, and there is a large, 
free area with equal facility for its passage upward over the entire cross- 
-section of the tower. 







Fig. 24. Worthington Cooling Tower Operating in Refrigerating Plant. 



Figs. 23 and 24 show the Worthington cooling tower as it is connected 
to a power plant and a refrigerating plant respectively. The same tower in 
combination with the pumps and engines of a modern office building is illus- 
trated in Fig. 25. 

Chas. H. Leinert's "Only" cooling tower (Fig. 26) is, as far as we know 



42 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



this tower, indeed the only one of this particular construction. Whether it is 
-the only efficient one, has to be proven by its maker. 

The tower is of the closed type and built entirely of iron, no wood being 
used. The manufacturers claim that a high efficiency is obtained by a pe- 
culiar combination of natural and mechanical draft. 

The hot water enters a main trough on top of the tower, from where it 
is distributed into galvanized iron gutters by means of short vertical pipes. 
The gutters are provided with notches and are set over a large number of 
cooling coils, also provided with notched drip strips. In this way a uniform 
distribution of the water over every following cooling pipe is insured, result- 
ing in a comparatively slow travel downwards. 




Fig. 25. vVorthington Cooling Tower on Koor 01 .v 



rn Omce jtfuilding. 



Half way down, the cooling pipes are set at right angles to the upper 
pipes in order to produce an equal cooling effect of the water in all parts of 
the tower and to allow the air to absorb all vapor. 

The great advantage of this tower is, that the water is not only cooled 
by the air delivered by the fan but also by the outer air. The galvanized cool- 
ing pipes extend through the shell of the tower and a natural flow of air 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



4:3 



through the pipes takes place on account of the difference in temperature of 
the outer and inner surface of the cooling pipes. This air partly removes the 
sensible heat of the hot water flowing over the pipes. 1 his arrangement 
however, complicates the construction of the tower, as each end of the pipes 
has to have a stuffing box to avoid leakage. 

The manufacturer claims that the fan need only be used during the hot 
summer months, as experiments have shown that the natural draft through 
the fan opening and the cooling pipes will cool the water sufficiently, while an 
additional draft may be caused by opening the door of the fan house. 

A cooling tower of quite unique design has been patented by A. Siebert, 






piiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimii 





Fig. 26. The "Only" Cooling Tower. 



St. Louis (see Fig. 27). It consists of a framework, with four columns and 
with channel beams fastened to them on both sides, further securely tied by 
tie rods on the narrow side and sideplates of cast-iron on the long side. The 
whole tower is made of iron, no wood being used or soldering done. 

The sheets, over which the water is run and air is passed in a thin film 
and at high pressure, are placed in an angle of 22^, and are 10 feet long 
and formed in several zigzags, so as to revert the current of the water just as 
many times; the sheets are made of galvanized corrugated sheet iron. The 
?ngle is so selected that no water is standing in depressions and yet the flow 



44 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



of water retarded very much, as it has to rise and fall l /% inch every \y^ 
inches. This makes the water flow in the thinnest possible film without sput- 
tering, and induces evaporation without carrying water particles along. 

The air is passed over the outer and lower edge of the sheets rapidly 
2nd in a thin film, following the corrugations, and therefore can thoroughly 
and quickly exchange heat with the water. For it is evident that both sides 
(top and bottom) of the corrugated sheets transmit heat, one from the air 
through the very thin galvanized iron and finally to the water, and the 
ether being covered with water to it direct. 

Natural Draught Chimney Type* 

This type is now very frequently used for large installations, as it com- 
bines low cost with small ground space, and absence from any nuisance from 
vapor or spray. The cooling hurdles are enclosed in a chimney, and the tem- 
perature difference between the warm water and the surrounding air produces 
a draught similar to an ordinary chimney stack. The air enters at the bottom 
of the tower, and the vapor raised leaves the cooler at such a height that it is 





Fig. 27. A. Siebert's Cooling Tower. 

practically at once absorbed by the atfosphere. These towers are built either 
totally of wood, iron or both combined. 

The Alberger natural draft cooling tower is about 80 feet high, and con- 
sequently should be placed on the ground level. It is an excellent machine to 
use when it is desirable to convey the vapor from the tower above adjoining 
buildings, or where the tower must be at some distance from the engine room 
and such a location renders inconvenient the transmission of power to the fan 
of a fan tower. The arrangement of filling is at the extreme bottom of the 
tower, and air is allowed to enter around the piers that support the structure 
of the tower. The distributor is the same as that used with the fan towers, 
and the stack is connected to the top of the tower by means of a conical section, 
as illustrated in Fig. 28. 

It will be seen that the circulating pump comprises hot and cold watei 
pumps, operated by the same steam end. The cold water pump derives its 
supply of water from the cold well of the cooling tower and discharges into 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



the barometric condenser, being assisted by the vacuum in the latter. The 
water there condenses the exhaust steam from the engines and falls down the 
barometric tube against the atmospheric pressure to the hot well; from the 
latter it is removed by the hot water pump and discharged to the distributor 
of the cooling tower. After falling through the cooling tower and becoming 
cooled by the evaporation caused by contact with the ascending air, it finally 
reaches the cold well cooled for re-use in the condenser. 




NATURAL DRAFT 
COOLING TOWER 



COLD WELL OVERFLOW 

Fig. 28. Alberger Natural Draft Cooling Tower. 



The Barnard- Wheeler water cooling tower is also built as a natural draft 
chimney type, as will be seen from the illustration (Fig. 29). It differs in its 
essential features in no respect from the forced draft type, which has been 
described above, with the exception that the fan has been omitted and a stack 
attached to the tower, to induce natural draft. 

In illustration (Fig. 30) we recognize the old rain cooler, illustrated as 
Fig. 3. The cooler is operated in combination with a condensing system, and 
consists of the condenser, the rain cooler, and the draft chimney. This design 
is a German one, and, characteristic to this nation, combines an efficient cool- 
ing arrangements with beauty in design. 

The Worthington cooling tower is also built as a natural draft tower, and 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



as such is illustrated in Fig. 31. The construction of the tower is practically 
the same as the fan tower, except that the circulation of the air is caused by 
the draught produced by the stack placed above the filling of the tower. The 
air enters at the bottom around the periphery of the tower, passes up through 




Fig. 29. Barnard Natural Draft Cooling Tower. 

the filling, and there meets and cools the circulating water and passes up and 
out through the stack. The stack is so proportioned as in give about the same 
velocity and quantity of air as with the fan tower, and the results are claimed 
o he equally good as regards the cooling effect. 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 







Fig. 31. Worthington Natural Draft Cooling Tower. 



48 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



Advantages of a Cooling Tower. 



Cooling towers possess operative advantages of considerable importance. 
When they are used, the water supply to the condensers is not liable to be cut 
off by ice or other foreign material, nor the suction lost on account of low 
water, as is not infrequently the case, where rivers, subject to considerable rise 
and fall are the source of the condensing water. The presence of a supply of 
water in the cooling tower, at practically the ground level, allows the con- 
densing apparatus to carry large over-loads without loss of the suction. The 
fixed suction lift thus obtained assures the delivery of a constant quantity of 
water to the condenser without the use of complicated speed-governing de- 
vices, which are necessary when a varying suction lift exists, as is the case 




Fig. 30. Natural Draft Cooling Tower in Combination With Rain Cooler. 

where the condensing water is taken from a source subject to rise and fall due 
t< > tide or climatic conditions. 

Freedom from' foreign material permits of the use of a more complete 
spraying device in the condenser, and a higher efficiency follows; further- 
more, the durability of the condenser is enhanced as the water usually con- 
tains trie oil from the cylinder lubrication of the main engines, and is free from 
any material that can wear the moving parts. 

The use of cooling towers also relieves the condenser and pumps from 
corrosive action caused by the presence of salt and some chemicals often found 
in natural water supplies. 

It is these and other seemingly small points that when grouped together 
have proved very valuable to the every-day running of a steam plant. There 
TS nothing so objectionable as the loss of a vacuum through the stoppage of the 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 49 

water supply. Even if the station can carry the load with the engines running 
non-condensing, they will be at a great disadvantage and will usually show 
harshness of action, which may result in a serious disarrangement. A single 
occurrence of this kind more than offsets any slight difference of steam econ- 
omy by the use of cooling towers instead of a natural water supply. 

Economy of Cooling Towers and Results in Cooling* 

There is, of course, a certain loss of water by evaporation, but this rarely 
exceeds ten per cent, of the water cooled, while under favorable conditions of 
the air it does not exceed five per cent. 

The saving of water is, therefore, from ninety to ninety-five per cent., 
and where a large condensing plant would, for instance, require 1,000,000 
gallons of water per day, it will by use of the cooling towers need only from 
50,000 to 100,000 gallons per day. 

Take city water at 10 cents per 1,000 gallons, 1,000,000 gallons would 
cost $100, while 100,000 gallons would cost only $10, thus effecting a saving 
of $90 per day. About 1,000,000 gallons per day are needed for the steam 
condensers of a 500 horse-power condensing engine. A 500 horse-power 
non-condensing engine would require about nineteen tons of coal per day, and 
running condensing the saving would be about five tons of coal, which at 
$3.50 per ton would be $17.50 per day. Condensing water with the use of 
cooling towers would cost $10 100,000 gallons), the net saving equaling 
$7.50 per day, or $2,700 per year. ' 

The following data are supplied by the Ruemmeli-Dawley Mfg. Co., 
and show the results in cooling obtained by the use of cooling towers : 

For ammonia condensers, with the air at 95 F. and 37 per cent, humidity : 

Initial temperature of water entering cooling tower 100 F. 

Final temperature of water leaving cooling tower 71 F. 



Result in cooling . . , 29 F. 

For steam condensers, with the air at 95 F. and 44 per cent, humidity: 

Initial temperature of water entering cooling tower 160 F. 

Final temperature of water leaving cooling tower 81 F. 



Result in cooling 79 F. 

The tables below give a series of tests at different temperatures and 
different degrees of humidity of the air . 

The International Steam Engineering Co., of New York, has conducted 
a series of tests on their cooling tower, which has been described above. The 
table given elsewhere shows the results of these tests, which indicate a remark- 
ably high efficiency. 

Capacity and Size of Cooling Towers* 

When we consider the requirements in a power plant, we will see that 
the work of a cooling tower lies in abstracting sufficient heat from the circulat- 
ing water to reduce its temperature enough to use it again in the condenser. 



50 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



FOR AMMONIA CONDENSERS. 



FOR STEAM CONDENSERS. 



Temperature of Air 
in the Shade. 


Humidity of the Air. 


Temperature of 
Warm Water. 


Temperature of 
Cooled Water. 


95 


37 per cent. 


100 


71* 


84 


67 per cent. 


100 


75* 


77 


40 per cent. 


100 


11* 


70 


48 per cent. 


90 


60- 


1 


42 per cent. 


86 


72 


88 


42 per cent. 


86 


8H' 


80 


70 per cent. 


85 


71* 



Temperature of Air 
in the Shade. 


Humidity of the Air. 


Temperature of 
Warm Water. 


Temperature of 
Cooled Water. 


95 
95 
94 


44 per cent. 
41 per cent. 
43 per cent. 


160 
140* 
120 


tr 

79 
76* 



This means a reduction from about 120 F. to 80 F., when a vacuum of about 
25 inches is to be maintained. Vacuum results are measured, aside from the 
air displacement, by the quantity and temperature of the cooling water. When 
the temperature is low, the quantity required is correspondingly small. The 
question becomes one of proportion, and the ratio of water to that of exhaust 
steam to be condensed is determined by the following formula : 



H T 



rn 



T T 



Where H = total heat in exhaust steam. 

T = temperature of discharge. 

T* == temperature of suction. 

R = ratio. 
With conditions mentioned above, this would be 



1150 _ 120 



120 80 



= 2;..;. 



Or, 25.7 Ibs. of cooling are required to condense each pound of exhaust steam 
to maintain a vacuum of 25 inches when the temperature of the circulating- 
water is 80 F. 

In order, now, to find the amount of cooling water required per hour JKT 
horse-power of engine, \ve must first determine -hat kind of engine is to he 
used, as on this depends the steam consumption. 

The following table shows the average operation of a steam engine for 
one horse-power per hour : 

A direct acting steam pump uses r?n Ibs. su-am per H.P. per hour. 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 51 



A plain slide valve engine uses 60 to 70 Ibs. steam per H.P. per hour. 

A high speed automatic engine uses 30 to 50 Ibs. steam per H.P. per hour. 

A Corliss simple non-cond. engine uses 25 to 28 Ibs. steam per H.P. 
per hour. 

A Corliss comp. non-cond. engine uses 23 to 26 Ibs. steam per H.P. per hour. 

A Corliss simple condensing engine uses 19 to 21 Ibs. steam per H.P. 
per hour. 

A Corliss compound condensing engine uses 13 to 15 Ibs. steam per H.P. 
per hour. 

When it is taken into consideration that the average boiler will evaporate 
8 Ibs. of water per Ib. of coal, it is very easy to determine how much coal is 
required and how much can be saved through the operation of the condensing 
system attached to a simple or compound engine. 

Upon the quantity and terminal temperature of the circulating water is 
based the area of surface necessary in the tower to cool the water. The ap- 
paratus will handle to good advantage only that quantity for which it is de- 
signed. Greater quantities lessen its efficiency. For best results the attendant 
should regulate the speed of his pump in order to deliver the proper quantity of 
water required to meet the varying conditions. 

By determining the necessary proportions of a cooling tower installation, 
the following data may be used to good advantage : 

TOWERS WITH INJECTOR. The pressure required for the jet is from 48 
to 66 feet. Two sizes of injectors are commonly employed. The capacity of 
the smaller one, which is y% inch in diameter, is from 10^/2 to 12^4 cub. m. per 
hour, covering a spray surface of from 5 to 7 sq. m., and resulting in lowering 
the temperature of from 30 to 35 C. 

The large injector of ^4-inch diameter will handle from 14J/2 to 18 cub. m. 
per hour, covering a spray surface of from 7 to 10 sq. m., and lowering the tem- 
perature 30 to 38 C. 

The cooling surface may be calculated as follows : About 0.3 sq. m. to cool 
20 to 30 C for one H. P. of comp. cond. engine. About 0.1 sq m. to cool 10 
to 15 C. for one H.P. of comp. cond. engine. 

Towers with injectors are expensive to operate, as the work of the pump 
consumes about 3 to 4 per cent, of the engine. 

NATURAL DRAFT TOWER. The cooling of the water depends, as has been 
outlined before, on atmospheric conditions and amount of water. The required 
surface may be taken on the same basis as for towers with injectors. 

FORCED DRAFT TOWER. The cooling surface may be taken to about 
0.035 sq. m. for one H. P. of comp. cond. engine. The suction of the fan is 
about y^ inch. For lifting the water and running the fan about 4.5 to 6 per 
cent, of the engine are consumed, which makes the operation quite an expense 
when compared with the other systems, but which is greatly counterbalanced 
by obtaining constant and positive results and saving in the first cost of instal- 
lation. 

The dimensions of a Worthington cooling tower are about as follows : 
An apparatus suitable for 1,000 horse-power is 17 feet in diameter and 30 
feet high. The suction tank, which is placed directly under the tower and in 



52 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



the foundation, is 8 feet in diameter and 7 feet deep, and contains about 2,000 
gallons of circulating water, this being a sufficient quantity to fill the con- 
denser pump, pipes and tower on starting up, and to carry on continuously 
the transfer of heat from the exhaust steam to the atmospheric air. 




Fig. 32. Views of Cooling Tower Giving General Dimensions (See Tables. 



As the forced draft tower seems to have met with general favor, it has 
become desirable, when figuring on installing cooling towers, to have some 
tables to go by in laying out a plant, and for this reason we will append here a 
few tables, stating general dimensions, capacity, size of fan, etc., of the fan 
cooling towers, as manufactured by the Ruemmeli-Dawley Co., of St. Louis, 
and the De La Vergne Machine Co., of New York. 



