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lAHSON: BAKF80H LOW, 80H * 00b 

SiraxiiD aeootdlng to Aet of Congnaa, In the year 18S8, by 


In tU Clwk*B OfllM of tb« Distriot Oonrt Ibr the Dlstriot of Oonneotkat 

Paivraa k 


nOTAOE TO SICILT, P«»«go in • French Blciuner, 1— Stboji- 
■oLi, 9 — First viuw of Et**, n — Mowina, 8 — Bcggn™, 7 — 
Effect of EaKliqunkM^ 8 — Oermaa ArtisU deUiaed, TrivstB, 
Munba^ Nuiu, — Hnsii'jt to Catahu, Andent Lava cur' 
rcutr, 11— Museum of Nutaral History-. 13. 

in th« di«uii«t, AM«nt la NieolMi, 14 — Uultivatien, Erutitiso 

of IMS. IS— Eruption of 1B4S, IS-^f 1852, IS — Arrivul at 
Nicoloai, IT — Vun to ibe Val del Bovi^ 18 — Descriptian, 
SI — MisoB Etkhts, Orandcur of Uie ^cno, Si — Grologicnl 
Section, SS — Theoiy, S4 — Descent from the MouoUin. 
Return to KicolMi, !6 — Eiitiror Voic^Kow, Rault, Uomts 
Riiwi, !G — Spleodid Viuv, LuTn cumnt ol leg?, 2B — 
CaveniB in the Lava, SB — Ehjphosb of Etka id the pTesont 
ccutuiT', 30 — Bonatf of Kino, 30 — Con« of Ktuii, BUouisinN 
on Elan, 31— View into Vnl del Bove, 37— rmsoxciA at- 
tending the B>nptlons of Etna. 10 — Fabewiu. in Etna, 41 — 
Cataxia, tItlliuiiiBtion, Uinerak, 4! — Fruits and lac, 43 — 
Dep»rlure from Catsnin, C»oLonuK Ituxin, 44 — Rnn to 
HiseiKA, 4S^Kttim or, Rnina of the Theatre, 48. 
"URN Ttl NAPLES, SI— tAadine, 62— Clmati of SicUy, 02— 
t'lanua oonnsct«<l wilh St. raul'a Uiatoiy, 63 — Friaona Alt'] 
Fri*an«rB, StLiLins TiUAUB^ 64 — Agrieultore and Inlubit- 

rAFLraTO LKrillORN, nS— Steam Frigatr MtE^iuippi. Offierra mdJ 
Ke«polltBn«, SI — Arrival M Civit* Vofeliia and Leghorn, 
U<!'h^a. OS. 

lax 60— T1>n riuomn, 60— The Bijitlalory, SI— llie Campo Santj., 
ti — The LcAMno TowtB, es — Pba to Lctoa, bs — Ducnl 
r*W'i'. <t1— The Valla, OS — Outwork^ 6t — Excaraion ta 
ttiH B.iriii or Luort. Vi1lng<<s. TI — Scenery and Im^niv«r 


xncnta, 72— Palace, 72— Gboloot, 78— The RoadI, Produe- 
tiona, AnimalB used on Fanni^ 74 — ^Ponte Diayolo^ 76. 

FLORENCE; 76— Church of Santa Croce, 77— Monnmenta, 77, 78— 
The Duomo, 79 — ^The Campanile, the Baptistery, the Midi- 
csAN Gallkrt, 80 — Statues and Bnsts^ 81 — ^Priyate Cabinet 
of the Medici, 82 — ^FLORKSfrcfE Mobaio^ 88 — Museum of Na- 
tural HisTOBT AXD Anatomy, 85 — ^Models in Wax, 86 — Tu- 
Bumc OF Gaulko, 85 — ^Amerioan Soulptobs^ 89 — Greenough, 
Clayinger, Powers, lyes, 89 — ^Florence to Pua, 92 — ^Prol 
Matteuci, 93 — Pro£ Meneghini, 94 — ^Fre at Pua, Twilight, 
96— Eyening, Night, 97, 98 — ^Morning, 99 — ^Reflections, 99 
— To Florence again, 104 — ^Palazzo Pitti, 104 — ^BfAUsoLEUM 
OF THE Medici, 107 — Pageant of Corpus Christi, 109 — ^Fune- 
rals, 115 — ^Enyirons of Florence, 116 — ^Flesole, 116, 117 — 
Public Grounds, 118 — ^Florence to Bologna, 119 — ^The Apen- 
nines, 120— Hotel at Caffagliolo, 121. 

BOLOGNA, 121— Geology, 122— Cemetery, 123— Picture Gallery, 
124 — ^TnE XJNiyERsmr, 126 — ^Eminent Ladies, 126 — ^Matilda 
Tambroni, Novella de Andrea, Laura Bassi, Madonna Mazo- 
lina, 126 — ^Bologna to Ferrara, 128 — ^The Po, 180 — Allu- 
vion of the Po, 181 — ^Malaria, 182 — ^Adria and Royigo, 
132, 188 — Padua, its Uniyersity, 184 — ^Eminent Men and 
Women, 134, 135. 

VENICE, 136— Railroad, Austrian Soldiers, Grand Canal, Bridge of 
Sighs, 187 — Gondolas, Square of St. Mark, Ducal Palace, 
189, 140 — Cells and Dungeons, Secret Elxccutions, Picture of 
the Judgment, 140, 141— Hall of the Council of Ten, 142— 
CnuRcn OF St. Mark, 142 — Its Magnificence, 148 — Campa- 
nile and Prospect from, 148 — ^Austrian Troops and Artillery, 
144 — Cemetery, Manfrini Palace, 144 — Glass, 144 — Churches, 
145 — ^Farewell to Vexici^ 147 — Rural Beauty, Battle-fields, 
149 — Excursion to Monte Bolca, 150 — Geology, 151 — ^Tlie 
Beds of Fossil Fishes, 152— Trap Rocks and Theoretical 
Views, 153 — ^Descent firom Monte Bolca, 155— Verona, 156 
— Roman Ruins, 157 — Amphitheatre, 158 — To Brsbcla, La- 
go di Garda,159 — ^Brescia, Desolations of War, Ride to Milan, 
161 — Irrigation, 162. 

MILAN, Destruction and Resurrection, 163 — Arch of Triumph, 165— 

The Brera, Plans of Napoleon, 166 — Cathedral, its Statuct 

and Deeormtions, Condaetort for LightDing, View from the 

. Cathedral, 16 —Napoleon's Inte&tioiui, 169— Baptiem, Ee- 


llc% I70 — ToKD nr CAKiimii, Bobbouio gorgeoiuljr adorneil, 
171,173 — Ahbkosiak Libkabt, 173 — Piutaru in the Brera, 
Celebrated Pictu^c^ The Marriage in Caoa, The Ijut Supper, 
173 — llie Scocrgingof Cbrbt, Seat of tbe InquiBitiou, Cahi' 
Dst of Natural UUturj, 174 — ^Tho Hotel dti la Ville, HE— 
Hn.A!i to Cokio, 17fi — L<uDE Coho, 176 — Excunioa upon llie 
Lake, 177— Villa of Queen Caroline and of Nopaleon, ITS 
—Coho, ita Walls, the Older oad Younger Pliay, Statue to 
Tolta, 178 — Cava to La» Uaooiou; 179 — AroDo, Hanui- 
bol, Seijuo, Juliiu CiEur, ISO— The Simplon Road, Isota 
Bdj^ Count Bomrtneo, Napoleon, 181 — Views from Uola 
Bella, its Oardc^^ aocl Works of Art, 182— Entkahok i3to 
nnt Am, 183 — Alpine Talloy^ Domo d'OiaoU, tlie last 
towain Italy, 184 — Puauii or TuxSntri,oti, IBS — Deaerip- 
tionof llie rooil, ISA — Saow-gladen, oold, dimioiahed icge- 
Utioa. Sununil uf the Alps, Hospice of NapoleoD, 187— De- 
aunt, 18? — Giwlo^, IQI— Ruin^ Valley of the Rhone. 192 
— Uo^a1De^ 104— Features of the Valley, 1 9G— Appearance 
of the People, IVfl — The Goitre, ^oa and it* Hoantaiaa, 
Caaeailn, Detugo of Martigfny, 198 — EicnaaionmtintSAl.niEit 
nr Bu. the Uioca, i01-20S — Rici lo St. GiNQuifn a-id 
Gexeva. Hotel lie la Ecu, Ilolel of tlie Crown, SOfi— Scene 
from the wiudowa, S07— Target Shooting, 20S— Illuiuinn- 
tion, 210— Society in O^neva, Rev. Merle d'Aubign^, ai3 
— Hia opinion of Calvin. ai3 — TTic Unireraity, and Prof. 
Marignlao, ProC Augttate de la Rive, S14 — His Villa and 
Town Hoote, 814, ai&— Prof. Pictsl, and Prod Farrc, Slfl— 
The Saline Mountains ami their Boulders, ill. 218 — Prot 
Farrt't rural residence, 818 — Cu!viu'» Chureh. the Botanic 
Garden. House of De Sausure. 310 — Orare of Sir Hiiniphrcj 
Davy, azo — Ovnerol Reioarks on Oen^ra, the Idbe, i'>\. 
SLCTRSION to most BLAITO, Geology, JI2— ViUago of SL 
Ma^lia^ 224— Piret luiprcuion. View of Mont Blanc, 326 — 
Aaeent. 127— MoDtagno Vert, Mer de Olaoe, 238-331— Mu- 
TWUHl. Uoring KucIe\ 233 — I>s«<!ent, S84 — Patlia uf llie 
Avalonohei^ 236 — Suiireo of the Arreimn, iSS — GUeier do 
Boinon*, 337— Vale of Chanouni, a»S— Minerals, 2»9— Ro- 
tura lo Genxva, ISO. 
SEVA TO LACSAKXF, 244— Enrironi of Genera. Villw. Farm 
IloiuM^ 341 — Livsini^ Hotcl-Oibbnn. Fumily of AgBHii, 
US-— Andcnt Calhedral, !4t— (.'jtblnet of Nntiiml llial<iry, 
MB— lUliea of Kapoloon. 340— LiujiiDia t« Yinnvs. Viail 


to Ck>t6 anz F«e and Rev. F. J. i^inum, Boulders, 247, 248 
— ^RiDE TO NcuroEunE^ its Gymnasinm and GoUeotions, 261 
—Pierre k Bot and other Boolders, 262— View of the Bernese 
Alps, 268 — Second Sonset^ Domestio Scenes, 266 — Prome- 
nade, 26d— Hospitals, Honses of Agassis and Portalis^ 267 — 
NxuFGHATEL TO Bkrni^ the Aar, 268. 

BEBKE^ 269 — Situation, Houses and Streets, Ancient Tower, the 
Bears, 261— Statue to Berchtold, 262 — ^Museum, 263 — ^The 
Library, the Cathedral, 264 — Foreign Ministers, Market 
Day, 266— Bkrne to SoLEnai^ 266— The Museum, the Cathe 
dnU, the Arsenal, 267 — Soueurkto WALDsmiouBO Towkbs, 
Ancient Castles, 269 — Rn>E to Basu^ 270 — ^Hotel de Ville, 
272 — The Library, Picture Gallery, Collection in Natural 
History, Cathedral, 271 — Comparative Remarks, 273 — ^Baslb 
to FaETBERO, 276— The Cathedral, 276— The University, 
277— Fretbebo to Strasburq, 277— The Rhine, 278 — ^Forti- 
fications, 279 — Marshal Saze, 280 — ^Preserved Human Bodies, 
TuE Cathedral, 281— The Clock, 283— View from the High 
Tower, 284 — Strasburo to Heidelbero, 284 — ^Approach, 286 
— Protestant Worship, 286 — Professors Lboxhard and 
Bronx, 287— The Bridge, 288. 

HEIDELBERG C^VSTLE, Fish Ponds, 200— HEiDSLBERa to Frank- 
fort, Excursion to Gcisscn, 291 — Collection of Klipstcin, 
Professor Lieoig, Excubaion to Hesae Darscstadt, 295 — ^The 
Palace, the Picture Gallery, Dr. Kiiaup and his Museum, 

FRANKFORT on the Maine, the Csthedral, the Town House, 298 — 
the Picture Gallery, the Senkcnberg Museum and Dr. 
RuppEL, 299— The City Librar}', 300— Fbankvort to Mat- 
ENO]^ 801 — ^Descent of the Rhine, 302. 

BONN, 806— Collections of Dr. Krantz, 306— The University, Pro- 
fessor Reaumeb, 807. 

COLOGNE^ the Cathedral, Cologne to Berlin, Cars and Conductors, 
811, 812— Entrance into Berlin. 

BERLIN, Monument to Froderi<;k the Great, 818— Professor Rax 
MELSBERG, Professor RnTKR, and the Geographical Society, 
and eminent men there, 316 — Baron Von Humboldt, his 
Person and Manners, 818 — His Views and Opinions on Various 
Subjects, 319-21 — The University, Cabinet of Mineralogy, 
Geology, Ao, 822 — ^Acadrmt of tub Fine Asxs^ 824— Statu- 
ary and Antiquities* Statue of Napoleon, 825— Tte Ambnai^ 

tan — Pauci and tU Contents, S27 — RaotRb ocnnpied by 
FipoIooB, SSO— pAi^ns ov CnAmuimsuoF. 380 — MiusoLEni 
of theUte King and Queen, 332 — Uokiiiievt ta ibc Prufsinni 
■lain in 1814 MI<1 '10, S39 — BoUUikw, 33-1 — Soiree at Ptto- 
m«ox Uitoii£Klich\ 336— PaorsuuB EuBsniiBHa, Philotga- 
phioal Artist^ 337 — Ekvibonh of Berlin, Education. 33D — - 
Brkux to Dmsokm, 330 — Excaraion tu Fhiehuo, 340 — 
Pamal« Slavery, 341 — DHtannt into the Mine*, 343 — General 
Bsmark*, 31S — AppearaiKui of FuKBEai^ tlie MiuM. tbcir 
Productifenen. Scnoat or Mwbb or Wjumo, 846 — Relits of 
hitn, 347 — Minarnla un Sale, Rmrins to Dkesdkx. Forests, 
34fr— Tho Oraen Vault, 830— Mmiiw or GEOLoor, 368— 
Gcsnenil Runuu-ki on Dresden. 354 — Deeslikx to Lnraio akd 
Cnmont, SS4 — CoiAoxE if Basmo^ E67. 

ATERWO, Saa— Tbe Poiilion of tbe Armie!, tlie Battle, 360— 
ExcuaaioH to Amwixp, Stt! — Picture*, ForUfioatioDs, General 
View, 3aS-3GS— BEDMEia, Ses — Its Bennt;, Mannfoctoriea, 
Laco, 370 — Bacuna to Parin, 371 — Arriral at Paris, 371 — 
Menriee's Hotel, tho Locvi^ tho TuiLEHiKi, Expulsion of 
Louis Philippe, Dcrastation of tbe Uob, 876 — Horn. £■ 
Viu-t, 378— Hotel Clditt, 879— The Amort, 380— Conser- 
vatoire de« Arts et Metiers, 881 — Pamb to Lonook, 383 — 
Rural Scenes in England, SS4 — Arriral at Clieeter Siionre, 
ggG — Call at Clapbam, 387 — GtsmiiA-t. luraEssiom or Lojidoh, 
8SS— Excunion on the River, 360— Bridges, and the Citj seen 
Iij Evening iJght, 391 — EicuasioN to tbk Isle of Wioirr, 
881— (tosport, Portsmonth, Thb Victobt, 382, 808— Hrott, Its 
Beaut;, 393— Tbe Solent Sea, Biiutesd Quarr;, 331— Cir- 
enmnavignlion of tha Island, 395 — Osborn Home, Cowea, 
800 — The America, AtDH Bat, 897 — Tlie Needles, Hie 
Waves, 808— St. Catherine's Head, Section of the Coast, Hie 
Wealilen and ila Gigantic Foaails, 300 — UnderQliff, Changes 
on the Coast, Ventaer, 40»— Bace of tbe America, 401— Her 
Pcenliaiities, Return to Portsmouth, 401 — Ride to BuanTON, 
(lEsnut ArruaAnCK or Bkioutqn, Palace of George IV,, 
408— His Statae. Lewk, Ancient Cutlc. Dr. Uantcll's Hotuo, 
Tombs, 404— Ciuu Pm, 407— Ride to London over tbe 
Wealden, ilaOaologj, 409 — Uirsaun orEoONoHRiiLGKOLoai, 
412— TuK VjiIaI EiruiJUiK, 414— St. PaiiX its MonutDonla, 
KT, 417— CnAiii; or Worn: Uixl, 4l»— 
Galueit or Punvnea. tho Citotal PAtAOx, iu Oob- 



tenia, 419 — ^Zoological GASDKXi^ 426— Madams Tobsbau's 
MiTBXUM, 480 — ^Hall of Napoleon, 482 — Britibh Mubxux, 484 
— ^Fossil Woman, 484 — ^Foeail Sanrians, 486 — ^Muskum or tbk 
CoLLBOB OF SuBGBONS, Profeflsor Owen, Elephant, 487 — 
Chimpanzee, Moa, 489 — ^Mylodon, 440 — Exoubsion to Hamp- 
ton GouBT, Picture Galleries, 480 — ^Atbioan Tbofhibb, 488 — 
Depabtubb fbom London, 446— Wabwick Castli; 447 — Gay, 
Earl of Warwick, the Warwick Vase, 449 — ^Riyer Avon, 
460 — ^Kbnilwobth Castli; Ride to liyerpool, 468 — ^Ezenr- 
eion to Manchester and Norcliffe EUl, General Remarks on 
Agricnltnre, Departure from England, liyerpool to New- 
York, 468 — The Voyage, Ocean Ck>Dcert, Danger of Collision, 
Splendid View of the Heayens on the American Coasts 
Arriyal at New-Tork, 468. 


Uojajt ta Sicils. 

Mar ^< ll^l' 

With no small regret, wo relinquished ouf intcnlioa of re- 
ruing to Eoglaud, to atttititl the atoeting of the Uriliah As^ii- 
ition nt IpBwich, Jnly 2. We lia-l swn Vesuvius, mul Elnn 
%DW Attmctcil us ■» pDwerfully Uial wi! gave up the gn^ut men 
Ibr tlie greater volcnDo. Many of tlie English savans wo hiul 
ttlresdy met, and others Btill wo expected to see on our return 
» Engiiiii'l. We, tlicrerorc, decided to visit Etna; but the 
dies with two of thi; young gentlemen, preferred an excursion 
IS, at PBcatum. Antooio waa left to attend them, 
Siilo FraD(;oi&, our courier, went with ua to Sidlj. 

pAaBioB IN A Frkkcii Steamkr. — Afler an inconvenient 

lay at tJie custtiiu-hoose, in obtaining permisdon to embark, 

e nent on bourd the French government steamer, the Licur- 

I, which lay at anchor in tlio bay. We began onr paasnge 

I k thunder-storm. The fine seenery of tlie shores was veiled 

If clouds and rain ; hut befor« we were clear of the bay. the 

over, the clouds, In broken mnssca, reflected a thoii- 

d hues of beauty, wliile the netting sun threw back a flood of 

rplo light upon VoBUvius, imd the splendid shores of tie bay, 

b much and so deservedly celebr»l>sJ. As we were advancing 

e wide sua, and looking back towards Naples, we had on 

r right Sorcntum and tlio Calabrian Mountains, while near 

A the kland of Capri, the ill-famed sccnu of tlie jirofligale 

bels, liiiury and cruelty of Tiberius. On our Ifft, nt llis otUt-i 

e of the bay, we aqw lliu volcanic iUnnds of Iscliii^ mi 

Yt't. n.-l ~ 

2 Voyage to Sicily. 

Procida, and on the continent^ Cape Misenum. Further north 
were Naples and Vesuvius, the latter with its column of white 
vapor constantly renewed, and wreathing gracefully to the 
clouds. Then the extended line of towns, which I have often 
named, and which, with Naples, forms a white border for many 
miles. A glance being given to Pompeii, the eye sweeps away 
east and south over Caste! del Mare, standing over the en- 
tombed Stabise — along the towering Apennines, which there 
bound the bay, with their bold, abrupt^ and channelled but 
verdant sides and innumerable peaks^ and a beautiful white 
dotting of villages and villas at their feet, give a splendid finish 
to this noble prospect Being now beyond the bay, we had Cala- 
bria on our left, stretching far away east and south, but its 
naked hills and mountains were so little attractive that we were 
not unwilling to have the curtain of night drawn over them. 

The sea was perfectly smooth, and the motion of a very good 
boat, though slow, was quiet We dined at sunset, and seve- 
ral agreeable Englishmen^-one of whom had been much in 
the United States, and had eyes to observe things correctly — 
afforded a pleasant society. 

Stromboli. — We were earnestly desirous to see the ever- 
eruptive Stromboli — that remarkable island, whose volcano has 
been in a state of restless activity for more than 2000 years. 
Accordingly, I was on deck at four o^clock on the morning of 
Saturday, May 24, knowing that we should pass it very early. 
It was more than I had dared to hope to see this memora- 
ble volcano ; but there it was in full view on our rights and 
only a few miles distant I ran below to summon my com- 
panions, when an English merchant bound tx> India, hearing 
my annunciation, also sprang from his berth, and we soon 
manned tlie quarter-deck with deeply interested observers of 
A cone whose origin was probably anterior to the early ar- 
rival of the Greek colonies, and perhaps of the Etruscans, and 
before Rome had crowi>ed her seven hills with people and build- 
ings. With oqly the brief interruption of a cup of coffee, wa 
remained for ipany houra intently gazing on Stromboli. White 

Strouboli. 3 

ir to it, within (Lo dislaoce of two m^l(^9, 
K a brig)itnnilb(.'autilii! morning i^nablnlns to see dislinctly its lolly 
I' enlor at Lliu licij^ht, aa we juJgud, of ISOO fvct above tlic Boa. 
Tfa<! cnitcT liftd been ruptured oo'tho northern sidg, nnd op- 
I pearvd m if a portion of thu niuuutniu tiad been lorn off by ex- 
I plosion, and pr»;ipi(Jitcd into tLe sua, the lip of the crntvr 
I being depressed on that side, while on.tbe opposila it rose 
1 Into A modi more elcTated border. The circuit of tlie island 
I Eppoarod to ho about twelve or fifteen miles, and its diamciter 
I five or six. Although it rises at a high angle from tho ivati?r 
fttts ndca ar« partially verdant. They are marked, as appeared 

■ b^ the telescope, with numerous dykis, wliich may have been 
I protrudud before its emet^nce from the sea. Tho island is in- 
I habited ; and a small village of scattered white houses appenrcd 
I It tho foot of tho mountAin. 

From the crater, a colninn ofstonm was constantly rising In 

I ft w}ut« cloud, with much tho wme appearance as at Vesuvius, 

but much more copious, Aa it floated away horizontally in 

tlie course of the wind, it formed, for many miles, n brilliant 

sUvtam, which tapered to a point, and wn4 strongly conlraittcd 

I with the pi(«hy cloud of smoke which iwuiH] from the chimney 

■ of our rteamship. Wo saw in Stromboli no lire, which, wo am 
l<(olil. » generally visible at night Stromlioli is Uio liglil-honse 

d the baromcWr of tho Mediterrauenn ; for not only does it 
Icnsble tho mariner to determine his position at night, but, ns is 
(lUMrted, it aids him in forming a judgment of the impending 
r, the frequency and tho energy of the eruptions Iwing 
inlbieiiixi] bj- the varying atmospheric ppessure, and thus in- 
dioBtlng calms or storms. We have it on tho high authority 
f the pcrsomil observations of Spallaoxani, and recently on 
« itill aiglior anthorily of Bt. Daubeny of the University of 
hlbio, that this mountain emits not only steam and gaam, 
ed-hot stones; and that these paroxysmal eruptions recur 
' iiil*!rvals, rarely exceeding ten or twelve minutes. 
a observing Stromboli intently for throe or four hour*, we 
o utch luovemcnt. 

4 VoTAOs TO Sicily. 

Is the volcanic energy of this island declinug, and may 
it not, by and by, leave Stromboli, as it neighbor Vulcano now is^ 
a quiet, silent cone, exhibiting, indeed, a full physical record of 
former volcanic action, but with no present indications, except 
hot gases and steam f The island of Vulcano now came into 
view, with its beautiful cone of the most perfect symmetry. 

We saw also the celebrated pumice-stone island Biakoa. 
It is not now in volcanic action, but its great staple of pumice- 
stone supplies both the American and European world with 
that article, so important in polishing marble. It exists 
in this island in vast abundance, and the pedestrian sinks 
into it as into banks of snow. Although the island 
was several miles distant, it appeared so white and bril- 
liant that it could not be distinguished by the eye from the 
snow, which we have constantly seen on the highest Apennines 
as we did on the distant Alps. It is hardly necessary to ob- 
serve, that the Lipari islands, to which group both Stromboli 
and Vulcano belong, are not sufficiently elevated to admit of the 
existence of snow upon tliem. 

As we neared the coast of Sicily, ten of the Lipari islands 
were in view, of which the largest gives name to the group. 
These are the .^Eolian Islands, of classical antiquity. We 
were now in the midst of those regions, whose remarkable 
physical phenomena afforded to Virgil and other ancient poets 
the machinery of their mythology, and much of the materials 
of their high-wrought epics. Ilere .^lus, the god of tlie winds, 
held his throne among imprisoned tempests ; and Vulcan, with 
his Cyclopean smiths, forged thunderbolts for Jupiter. 

It is no small gratification thus to realize in the .^lian 
Islands the scenes of early classical study, and to observe, in their 
own domain, those proo& of volcanic power which have been 
the subjects of youthful study. 

PiKST View or EntA. 

^irst Oitto of fin. 

Who >iu nol wish«>] to see this gnusi Jtort^bfxue of toI- 

nkuio Itiv, whoso ttdion [irM«deil Um records at loKbarf xod tbo 

Ii^ikIi (if tnuiitioii, mh) wbow oiWTgf B atiB ditp te yad i> an- 

diuiinUbod vigor I We ImmI not toot ngfit cf SmnboK Utm, 

r the cotiip*raUvcl]r knr com of Um Sidlisn eoMt, wa 

(lii*cnc<I t)ic " Snowy Slat, tbe pillar of Hmfcn," tanrefiag br 

I abovi? all other objecto. As we ap|««clia>l tbe fban, with cyw 

I intent Upon this nugnificcnt pQe, it grew, m we admaad, noce 

[ md more ooiupicuoas xnd dtstinct. 

The snow ulcndud &r dowa ita odoi, sad tbe lii^ Hack 

coDO, Btrongl}' coDbwOed with tbe «tow, roee tat abore Um icy 

dome. TUq supt^rfidal snow do«a not le«*e Etna wit3 after 

mitlsuminiT, and begins to appear agsin eaify in tbe aatwaa; 

it is not free more than m weda in the yttr, even ca il> aon^ 

era eloptn, and in protocfi^ placm the k« i« never dMOlved. 