Size and Weight of Cooling Towers. 



No. of 


MAIN DIMENSIONS. 


Weight 


Tower. 


A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


f 


G 


H 


in Ibs. 


I 


s f iiy 2 " 


8' 6y 2 " 


6 ft. 


9' r 


24' 9" 


32' 


is r i\y 2 " 


19' 6/ 2 " 


25,000 


II 


9' 9y 2 " 


8'11 J/z" 


6 ft. 


9' 3" 


24' 9" ! 32' 


19' 9^" 


19'll/ 2 " 


28,500 


III 


10' 2y 4 n 


9' 9!/ 2 " 


6 ft. 


9'10" 


24' 9" 


32' 


20' 2y 4 " 


20' 9i/>" 


32,000 


IV 


11' 5/ 2 "|10' 7/ 2 " 


7 ft. 


10' 4" 


24' 9" i 32' 


21' 5//'|22' 7/ 2 " 


39,000 


V 


13' 3/2" 


12' 5/ 2 " 


7 ft. 


11' 4" 


24, 9" 


32' 23' 3y 2 " 


24' 5^2" 


46,000 


VI 


14' 6y 4 " 


13' 3y 2 " 


7 ft. 


12' 6" 


25' S" 


32' 9" 


24' 6y 4 " 


25' 3^2" 


53,000 


VII 


16' 4K"'15' \y 2 " 


7 ft. 


13' 4" 


25' 8" 32' 9" 


26' 454" 


27' l/ 2 " 


59,000 


VIII 


17' 7y 2 "\\v 4y 2 " 


8 ft. 


14' 9" 


27' 4" 


34' 7" 


27' 7^" 


29' 4^" 


65,700 


IX 


18'10K"U7' 2y 2 " 


8 ft. 


15' 3" 27' 4" 


34' 7" i?8'10^" 


30' 2y 2 " 


71,700 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



53 



Cooling Capacity of Cooling Towers* 



|*r 

cxc - 

s^- 

bo8> 

a c~ 
^o"^^ 

>>< 

--.s 


Coding Capacity 
in Gallons in 
24 hours fur: 


sl 
t-P s 

8ST3S 

itl 

Q, O 3 
*! O r. 

w 


Ammonia 
CONDE 


Steam 
NSERS 


I 
II 

III 

IV 
V 
VI 
VII 
VIII 
IX 


50,000 
75,000 
100,000 
150,000 
200,000 
250,000 
300,000 
400,000 
500,000 


100,000 

150,000 
200,000 
300,000 
400,000 
500,000 
600,000 
800,000 
1,000,000 


50 
75 
100 
150 
200 
250 
300 
400 
500 



Sire of Fans. 





c/i 

- C 




ll 


75 




"c^ 2 " 1 


JU 


3 ^ 


n 




g+H 


3 


OH u 


(ti 







OH 


O 


^ 


"3 si 


03 


'-H-i 




_ 


*-fc- 


> 


4) 


aj 


O 


di 


O o 


N 


N 


!U 






C/} 


'cH 




X 


I 


1 6ft. 


15"x 8" 11 00 125 


1 1^ 


II 


1 6ft. 


15"x 8" 


150-170 


1^ 2 


III 


1 7ft. 


18"x 9" 


140150 


2 2^ 


IV 


1 8ft. 


24"x 9 


140150 


3 l / 2 4 


V 


1 9ft. 


28"xlO" 


130140 


5 6 


VI 


1 10ft. 


30"xll"1130 1401 79 


VII jl 10ft. 
VIII |1 12ft. 


30"xll"1145 150 
36"xl2 / "110 120 


10 -12 
13 15 


IX |1 12ft. 


36"xl2"|140 150|16 20 



LOG READINGS OF "ACME" COOLING TOWER. 

BY B. F. HART. 



From a paper read before the American Society of Refrigerating Engineers. 

The readings shown below were taken at the Arnholt & Schaefer Brew- 
ing Company's plant, Thirty-first and Thompson streets, Philadelphia, Pa., 
from an "Acme" self-cooling tower measuring 14' x 18' x 35' high. 

There are five (5) decks of spraying pans placed 7' apart, the pan surface 
on the top deck being 77 square feet. The tower was designed to cool 250 
gallons of water per minute, guarantee being to reduce the water to 80 de- 
grees F. when the temperature of the atmosphere did not exceed 80 degrees 
F. nor the relative humidity 80 degrees. 

These readings show observations taken daily and covering the months 
of July, August, September and half of October and show that this tower was 
doing excellent work. 

The tower is placed on an exposed corner of the building, directly over: 



54 THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



the ammonia condensers. The water is caught by a concrete collecting pan 
lined with asphalt. The discharge water from the condensers drops to a 3" 
American Well Works belt-driven centrifugal pump, the pump discharging to 
the top of the tower, a point 65' above same. The horse-power necessary to 
run this pump is 7.8. The cooling tower, therefore, is doing its work and a 
glance at the results show that the average temperature of the water leaving 
the tower throughout the month of July was 79.1 degrees F., during August 
it was 79.4 and during September it was 68.7 degrees, so that this plant pro- 
duced an ample quantity of cold water throughout the heated season without 
the use of fans and with the total expense of operation of 7.8 H.P. per hour 
for driving the centrifugal pump. The pump in this case was placed so far 
below the condenser for the reason that an engine was available at that point 
to drive it. 



DISCUSSION ON COOLING TOWERS AT THE MEETING OF THE 

A, S. R. E. t J906. 

EDGAR I'KNNEY: May I ask the capacity of the tower you mention per 
hour ? 

B. FRANKLIN HART, JR. : Two hundred and fifty gallons per minute. 
EDGAR PENNEY: What is the number of pounds or gallons of water you 
lost through evaporation, etc. ? 

B. FRANKLIN HART, JR. : We had no way of measuring that, because we 
had no meters. They are quite expensive things to put in. We know that the 
only water lost w r as from evaporation, and such as might sometimes be blown 
off the tower in the form of spray. 

EDGAR PENNEY : You do not know how much water you handled ? 

B. FRANKLIN HART, JR. : We know from our figures that we were hand- 
ling from two hundred to two hundred and fifty gallons per minute. 

AI.HKRT A. GARY: I would like to ask Mr. Hart what form of hygrom- 
eter was used in those tests? 

13. FRANKLIN HART, JR.: A wet and dry bulb hygrometer. We made 
the calculations from the table. 

\uiERT A. GARY: Were the wet and dry bulbs placed against the wall 
of the building? 

B. FRANKLIN HART, JR. : The readings were taken in the condenser room 
where it was all open. The condensers were placed on what had formerly been 
the roof of the building, but the walls had been carried up for an extension 
and the tower placed on it. The roof was open, except for the tower, and 
the hygrometer was placed so it was handy for the engineer. 

ALBERT A. GARY: I asked the question with the point in view that the 
water tower depends a great deal upon the humidity in the atmosphere; that 
is a very important matter in obtaining data comvrning efficiencies, and if we 
wish to use the data for future references, it is very necessary for us to know 
the true humidity of the air. The ordinary hygrometer screwed against the 
vail, with no disturbance of air surrounding it. does not give true readings. 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 55 



The Weather Bureau of the United States Government found that to be true, 
and they use an instrument which I think they call a psychrometer. It is a 
wet and dry bulb placed on a board, and when made to revolve rapidly the 
dead air will not collect around the bulb as of an ordinary thermometer. In 
reading the hygrometer when placed against the wall, I found that it is well, 
if you have no better conditions, to take a fan and fan it until your reading 
becomes stationary. You will then find a change of reading on your wet bulb. 
If it can be placed in the current of an electric fan, then you get much better 
and truer results, but the information is so important in the study of cooling 
towers that this matter must be taken into consideration. 

B. FRANKLIN HART: As Mr. Gary says, the relative humidity is the key 
to the whole situation, and we were as careful as we could be in ordinary 
practice. Of course, it was simply a commercial hygrometer which was used, 
and there was no special precaution taken in the way of testing or anything 
of that kind, but, as he says, the humidity is the main thing. 

JOHN E. STARR: Another experience with the water tower is in regard 
t(> the precipitation of solids; theoretically, at least, the efficiency of the tower, 
of course, depends on evaporation. The water so evaporated does not, of 
course, carry with it any of the solids that may have been in suspension in 
the water. Hence, the expectation would be that, in course of time, with ad- 
ditions of water, the water being cooled would become rich in solids in suppres- 
sion. It would seem that the solids could not get away by evaporation, and 
hence they must either remain in the water or be deposited in the piping of 
the apparatus. I suppose that in an open condenser this feature may not 
be a very bad one, but in the enclosed type of condenser, or perhaps in spiral 
piping, it might be worse, and I would like to know r if Mr. Hart has any data 
on this subject, or whether any of the other members have noted any bad 
effects in this direction. 

B. FRANKLIN HART, JR. : Of course, as Mr. Starr says, the deposits 
would precipitate. All that would come down at the temperature of the water, 
^ind I have come in contact with cases where the water used was very heavily 
laden with carbonates of lime and magnesia, so much so that when the water 
was used solely as a cooling medium the precipitation was so great that in a 
few months it filled up all the outlets and passages, and filled up the sewers so 
that the city officials complained. The tower was put in to help this. In this 
case the condenser was submerged, so that the only annoyance they had after 
the tower was in use, that they had to sweep the tower quite often to get rid 
of the small accumulation which would deposit in the pans, which would be 
due to the make-up water, which was in the neighborhood of five per cent. ; 
but the deposit on the pipes in the submerged condensers was very great, 
and it had to be pounded off every once in a while to keep the system going. 
I think the same people who did that will, in another installation, have to 
<ut out the use of well water entirely and get necessary make-up from the 
city main. 

HENRY W. MAURER: The instrument -that Mr. Gary described is quite 
familiar to refrigerating men, and you will probably recognize what Mr. Gary 
is driving at. Possibly in ice making plants no occasion is had to use a psy- 
-dirotneter, nevertheless, the device has been on the market a good many years. 



56 THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



and has been found very efficient for exceedingly close determinations of 
moisture, which you are aware, of course, exists. 

THE PRESIDENT : Perhaps Mr. Burhorn will give us a word or two on 
cooling towers. 

EDWIN BURHORN : I have not as good a test plant as Mr. Shipley speaks 
about, and I have not experimented long enough to be able to present anything 
that I think would be interesting to the society, but I might state that in one 
of the tests we are making we are using recording thermometers, which re- 
cord the temperature of the water going through the tower, and coming from 
the tower every minute of the twenty-four hours. Now, in Mr. Hart's tests 
I do not know how often he took his readings, but the conditions vary so much 
during the day that it is quite important to know whether the readings were 
taken at the most favorable or unfavorable time in order to get a fair average 
determination. We also find that we can cool the water from a high tempera- 
ture, say one hundred and thirty or one hundred and forty degrees, down to 
atmospheric temperature, and the thermometric cooling depends also on the 
way the tower is designed to a great extent; that is, the amount of water dis- 
tributed per square foot of tower. The efficiency also varies with the capacity 
of the tower. A small tower is more efficient per square foot than a large 
tower, and all those points cannot very well be determined theoretically. It 
is a matter of practice, and we are trying to find out those things, and as soon 
as we get it in shape we exject to present it to the society, and we hope it will 
be of interest. 

E. N. FRIEDMANN : I would like to ask a question. How would he ar- 
range a cooling tower in the case where an ammonia condenser is used, and a 
steam or surface condenser, where the temperature would be one hundred and 
thirty or one hundred and forty degrees? Would he use one or two cooling 
towers ; one for the ammonia and one for the steam condenser ? 

B FRANKLIN HART, JR. : In answering Mr. Friedmann's question I would 
state that we have found that the results are better in each case if a separate 
tower is used for each function. The fact is, the water for the ammonia 
condenser, when it gets much above eighty degrees, not exceeding eighty-five, 
the efficiency of the tower goes backward very fast, whereas for steam con- 
densing, under known vacuum 'conditions, if the water be reduced to one 
hundred degrees, it will be fairly efficient. The conditions of temperature are 
so different that it has been our advice to buyers to use two towers, one tower 
for each part of the work. 



DEEP WELL VERSUS COOLING TOWER. 



This question was discussed by Alfred Siebert in Ice & Refr. as follows: 

Two very important questions must be discussed before we can decide the 

relative advantages of deep wells and cooling towers. They are: First, cost 

or amount of interest and deterioration on investment, 6 per cent. + 7 per 

cent. = 13 per cent. Second. Economy in coal used. I give herewith a table 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 57 



obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture, Weather Bu- 
reau, St. Louis, Mo., which will show average amount of humidity and av- 
erage temperature during the hottest months of 1903 and 1904 : 

Date. Av. Temperature. Av. Humidity. 

Degrees. Per cent. 

July, 1903 80.8 60.7 

Aug., 1903 76.4 70.7 

Sept., 1903 69.6 76.0 

July, 1904 76.0 69.9 

Aug., 1904 74.4 69.6 

Sept., 1904 71.0 75.2 ? 



Average 74.7 70.3 

Temperature of well water is seldom below 62, and since average tem- 
perature of air in hot weather is 74.7, we can surely cool the water 15, or 
to 59.7 or 60, or even below the temperature of the well water on the 
average. But of course in rainy and warm weather we can not cool water be- 
low temperature of the air in the shade, but such days are rare, and we can 
get two or three times the amount of water by furnishing a larger tower, while 
well capacity is generally limited. Using twice the amount of water, the 
water will be heated only 7^ instead of 15, and temperature of liquid and 
condensing pressure considerably lower, liquid temperature 7J^ lower, and 
condensing pressure as many pounds as correspond to the condensing pressure 
then prevailing. Since a 75-ton ice plant requires 300,000 gallons of water per 
ciay, it would require an addition of 8 per cent, of 300,000 = 24,000 gallons 
per day from either city or well to make up for evaporation. 

As to first expense, 300,000 gallons capacity per minute, including 
water distributing device, costs about $1,500; 300,000 centrifugal pump lift- 
ing water forty-five feet high, $45; water connections about $200; founda- 
tion about $300 ; or a total of $2,045. 

The cost of well and pump, capacity 300,000 gallons, is for drilling 10- 
inch tubular wells, including black pipe casing, lumber for derrick, labor, 
freight, etc., $5 .25 per foot, per well, or $525 ; deep well pumps,- 12 x 36, with 
steam end fitted for ten-inch well and six-inch discharge pipe, one 10xG6-inch 
plain brass working barrel and valves complete, thirty-six inch stroke, one 
ten-inch gum packer with brass attached for fastening working barrel in posi- 
tion ;100 feet 3^2-inch ash woo4 pump rod. complete with 1^-inch straight 
pin and box ; one No. 3 air chamber with six-inch discharge, check valve com- 
bined ; one ten-inch patent brass tube well strainer twenty feet long total cost 
for all these, $695 ; cost of connections about $200, and for steam and exhaust 
connections, $300, or a grand total of $1,720. 

Now as to consumption of coal for operation : Blower of cooling tower 
requires, with three-inch water pressure, twelve-horse power;, centrifugal 
pumps, 208 gallons per minute, 3.8 horse-power; a total of 15 .8 horse-power. 

The deep well has to lift the water 100 feet, and to discharge it forty- 
five feet high, water needs to be raised only from ground floor to top of am- 
monia condenser in a cooling tower plant, then it is raised from, condenser 
pan to top of cooling tower tank, in all only forty-five feet. The power re- 
quired for this, including friction in pipes, is 7 . 62 horse-power ; by figuring 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



a loss of 15 per cent, in loss of efficiency, from dynamo to motor, we have, in 
round figures, nine horse-power. However, if direct acting steam pumps are 
used, water rate per horse power is increased as 32 is to 125, or about four 
times, therefore power would cost 4 X 9 == 36 horse-power, considering the 
boiler horse-power, and therefore coal consumption for deep well pump would 
<l>e twice as much as that for cooling tower. 

This shows, in my opinion conclusively, that considering the risk we 
take in drilling wells, and that we may perhaps get no water at all, or bad 
water, or not enough, it is well to dig just one well, because in ice plants, well 
water at, say, C2, effects a great saving in capacity, and ice making capacity, 
especially in rainy, warm weather when using cooling tower. We have two 
items of saving: First, the cooling of the liquid after it leaves ammonia con- 
densers, and before it evaporates ; second, the cooling of the condensed water 
before it enters cans. Three hundred thousand gallons of water are sufficient for 
a seventy-five ton ice plant. This means that 80 X 2,000 = 160,000 pounds 
of condensed water must be cooled, say, from 90 to 65; 90 being temper- 
ature of water coming from cooling tower in rainy weather, 90 temperature 
of air, and 62 being temperature of well water, therefore 28 can be taken 
out by well water if proper heat exchange is used. This will require only 
about 10 per cent, more well water than condensed water to be cooled, or 
16,000 + 10 P er cent - == 2,000 gallons per day. Each ton of ice made re- 
quires about 1,200 pounds of liquid to be cooled, therefore a seventy-five ton 
plant requires 90,000 pounds; this again being cooled under the same condi- 
tion as above, requires 10 per cent, more well water than liquid circulated, or 
90,000 + 10 per cent. = 99,000 pounds = = 12,000 gallons per day. 

Boiler would require, if highest economic plant is used, just as much 
steam as there is ice made plus 10 per cent, allowance for waste, or 75 X 
2,000 +10 per cent., or same as condensed water. Two thousand gallons 
evaporation on tower is about 8 per cent; eight-hundredths of 300,000 == 24,- 
000 gallons, must be furnished by the pump, or the total of 2,000 + 12,000 + 
2,000 + 24,000, or 40,000 gallons. He said it would be advisable to dig at 
least one well and to take the risk of throwing money away, and then when 
assured that sufficient water, and of the proper purity and temperature can 
be had, to use deep well pumps, operated by electric motors and dynamos. Of 
course, if this extra quantity of 40,000 gallons could be bought cheaper from 
z: neighbor or the city, then no deep well pumps would be required. 

The increase in capacity of this plant ill using well water for the above 
mentioned use of well water can be ascertained. Latent heat is 488 th.u. at 
218 pounds condensing pressure, which pressure will be obtained when water 
enters condenser gutter, at 90 liquid leaves, then at 105 (15 taken up), 
while if liquid is cooled to 65 the amount of heat needed to cool the liquid it- 
self is reduced. Assuming twenty-seven pounds suction pressure and 14 
temperature of evaporation, then 105 -- 65 = = 40 th.u. is abstracted, and the 
amount of work of each pound* of liquid is increased in proportion, as 488 
105:488- r,:, = 383 : 423, or 383 X 1-"' = 100 X X; X = - 423 X 100 + 
383 = = 11 per cent. 

Now as to the cooling of the condensed water, we cooled this from 90 
10 f ( .V\ Heat required to make one pound of ice is 284 th.u. Therefore 90 - 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



65 = 25 ; or 25 -=- 284 = 1-llth, or 9 per cent, saving in heat absorbing 
capacity of freezing coils. 



ATMOSPHERIC CONDENSATION VERSUS COOLING TOWER. 



At the Southwestern Ice Manufacturers' Convention at Houston, Tex., 
1905, Mr. M. F. Smith read a paper as follows : 

In refrigerating plants it is the duty of the condensers to dispel the lat- 
ent heat taken up by the ammonia in the cooling rooms or ice freezing tanks 
The customary vehicle used to carry off this heat is water. In localities where 
a copious supply of water is obtainable it may be passed over the condensers, 
where it absorbs the heat and passes off to the sewer. 

Since the introduction of cooling towers to relieve this circulating water 
of the latent heat which it carries, many plants have been installed where the 
water supply is limited, the customary plan being to pass the water first over 
the ammonia condenser, then over the steam condenser, after which it is car- 
ried to the cooling tower to dispel the heat emitted by both condensers. 

We have on exhibition in this city a small working model of a new steam 
condenser, which utilizes the cooling properties of saturating air instead of a 
large volume of cool water as a cooling agent. 

The condenser proper consists of a series of galvanized steel flasks,, 
mounted in a housing which acts as a flue, being without roof or floor. The 
flasks are made in such size as the capacity and conditions of the plant may 
require and are constructed with internal horizontal partitions, which bound 
a continual fore and aft course for the steam from the inlet at a lower corner 
to the outlet at an upper corner. Each flask is equipped with a gutter at the 
top, which is accurately adjustable and may be set perfectly level to overflow 
in a thin film over both sides of the flask the entire length of the gutter. 

The circulating water is fed into this gutter and passes in a thin sheet 
over the outer surface of the flask, keeping its entire outer surface thoroughly 
wetted down, dropping from its lower edges into a catch-basin, from which 
it is returned to the supply tank, to be again pumped over the flasks. Thus 
this water is used over again and again, the only loss being that which vapor- 
izes from the wet flasks and passes into the atmosphere, carrying off the heat, 
never exceeding 50 per cent, of the weight of the steam condensed. 

The condensing steam is inside the flasks. Entering at a lower corner, 
it travels in a winding course from bottom to top, pushing the non-condensable 
gases before it to an upper corner, where they issue into the atmosphere. The 
condensation water, freed of these gases, passes off from an outlet at the 
bottom. 

The advantages to be gained by this atmospheric system of steam con- 
densation are : Reduced water consumption, as there is no loss of circulating 
water, except that which vaporizes from the wet flasks, carrying off the heat. 
Reduced ammonia pressure, as this condenser relieves the cooling tower of 
the duty of dispelling the heat from the condensing steam, which is four 



60 THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



times greater than that from the condensing ammonia, so that the cooling 
tower is able to perform its greatly reduced duty at a much lower temperature, 
reducing the ammonia pressume correspondingly and resulting in a gratify- 
ing effect upon the coal consumption, a better and more marketable cake of 
ice, as by this system the gases which form the core in the ice cake are en- 
tirely expelled from the condensation water which passes from the condens- 
ing flask absolutely free of gas, practically eliminating the core in the ice. 

The circulating water passing over the flasks deposits its scale upon their 
outer surfaces, from which it can easily be removed without loss of time, and 
becomes a most desirable boiler feed, dispensing with the expense and trouble 
of frequently cleaning the boilers. 

Each flask acts independently of the others, and when it is desirable to 
remove the scale from the surface each can in turn be shut out of service, when 
the scale immediataely dries out, cracks, and the edges of the pieces curl so that 
a light tap of a mallet brings it down in a shower. 

We also have an ammonia condenser which utilizes the cooling properties 
of saturating air. This consists of a housing built over and about an ordinary 
pipe ammonia condenser, which, by virtue of construction and position, takes 
advantage of the prevailing winds. In the top of the housing there are open- 
ings over each coil, in which are set gutters, accurately adjustable, that may 
be leveled to overflow evenly over the entire length of the coil. 

For emergency purposes a disk fan is mounted in the north end. On 
each side of this fan, also in the north end, are doors, which are regulated to 
stand at any angle desired. The south end consists of doors similarly regu- 
lated. 

When the wind is in the south the south doors are opened wide and the 
north doors just enough to allow a draft of about 150 feet per minute to pass 
through, making a breeze which is a little more than perceptible, but not suffi- 
cient to blow the circulating water away from the coils. With a north wind 
the north doors are opened wide and the south doors adjusted with discre- 
tion. In case of a calm or an east or west wind the fan is brought into action. 
This will probably be less than half the time and will require about 1-10 
horsepower per ton of refrigeration. 

The other current expense would be : 

Water from some outside source to make good the atmospheric vapor- 
ization, amounting to less than fifty gallons per daily T. R., and the power 
required to run the circulating pump, raising less than three-fourths gallon 
per minute per T. R. from the catch-tank to the gutters above the flasks. The 
installation of this condenser does away with the necessity of a cooling tower, 
as the circulating water is pumped directly from the catch-tank to the gutters, 
to again pass over the condensing coils. 

We also have a power and pressure regulator, to be attached to the en- 
gine driving the compressor, by means of which the speed of the engine is 
governed automatically by the increased or decreased demands of the plant. 

Under conditions now in common use the speed of the engine is constant, 
while the temperature and pressure in the expansion coils varies with the 
changing demands of the plant for refrigerative duty. 

For instance, in case, in a cold storage plant, one chamber is emptied of 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 61 



cool goods and at once refilled with goods at normal summer temperature, 
the temperature surrounding the coils immediately rises, resulting in increased 
temperature and pressure in the expansion coils. When the engineer notes on 
his gauge this increased demand he speeds up his engine to such an extent as 
he thinks sufficient to take up the increased volume of vaporization thus form- 
ing. He can not be sure that he is getting just enough speed for this purpose 
without wasting power, and his action is likely to be tardy. Meantime the 
temperature has gong up, not only in the chamber undergoing changed condi- 
tions, but in all the other chambers in the house. In the case of delicate ar- 
ticles this might result in serious deterioration. 

The construction of this power and pressure regulator is such that the 
moment there is an increase in demand for refrigerative duty the balancing 
lever is at once affected, which in turn acts on the governor of the engine, 
increasing the speed just sufficient to take up the increased vaporization with- 
out loss of power. In the meantime the pressure in the expansion coils has 
not been increased more than one-half of a pound and the temperature has 
been maintained within three-quarters of one degree. 



UNDER WHAT CONDITIONS DOES IT PAY TO USE A COOLING 

TOWER? 



This topic was discussed at the meeting of the A. S. R. E., 1905, and 
opened by Mr. Morris, as follows : 

I did not come here for the purpose of having anything to say in this 
meeting, but more for the purpose of listening and possibly learning. The 
subject of cooling towers, however, is a most important one in my section 
of the country, because the temperature of the atmosphere is high, much 
hotter than it is through this section of the country, and water, especially 
good water, is hard to get. So the question of cooling the water and using 
it over again becomes a very serious and a very important one in the refrig- 
erating line, and we have had to use cooling towers in many sections. 

The most of the ice plants in Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansas and Texas, 
especially in Texas and Mexico, are compelled, owing to the scarcity of water, 
to use cooling towers of some sort. There are hardly any places in our sec- 
tion of the country hardly any localities where it would not pay to put in 
cooling towers, in fact, cooling towers ought to be used throughout that coun- 
try almost universally, and my own experience is that it is a good plan- to use 
two cooling towers, taking the hot water from the steam condenser and cool- 
ing it, and have a separate tower for cooling the water from the ammonia 
condensers. By doing this we get colder water for the ammonia condensers 
and get it with a smaller power, it requires less power for forcing the air 
through it. 

As a rule, we use cooling towers in that section with fans. Take, for 
instance, a 50-ton plant and we use a cooling tower that will require possibly 
six horsepower to operate the fans. In some cases two towers are built side 



62 THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



by side with an engine directly connected to line shaft, with a fan on each 
end of the shaft center crank engine with a fan on each end of the shaft 
one fan for the hot water tower from the steam condensers and the other for 
the cool water from the ammonia condensers. 

To show you the value of cooling towers, especially of one such as I have 
just mentioned, I know of a 30-ton plant in Texas where the great trouble 
was to get sufficient cooling water. They had to depend on an artesian well 
about 700 feet deep. It was pumped by an air compressor and it was hard to 
get sufficient water from this well to operate the plant. Finally they put in 
cooling towers, taking the hot water from the steam condenser through one 
tower and the cooler water from the ammonia condenser through the other. 
They have since increased the capacity of the plant by putting in another 
60-ton machine, and since putting in these towers they have sufficient water 
to run the increased plant, whereas before they hardly had enough to get 
along with a 35-ton capacity. 

In many places in Texas we have to go from 1,000 to 3,000 feet deep to 
get water, and where it is a question of spending $5,000, say, on a deep well, 
the cooling tower comes in, and often it is good business to put in a cooling 
tower rather than bore additional expensive wells. I do not know what value 
the cooling tower would have in this section, I do know that we can not get 
along without it in the Southwest. 

THE PRESIDENT: Is it not true that in Texas, as a rule, the air is much 
drier than in sections perhaps further north and east, and that a tower for that 
reason is more effective in your climate? 

MR. MORRIS : That may possibly be. I can only speak of the efficiency 
of the cooling tower in my own section, and I say again that we could not get 
along without them in the Southwest. 

MR. GARY : I think with respect to these cooling towers that they are 
most successful and generally in use in sections where they have a great scar- 
city of water, or where water has to be purchased for cooling the condenser, 
or where water is so bad as to pile up a deposit so as almost to insulate the 
condensers from the cooling effects of the water. I think under those three 
heads the cooling tower would be a good investment. 

THE PRESIDENT : I would like to hear from some gentleman on the ques- 
tion of the concentration of a solid in the water. Possibly Mr. Burhorn might 
throw some light on that subject. 

Mr. Burhorn replied as follows: 

It. is like using water in a boiler. The evaporation leaves a certain per- 
centage of solids, and that has to be blown out at intervals. In the cooling 
tower it is practically the same thing. We might sum up the whole matter 
more as a financial proposition than anything else. In this part of the country 
water is expensive, in large plants especially. I know of one case 'in Wash- 
ington where the cost of the water is about $5,000 a year. With a cooling 
tower we can save about 00 per cent, of that cost; and that will soon pay the 
total cost of the tower. We have a tower put up in New York City that paid 
the first cost in the first year. It seems to me that it is better than a gold min- 



CALIF 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 63 

ing proposition in a great many cases. The returns certainly pay more for 
the investment. 

The idea of using two towers I think is a good one, the difficulty in a 
good many 'cases being that where the water is used on steam condensers, the 
temperature is so high that it can not be used in one tower to sufficient ad- 
vantage. In Philadelphia where we use two towers, the conditions are fav- 
orable for this particular installation. The water runs from the condensers 
into one tower, which reduces the temperature to below 100, and then it is 
pumped to another tower placed directly over the condensers. This tower 
reduces the temperature so that it is practically the same as city water for the 
use of the ammonia condenser. 

MR. VOORHEES: I think the question of cool water is most important. 
On any ice plant or for refrigerating or cold storage purposes I think it 
should be given first consideration. The question of whether you should use 
a cooling tower on the water at your command is one of the very first ques- 
tions that should be passed on before you go to the expense of erecting your 
plant. I think this is the cause of more plants falling down than any other. 

MR. HAVEN : I want to know whether any one has observed bad results 
from the oxidization of pipes ? We do not see any bad effects upon our pipes. 
They are practically as good as ever then. 

MR. GARY: The only time when water will have an oxidizing effect is 
when heat is applied to drive the air out. Take a glass of water and set it in 
the sun, and very soon the sides of that glass will be coated with little bubbles 
of air. That is quite different from atmospheric air. I find from investigating 
work that the air, when it dissolves on account of the greater solubility of the 
oxygen, becomes about one part of oxygen to 1.87 parts of nitrogen. The con- 
sequence is that the oxygen is much more active and much stronger than it is 
under atmospheric conditions. Temperature has a considerable influence. At 
a proper temperature it will act very rapidly and oxidize. A slight heating is 
necessary, and where a large volume of water is collected and held, the air will 
separate out and concentrate on different points and pitting will take place. If 
the water is in motion there is much less danger of that effect than with water 
standing comparatively stationary. 

MR. MATTHEWS : I would like to ask whether this oxidization is centered 
or over the entire surface. 

MR. GARY : The oxidization occurs by the little molecules collecting on 
one point and remaining there. If the water is in motion it sweeps them away. 
In a boiler you will find pitting occurs where the water collects and in pipes 
where the water remains quiet ; but where the steam is rapidly sweeping these 
bubbles away on the metallic surface, you will find little trouble from pitting. 



THE WATTMETER. The wattmeter is generally a small motor which is 
connected to gears and on the gears are hands which indicate on dials the 
number of watt-hours of current passing through the circuit. The field mag- 
netism is supplied by two coils of wire enclosing the armature. 



64 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 




The Continuous Use of Condensing 
Water. 