Afl Wo adranL-«d in our [nsagc, tbe inlerrentkm of Ugh hud 

cut off the view of Etna, and oar era tn-n now Greeted lo- 

' wardti tha Sicilinn and Calabrinn coast, to dtsconr, if pooiiblts, 

I the opming of ihv Stnit of Meaeina. As yet, no inlet appe a red ; 

I the I'oaxt H«Rin! to be (piito conlinuom, mmI the (Inp, to our 

I f«n«», was fanning ititwtly for tlie shore, with the appan»tt 

I cvniiinty of bving slrnnded upon the low lying beach, which 

I Mretclicd away before ua to tbe right and kA. Ere long', how- 

an acute paint began to come into view on the SioUan 

I tiiv ; as we ulTonr^ towards it, tlie p«sag« opened, nnd 

I quarter of an hour we fonnd oiireelrvs in n broad and 

I beantiful Blrail about two milee wide. We were now lit«ally 

j b«<twc«n Scylln jiml Cbwybdis, of which paisoge ihu baxanla 

I have bwn *»tia; 1>V the ihk^ of old, and which linvc allunl- 

I ed to the nioduma n pbrtical illiutratkni iu the rJioice oT 

L'dnngen. For nuglit that we ivjuhl no;, the water was smooth 

whirlpools or oddi^ nppaired, nitd wu wer» almoat in- 



.6 MfiSSINA. 

clined to think that there was not enough of truth in the case 
to justify even poetical embellishment On inquiry, however, 
of matter-of-fact people in Messina, we were assured that a 
strong current sets through the strait — ^that in certain states of 
the wind a sailing vessel may be caught in a maelstrom, and 
it is even averred that vessels thus situated have been lost The 
shoal is the worst on the side of Scylla on the east, directly op- 
posite to the city of Messina, and near to the little long island 
which forms the harbor. 

May 84. 

At noon our steamer dropped anchor off the ancient city 
of Messina, when our passports were sent on shore ; in half 
an hour we were permitted to land, and were civilly reviewed 
by tlie proper officers. Nothing appearing against us, we 
were allowed to go to a hotel; but the English and other 
foreign passengers, who had come on shore for a walk dur- 
ing the short time that the steamer (bound to Malta) would 
remain in port, were peremptorily remanded on board. Un- 
fortunately we were too late to have our passports visaed in 
season for the diligence of the day for Catania, where we might 
have arrived that night We therefore passed the Sabbath in 
Messina, and found a solitary English chapel in a small chamber 
in a private house ; for Protestants are not allowed to have 
churches in the Neapolitan dominions. The audience did not 
exceed twenty-five persons, ourselves included. We had the usual 
Episcopal service, followed by a good sermon, on the human 
nature of our Saviour ; the preacher appeared to be an amiable, 
devout man, who labors for the spiritual welfare of a few Eng- 
lish people, and of strangers like ourselves* 

The Sabbath appears to be very little regarded in Messina. 
The shops are open in the morning ; it is a grand market day, 
and the streets are crowded with people cr}'ing their wares and 
goods in the vociferous tone so common among the Italians 

HiB jwopk lien! Ktuitm M iho totj lop of ibcix tlirill voice*, 
and boDuBtJi onr winJowH tli« same piercing crka were inc«s- 
santly reitrniloil fnr boius tcf;eUteT. 

MuEsina ia saiil to woUin 80,000 people ; but Uiis itiun- 
ha h piubaUy tnuggi:raU.><l ; tlie uxl^nt of Uie city does not 
in<licnt« EOrh a popnUtion, and tlicre lins been no sctnal eva- 
merMion. The floating mossca of people pie, however, large ; 
but nowhere tiave I seen mieh a collection of miserable, forlorn, 
filthy, and disCgored creatorea— deficient in cyea or limla — 
mutilated, diatortod, and maimed in imporUint memben; it 
ia beyond all belief to these who have not »cen them. 

Beggars, of coiirse, meet vou every whcra, and miterieordia 
constantly nsoimds in yonr ean. Stopping at a place for ioed 
drinbi, a poor, wretched yoang tranus, wan, pale, and ragged 
in tha extreme, holding in her arms ■ miserable infuit mj^ 
rently pining away for want of its nataral nntriment, met oa at 
tliQ door. She wailed onr return, and followed us to the car- 
riagD witli moi-ing snpplicatioms which we felt as bltta diges- 
tion a* power to rcsi«L The regnlar iiihabitanlBgOHnllji^al 
the mendicants very decidedly, and thoy well nndentood bov 
to dialinguiah and to a§sail a stranger. 

The city ii con«tmcted of stone; tlio hons«s are lofty, wfaieh 
anrpriwa one the nnore, aa it is very liable to earth<{uakM Erooi 
tlie conralsivo throes of its dangerous neighbors, Etna and 
Stromboli. Many of the streets are narrow, but some are wide 
and graud — among these are tJie Cono and the tLorougbbre 
along the harbor. The pavements are exocllcnt, b^ng com- 
posed of Tery largo regular blocks, two (cet square or more, ap- 

I panjntly of limestone- 
Messina, in latitude 88" 11' nortli, is a very ancient cily, 

I anil it has often been besieged. A large fort is now in nlti-.r 
ruins, having been destroyed by order of the King, an it wm 

L captoied by tha revolutioiusts in IS4B. The di-vn«txtiuTi iu 
n consequence of lUnt itruggle, was tr^m.-iniwu*. Our 

I Comul, Mr. Clemi^ntji, of riiiljuk-lpUia, who has b-ni 

8 Messina. 

were devoted to destruction. The revolutionists had obtained 
possession of the whole of Sicily except the citadel, which is on 
an island in the harbor. From this fort a powerful army of mer- 
cenaries, as well as of native troops, landed in the city and fired 
it in many places, in order to consume or to expel the revolu- 
tionists. Many streets, containing hundreds of houses, were 
entirely consumed, except the naked and tottering walls, which 
we gazed at with painful interest Among these ruins were 
remains of grand houses, blown up by gunpowder, bombarded, 
or burned ; many of them show the prints of numerous cannon 
balls and of showers of bullets. Much has been done towards 
rebuilding both public and private edifices, but the town still 
wears tlie appearance of having been sacked by a cruel enemy, 
and such was and is iheir nefarious King. 

The Calabrian country, on the opposite side of the strait, has 
a very forbidding appearance ; it is all fissured by earthquakes^ 
and tossed about in irregular hillocks ; the country on the Si- 
cilian eide has a similar appearance. We wished to ride upon 
the hills bock of the town, but were assured that it was im- 
possible, on account of the fractured state of the ground, forbid- 
ding the construction of roads. We visited that part of the 
town in which are the low houses of one story, which were 
erected as temporary abodes after the great earthquake of 1783, 
when a large part of tlie city was destroyed, and thousands of 
people perished. These houses are numerous, and are still in- 
habited by the lower orders of people. Strong fears are enter- 
tained of a renewal of the calamity ; nor are they without ad- 
monitions by occasional shocks, one of which, of considerable 
severity, occurred in March, 1851, about two months before 
our visit* It might not have been right for us to wish for an 
earthquake; but had one occurred during our visit, it would 
have added greatly to its interest 

The people of Sicily and of the whole kingdom are held in 
abject subjection by an army of mc^re than 100,000 men, all 

* And they hmv« b«en ofien repeated sinee. 

noiljr nttli lliv itutniinunla of deatb in ^leir lianils, and with 
aU ihc munitioiM of war stored in umpte inngaziiie!). Tlio 
pvopin linvo no voice in ibu government, niid forcignera »rc 
wfltchod witli cxtremtt jealousy. Tlicy wish to exclude lliero 
Mitinly, tuaiiog popular influences from persons coming frtim 
(rflicr L-ountriu!*, nnd an order arrived, some time since, to per- 
mil no foivigner U> travel in tlie interior of tliia inland. 

On our arriv&l here, we found tliat a party of four Uortnan 
■rtiBto wure detained in our liotol ; they had come nitli the 
inttnlion of visiting Etna for tlie ptir|)OM of niakiitg sketches, 
but they were not permitted to proceed. Our Cunsul, Mr. 
CletnGutts thought »t first liut we slionld be rufu$<'>l, hut our 
[iitApnrts were yT'nntcd; nnd it is a curious fact that Amerieans, 
although known to he tliorougUy republiciin, are more in favor 
Uun any other furei^ers, boCAUM thoy never inUrfere in l^e 
nflfiun pf the coanlry, Messina has an excellent harbor; the 
wnlor M even U>o deep for convenient anchorage. 

TIm mmiber of {iHeats, and monks, nnd nuns in Mossinn ta 

very groM. There are said U> be 10,000 in all that are sup- 

IlorUxl on eccle«iastical funde. Wo fre^juently met large pn> 

CMNOtu^ whose ctMUiino siiowed that they were connected with 

tho Catholic rehgion. The moat agreeable part of Messinu i» 

ahag tho strand, where tlioro is a fine front of goo<] edifices, 

, public and private, and an ample promenade ; but llie interior 

I of the city ie extremely dirty and disagreeable. Our hole!, 

1 which was mora infiatted nitti fleas Uitin any one we hail the 

w nitfbrtUDe to occupy on our whole joumeVidid not form an 

esceplioii. After mounting up several flighta of stiiirs, we 

wen, indix-d, tolerably comfortnhle; but tho access was tlirough 

a dirty court, a hollow sijuart', urouud which were stables and 

aurUgua, and the evil odor asociuled to our rooms. Kvcn in 

ft private house — that of an amlalilc aud worthy old gentleraau, 

n of science, who treated us with great kindnetw, our eu- 

e WW through tlie stitbl« of the donkey, whoe<.' sljilkiii waa 

I tit (Ira hall next nilliin the front door. The parlur in which 

r inl«muws Cook phuw wiw o«i1y one story above : and tlio 


10 Messina to Catakia. 

effluvia, wLich wero very active in this apartment, did not ap- 
pear to annoy him, or to create any anxiety- lest they should an- 
noy us. 

The Strait of Messina is eight miles broad opposite to the 
town. Upon this strait is situated the town of Ilheggio, the 
Rhegium of St Paul's voyage to Italy. Leaving Syracuse, 
^ they fetched a compass and came to Rhegium.'' From the 
city of Messina, Rheggio is distinctly visible ; we afterwards 
passed it on our journey to Catania. I have already mentioned 
our visit to Puteoli, where Paul arrived after '^ the south wind 
blew." It has been believed by the Messenians that Paul land- 
ed and wrought miracles in their city ; but the sacred record 
makes no mention of this fact 

It is averred tliat in the cathedral which is dedicated to the 
Virgin, there is a letter to the Messenians in her own hand- 
writing, with a lock of her hair. 

We saw at Messina tlie tower in which they say that Rich- 
ard Cceur de Lion lodged on his journey to the Crusades. In 
English history, however, no mention is made of such a flEU^t 
Richard is said to have been shipwrecked on the coast of Italy 
in 1102, near Aquilla, in the Adriatic, and then to have pursued 
his journey througli Germany as a pilgrim ; but he was dis- 
covered, and arrested near Vienna, owing to a personal affront 
to Leopold, duke of Austria. 

Sltssins itt Catanis, — stbtnts milts. 

After a long detention at the station of the diligence, in a 
very disagreeable house, we left Messina at three and a half 
o'clock p. M. The carriage, drawn by three horses, had six seats, 
of which the conductor took one, and we had the remainder. 
The country through which we passed was no^ interesting, 
but the road was excellent Many miles of it were construct- 
ed in the sides and slope of hills and mountains, in the man* 



If of Ihu Raviuni roud, from Nioe tu Genoa ; luid Uiu entira 
tvuto WRs along tho McdiU'jriuicati, wttli llie mm consLintly 
in view. Thia wos the mail cairiagf^, ami tlie driving was 
vory rapid, the hotsea being clianged once in ten miles. At 
t-vory stapling place we were besieged by beggars, and I liave 
novur »oea any wliere sucJi squalid ini^ry. In one village 
•ci'eral individuals were almost naked; — only a few diriy rags 
liDDg around their ema<.-.ialed forms, aud they were almoHt aa 
dark colored as our Indians. 

We have ao oflon seen such poopio in Sicily, that wo uould 
almtwl believe that there are two distinct races ; for the Italians 
who have not been much e:ipo§ed to the eiin are only of a 
, brunetln color, iwd thu infanta arc of a delicate complexion. 
In one uinerable villagu we met an evening procession, chant- 
ing as lliey marcliud, and bearing a canopy over the head of a 
sphmdidty drtsswl ecelesiastic, who, wo wore told, was going to 
ndministcr the aacrnment to a dying person. In a town of 
a size (the Inst stage before Giara), ibere was a splendid 
illuminntion in llio streets. Many jiersons wore abroad, dressed 
for the occasion, whicli, as appeared from tho preparations, was 
' bo condudod by fireworks, in honor of Easter. 

Catama. Mai/ 21. — We arrived at Catania at one and a 

ilf o'clock, A. M,, and our conductor led us half a mile to the 

I Crown Tsveni, wht- ro alhwere asleep. With some difficulty, we 

I uronaed ihu people, and in half an hour wero in bed. In the 

morning we had an interesting interview with Profijssor Gem- 

melaro, of tlio Univeraity of Catania — a very intelligent and 

pleasing gentleman, with whom I had corresponded. He 

speaks Kngliah well, having served several years in the British 

Davy. Hu advisod us very duuidedly to visit first the Val del 

ItovQ bufun) attciupliug tliu ascent of the Cone of Etna, as tho 

Vul del Duvu ia dm only place where a section of tho motmtun 

GUI be seen. Wn decided, without hcaitation, to fallow hia 

I ndvicfl, and to leave all our ullerlor arrangements to l>o settled 

I at Nic>.ilii«i, whieh is twelve miles up the mountain. 

AxciKKi l>avA Ci'uuKtiT. — Nicoloai is situated near Honl(> 


12 Ancient Lata Currents. 

R06SI, or Bicom (the red mountain with a double cone), whence 
issued the great lava cnrrent that invaded Catania in the year 

Our first object was to see this ancient lava current where 
it assaulted the city, and we descended by stairs to a place 
where it could be seen beneath the houses. Near this {dace, 
the current had cascaded over the city wall, which was 60 feet 
high. Houses have been erected upon this great river of frozen 
lava, and thus the surface of the city is here raised, and the 
wall, which is still in place, is comparatively depressed. Many 
years ago, a deep excavation was made in the lava by the order 
of tlie Prince of Biscani, and there ia now, at the bottom of 
the deep hole, a fountain of water at which womeji were 

The appearances here were meet interesting and instruc- 
tive. The lava was once so fluid as to run, or be pushed along 
by its own weight, and disregarding the wall, it flooded thi» 
part of the city with a river of fire. The masses of congealed 
lava rook, which lie there now, unaltennl, are of astonishing 
thicknesA, and plainly show tliat they rolled in billows of fire, 
which were congealed ere they had time to acquire a com- 
mon declivity ; indeed from the viscous tenacity of lava, they 
never could assume a uniform curve, like that of a flowing 
river of water, and thb fact is still more apparent in other 
places. We visited the splendid church and still more splen- 
did convent of the Benedictines, aronnd both sides of which 
the lava flowed, dividing into two currents, which afterwards 
coalesced into one. Being fully aware that the lava of 1669, 
after traversing a part of the city, had invaded the sea, we 
eagerly drove to the place ; and there it lies, unchanged during 
182 years, having thrust itself out half a mile or more into the 
Mediterranean. The high ridges of lava gave us a vivid im- 
preKi^ion of the liorror of the scene. It evidently rolled along 
in fiery waves, which threw up the m.assos that congealed upon 
tlie surface, producing lofty piles and dei'p hollows. 

At this time they fonn a black and terrific surfiMe, over 

MuMinf or Vktmut. HmoRr. 

whicli it is difficult to move ovea on foot, aD<l i^uitu i[ii[xisaiL>}i; 
upon the back of any nnintAl, nor coold wheels even t«;giri tn 

Sutna of llie masses of lava arc as JArgc as a common cot- 
la^, und tbc Cavities and rough vallcvs among tlitrm aru so 
full nf nharp points, bristling in evoiy diroctJon, that in moving 
among thum, it rcrjuirwl great caution to avoid dangemua fiUh. 

At tlie lime of thu catastrophe, an appalling spertnolo must 
have txH-n prewntt^. At night, a river of glowing lava, fifteen 
miks lung and three miles broad, illuminatMl the sky with in- 
tenae splendor. Tlio roar and crashing of the eurrcut, as it 
moved sluggishly forward, breaking up its own froien surface, 
and bearing along tlie rocks tliat had formed a pan of llic lava, 
wore truly terrific, and when it reached the sea, tha furious 
Goaflict of liro Etnd vaXvi produced fenrful uxplwious. Tliu re- 
cord of the catastrophe lay wide open before us, and it was, oven 
wilbout human history, perfectly legible. Decomposition had 
made no progrcM ; the lava rocks had not begun to crumble in 
tjie firrt effort to form a soil, and tlieru was no vegetation, exucpt 

w liuJiens slTuiigly contrnsletl 
isto of rugged lava on wliir.h 
nl (his place tlie fragments of 

here and there portions ofyclln 
with the black and frightful wi 
they grew. Along the sea shore 
lava rocka are rounded by the n 

McatUH OF Natdhal Uistorv. — Reluming into tlie cily, 
we took a cursory view of the Museum of Natural History, 
which was created and arranged by ProfeMor Gemmelaro. It 
is in the university, which is a large quadrangle, containing an 
included si^uarc. It is ijuite extensive, and inchides a good re- 
pretentation of tlie mineralogy and geology of Sicily, as well m 
a general museum of anatomy, all the specimens In'ing well ar- 
rangeil and ticketed. There is tmnexed, also, a department '<( 
idiemistry and physics, with a suitable ajiparntusi and conveniftit 
i^mrliiiente ; in tJie dome (for mrety is nn Italian room vrtih- 
out tome ornament, espn'.inlly in the ceiling), thore are plc^tures 
nf nninent pliilusopherK, Imlti native and liin.-ign, among whom 
, we ohMrred [tortrnita of Dr. Franlclin and Count Ruinford. 


tftna in % gistawE. 

Pmiii die streets of Catunia, Moutil Euia maki^ 
Eplttndid appenranco at tbe distance of twunlj'-dve to thirty I 
mill's, us it is usually ustimut^d ; ia a riglit linu it dots noL 1 
exceed tweoty-fivo miles, as 1 was aderwards ussurnI by I 
Dr. Gemmelaro of Nicolosi. Etna appears from Ontmiia i: 
nil its grandeur, an imrocose dome, coverwl now witli snow, I 
ilirough which Uie crater rises like a block tower. The snow i 
d»cs not leave Etna more iLaa six weeks during tlto hottest part \ 
of tlie niimncr; but glaciers, concealod by lava and asho» on I 
its Hanks, are per&islent through ccntnrice of duration. 

AscKKT 10 NicoLOSi, — Mattuo, the veteran guJdo on 
null known to sU who vitiit tJiat mourilaiii, and for aevat j-ciin j 
the atleiidant of tlio Daron Wnllerhausen in liis uxplorationi, I 
fortunately for m carae tu our hot«l. His homo is at Nicolosi, 
and we engaged bim to attend us in oar exeursionti. At ibive 1 
o'clock F. M., a veturine, with three horses, was at tho door, I 
nni] wi: procecdnl for Nicolosi, stt«ndcd by Matloo u[>oq bis I 
inulu. In tJio Ktrurt through which wo pa»«d out uf the (own 
till- Invn npjH-ars. It protrudes from bcn^Alh the bouaiiB that 
hnr« bwin constnicto] upon it, «nd luis been cut tlirough ut 
afford a pawago. There is no recorded int/iision of lava within 
Iho walls of CalAnia, oicvpt in tho eruption of lOGS ; but aa 
lava is frequently penetrated in making cxcavntions fur build- 
ing*. iJiero can Iw no doubl that in oarly ngws, i-Tcn Uiforu Ca- 1 
lania was founded, currents of lava AowkI from tJio miiuntaiu 
and ivnched the ground wlinro tliu city now stanili. 

IiiimodistvlyaJWr paMiig outofCuInnia wo began to ascend. 
1'lie entire distance of twKlvo ijiilos is an inclined plane, pn^ I 
il»c<>d by the r^ipeat^d overflow of lava in surxsessivB agts; And I 
plains of liluok Uva and rolcaniu sand every wlidro fonu tha 1 
lii^lJit ; Uin hiniMM and feni^w ar« mniatruoted of tliii mntnrinl. 1 


tliu p(^o[>ll■, althougli tlio eredit of it is given to [}te rnonarcli. 
ir pcrtrntncnt roads Uiere is no better inatcriAl tii»n lava. Al 
NiculoM wu saw n moiiuinont vrith an insuription, whicli gives 
till! king llii; lienor of the rond. Tbis, said a distiiigoisbed 
Sioilian to us, is nieru incense. He did aid in the construction 
of Uiu rood, but in consequence of the severe and cruel mea- 
■nrca uloptvd by liini in putting down tlio revolution in 1848, 
he is most conlially and deservedly detested by his subjeuta. 

CcLnvAnoN. — The sloping sides of Etna nro in » liigli 

state of cultivation, diiefly in vines. Aa we aJvani;ed u|i tlie 

mountain, llie lavn in the fields and roads increased in quiintily. 

' Whenever, us is odcn tbc faet, the lava is muinly in loose 

I mass^ immense pains have been taken to remove it; fur tiii^ 

I purpose it is piled up in wnlls of great height and tlitck- 

Several villages which occur on the rosd, have eni- 

I ployed much of tlie lava, both in the construction of houses 

] and churches ; and tlio mad itself, being built upon lava, which 

fills up tlie hollows, liiM hIio helpi^ to consume it. In uiauy 

tnslsneee, to dispose of it in the best miwncr, it is collected iu 

I vast piles, liud in regular but various forms. 

There is one large village about half way up the mountain, 
1. uid tliore iir« several of smaller sb». Fift^n villages were deslroy- 
I ed by the eruption of 1069. There is a population of 100,000 
I persons living upon Etjui, In perhaps 50 villngoj; but the 
I embraciK a wide district of country, and nltliough 
I iiniptions nr« frequent Uie people appear to live on witliout 

The last eruption was in 1843,* at Bronte, on the western 
I tide of the mountain. The lava, in n very deep torrent, dowi'd 
I a mile and a half wide, and as there was a small lake in ils 
e inhabitAUtA, in groat niunberx, gatherud amund lo 
I witD«m the war of tlie elements, when the lava Hood shou'd 
li the water. As might have been expected, the plunge 
Pproilaui.<d a tremendous explosion, which proved fatal lo C"i 

* A very powerful emptiira o«oerrod ths m 

16 Etna. 

persons. In a conversation with Dr. Oemmelaro, at Nico- 
losi, on the cause that could have produced death in Uic 
case of these persons, who were not scalded, nor were thej 
lacerated, although their hair was crisped by the excessive heat 
of the air and the steam, it was suggested as most probable 
tliat they were suffocated by the production of a partial va- 
cuum, as the explosion threw the respirable air away and sub- 
stituted irrespirable steam in its place. Dr. Oemmelaro thought 
that there might have been an electrical stroke. That is possible, 
as we know that steam, flowing from a high pressure boiler, is 
highly electrified, and can be made to afford sparks, and, there- 
fore, it is not impossible that it may, m this case, have been 
auxiliary to the fatal result Within 41 years, between 1802 
and 1843, eleven eruptions have taken place, averaging more 
than one eruption in 4 years, and thus it appears that this 
ancient mountain of fire is still formidable, and exhibits no 
marks of decline of power.* 

* It« energy has been since manifested by an emption which hap- 
pened August 20th, 1852. The volcano, during three days and nights, 
displayed its power in the most terrific and magnificent phenomena. 
Immense volumes of smoke rose into the air, at one time black, at 
another white, and it eventually took the form of the Italian pine- 
tree, as described by Pliny in the eruption of Vesuvius, a. d. 79. 
The trunk of the tree, as represented by the smoke, rose a mile in 
height before it sent off branches, and these branches were sub- 
divided until they broke and floated away with the wind. The 
smoke rose to the height of four or five miles. The most appalling 
sounds were sent forth from the mountain, seeming to pervade 
the air, the earth ond tlie sen, and they were attended by severe 
vibrations of earthquakes, which rocked the whole island. The 
eruption of lava at length relieved, to a degree, the severity of the 
volcanic throes. 

A party of English gentlemen and ladies were on the mountain 
near the foot of the great cone when the eruption happened, and 
were in great danger of being overwhelmed by tlie lava. A hurri- 
cane also prostrated them and tlicir mule^ tore the light dresses from 
the persons (»f the ladies and almost suffocated them by a ttorm of 
•and and small stones blown in their fisert. The «r was extremely 



AuuTAL AT Nicomsi. — We wcru iil our n.'s!Jiig-[i!;ico in 

■ Nioolosi bclbm siituct, an<l wero reiwived in a vltt Luniblo 
I liivA tioii»ii. It wna of ono atory, willi a stable aunexed, htiiI as 
I Uiiiw was ouly a dirision wall between, wc constjintl)- heanl 
I tfio sUmping of tb* inulos. W« haJ, however, com forts liiu 

jiuB and buds, and our own provisions, brought from Catuuiti, 
I wrved for our first repast. In the evening we received a chII 
I from Dr. JiMeph Geinmcliiro, brother of tho I'lufessor of 
1 Catania, from whom we brought an introductory note. Dr. 
J Oemmelaro w, like his brother, an exceedingly inti-lligenl and 

■ ^reeable gentlumau, willi frank and cordial manners, tind 
I English WL'U. n<.' is a practising physician, as well 

I •■ s naturalist, having about 3000 poopio in the range of 

I III* practice. Uo entered at once into our views, and gave us 

liigbly important advice respecting our excuiwonB on Etna. 

No man is billet tjualili^d for micU a duty. He is a native of 

Nioolosi, has always residud hem, and has made Etna his 

I tpMiial study. Many yearn ago he and his brotlier, the pro- 

Bor. published a very valuable and instructive chart* of Etna, 

I which has bueii of signal use in geological illuslrtitions of this 

InounUtin. Tho map is hotli topogrn])hiciil und pIoturc«K]ue, 

lirilli delineations of tlie track of Ihe tnost signal eruptions of 

llii™, and an appended column of dates nnd historical eveutn. 

I I''or this very important document, regarding tho natural his- 

I tory of Etna, I was happy now Ui make my ackuowledgm'-iila 

I to I>r. Gommelarof in person. As tlie advice of Dr. Oem- 

, »nd at it wm a night «ceD«, tbay gladly halluil the return of 

Tlni priocipat eruption w«« from the wino below tlio great 

1^, oBUvd the Cn'loisL Tiie town v( Bmnta wua ilc«tr«;id, nnd the 

1 Ingloii bnmed— 5o^cir<i Taglor't liltrr from Mruina. Aigmt 

|«Sc( 18S2, in tA< NatTorli Tribune. 

• A «rpy or wtiieli wm bniu{(ht out by Widnoy JoUnaon, K»q., 

f There wcra three brotlun, — Uario, • ditiinguisii(.'d iiKiiirallit. 

lO dUd a yi>ar or iwa at[i>; Jiwaph and Cliarlus anrvli-e. Tlii lallcr 

la tho profowir in Catania. They ii[<r")ur t.i l.o froin fifty-flre to liuy 

raof ige. Thur fslbor died r«eatljat llw ago «f alKlity.fnur. 



molarD corresponded with that of Im brotlicr, tliu |irol(.-s3or, vaM 
decided to visit tbe Val del Bova finil of alL 

Visit to tub Val del Bovk. — limog M two o'clock, *. i 
J rntlicd our couri>>r and my oomparilooa, uid nfter Inking ■ 
cup of coffee, we wore in our carriage at four, and travollod 
fourteen miles upon a good road, over tlio eastern slope of tiis ] 
raounlain, wliile Mattiio, with bis assistants, camo on their '^ 
luulos by a shorter route, to meet us at Zaffarina, the appointed J 
plac« of renduxvous. 