Kent quotes as follows from a series of 
articles published in Power: 

In San Francisco, J. N. Stub cools the 
water after it has left the hot well by means 
of a system of pans upon the roof. These 
pans are shallow troughs of galvanized iron 
arranged in tiers, on a slight incline, so 
that the water flows back and forth for 
1,500 or 2,000 feet cooling by evaporation 
and radiation as it flows. The fans are 
about 5 feet in width, and the water as it 
flows has a depth of about half an inch, 
the temperature being reduced from about 
140 to 90. The water from the hot well 
is pumped up to the highest point of the 



cooling system and allowed to flow as above 
described, discharging finally into the main 
tank or reservoir, whence it again flows to 
the condenser as required. As the water 
in the reservoir lowers frorn evaporation, 
an auxiliary feed from the city mains to 
the condenser is operated, thereby keeping 
the amount of water in circulation practi- 
cally constant. An accumulation of oil 
from the engines, with dust from the sur- 
rounding streets makes a cleaning neces- 
sary about once in six weeks or two months. 
It is found by comparative trials, running 
condensing and non-condensing, that about 
50 per cent, less water is taken from the 
city mains when the whole apparatus is in 
use than when the engine is run non-con- 
densing. 22 to 23 in. of vacuum are main- 
tained. A better vacuum is obtained on a 
warm day with a brisk breeze blowing than 
on a cold day with but a slight movement 
of the air. 

In another plant the water from the hot 
well is sprayed from a number of fountains, 
and also from a pipe extending around its 
border, into a large pond, the exposure 
cooling it sufficiently for the obtaining of a 
good vacuum by its continuous use. 

In the system patented by Messrs. See, of 
Tulle, France, the water is discharged from 
a pipe laid in the form of a rectangle and 
elevated above a pond through a series of 
special nozzles, by which it is projected into 
a fine spray. On coming into contact with 
the air in this state of extreme division the 
water is cooled 40 or 50, with a loss of 
evaporation of only one-tenth of its mass, 
and produces an excellent vacuum. A 3,000 
H.P. cooler upon this system has been 
erected at Lannoy, one of 2,500 H.P. at 
Madrid and one of 1,200 H.P. at Liege, as 
well as others at Roubaix and Tourcoing. 
The system could be used upon a roof if 
ground space were limited. In the evapo- 
rative condenser of T. Ledwards Co., of 
Brockley, London, the water trickles over 
the pipes of the large condenser or radi- 
ator, and by evaporation carries away the 
heat necessary to be abstracted to con- 
dense the steam inside. The condensing 
pipes are fitted with corrugations mounted 
with circular ribs, whereby the radiating or 
cooling surface is largely increased. The 
pipes which are cast in sections about 76 
in. long by 3^ in. bore, have a cooling sur- 
face of 26 sq. ft., which is found sufficient 
under favorable conditions to permit of 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 65 



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66 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



condensation of 20 to 30 Ibs. of steam per 
hour when producing a vacuum of 13 Ibs. 
per sq. in. In a condenser of this type at 
Rixdorf, near Berlin, a vacuum ranging 
from 24 to 26 in. of mercury was constantly 
maintained during the hottest weather of 
August. The initial temperature of cool- 
ing water used in the apparatus under no- 
tice ranged 80 to 85 F., and the tem- 
perature in the sun, to which the condenser 
was exposed, varied each day from 100* 
to 115 F. 

During the experiments it was found that 
it was possible to run one engine under a 
load of 100 horse power and maintain the 
full vacuum without the use of any cooling 
water at all on the pipes, radiation afforded 
by the pipes alone sufficing to condense the 
steam for this power. 



Does It Pay to Install Cooling Towers 
in Small Plants? 

This question came up at the American 
Warehousemen's Convention, 1905, as fol- 
lows: 

MR. READ: In regard to water towers, is 
it true that water towers can only be used 
economically by plants of considerable size? 
We have a small plant and have trouble 
with water. Our water here in the city of 
Washington in the summer time is at a 
temperature of from 85 to 90 F., and we 
have been advised by engineers that we 
could not use a water tower with our small 
plant. 

MR. STARR: It seems to me that 'if you 
could find room on the roof, where you can 
get plenty of atmospheric power over a 
large area of surface, that is at all times 
exposed to the natural circulation of air, it 
would work just as well in a small plant as 
in a large one. There are a large number 
of very effective water towers made which 
are supplied with air from fans and the 
cost of running those fans is considerable. 
Of course, the fans need not be run the 
year around. You will have to use them all 
through the summer. The cost of hand- 
ling large quantities of air is quite consid- 
erable, but at the same time I should say 
that any good type of water tower could 
be used, either in a large plant or in a small 
one. In a small plant there is a smaller 
amount of water and a smaller amount of 
air required, and I can not see any objec- 



Index to Advertisers. 



Page. 

Audel & Co 67 

Begg, James & Co 90 

Borne, Scrymser & Co 93 

HOI-IMS Chan. A 80 

Rroflerick & Bascom I lope Co <7 

Bushnell. John S 1* 

Collins. II 73 

Canfleld, H. 4 

Christ. A. G 65 

Cold Storage 77 

Cook's Son's. Adam 82 

J. A. Donnelly 77 

Davidson Pump Co 1 

Dearborn Drug & Chemical Works. 

Inside front cover 

Dinger, Chas. & Son 84 

Emergency Engineering Co 73 

Empire State Engineering Co 5 

Engineer. The | 

Fox, Benjamin 18 

Fogarty. Michael 1 

Fox & Son, Geo lo 

General Electric Co Front cover outside 

Garlock Packing Co 12 

Griswold & Shepherd 65 

Gueth, Oswald 71 

Hazard Manufacturing Co 7o 

J. L. Humbert 18 

Inventor 1$ 

Jenkins Bros ** 

Jenkins Bros. . Back cover outside 

Johns-Manville Co 69 

Keasbey. Robert A 69 

Kelley, Benj. F. & Son 4 

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Lndew. Edward R 71 

Lallier & Co 84 

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Lippincott Specialty Co 16 

Love. W. & G. W 93 

McGill, G. L 73 

McGraw Publishing Co 

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McLeod & Henry 15 

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MoXnb & H.-irl.in M:inuf:u-ruring Co 13 

Marine Engineers' Exchange, The 73 

Miller, Joseph 88 

Montgomery, James e4 

Newburprh Steam Boiler Works 5 

New Knjrhind Onito Co .11 

New York Grate Bar Co 88 

D. M. NiehoN Iron Works 65 

Ostrander, W. R. & Co 73 

Fred'k Page 78 

Penberthy Ini^ctor Co bl 

Phenix Grate Bar Co 91 

Prentiss Clock Co 77 

Pul ver. Peter & Sons 2 

Revere Rubber Co *1 

Robertson & Sons I'i'I? 

Roberts. Geo. T. & Bros. (Inc.) 1-3-94 

Salamander Grate Bar Co 85-86-87 

S;indb:icli, R. W 79 

S-ni(lcr>5on & Wright J5 

Schmidt, G. & L. 77 

Schwarz. L. T 71 

Sohuerkes, Theo <1 

Shepard. G. R 73 

Shepherd & Parker 93 

Smith. A. & Son 1 

Smooth on Mfer. Co 10 

Southern KujriniMT 79 

Standard Steam Specialty Co., 

95. inside back cover 

Star Lubricating Co 71 

Thompson Co.. Richard 9 

Troadwell & Co.. M. H 91 

Tu oner * Co.. W. W 69 

Unique Ktiff. Co -11 

Ward & Co 92 

Ward & Unright Engineering Co 96 

c. F. Wemllnnd & Co 18 

WifMit/.. Chas 84 

Win. Wilson -JJ 

Wright. Garret S 84 

Wright's Sons. William 84 

Yost. Albert f* 




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1. Hawkins' S3lf-:blp Mechanical Drawing, (rorHcme study) - - $2 

2. Hawkins' New Cabchism of Electricity $2 

3. Hawkins' Aids to Engineers' Examinations, (with Questions & Answers) $2 

4. Hawkins' Maxims and Instructions fcr the Boiler Room - - 82 

5. Hawkins' Hand Book of Calculations for Engineers - - - $2 

6. Hawkins' New Catechism of th3 Steam Engine - - - - $2 

7. Hawkins' Indicator Catechism, (A Practical Treatise) - - - - $1 



MENTION SUBJECT INTERESTED AND SEND 

POSTAL FOR CATALOG 

THEO. AUDEL & CO. 63 Fifth Ave., NEW YORK 



68 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



tion to using one, unless it was in an ex- 
tremely small plant. 



Cooling Ponds. 

Of the same nature and use as the 
cooling tower is the cooling pond, which 
has been used to some extent in England. 
Such an equivalent for the cooling tower 
is not practical in many places. To be suc- 
cessful, a pond area must be supplied of 
sufficient size to prevent an undue rise in 
temperature and if the object is as in the 
case of cooling towers to save water, an 
undue rise in temperature would cause 
more or less evaporation from the pond. 
The heat would be abstracted from the 
water in the pond by radiation, by conduc- 
tion into the air, and by evaporation. The 
dispersion of heat in these ways involves 
no loss of water except by the last evapo- 
ration. The method of returning the hot 
condensing water to the pond as usually 
observed, is to let fall from some distance 
on a wooden or stone apron, so as to not 
disturb materially the water in the pond. 
This also tends to keep the hot water on 
the surface, which promotes cooling. On 
the other hand, the water for the engine is 
withdrawn from beneath the surface, where 
it is the coolest. The supply of fresh water 
is carefully strained in order to prevent 
the influx of mud. A drainage pipe is pro- 
vided for carrying off all the water, so that 
the pond can be cleaned at times. It has 
been found advantageous when possible to 
use two ponds, alternately. It is estimated 
that on an average a pond should disperse 
600 heat units per square foot of surface, 
and on this basis the required area can be 
calculated from the temperature of the re- 
turn water. The depth is four or five feet. 
The cooling effect can be increased by car- 
rying the water through shallow open 
troughs. 



Cooling TO\VT in a (ias Huginc IMant. 



The American Electrician gave an ac- 
count some time ago of a cooling tower 
n-ed in connection with a gas engine. It 
says that the cooling water for the jackets 
is obtained from a 12 ft. cistern located be- 
tween the floor of the repair shop in the 
front of the building, although city water 
may be used if desired. The water is heat- 
ed t" about ISO degrees F. in passing 



through the jackets and is cooled by evap- 
oration in air currents as it passes down 
through a series of drain tiles placed in a 
cooling tower. There is a marked advan- 
tage in using the same water continuous!). 
since incrustation in the jackets and pipes 
is thereby reduced to a minimum. Where 
water is used containing much carbonate of 
lime in solution, the temperature of the 
jackets will have to be reduced unless the 
lime is precipitated or neutralized with soda 
or other agent ; even then much trouble 
may be experienced. In this case, it says, 
only a small amount of scale is formed and 
this is largely produced by the use of city 
water, which is necessary to supply the loss 
due to exaporation. A three-throw water 
circulating pump is belted either directly 
from one engine, or from an underground 
shaft driven from the other engine. The 
quantity of cooling water used by each en- 
gine varies from 4 to 5 gallons per horse- 
power hour. 



COOLING TOWERS. 



Points to I5e Considered in Designing 
Tower*. 

If an engineer has at hand an unlimited 
supply of cold water than can be had with- 
out prohibitive cost, there is little excuse 
for not running an engine condensing; but, 
in the face of this fact, it is estimated that 
about nine-tenths of the engines in this 
country are run non-condensing. The rea- 
son being that the cost of cooling water 
more than balances the economy of from 
20 to 30 per cent, that would result from 
having a lower pressure and temperature 
on the exhaust side of the steam cylinder. 
This is the field of the cooling tower to 
effectively cool large quantities of water at 
a moderate initial and low running cost. 
The temperature reduction is accomplished 
by radiation, contact of cold air, and evap- 
oration, the latter being by far the most 
elective agent in securing the desired end, 
while with every pound of water evap- 
orated or converted into vapor, 955.7 or 
practically 1,000 b.t.u. are absorbed from 
the remaining body of water. Since evap- 
oration takes place only on the surface of 
fluids, it is accelerated by the removal of 
the air next to the water surface, as soon 
as this air has become saturated with vapor. 

To meet these conditions, cooling towers 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



Telephone 6097 Franklin 







HEADQUARTERS 
85% MAGNESIA, ASBESTOS AND BRINE 

ESTIMATES FURNISHED ANt* PIPE COVERINGS, ASBESTOS PRODUCTS.ETC. 

CONTRACTS EXECUTED* 

'100 NORTH MOORE ST, NEW YORK CnY. 



GRATES FOR ALL KINDS OP COAL 




Telephone 3258 Broad 



,W. Tnpper& Go. 



24 State Street, 

SHAKING GRATES. DUMPING GRATES. NEW YORK 



J. M" Asbestos and Magnesia Products 

A reputation backed by 50 years experience in the manufacture 
of Asbestos Products for the Steam Engineering trade, should 
be a sufficient guarantee of the superiority of our materials to 
meet any and all demands, write nearest branch for descriptive catalogue 

H, W. JOHNS-MAN VI LLE CO. 

Manufacturers of Asbestos and Magnesia Products, Asbestos Roofings, Packings, Electrical Insulating Materials 
"Noark" Fuse Devices, Electric Railway Supplies, Etc. 

New York Boston Minneapolis Los Angeles Milwaukee Philadelphia Pittsburg New Orleans Dallas Seattle 
Chicago St. Louis Cleveland Zansas City San Francisco London 





FOR SALE BY 



ESTABLISHED I860. 



T. R. McMANN SON 

DEALERS IN 

Wrought Pipe, Plumbers' and Fngineers' 
Supplies. 

Telephone jjjjj* | John 

56-58-60 GOLD ST., NEW YORK 



70 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



must provide a method of spreading the 
water over an area large enough to expose 
it as long as necessary for reducing the 
temperature, and must supply a draft of 
air by means of a fan or otherwise, the fan 
when used being placed at the bottom of 
the tower. Running expenses connected 
with the operation of the tower are the 
power consumed in raising the water to 
the top of tower, and that for running the 
fan as well as the cost of the makeup wa- 
ter required to supply the place of that 
evaporated. The cost of the first item de- 
pends largely upon the location selected 
for the tower. For good operation, it must 
be placed near the condenser, as otherwise 
the temperature of the water will rise dur- 
ing its passage from the tower to the con- 



denser. Generally speaking, less than 10 
per cent, of the water is lost, but this loss 
depends on the temperature, the humidity 
of the atmosphere, etc. The expense of 
oprating the fan depends largely on the 
type of fan selected and the construction 
of the tower and the resulting air resist- 
ance, the amount of which depends upon 
the plan selected for distributing the water. 
Only particular designs of disk wheels 
are used in connection with cooling towers, 
these types having been tested and found 
to be most efficient. Many engineers con- 
struct their own cooling tower, purchasing 
merely the fans and some means of driving 
them, either a small vertical engine or elec- 
tric drive as may be preferred. From The 
Engineer. 



Motor Driven Fans* 



Dia. 
_f 


Medium Speed 


Maximum Sp^ed 


OI 

Fan 
in 
Ins. 


Ap- 
pro x. 
Speed 


Motor Size 
Number 


Wt. 
Not 
Pkd. 


V 

o 




Ap- 
prox. 
Speed 


Motor Size 
Number 


Wt. 
Not 
Pkd. 


V 

O 

c 
a, 


18 


800 


X E.B, 


"5 


$170 


1,000 


# E.B. 


115 


$170 


24 


600 


y 4 E.B. 


'65 


180 


800 


% E.B. 


255 


220 


30 


500 


% E.B. 


280 


230 


675 


i E.B. 


33 


200 


36 


425 


i E.B. 


380 


280 


55> 


a E.B. 


440 


370 


42 


350 


2 E.B. 


575 


400 


470 


3 E.B. 


760 


500 


48 


300 


3 E.B. 


825 


500 


410 


5 E.B. 


925 


000 


54 
60 


260 

235 


5 E.B. 
i-ioo M.P. 8 


,025 
,050 


600 

725 


365 
325 


i-ioo M.P. 8 
i-ioo M.P. 8 


1,075 

1,000 


850 


66 


210 


i-ioo M.P. 8 


,150 


c 


300 


ii- TOO M.P. 8 


'.275 


C 


72 


'95 


i- 100 M.P. 8 


375 


o 


2 75 


2-100 M.P. 8 


1,750 


O 


84 


165 


ii-ioo M.P. 8 


,675 


c 3 


235 


4-100 M.P. 8 


2,325 


= 2 


96 


'45 


2-100 M.P. 8 


2,'75 


O-Jt 


200 


4-100 M.P. 8 


2.575 


0;= 


108 


'30 


4-100 M.P. 8 


2,9<0 


O. 

o. 


l8 5 


6-100 M.P. 8 


3,200 


p. 
Q 


120 


"5 


4-100 M.P 8 


3,200 


re 


I6 5 


lo-roo M.P. 8 


4.200 


re 



Belt Driven Fans. 



Dia. of 
Fan 
in ins. 


Med'm 
Speed 


Disc Fan 


Propeller Fan 


Size 
Puriey 


Weight 
Not 
Packed 


Price 


Size 
Pulley 


Weight 
Not 
Packed 


Price 


18 


800 


f* *% 


100 


$30 


4**M 


60 


$40 


24 


600 


5 x 2% 


132 


40 


5x2% 


125 




30 


500 


6 x 3% 


1 66 


5 


6 x y/i 


1 60 


OS 


36 


425 


7 x 4 l /t 


190 


60 


7*4% 


225 


80 


42 


350 


8 x 5% 


290 


80 


8x5^ 


400 


100 


48 


300 


8x 5% 




100 


8x 5 H 


465. 


120 


54 


260 


9 X 5% 


425 


120 


9x5^ 


600 


I5O 


60 


235 


10 X t>% 


535 


150 


10x6^ 


575 


185 


66 


210 


10 x 6) 


665 


'75 


10x6^ 


720 


2 2O 


72 


'55 


I2X 7% 


875 


200 


12 X J% 


950 


250 


78 


180 


14 x 8% 


1,000 


225 


'4X8H ' 


1,050 


275 


84 


165 


14 x &% 


1,025 


250 


'4x8>i 


1,125 


300 


96 


'4? 


i6x ioj> 


','75 


300 


16x8^ 


1.375 


350 


102 


'30 


iSfttaM 




350 


18x8^ 


1,700 


400 


120 


"5 


20X 12% 


i!8oo 


400 


20x8^ 


2.000 


500 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



71 



W. G. HAWTHORNE, 

Engineer and Mason, 

Successor to THEO. SCHUERKES. 

furnace fining Grate Bars 
Boiler Repairs 



Telephone 601 Broad. 

50 Broadway, 



Star Lubricating Co. 

HENRY BEYER, Prop. 

Telephone 433 M .id. 



ENGINEERS' SUPPLIES. 

Cylinder and Machinery Oils, 

Pipe Fittings, Packings, 

Steam, Electric and 

Hotel Supplies. 

140 West 32d St., New York 

HOYT SHORT-LAP 
OAK-TANNED 

LEATHER BELTING 

Special Belts for every.use made 
and shipped without.delaj. 

Hydraulic, Valve and Pump Leather 
ESTATE, EDWARD R. LADEW 

SUCCESSOR TO 

FAYERWEATHER & LADEW 
300 WILLIAM ST., NEW YORK 

Chicago : Boston : Philapelphia : Pittsburgh 
Newark, N. J. : Charlotte, N. \J. : Atlanta, Ua. 

Oswald Gueth, M. E. 

Consulting Engineer. 

New iork Representative of 

Kroeschell tros Ice Machine Co., 

of Cnicago. 
Io8 Fulton St. NEW YORK 



BLACK HAWK 
SHEET PACKING 

is especially adapted for very high pres- 
sure and it is not affected by any degree 
of steam heat. It will not harden under 
any degree of heat, nor blow out under the 
highest pressure, and will make an air, 
steam or hot or cold water joint equally 
well. This packing is not affected by am- 
monia, liquors, steam heat or alkalies and 
conforms to rough or uneven surfaces, 
making a perfectly tight joint and retains 
its elasticity under all conditions. Joints 
can be made and broken several times. 
Packing will not adhere to rough surfaces. 




TRADE MARK. 



Joints in new plants can be made with- 
out the use of steam with absolute cer- 
tainty when steam is applied that every 
joint will be perfect. 

REVERE RUBBER CO., of N. Y. 

59 & 61 READE ST., NEW YORK 




MANUFACTURER OF 

Engineers' Ash Cans 

Guaranteed to be the Strongest 
and most durable Ash Can on the 
market. All cans to be kept in re- 
pair for one year FREE OF CHARGE. 



No. 357 West Broadway 

Bet. Broome & Grand Sts., New York 

Telephone No. 1429 Spring. 




THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



TESTS OF COOLING TOWER, FEDERAL PRISON, ATLANTA, GA. 



Tine 


Humid- 
ity 


Tank 
Temp. 


Pump 
Temp. 


Reduction 
Temp. 


Dif- 
ference. 


Temp in 
Sao. 


Temp in 
Shade. 


Weather. 


6.00 


9 8 


ICO 


77 


23 


4- 6 




71 


Cloudy 


6 30 


3V 


100 


77 


23 


4- 4 




73 


* 


7 oo 


98 


100 


76 


24 


+ 


76 


75 


* 


7.30 


98 


100 


77 


23 


+ 


77 


77 


1 


8.00 
8.30 


98 
98 


100 
100 


7* 
58 


22 
22 


f 


I? 


77 
77 


1 
c 


900 


90 


100 


78 


22 





87 


79 


Part cloudy 


93> 


90 


100 


78 


22 





85 


80 


4 


I J 00 

10.30 


90 
97 


100 
101 


11 


21 
2[ 





91 
90 


So 

Si 


' 


11 00 


95 


101 


Si 


21 


2 


91 


83 


* 


11.30 


97 


102 


8c 


21 


4 


9 ! 


85 


* 


12.00 


97 


102 


8( 


21 


7 




88 





J2. 3 


97 


104 


81 


23 


4 





85 


Cloud) 


1. 00 


98 


104 


8t 


23 


3 




84 




I 30 


98 


103 


81 


22 


- 3 


. . 


84 


1 


2 00 


93 


103 


81 


22 


2 


. . 


83 


1 


230 


98 


103 


81 


22 





. . 


81 


' 


3-00 


99 


100 


81 


1 9 


4- i 


. . 


80 


i 


3-30 


99 


100 


81 


ISL 


4- 2 


. . 


79 


Part tloudy. 


4.00 


99 


100 


Soft 


'9fc 


+ ifV 




79 


' 


4.30 


99 


100 


80 


20 


4- 2 




78 


1 * 


5.00 


99 


100 


80 


20 


4- 2 


t 


78 


Clearing. 


5-3<> 


99 


100 


80 


20 


4- 3 




77 




6.00 


99 


100 


80 


20 


4- 3 




77 




700 


82 


102 


79 


23 


4- 2 


82 


77 


Clear. 


7.30 


80 


102 


79 


2 3 


4- i 


8 4 


7 




8.00 


78 


102 


80 


22 


4- i 


86 


79 




8.30 


68 


101 


80 


21 





88 


88 




9.00- 


5 


102 


80 


22 


I 


90 


81 




930 


62 


102 


80 


22 


3 


9T 


83 




10.00 


So 


102 


80 


22 


4 


92 


84 




10.30 


54 


102 


80 


22 




93 


84 




11. OO 

11.30 


11 


102 
102 


80 
80 


22 
22 


4 


94 
94 


84 

85 




12 00 
1230 


57 
55 


101 
102 


80 

Ko 


21 
22 


5 

o 


94 
97 


II 




1. 00 


5o 


101 


83 


21 


7 


JOO 


87 




130 


52 


foi 


80 


21 


7 


102 


87 




2.00 


53 


lor 


8ofV 


20A 


7 


103 


87 




2.30 


55 


102 


80 


22 


7 . 


100 


87 




3-0 


54 


I0( 


80 


21 


7 


98 


87 




330 


55 


100 


80 


20 


7 


96 


87 


1 


400 


54 


100 


80 


20 


- 6 


91 


86 


< 


4.30 


54 


101 


80 


21 


6 


92 


86 


" 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



engineers' exchange. 

Advertisements will be inserted under this head for 
engineers and firemen wanting positions, free of 
charge. Answers may be sent in our care. Adver 
tisements of owners of steam power or electric plants 
wanting help in every case will be charged twenty- 
five cents per line, each insertion . This department 
is for the exclusive use of engineers and firemen 
wanting positions, and employers ivishing help. 

In connection with our engineers' exchange we have 
established a free Bureau of Information for the ben- 
efit of engineers and firemen out of employment and 
employers wanting help . Applications for help will 
have prompt attention, and those wishing employ- 
ment should file at this office their names and ad- 
dresses, together with a record of experience and 
reference. 



ENGINEERS. Wanted to sell or furnish in- 
formation leading to the sale of the improved 
Berryman Feed Water Heater. See our adver- 
tisement, page 73. Write for particulars. BENJ. 
F. KELLEY & SON, 91 Liberty Street, New 
York City. 

TWO AMERICAN YOUNG MEN, 22 years of 
age, students of mechanical and electrical en- 
gineering, with knowledge of engines and elec- 
tric wiring, desire positions as assistant engin- 
ers in this country or abroad. L,. W. H., care 
ENGINEERS' LIST. 



POSITION WANTED by an engineer with 15 
years experience; has a second-class license and 
the best of reference. Understands all kinds of 
engines and boilers. F. B., care ENGINEERS' 
LIST. 



YOUNG MAN, 23, technical school graduate, 
three years experience electrical work at switch 
and panel board and switch making; also ma- 
chinist work, wishes a position as electrician's 
helper or to learn to be engineer. Alfred Viren, 
352 W. 37th St., N. Y. City. 



POSITION WANTED. By young man with 
nine years' experience as stationary engineer 
and electrician; desires position as draftsman 
or tracer. Will start low if position offers 
good opportunity. California, New Mexico or 
Mexico preferred. Address care ENGINEERS' 
LIST. 



ana for Sale. 



Advertisements inserted under this heading, without 
display, for 25 cents per line each insertion. 



FOR SALE. Blake Pump, 2%x2%x4 with re- 
ceiver and tank. Inquire of Mr. Armstrong, Ho- 
tel Leonore. 



FOR SALE CHEAP. An almost new galvan- 
ized iron vapor tank, 3% feet by 3 feet, for 6 
in. exhaust. Engineer, 92 4th Ave. 



WANTED. Scranton school and other second 
hand engineering books. State price. J. C., 
care ENGINEERS' LIST. 



FR ED'K PAGE 

. . . MASON . . . 

Furnace Work ad Boiler Setting. 







220 West I Oth Street, 
Telephone 4863 Spring 



GRAFTON L. McGILL 
PATENT LAWYER 

M'GILL BLDG., WASHINGTON. D. C. 
15 WILLIAM ST., NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Patents Procured. Trade Marks Registered. 
Advice on Relations of Employer and Em- 
ployee. Inventions Relating to Steam Plants 
and Equipment a Specialty. 

S. R. Shepard Engineering & Eonst. Co. 

No. 5 Dutch St., New York. 

General Repairs to Steam and Electric Plants. 

Licensed to Manufacture and Install 
Bites Inertia Governors. 

Repairing Engines and Pumps a Specialty. 
Valve Re-seating and Piping for All Purposes. 
SHOP OPEN DAY AND NIGHT. 

ELECTRIC BELLS 

Speaking Tube 6 Electric Annunciators 
Electric Light Supplies 

W, R. OSTRANDER & CO. 

22 Dey St., New York 



Send for 
Catalogue 



HOUGHTALING'S 
WORK ON THE INDICATOR 

Is a reliable and up-to-date book on an im- 
portant subject. Liberal inducement in 
connection with a subscription for the 
Engineers' List. 

The Marine Engineers' Exchange. 

21-23 STATE ST., NEW YORK. 

COMPETENT ENGIN- 
EERS MAY ALWAYS 
BE OBTAINED FOR 
STEAMSHIPS, TOW- 
BOATS, YACHTS AND 
LAUNCHES ; ALSO 
FOR POWER HOUSES, 
ELECTRIC LIGHT 
PLANTS, REFRIGER- 
ATING PLANTS, AND 
FOR ALL KINDS OF 
MACHINERY. 




THE EMERGENCY ENGINEERING CO. 

147-140 VARICK STREET NEW YORK 

Elevators, Hydraulic and Electric, Repairs and Cabling a Specialty. 
Elevators Maintained; Pumps, Motors, Dynamos and Ice Machines Repaired. 
Steam Plants Overhauled. 

E. MARSHALL, Manager of Elevator. Department. 
TEL. 487 SPRING. NIGHT AND SUNDAY TEL. 1999-J 38ih ST. 10l3=J HARLEM 



74 



I in-; ENGINEERS' LIST. 



Volume, Density, and Pressure of Air at Various 
Temperatures. (D. K. Clark.) 



Fahr. 


Volume at A linos. 
Pressure. 


Density. Ibs. 
per Cubic Foot at 
Atmos. Pressure. 


Pressure at Constant 
Volume. 


Cubic Feet 
in 1 Ib. 


Com para- 
tive Vol. 


Lbs. per 
Sq. In. 


Compara- 
tive Pres. 





11.583 


.881 


.086331 


12.96 


.881 


82 


12.387 


.943- 


.080728 


13.86 


.943 


40 


12.586 


.958 


.079439 


14.08 


.958 


60 


12.840 


.977 


.077884 


14.36 


.977 


63 


13.141 


.000 


.076097 


14.70 


1.000 


70 


13.342 


.015 


.074950 


14.92 


1.015 


80 


13.593 


.034 


.073565 


15.21 


1.034 


90 


13.845 


.054 


.072230 


15.49 


1.054 


100 


14.096 


.073 


.070942 


15.77 


.073 


110 


14.344 


.092 


.069721 


16.05 


.092 


120 


14.592 


.111 


.06*500 


16.33 


.111 


130 


14.846 


.130 


.067361 


16.61 


.130 


140 


15.100 


.149 


.068*21 


16.89 


.149 


150 


15.351 


.168 


.065155 


17.19 


.168 


160 


15.603 


.187 


.061088 


17.50 


.187 


170 


15.854 


.206 


.063089 


17.76 


.206 


180 


16.106 


.226 


.062090 


18.02 


.226 


200 


16.606 


.264 


.060210 


18.58 


.264 


210 


16.860 


1.283 


.059313 


18.86 


.283 


v 212 


16.910 


1.287 


.059135 


18.92 


.287 



Weights of Air. Vapor of Water, and Saturated Mlxtni 
of Air and Vapor at Different Tern perai urea, under 
tbe Ordinary A tmopherlc. Pressure of 29.921 
inches of Mercury. 



- 


jHj 


u" 

Q 


MIXTURES OP AIR SATURATED WITH VAPOR. 




iji 


If 


Elastic 


Weight of Cubic Foot of the 
Mixture of Air and Vapor. 


Weight 


2" 


oj s 





Force of 




of 




_j * 


*gj 


the Air in 








Vapor 


3:8 

"** 


3 




Mixture 








m i Y -i 1 


Tempera 
FahrenlM 


Weight ol 
of Dry A i 
Tempera 


Elastic Fo 
Inches ol 


of Airand 
Vapor, 
nch^s of 
Mercury. 


Weight 

of the 
Air, Ibs. 


Weight 
of the 
Vapor, 
pounds. 


Total 
Wght of 
Mixture, 
pounds. 


Jill A"U 

with 1 Ib. 
of Air, 
pounds. 