In our morning ride we returned four or five tnilcA upc 
the road towards Catania, and then diroi^ed to tho left towar 
ZaSiiriiui, passing through a very beautiful country, i 
LigLcst Etat« of cultivation, which fullj justified the glowiu 
Accounts wc had heard of the fertile regions of Etna, 
olives, tigs pomegranates, peats, cLerricti, apricota, oi 
lemons, wlieat, rye, Indian com, numerous plants, growi 
for Uieir fntgrant essences, nrc nmong the produdions < 
tJiis fertile vulcanic soil Several KubstanUal villages o 
in our route; in them churches wcr« always conipicuot 
The Mndonnu and Infant Snvionr occupied ))romiucDL situation 
along the road ; sometimes also, tho aUiinee were tenanted I 
images of sniuts and martyrs of the Koman calendar. 
people appeared quite civil, many of them toncbud their cap4 
with their bands, and saluted us with s smile; the prieakl 
rately volunteered a salutation, but when wu first sstutod them, ' 
tbey always raised their brood -brimmed beavers. Koet o( the | 
gxwplc, from oonstaut exposure, are of a doop brown color ; tho j 
women are quite as dark and coarae as the men, and they a 
generally without stockings, ah<M«, or hnta. Hiey labor in tha 
field, and carry heavy burdens upon their heads; nor do thej I 
appear to bo favored by the men, for the husband ia often ahod | 
while tJie poor wife goes barefoot. We sec voty few women i 
wlio look even tolerably. Among tlie young, indeed, and Mpft-d 
cially among tho ohildron, thoro aro pleasii^ &ces, btit noni 
appearod qailo clean, and as we Mky at homo, tidy. Nq 

Visit to tbe Val del Bovb. Iff 

America, c«d form no concupUon. Here, upon Mount Etiio, 
as well u upon llie mari^me road, we aaw ibose whose ctoUies, 
if such they could be called, bung all about Lbein in liltliy 
tattera, lenring thtur poor bodies expoaod. 

Bje bread and i^ggSi and die low, weak winos of tiio coun- 

I try, funu die princijinl aliment of the peopl«^. Milk is not corn- 

I iimn, and when found, it is not the milk of the cow but of tiio 

gout Duller seems almost unknown in Sicily, nt lenet in this 

I part of it ; olive oil is tlie subslitiil«, and in general it is sweet 

and good, but it is not used with bread, which is extremely 

se, and U calen dry. Yet Sicily is justly called llio granary 

dT Europe. 

Uatteo nus already at ZaRarinn with his mules when we 

arrived, and we were «oon equipped, and mounted upon aiii- 

lals, which, with a tatigh exception, were large and in good 

ounditiou. Behold us ihcn, four of our party, with our attend- 

auU, seated again on mules for a mountain excursion, but in u 

country as different as possible from that at Tivoli, wheru we 

e similarly provided. I have never travelled in any country 

BO arduous and difficult as this. Our guide led the way, all our 

Giiuipments being piled upon bis sturdy mule, while liis son, a 

youth of fifteen, with an assistant, walked by his side ; we, the 

foreign travellers, followed in ungle file, and thus wo penetrated 

c milts into the very bowels of Etna. For a short dist.inco 

re was a toleniblc path, but aflor half a mile, we begun to 

I juoend over loose hira stones and among lava rocks, where there 

a no track but that made by mules and donkeys, moving 

\ witli tlicir burdens down the mountain ; of course they must re- 

I turn again by the same route to obtain thmr loads, To-day we 

I tn«t many donkeys heavily laden with dies, and others with 

|. timber and planks. 

As we were constantly ascending over a very rough and 

:ggod surface, which grew steeper and steeper, we had uo- 

I thing to do but to sit i]uielly on our saddles, allowing our mules 

I lu pitik their way in the beat manner diey could, and as wo 

I dill niA attempt to guide them, they always stepped iu die 

20 Etna. 

right place. They followed the mule of Matteo, our file leader, 
with perfect exactness and order ; and thus we were left at 
liberty to observe the wonderful country into whose mysterious 
recesses we were now penetrating. We were soon involved 
among lava currents, rough and billowy, rising into high ridges 
and sinking into deep valleys, whose once molten masses ap- 
peared now moss-covered, with every mark of the antiquity of 
many centuries. High hills and mountains on our left were 
marked by more ancient lava currents, and still many of them, 
although they were witliout exception volcanic accumulations, 
were covered with vines, extending high up on the mountain 
side wherever any soil could be found. 

There are no permanent running streams of water on 
Etna, but mountain torrents evidently sweep down these val- 
leys occasionally; for we saw deep channels worn in the 
solid lava, which was grooved, furrowed, polished, and scoop- 
ed out as in steep river channels. In our passage from Mes- 
sina to Catania wo passed the dry beds of numerous tor- 
rents, which, in winter, are said to be powerful, but in the dry 
season are wholly obsolete. Onward we toiled heavily, up tlie 
increasing steep ; the hills on our left became mountains — 
certainly they would so appear any where else — here, however* 
they are greatly surpassed by the sublime dome now in full 
view, and which we were every moment approaching. We 
p:issed a shelter under a broad shield of lava-rock, which had 
been projected so happily as to leave a cavity highly conve- 
nient to protect adventurers. Here, in fact, Boron Walter- 
housen frequently made his abode during the years when he 
was engaged in exploring, sketching, and describing Etna,* 

We had now opened tlie Val del Bove, and for four miles, 
wo passed over an ocean of comparatively modern lava, des- 
olate and dreary, rugged and sharp, black and barren, except 
here and there a small tuft of verdure, a mountain weed, which 

* Hifl great work on Etna is in the course of j^blicttioii at Qdi- 
tbgen, and ought to be in all our larger public librarict. 

Visit io tor Vai. del Rovb. 


\ ■ittni.-tMl our weorietl Hiiimala. This lavu inti^t, low! la it 

I s[ipe«K from abore^ is really more billowy thau ibo moat lem- 

I puatuoiu ocuBD ; still, by the aid of our exporionced guide, and 

I our pntient and eagncious mules, ve made our way where va 

I might iiBVe t)o«n precipitated at nny moment by our lulling 

I Bnimale, amon^ the sharp poinla of lava bristling nn every siil<.% 

I or thrown headlong into deep raviuue. Thi-re wore also largu 

I tracU of black volcanic aaud into nlilult lliu fuet of our mulcfs 

Bank fetlock dL>ep, and when we ascendud bilb of tbis sand, it 

was with no amall effort that they could keep on their course. 

The sun, before portjully veiled, now poured down a flood of 

light and hent, which tlju lava and sand reflected into our 

fiuts, and here we uxpurientMil tb« first really oppressive hotit 

' which we bad fclt in Italy. We mountod tie highest pile of 

I toosD matMinIs in the centre of tJie area, and aa we had be«n 

I tbre« hours and a half in our Middles, while rising up the 

mountain, we hero took our much needed refrMhutont, but 

without the alighest shelter, not eveu of an umbrella, which 

our (courier had neglected to bring, while the thermometer, on 

ihu gToun<I, was at 05'-', and in the nir at 92°. When the 

1 uir was calm tlie heat seejned almost insupportable, condensed 

I und accumulated as it wa* in the black sand. There vm no 

I chancfi of escape from its fervor; but we were occasionally re- 

1 lieved by a brccKe, and there was, now and then, a bla«t that 

I came roaring along from (ho mountain cliffs, and was for a 

[ few momenta ao violent aa almoet to lay us prostrate; then 

I It would instantly cease, and a dead calm with oppressive heat 

[ would BUCCOed. 

OcR Poanios. — We stood now 3500 feet above the Med- 
I Iterronean. But how shall 1 describe the mogniticcnt and 
I terrific, scene around us 1 We were in the miibt of the grand- 
J ctit volc«nio ntnphithcatro in the world, lla entire circuit, in- 
I eluding tho great through which we had ascended, must 
1 be twenty miles ; tho circuit of the area immediately afuund us 
B five or six miles ; the longest diameter, including a portion 
I ef tho way of MMStt*. n nine inilc* ; the diameter at the place 



wliore we stood three miles. TLree-fourllis of tlio area was 
dosed by walls of black Inva rock, in almost peqxtndidiilar clil 
snd precipiMs, whidi inouiiled fnim 1000 to 3600 foot 
tiou nltm-a tho floor of the placo wlipro wo stood. The procipi* 
were bnltrcaaed and seemingly supported by iiinnmerable onoi 
moiis dikes, or projecting walls, st&nding out almost at rigli 
nn^los. Tho main walls receded into deep vortical groovM^ 
and in tliese tlie snow, wido above and nnrrowing as it di 
acended, carae down 3500 fi-et to tlie verj- floor of thi 
arena of one of tlio noblest ampliitlieatrus ibal nature ei 
formed. These snows were jmned above lo tbe thick and* 
wide mantle of wiiiler, from whieli they were ptvijeotcd, whil 
their supcnor portions, slill invested with ice the awful donii 
that impended almost over our heads. Tho temiinaling con«^J 
the very vertex of tho mountain, was visible over tho cliffi!, risinj 
330O feet above their upper ed^ and as tlio walls of rocl 
were tilso 3500 foet high, the dome and eoiiu of Etna 
nenrly one mile and n half verticnlly above tho bottom of tlia> 
VaJ del Bove in which wo stood. 

MiKua Vbsts. — In Uiis valley there are snb<Hdinate vol- 
1, and from them, as well as from (ho side walls, hat 
many currents of lava, doubtless in differont geologii 
_ Two of (hew volcanoes, ailnated in the bottom of th«^ 
'Vii del Bovo, are comparatively foccnt ; one of tliem brol 
out in 1811, and tlie other in 1819. 

How much the eruptlooa from tliem and from otlier simili 
sources may have miited the floor of the Val del Bovo, we 
Iciiow not ; we cannot doubt, however, that they have piled up 
immcDsc masses, aud thus it appeara probable that when the 
valley WM firet formed, It muat have been much deeper than 

TuK Giuxoxnt of thiaiweneiariarpaKeaaU powers of di 
Ncrfpticin. .\ii bofora remarked, it is a vast volcanic amphi 
thraiTfl, with nImiHt viirtioal walU of ragged rock, blaok audi 
forbSdditij;, The arena baa been a acvno of tin.- mo»t iremen-^ 
^ dninitMion of tin-, C<mi|ian-d willi tin* nalunil amphilln 

I TUB Vai riEL BovK. 


of Etna, Iha Coliseum of Roino is a toy. The area of llie Vnl 

^ diJ Bove would contain 10,000 sikK Ooliaemns, siid London 

wlf ooald 1m included in its vast capacity. It has li«ttn well 

arked that, compared with Etna, VcBUvius is a eabini-t vo!- 

There lies llio Val del Bovo, amidst tho airfiil solitudes 

i Etna ; itsulf desolated by internal (ire, its enormoiu piles of 

■ lava, and its now qiuut vulcanic i^ones, altcsUng that below is 

o focus of latent encr^. Still this area is dopresse<l far bc- 

Klow the giant powor, tho great cone of Etna, that, in cIono 

Kiidinit}-, impends over it, and tiulds it, us a vnana], in siibjec- 

In «omo future eruption, Etna's cone may pour into this 

(bund gulf sneU floods of molten rock as may fill it ngiun 

P to the genernl slope of tlie great dome, or convert it into 

n oroilowing fountain of tire, which shuU pour its fioo<ls of 

ffin-Bdown tho declivitii* and into the valleys below, as has 

mora than once happened nlready. 

A cataract of nieltc-;! lava was, in 1811 and I8I0, prwipi- 

^ tated into the Val del Itove, with the most fearful eoncussion, 

id with a t«mp>!St of sand and fragments msed into the air. 

The Val del Bovo, itself n panorama, would admit of tho 

, in)pre*Bive pictorial iilustrationis although no picture 

uld do it justice, but still plans and sketches aro necessary to 

mvoy to the mind of onu who has not scan it, a full concep- 

Q of the scene. And here 1 have to remark again that those 

f Van Wallerahausen are by far the best ever made, but in 

the absence of those, tlie woodeuta given by Sir Charles Lyell, 

Q be found Tory useful and his account of the Vol del Bove 

It Mfnaily graphic aad accurate 

GsoixjoiCAL Section. — In a geological view, it possesses 
e highest iolcrest, since it eiposea tho structure of Etna in a 
inner nowhere else (o bo seen ; and to geotogioal theory, it 
Sfem decouve evidence of a rast and probably a sudden col- 
Q of tbb part of the mountain ; eviscerated, as it has been, 
jr the prodigal expenditure of thoau immense masses of lava, 
I, in gono-by agM, liavo built up the wide extended re- 
m nnw erobraoeil witliin thn circuit and area of Etna. 



Tmbohv. — III eatiinatiog liio msgniluJe of the coIUpi 
which cvidendj gave origin to llio Val del Bovo, it murt 1 
remembered UiaI, ero it liappcnuJ, lliu enormous cavity, xitn 
the Val del Bove, was doublleaa covered by Uie general donv 
which stiil rises 9o high above it. Voloauic domes do owuit.- 
nonally colkpse, and the dome wliitli covun thtj upper con« I 
of Etna Las fallen in more than once duriug lliu hiatorienl |t» 
riod. It is probable, lJit.-rcforu,' iJiat in a geologlcMl cm fJu 
more remott', tlio portion of the great dome, wliiiJi covered,.^ 
what is now uallod tbe Vat del Bove, or [>erchani!e the roof, / 
of that cavity, whether n jmrt of tlie great domu or not, bciDgiil 
rendereil uavumaUH by ofl rejicnted uniplions, of which t 
records ore found iu Uio wilderness of lava on tho I 
tliH mountain, being no longer supported, collapsed, and par 
off from llie great dome, or that ]>nrt of its slope which formed 
tliu c»ping of this great vnllejr. Via depth of this i 
cavern might have been much greater than that of the pr* 
valley, and when the collapse look place, if it was u!l ul o 
the uatHstrophu must liavu been tremeudoiu — terribly inugnift''4 
cent — Ieavin|r Ibis ancient mountain deeply lacerated wilJi a 
wotmd tliat may never be liealed. 

The lava, currenld over which wo had passed in pciietratinjt 
to the upper exiremity of tbe Val del Ituve, were of compare- [ 
lively riMMtnt formation. The subonJinate veuts, Feuochio, Ci^ J 
pra, and Uusara, wore now cold, and standing in the vallq 
from wboio aiilo one of ihesu currents tssued, whtcl 
■anoldng at (he time of Sir C. LyeU*s visit in 1828, nine yea 
af>er Hie eruption, and we were siirroumied by deserts of lavtj 
of tliat recent date. Still wo could, in a few uimubtt, waQ| 
to depending ^acinra, a torrid attniMphore being arouud u 
volcanic tire beneath, and wintur nbi>ve, wrapping tltu grc^ 
dome iu a mantta of snow. In tlui winl4ir, snow oflen falls ii 
tlie Va! del Iktve to M grntt duptli, tomutiiues 40 fevt. 
dome of Etna would alwa\-)t be eiivurw) nitirely with snow dqj 
ring tbe whole year, were it uol thai tli« ■luiubvring boot in 
u»Bl<ir, niileii by Uw jotaf nn, u evrr wtflldunt to melt I 

Reixhs to Nicoi.081, 


w in tiiirEsummcr. Prokubly the snow and icu nre [leram- 

it on tlio norlli^n) siile of tlio mountaiii ; and the interesting 

' n few yvus ngo by Dr. GE^mmelaro, of a glacier 

I'l'red by cinders and lava, proves that ice is perniaTittit on 

Inn, «nd in fact enters into its structuM. Dr. Geinmelun), in 

mreiMlion with ns, conHrmed Itie gcniiiDencss of the ol>»ur- 

ntjnn. The travellor, and eepcciHily the geolopst, who visits 

~lBa without seeing tlio Val del Bovo, lias not seen its most 

btertstiDg features; urcn the summit cone does not present 

toy well wctioRal view as it seen in tlie valley, but only a 

(ightfnt desert of lava. Compensation for tJie labor of cliinb- 

faigup 11,000 feeit of treacherous scoriffi and cinders is tnndc to 

1 Bdventuror by tlio prospect which, eapocially at sunrising, 

f b one of unrivalled splendor and magniticonce. 

DucKitT, — Our descent from the Val del Bove was mwh 

more fatiguing than the ascent. We came down under a 

Ijtiniing stjQ, in (lie hottest part of the ailurnoon. The nioun- 

Ktain aid« is ao sleep tliat the pressure of the limbs and feet upon 

Itlie stirrups and saddle is very severe, and we can harjiy f^l 

t we are safa, as we are almost hajigingover tlio lowly bead 

ihe mule, while hu is co warily moving willi almost intelli- 

It steps among the loose lava. 

Leaving my son and Mr, It. to look in a secluded spot fur 

lomo volcanic minerals, I retamud with Francois and one of 

mikei guides In ZalTarina. 

It may be a slandiT to call ^c bouse where we sirid in 

Eallarinn a hotel, but xucli as it was, we found no alternative. 

: brown brend, bad cliicoree coffee, and eggs, were ils 

sources, Not a luuMllic cooking utensil of any kind cxistt-d 

p tlio house, and one poor chicken parboiled for us in an car- 

a pipkin, wu the only animal food to be obliiined. This 

ih its head on, Uie feathers imperfectly removed, 

bd otherwise a« naturrllr. Our disgust previ!iiie<l our es»y- 

g Ibis exsunpio of biLiilinn skill in cookery. 

KcnrBSToNicot.osi, ifayaa.— Wewcreata oVIock *. m. 
tridc of our mules, on oar rotum. bxring on our fir«t nrrivol 
Vot, t.^v 

26 Etka. 

beK dUtiiiased our cnrriage, to ini«t us again on tbo SOtli t 
Niccilosi. Wi! liad ho]>od tlint our lida tbia uiorntDg would 
tiRve token iis ibruugli the vilds of Ktna ; but on tlio cootn 
althougli we snvvd four or fivQ milus by tuking n sliorter rouU 
wti trnvelluJ in a biglily cultJviiLud ttnd populous county 
We were never out of sight of Luuian Liibitattons, and W3 
pussccl tlirougU two eoiistdcrabie towns willi Inrge cburcbcA., I 
Tbu people ncro thronging the streets, as it was n gnla <liijrp,j^ 
We frequently nii-t droves of Iieavily lodon mu!c»; in e 
druvu there y/ore 18 lurgu and fine nnimals fiulciiecl togtilliM 
in trains. 

Ektixct Yoi^anoes. — But wbnt interested us macli nor 
was tlie grunt number of dormant or extinct votcMiocs, wbtd 
were nlwnp in view in every aOtgo of our journey. Often i 
to 36 woro visible at ona time. Sir 0. Lyell slal(;s, tliftt OKli 
are 160 uT tiit^m inEnor con«s on tlio sidus of Etiin, antl of o 
sidurable Dnt« 80 ; but from what wo snw net bolievtf thftt t 
number m uudurraUx), nnd (hut tlio sUtemeiit of our guidoi* 
MuUvo, making the number 300, is nearer to thit tnitlt. Somo 
of tlieao conw aru elvgantly fini&bed and rounded, ns if by ut ; 
anorwardi, when on Monte Ron!, wo hndan upporlunity to see 
tlioir iii(«mBl conica] cavity, nnd wn wero nasuTttl by Dr. Gem- 
tuotaro tjial all, witiiout oxcqition, uo fumislied with craloiK 
There were several voti;anoe(i, from wliicb visible streams of J 
lava bad flowed, atid most of l\nsc were ruptured on onu sid« 
Some of thi- conea are «mull, but olht^ra would anywber 
be regardtid an cottsiduralilu niuunlaina. 

Basalt. — Wu wcru mucb gmtififd to mm groups of r 
I'^Jumnnr t)nsnll, included ns pnrt of n true Inva uunont, wbiolu 
had been opant^ in ignldng a road. The sitparation of tlis 
parts of tlie lava look place llirougli the jointa of the basalti; 
leaving lialf of a well defined hexagonal prism exposed to vi 
Ntimbert of Ibo uolumoa stood aide by ude, with saliunt audi 
rn-cnteriflg anglm. As we travelliid onward, tlie entire lava 
ciinf^t, to wlitdi these pri^un I1k^laBpHi, wan soon under <: 

Month liosst. 



I often taiVitig sliort of n foot ; but rlie w.ivi? 
I RicceMiro Htid jturallel, like tiiosu of tlic i 
f also n>galar columus of banalt hi another part of Etna. We 
win^ of tlioin in thu Miist-'um in CaUinin, and Dr. 
Uommelaro inforros us that Ibi-y are 30 to 40 fti-t long. 

SucU faols prove decidedly lie igueous origin of IhsiiII bticI 
of other trap rocks, once a qmslion, but now no longer mooted. 
We havu BWD hei^ innuniurabk instuocea in which the com- 
pact lava cannot be dratinguislied from truj), and it passes from 
the uondilion of slag and scoriic, and vesicular I.ivil, by inscn- 
I nblu gradaliona, into Uiat of compact lava, trap, and basalt 

MoxTK Rossi. — I hare already staled that the eruption of 

I IMfl proceeded from the vicinity of Sicoloai. Wo asmndml 

tho volcanic cones which arose on that occwiion, called Biconi, 

froRI their double form, and also Monte Itosisi, from llie r^d 

color of the decomposed lavn. There was no mountain in tlin 

pineal iH^ore the eruption, tliat puurcil out a current of lava 

[ lliroc milMi wide, wbiuh did not slop until it reiicbed the sea, at 

I tiio distance of 15 mili«, having in its course los|>ed the 

f wall of Catania, and covered a comer of that city. As we bad 

I alrt<ady seen it at its terminus in tlio Mediterranean, we now 

I enjoyed the view of it at its origin, from Monte Hossl, from 

I wluck eminence it is visible thiougli its whole course la 

I Ibflsoa. 

.Mthough the mounUiiu is hut a mile from Nieolosi, we 
L took Matteo and the mules, accompanied by several volunteer 
I attendants. We travelled first over a desert of black volcanic 
I aaod, similar to that of the Val del Bove, covering in diis re- 
1 gion a very wide area, of fertile fields, and including the site 
I of Nicoloei. 

The village wlilch formerly bore that name was buried un- 
I der that eruption, and was rebuilt on its present sile. Augite 
I'^pyroxeoc) is the principal mineral in this sand, and it is lliat 
I ivbich givrs it the black color. It was o'clock p. m. of n 
frvoiy hot day, wLim we commenced our little journey lo Monte 
IBomi. The snn blaxed upon us as onr miilw worriod a1oB| 



through U)c saiul, tb«ir fe«t unking dwp into it. This wa^ 
however, but iho Wginmog of tlieir labor, m iiwy were docmuj 
tu carry U8 up iJie yieldiiijf wUe of tlie cone, wiiieh is a 
nmiuly of the wraio loosa malerials, the ascent being very liw] 
Khort of forty-fivo degreea. When we approached tlie 
wo should iiuve Jeapaired of riding op, had wo not obaervodi 
th« spiral path in*de by the mulw on former oocasions; and 1 
Matteo, by way of prcparatiun, wont coolly and nlontly to J 
work, to tightvn our saddle-girllis. So on we went, clambarinf 
like cata up the 3t«ep roof of a hou&e, and as we 1: 
by the manee of lliu mtilos, tho patient pereevering animal 
tugged onward and upward. My tnulo was taken in tow by ■ 
rope from Miilt«o'ii animal. They did not falt«r, howovoi; 
but placed us sar<.>ly on the crest of the mountain. Tra 
)>clow no indication of a crat«r was visibl>.>. We had expected 
to find simply a round domci but to our surprise wc found one 
selves upon the narrow rim of two regular craters, 300 to 4(H 
feet deep. Thi« rim was, however, not quila ns n 
At Vtsuviua, but the declivity into the craters wna much steeper 
than tho oxtomal slope, by which wo had ascended. 'Iliem 
rratcrs, now cold, probably ncivtiT eniittetl proper Uva, but ouly 
InoMi matxriiilit, of which they tm (onubd ; among thw^ tlie 
black eaud w conspicuous; mingleil, however, with a louHelr u^ 
grc'gnted material, tho decompoiiition of which, by tliu atmu»- J 
pliers, has proilnced n large ijuantity of red oxide of iron, giving, I 
tJiiis the charnctoristio color to thu cones. In this am ibumi 
very diilinct and t>aautiful orystnla of black nugiie. 'llu- c 
TRUt nf htva of IGCO, did not flow fram th«so cones, but E 
n rent in iLo earth, at what is now titcir base. During tlin 
or four monthij (he same orificu continued to dischatpi tliM 
loose materials that now compoee tho Bicoru. Tht-y « 
Mown off far and wid^, cien W the dislMce of 10 mil** c 
each Mde of tho volcano, <]<s(royins; a vide eilunt of fi 

Monte ItiMM is lOOO foot altovc tbo Medilurran'^aa, otul 101 

Gavxrns 1 

s Lava. 


couDl«d moro than 50 domnint volcanoes, lafgo and small. 
llicir forni is very beautiful — a regular anJ radior obtuao 
etmif, usually Irancatutl at Uie top. From out elovat«d posi- 
tion, we could aeo iiiUi tiie cmters of several. 

Tlie view from tbo position wtiiuli we occupied was ex- 
trumoly splendid. The giant dome of Etna, white witli snow 
and ice, with the black towar of ila cone was before us, and on 
the other the Mediterranean, with its boundlesa blue wntera ; 
Catania is on tlie shore, whilo many villages are scattered 
between upon the slope of Etna. At our fefit wiia the wide 
blauk current of lava of 1009 — so otlen roendoned — willi it» 
IS mtl(« of length and 3 of breadiL, From the conea on 
wliich we Btowl this long tract of lava is visible, through its en- 
tire liuigtli, quite to tlio sea. In its course it destroyed 15 ril- 
1^^ before it assailed Catania, at whom walb of GO feet in 
height (erecUxl lo that elevation on purpose to guard agrunst 
BUioh an assault), it halted for a brief sjince, like an invading 
army, then it ncaled tho w^l, and (la complete the simile) car- 
tiuil the town by assault, 

Xliis lava current, in its whole length, is still bhick, brist- 
ting. aud wavelikc, as it was when fir^t congealed, and decom- 
pctutiou has not even commenced. Not only the majestic 
dome, but all the grouj« of volcanoes, which on every side 
pnsent Litemsetves, especially in the direction towards Itie prin- 
ctpnl boue, Uavo been, in their turn, era])tive, while innume- 
rable ourtenta of lava are in view, which have flowed from 
Etnn'fl wounded iidea. 

Then was beauty also blended with grandeur. The grate- 
ftil curvus <if the quiet eonea were often covered with vines tti 
their very Vertex. O, how did wu wish for tlie painter's skill 
to transfer the glorious jtanorama (o the cauvna. 

With Kime precipitancy we descended the monuUin on 
itiot, having enjoyed euuugli of mule trunsportattou down 
mountain klcep!!, when descending from the Val del Bove, 

Gavbrxs is thb LiVA. — Near the base of Monte Aosr 
we looked Into another crater, of more liiniied dimentiiotu, villi 



rocky sidua; al whose base opens a volcanic cftvern, which li 
been explored a mile into ihe eurth, but it is bo irrv^lar that ii 
onttnot be penetrated without both difBculty and dangler. Ags 
w<! looked at the beginning of the current of 1660, whore itfl 
bruki! from the ground, and with the cloeing day r«tumcd tal 
Nicolosi. much gratified and instruct**! by our brief oxc 

Eruptions op Etna in the pflESBNT Cbntubt. — Dr.Q(uii<l 
inellaro, in an evening paesod at our lava-hoDBC, gavu u> uucbA 
itilereKting Infonnaliou reepeuting Mount Etna. He oonfinirrfl 
cd the Btatetnent published by bis brother, that, in tbo preecnt 
century Ibera hnve been eruptions in tlio following yetira : 
1302, 1804, leOtl, ISU, 181S, 1831, 1832, 1838, 1839,.| 
1812, and 1843,* averaging nearly one ifrupttou in (burytanil 
and a half. During Ufteu eruplioua eU-ctrical pbenomu 
wry vivid. In ihftt of 1636 there were, for three dnya tadM 
iiljrhts, cnnnon-like reports uiid tjecttoDs of ignited fituuci, onot'fl 
in three minutes, and tbat thi'y nmused theui»olvcs by holding! 
the watch in the hand, nuU once in three mium«i giving lii« f 
worl " Firo ! " when llio uxplo^ion regularly followed. 