.0864 


.044 


29.877 


.0863 


.000079 


.086379 


.00092 


I '2 


.OS42 


.074 


29 849 


.0840 


.000130 


.084130 


.00155 


22 


.0824 


.118 


29.803 


.0821 


.000202 


.082302 


.00245 


32 


.OS07 


.181 


29.740 


.0802 


.000304 


.080504 


.00379 


42 


.0791 


.267 


29.654 


.0784 


.000440 


.078840 


.00561 


52 


.0776 


.388 


29.533 


.0766 


.000627 


.077227 


.00819 


02 


.0761 


.556 


29.365 


.0747 


.000881 


.075581 


.01179 


72 


.0747 


.785 


29.136 


.0727 


.001221 


.073921 


.01680 


82 


.0733 


1.092 


28.829 


.0706 


.001667 


.072267 


.02361 




.0720 


1.501 


28.420 


.0684 


.002250 


.070717 


.03289 


102 


.0707 


2.036 


27.885" 


.0659 


.002997 


.068897 


.04547 


112 


.0694 


2 731 


27.190 


.0631 


.003946 


.067046 


.06253 


122 


.0682 


3.621 


26.300 


.051)9 


.005142 


.065042 


.08584 


132 


.0671 


4.752 


25.169 


.0564 


.006639 


.063039 


.1177: 


142 


.0660 


6.165 


23.756 


.0524 


.008173 


.060873 


.16170 


162 


.0649 


7.930 


21.991 


.0477 


.010716 


.058416 


.22465 


162 


.0638 


10.099 


19.822 


.0423 


.013415 


.055715 


.31713 


172 


.0628 


12.758 


17.163 


.0360 


.016682 


.052682 


.46338 


182 


.0618 


15.960 


13.961 


.0288 


.020536 


.049336 


.7l300 r 


102 


' ' '19 b - '8 


10.093 


.0205 


.025142 


.045642 


1.22643 1 


202 


.Otx.1 


24.450 


5.471 


.0109 


.030545 


.041445 


2.80230 


212 


.0591 


29 921 


0.000 


.0000 


.036820 


.036820 


Infinite. 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



SAUNDERSON & WRIGHT. 

M-inuf icturers of the 

American and Nonesuch Brands- of Packing, Oils, etc. 

Lubricating and Boiler Cleaning Compound. 

456 & 407 West Broadway, New York. SfgSS 6 

Supplies of every description 



'Red Seal" Boiler Compound. 

"Slip-Not" 
Belt Dressing. 

Perry's Original Packing. 



Combination Packing. 

Trade Mark 
"White I Live I'll Crow." 



for Steam, Water, Gas 
and Electrical Engineering. 
Iron and Brass 

PIPE VALVES and FITTINGS. 



COPPER RUBBER COVERED WIRES AND CABLES, 

WATERPROOF WIRES FOR ELECTRICAL PURPOSES. 



hWI R E^P 

H A Z A R D M 



COPPER, STEEL, IRON GALVANIZED FOR ELEVATORS, 

MINES, DERRICKS, SHIP AND YACHT RIGGING. 

WORKS . OFFICE and WAREHOUSE : 



WILKES-BARRE, PA. 



50 DEY ST.. NEW YORK 





Graber Indicating 
Automatic Water Gauge 

The Graber Gauge possesses several valuable features 
that make it a most desirable water gauge. In case a 
gauge glass should break, it is provided with an auto- 
matic valve which closes instantly, cutting off the flow 
of steam or water from the boiler. 

The Graber Gauge is self-cleaning, and as the auto- 
matic valve is fitted with a Jenkins Disc, it does not 
stick or leak when closed. It prevents danger from 
scalding, and damage resulting from leaking water 
glasses. 

The Graber Gauge is made in two patterns: Regular 
Pattern, for pressures up to 125 pounds; Extra Heavy 
Pattern, for pressures up to 250 pounds. 



JENKINS BROS. 



New York 



Chicago 



Boston 



London 



Philadelphia 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



e 

60 

1 

C 


c 

& 

bo 

3 


1906. 


Atmosphere. 


Water. 


Reduction 
as com- 
pared with 
Atmosphere 


Date. Time. 




- U3 

"o > 

ej o 
ec M 
& & 


c 

6 

Lt 

B 

O. 

J 

5 


C 

i 
o 

*> . 

ii 


C 

h 

> Ji 


w 



e 

Ii 


1 i 

O 

s 

i i 




WT -3-c -o 


e c 


July 16, 3 F. M 
16, 6PM 


84 75 
79 70 
82 75 
92 72 
82 72 
94 77 
87 75 
91 75 
84 75 
73 67 
80 67 
79 67 
70 66 
80 71 
86 -7 
84 74 
84 76 
82 72 
82.4 72.4 
79 7-2 
92 78 
88 78 
89 77 
94 76 
80 74 
83 75 
84 71 
82 73 
90 78 

74 66 
85 69 
82 61 
80 74 
84 74 
85 76 
88 77 

86 77 
84 79 
74 70 
68 66 
82 78 
84. 77 
77 68 
75 69 
87 77 
82.9 73-4 
78 60 
76 67 
85 72 
73 5"8 
78 67 
82 70 
80 67 
69 55 
70' 57 
74 65 
76 70 
75 63 
78 70 
68 60 
75^8 64.3 
60 54 
70 61 
7^ 62 

7: c- 

70 .67 


i5o 
8s 
68 
34 

57 

52 
42 

60 
~o 
47 

59 
46 

II 

57 
57 
67 

52 
39 

64 

60 

53 

II 

40 
30 
71 
57 
61 
55 
61 
76 

H 

80 
76 

59 
70 

6*0.7 
35 
59 
49 
40 

53 

47 
45 

7i 
49 
63 
60 
51-7 
66 
57 
54 
" l 
6- 
83 


88 
90 
93 
90 
90 
90 
90 
89 
84 
82 

79 
82 

83 
94 
87 
86 
86 
88 

II- 3 

88 
93 
88 
88 
92 
89 
84 
86 
89 
84 
76 
85 
84 
84 
88 
89 
93 
89 
92 
82 
76 
|4 
89 
81 
83 

01 

86.4 
82 
75 
77 
69 
66 

11 

70 
73 
79 
83 

64 5 
72 
74 

8*- 


82 

11 

y, 

82 

81 
81 
7"8 
72 

74 
77 
85 
79 
78 
70 
81 
79.1 

86 
84 
82 
84 
82 
77 
80 
83 
79 

81 
81 
84 
82 
83 
74 
70 
78 
82 
73 

I 6 , 

79-4 
77 
69 

62 

71 

65 
71 
76 
68 

I 7 

66 

67 

71 


6 
7 
9 
13 

10 

8 
6 

10 

8 
8 
6 

1 
8 

7 

L 
I 

7 

4 

8 
7 

6 
5 
4 
9 
8 
8 

i 

9 
7 

6 
6 

I 

7 

9 
6.9 

5 
6 
6 
9 
4 
6 
9 
7 
8 
8 - 

6 
8 
6 
6 7 
6 
6 
7 

TO 

8 


2 
4 

2 

15 
2 
12 

6 

10 

6 

i 
9 

7 

7 
6 
5 

4-3 

10 
2 

5 

12 
4 

I 

7 ' 

2 

7 

5 

2 

9 

6 

2 

3 

4 
4 

T 

4 
2 

4 "~~ 
I 


17, 8 A. M. . 


" 18, 4 P. M....... 
" 19, 10 A. M . 


" 20, 4 P. M. . . 


" 21, n A. M 

" 22, I P. M . . 


' 2 3) roA. M 
' 24, 8 A. M 


25 i P M 


26, i P. M. . 


' 27, 8 A. M 


' 28, ii A. M. . 


' 28, i P. M....... 


' 29 i P. M . 


' 30, ii A. M 


* 31 i i A M 


Mean results for month. 
AUK. i, 7 A. M. . 


4, 4P.M.. 

" 5, ii A. M.. .' 


6 ii A M . 


" 6, 2 P. M 


" 78AM 


8, P M 


" 9, P. M 


" 10 P. M. . 


" n,' P. M 

" 12 10 A M 


" 13 P M 


"14 P M 


** 15' P. M . . 


" 18 P M 


" io' P M . 


" to P M 


M 21, P. M . 


"22 P M 


"23 P M 


" 24, o A M 


"25 P M 


" 26, P M 


" 27, P. M" 

"28 P M 


" 29 i i A M 


" 30, 2 P. M 


5 

3-3 
I 
7 
14 
13 
6 
ii 
9 
6 
5 
3 

4 

2 


Mean results for mom..,' 
Sept i, 6PM . . ..." 


' r 2, i P. M 
3 2 P. M 


" 42PM 


" 5 i P M 


" 6 i P M 


" 23 i P M . 


" 24, i P. M 


" 25 i P M 


" 26, i P. M 
" 27, i P. M 
" 28, i P. M 
" 29, i P. M 
" 30, 3 P. M 
Mean results for month. 
Oct i i P M 


2, I P. M 

; 3, i P. M .... 

, i P. M ".'. .'. '. 
6, J R M . . . 



William T. Donnelly, 
Mem. A. S. M. E. 



James A. Donnelly, 
Mem. A.S. H.& V. E. 



Vanderbilt Building, New York, N. Y. 

POSITIVE DIFFERENTIAL 
SYSTEM OEEXHAUS1 
STEAM CIRCULATION 

SEND FOR BOOKLET. 



60 Day Clocks. 

Prentiss 60 Day 
clocks run two 
months on a single 
winding and keep 
perfect time. They 
are well made, dur- 
able and reliable, and 
cannot fail to give 
perfect satisfaction. 
Prentiss Program 
clocks will auto- 
matically ring your 
bells at any times 
desired. 



Electric, Synchronized, Watchman's and Frying' 

pan Clocks. 
Send for Catalogue No. 837. 

The Prentiss Clock Improvement Co. 

Dept. 83. 49 Dey Street. NEW YORK CITY 




COLD STORAGE 

"4 ICE TRADE JOURNAL 

Produce Exchange, 
New York. 



J*HE progressive refrigerating 
engineer can not well get 
along without a live journal cov- 
ering his trade. 

COLD STORAGE & ICE TRADE 
JOURNAL contains much valu- 
able practical information that is 
especially written for the refrig- 
erating engineer by competent 
writers. 

Every refrigerating engineer 
would do well to consult its pages. 



The subscription price to the re- 
frigerating engineer only 

is $1.00 per year. 
Sample Copy on request. 



William Wilson, 

Contracting and 
Consulting Engineer. 

f 00 William Street, New York. 

Tel. 1791 John. 

Ice Making and Refrigerating Machinery. 
Double Pipe Condensers* 

Special Grade of Ammonia. 



GUSTAV SCHMIDT. LUDWIG SCHMIDT. 

G. (Si L. SCHMIDT 

(Formerly with A. Schmidt & Bros.) 
Manufacturers of the most improved Steam 
Vacuum, Blast, Hydraulic and Water Tank 
GAUGES, which only a practical experi- 
ence of over 30 years can produce. Machine 
Work of all kinds Gauges. Indicating 
Counters, etc., made and repaired. 

No. 216 Centre St., (Second Floor.) 
Below Grand St. NEW YORK. 



ELECTRICIAN AND 



MECHANIC!! 



A monthly magazine of technical in- 
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things electrical and mechanical. 



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FIFTY CENTS A YEAR 



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which we may happen to have on hand. 

WRITE NOW ! 



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6 Beacon St* t Boston, Mass, 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



RELATIVE HUMIDITY, PER GENT. 



Difference between the Dry and Wet Thermometers, Deg. F. 



V DPI 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6|e|7 


8 


9 


io|n 


12 


13 


14J15 


10 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


26J28 


30 


bfa 


Relative Humidity, Saturation being 100. 


32 


90*79 


69 


5950 


40 


31 


21 


12 


3 




































40 


92 


84 


70 


68 


60 


53 


45 


38 


30 


22 


16 


8 


1 






























50 


98 


87 


HO 


74 


67 


61 


55 


50 


44 


38 


33 


2722 


16 


11 


ft 


1 






















60 


1)4 


89 


84 


78 


73 


08 


68 


58 


53 


48 


44 


39134 


30 


26 


22 


IS 


14 


10 


C 


2 














70 


98 


90 


80 


81 


77 


72 


08 


64 


00 


55 


&2 


4844 


40 


36 


33 


29 


26 


23 


1!' 


10 


13 


10 


i 


1 






80 
90 


96 
96 


92 
92 


87 


83 

85 


79 
81 


75 

78 


72 

7.-) 


08 
71 


64 

68 


01 
65 


57 
62 


5451 
5956 


47144 
5350 


41 
47 


38 
44 


35 
41 


3229 
39 36 


20 
34 


23 
32 


20 

29 


18 
20 


13 
22 


8 
17 


3 
13 


100 


97 


93 190 86 


83 80 


TT 


74 


71 


08 


05 


62|59 


57 


54 


51 


49 


47 


44 


42 


39 


37 


35 


33 


','9 


25'21 


110 


07 


949087 


8481 


78 


70 


73 


70 


07 


65 


02 


6057 


55 


53 


50 


48 


40 


44 


42 


40 


3H 


3i 


3027 


120 


97 


9491 


8S 


85 


83 


80 


77 


75 


72 


70 


67 


o.-) 


6260 


58 


50 


54 


51 


4'.) 


47 


45 


44 


42 


3S 


3531 


140 


97 


95 1 92 89 87 


84 


8279 


77 


75 


73 


71J68 


GO 01 


02 


00 


58 


5655 


53 


51 


49 


48 


41 


41*38 



CENTRIFUGAL FANS. 
Flow of Air through an Orifice. 

VELOCITY, VOLUME, AND HP. REQUIRED WHEN AIR UNDER GIVEN PRESSURE 
IN OUNCES PER 8Q. IN. IS ALLOWED TO ESCAPE INTO THE ATMOSPHERE. 

(B. F. Sturtevant Co.) 



eloci 
min. 



1,828 
2,585 
3,165 
3.654 
4,084 
4,473 
4,830 
5,162 
5,478 
5,768 
6,048 
6,315 
6,571 
6,818 
7,P55 



4 g 



12.69 
17.95 
21.98 
25.37 
28.36 
31.06 
33.54 
35.85 
38.01 
40.06 
42.00 
43.86 
45.63 
4784 
49.00 



III. 

9- c .i: 

H>< 

I i3 

a 

.00043 
.00122 
.00225 
.00346 
.00483 
.00635 
.00800 
.00978 
.01166 
.01366 
.01575 
.01794 
.02022 
.02260 
.02505 i 
I 



.0340 
.0680 
.1022 
.1363 
.1703 
.2044 
.2385 
.2728 
.3068 
.3410 
.3750 
.4090 
.4431 
.4772 
.5112 



it 

v a 



7,284 
7,507 
7,722 
7,932 
8,136 
8,334 
8,528 
8,718 
8,903 
9,084 
9,262 
9,435 
9,606 
9,773 
9,938 
10.100 



s 

1*1 5 

O i i v- 



50.59 
52.18 
53.63 
55.08 
56.50 
57.88 
59.22 
60.54 
61.83 
63.08 
64.32 
65.52 
66.71 
67.87 
69.01 
7014 




.02759 
.03021 
.03291 
.03568 
.03852 
.04144 
.04442 
.04747 
.05058 
.05376 
.05701 
.06031 
.061168 
.06710 
.07058 
.07412 



fcg 

8.9 
S 

hi 

H 

.5454 
.5795 
.6136 
.6470 
.6818 
.7160 
.'500 
.7841 
.8180 
.8522 
.8863 
.9205 
.9546 



1.0227 
1.0567 



Amount of Water for Surface Condenser?. 
(Pounds of Water required per Pound of Steam.) 



T-t 


TKMPERATUBE OF A!R PUMP DISCHARGE. r 


90 


95 


100 


?02 


104 I 106 


108 


110 | 112 


114 


116 


118 


120 


125 


130 


5 


2*0 


219 


218 


217.6 


217.2 


216.8 


216 4 


216 


215.6 


215 2 


214,8 


214.4 


214 


213 


212 


10 


110 


109.5 


109 


108.8 


108.6 


408 4 


108.2 


108 


107.8 


107. G 


107 4 


107 2 


107 


106.5 


106 


16 


73.3 


73 


72.7 


72.6 


72.4 


72.3 


72.1 


72 


71.9 


71.7 


71 6 


71 6 


71.3 


71 


70.7 


20 


65 


64.7 


54.5 


54.* 


64.3 


64.2 


54.1 


64 


63.9 


63.8 


63.7 


63.6 


63.5 


63.2 


63 


26 


44 


43.8 


43. . 