Thk Bkaltt oe Etka is not lewi nunarkKble than its 
gmiiJuur. From HUch a podtiou as we occupied last tnruniog, 
tiie eye range* over an immense area, which is in hi^ 
culUvallon, with numerous vilhtgea, beau^tied by vineyxrds 
nnd by various plania and trcea thai belong to the climnte^ , 
'Hie Bubordinain voloinoo^ which are ovcry where in v 
reared witli gntuuful Irregularity ; sometimes ihuy ara in clu^ J 
tors of liiigor and snuUler couci and crateta, from a (i:w yania-j 
in height and diaiDeter to several hundn>dfe«t; the highuntl 
iire COO to 700 feet in eleva^on, and the groups cover an a 
from a few acres to several hiuidrcd. Meet of them are-l 
breached on noe «i4o, 

Whuthvr prreuTved in tbo modd form of perfect bcAUty, »m 
rone Hung usuaUy at lui angli of 4fi' to 60', which Is thoil 
usual figure, or deprewed (o a mor« gentle elevation, or brokeifl 

■ Tu wbluh w« miut ftJd Horn UiM of liinx. 

Ak Exoursiun I 



I down on (■no side, Un-y wore, nlmoat wiliiout cxwption, covered 

' with vunlan>, ami moat freijueully with vineyards rising lo llie 

irciy iiinnftcle. Monte Kosai b almont a solitary oxceptioD to 

this rule, being quit* barren of vcgutalion. llns floods of ruth 

haft h\aek luva, which still remain in dtaolatv currents all uvei 

I Etna, wTve, by conljaEt, to exalt the beanty of the eceno, while 

I the rasgnifiocDt coli^esue, ou Uis fiuhliino throne of cver-during 

&r% looks down in mtijesty upon Uie whole, and gloriously 

I proclaims the power of the infinite Creator. 

Tarn Cosit Ot Ers*. — The ascent of the cone of Etna is 
I ft very different undcrtalring from that of Vesuvius. One long 
I {lay, as we have soon in this nnrrative, suffices to proceed from 
1 Naples to the summit of Vesuvius, and back again lo the city. 
* Naitlisr is the fatigue very great, anil it is often accoinplitJied 
I by ladies. But the ascent of Etna is n eovero labor ; out and 
I bxck to Kioolosi, the only resting-place, is a journey of tliirly 
uiil«, over mggud lava fields, and snow, and sliding scorisc, 
and it must generally be preceded by a night of severe travel- 
ling on mules. For myself, I iLought it best to Itave this en- 
terprise lo my younger friends — Mr- Silliman, junior, and 
I Mr. Brush. Our courier, a rctfrran like myself, chose also to 
decline the attempt, and wc two remained quietly at Nicolosi, 
content to receive the narrative of our fellow-travellers after 
their return. The following sta(«ment was drawn up at my 
request, and I am happy to adopt it instead of what I might 
Kiyself have *eeu and written. It is now taken from the pages 
of tha American Jonrnol of Science and Art*,* in which a 
r«<ised copy was printed after our return. 
Ax ExctmsioK ok Etna. — It was nine oclork at night, 
an the 28th of May, when we were summoned by our guide 
■' Matttto " to mount our nmles and follow his lead toward the 
great oone of Mount Etna. Wa had prepared ourselves with 
KuiUble dotliing br protection against the cold wliiuh we must 
enuountor on the snow. My own drcas was tlial of our Ameri- 

* VoL Xm, RmodJ Soric^ pp. 17H 

32 Etna. 

caD winter, besides which we were proyided with warm woollen 
leggins of coarse yam, drawn above our knees over our boots 
and pantaloons. We had common gloves, and over these thick 
woollen ones. Two shirts and a comforter for the neck, with 
an Italian capote for the head, completed our equipment 
The ascent of the cone is , seldom attempted so early in the 

The sun had set in cloudless splendor, and as it rose on the 
morning of the same day the summit of Etna was gilded with 
his earliest rays. Not a breath of wind was abroad. All the 
favoring circumstances gave us every reason to hope that our 
labor would not be in vain, and very naturally put us in good 
spirits for the wearying ride which was before us. 

Besides ** Matteo " we had also ^ Antonio," another expe- 
rienced guide. Our party was therefore four men altogether ; 
Mr. Brush and myself riding between the two guides. The 
night, as I have said, was serene ; the stars shone in great 
brilliancy, and although there was no moon, we were soon 
able to see our way with sufficient clearness to inspire confi- 
dence. Our former experience with the mules had taught us 
that it was worse than useless to attempt to guide them, and 
that all we had to do was to sit still and let them follow the 
leader, which they did with unerring step, seeming as if by 
instinct, or by eyes in their feet, to avoid every loose stone, and 
to choose the securest foothold. 

Our path lay for nearly or quite two hours over an un- 
broken waste of ancient lava, unwooded, and with not a plant 
or vine to mark our course. This field we had not before 
traversed, as our former excursions had taken us by other paths 
and away from this route leading towards the summit This 
tract bounds the fertile zone of vines and figs, although from 
the barren nature of the ancient lava at this part of the fertile 
district there is rather the appearance of a vast desert Emerg- 
ing from our stony path at the upper edge of the old lava, we 
suddenly entered the wooded zone, the commencement of 
which is as definite as the entrance to a cultivated park from a 

As ExcLi 

i Etna. 

duty road. 'IliLi zone is ono of tlie poouliar Biul most beau- 
tiful funturi» of Etna, an<l deinaiulii t!8[>e<uiU notico by (lay. 
As «u noiuiij a\oDg our zigxag path in tlie dutk, aluwly auiJ 
cautiouitly, sll we could discern v/m the sliadowy lV>rm of Lugo 
trc«e md«)y planted, while tJie Toic« of a uigUl songstor told 
us of life and cDJoyment in tlie viwt solitude. Wn couM fn-l 
abo tlttit the feet of our inulos whk treading auft sand, and 
tiio deeply worn path sometimes brought our feet in conta<;t 
witli the green award. Wu had kept up a brisk conrL'rsatioii 
all the way, mid Uiu time passed (^bt-urfully nud rapidly nwny. 
About twelve a'ulock w« ciune ujion a litUu hnt, wL^ro oui 
gui«Ii»dismaunt<!d, and motioning to us to do the samu.wi: found 
it was tJiL-ir purpoxu to fued tlia nnimalB, which example we also 

' l(>llowed by n rtwirt to our proviiiion bnskeL Near our halting 
alatiun was iin immunse true, under which we found on agree- 
able rcBting-pliice — it mcMurt-d nlmut twelve fcct in clrcum- 
fcrenee. It wn* obvious, from the glimpses we bad ohtiuned 
of the eonntry below, that we had risen to a great altitude, 
while thii decreasing number of trees indicated our approach 
lo the terraiuBtion of the wooded zone. Before us tlie killR 
rose mnre rapidly, and we eonid aUo dimly disoem nn oe«»- 

I Monal cinder cone. The air was sensibly cooler, and to our 

I dbwppointment the wind had already risen to an uncomfort- 
able brceui, which made It necceury to button np our coals 
and tie on our comforters. The mules being fed, we were 
again on our way, and in about twenty minutes saw the last 
of the treeft. An owl in a neighboriitg wood bellow us on ihi? 
ride of an ancient cono bade us farewell in n melancholy hoot, 
and we entered immediately on the desert a>ae. Our path nt 

I ouce beutme very rough and preeipitous, now reijuiring m to 
groKp tbo mnue of llie mule, and the ueit lo throw all oiu- 
weight bock tu avoid aliding over his neck. But the patient, 

I oaatjoiis crenturue toiled on, pnusmg oci^ugionully for an instant, 
I if lo rvjuBure thumMlv^ nud tlien onrefully O'lvnncing. 

I Our guide loo exeiled uur coustatit wonder. It was impne^hlo 

I tb W9« a path — bumeuiw gu)& of ruggod lava aurroundod at', 

wo found (niwjlvm ««iiding on Ibu lirink of pn-urpluc*, owor I 
which the course wetnml to lund m, bul ii aiulden turn carried [ 
UH Aviay just us till) sense of duug«r was becoming nncomfoit- 
nblc Theru were to us iiu visible landmarlu, On evury nde I 
in tbo dim disUnce of nigbt wo mw only «n unending r 
neas of Ura cuircnls, ridgce, gults, billowe, nnd winding*. Left I 
to otiriiclves, vre sliouM certainly have givon up in dcspdr and [ 
itkIIm] tbd dawn ; yt^t the guide was never for an inslant at * 
loBs; Dui a word was spoken ; our brisk convorsatiou had di^ ! 
away in rilenoo, and each seemed sufficiently occupied with I 
the Eolunm scene. It was awfully miblime ; and a thought of | 
poreonal safety would perhaps occasionally present itselt Above | 
ua the snowy hoitd of Etna Hoatod like n cloud againit the J 
dark blue sky, and the cooBlellationa moved wili our lucent, 1 
rising or falling as if with a more rapid revolution of tlie eartlu 
The Urent Bear vtaa iinoiedialcly before us, and cveiy inatotit I 
as we rose, it sank, until wc soon bid from view the lower atara I 
behind the cone of die volcano. It now grew very cold, and I 
we could diaiinctly trace, at no great distance from us, tba I 
snow in the deep gulluya <y( the moimlain, like while Blreumets 
from the great mass above. A few minutva brought ui upon , 
the lower patches, anil froiD that inataut the naked bbick iwks I 
bi-'gnD rapidly lo dieap[K:rir, buing replaced by the glistening 
■now. Our guide had several timeo shouUKl in a peculiar I 
toTiQ lowanls tho west, as if lo arouse the echoes of the laoun- 
tiun. To our surprise his call was answered, and we wor« in i 
somo amnxemcnt to gueea who should bo in that lonely spot at' I 
sucli an hour to return bis salutation. The enigma wa« soon' I 
eijitaintd by iho appearance of another guide lo take charge f 
of tbt! mules. Wo had now reached the limita uf uur riding— i 
wi) liail been fivi> hours in the Middle, and bad n!nidi<.'d tlie lowur 1 
margin of tho snow. We dismountt-J. n.-frolied outth'Iv** with I 
winiB Imrd rgg« and wine, took our mouulain niaflii, and fob- 1 
lownl the giiidea, who flniek out immedj^ly ujnm tho m 
~" jfind now blew fiercely from the N.W., an umlaooa ^mS 
in tlia eaat, a heavy haaa hung iwj tliu i>laiiJ. n 

An Excukbiok < 

r Etna. 

arou*ei3 uur fi.'ara iLat wu had no briglit siiiirisu uwaitjiig us. 
sun largo portions of tha aky wure char, and we LaJ good 
<:ounige toga on. 1 poiai«d Malteo to Lh« cloud, wlicu 1 found 
lie had myfuan; for he ebook hia hoad, and said despond- 
higly, looking lo the cone, " molto vento." Thu aacenl on thu 
ituow fur Uie tirst milo or two was at an easy angle. The snow 
WHH (^yslallieed liko ico freslily broken (iVeps of (he Swiss 
;{laci('tK), and mh enough to give us a firm footltold. 

It was about a quaiter past two when wq made our first halt 
at till) pillar of stone erected at tlio base of ttio minor peak of 
Etna, which is called " Monlagnuola." Wliilo stopping boro 
over our banket of provisions, we had a singular proof of tbo 
deceptive nature of distance, when objects are viewed from a 
great height, and especially at night. Wo saw two ligUta, one 
of whidi wo supposed to ho the man with tho mul«a (who, by 
ihe way, bad no light), and tbu other we did not so dearly 
Minkc out On inquiry of Matico, he told ua that tho first was 
u lighthouse on the const at Cutouia — twenty-five tiiilus off — 
till! otilur, tho signal at 6ronl«, an eijuni distance on tho oppo- 
Kitd Mil of tile mountain. Never was I so deceived by a phy- 
wioal phenomenon ; I irould havo answered with the greatest 
I'xiufidiin™ tlint both lights were within hailing dialjinc^. We 
nirw tum<Hl our course more northerly ; the angle of ascent 
ineronsod, and our cJiertioiia were arduouii. We saw, as wo 
tliought, tilt) ridge of the mountain just before us, however, and 
ovur it tUi! lutkiKl cone of Etna rising like an immense dome 
t'roni lliu snowy waa(«. We pushed on lo gain the ridge, and 
OS it fodL-d away, anollier still more distant presented itseIC 
We look<.-d hack on the path wo had come, and forward, in 
hopus that tliu comparison would encournge us hy showing 
that we Itad pasMtd over the luugcr distaDcu. Ku such oom- 
fmbiblo assurance however was oum. Wo often threw ouiselves 
flat on our backs on the snow to regain freedom of rwpinttion, 
und then pushud on anew. The wind whs now fiercely keen, 
nnd so p-iwerful, that had it been in our faces, t am persuaded 
wc could not have made the asccDL Fortuoa(«ly it was on 


Era A. 

omi wdc, hul it brought up fi-i^htful bnnkfl of uloniia, wliile Ui« 
winj-douj in ihu cnst IukI grovm into iniwiv« banks of a dull 
grmy, nliiuk hong ilirofUy oror, wbcro Ihe firel light of iha 
tnoniing luiJiuatecl llie puMtiou of ttia rising sua. 

Our prosptctn were bad, and to our dlsinny tLo spes of lli« 
Kinc wns now invisible, wfiilu hc«»y miujes of white »apor were 
constantly precipitated on it from tho frosh gusts uf warm air 
wliicli lliH wind brought in contact with tlia cold mountain 
wU-, Wugaincd tlio " Caan Ingiran," Enjjiiuli hoiuv, joit bvforo 
four o'ldtick, nnd were glnd to linil n shelter frotn iho tiwrco wind 
under ila gnbln — the only portiun whicli was not tlien buried in 
llie snow, Thero was the com; immwlintely before us, anil at 
mir feat Should wu go up ! I'rido snid " y« ;" Discretion auJ 
tho Gnido said " no." If tbo wind at llie hate would htirdiy nt- 
low IIS to Bland, what would it be vii thu nnprotL'ct«d snininit, 
1300 fwt higher t WecontiuJwi to wait, for if we loft .mr pro- 
wnl portion and gained the tlonds we should not sm tho sun 
rise ut all, and would lose every thing. Tho wh<>l« horixon o»c» 
CnUuia and Calabria was so himg with uiint that we rould not 
see thorn diatinc^y. V/e bad no alt4.-rualivp but to wait where 
WHwerc, iu Ihe hope that tin.* rising sun wnald disjxiUhcdou'ls 
(Uid abate llie wind, so that no could a«(«iul. At <'■ 25" tho 
Miu appeareil. It was a glmious night. The dull i^uuds over 
tho horizon were of a lovely purple and gi^ld, wliil« a fiunt, nisy 
liirlit tinged tiie wa^ee of snoW about uh wllh an iflu^ivc warmtli. 
Hut llio *pl<^D>]or was transient : the out ious r.louds shrondMl his 
loo brilliant glories, while the murtA ov<-r Istnii soemed evury in- 
Maiit to thirkcn. Wo tried the tirmpemture a{ the iiir and snow, 
nnd found it to be — 7= C— 20" F, At <Juljmi!i,uul'buradar, 
it had b«cn 04". We had, in totH, by im lucvnt of MOO feet, 
inndu ■ iliffi:ninco of nvnr TO** of lemperuLure iu M fen hours. 

There wa« Ut^rdoro no altenialive — wo must abandon lb« 
iilen Dfwiwudiug the cone — tlw attempt would be iiKeloM, anil 
a luem wattle of time aud st/cn^. Our ji"'^'^ whowi ci[iniicnca 
wan greal, ilec-idedly oppused it, and aa we turned 

Ah Excoreiok on Etna. 


. Iwluw, HHil were ilearoiis of seeing what pr"poHion it bow 
I tothcgsneralsiiriaceofEtnii. TiiU we had liopej tu do from tho 
app«r conn — tlia next t>est thing wiis to see it from Uie verge of 
th« boDDding precipice Our psth lay before the wind, which 
wu BO violent tliat it c»rri<^ Ui forward on a fu!l run, while the 
toOM snow kicked op by our feet was driven before us ijuite like 
a mow Btorm. It was near a mile to the edge of tbe precipice. 
We had been advised by Dr. Genimelaro to kcpp our eyes shut 
llid!l llie guide placed us in a position to see the gulf^ and then 
tn look In suddenly, as the best way to obljun a vivid im[irc«sion. 
Tlita we did. On raising our eyen, a scene of a«-ful grandeui 
was before us. The etory it told was ns plain in the history of 
pMt (ilmngea in tbe mountain as in a writluo record of human 
nction. From tliis point llie Val del Bove was soinewliat quad- 
rangular in form, and even more grand in its ruins than when 
teen on its billowy plain below. Here was a yawning chasm 
10 deep and no vridc that all Vesuvius might be set down in it, 
and have room to spare on either side, while ita !>umniil cone 
wontd hardly reach up to our feet I Vast, indeed, was the en- 
gnlfinent which bad swallowed up so wide an area, and yet bow 
Binall was that area compared with the wliolc surface on the 
flanks of tbis grand dome. In this view, the remark of Spal- 
lanxani seems just, that, compared to Etna, Vesuvius was a ca- 
binet volcano. 

The poidtion of the stm, as it shone in our eyes, was not fa- 
Torablo for a good view of iho valley ; yet, evn utidor these 
diMdntntftgvs, its Iwld crags, sliarp. wall-like dikes projecting 
from the sidea, with a frigid, yet tumultuous ocean of lava ciir- 
ronta below ns, wore romnrknbly grand and imprcwive, " Ca- 
pn" and "Musara" stand like sole remaining sentinels of the 
conflict in the midst of the scene. In ibu distance lay tlio Me- 
dilemtncan, with black rivers of lavs leading the eye to it. All 
thao and many other minor elementa of graudeur, combine to 
Tcnd«r this one of the most imptnesive and powerfiilly instnictivu 
«nea which it is possible to heboid. 

FVom the Val del Bove wo tumetl our steps down tlw monn- 



tain in tW ^iin'rHl ijinii'rinti in whii'h wo had f»«<]ii)e<L Aiid 
now, in tins liriglit light »if day, Uio weary wastes of unbroken 
RUow soomod more oiti>n»ive tlian on our ascent. We bad Ueeu 
nenrly or quite six tnilea over the snow, but it was in the niglit 
wlien WD could not ap[ireoial« its extent. Now, on evury otdri, 
we saw only an Arctic winter, while immediately b«low tts were 
fields fertile witli vines, figs, olives, lemons, and grain ail yellow 
to tliQ harvest. It was about half past aix when we at U 
muctied our mules and took our breakfaEt. The deeoent irv 
fouud more arduous thau the ascent, not only because wo wero 
raligu«l, but also on aeuount of the great stralu ou the kncce in 
huldiug buck ngninst thu tilJmip. As w« iles(H-iid>.-d, the ccn- 
tritsL of tempernturu was very remarkabk<. Our wiirni i-lotliing 
became oppressive, *ind one by one wo cast off all our suporflu- 
ous gitrmetits. 

On entering the wooded region we were enchantml with ita 
beauty, allliougb, aa Dr. Oemmelaro assured us, it iias been 
greatly injured of late years by the outling away of most of Oiu , 
fiiitat Ireeo, and tliti topping of the olhera, Tlie wood is 
moHtly oak and chestnut, with a fiiw pines and firs. The lr«« . 
nro very largii, not high, and at sucli distances Irom eacli oUii-i 
Uiat they seem lo have bi-cn planted by art m in a park. Bui 
the most brautiful features of this region are Ihn ancient cones, < 
wIiosh hlojiea are grassed and also wooded. They rvlnin their { 
fonn perfectly inaiUe and out ; the trees upon them are not 
thick enuugli to Uiilo tlicir oulltiie, wlitle they give iife and 
Ixiaitty in a suqirising manner. Tlii»e trees were coinptctely 
vocul with birds as wo rude tlimugU, but vre rucogutxnd uo 
inilinr face's among tlic ftongslcrs. We worn too soon liimugh 
this beautiful looc nf tlia trees, eapectally as surcooding ihcm { 
was a vory long aud tedioni ride nlong tlie desoont of the old I 
lavas before naraod, heforu wu could moch tha village nf Nico- I 

It was uiceseivt'ly bi>t, mulct and men wcro all tlinrouglily I 
fnggfvj, and I noticed to wo rodo along that our guidn alppt J 
(foiiu continuously on his mule (t was 9| *. x. brforo wo f 

An lilxctTRSiDM as Etna. 

ninclicd tliR holul, i]UitL> to the mirpriBC of nil, wbo were not 
liKiking for us nnlil noon. Tbey were all amazed to hear of 
thu Urup«at--ffiii'l wo had ezperietic«d on tho mountain, as it 
Iiad been parfecUy calm beloiv, and tbey liad tliongbt we were 
entirely successful iu oar ascent. Yet unsuccessful as we cer- 
taialy were in not reaching the summit, we had enough to n- 
pfty iu for the toil and exposure. The spirit of adventure atone 
is sufficient to salitify most people who hnve confined their 
mountain rambles to the day. The snow also, iu its extent and 
Bianveness, enttruly exceeded aoy expectations we hail formed 
of it; and, above all, the Val del Bore, had wc set^n nothing 
elao, would have rewarded us for tho labor we hud undergone. 
It » not merely for a sight of tlic rising sun that it is wortli 
wbik to ascend in tbu nighu The distance is aueh that the 
limv coOHUtiied is neouaiarily from twelve to fifteen hours, and 
to do this under a bright smi is a great exposure. The effect 
of a Ibll son also on the snow, as reflected in the eyes, is, with 
the brilliant splendor of an Italian atmosphere, too much for 
the unprotected vision. In summer — Uiat is, iu July or August, 
tho English house is free from snow, and then adventurers may 
carry up their inaltreases and deep Ilierc. This reduces tlio la- 
bor vtrj nmcli, Bihc«. when the snow is off, mules may go i)uit« 
lo tliu Casa Inglese, or nesrly six miles farther thnu wy were 
iMv 10 ride. Dr. Gemmularo has a plan for recoiislriietiiig 
Ao English house in the form of a pyrnmid, and in micIi a man- 
iwrthat acc»8 maybe had to it in even thu winter by nu open- 
ing nwiT tlie aumniil,* The distance from Nicolosi lo llie sum- 
mit of tllo eonc is estimated by the guides at twi>nly-f»ur uilut, 
but Dr. fiemmelaro states it at probably fifteen. 

Tlw return of our adventurers made inu fiwl more than ever 
I mtitfiod that I lia<l not mailc llie attempt. On their arrival 
I th«y were so compleU>ly fatigued that tlicy were glad to tlirow 
udvee at once upon the bed, and seek refreshment m some 
% of repose. 

. <f Anguai, issa. 

« this, ilie Eugluh liousu bu been destni;!''! I 



TlirM (luyn Aiul iiigbU hnd been piuGcil wiili greal wdsTitL- 
(ioii ii|Hjii Etna, And ne were now rt'fuly for our departure. 
Its geology i» simple and inlelligible, and it would not Iihv« 
ndiied inalcrially lo our inslniction to liava viwtcd more of its 
lava flelda, or to have examined more cones. Wo Iiud aetai 
examples of overj' thing except the interior of the great coue, 
nhich is not now active, and presL-nts, ua we are awurcd, 
when quiet, no rcmarkalilB phenomena. 

It is n sinking pevuliarity of Ktnn, that ulthougb neiirlf 
11,000 fitct high, tbu movement almost invariaUly Liegins at 
the upper cone, and the ertiption of lara oorjisionally tnlccs 
place there. I cite Uie tem.inion}' of Dr. Joseph Itumraelaro, 
who, fVom having pofeed all hia life on the mountain, having 
been for half a century a close observer of its phenomena, and 
being highly inlolligeut and well informed in scianoo, is 
ticw wortliy of all confidence, as is also his brother in Catania. 
From these sources I derive the following facta and v 

The eruption is always attended, and esiiecially preceded 
by rarlhquakr*, whicli decline as the eruption goes on, and 
cense when it is <inislic<l. The earthqimkes have ht^a i 
dealruc[ive to Catania* uud Messina, and other towns and vil- 
lages; many owur vithuul waruing. That nhiclt was felt i 
verely at Messina, in March, 1861, two montliH beforu c 
iriMt, was but little jiereeived on the mountain. The cone, i 
judging from the map, appenra to ba in a right lin^ 6 
milea from Messina, bat the ilistanco in tho cinntit by CstaoU j 
cannot be lias than TO. 

During the eruptiuiu tlie etiflrind phenomena i 
ewtupleuouii, antl llnshesi of lightning play abuut the crater. 
Oil une dccusiun, an eleolrieul culumn appeared lo i>nvelupu i 
some etraugen, whu were on the muuntain, and kuta ibeir | 
oalfed fingers musical t^uua were buoid; one of thcro wor« a \ 
silk glove on his hand, and from the tiugiTs tliat i 
ininihifvd, no aounds were heard ; it is nhriuiia, (hereture, that 1 

■ la iniia L'auuLi its* J<<i>lro]r*d by an mth^uiJiv, aud IF^OW I 

Kktl'hh to Catania. 


frpmi Ibc iiiike»l fin^n «lw,lricnl ourmtta woro (lowing, which 
producci) till: intisiual Miiinds, mid in tfao <]nrk tlniso fiugcrs 
would (loublii;» Iiitvu nppenred lutniDous. 

Tliu two lirotbtK Cieritmelnro, nre of the opinion Unit lliii 
l»tcn>l i-rupt.iuns «f Etna prociicd from flsaurea iti iLc itiouii- 
tain, radiating from the central axis which they bclievo lo 
lis tlio great fociia of heat, and that tfao lava, injected hy prcs- 

1 into nuil through tliese latcrnl Gasurea, eventually finds 
vcnl by breaking tlirough tlie uniit of the volcnno. Tliis 
vinw will Account for the largo supply of flowing lava whicli 
frtHfucnlly isiiM from tJicse iBtoral vvmts ; any one of them 
may draw witlioul limit upon tlio great central fountain of Ore. 
Dr. Uemmelaro furnished us with ft number of puhlioations 
by hiiniieif and his brother, on subjects of scicncu, and vxpc- 
ci»Ily on tlio phenomcuii of Ktna. 

Fakkwell to Etsa. MaiiiO, 1881. — At noon we (ooL 
leavK of our land friend, a man of strong head, warm heart nnd 
GordiAl inanncni. A curringo, by appointment, had <-orne br us 
from Catania, and witJi mixol feelings of gratitifMition nnd regret 
e took our seats. It was very pnay to roll down tho smootli 
and hard <Icelivity of the mounlAin road, and two hours wero 
mora than sufticient to place us again iii Catnniu, when; we 

> rofreshed at ths Crown Uotel, and ablutions nnd a com- 
fortublo dinner were poculiariy acceptable, ifter our rough 
muuntjiin travdliug and hard fare.* After a fow hours of 
grAtufiii repose, we enjoyed at evuning a very pleasant ride with 
an accomplinhed youug g^utlemau, M. Bosaani a Catouiau, tn 
whom we carried a lell«r of introduvlion from M. Seavo, our 
viM-tXiiuul for Cataitia, whou) wo had met in Mi^sino. Both 
Ar« native Sicilians. M. Uasaaui having {Misled si.'veral years 
among tho English in Malta spoake the huiguugu prfeutly, 
and with a Loudon acwent. fn an o|ien bnrouidie he took an 

* Due uf tlie gnatest privativui on the DiountBiii la <ba wuuL of 
good wnter; nia wDtrr kIodc ii iu«d,it i* kii|itmciat«rBa'<riBvaniiil 
inda with Uvi'ly AclmBlealos which ilo aot uoeJ n aii«rM««p« t« 
• Ibmn *i>ry cuns|>icui>ii* stiil revuIUnK, 


MlNBRl La 

through ihia bcaulifal city, whii;h hns Rnu buildings, public nndJ 
privttlu, will) nidu strecls, wtill paved tind vciitiluti.'d. A larg 
pfirt of tliu population seen in ihu etreets is compoeed iiT soldi^i^ J 
priuats, anil monks. Tluro is no politicftt liberty hen:, andl 
parsiinal liberty is very itiseourc. The city wiis sucked at. tliel 
conclusion of the revolnlion of 1848, when tunny houses nutvl 
burned by tlie king's troops. Marks of wnr, as in Mi^sinu, aral 
still numeniua. 

Catania has the appearance of a popubition of from fifty tol 
sixty tliousoiid. The environs are beautiful, the Gelds on: t 
high cullivation, and a tot^ species of cactus is one of their cl 
ornaments. It grons every where on Etna, as wd! as nroiinc 
Cntania and on the roail to Messina. Soil being placed upon tl 
stone fences, tlie cactus groni) on the walls, and forms ni 
pasMtblo bonier. M. Bassani took us to a field of lava, ■» 
Llie Toots of tliB cactus Lad penctnited into and broIcGn np tl 
Uvo, and he remarked that this was one object in pennittinf 
tin: plant to grow. On Etna it occupies large fields, i£Qd « 
could not before undcntand why it was tolerated ; tbe fruit a 
luueli catea by the common people. 

iLLtTHiNAnoN. — In tlie evening there was an illuminaljoi 
in the main street of Catania in honor of the king's birth-day J 
We wore assured thai it was duo to the Ecal of officiaJn and g 
up by special orders from Naples. There was ini 
slruels, and noise of disorderly processions through the night3 
but there was no euthuniasni amongut the people, who appe 
to take Utile interest in the pageant. Only three years ago thM 
were deliveml over to the rapine and lusl of a brutal soldier 
hy the (also monarch who had broken Iiis oatlis and deceived 
Ills Hubjeelo. By thum he U detested, nor have they ibrgotb 
the cuuflngratiotis and luassaero of 1848, to which (hey, 
Well OS Merino, were devoted. 

Ui.VKiULs. — The UvBs of Etna, ueady cut and piJished, » 
for sale in tiie »h"(B at Catania. The pittm rfiir 
iDDsalo picturua, uf the " uune of evurlasUng firo," bnnod o 



of its own iavoB, and set in a framework of antiquo Sicilian 

marbles, are tnniiliur anil agreeable souvonirs to every trBveller. 

Wc secured also good selections of the Sicilian minerals, crj-a- 

tnlliiad aul{>hur, gypsum, celeatiiie, and iho analoime* of the 

J Cjrclopean ialamla. Amber is washed up by the sea upon the 

rfiorca ni!ArCatnuiaandMeadna,and the manuiactUJ'e of elegant 

I oraamenta from it is quite an important branch of induetiy in 

this part of Sicily. It occurs of varioos colors; although in 

the rough stale it rvsembles rounded pebbles. It is very costly ; 

one rough mass, of the size of a pigeon's egg, was offered to 

tn at fifteen dollars. It had a lovely blue green color hj 

nflectioD, and was red by transmitted light with the pluy of 

I colors seen in the opaL In general we have purchased at very 

renaonable prices, and Ciinnot confirm, by our own expeiieuce, 

I the charge of sharp pructicfs almost univereally brought agaiiisl 

I the Italinn dealers. Tbe commerce of Catania is mainly in 

crude sulphur from the large mines in the neigliborhoo'] of 

I GirgontL Sr. Scavo, our vice-consul, is largely iiilensti^d in 

I thiatrodt). 

Fxuns. — Sr. Dnssani sent us a basket of fine fruit to our 
I, hotel, among which was tlie large Sicilian sweet orange, touch 
I by the natives and never eiporled. Wo found its 
I hltcnso sweetness, unlempered by iho slightest acidity, quite 
L insipirl, and much preferred the commoik acid orange and the 
[ (ingrant refreshing lemons. The figs and pouiegraiiutea were 
il yet in season. 

IciB. — We noticed at numerous points in Uio desert region, 
lar tlie mule track, largo beds of snow uovereil by volcaiiii- 
I aand. These stores are provided in the winter by the guides 
I of tho mountain, and especially by Matteo, who, in summer, 
f drirea a very profitable trade by iransporttng the snow on the 
I backs of his mules to Catania, for the use of tho confuctiouuis. 
I Thfl lowest akirts of the descending mantle of snow are sclucled 
Lin oonrenient situations, in hollows where a heavy mu» has ac- 
tttiailllftUtl. The black vulcaniQ nand fWnii tlie neighborhood 
fttif NiculoM ia carried upon mulw and nicviy fipreiul over tbo 

44 Ctclofran 1sulnd§. 

upper ftiirface of tlic bhow, sdJ down upon Uic slope of Uii^ sidua, J 
in a tnnch, cut Tor tlio purpose of protecting tlie lower surface J 
from ihe effw'a of Uio sn&'s rnys. This simple coQlrivagcs 1 
secums su nbnnilAnt supply of gntiiulai' ice, whidt, aa tli^ I 
SiciliAns tliink, luakes far b«ttor f>uit-ic«s than out mora solid I 
blocks ; wc were, Itowevur, diqwetxi to attributu tliu superiority | 
uf tbu Sicilian wster-ioM rAtliorto ttieexcelleucuBtidsbmiilancv I 
of l]i« fruilf rumishing tlio juices, ttiiui to the quality of the I 
iiw itseli They are ccrtaiuly better «nd clicapcr in Sicily I 
than in any other country, 

DsPAaTUKE FROM Catama. — Wc !e(l Catania at lialf^past | 
sevuD A. M,, May 31, in a vutturine witli tlirta hocBi« ; we could I 
Dot command ibc diligence, and yiom tlierufuro ubligod t 
divide the journey between two ilaj's. Wu wer«i thu nioro I 
r«concik<d to lliis slower modo of iniVQlling, m wo wishvd to | 
S4<i lume int«KAting objocte on the rtwl. Vat nearly 50 mil<« I 
we rode uvi^r lava of iwveral disliuct aud rutnulu e|)ochs; tlia | 
vast clBuiEts from Etna have iiuuitk-d Uie countr)- all arouivl I 
witli igneous d<.'{io(iitB, which afford the slruuj^st ovidenoo trnth i 
of thu long oouliuunuue and gn-at energy of the internal hiiot, I 
Soou aftur luavhjg CaUuiia, we passed, fur aeveral iai\t*, over a I 
current which we nt first . supposed to be a branch of that c^ J 
IflHO ; but were infornmd tbut it was probably ddor, tiiougii T 
still modem compare! witli otlior floods. 

CvcLoi'KAK IsLANus. — Ncor TnisxA, eight oT UtH mllca fpom J 
Catania, we stoppod for an Iiour to view thn cclobrolvd basaltic I 
inland* callod tbo Itocks of the Cyclopii. 'lli^r appearance I 
correuponded with our previous improniont. Tho i4aDdi4 are 
than half a mile fruu the diore, aurl wo hired »ume fUienncn I 
to tiilce u« nut in tliuir IhhUs. We Inul a clEutr sky anil ddlgli^ I 
ful nir ill which to make unr oluwrvntions. Thoiu tsloiidN oru I 
obTiowly in (ho line of n gwuit t-otcnmc fe^urc in thu c<hii: of I 
Kina, and lhi> rjcrtioo fonnhig Hwat wa* prabnbly submarinu. t 
Thvro arv' oix htUtiili, and wen kti. If wu iiicludu wimo 
Mnnll nwkii; Init unly ihiw uf (be Ivn are >if prtncijaJ inleivil,! 
Wu Tijwed tint lu ibo liTgvrf, whiiJi lany ho lAUO fuul tn dr>fl 

The Bids i 



I eunilvreuce, aiid Uuiled upon it. Tlic cliii'f interest tiltiic;)iad 

I to tbu islund arises from Uie invnsUin made hy tliu bnsnlt upon 

tfao limestoni), nbiub has evidviitly In«d elevntud \>y llio igiicuiis 

rock. The lava ia inj^t^d into it and among its divt^ions, but 

I w» did not observe any marked olloraliou iu tin; churaulcr of 

Ao Hmeslone at ihe liua of junction with iu fiery acigbliur. 

Veiy lai^ and clear crystuls of aimlcime are found hi-re along 

bnsin where tlie basalt appears to have been removed. My 

I companions sccared bere and in Catania a fine coUccUon of 

these minerals. Some di'^reu of romantic interest ie allached to 

A grotto or cavern in thu IJinesKme of this island, large enougli 

I to conceal and eheltcr several persons. An arched passage 

I communicateK witli (lie sua wall at whoso bjute the waves dash 

I upon a vertical precipice. It looks much like Uie haunt of fre«- 

I booling buucaneors, although tradition assignjs the cave as the 

I retreat nf a devout recluse, and tlte jiossagc ns his confessional, 

rought by pcnilfntial hands. 

This island prrstsnlcil piclnrceijue views, and iU hnsalt cleaves 

into rude, cnhimnur funnB; but they were not la be tumpared 

for regularity with ihnse of anothiTr ishind, around whiili wo rowed 

without landing. This latter island — pcrhnjis 200 fwt high, 

and 1000 in inruutuferencti — rising abru])Cly out of the wavet^ 

IS no Uuding-placD. The columns of basalt are generally very 

I regular, symmetrical prisms of six ddes. Tlieir appearance is 

very rich, and well rewarded us for the trouble we took to see 

them. They form a magnificcDt colonnade, whose columns 

am In eontact, and nonrly vortical. In another, and Hinaller 

falaud adjacent, the columns were curved, and inclined nearly, 

or (luite, into the horizontal position. 

The water of the Modilcrrnnean at this point is perfectly 

dear and cotorieas, eo that the bottom, from iho boat, soomnd 

alwaya witbia our reach, and with its rich display of variously 

I coloKd sea-weeils coraUinw. and sheila, cillcd to mind lh«»e 

ixi|nisitc lines of I'ercival — "Thv Coral (Jrovc." 

Toe ItniK to Mkseiva, along Uic whore uf ilii: Meditemmean. 
I took in to^y C^tf ^0 <""^ '^"' V*^ ^ ^'^ ^"'^ which 


Kdiss or TAORUisi. 

nigbt lutd coDMftlcd (torn our view when vtc cnnie on in tlie- 
diligence. Seeing it now by ilayligbt, wo foitnrf Uiut il woa 
by fur the moat intemting ]iart of tlio journey. Thtt crjuntry 
wfis ID A bigb atate of cult! vol ion, and Uie villngus bod ft hv-tlut 
appearancu than those we had BOt-n before. We observed wiUi 
pleasure l)iQ beaudlul town of Ac! Reule, eontAining 15,000 
people, and maay fine houses. There were groujis of jrautlumcn 
walking tlie etrc«t«, and an avenue of trees, in Kne oondition, 
formed a promenade leading down to tiie seu ; a inmt ftgrtwaUa 
contrast to tlie beggars, clamoring in most filthy Ktrtiets, whom > 
for »jmu days uur eyee had rested on. 

Ruins of TAonxiNA. — At a poor village called GBordina, 
iininvilittlely cm the nhorw, we utopped fur tliu night, altliongb 
there were three or four hours to spare bcfora RUnsct. Tbo 
hoiMe was small and of a most iiiipromiBing appenmnoe, but its 
rej^Bter sliowed tliaL many eminent people, ami several Amcri- 
miis, liuil been comfortiibly Imlf^ ihem. Aa it was hul 
for one nigbl, and nenr some ruins whiuh wu wt-revery nnxioua 
tA wo, we decided to remain, and had no occasion In regret 
our decision. Wc olimlwd up to our small apnrtuent* by steps 
ouKide of ihe Louse, where n balcony gave iis pleasaut views 
of iLe MediierraneHii, oii whose shore tlie viUiige itaiids. We 
wens Biippfied with cxeelleut fish from il* wuten. Ooordina is 
at the foot of a range of hills, whieb may well bo called moun- 
tainii ; Uiey rise in numerous almost vertical pests and ridges, 
with deep valleys and gorges brtwcen thorn, nnd thoy ara 
apparently barren. As the country now appeani, no one 
would ever think of building a city upon these hilU. But 
tlio ancient nnd populous city of Taormiha was onco there, 
and til view its ruinod theatre and water-tanks, we now dimtied 
tlie itiHip ascent If the ttamel is the ship of the demrt, tlia 
donkey nnd the mule are the land erafl of Itnly. Keveml 
iloukeys — jMior, emaciated, and minwably caparisoniid — wm» 

I ul the doLir, with each a raggivl pnli-ittinn lUicndant 

upon ilieir liaelc* we proeei<di<d on oar (i^xng way up ill* 

Iain, nnd with no small tnil nam* lit ih^ oiidiml 


RuiMs or Taoruima. 


I gau, that had evidoiitly l)e1ong<>(l to an importnnt town, 
r wbiU many sunoumling remniDs of andent grawdoiir lo!<i llie 
Mroe slof)-. Huge masses of brick masonry wnlls, lirokfn in 
I fngmenU, lay in tbe bed of a brook, and were nl lirsl mistaken 
I tor boulders, Tbey bad evidontly been burled by Uie violence 
vrnr or earthquakes from the lotly impending hill. 
Wo now found ourselvea in a compitct town, 1500 feet 
nhova tlio vtUnge below. In ibis town, aa wo learned from a 
priest, thero aro tlOOO inhabitants ; they are crowded together 
upon narrow etrccU, and their appearance ia half barbarous, 
quite miMrablo. Wo were preeaed for alms, and the 
r peoplo from ihe liouses atAred boldly upon iia, as wo rode 
tlirou^ their jJaoe, while somu of them laughed and jeered at 
1 ua. With very few oxeeplionit, I have norer seen a more for- 
I lorn aud misernUu jiopululiun, and nowhere eW have wo mut 
I with buwlenl manners. This poor town is all that remains of 
I tiia great Gn^ian, or jiuBHibly, Felaaginn town of Taurunieniiim, 
I whiob onc« contjiined 15O,OU0 inhnbitanU. But where Ibey 
I coukl havo found room for fiiich a population, it is not now 
euy to coiyecture ; for tho preaeat Iowa, Boemingly, fills the 
•pacd betweeu Uie imineJinlely eoutiguoua hills. lu ibitt 
atrangb towu, thoru is a solitary English gentleman, Mr. Nash, 
I to whom we were intruducwl by Signior Bassani. This gentle- 
m, aliracted by tiio love of seoiiery and retirement, and witJi 
I iome laato for natural history, baa lived hero for several yeui*, 
I entirely without society, otlier than hie own household. Ho 
\ oourteoualy conducted us to the water-tanks of Roman, or 
Otucian (or possibly Etruscan) conelruction, which were reser- 
voirs built fur iho supply of tlio city. The tanks wore replen- 
ished by an aqueduct, parts of wbieh are atiU standing, which 
brought the water fiAeen miles. 

I paced the tank, which wo entered, and estimated it to 

be 110 feet by 85, and 18 high. It is eoostrtictod of hewn 

I ttone, and stuccoed within and without with cement, which in 

r us poiCxi as the day it was jnit on — a vary solid and anh- 

I atantml werk, whti'b, with wim- aliglit r>-p«{t«, wnnid Iv now 


: ItuiKfl OF TttE TiieATRH. 

fit for us«, Tbe toof U supported liy strong pillart or briulc, j 
and a portion cpf it is nruLt^. Tli«w) tanks Wfre Buflicii-ul Iw ^ 
HUpply the city dnring three veArs. 

The Hi'iKa of tub Thkaire are, lioweier, tlio principal | 
olyeal of intirrest lierc. Tliuy are on one of the IjighLiit hills 
u iiiilo way from the present villn^ uf I'norminn. Altliongh 
ibi! l1i«ttlru is very complcltOy a ruin, all its ]iart9 may Iw mtulv 
onl. The exterior wall remains, but the fiieee and entnlila- J 
ture are gone, m are also the scats, hut ilieir ponition isobvions, i 
as they rested upon the nHturnl rocks. Some columns t 
standing, which must liave adorned the stage; a part of thg 
capital remuDS upon tlie lop of one of them ; tliere t 
ext4!rior cohimnti — some of granite and otliers of marble. Tha I 
room for tlie actor* (the green-room) b nearly enliro, and two I 
arcbcs of Uie presceniiini nre standing. Tliey are the Kamo J 
tilixl were inclitd«0 by the lato ciiiiiiitnt artut, Mr. Thw. Cot% 
in the foreground of the aplendid ]>ioturo of Etna, no 
Wadsworth Atlieiia^iiiti at Hiirtfonl, Connecticut, 
happy to identify tlio ii[iot nliero llio diatingitUlied artiiA took I 
llie ftkcti'li from viliicli liis picluru was painted, and tu mntf I 
by imr own obnenration the general occumey of Mr. Cole^ 1 
tjinipi. We faneied that w« conld identify tJie very stone, I 
aimriig the ruwa of aesls bewu in the solid rock, fiwm whjdi j 
hif ubtuined lii» outliiia. By a sort of pietonsl license, too often I 
tniicn by artist*, be has uiailu the cone of Etna Hie nometthat | 
too acutely at tbe apex. It neema almost impoasihlo for artiste 1 
lu ruMvt tlie templnlion to mprcMml tbe uones of Tolcnnoc* I 
HA far inoce acute than naturu boa formed tlicin. With i 
base of u^it Uai than lliirly milea, and more nearly forty, Etna 1 
raiaua ita doroo but little over two miles into tlia 
course, the angle of ibi slope is small ; and the term domt wbicb' 1 
I bnvu emplnytHi, is much mum nigulficanl snd tnitliful than 1 
eoM, wliich slionld bu uxod t-uly in relenmce to the rery apex. I 
A sketeti iif Mr. Cole's piuturv, oom-eted in uutline, funa* L 
froiitinpieee i)f till* volnmix. Waltlierhaunen's uutlluu of £ 
a from CfttBoia. i> an iidmtn>l>l« inounjilu of llie poadW 

of uniling iitiuuto Uipi)gra[>liicjil nccurncy wJtli lie fi 

■t picto- 

Wlicn we first nao^atiad tlio bai.t w»I] of tlie theatre, winy 
rloiula vuiled Etna from our view ; biit the glorious old mountain 
bmke forth befotv sumet in nil die warratb of color, beniitt, 
Bud luiijcslic ilignity, bo coti&|>icuoua in tiie picture of Cole. 

Various inl«rusting memorials of tlte past are presurrtMi iu n 
■mail miuvuni near the ilieatro. AmoDg the-ni wo noticed 
frngratnts uf stutuus and numerous arctiiteutural fragmeuta, nnd 
a beautiful saroopliDgus of nlijle marlile, adorned with many 
figures in high relief. An iutvlligent lad ahoHed Aud described 
thin inuaeum, whoKO refined maaneis were in amiable contriust 
with tlt6 rudeness we had experienced from the demi-«aviigcH 
iu the dirty town. From liim we purehiksed au excellent peiieil 
>keli.-h of the ruins, with Etnit in the distance, beautifully dune 
by bimsulf. 

It still appeals surprising that a theatre which would re- 
lire 10,000 pei}i>le tu fill it, tjioutd be erected on tliis secluded 
luid aliniMt inacce^ibk* inouutain. There nre peaka in tlie vieiuity 
mudi more lofty, aud crowned with forlti, »aid tft be of tlic age 
of the Saracens, who sacked and destroyed Tuurmiiin and ilo 
thuftttu. From the ruined walls of tlie theatre, a large tomb, 
Kvoral less perfect onea, arc visiblo in the valley below. 
Tliey appoar like those seen on llie Appian Way. Such are 
tome of the traces of ancient grandeur still remaining afler all 
the ravages of war and lime in the long cycle of ages, in which 
I'ela^on, Carthaginian, Roman, Saracen, Spanish, French, 
Englisli, and Sicilian domiuion bave succeeded each other, each 
toorked by the destruction of some previously existing monu- 
ment (if antiquity, until uotliing La left to tempt cupidity or ex- 
dte tbe ambition of further conquest. 

To U&ssiKA. — Li'aving tlicMJ iuleresting luius, we pro- 
• eeeded llui next dny on our way to Mewina, and as we drove 
> fthmg, llic ruins of Tiuirmlna formed con^icnous objects on ih 
i tiilU. AAeT leaving Ibc t'olcnnic region of Etna, wu fuuud i 
I ibfi awtians, into which ll|o rond is e^t, n very diffetvnt get 

no Messina. 

logical formation. It consisted of limestone and slates, the 
strata of which were often highly inclined or vertical ; but 
more frequently they were distorted, curved, convoluted, and 
mingled together, thus indicating great disturbance, and per- 
haps from tlie same power which raised Etna. We passed 
numerous dry water courses, whose beds are strewn with 
lai^ rounded pebbles of lava and limestone. Through these 
channels the mountain torrents, in the rainy season, send down 
powerful floods, which cross the main road, and become oc- 
casionally impassable. We saw only a few streams of water, 
and these were of very inconsiderable size. 

Messina. — Our courier found for us a much more comfort- 
able hotel (the Victoria) than that which we had occupied 
before. It was near that part of tlie town where so many good 
houses had l>een destroyed by the troops of tlie king, and 
appeared as if it had once belonged to people of superior con- 
dition. The court was clean, and contained no stables for 
donkeys arul horses — all was neat, the ai)artincnt8 largo and 
p*ntoi*l, with attentive servants. 

We were welcomed by our consular gentlemen, Messrs. 
('Ioin«'nt8 and l^hn, with much cordiality. Their residence 
was at the op))osite end of the town, near the fort which had 
been destroyed, and their apartments along the strand were in 
an upper story, removed from noise. From their windows we 
enjoyed a beautiful view of the strait, of the sliips, and the 
fort, and the opposite coast of Calabria, dreary, and tossed into 
^n&ightly piles by the desolation of earthquakes. 

We were more than ever impressed by the large number 
.of filtliy beggars, priests, and monks in the streets of Messina. 
Among the agreeable people whom we saw in Messina, I must 
not omit to mention Sr. Pietrq Campanbllo, professor of 
mineralogy, in the University of Messina. We first visited this 
aged gentleman at the Mineralogical Museum of the University, 
where we found him instructing his class in natural history. 
We afterward saw him at his house, and purchased from him 
a considera!>le collection of interesting Sicilian ipinenils, in<*li|()r 

Hetubh to Naples. 


I bug a ricL Mieotion of tlie volcunic protliiutn of Vuti^uuo und tliu 
r other Li[>ari blaiiJA, to whiuli, tiiifortiiimUily, wl* wure uijuble to 
i go, owing to police njatriotions, auJ tho BhortiJoM uf our visit. 
I Among tli« tbiiigs which *« purchast-d of him wt-ro sotno Scili»n 
I oiul miucrals put up uml lubi^lltsl by Km wifo, who IiaH 
I diedafe&r previous. Uu gnvu ihom up with evident vinoliou, 
I and by a peculiar tcndwmas of maimer, expressed witli a toucli- 
ing patbua, ha showed the depth of his broken affectioTi, Wu 
led hiin with strong iinpressioos of esteem and Hj-inpnthy, 
I deepened by the extreme liuwilily of his modest deportmeiiL 

Return to Naples, June 3, — ^The steamer Lyeurgus in 

I which we wime from Naples, returned this moniiiig at her 

I appointed time from Malta. In hor wo emharkiMl ut uVlovk, 

A. M., but did not depart until nine. Ttio boat was full of pna- 

I aengca^, Europeans and Orientals ; Qreeks, Armenians, and 

TuHu. They wore the Oriental cuetumo of parly-colored tnr- 

I bans and flowing robes. We observed among them persons of 

mikl and graceful manncnt, whose deportment was marked by 

n wiiming uourtesy. 

During our brief pnssagu over a smooth sea, and beneath a 

bright tind tranquil sky, no remarkable incident oeenrnil. 

I E^lmnitKili was still iimoking as we saw it on our oulwnrd jiiis- 

; bat we ctiuld hardly obtain a parting view o( Etna, veilid 

in it wns by a thick haze. We paaseil a quiet night and I wiii 

D deck at 3 o'clock, a. u^ to watch tho progress of the mom- 

{.that I mi^tsoe the glorious rising of thesan over the Bay of 

i, and tho summit of Tcauviu.-!. As we entered the bay 

e passed tho Isle of Capri on our Icf^ and saw again all the 

Bbjeuts named in our outward-bound passage. Vesuvius is 

^ways the most commanding feature along tho shores of tliis 

P^lendifl bay. As the volcano rose into view in the gray of 

I tho momhig twilight, its aspect was grand and veoersblo ; and 

L'Whilo ihft sun. liHing bis golden orh above the eastern Apen- 

i, poured forth a Hood of light u[>on the waves and gilded 

It of Vwuvius — a large portion of its wwtem slope still 

Bd in de«p purjiln ihadow. 


Landing^ — ^We experienced the usaal detention of the cuft- 
tom-house and police-office but "without incivility, and were 
safely landed at 8 o^clock, a. m. Having had no news from 
our friends while in Sicily, we were glad to see Antonio with 
our attentive maitre d^hdtel in a boat alongside, and to hear 
from them of the welfare of those whom we had lefl behind. 
They, during our absence, had made a prosperous excursion, 
filled with pleasing incidents, riding on mules over the Apen- 
nines, to the ancient temple of Paestum. 

Grateful letters from America awaited our arrival, and we 
occupied the remainder of this day in bringing up our corres- 
pondence and journals, and in a mutual recital of our adven- 
tures and excursions. 

Napub, Jane 5^ 

Climate, — Sicily has a lovely climate, with no winter, ex- 
cept on Mount Etna. On this island orange-trees and numerous 
otlier semi-tropical plants are flourishing, while in the same 
latitudes in the United States, winter reigns. The summer sky 
in Italy is very serene ; there has been hardly a rainy day since 
we have been in the country. The wh61e of Sicilian agricul- 
ture depends upon artificial means of irrigation ; there are vast 
reservoirs with mules constantly at work to move the wheel, by 
means of which buckets are raised and emptied to fill tlie small 
trenches, that convey the water in every direction through all 
tlie cultivated fields. We were warned against Italian heat, and 
were assured we should find the climate very relaxing; but 
except in the Val del Bove, we have hardly felt oppressed. We 
have not changed our winter clothing, and never go on an excur- 
sion without our overcoats. The temperature of Uie season has 
been much as at New Haven, and in Naples we had fires several 
times, morning and evening, as late as the beginning of June. 
Our impressions of Italian climate and of the malaria, have been 
generally derived from English writers whose standanls have 




\ «ftrne<] on UiU Bubj«:l by E 
I dftnta iu tlnly confirmed t 
I m,hty ' 

I been Uio fiigs aiwl Btnolcfl of Uu-ir own Loudon. From tto 
I «aine aooriia liw probably come also Uie impressiou, of tbe un- 
1 Italy, We wtro eonstauUy 
iiigllah people, but Amcricau reai- 
ir own impressions of the cntiro 
I Italy, which in every particular 
I nf h«nuty nnj comfort, is tlio seasoa of all others to nnjoy 
tho pleasures of tbe peninsula. No doubt, «ipoflunj on the 
' Carapagna in the nights of siunroer, would be productive of 
, intermittent fovera, but there is no necessity for such exposure- 
Much is said of the beauty of Italian skies ; they are, in- 
I do«d, brilliant, but not more so than they often are in Ameri- 
ca; and in our own country we have been oflen gratified as 
I here with bright fiewy clouds floating under a pure azure 
canopy. That mild Ruffoiion of mellow, golden light, especially 
in a morning and evening sky, which Claude Lorraine mic- 
(Meded so well in imitating in liis picturcfl, is cert&inly cbarao- 
teristio of Italian skies. In New England, also, although lees 
L frequently, we see tbe very same aot, golden tints, eapecially in 
"Indian Summer" in October and Noiembor. Claude 
\ LuTTniue, however. " iwrlrayed with trollj, tlie effect of the sun 
I b every jmwI of the day — soft broetes playing through tlic tops 
I ofthit trees, and tbu di-wy Iiumidity of dark, sliadowy places," 
Placks coHitscTEP WITH 8t, Paui'b IIistort. — I have 
[ already muntloned lliat at Mussina we looked with great inle- 
t at Rlu^io, anciently Itbegium, on the oppoeito shore of 
[ Calabria, where 81. Paul landed ou his voyage from Syracuse. 
" And landing at Syracuse, wo tarried there three days ; and 
I frum ihcoiw wo fetched a compass, and came to Ithegiura, and 
I tStet one day Uie south wind blew, and we came the next day 
L to Puleoli," which place was mentioned in connection with 
I otit olawvations on llw ruins of Puatuoli.* About forty milea 
I bej-vnd Messina, on tliu way towards Naples, there is a place 
culled Paulo, whi-n> they say tiial tlie apostle landeil, and 

■ Til* mi^(irn ii«inc of I'liteoU. 