43.6 


43.4 


43.4 


43.3 


43.2 


43 1 


43 


42.9 


42.9 


42.8 


42.6 


42.4 


80 


36.7 


36.6 


36.3 


36.3 


fl6.2 


36.2 


36 1 


36 


35 9 


35.9 


36.8 


35.7 


35 7 


35 6 


36.3 


35 


31.4 


31.3 


3t.l 


31.1 


31.0 


31 


30 9 


30.8 


30 8 


30.7 


0.7 


30 6 


305 30.4 


30.3 


40 


27.6 


27.4 


27\2 


27.2 


27.1 


27.1 


U7 


27 


2 9 


26.9 


26.8 


6.8 


26.7 


26.6 


26.6 


46 


24.4 


24.3 


24.2 


24.2 


24.1 


24 1 


24 


24 


23.9 


23.9 


23.9 


23.8 


23.8 


23.7 


.* 


50 


22 


21.9 


21.8 


21.8 


21.7 


21 7 


21.6 


21.6 


21 6 


21 5 


21.6 


21.4 


21.4 


21.3 


21.2 


65 


20 


19 9 


19.8 


19.8 


19.7 


19.7 


19.7 


19.6 


19.0 


19 U 


19.5 


19.6 


194 


19.4 


19.5 


60 


18.3 


18.3 


18.2 


18.1 


18.1 


18.1 


18 


18 


18 


17. 9: 17 9 


17 9 


17.8 


17.7 


17.7 


65 


16. y 


16.8 


16 8 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.6 


16.6 


16 6 


165 


16.5 


16 5 


16 5 


16.4 


16:3 


70 


15 7 


15.6 


15.6 


15.5 


15.5 


15.5 


15 4 


15.4 


15 4 


15 4 


15.8 


163 


15.3 


10.2 


15.1 


75 


14.7 


14.6 


14.5 


14.5 


14.5 


14 4 


14.4 


14.4 


11.4 


14 3 


14.3 


14.3| 14.3 


14.2 


14.1 


80 


13.7 


13.6 


13 6 


13.6 


13.6 


13.5 


13.5 


13.6 


136 


13 4 


13 4 


13.41 13.4 


13.3 


13.2 


85 


to. 9 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.7 


12 7 


12.7 


12 7 


12.6 


12.6 


12.61 126 


12.5 


12.6 


90 


12 2 


i, -: 


19.. 1 


12 1 


12.1 


U 


12 


12 


12 


11 9 


11.9 


11.9> 11.9 


11.8 


11.8 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 71) 



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Tell them so! 

Tell them through the Engineer the buyer. 

Tell them every month hammer it in ! 

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Tell them through the columns 



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of Brooklyn 
will issue an Annual Year Book about May 1. 



For information, address the secretary 



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132 NASSAU ST., NEW YORE 



B.W. .S ANDBACH & CO. 

ARMATURE WINDING 

MOTOR INSPECTION ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES 

101 PRINCE STREET, :::::: TEL. 6338 SPRING. 



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Treats of Valve Setting. Gives Rules for Calculations and many useful Tables. 

For sale by The Engineers' List. Price 25 Cents. 



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Established 1893. Telephones 2268 s P rin O- 

CHAS. A. BORNE CO. 

Electricians and Machinists. 

Dynamos, Motors Bought, Sold, Installed. 

A complete Repair Shop for all kinds of 

REPAIRS AND RE-CONSTRUCTION 

62 GRAND STREET, NEW YORK. 



CHAS, J, WEINZ : CONTRACTOR 

STEAM PIPE AND BOILER COVERINGS. 

85 per cent. Magnesia, Asbestos, Mould- 
ed Air Cell and Brine Sectional and Sheet 
Coverings. All s:yles of Non-Conducting 
Materials for Heat and Cold. Fireproof 
Construction, Special Insulations. 

'-'." VenrM Experience. Estimates Furnlnh- 
ed and Contracts Executed Promptly. 

247 W. 123d St., New York. 
Tel. 2053A Morningside. 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



81 



Amount of Water for Jet Condensers* 



*ll~ 


ENTERING TEMPERATURE of IKJECTION WATER /. 


Hi 


33 


40 


45 


50 


55 


60 


65 


70 


75 


60 


85 


90 


95 


100 


M 


POUNDS OF CONDENSING WATER REQUIRED PER POUND OF STEAM. Q = * 190 ~ . 


T 


. "~~ 


90 


200 


220 


24.4 


27.5 


31.4 


36.7 


44.0 


55.0 


73 8. 


110.0 


220.0 








92 


19.2 


21.1 


23.4 


&.1 


29.7 


84.3 


40.7 


49.9 


64.6 


91.5 


156.8 


549 






94 


18.6 


20.3 




24 d 


28.1 


32.2 


87.8 


45.7 


67.7 


7S 1 


121.8 


.274.0 






96 


17.9 


19.8 


21*4 


23.6 


26.7 


30.4 


35.3 


42.1 


62.1 


68.4 


99.4 


182.3 






98 


17.3 


18.& 


20.6 


22.7 


25 4 


28 7 


30.1 


39.0 


47.5 


60.7 


84.0 


136.5 


364^0 




100 


16 ft 


18.2 


19.8 


21.8 


24.2 


27.2 


31.1 


36:3 


43.6 


64 5 


72 7 


109 


218 




102 


16.2 


17.5 


19.1 


20.9 


23.1 


25 9 


29.4 


34.0 


40.3 


49.5 


64.0 


90.7 


155.4 


544.0 


104 


15.7 


17.0 


18.4 


30.T 


2J.2 


24.7 


27.8 


31.9 


37.4 


45.2 


57 2 


77.6 


120.7 


271 5 


106 


15.3 


16.4 


17.8 


19,4 


21.3 


23.6 


26.4 


30.1 


33.0 


41.7 


61.6 


67.7 


98 5 


180 7 


108- 


11.8 


15 9 


17.2 


18'.7 


204 


22.5 


25.2 


28.5 


32.8 


38.6 


47.0 


60.1 


83.2 


135! 2 


110 


14 4 


15 4 


16 6 


18 


19 6 


21 6 


24.0 


27.0 


30 9 


36 


43 2 


54 


72 


108 


112 


14 


15 


16.1 


17.4 


18.9 


20.7 


22.9 


25.7 


29.1 


33.6 


39 9 


49.0 


63 4 


69.8 


114 


13.6 


14.5 


15.6 


16.8 


18.2 


199 


>2.0 


24.5 


27.6 


31.6 


37.1 


44.8 


66.6 


76 9 


116 


13 3 


14.1 


15.1 


16.3 


17.6 


19.2 


21.1 


23.3 


26.2 


29.8 


34.6 


41.3 


51.1 


67 1 


118 


12.9 


13.7 


14.7 


15.8 


17.0 


18.5 


20. 2 


22.3 


24.9 


28.2 


32.6 


383 


46.6 


59.6 


120 


12.6 


13.4 


14.3 


15.3 


16.5 


17.8 


19.5 


21.4 


23.8 


26.7 


30.6 


35.7 


42.8 


53.5 


122 


12.3 


13.0 


13.9 


14.8 


15.9 


IT. 2 


18.7 


20.5 


22.7 


25.4 


28.9 


33.4 


39 6 


48.5 


124 


12.0 


12.7 


13 5 


14 4 


15.4 


16.7 


18.1 


19 7 


21.8 


24.2 


27.3 


31.4 


3G.8 


44.4 


126 


11.7 


12.4 


13.1 


14.0 


15.0 


16.1 


17.4 


19.0 


20.9 


23.1 


26 


29.6 


34.3 


40.9 


128 


1K4 


12.1 


12.8 


13.6 


14.5 


15.6 


169 


183 


20.0 


22.1 


24.7 


27.9 


32.2 


37.9 


130 


11.2 


11.8 


12.5 


13.2 


14.1 


15.1 


16,3 


17.7 


19.3 


21.2 


23.6 


26 5 


30.3 


35.3 


132 


10.9 


11.6 


12.2 


12.9 


13.7 


14.7 


15.7 


17.1 


18.6 


20.3 


22 5 


25.2 


28.6 


33.1 


134 


10.7 


11.2 


11.9 


12 6 


13.4 


14.3 


15.3 


16.5 


17.9 


19.6 


21.6 


24.0 


27.1 


31.0 


136 


10.4 


11.0 


11.6 


12.3 


13.0 


13.9 


14.8 


16.0 


17.3 


13.8- 


2ft. 7 


22.9 


25.7 


29.2 


138 


10.2 


10.7 


11.3 


12.0 


12.7 


13.5 


14.4 


15.5 


16.7 


18.1 


19.8 


21.9 


24. & 


27.7 


140 


10.0 


10.5 


11. 1 


11.7 


12 4 


13.1 


14.0 


15.0 


16.2 


17.6 


19.1 


21.0 


23.3 


26.2 



Experiments made with a Blackman IM&k Fan, 4 ft. 

diam , by Geo. A. Suter, to determine the voiun.es of air delivered under 
various conditions, and the power required; with calculations of efficiency 
and ratio of increase of power to increase of velocity, by G. H. Babcock. 
(Trans. A. S. M. E., vii. 54?) : 



c 

8 

I 

1 


& . 

. 5U 

*rsi 

3-0 P. 


h 

1 . 


*i-s r 

SA* 
M 

M 


& 

IP 


Ratio of In- 
crease of 
Delivery. 


Ratio of In- 
crease of 
Power. 


Exponent or, 
HPaF*. 


Exponent y, 
hocV V . 


Efficiency 
of Fan. 


350 


25 797 


65 














1 632 


440 


32.575 


2.29 




1.257 


1.262 


3.523 


5.4 




.9553 


534 


41,929 


4 42 




1.186 


1.287 


1 843 


2 4 




3.062 


612 


47,756 


7 41 




1 146 


1.139 


1.677 


3 97 




.9358 




For 


series 




1.749 


1.851 


11.140 


4. 


























340 


20,372 


0.76 














.7110 


453 


26 660 


1 99 




.332 


1.308 


2 618 


3 55 




6068 


536 


31 .649 


3 86 




.183 


1.187 


1 940 


3 86 




5205 


627 


36,543 


6.47 




.167 


1.155 


1 676 


8 59 




.4802 




For 


series 




761 


1.794 


8 513 


3 63 


























340 


, 9 983 


1.12 


0.28 












.3989 


430 
534 
570 


13,017 
17,018 
18,649 
For 


3.17 
6.07 
8.46 
series 


0.47 
0.75 

0.87 


.265 
.242 
.068 
.676 


1.804 
1.307 
1.096 
1.704 


2.837 
1.915 
1.394 
7.554 


3 93 
2.25 
3.63 
3 24 


1.95 
1.74 
1.60 
I 81 


.3046 
.331S 
JBK87 






















330 


8,399 


1 31 


26 












28t 


437 
516 


10,071 
11,157 
For 


3 27 
6.00 

series 


0.45 
0.75 


1.324 

1.181 
1.563 


1.199 

1.108 
1.3-J9 


8.142 
1 457 
4 580 


6.31 
3 66 
5.35 


3.0f> 
4.96 
3.72 


.! 

.a& 



There Is 
Only One 




Lubricates Everything. 



It is the 
Only Safe and Uniform Lubricant 

for Machinery of All Kinds. 
ADOPTED BY THE U. S. GOVERNMENT 

IN ALL ITS DEPARTMENTS 

jjs^We Solicit Your Inquiries. 

WRITE FOR OUR FREE SAMPLE 

ORDER 

Look for Yellow Label 



MADE ONLY BY 



ADAM COOK'S SONS, 



313 WEST STREET, 
NEW YORK. 



COOL, CLEAN, LIGHT-RUNNING MACHINERY 

That is what dots the work of the world, and it does it hest where the Kest Lubricant is used. 
American intusiry is fst oveitaMng the trade of the globe and likewise 

THE PULVER LUBRICATING COMPOUND 

is finding its way into every engine room and machine shop from Portland to Portland. 
Easy to guess why They must have it. IT 

IB Uniform in Quality Effects a Great Saving in Cost 

Insures Freedom From Grit Cannot Be Successfully Imitated 



214 FRANKLIN ST., N.Y. 

c 




J^nufacturers REJER PULVER & SONS 



214 Franklin Street 
NEW YORK 




THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



83 



PARIS M. FLETCHER 

President 



ARTHUR F. STANLEY 

Treasurer 



"HELLO" SIX-0-TWO-O-JOHN 



Attractive Prices 



A Square Deal 



fromptDeliveries 



P. M. Fletcher Co. 

ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES and SPECIALTIES 



32 and 34 Frankfort Street 



Cable Address 



"PARISELEC. 



NEW YORK 



General Electric Ompany 

JL ^/ 



TTHE largest electrical mannfacturer in the world of corn, 
plete power and railway equipments and of illuminating 
and miscellaneous electrical and wiring supplies. 



840 



ew York Office 
44 Broad St. 



PRINCIPAL OFFICE 
Schenectady, N. Y. 



Sales offices in 
all large cities 




KIELEY COMBINED MUFFLER AND GREASE EXTRACTOR TANK, 
RcCElVfR, PUMP GOVERNOR, POMP AND FEED WATER HEATER 

Guaranteed to Extract 99 per cent, of the Oil. 

Alan uf uet urers of 



Reducing; Valves, 
Dumper ReKulatora, 
Relief VulteM, 
AVater A robed, 



Baek Pressure Valve*, Steam Trnpn, 

it-am ;MI. I Oil Separator**, I'limp <. oriiora, 

Tn iik \uUfM, Temperature font roller*, 

\\UMie Heat Utilizer*, \\aier Feeders, Jtc. 



ELEY & MUELLER 



34 WEST 13th ST, 

WRITE FOR LATEST CATALOGUE 



NEW YORK CITY 



84 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



GARRET S. WRIGHT MASON 

BOILER SETTING,FURNACE REPAIRS an( * BUILDER 

ENGINE FOUNDATIONS AND CHIMNEY BUILDING A SPECIALTY 

All Kinds of Mason Work and Repairs Attended To At Short Notice 

BETWEEN 9th and H)th AVENUES, NEW YORK CITY 
Office: 421 West 24th St. Residence: 41 2 West 24th St 



Tel. 11 30 Chelsea 



Tel. 2775 J-Chelsea 



CHARLES DINQER & SON 



Mason, 



Boiler Setting and 
Engine Foundations 
a Specialty. 

Office: 51 John Street, 

NEIW _ 

([^'Estimates Furnished and Work Done in all Parts of the Country. 



Also Smelting Furnaces 

and Chimneys. 
Telephone Call 2609 John 

Residence: 126 E. 87th Street, 



Stephen C. Wright. 



A Specialty Made of Boiler Setting, Furnace Building and Engine Foundations. 
All kinds of Mason Work for Steam Plants. 
Fully equipped for repairs of every description. 

TELEPHONE 1491 CHELSEA. 

Office and Residence: 352 West 16th St., New York. 



G R AT E BARS 




JAMES MONTGOM EH V, PIO.I F u " dr M " oulder by Trade 

DUMPING. SHAKING AND STATIONARY BARS. FURNACES LINED. 

Tel. 8093 Cortlandt. i 36 LIBERTY ST., NEW YORK 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



85 



The Salamander Cradle 
Dumping Grate 

("WEEK'S PATENT) 







FOR BURNING 
CHEAP FUEL 

Has 
No 
Equal 

Fire can be 
cleaned in three 
Minutes. Most 
substant i a I 
Dumping Grates 
made. Reduces 
the fireman's 
labor to a min- 
imum. 