54 Prisons and Pbisonebs. 

at Messina they daim that he was there also, which is not im- 
probable, as trading vessels in those days touched at the ports 
all along the coast, as they do now. 

Prisons and Prisoners. — ^At Messina we were assured 
that the dungeons were full of state prisoners. Five hundred 
persons were then in confinement in the strong stone fortifica- 
tion in the harbor of Messina, immured beneath the surfieu^ of 
the ground, and lower than the surface of the water. Prisoners 
are arrested without open accusation, and no opportunity is 
allowed for defence. As there is no writ of habeas corpus, there 
is no other chance for enlargement than what depends upon 
the will of the despot The revolution of 1848 ended dis- 
astrously for the people. I have mentioned the burning of 
many houses in the principal towns. They were also given 
up for six days to pillage and rapine, attended by those insults 
to the defenceless which are usual with a licentious soldiery. 
Some families were reduced to penury by the destruction and 
plundering of their property. 

The general pillage, especially of Messina and Catania, and 
less extensively of Palermo (and I suppose measurably of the 
entire island), was conceded to the army, to pay them for put- 
ting down an insurrection for liberty. 

A constitutional government had been granted to the peo- 
ple ; but when their representatives assembled, the parliament 
hou»e was, by the order of the king, shut against them, and 
they justifiably rebelled against treachery and despotism. Pil- 
lage by a foreign enemy is one of the bad customs of war ; but 
the pillage of Sicily in 1348 was perpetrated upon the subjects 
of the king, and by his own soldiers, who were permitted to 
break into private houses and do as they liked. The command 
from the highest authority was, "help yourselves;" and it 
was fully obeyed. 

The monarch is detested; and not feeling himself safe in 
Naples, he lives at his palace at Caserta, sixteen miles from 
the city. 

Villages. — ^Tho Sicilian villages which wo saw are in 

IiBJLitnAiiTa. SS 

geneml very diaagrttyible. TIhi Iioubps iia- trowdi^il lij^'i?l]ier 
gODeraUy opon a namiw alreut. As you n<]« iJiroiigb aud look 
in at iho opcD doors, you aea tlioir uibvriible hoiuvs, dirty and 
comfortlew. Id itomii of tlie poorest, llic t'onle aui] ilia pigs 
■bare the tamily room, and tLe donkey i» often tlio nciit neigh- 
bor, In many bouses in Sioity and in Southern Italy, tha 
donlcpy occiipic« a stablo in the area of the boUK, while iho 
family are in an adjcaning apartmcQl, or in the stoiy alrave; 
and it may wdl be imagined that the alniosphere is not very 

AoMOii'LTDRE, — Their agriculture is managed, oven over 

a, chiefly by Uie mattock, hoe aud spade. We hardly 

■hfloiigh, and if auy, it was of the simplust old Uoman 
; uor did wu ever s«! ono in iwtual uw. The 
dcoke; and Ui« molu ttrc thu rcluinu« vl dm country fur Usna- 
portalion, aud ibey impose upou ihetn eiiornaoua burdens. 
Almost every kind of thing, hay, grain, limber, stonesi, tiii«, and 
bricJn, are pik-d upon the»o patieni, humble aniinala. Dirt ia 
often loaded into their panniers, and maniiru is (r.-uuiportixl in 
tlie Bame manner, lliey have carta indeed, generally for one 
donkey or mule, or for a small bureo ; and it is not uncom- 
mon to see a mule or a doukey haroeased wde by side with a 
bone, and Hometimea au ox ia awsociuttKl vrilli one or the other 
of tbi«o auimats. 

lu the villages, the i>eop!e are much in the etjeets, narrow 
nnd dirty as tbuy are. The doois of tbe bouses Maud wide 
</j>tn, and tlien- ia little or no privacy. The women moat fre- 
quently sit in tbe doorway, or even in tlie street, with their chil- 
dren; and ra<^;hani<s — cobblers cspecinlly — often work in the 

o pJAoo. 'I'here is a great difference in the villogea-,— 

have wider BtrceOi, and the people appear n 
Ik HABIT ARTS.— In our tour to Sicily wq 

aOn (■ ""l^''" "I' ""V <iu„<r ..„.,.„t Mtlli'in 

e ei-rmforliiblc. 
o hnd no oeca- 

50 Naples to Lbohorit. 

In the cities, indeed, many live comfortably, and a few splen- 
didly. We have had little opportunity to see the gentry and 
the elegant women of the country. 

A Sicilian gentleman told us that ladies rarely appear 
abroad, and that he himself associated very little with any one, 
because all persons of consideration are watched, and numerous 
spies stand ready to criminate them politically. 

The common people seemed to us . to be without much in- 
tcUigence, and with no elevation of mind to aim at bettering 
their condition, which appeared very hopeless; and there 
seems on the part of those in power very little or no disposi- 
tion to raise them from their state of extreme depression. In 
their manners, the Sidlian peasantry are mild. We saw no 
rudencsA, except in the village of Taormina, and there it 
was not accompanied by any aggression. The Sicilian gentle- 
men with whom we have been conversant are graceful and 
polite, and manifested a kind and obliging disposition. 

Jone 8, lt>5i. 

Near evening, we embarked on board tlie steamer Vesuve, ji 
Neapolitan vessel built in England and managed by English 
engineers. Multitudes clustered on the deck, attracted either 
by curiosity or to bid farewell to tlieir friends. A large man- 
of-war boat came alongside, manned by a clean, bright-looking 
crew of young men, dressed in white, with blue-colored collars 
turned down. It really did va good to see them, as we read on 
their hat-bands, ^ Misnssippi^^ and saw the stars and stripes 
waving at the stem of the boat. They belonged to the Ame- 
rican war steamer Mississippi. Four of her officers came on 
board, and with one of them, Lieutenant Chapman, I was ac- 
quainted. They were all very cordial, and expressed much re- 
gret (which we also felt) that we could not visit their ship, to 
which they returned before our departure. She was then 
awaiting orders to proceed to Syria, to receive Kossoth and 



convny him to Uio Uiiilml SlaUjs, On leaving our inourings, 
wc poMciJ irudor iha stwu of the MiasisBippi, and were buIuUiI 
by llw tiiiuic of hor band, and Uio siguals of ber ofilwrs; nor 
weTQ we wbamwl of our sUiam frigate in couipnrLson witli n 
Pronch ateainerof UieMnn^duss near to irhidi we pi«!ud. 

On botird the Vesuve, Lieul«uant C. iutroduccd tne lo n 
NoMjKililan military gcnlivmau of biglt Tank iu tbc service of 
tfao Idng — ri man of cooiinandiog |>er»)u and presence, and of 
politu aud digniltud mannvn. 

As the Indy of this gentJeman, who had the title of the 
Couut d'A., wna ta be our fellow pna^nger, we were mtiwluijcd 
to li<*r ftUa Sho is a Frfincli lady, of Spanish extraction. As 
our American nnval olGcvrH had been Dft«n hoj^pitahly received 
ID bor JAinily, sh« huiI become sufBciently acquainted with 
English lo cprnlc intelligibly, and, with the aid of French, we 
fiiund lior a very agivcablo companion. Ilcr appearance and 
address wcru in kwping with tlioso of her husband, and wo 
viewed tbom as ojicciinens of the higher orders of society in 

As our ilenmcr passed down tbe bay, wo watched the 
beauty of the ronuding shore, until evening, with a bright 
moon, (prcad its softened shadows over ns. The twilight 
doctwnvd into uight, which paased (]uietly away, and at eight 
o'clock on the morning of the 0tli we dropped anehor in tho 
harbor of Civita Vocchia. 

The Uiip being cjctremcly comfortable, with a pleasant airy 
cabin, we prefcrre'l lo remain quietly on board, rather than to 
pw« tliP ordeal of official furtnalitics in landing in a place hav' 

no peculiar atlrnctiuns. On our outward journey, we lefl 

\ place early iu April, and buve been favon-d with a most 
iuteresting and inntrucliva view of Soutlieru ItiJy and Sicily. 
All ■/ OUT {airty liave enjoyed exe<:lleut health, and uo aceideut 
sUtall.'i. !Uiv ut',>iirniimU'r. 

58 Leghorn to Pisa. 

80 considerablo a swell that most of the passengers were unaUe 
to sit at the dinner table ; but I had the good fortune to oc- 
cupy my place there, although I had very few companions. 

The night was pleasant, with a bright moon ; and as we 
passed near to Elba, we gazed long at Napoleon's temporaiy 
prison. Two very agreeable American gentlemen from New 
Jersey were my companions ; one of them had been distin- 
guished as an author (^^Kirwan*^), and had visited Rome and 
Naples to obtain fresh materials for his discussions. 

We arrived at Leghorn at five a. sl, twelve hours from 
Civita Vecchia. Three hours were wasted in ofiicial formalities, 
and nearly an hour more at the custom-house, so that we were 
not quiet in our hotel until nine o'clock. We found under our 
roof an artist working in alabaster, and his productions being 
beautiful and not dear, we purchased various things for our 
friends at home. 

f tjlfflnt to |isa. 


Having made some observations on Leghorn when we were 
here before, I did not, on tliis occasion, leave the hotel until 
the hour of departure. At half past four o'clock p. m. we drove 
to the gate of the city, where the entire baggage of the party — 
twenty-six pieces — was opened, but they did not disturb any 
thing. Hero for the first time our luggage was plombSe, i. e., a 
cord was passed around each article, and a lead token was 
attached to the ends in the manner of a seal, bearing on one 
side a view of the station house, while on the other side was 
" amcssi usati passport." This we were told would preclude 
farther examination until our arrival in Florence. 

Our ride of twelve miles on the railroad to Pisa was accom- 
plished in half an hour. Both the road and the cars were very 
good, and the police of the way excellent Soldiers are seen at 
all the stations. The country between Leghorn and Pisa is 
wery level. A plain, apparentiy ten miles in breadtb, e ato kW^ 



fion tbe UA to tbe mounUina, iinil U evury where in a high 
*tulu of i:u]tivittiuii, wtUi grass, wbuat, Iiulmii curn, and oLbur 
orupi, wliich our rapid Uaitsit ilid nut penuit lu to iHsLinguiUi 
tUM^urutvly. Sonio jxtrts of lliu triujt ap[>t>iLFoU low and wet, 
anil wnlvr lilies nDil sotlgv griisa were gi'owing ia tlio Luniid 
gruuuiln. Tlio country appcnied to be cnltiviktctl by thrifty 
ioditvtry, and do miHcmblo iMojilu woru vieiblo along the 

FiBA, — As wo drove from tho railroad station into tbe 
beautiful c'liy of Pisa, we were most agreoabfy impre^ed by the 
appwiritiiw! of iu brviul and clciui streets, bounded by hand- 
soue liuusea of vioue, or stuccoed in imitation of iL Through 
the city flows tho Amo, with a genilo current, suSicient to 
preveui stagnation. Liko the Tiber, tho Arno is turbid. It is 
eroaaud by three L>ridgi», tho middle one of which is of matble. 
An there is a broad sLreut on both sides of tho river, and 
there being no buildings on tho margin, lie wide open apace 
(pvea a cheerful appearance to the city, whoso population 
uiovea briskly along over the bridges. 

Vim now coiituiiis not over 28,000 iiihahilunta. In iU 
day* of proeperity it numbered 150,000 ; but it seems inoredi- 
hlu tliiU ihey should be contained within tlio present walls, 
which incloBQ an un^n apparently quite inade'juato for such a 
{M>[mlatioa. In tlio cle^'enth, tweltlb, and thirteoTith cenlarics, 
I*iaa, H* a maritimo slato, was rich and powerful, and obtained 
Kverat naval viclorios over the Genoese, the Saracens, and tlio 

Tho city was anciently nt-wr tho sea, nltliough now four miles 

&om tlie »bore. It was situated at the junction of tha Sorchio 

and Amo ; hut owing to alluvial deposits, thoso riven now 

|iBw nil. I I'll' j'-a by ■.■[i^irai.' .liunuek Pisa had never any 

iv at anchor, Iwing entan- 

iiu force of the watea. The 

00 TuK DuoMO. 

Professor Mattencci, were away ; but under the care of an st- 
tendaut, we saw the beautiful botanical garden, rich in palms 
and other trees, the natives of a warm climate. There is in 
the garden a monument to the memory of the elder Savi, the 
late pofessor of botany. It was erected beneath the branches 
of a noble cedar of Lebanon which he planted. We of course 
▼isited the four great wonders of Pisa — tlie Duomo or Cathe- 
dral, the Baptistery, the Campo Santo, and the Leaning Tower. 
All the world has heard of these structm^ and I shall there- 
fore mention only a few facts regarding them. 

The Duomo is a large and splendid cathedral, of the By- 
zantine order of architectare. I am, however, quite satiated 
with the gorgeous splendor of Catholic churches ; for we find 
it more or less every where, from St Peter's down to the most 
humble religious structures. There is in these edifices much to 
engage tlie senses, but very little to instruct tlie mind, or to spir- 
itualize the affections. The Pisan Duomo is 311 feet long by 
105 broad. The length of the transepts is 237 feet. The 
great nave is 131 feet high. In the interior there are double 
rows of monolithic columns of granite nnd marble, thirty feet 
high, which were taken chiefly from heathen ttmctnres. There 
is a smaller set of columns above. 

Tlio Duomo has ponderous bronze doors, richly adorned 
witJi figures in bold relief, representing passages of Scripturv 
history. The silver of the altar cost 30,000 crowns, and was 
twice repurchased by an archbishop from the French ; the first 
time for 18,000 and the second for 12,000 crowns. The 
Duomo was erected on the occasion of a great victory obtained 
in Sicily over the Saracens in 1063, in behalf of the Normans, 
the Pisans having espoused their cause. They brought home 
much booty, and being " triumphant, enriched, and devout," 
thev resolved to erect a cathedral that would do honor to Qod 
nnd their country." Tlie first stone of the cathedral was laid 
in 1064, and the building was finished and consecrated in 1118^ 
The Duomo is regarded as a very fine building, quite in advance 
of the age in wb«cb it was eivcted. In conformity, howeTer^ 

Tn BAmararr. 

with the had twite of tJie Age, as »een ulso nt Ocnon niid t'lnr- 

', it naa coVGrt<d with altomate layera of whila and k<1 
nmrLIu. Aa usual in Catholic cliiirches, there i* a great pnv 
fiwioii of i>icturea and moeaicA. A piduro of St. Agatlia, otid 
une of a MiuloniiB and ohild, are vciy good. 

We hare frequently observed that pictures in Catholic 
churches are placed in vory bad lights, »onieljmcfi almost in dark- 
nee*. Whilo wo were there, veapera were perforoaTng by a large 
body of priests in the inclosuro of the richly-carved choir. 
Tliu service vas rehearsed in a monotonous tone, and, aa it 
Bpi>(.>Ared 10 us, in a manner any thing but devotional. 

Till.' broDie lamp suspunded In tlie nave of this cathedral 
is sahl to have l!rst sugi^ted to Galileo the theory of the pen- 
dulum. The Duomo of Piss is certainly a very magnitic<mt 
building. It is littlu injured after tlie lapse of more Uian 700 
yean since its oomplclion, and of nearly 800 since the first 
■tone was laid. Tlio treacherous nature of the sol! is, however, 
indicated by tho settling of tlie building. " Sot a ninglo line of 
it is upright : the th^ade overhangs ils base visibly ; the lower 
row of arches had subdivided at the west end three feet before 
(be up]>er one was supcrimpoHed. and none of the arches in the 
baMtmimt story corropood." Tlie grand altar alno is much 
distorted by unequal »ii):Hid«tic«. 

Tub BAmBTKBT. — In the ancient Catholic churches tho 
plac« for adminiMcring ihe rit« of baptism was often distinct 
from Uie cathedral — it was called the baplial(.'ry ; and there was 
a sepamle tower for the bell*, called the campanile. Tlie Ha{)- 
tislery of Pisa is a very bcAiitiAd building, and has nndci^ne 
very little dilapidation during tlie 000 years in which it has 
exialed. Its height is 1T9 feet, and its diameter 100, exclusive 
of liiv wullfl, wUii^h are inun: (hiiu eight feet thi( 
t« circular, and biiing )in>fi)iiely adorned with oolumua and 

poliah,.,! f„„rl,l.., it. ., „ „,U..„1 " " 

62 Tub Campo Santo. 

children. The interior of the building is adorned by columns. 
The baptistery is a whispering gallery, and has a fine echo. 
The man who showed it to us had a clear and powerful voice, 
which he threw out with great effect in prolonged strains, 
which were faithfully returned from the sides of the building. 
The baptistery was not built all at once ; and an inscription on 
an inner wall would imply that it was rebuilt a.d. 1278 : JEdi- 


The Campo Santo. — ^This Necropolis was erected by 
Bishop Ubaldo about 1200. Being expelled from the Holy 
Land by Saladin, he brought home fifty-three ship loads oi 
earth from Mount Calvary, with which the inner area of the 
ground was overlaid to the depth of ten feet In this earth it 
was pretended that a dead body would in twenty-four hours be 
resolved into dust, leaving, I suppose, only the skeleton, agree- 
ably to the belief or avowal of the Capuchins at Rome, that 
the same effect would, in their sacred inclosure, be produced in 
a year — a more liberal allowance of time. The Campo Santo 
is a quadrangle 415 feet long by 137 broad, open above to the 
sky. It has a covered colonnade running around its interior, be- 
neath the marble pavement of which are interred 600 or more 
distinguished persons who have died within GOO years. There 
are many inscriptions and numerous sarcophagi adorned with 
bas-reliefs. Not a few of them commemorate early Christians, 
and numbers of them are Roman. Many of the monuments have 
been brought from distant places. There is also great similarity 
to the monuments preserved in the Vatican. The interior walls 
of the building surrounding the cemetery were anciently covered 
with frescoes, most of which were executed 600 years ago, and 
l>eing among the earliest paintings of the kind, they are regarded 
as valuable in Uie history of art. The Triumph of Death, by Or- 
cagiia, we studied witli peculiar interest These pictures have, 
however, suffered so much by time tliat most of them are in 
ruins ; and even tliose that are in the best condition are not as 
well preserved as were tliose of Pompeii and HerculaneonL 
If est of the frescoes in the Campo Santo relate to I 

Tiis Campa.hile ok Lkamiso Toweb. S3 

[ lory or lo tlio livcA of Bainta. The I.aBt Judgii]ttit,nlwaja a In- 
[ vciritii*iibji»ctiritliIta)iaupaiDt«i«.u here well preserved. Itwiu 
i puinbxl by Andrew Orcagna, anil the artist has indulged his owu 
» in the wJection of th^ ac<juUt*d «nj Uio condemned. Hu- 
D lieiup of diffarent niiika and oondiUons in life ore rather 
I impanJAlly allolt«l to rewurd or puniBlimont by attendant ttu- 
I geU; and tlio iudividuHla arc seoo manifeetlng oppoHito eiaoUoua 
>r diniiay. Iii a niuitlar painting in the Slrorai Chapel 
in Santa Muriit KoTellu, which we saw on another occasion. 
Icing!*, (^UttHDH aniJ monks ore among the eoaduroneil. A Frnn- 
o lind rincn nraong the good is CArriud by the angel 
[ to theoliier siilti, and n similar mistake is corrected in the np[K>- 
I nt« group, from which a wanderer among the lost is broitglit 
1 baek to thn ranks of iho blesL King Solomon oociipies u nuu- 
I tnti position i-uietly between tliu two groups, as if he knew not 
L to whiuh be belonged. 

Wo walked pensively around within these solemn porticoes, 
I wnllod out from Uio world, and fiilod wiih iho remains of hu- 
I mun bpiitgn. Wo were in a complete inclo*nre, a hollow rect- 
I angle; although tha world waa shut oiit, the sun shone from 
I above with splendor into that place of bones and graven. The 
I tame sun llt&t then wanned us, once cheoiDd the sleepers when 
I Iti'ing and active. Thus the busy races of men pass nwny ; nnd 
I huw few lire as if they expected ever lo live again I 

Thk Caupahilk or Leaxino Towbr. — ^Tlm slruclure 

r has exetlvd *o muoh surprise, and been seen witli siieh deep in- 

liinrst by lltonsnnde of tntvellors for mon: Uian ttOO i-enrH, tluii 

litis almortiinivrrsally known, and it is not difficult for one who 

» not seen it tn form a cleAr and distinct conception of it. 

ill, on ftpproRching the tower, you am strongly impresfiud by 

\ it> grandeur mid bcniity ; nnd when you asci<nd it, you obtain 

naloKHt nverwhi'lmingconci^tion of itsmnjc^sty; nUhoughit is 

[ perfectly snfe ; nnd if you do not feel apprehension thai it (rill 

^^ JtfB Bay aot Iw ihh to hm p thU idea quite out uf your 

r is 178 feet, tholhiek- 

IT is fifty feet at tlie bnae. 

64 The Oampanilb or Leanuco Towkr. 

It is composed of eight stories, all adorned by columns and 
arches. Its form is slightly conical It is ascended by 330 
very easy sleps, very well lighted, and it is a pleasant journey 
to the top. There are seven bells in this grand belfry ; they 
were rung while we were near, and the sound is very soft and 
musical, especially of the great bell, which weighs 12,000. 
pounds, and is placed upon the side of the tower, opposite to 
that which overhangs. It was this bell which was formerly 
used to give notice of public executions. The leaning of the tower 
of Pisa was evidently caused by unequal subsidence of the 
ground ; and it is obvious that the architect, as the work rose, 
before the tower was half up, perceived it, and he endeavored to 
counteract it as far as possible by balancing his materials. 
After a particular height, the columns are higher on the lean- 
ing side, and, of course, shorter on the other. The builder ap- 
peared to be aiming to bring the upper part of the tower into a 
vertical position, although he did not succeed. It is about 
thirteen or fourteen feet beyond the vertical ; but the centre of 
gravity still falls within the base ; and as the blocks of stone, 
being now firmly united by cement, cannot slide upon each 
other, they, in fact, form one mass. The walls are, moreover, 
fortified by iron bars, and it is not probable that any thing 
short of an earthquake can produce its downfall. 

I cannot think with some, that it requires strong nerves to. 
ascend tlie leaning tower of Pisa. We ascended with a per- 
fect consciousness of security, and it is certain that were it 
filled in every story by an armed host, it would not quiver or 
vibrate. The view from the summit of the tower is most 
splendid. The beautiful city is at your feet, and you are in the 
midst of it. The Mediterranean is in the horizon, Leghorn is 
visible in the distance, tlic Amo shows its windings, here and 
there, and a rich plain in full cultivation reaches far inland to 
the lofty Apennines, in the vicinity of Lucca. It is said, that, 
in clexu* weather, Corsica may be discerned. Tliis tower is one 
of the most beautiful objects in Italy, and one would never hf 
ed with looking at it or from it ; so beautiful is it^ i 

FiSA TO LucoA. 9b 

leaning becomes a mere incident, intereadng iodeed, but tLe 
tower poascases commanding attractions indepciid«iitlj of this 
circumstance. We cannot descend from it without remember- 
ing' that here Galileo made his decisive etperimenbi upm the 
law of the descent of failing bodies, and upon the Tibration 
of the pendulum. 

His great name is Dwociated with the peimanent glofy of 
bis co'intiy, and will be honored to the eud of time, while bis 
persecutors ore Tem«mba«d onij to be de^iiaed and detested. 

$U2 is tmi. 

An eicellent railroad took ns in fonr minotm to Lum^ a 
city which, for peculiar reaMnn, we were t«it Ataarim Mi »ml. 
Wo were delighted with the scenes (hrooefa whvJi w- jam^ : 
tbey were rich in all kinds of cro{« aitd ti«^ a^ppj^M*: Vi 
the coanby — for the moisture uS the soil fits it to «Kaui a im 
regetation in a f^i<n where rain is fpsnaninij witUK*J far 
many weeks at a time ; but the su^nant waur. aimffti *^taj 
where occupying the ditches and low grooiKk, mi^t w-^ 2t«« 
rise to malaiia during a hot summer. 

We had passed some milea over ibe plain when mn plotM^ 
into Ihe boeom of the ApeiuiitMa, wh^Me kifty cunt* aivl [■•^aks 
looked down darkly upon us as if we were intfivkn into tlieir 
solitudes. Still, thongfa we were riding amotig mountains, 
our plain continued with ih, we obaerred on the rt«d neither 
up-filling nor down-cutth^ and we had hardly realized that 
we had left one beautiAd city, before another, in some respects 
more beantifiil, broke upon our view. 

Carrit^jta were in waiting outside of the walla — for, like 


^„... .,i- .(,.. \\,..- ..f i;,[vii iruus, whifli cmwii.'.l 

;; ,■ 1, impftrtiNi graoefuJiiuiw nlij 

lii^' out of the wide (bnw— a 

66 LuooA. 

splendid finish of ornamental avenues of tarees which we had 
never before seen in any fortified town. 

We drove through the grand portal, deep and lofty, and 
found ourselves in an ancient city, with excellent buildings in 
good keeping, although time had crowned many of them with 
parasitic plants. Very good rooms were furnished to us at the 
H6tel de TEurope, and after some refreshment, we went as usual 
with a local attendant to look at the place. 

We first visited a very ancient church, founded nearly 800 
years ago. It is very difierent in style from any one we 
had seen. The arches are circular ; the roof or ceiling is not 
fretted but groined; the arches intersect each other, while 
bands of beautifully colored ornaments cross them and each 
other in a rich and graceful manner. Without entering into 
minute details, I will add only that there is in this old church 
a serene and calm dignity that gave us much satisfaction. 

We were not a little pleased with the sedulous zeal of the 
good old verger, a most faithful servant of the church. He 
wore a blue cloth uniform, white hose and silver shoebucklcs, 
while a metallic token upon his dress, broad as a hand, was 
tlie emblem of his official station ; his venerable white head 
seemed almost to testify that he had been cognizant of the 
building of the church, and could tell all about its origin and 
progress. Indeed, he showed such eagerness to magnify his ofiice 
and gratify us, that he could hardly be restrained from giving 
tlie history of every tomb, picture, and relic. There were some 
very good pictures, particularly of the annunciation and of the 
interview between Mary and Elizabeth. The church is very large, 
but we saw, only here and there, a humble devotee upon her 
knees at prayer. The poor, and especially females, appear to 
be the most frequent worshippers in the Catholic churches. 

In this old building there is a gilded latticed octagon, con- 
structed in 1484 to contain a crucifix of wood belonging to Nico- 
demus, and a fresco represents him as hewing it out of a fallen tree. 

There is also a lamp of solid gold suspended in the cathe- 
dral ; it hangs by chains of the same metal, and was made under 

Udoal Palaok. 

1 *ow of tbe inbabitanta in 1830, when they were in terror on 
■*c«ount of tho cholera. My teoolloction i§ that the lump was 
ntuming wlten we saw it, and probably in not permitted to 


Oar laqHsciouH old g^ide called our attention to a basket of 
ron, suspended from tbe ceiling in tlie centre of the church, and 
b a ioft voice (aa !f what ho communioited was na important 
kud us tnysti-'Tiuus aa Btat« 8i>cret8) told lu thnt in tliis tbey 
nimt the flax Mom thn Inglicst dignitary of tbe oJiuniU 
vbimever ha eril<^red the building, while the ckoristera <:hunted, 
* Sic transit j;loria inundi." 

This culbiflrul U riob in interesting objects ; among llm 

liMulptuKs I will mention only one. Il w a marbia Karcophngiis 

^witJi ba»-r«li<rtii of childrun, and the figure of Maria dul Cai-retto 

I'toGUinbent on iba top; she was the wife of Paolo Ouinigi 

) of Lnccn, nnd dit-d in 140S. Tbia very ancient tomb 

L ll ttgfoifsd as one of tlie fineet produutioni of the chisuL Tbe 

felndy WM beautiful, and hvr form is a modi-l of gnic« mid ulc- 

fuuM. The costume is ligbt, fitting lo and veiling bar figure ; 

r bead ia turbnned or filleted ; it repos(« ui>on a marble 

billow, which hes upon anolimr pillow, and tbe pressure siTms 

natural that it appeals na if aim were only in a sweet sleep. 

'B monument is in bigli presorvalion, and cannot bo viewed 

rurithoiit rtrong emotion. Tiioro is in tliis cathedral, a marble 

r pulpit, bentitifully carved in 1498, and quaintly supported on 

tiio back of n lion. An altar erected in 1869, Deo lAberalori, 

i in acknowledgment of the deliverance of Luccn from tho yoke 

k of Pisa, baa always been known as the altar of liberty. 

DccAL Palace. — On the central square tliere ia a large 
^4lnoal paloee, that of the noble house of MansI, and in front is 
[ > coloesol bongo of tlie Vir^n gimrded by an angel. Money 
k||«*e us admission to llie pidaoe, whera we found a largo col- 
Ptleuden of excellimt ]iictures and of tajfeetry, ibat would make a 
I "figureevcn in Romi', The palace seemed jfiven up to tlie pictures, 
w Vimy of which itniHl upon tlut door, and were very advaniage- 
ufy litnaltd as rr^pvds ligbL Among tliem we remarked four 

68 LuooA. 

elegant landscapes by Nioolo Ponssin, with architectural deBigns, 
and one of the best pictures of Francesco Franchesi. One of 
the finest pictures was the scene on Moimt Moriah between 
Abraham and Isaac. 

The Walls. — The walls of Lucca are so broad, that two 
or more carriages can drive abreast upon them, and in the 
bastions projecting at the angles of the walls the included area 
forms even small squares ; the bastions were, of course, intended 
to contain cannon for the purpose of enfilading the ditches. 
Wo ascended the walls in our carriages, driving up a gently 
inclined plain, and were shaded by elms, poplars, and other 
trees of full size, which, through the three miles that include the 
entire circuit of the city, formed a continued vista winding 
through a forest We were delighted witli tliis beautiful drive 
and promenade ; it presented, every where, charming views of a 
splendid country — a vast plain, in the midst of which Lucca 
stands, surrounded by tlie richest rural scenes, comprising 
meadows and cultivated land, and bearing abundant cro{)s 
which were refreshing to the eye. We had never seen any thing 
so beautiful in the adorimients of a town as this mural drive. 

Lucca as it was in its days of prosperity and independence 
must have been a lovely city. Its surrounding territory was 
furty-threc miles by sixteen. It was a rejmblic, in which per- 
sonal free<lom was protected by wise and good laws, administered 
by a hereditary aristocracy, the members of which had, how- 
ever, no ixfculiar privileges except those of birth, and who, 
equally with the humblest citizens, were amenable to the laws. 
Industry and aseful arts, in every form, were encouraged and 
]>rotected. There was in the population great intelligence, 
vi^or, and \'irtue, pervading both the city and the country, 
Tiie land was fully and skilfully cultivated, not only in tlie rich 
and beautiful plains but in the rugged mountains, which formed 
the greater part of Uie territor}'. It was one of the wisest and 
best governments in the world ; the people were highly respect- 
able, prosperous, and happy, and poverty and crimes were 
almost equally unknown. But a melancholy change came 

OurwoRKS. 60 

I ovar Uie happy republic of Lucca. The Freiicb, ulready 
' tnasterB of a krge part of Europe, cntiie (o Luu-a. Troops were 
quartorod Upon lliem aud subsialcii by thvnt, and, As by a 
torpedo tuuch, Uieir inslilHlious and lliuir prosperity mitUored. 
In iJie pwgrifBS of ev«nlB a Bourbon prince waa plaiied over 
Jm<mh, und Iwing finally annexod to tke dukaduui of Tusuany, 
iu independence was extinguished, probably for over. Its in- 
ItabitanU bave alwaj's been dimiaguiHhed by a love of liberty, 
and, in the middle age*, it wa» repeatedly sold by its niastora 
on acconnt of its liberal jtrinciples, 

OoTWOEKa. — In our ride upon tbe ramparts, wo were much 

I impresod by the extensive works, fur the defencii of the city, 

I that have been couHtruuled outside of the walls. In advance 

I of (hem and of llieir wide foase, a complete system of earth 

I field-works has been eslabllslied on a great scale; besides a 

I gieiicral cln:untvallalion with breastworks anil porapetB, behind 

wbiub men could stand wiUi soma conRduncu. There wera 

aliM triangntar works with platforms of wirth for nrtillory, the 

I HMilo angle beUig imintcd outwards, which would enable guns 

I to throw cannon tmlls and grape-«hot in every direction agunat 

a approaching enemy, and tlK>re wan, moreover, a retreat pro- 

I vidsd within tlie walls, in case the defenders were obligud to 

I retire, 

In the wbolif of our circuit, however, wa observed but four 
I ninoon, and thow were probably reserved for tlie firing of 
I wiluti^in honor of the present masters of Lucca, whila its proper 
I artillery, doubtlcM eiitcnsivo and formidable in its days of pro»- 
I perity, has been withdrawn. The pnsaont walls of Lucca would 
I ttffbrd DO protection ogunst a bombardment, and would pro- 
r tiably not long sustain a heaty cAnnoruidc. 

Luc«a was founded by the Etruriana, and was a favorite 

I uily in the Roman timus. JuUunCrEsnr.Pompey, andCrassua met 

b«re, tu armngi" tho athdr* of tho empirit, and they drew after 

them half of the p.itrir-iiins ami courtiers of lioine. Tins city 

r Ihon bfllongcd to the Ligurinn division of the empire over which 

t Oaaar presided : thi« circninWnnc<% in nddiliun to ilx iMinvunitu 

70 Excursion to the Batbb of Lucca. 

position for communication with Rome, appears to have afforded 
the inducement for selecting this place for the meeting. 

Lucca was an important place under the Lombard kings. 
After that dynasty fell, it was governed by its own dukes, who 
ruled all Tuscany. It became free in the twelfth century, and 
its own consuls governed it for more than one hundred years, 
when, owing to dissensions, it fell into the hands of strangers. 
In 1314, it came under the power of a lord of Pisa, and 
was despotically ruled until 1369, when the citizens paid Charles 
IV. 300,000 florins for a charter of freedom, which they retained 
until the French invasion. The present popuktion of the city 
is about 25,000. 

Lucca was early distinguished for the manu&cture of silk. 
There are here remains of a Roman theatre and amphitheatre. 

Wo drove out upon the plain to observe more nearly an 
aqueduct of 459 arches which supplies the city with water. I 
presume that the well water of Lucca is bad like that of Pisa, 
which is also supplied by an aqueduct. Indeed the appearance 
of so much stagnant water in the plain country around and 
Ixitwoen these cities, proves a priori that Uio water of wells 
cannot be good, and hence the necessity of obtaining it from 
nu>r«» fl«*vatje<l sources, which are fed by the rains and snows. 

Jnne It. 

We were in our carriages at five o'clock Uiis morning, for 
an excursion of fifteen miles among the mountains to the BaUis 
of Lucca, which we reached in three hours. Tlie road, after 
crossing the plain, winds all the way among the defiles and 
gorges of the mountains ; as it is constanUy rising our progress 
was not rapid, and thus we enjoyed the best opportunities to 
oliserve the 8cener}\ 

The river Serchio, which runs near tP Lucca, descends at 
die rate of 48 feet to the mile, ami therefore brings down so 



Buoh sodiraimt (rom tlio mDiinUini, tliAt at t]iu Histanou of 
JhM » mite from Ihu city, the suiuincr flow of the river is tiinu 
Mt litglicr than ihti sill of the gate of SL Mnria— which is onii 
if tlui hightAt [HrinU of tb<3 city plain. AVe rode for mi!«s ttlong 
k. hi^i barrier of earth, erectijil at fust expunge, lu uuntrul thu 
IvtsTtlow of the rirer, nnd then v/n paa<eil into a Bplundid vulli-y, 
D VfLucb a very fine mod hod beun constructed, also at 
t, chiafly by cutting into the moiintwina and filling up tliu 
sIIoj-d; or moro froqnentJy, by building up a wall from llio 
Blank of the river Serchio, whose course marka the site of the 
This road carried us on through rich seenea of culdva- 
|Hon abounding with olives, and vinoa, and chMliiul trees, which 
Mf4r the slopes of tlie moiintaina. Cheatnnta alFord an im- 
int article of food to tlie inhabitanta; tliey are dried, 
»nd, and bnked between hot stones, being used as a suh- 
Ailut« for bread. 

The river Serchio, aa you attend, flows with a stronger ciir- 

B nut, and NDall raftaof timber, trteerwl by long poles in Llio 

iiuls of half-naked peasauts, were even by ua floating down ; 

B nifla an), however, irilltn, tJio inereet wicker work comparwl 

l^th tlto iiumeuais iiiiisws Ecun on our WKHlern rivers. High 

p tiiia vnllity wo *aw ti eery lofty bridge, said to have be(-n 

MtulfUCttMl in 1323 by Custruccio, buL Oiu popular nnnie, 

fonle del Diawlo, seeius lo eltdm for it a different architect, 

Hiu aeoond Arch froru the right biiuk is 60 feet high and 120 

Bfeot span. The roadway i& but eight feet wide, and, being very 

lep, is designee] only for foot passengers and mules. 

ViHaytii. — Several picturcsi^ui! vilbigos occur along the 

road : one of the largest is called PonU a Serraplio. Fifteen 

tniltf ftom Lucca we arrived at the Jiaffna a Villa. This is a 

^beautifbl and oomfortAble village situated among the moun- 

i, which are here highly picturesque and grand, seeming 

IB it wore, to step out in advamvi of each other, as if to pnM by 

i thua avert all further prugreu among them. 

Tiui re^n ii muob frvquvutod oo account of tho hot batlis. 

«nd»il tn tlirm Kv a p-od jiatli. winding, at an Msy 


slope, along the mountain side. We were much gratified 
by finding the baths both copious and flowing at the tem- 
perature of 100^ Fah. Wo descended also on the opposite 
side of the mountain, and there we found the hot water equally 
copious and of a more elevated temperature, even as high, at 
the source, as 127° to 133°; there are other baths at 88^, 
90°, 101°, 106°, lll^ and 117°. The springs, collectively, 
supply 65,827 gallons in twenty-four hours, more than 2700 
gallons in one hour, or 45 gallons a minute. The bath struc- 
tures for immersion, are of pure white marble; the water is per- 
fectly transparent, and flowing so abundantly and at so cheering 
a temperature, it is a beautiful object to contemplate. There 
are large baths or pools in which several persons may be im- 
mersed at once, and there are single baths, and shower-baths, 
and douche jets besides. £very thing in the bathing houses 
is perfectly neat and altogether desirable ; there are stoves for 
drying clothes, and every person may And the temperature 
which pleases him — provided warmth is desired, for. none of 
the waters are cold. They contain chiefly sulphate of lime 
witli clilond(.*s of c-alciuin, mngnosium, and aluminum, and a 
littlo silica and oxide of iron. 

ScKNERY AND Impiiovkmkxts. — This is oue of the moat 
U'auliful and majestic mountain regions with which I am ac- 
<|U:iinti*<l. It is much rosorteil to by the English, and their 
t'lste, skill and wealth are apparent in the improved condition 
of the grounds^ and in the neatness and comfort of the houses. 
Their regard also for religion is manifested by a large and 
neat chapel. 

There are handsome villas of ample size belonging to Luc- 
chese nobles, with flower-gardens, which may be hired at 50 to 
100 scudi (dollars) a month. They are in general well furnished 
and convenient ; but the situation, in an amphitheatre of moun- 
tains, is hot in summer, and the luxuriant vegetation favors the 
reign of moBquitoes. 

Palace. — The grand duke has a palace here, at a place 
called Marlia ; and there the houses of the gentiy are doBtered 



mnd. Tli« |>]ilaee is m tho midst of n fine pu-k, iiiclosml 
Iby n wall, wliich is lliroo miles in circurafcreiioii. Tlie nirHi 
■ «DitK'Ui«Iira«iits are iii tho Kitglish style for tlio slirubbery, 
^Tiii in tlie FKni-li fur the g^cna, witli j<;ts d^cnii, as nl. Miirly, 
r I'aris, whence llo uanie Mwlia. Thi« is iho siiminor r.r 
|di]fti»i i>f Ibe Diiko of Tuscany, who was tlicre at iLo time ..f 
•it. Ho is reported to bu an umiublu man, iiuJ tu havu 
I Ifwu A beluTcd prince, until he adopted, amler titu Auslrtnii 
[ intluvDCs, tliQ nitra measures agsinst tho liberties uf tlia saUjixil 
[ which now prevail on tlie conUnent. 

GROLOor. — The mountains here an; chielly calcareous, nnd 

I »re distinctly stratified. There arc also congloracrstca ; but our 

it through thesti uwnu* was too rapid to iidmit of accuralu 

BtihserTBlion. One thing, however, was very obscrvabto : many 

p'fiulitnees occurred where llie stTNtn were curved or elevatuil, so 

a tn stand ujion lli«tr (wlgca vyrticuUy; or they vfero invurted, 

P -con volutin], nnd in sumu placvs minted in utter confusion. 

I Most oudeiitly, tliere hod heon great violence exerted on n 

\ viist scale ; Knd of the energy of the power, th<si) disturbed 

rttmta pKwor. Itigibly to the eye an indubilnblo record. Nor 

ft in doubt as to the nature of the power. The fire 

llial still exists boncatli those mountains — of whose perennial 

^activity the nnuierous hot springs afford fiill proof — is evidently 

ri branch of those grand igneous dynamics of whose vnergQlio 

poperation tJiere is such ample proof in the condition of the 

l*plaDot, and «RpecialIy in Italy. By means of aerial agenia, they 

leiay have operated expansively, lifting, with all doininant but 

uergy, iu different places or at different tiims ; or con- 

I bactiou, and subsoquent subsidence, from cooling, uiuy hava 

Caused collapse and downward movement, and lateral premuni 

luy have nidwl, leaving pnrts comparatively elevated ; — thus 

^Krioui modes uf action, with earthquakes, may have produced 

ml tliu poMtiuns of tliii rocbi which are here observed. 

I cnnnot leave this uiountaiu homo of llie invalid, nnd ol 
I of n^iirenicnt, without remarking, Ihat to either ni 
*! ilcscriplions uf jM-rwrns it nmsi l« » m".t d«»irab|e (t»i- 
V..I- II— I 

74 Produotionb. 

dence. The climate appears to be excellent — ^in the morning 
cool ; and at the early hour when we went out, the temperature 
as we rapidly ascended on the mountain road, became so cold, 
that we found all our extra woollen garments quite necessary 
to our comfort 

The Road is so fine that we drove five miles an hour upon 
the inclined plane ; returning, we added another mile to the 
hour. As I then sat with the coachman, I was more sensible 
than before of the rapid descent, and of the perfection of the 
road, passing as it does along a very ru^^ and rocky region. 
The roads in Europe, as far as we have seen them, are very 
much superior to those in the United States. They are per- 
manently constructed upon the macadamized plan, and are 
kept constantly in repair by men and boys, who are employed 
in breaking up the stones to be used as there may be occasion. 
All through Europe, from the mountains of Wales to the 
coast of Sicily, the roadj*, as wo have seen them, are excellent. 
It will bo long before our vast country can equal Europe in 
this particular. 

PuoDL'cnoNS. — Hemp and flax are much cultivated in this 
region. Beans are raised extensively, wheat every where ; and 
Indian corn is a prevailing crop in Italy. It is planted in rows, 
not in hills, as with us, and only a kerpel or two in a place. 
The weather here is now equally warm as in our June, but 
the com does not appear as luxuriant as with us at the same 
season. For many weeks in the various regions which in that 
time we have traversed, there has been no rain ; but in Tus- 
pany there is no deficiency of moisture, for the country, as far 
as i^e hqxQ seen it, appears to be underlaid with water. We 
pot with ditches^ both narrow, and broad and deep, more or 
le^ filled with water, stagnant, and apparently putrid ; and 
thus malaria may l^ easily generated; for experience has 
proved that vegetable putrefaction is n^ore injurious to human 
health than anin^al. 

Akima)^ used on Farms. — ^lu Tuscailiy the donkey and 
the mule appear to be giving way tp the l^orse and the ox, an4 



I ihe goftt to the oow. Tlio oxen am wlnta or mouuM^otoreil, 
Mid arc Romclidics worked idone, sometimes in pairs. Tho sep- 
tum uf llic tiose is bori-il, and nn iron ring is pitsscd tlirougli 
it, *o tlmt iJier nm hs unsily governed tiy a cord, as a Itorso or a 
dfrtiltcy liy Uio rttins or tlie hiUlor. Every where, we sou tliu 
rngngud in fiuld labor. Tlicy ofwn btar heavy bur- 
I dens on tlieir iionda ; are generally barefoot, and always 
I tiron-n with exposum. Of course, womiin, being phiftieaity the 
wvtilcur rent-l, they fiulfor, in proportion to their sovoro labor, 
raara tlisn the nuin would do ; xnd to the pawing stranger, tlie 
I nmuaoe of female bi-auty is, in Italy, in a gKiA iiieHsure d'Hia 
I sway by the liardahip whiuh they endure ; fur dt^Iiente fonns 
I mid feaUiroa, wo must, witli few «ioeptions, vist the gallcriis 
I of piotuTci), or the houses of the opnieut. 

I'oNTS DiAVDLo. — On our return we stopped, and osci^udi-d 
iba pracipitoiH bridgo, drl Diavoto. It is lito nscendiuK n 
(itoep roof, and somu common mun won^ with great difiiuulty, 
iiiggiug und pushing to lake a small c«rt over thiii llltlu moun- 
rt-ason appears for nn ascent of twenty 'five or Lliirty 
, ili^^i-a inaleail of ihreo to five, iho usual avuragu of roads and 
liridgca. ThiHisan narrow, lu com juriton with itslungth, ihnt it 
appears « mure strip in tho nir. Although raoro than COO 
ycara old, it \a still firm and perfoct, without tJio slightest ajv 
pearanca of decay. 

At tUt! end of our mountain jonrm-y, wu drovu agnin 

i bio IiuecA, tu glancii at soma iuttireUiug publiu ohjvcl.;, and 

I to obtain a last inipnwsion of thit Teuemlile and bi-autiful 

I i-itT. Wo lingered only a tiliort tlmt', and again driving,' 

liirough thu portal by whiuh wo yosterdny entered, we relnc- 

I tutlly bads adieu to Luucn, and its beautiful mural grove — tlie 

' furuit eirckt, which, u it wna thd lirst object seen on spprosch- 

I ing lhl^ town, so it is (Jin last seen on leaving it 

H miniitea wo were aguQ in Piss. 

W« »t otiee deddud ou ■ 

I l<4t Pisa at half-jiut tax oVtooll^-^ 

76 Florxkok. 

As far as daylight served us, the country appeared much 
like that between Pisa and Lucca ; and after evening came oD| 
we saw, by the light of the moon, several towns and villages, 
some of the houses having the Tuscan appendage of towers 
at tlie comers. At half-past nine o'clock we entered the re- 
nowned city of Florence ; at ten we were settled in the H6tel 
Royal de Grand Bretagne, and at eleven we had finished our 
dinner, and were ready for our beds. 

Situation of Florenob. — ^This city of the arts, especially 
of sculpture, architecture, and painting, stands on the Anio^ 
fiily miles from Pisa. Formerly they were rival republics ; but 
Pisa was conquered in 1 364 by her rival, when her captured citi- 
zens were brought to Florence and treated with indignity and 
cruelty. They were transported into the city like animals 
brought in for sale, and were led forth from prison only to work 
upon public buildings, one of which is now used for a post- 
oin<*,c, and bears a name which alludes to the Pisans — Tetto 
dei Pimni. Florence contained in 1845 107,000 inhabitants. 

Florence has many large and costly buildings — palaces of 
merchant princes and of other opulent citizens. As many new 
and expensive houses have been erected within a few years, and 
as, at this day, entire new squares are being surrounded with 
dwellings, we must presume that it is prosperous. It is situated 
in Uie midst of a rich and beautiful country. There are four 
bridges over the Amo, and on some there are houses on both 
sides, like a continued street Over one of them there is an 
arched gallery to enable the Grand Duke and his friends to 
pass unobserved. The Arno is at present low, owing to a 
long-continued drought It sometimes swells to a furious tor- 
rent) being fed by mountain streams ; it has repeatedly swept 
away tlio bridges, risen high above its banks, and inundatod 
the city. 

Cbcrcb or Santa Cboce. 


PuDUo BiTiLDiKBs. — Vi'a liave vibitcd many of the public 
buildings in Flurenco. Moet of tliem are ancient, and ihcy 
bavc bwn constructed on a scdIh of great magnitude and enor- 
mous nji^niw. This will probably account for tba fact that, 
both here and in other cities of Italy, as I have already men- 
tioned, tberg are g^rand cliurcbea which still remain in mi 
unfinished alalQ on the exterior. Indeed I do not remember a 
nngle ohurch in Florence, besides the Duomo, which is entirely 
complete on the outside. 

Chuhcu of Sast* Crock. — ^Tho noble church of llio Holy 
Craw is on txnniple. lliat end of the building tiy which wu 
eutumi, is quite rough with naked and unfinished stone work, 
now crumbling in decay; it ill accords wilL the solemn magni- 
flcdoco of Ihe interior. Ita dimensions are, length 4S0 feet by 
134 En wiiltli acrom iJio nave and two aielee. The first stone 
WM bid in 1204. Tlie inside of Santa Croco has the dignity 
(if magnitude, with much more Himj>Ucily than is common in 
Catholic churched. 

Sanla Croon is appropriafcly called the WeslmiiieUtr Abbey 
of Italy. Herfl repoiH.' many of Lcr illustrious sons, and not a 
few of tho princely house of Medici. As you enter, the lomba 
uf Michael Angcto on one side, and of Galileo on the other, 
divide your attention. The mansoleum of the former combines 
in its adonira'-nta as mnny of tlie arts as posbiblc. A large 
siircuphngus uf red African nmrble stands upon an immense 
Imm!, upon which are three figures in white marble — I'ainjing, 
Sculpture, and A rciii lecture, who are seated as moorncrs in the 
titfii:T nnmeJ. In tlie centre of the sarcophagus a bust of 
thft nrti»l fills a niche above these allegorical figures. Michael 
Angelo chose this |Hiution fur his tomb, that whe^ tiio great 

doors wen- open he 
of itwi Cal^ffdnl. 



light spc from his reating-place tlie Cu[jola 

t of the great 
L,|l>o«0 of As- 

78 Florknoe. 

Ilifl physiognomy is disfigured by the upturned note, resemblbg 
the Mtmo feature in the busts of Socrates. 

Tlie tomb of Dante surmounted by a colossa] statue of him- 
self, crowned with laurels, and having other colossal statues 
at each comer, is not pleasing, and was contrasted unfavorably 
with that of Aliieri, over which stoops a fine weeping figure 
of Poesy, by Canova. Machiavelli, the politician, and Micheli, 
tlie botanist, are on Uie same side. 

In a side chapel in the transept is a beautiful monument to 
the Countess of Albany, the widow of Alfieri, very elaborate iu 
its carvings. 

In another chapel, is a monument to a Polish lady, Sophie 
Laneoyska — tlie most touching marble I ever saw. The couch, 
which has lions* feet, has an elastic sacking, and the emaciated 
figure seems to sink with its feeble weight The face is lovely, 
so purified and so natural, that we lingered long over her 
heavenly expression. 

Suine of the most interesting frescoes in Italy are found in 
the chapels of Santa Croce, and several of them have been re- 
vealed during the last few years on removing the whitewash 
with which they were covered. The choir books of this church, 
curiously illuminated with letters several inches long, are also 
among the most ancient ecclesiastical manuscripts, dating back, 
it is said, to the fourth century. 

The history of the Italian republics is replete with proofs of 
an ardent devotion to liberty, and the church of Santa Croce is 
memorable, as the place in which the democracy of Morence 
first took on a regular form. 

In 1250, the Ghibelline nobles had been invested, by 
Frederick II., with power to be exorcised to the exclusion of all 
other persons, and this oligarchy having imposed heavy taxes, 
a sudden tumult arose, when the good men^ as they were called, 
*' assembled here with the determination of taking the power 
into their own hands, which they accomplislied without the 
slightest resistance." Having made t]iemselves/>fop^, according 
» the expressive term of the chronicles, ** a resolution of all 

tVOHO OH Oatsidiul. 

deri»*tive powers into the populiir will," lliw elected Ubcrto Ji 
Luc<sa as Capilann del PopHh,tmA twctva militnry diicfe, or 
Amiani del J'opalo, thu lenders of the ciliswna in srms. Up 
to this period tlip Plorentin«e wcni »ubjoct to tlio emperor ; wltli 
this revolution begHn their democrscy. 

AmoDg Itio BtrucUires of tills cliurcb, one of the most 
mnarlcuble is a talwrnncle (rf wlittc marble, snnnounled by a 
xtatue of \\u> au^I Mictiii«l, which rises nearly tu the roof. It 
U bvautiAtlly finished with tlio richest marble, laid in as mosuio 
work. This tAbcninclc liolda a miraele-working pioture, 
of OrcAgna in 1348, with offcriTigs made during the groat 

Till! I>rouo OR Cathedral. — The decree for the cnwtion 
of thin building was passed in 1294. The lungth of the catlic- 
dral is 4C't fe^ ; |o tl|c summit of the cross is 387 fwl, and the 
transept is 334 feet long ; height of the nnvc 1 53 feci, and tliiit 
of the Hdo aisles 00} feet. This chur«:h, like Hint of Santa 
Croce, has a sevore simplicity and tho dimity of ma^iitude. 

In 1568, an arbitntiy ruler, Ttencdotlo Uguociono, tore off tlio 
warble of the Ca^iide, nndcr the pretenue of building it more 
heaulifully. Another facade was began in 1C3G, but it has been 
left unBiiished, and to tliis day it presents on the front a very 
rode surface, while the rest of tlie building is £sc^ with polished 
marble, in alternate eolors. 

The cupola is the largsst dome in ttio world ; it exceeila 
even St Fetor's at Rome. The pavement of this church ia 
rich in bcniitiful tcmeliilod marble — red, biwo and white — nr- 
ningod iu elegant figures, in the manner of musaic. More than 
QUO vcats have )>asstH] away since this venemble church wax 
fuundf'd. " This edifice, although commenced long before llio 
rt:vivaloftlionrta,se<.-mB to have been conceivedby itsarohitm.-t in 
an original Blyle, forming, as it were, a mean betweOT llie pointed 
nod the ancient It is thenfore one of particnlor iiitereat and 

ranllon iu the hi^ry of architecture — it wns tliu first that gave 
1 tbe ktDt for the grandert moHeru monumcnta." 