This is the perfection of Dumping Grates, and its distinguishing 
feature is the cradle supporting the front end of the bars. Each bar 
has three supports, hence the front end cannot drop below the re- 
quired level, causing the back end to raise in the fire and burn off. 
Frees itself from clinkers and refuse more readily than any other 
style of grate. 

Made for any size coal, but particularly adapted to burning the 
smaller sizes of cheap coal and waste fuel . 

Our Special Grate Bar Iron Mixture is used in the castings. 



Salamander Grate Bar Co. 

126 Liberty Street, New York 

Telephone 4136 Cortlandt 



86 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



Salamander Grate Bar Co. 



Established in 1853. 



Incorporated in 1855. 



GRATE BARS EXCLUSIVELY 



of Inferior Imitations. 



SOME OF OUR SPECIALTIES: 

Salamander Interlocking Grate Bars. 



3 s 




Q> 8 

X <x 



THE ORIGINAL AETNA, 



y 



WITH PATENTED 
IMPROVEMENT. 




Gives more than 
60 per cent, air 
space. f 

We can increase 
the capacity of 
your boilers and 
make a large 
saving in fuel. 

Lower priced 
than any other 
Shaking Grate. 

Refer to steam 
plants using the 
same Grates, 10 
years or more, 
with no expense 
for repairs. 



Setletm.etn.cier 

126 Liberty Street, New York. 

Telephone Call 4136 Cortlandi. 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



87 



Salamander Grate Bar Co. 

The Salamander Dumping Grate 

With Solid Iron Frame, With Extension Legs Resting on Ashpit Floor. 




For burning cheap 
fuel. 

Best Dumping 
Grate made, wth 
the exception of our 
Patent Cradle 
Dumping Grate, as 
shown on page 85. 



Rogers' Sectional Grate. 



TOP AND SIDE V.'EW. 



END VIEW. 




Made for Both Square and Round Furnaces. 

All of our Grates are sold on their merits, and satisfaction is guaranteed 

in every case. 

We are headquarters for Grate Bars, and can furnish you with any kind 
you desire, made from a superior mixture of iron. 

We make any air space desired for any kind of fuel. 
Perfect Combustion Long Life Low Prices What more can you ask? 



126 Liberty Street, New York 

Telephone Call 4136 Cortland . 



88 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



C 



oe s 



Com- 
bustion 



S 



ystem 




A Scientific Manner of Burning All the Gases of Coal Successfully. 
COE DUMPING GRATE BARS. COE SHAKING AND 
CUT-OFF GRATES. COE IMPROVED STATIONARY 
GRATES. SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

NEW YORK GRATE BAR CO. 

123 LIBERTY ST., NEW YORK. TEL. 5254 CORTLANDT 

JOSEPH MILLER 
Plumbing and Gas Fitting 

| Consulting Engineer for 
Sanitary and Hydraulic Work 

Personal Attention Given to Repair 
: : and Reconstruction Work 



473 FOURTH AVE. TEL. Z os Madison 



NEW YORK 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



89 



THOMPSON'S STEAM SPECIALTIES 

The Thompson 
20th Century Indicator 




WITH 

ID'Al RFDUCING WHEEL 

ATTACHED. 

A COMPLETE and RELIABLE IN- 
DICATING OUTFIT. 

Send for Booklet. 



Telephone 2361 Cortlandt. 



The Thompson Damper 
and Pressure Regulator 

With LATEST IMPROVEMENTS, will 
WORK on the SLIGHTEST VARIATION 
of PRESSURE. 

Installed Subject to Approval. 

Price Upon Application. 



Dumping Grate 

This is a Self-Contained, 
Practical, Dumping Gate, made 
to operate in two, four or six 
sections. 

For Burning Cheap Fuel IT 
HAS NO EQUAL. 

A fire can be cleaned in from 
three to five minutes. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. 



An Up-to-date Shaking 
and Dumping Grate 



Substantial, Practical and 
Durable. 

There are places where a 
Shaking Gratfe is desirable. 

We put them in on their Mer- 
its and Guarantee Results. 



RICHARD THOMPSON & CO. 

126 LIBERTY ST., NEW YORK 



Tin: ENGINEERS' LIST. 



.TRADE MARK 




DIRECTURN 



IST 



(Direct-Return) Qf 



REGISTERED 




Horizontal Return-Tubular Steam Boiler. 




Fitted with McClave's Patent Improved Grates unless otherwise ordered. 

BEC3-OS &c 

1O9 Liberty Street, New York. 
Boilers, Engines, Machinery and Supplies. 

McClave's Patent Improved Shaking, Dumping: and Cut Off Grates, and 

Argand Steam Blowers. 

-SEND FOR CATALOGUES. 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



M. H. Treadwell & Co., Inc. 



95 Liberty St., New York. 

Telephone 59i2 Cortlandt. 

Used by Those who Know jfc,, Machined 

"Tread-Kill" 
Dumping Grate 






Strong-Easy to Operate 



Absolutely level in the furnace 




From Manufacturer to Consumer. 



WE MAKE 

Dumping Bars, 
Shaking " 
Stationary " 
Circular " 
Circular Grates, 
Dead Plates, 
Arch Plates and 
all kinds of Boiler 
Castings. 

Any kind of spe- 
cial bar or grate 
r ade from draw- 
ing. 




We have been 
making bars Forty 
years and know 
something about 
this line. Our pri- 
ces are cheap when 
quality and work- 
manship are com- 
pared. 

Prices quoted on 
application. Mail 
orders promptly 
attended to and 
satisfaction guar- 
anteed. 



ANY AIR SPACE DESIRED. 



Phenix Grate Bar Co. 

54O-55O WEST 55th STREET, NEW YORK 
Office, 548 West 55th Street. 



92 THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



GEO. H. WARD & CO. 



Consulting and Constructing 
Engineers and Machinists 




IT is a well established fact, that but few employees take the 
same interest in a business as the employer. 

We want all steam users tc know that the members of 
this firm give their personal attention to all work en- 
trusted to them. 

That we are diligent in our business and study the interest of our 
customers, is evident from the constant steady increase in the volume 
of business coming to us. 

This we appreciate, "but there is a' reason." We know that the 
best mechanics obtainable are the only ones we employ, and the highest 
grade of materials is none too good to use. Therefore, it is to the in- 
terest of the Power Plant Owners and Engineers to remember that we 
are Consulting, Constructing and Contracting Engineers, for Steam, 
Hydraulic, Electrical and Refrigerating plants. 

Cylinder and valve chamber reboring in place; Engine, Elevator, 
Machinery and Pump repairs are our specialty. 

We also manufacture Ward's Improved Patent Eeed Water Filter, 
and Ward's Grate Bars, both dumping and stationary. 



OFFICE and WORKS : 

78 DELEVAN STREET : : BROOKLYN, N. Y. $ 

Telephone 49 Hamilton 

$ 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. .93 



W. (SL G. W. LOVE 

Engineers and Machinists 

173 (Si 175 GRAND ST. Telephone I 93 4 Spring NEW YORK 
REPAIRING OF STEAM ENGINES, PUMPS AND ELEVATORS A SPECIALTY. 



Makers of J. J. Love's Patent Spring Piston Packing for Steam, Air, Ice Ma- 
chines, Ammonia or Water Cylinders (High or Low Pressure, Stationary or Marine), 
Less Friction, Less Oil, Less Coal, Self Adjusting, Steam Tight. Minimum of Friction, 
especially adapted to the Compressor or Ammonia Cylinders of Ice Machines. We also 
make this Packing with our Improved Centre or Bull Ring, to be applied to the ordi- 
nary Spider Piston. 



All Sizes of Steam Engine, Blowing, Pumps, Compressor and Ice Machine Cylinders, 
Corliss Valves, Cranks, etc., rebored without being removed from their pres- 
ent position. Have your cylinder rebored and save from 15 to 25 
per cent, of coal now used. Ordinary sized Cylinders 
bored out in one day with our patented 
Boring Machines. 

BORNE, SCRYHSER & CO. 

135 Front Street, New York 

36 Central Wharf, Boston 

216 North Front Street, Philadelphia 
160 Third Street, Fall River 



Manufacturers of 



HIGH GRADE 

MINERAL 

LUBRICATING 

OILS 

AND GREASES 



Refinery: Claremont, Jersey City, New Jersey 

SEND FOR TRIAL SAMPLES 
Please mention this advertisement 




Secured promptly and with 
special regard to the legal pro- 
tection of the invention. : : : 

Hand Book for Inventors and Manufacturers Sent Free Upon Request. 

Consultation Free. No charge for opinion as to the patentability and Commercial 
"Value of Inventors' Ideas. 

HIGHEST REFERENCES FROM PROMINENT MANUFACTURERS. 

C. L. PARKER, Patent Lawyer 

Patents, Caveats, Trade Marks, Copyrights, Reports as to Patentability, 

Validity and Infringement. Patent Suits 

Conducted in all States. 

REFERENCES: Globe Machine and Stamping Co., Murray Engineering Co., Mor- 
gan Machine and Engineering Co., Berkshire Specialty Co., Stewart Window Shade 
Co., Macon Shear Co., Acme Canopy Co., Lippencott Pencil Co., Salisbury Tire Asso- 
ciation of America, Oakes Manufacturing Co., By-Products Co., Alabama Brewing 
Co., National Offset Co., Antiseptic Supply Co., Richmond Electric Co., Railway Sur- 
face Contact Supplies Co., National Electric Works. 



Mr. Parker on November 1st, 1903, after having 'been a member of the Exam- 
ining Corps of the U. S. Patent Office for over five years, resigned his position as Ex- 
aminer to take up the practice of patent law. 

Address 524 DIETZ BUILDING : : : : WASHINGTON, D. C. 



94 



THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 



Climax Steam Joint Clamp 



TO REPAIR LEAKS AT PIPE JOINTS. 

All Sizes from 3-4 in. to 20 in. 




THESE CLAMPS ARE MADE IN HALVES HELD TOGETHER BY CAP SCREWS, 
AND CAN BE EASILY ATTACHED TO PIPE, MAKING THE 

Most Economical and Efficient Way to Repair a Leak 

OUR CLAIMS ARE AS FOLLOWS: 
1st. It permanently stops the leak. 

2d. It can be attached in a few minutes while steam is on the pipe. 
3d. It takes up only 2 l / 2 inches space on the pipe. 
4th. The pipe covering can be replaced over the clamp. 
5th. The cost will be repaid in a short time by the saving of steam alone. 

We guarantee these clamps to fulfill all our claims. IN ORDERING, state size of 
pipe and for what it is used: viz., steam, water, air, gas or ammonia. 



GEO. I. 



& 



471-473 Fourth Avenue : : : 

Telephones 306, 307, 308 Madison Square. 



., Inc. 

New York 



ENGINEERS' LIST. 






'UTILITY" STEAM SEPARATOR 
PATENTED 



of the chain baffle 
plate principle which 
has proven so suc- 
cessful in the oil 
eliminator may be 
found in our 

Steam Separator 

and the efficiency of 
it is very high. Ab- 
solutely dry steam, 
absolutely no back 
pressure. 

What more could 
you ask? 




'UTILITY" EXHAUST HEAD. 
Patented. 



Another Water Saver 

is our 
New Exhaust Head. 

Notice the great radiating surface 
that is given by the Circulating Air 
Tubes. These act as condensers and 
they lessen instead of causing Kick 
pressure. Do you realize that a 
thousand gallons of water are wasted 
per day in a moderate sized plant 
which lacks an efficient exhaust head? 
It's so. 




"Utility" Vertical Steam Receiver and Separator 

gives a large storage for steam, delivers dry steam to engine and UTII ITY" VERTICAL 

has only two joints exposed to steam pressure. No loss of STEAM RECEIVER 

pressure. No water to engine. AND SEPARATOR. 



gtaiidard gteam Specialty Co. 

42=544 WEST BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY 
Telephone 4902 Spring-. 



96 THE ENGINEERS' LIST. 




"Send That Next Repair Job This Way! 



IIIIIIIB iii 



No matter what kind of steam engines 
need repairing, THE WARD & UPRIGHT 
ENGINEERING CO., expert engine doctors 
can do the work. Why not call us up 
when you are in trouble. 



SET* Kinghorn Multiplex Disc Valve" 
Complete Line of Engine Room Supplies, 



/! 

THE WARD & UPRIGHT 
ENGINEERING COMPANY 

41-43 York Street BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

TELEPHONE CALL 205 J MAIN - 

lWCDr,,, 




Exhaust Muffler, Oil Separator, 
Return Tank, Pump Governor 
and Feed Water Heater. 

HERE'S THE WAY WE PROVE OUR CLAIM! 

SEE THOSE 

TWO 

CONDENSERS? 

We condense the 
i before and af- 
ter it- passes through 
the separator of our 
"UTILITY" COMBI- 
NATION and submit 
the samples for an- 
alysis just as they 
are drawn. 

There isn't anoth- 
er separator manu- 
facturer in the 
world that would 
dare do that with a 
separator that has 
been in use any 
length of time, but 
we leave the con- 
densers on perma- 
nently if desired 
and after years of 
use the elimination 
of oil is as complete 
as in a new appara- 
tus. 

THE "UTILITY" 
COMBINATION 

Serves as exhaust, 
muffler, oil separat- 
or, return tank, 
pump governor, and 
feed water heatei-. 
It ' costs only about 
as much as a feed 
water heater, and 
heats the feed water 
to about the same 
temperature as the 
exhaust steam. 




\VE MENTION A FEW OF THE LATE AND UP-TO-DATE PLANTS 
THAT HAVE ADOPTED THE "UTILITY" COMBINATION: 



R. H. Macy & Co., - - - 

Metropolitan Life Ins. Co., 

tt tt tt it 

Prudential Life Ins. Co., 
Mutual Life Ins. Co., - 



3,000 H.P. 
1,900 

700 
2,500 
1,000 

700 

400 
2,OOO 
1,800 
1,000 
1,000 

850 



Wall Street Exchange, - 

Whitehall Building, - - 
Hotel Imperial, - 

Martinique Apartments, - 

Bloomingdale Bros., - - 

Perry Payne Co., - - - 
Trinity Corp. W. Building, 

Washburn Wire Co., - - 

Merchant's Refrig. Co., - 



1,200 HP. 

1,000 

1,000 

1,OOO 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,OOO 

800 

500 

35O 
1,OOO 



Hotel Belmont, - 
Museum of Nat. Hi y, 
Manhattan Life Ins. Jo., 
^let. Museum of Art, - 

" " - 850 * Central Brewing' Co., - 

Why was the "Utility" selected for these and many other steam .plants? 

Because we have proven, by chemical tests, that our system according to horse 
power saves thousands of dollars per year in running expenses. We can do the same 
for you. 

THE STANDARD STEAM SPECIALTY CO. 

542-544 " 
W. Broadway : . : 



Utility" Steam Specialties M t> ' of 

rrzrrrzrrrrrrr:rr-rrrrr::r:rzrrr:m_r::rrrrmrrrrrrrrrr. Ml C \V T O 





Jenkins '96 Packing. 

Kngineers who have given it a thorough trial rind it to be all that is 
claimed for it. 

IN'one but the best ingredients are used in the compound. No substi- 
tutes for rubber are ever employed. 

Known to give perfect satisfaction under any condition that sheet 
packing can be used. 

Instantaneous in application. Makes perfect joint immediately without 
having to be followed up. 

JNot loaded to increase weight. Comparison of weights will show that 
Jenkins '96 is the cheapest. 

Satisfaction guaranteed or money refunded is the motto that we always 
endeavor to live up to. 

't)G is always stamped with Trade Mark as shown in the cut. Beware 
of imitations. 

Write for a copy of our 1907 catalogue. 
It will be mailed on application. 

JENKINS BROS., 

NEW YORK, BOSTON, PHILADELPHIA, CHICAGO, LONDON. 

71 JOHN ST. 35 HIGH ST. 133-137 NORTH 7th ST. 31-33 NORTH CANAL ST. 96 QUEEN VICTORIA ST. 



I 82