60 Flobbhob. 

Tbc Caupaxilb, or Bbll Towkr, strikes the obaerver vary 
forcibly on aocount of ita great height and coii8{hcuoiu nurUa 
udes, banded of difiereut colon. It ia square, and tikb of tin 
■amo diiDciwoiia, to 275 feet It iras intended to qsitj it 100 
foot higher, a puq>oeo which was not executed, ahliough (lie 
decree, in consequence of which it was built, enjoined (1834) 
that " in height and richneae of workmanship it should surpass 
any structure riused by the Greeks or Romans, This tower 
cost 2000 florins for erery two fcet square. 

Ta> Baptistbrt is very similar to tliat at Pisa, but is un- 
finished. It is more dian 1100 yean old. The massive brouie 
doors are the same wliiuh Michael Angelo sud were wi»thy to 
be the gates to paradbe. The subjects of the bas-re)ie& are all 
from scripture history, framed in rich and graceful borderiags of 
bronze. The interior is omamented with frescoes by the three 
brothers GaddL Statues of the apostles stand around (ho interior. 
While ne were in the building, several infants received the rite 
of baptixm ; they were taken into tlie arms of the priest, who 
not only touched the face of the cliild with the holy water, but 
[>oured it copiously upon tlie back of the liewJ, holding the face 
downward over the font. The average number of baptisms is 
about 3S0O a-ycar, or nearly 1 a-ilny, and the rite is perfonned 
as soon ns possible afl«r liirth, whuu the child is only a few 
huurH old. Such exposure would be esteemed dai)g«vus 
with us. 

Tub Uediceik Galleuy or Floremce — Thb Uffizi. — 
Tlie building containing this immense museum of the arts, is 
in the form of a piiriLllulograni, two (J tlie sides being united at 
one end by a cross and the other end being open. 1 have seen 
nothing tbnt can compare with this museum for richness and 
extent, except the Barbonaco and the Vatican. Many houra are 
consumed in siniply walking through its galleries and rooma^ 
with scarcely a stop, except for a moment, here and there. This 
splendid museum is nlmoel the Vatican over nsain, although 
wiai .scniu ii]j[iurtiim vyralii.ii-. ;iuO .nldiliuiis. IL was t'ouodwi 

Statuks akd Bi;sT 


\>j iIm CimiJy uf Medici.* An nncostor of the family, tn 1378, 

copuuMxI itiu auiBo (if popnlnr Wbeny in opposition to (hu nristo- 

I crncy, nod Ui« bvor of the poopie was trUMinitted to hw deftcvnU- 

lUlt, Uiuvntmi, wlio vma gonfHlotiiur (cliief tnsgistrale) in 14'il. 

1 Hi* M)D Cosmcie was bom in ISSC. lie wastlie host! of at^om- 

merviaJ ofitablisbment,nhicli litul counting-hoiuoa in all tliajpunt 

I ciliua of Europe nod in tlie Levant. At tlio eame time, lie cul- 

I tintttsdliltmituro withnnlor. JIupRliice,oneoftIieiTic«tsiiinptu- 

I ^vua in Florence, whs the resort of artists, poets, and leanied men. 

The wultti of Cosmo da Medici was always at Uie service 

1 of his &iead«. There were very few poor pemons in Florencv ti) 

I whom fiifl purse was not open. The uivoeteon o! Cusmo auti-d 

L in tlio umu spirit, and thoir buiidiug« and iiigtitutioiiB rt^ui.iiti 

I to tkis day. 

The Hudicean inUMum, established in a porinanent build- 

I logi, 19 a ugnkl ■.•uiniplo oflWir intelligence and liberality. 

I It \* kupt in [wriisct order, and may remain tu distant gener- 

I ationn, n mimuinunt to llie honor of tho &niily. Tho busta of 

L tlie Modid liTie tlw grand entrance hall of tho ducal ^llcry; 

I and it is Uincntatile to note tlie decline of intdligcnoo »> plainly 

rible in the Inlor heads. 

Statvbs and Bubts. — We wero Burprise'l to find here si> 

I very lurgu a collection of antique statuiM and biutv, cliiclly 

Roman, and entirely similar to those whicli wo hud seen in 

such i^ut numbers in liome and Naples. Eiuperoni, Cuneula, 

Vcitahi, and Ituman wivea, and motliers, and daughters, itgiiiii 

paiiwl in review before us. There wu saw llie orij^inals oflluisi! 

k fulDuUs statues, tlm hoKeiH, llic dniicinj; faun, tlie Apollo and tlm 

1 Venus de Medids; of tlio two ktler cnpeciidly, innumiriihl.: 

I KOJM* have boen made, until Uiey have become tamilinr obj'-cw - 

I sUuvorthacivilixed world. Thopicturesinlhismu^teuinarercolc- 

I «om1 by tltouaands, of which a vast number are portraits, whiln 

I there are besidca nnmuroua large uompoaitiona. I will, however. 

82 Flokixok. 

name only one; it ia Uio adoration of tlie Mtigi while beholding 
tho infHnC Slavioiir. Ho liex, a naked babe, in the lap of his 
beautiful and delighted mother; there is no other light than 
the cfl'ulgent gloiy which emanates from the divine inftrnt, and 
as the MX vma men eagerly stoop to gaze upon him, their fea- 
tures are illuminated by a celestial radiance. 

One who baa not seen them, can hardly imagine how many 
pictures there are of the nativity — of the mother and the Sa- 
viour, of the Madonna, and of tho crucifixion. Magdalena are 
without number; and generally, subjects derived from the 
Bcrijituree, and religious traditions of saints and martyrv, are 
exceedingly numerous — all Cathoho churches are more or leas 
adorned with them. Statues are hardly less numerous, and 
tlius tho fine arts of painting and sculpture have been effectuall)' 
fostcrwl by their nflsociation with religious edifices, 

Privats CAnmcT of tub Uedici. — There is one depart- 
ment of tlie collection which is almost unique ; it in the private 
])entonal cabinet of tlio Medici, which contains very rare pro- 
ductions both of nature and art There are here rich colleo- 
tions of t)ie gold ornaments of the Etruscans us well as of the 
Pompeiiins and Ilcrculancans, such as we hnd before seen in 
the Vatican and in the Barbonaco Museum at Naples. All 
that I have said uf gold rings, bracelets, brooches, chains, fillets, 
pirw, decorations for the bosom and the head, and every part of 
the jivnutn, with the addition of gems, and in the most beau- 
tifui Hlylo of art — in a word, all my former remarks on sirailar 
thitigH, may be repeated here ; and although many of these de- 
coritlions have survived their former possessors, from one to 
two, perhaps, in some inatnnccH, llirco tlioosand years, and have 
Ktn taken chiefly from the tombs, the gold has not become 
dim, nor has Uie most fine gold changed. 

Tlic personal ornaments of the Medici, preserved in two 
flat cases, are of the richest dLwiription. Ttie gold, in 
ons modes of setting, encircicn the most bi^auliful [ 

s and gems — ngalc, heliotrope, tun 
rnbiea, I'loefahlii, *!lppll'^'■^ ""'I '' 

FLoBEKtiKg Mosaic. 


look at Uiom, ricli a& they atb in thnmsclvea, nnil in tlie eUbo- 
rat* Mtttings, some of which an hy Uenvi^nato Cellini. 

Slill more apleudid, if poaiible, and einUiuly more extnwir- 
diuar)', are l)i<.- cont«uta of four large glass caavs, ooBnected at 
11m cdgOH o( thn gloM, nilliuut eroa»-bars lo int);rct!pt tlie view. 
I'lipy (uintiila rvssvlu wruii^rht out of rock crystal, u pcrfiwtly 
lia>i>[iarvi>t, and witliout evam, spot or flaw, tjmt ihi-ir bvauty 
■-■{UnlB, if not cxwotla ihnt of tliu moot prtfei-.t glass. These ves- 
K-li are goblots, uma, &c^ of a pint or quart in capacity. The; 
aru nioimled in gold, adiI baa-rrliefii are wronght u[iod tlieir 
tides, in iho niannur ol camctB. 

On a casket of rock crystal are ongmrcd in «i]nmle beauty 
the evoDts of the paMoti, in ceT«'nt««<n compartments. The 
artist, Valrrio Vic«ntJno, itaa imtglnl I>y his lUughtcr in this 
ntdoiiisliing production of naturo lMuititili<:d by art, whidi was 
given liy th« Popo to Francis I. na n nuptial present, liis eon, 
llcnry II. having laarricd the niocti of thi: I'npe. 

'niero is hero also a rase, fourtirnn inches in diainetcr, cut 
out of lapia-Iaiiili. In addition to thr rock crystal and lapi»- 
huculi, tbHre ar« vAs«e of a|^te, canielian, jasper, chalcedony, 
and oruamvtits of varioa^ kinds wrought out of hard and beau- 
tiful atifuiie. TliiTatLimliunoflhetoiueralo^t is alao attracted by 
n aoHus of auiUiuc bu3t« workud from awelhysta, dialraxlonies, and 
lungu'iiMt, and uami^oi exhibiting portraits of Vuapaaian, Tibe- 
I'iui and Livin, Augustus and Galbn. Tli« triumph of Cosmo 
I. afdT llie tlcga of Siena is a splendid cameo — and Cupid rid- 
ing upon a lion is onotlwr. There is a table, two fcet aqiurc, 
of lapis-lazuli, inlaid wilh thn moat beautiful stones, ao as to 
prvduce land»capc*, and marine »cenva w-ith boats. The four 
prindpal cawa are so oriangMl that tliow) o|)poBite have, as 
uriy as ]>MMblo, CDiuiCerjuuts, ruck crystal answering lo rock 
erysital, lapia-tazuli to lapifr-tazuli, Ac. The small apartment 
iiitH ilx^ir iliingii is su]^ianail by ibur Eine columns 
'■. ril ant)i]UG. 

-*rb«tn ii in another room a table 
' iiMti.iin>-'l4>r,con«truct<id of the mott 


84 Flobkhck. 

beanUful PIorectiDe mosaic, which is made, not with colored 
glasa, iiko the modem mosnic of Some, bnt with the natural 
colors c^ bard and beaiitifal stones; and the shading and tran- 
sitions are prodnced by a judicious seicctioD of the colors. 
I^is table is adorned by bcaatiful ornamental figures inlaid in 
a dark bans. In these rooms there are several nnaller tables 
(J the same workmanship. The Florentine mosaic is the same 
with the "cputtectiU" of the Romans. It is vei^ e:(pensrre, 
bnt very enduring. There are works of this kind now in pro- 
gress in the grand ducal manufoctory, which, as we an as- 
sured, will bo superior to any heretofore produced. 

We hare been looking into tho private shops, whore the 
Florentine moaaic is made, and, lastly, into the grand duke's 
national manufactory. 

As hard stones are to bo en t and Bet, the process is veiy 
slow, and, therefore, this kind of mosaic is very dear. For ex- 
ample, a tat^e of porphyry is to be inlaid with agate, cnmelian, 
Inpis-Iazuli, or other bcautifiil stones. The tabic itself, whidi 
is OS hard as qnart^ ia to be bored, drilled, or cut, where the 
foreign pieces are to bo inserted ; and tliifse also are not only 
lo be cut so as to fit, bnt they moat be a-^iorted to the fignre as 
regards color and shading. One would think it impoffiiblo to 
accomplish such a task ; but it is done with the most perfect 
success, so that extremely beautiful picturi>H arc produced. Per- 
haps they are plants, or insects, or qoadnipcds, or landscapes, or 
any thing elso copied from nature or dictated by fancy. We 
are astonished at the result when we cont«.-mplate tlie means 
by which it is prodnced. Wo saw tlio artists cutting and 
drilling with emery powder, and they were sawing tho hard 
stones with an iron wire, carrying also tl>e same material. In 
taich labors patience must indeed have its perfect work. 

Wo satisfied ourselves with some very simple q>odmens as 
■ouvcnira of this wonderful art The prices demanded for 
this species of mosaic are princely. Around table, about two 
^&et acros*. m.Hl hr:iniilull_\ U-i<'-\. wu- |.rio.' 

l~I>on lliL, »i';k)<.- i.r \.tH-j:. buuio wi ti» krgu a 

VtrscL'M or Katcrai. History i 


iiific«iit Ltbtra in \iw grast (pilluriua must liuvu K<rA rruiu ten V> 
twt-nty tJiouMiTi') dolUre. When llii; [lioturo it fonii«], lliu 

I •nriitu(\ wilh nil il« inserted pieces, is f-oliebL-d uniformly ; ami 
when tlniiJied, it is not only an asloniahing proiluclion of atl, 

I but it ia <le«ttiied to perpetuity, a« it will never fwiu or under- 
go any clitinge, uidcsx tracked by violence or fire ; ftml except 
for the effect of such ocddents, it will bo ns perfiH^t a tlioasand 
vesri hunt-e us now. 

Ill tlia rooms of the ducal manufnetory there were ioino 
Kplmdid tables, and ail iiround iJmro was a grval Htorv of mfiUi- 
riab midy for usri. Agates, earnelinna, onyx, petrified wood,ja9- 
pcT, lapis-lfizuli, and other colorod hard stone^ nnd mti1achi(«, cut 
into ttiin sJioM, wei« iiSMrl<>d on sbelvoi ready for osc. 1 havo 
been aMouiihed at the inagnitudo of soma of tho slabs of lapis- 

' lazuli ; they were two feel or more in diameter, while it is rare 
that wu sec them in cablnete of mincrnlogy of mor« tlian n lew 

Mi'sKM* ov Natitiul IltsToRv ANn AxATour, — Tliis nd- 

inililo Mtobliehmcnt doo« gjeat honor to Flon?ncc, and tu tliu 

I present grand duka, who is its liberal and efficient patron. It 

I occupies numerous rooms in a very large building, and is judi- 

I cioQsly divided into depaitmerit^. The demeutary mineralogy 

and geology, including fonsils, are on an ample scale. I'ho 

»|ieciuienH are generally good, and some of thora are very fine. 

ThtTo are well written labels attached to all, and secured to a 

I golrji'U lodge or rib, which without hiding nipporls the speci- 

I intiiis. There aru fina tourmnlinc* from Elba, superb cr)'slaU 

of yniitit from the samn island, and a magnificent maao of llos 

rri (xtalaotilicjd nrmgonitc) from Styria. 

A large meteorite, whow volume would hnjily a weight of 

' IfiO pounds, IB without n label, and is placed lu a situation so 

I dark and olwcure, that it might have been pB»ed by uni>b- 

L serrtHi except by thowi who*o «tm arc sharp for sueli Unngs. 

The ileparlincnt of binls is rery beautiful, and tliey an; in 
I perfect order. Tli« *amc u true of the lool^gy at largi;, includ- 
tatUrr dupartiuunt is t 



Entomology is well represented by a large collection of inaectB, 
syslcmatically arranged in clitascs. 

Models in Was. — Tho principal glory of the museum 
b seen in the peculiar production of Florence — the wax 
modela illustrating anatomy. The models fill many rooms. 
The first rooms are devoted to th« anatomy of plants. It is 
surprising to see how perfectly their structure is displayed 
through lie Rrrangemenls of the atem, and the flowers and 
seed-Tensely up to the perfect plant In some respects the 
models are superior to nature, inasmuch as they display the 
structure more perfectly than it can often be seen in the living 

Comparative anatomy follows, exhibiting the structure of 
fishes and quadrupeds. The stomach, the intestines, the lungs, 
the brain, the bones, the bloodvessela and nerves are displayed 
with great beauty and petfcction. Tlie cephalopoda,* with 
tliuir prehenale arms and cusps, their large and prominent 
eyes, their strong and carnivorous mouths, and oven their ink- 
bags and pens, are not forgotten. 

But man is the great oLjcct. Ilis noble form is fully dis- 
played, including the smallest bono and articulation of a fingur 
or toe — all the individual bones aro separately exhibited, and 
all are again unil«d to form his perfect framework, as it is 
seen iti tlie entire skeleton. Then follows the progressive in- 
vestment of muscles, prt^ressive until the skeleton is complete- 
ly clothed, and fumiNlicd with powers of movement, and with 
all that is necessary, both wiiliin and without, for the discharge 
of ever)- function. All tlto individual parts also aro shown in 
Beparate dissection — the alimentary organs, the vascukr, recpi- 
ratorj-, abrarbent, and nen-ous Kystoms, are displayed to [lerfec- 
tion. Nor is man's more delicate counterpart forgotten. All 
that is peculiar in lier structure and economy ; all that be- 
longs to llic first gorm and progrc«Hivo development of the hu- 

Tub TttiBunit or Gaulso. 


man furTii, willi (Iiu tr'niK diinprrs, Ami sullvriiig incidunl U> 
llio liciur vC wrniw, nnd lliu pruti<(ition which it dcin&uds — all 
aru re<wrdiHl witli Uiu prvci^on nnd fidelity, nod wilb the exact 
BotvniN: nnd uonuiinmiite «kill, which to high a duty reqnirvs. 

The ntuitomiiaU models of Florence me ftanom Uiraugh tho 
civilised world; and miiny ligiiras from this city are in the mu- 
Mnma of the United Stittps. 

1'itB TitiuirKE OF Gaulbo. — This noblo monumcntnl mo- 
moriiil of TiHcany's greatest philosopher is, however, the cen- 
tral point of attraction in tho Museum for the lover of sciuDL-c. 
It is liie most compluto, ttppropriate, and inturcsling pociionnl 
coDHuemoration tvhivh we enw in Europe^ Two lurgu aport- 
meutii in tho most perfect styla of Roman architccturu, have 
btMn coniwcrntod to the grcatust genius of Tuscan science. They 
ore joined hy oonnt<otlng nrchitei, funning a rich atrium in Lbu 
Mtyla of Brnmante, Uiu antes, pilaatere, and duor being t^nonisted 
wiUi polishe<l marbles and lianl stones, all tlu: produe« of Tu»- 
enny. At tiio farthest mrl stands a noble full-sixed sLituo of 
Galileo, desi^ied by A»io)i, and 8cut|)lured by Coeloli, Floron- 
iJnu artists. This sliitiie is in full drapery, gatherwi by the left 
hand into rich folds, while the right rests upon a pedcsUl c«rv 
ed with the di»grnin*ci>ntAinin^sr>muof hiscelubmted proposi- 
tion*. Thowilinptarudonit's. and richly deraralod with piim-ls, 
ill which bcntitifiilly deugnod freacocH, in vivid colors, oominoDio- 
rale the noble dineoveries of OnHIw), .ind of tho other I'usean phi- 
lo»opllet«. In one, Leonardo da Vinci cotnaiuoicatcs Wfuro tlin 
gi-aml diiku and an assembly of (ulniiring liatenuR, tho stale of 
moehanica! wi<'u«j in th« early part of the di-ttt^nlh ci-ntury. 
Thin Li Uie m<>sL litaiao nnd olegnnt uf all the cornpositioiu (n 
frrivn contained in the apartment, Othem illuslmlf thu Glirt M- 
perimcnt of •'•nliiro on tho law of fulling bodios, the discovnrr of 
i<.int«f lima from tho o»cillftlinn nf lie pendulum, 
<ii of the telescope, and other mibjocts commemorative 
of tbo diBccviTieii of itiu Flurentlnu acadeniician. HtntK [if miinf 
of U» more celebrated of ihe*e rest on*lals Rnrrmniding 
the inner ruuin, while niejalliun«. in b>t>-ie!icr>, "r^lhcr philoao- 

88 Fl^REKCE. 

pbers and poets fill the spaces under the cornice. In hexago- 
nal spaces between the groinings of the arches are allegorical 
figures of Nature, Truth, Perseverance, and Physical Science^ 
while corresponding spaces are filled by medallions of Philoso- 
phy, Astronomy, Geometry, Mathematics, Hydraulics, and Me- 
chanics. All these are graceful,, dignified female figures, seat- 
ed, and surrounded by appropriate emblems. In the annexed 
wood-cut is given a copy of one of the frescoes in the anterior 
rooms. It represents Volta demonstrating the immortal ex- 
periment of his pile- before tlie French Academy at Paris in 
1801. Napoleon, as a member of the Institute, views with 
the most interested attention this novel experiment Monge, 
l^rthollet, and Vauquelin surround him. Fonuroy looks on 
with wondering delight, while La Place, Lacepede, Cuvier, Le- 
gendre, Morveau, and Biot are recognized among the crowd of 
illustrious spectitors. Tuscany has good occasion to be proud 
of her great names in art, science, and literature ; and all who 
visit thiH deliglitful Temple of Galileo must feel that the present 
grand duke is deserving of praise for this monument, however 
we may regret his espousal of principles since the revolution of 
1848, so hostile to the best interests of his people. 

In glass casts on the sides of one of the rooms are preserv- 
ed several instruments ever memorable in the history of science. 
We saw the very telescope which Galileo first constructed — ^a 
simple tube of wood, with a double convex lens ; and the laige 
burning-glass by which the diamond was burned before Cos- 
mo de Medici. 

In one of the c;ises, and near the instrument to which it 
n'fers, we found the following, a.s we believe, in Galilco^s own 
handwriting: ^ Astrdahium Arahicum ex Ilispania delatum, et 
paratum eo i€mpore^ in quo equinoctium vcrum karcbat in die 
15 Martii^ id est anno Chriiti 1252, quo Alfonsus Rex IlisqiO' 
niariam rcstituit fuotus celestes.^ 

Milton visitetl (lalileo in his house, which is still standing, 
and designated by a Latin inscription ; and from his tower at 

American Sculptors. 80 

FieBolo the astronomer made those observatioDs to which the 
great poet alludes, when ho says, that Satan's shield 

*' Hung o*cr hia sboulden, like tho moou, whoee orb, 
Through optic glass, the Tuscan artist views, 
At evening, from tlie top of Ficsole, 
Or in Yaldarno, to descry new lands, 
Rivers or mountains in her spotty globe." 

This observatory is still preserved in tlio Torre de Gallo, 
near the hill of Arcetri. The tower is not much altered, but is 
now annexed to some farming buildings. 

Tho story of Galileo's persecution is well known. Being 
called by the Pope to Rome in mid-wintor, when old and in- 
firm, his works were condemned, he was imprisoned in tlie 
dungeons of the Inquisition, and was com|)ellcd to renounce 
his alleged errors, before an assembly of monks, as ignorant 
as they were intolerant 

He was obliged to kneel, and, with his hand on the Bible, 
to repeat a prescribed recantation : " Corde sincero et fide 
non fijcia abjuro, maledico et dcUslor supradictos errores et 
hcresesP* But as ho arose, he indignantly stamped with his 
foot, and exclaimed, " E pur si muovo^ — and yet it moves. 

Tliis disgraceful farce was acted Juno 23d, 1633 ; but it 
ended in his being remanded to the prisons of the Inquisition ; 
tho sentence was, however, commuted to banishment to the 
Episcopiol palace of Sienna, and afterwards to A recti near Flor- 
ence, where he died in his 78th year, almost blind, and worn 
out by persecution and suffering. 

American Sculptors. — Florence, to American minds, has 
long been associated with the names of Greenough and Powers. 
Clevinger, a western American artist of great promise, enjoyed 
only a brief Italian career ; and Ives, from New Haven, is sup- 
porting worthily his country's fame. Mr. Greenough is in 
America, but we called on Mr. Powers and Mr. Ives, both of 

* See Galileo's recantation more in full in inj Appendix to Bakt- 
ireirs Oeologj. 

00 Florbncs. 

whom we found with compass and chisel in hand. Mr. Ives we 
had known at home, but we had never before seen Mr. Powen. 
He received us with great cordiality, and his manners were so 
frank and winning, that he did not allow us to feci that we 
were interrupting his work. 

It is not quite fair to communicate even to one's friends, 
much less to the world, all that an artist in his studio, in im- 
plied if not in express confidence, kindly imparts, of his doings 
and his plans, and I will not transgress in a point in which tra- 
vellers are sometimes too free. 

Tlie Greek Slave of Mr. Powers is universally known both 
in America and in England, and it is now on exhibition at the 
Crystal Palace in London. The artist has retained a copy of 
the beautiful head and bust He lias also in hand, and fiur 
advanced, two allegorical full-length female figures : America 
sjrmbolizes patriotism, love of liberty and of God, attachment to 
the Union and hatred of despotism. Uow a mute lady can 
tell all this, without even making a sign, is easily understood ; 
when we see the splendid form, whose high destination relieves 
one from the painful sympathy with which we view the lovely 
Grecian victim in chains. 

California, the other female figure, will have a freer and 
wilder bearing, adapted to the far-off Pacific shores, and to tlie 
golden visions which tliere rise in waking dreams. It is to be 
hoped that the American government will not forget an artist 
of such high merit as Powers, and that they will place his 
workjs side by side, with those of Grecnough and CniM*ford, 
whom tlu'V liave already fostered.* 

In the studio of Powers, we at once recognized the plaster- 
casts of John Q. Adams, Marshall, Calhoun, Webster,f and Van 
Burcn, and others of our countrymen; and there are many 
more unknown to me, and of both sexes, from our side of the 

* When this sentence wan penned I little dreamed that Mr. Green- 
oagh*ii course was so soon to be finished ; I saw him at Washing^n 
jutt before our departure for Europe. 

f The four first, alas I are now dead, November 12, 1852. 



' mtur. At present, Mr. Powere is engiiged in Uia very lionor- 
ftUo Aaty of preparing bnsU of tlit! rcigniiig gnuid Duliu and 

I loarn from liim that lie no longer cmploya tlie Carmrn 
' inarblo in «tatunry. Hb begun tvitli it fourtt^ii jeurs ^a, but 
s it lem pyrfiwt than llio mublc of Scra\i;Ma, in Tuscany, 
i nliout GO inilea from FloroDci} ; tiiti, he says, is th« ftmst and tho 
I |nmnt marUo known. 

II'- has ulso nxJiiKovored a fo)^tt«n ffuairy in tl)0 Maremma, 

nncrly wrought by the Romans; it is a coarse marble, liko 

t}i« Parian, but leaa traunlucenL Tliia u iIiq innrble usually 

nllod by the Roman virtuosi, Gredan marble. It answers 

vory well for larger figure*, and Mr. Powers ba» sculptured a 

WaahingtoD from it, and a smaller and more beautiful one from 

i tlia Seravi-nn marble, both of which we mw. We hud tlio 

I pleasiiro of an interview in tlic family rooms with Mrs. Powois 

and her ohtldren, She is a sensible and agreeable Aiuorican 

lady, and secures a choerfiil and happy home for the artist ; a 

reality of domestic enjoyment whliih, sfW all the fine idtality 

I of iho sculptor's art, conies home mom to tbe heart than tho 

' «loqacnt and speaking, though eit<.'nt, figunts tn marble can do. 

The family of Mr. Powera have little fauiiliarity with the 

people among whom they reside, and tlie greater part of his 

patronnge is derived from other European countries or (torn 

America. The family do not appe«r to ho at all Euro|)eaiii«-d, or 

to have lost their American attach men la, and thiy do not relin- 

quiali th« iduK of returning tn their counlTj' lor a permanent 

I homH. Mr. Powera is in tho meridian of life, and it is to l>o 

t hiipcKl will long jivL' to do honor to his native land. Uv was « 

I ualivo of Woodstock, in Vermont 

Wo foinid Mr. Ives at work upon a fino frmnle form, nii 
nnugorical figunt of a lady well known to fame, who holds in 
, her hand a ciBktt full of evils, and long renowned as tbu box 
I ofPandom. 

Tho work of Mr. Ivm—aself-tfiiight artist* — Is bl^Dullful, and 

02 Rkturm from Leoborn to Pisa. 

if he had done nothing more than to preeeire the noble head 
and features of the Rev. Jeremiah Day, late President of Yale 
College, he had deserved well of his country, and I do not hen- 
tate to say, although no artist, but after having seen many hun- 
dreds of marble statues, both ancient and modem, that the bust 
of Day by Ives is worthy of a place in any collection of statuary 
in Europe. It has more than the merit of fine sculpture ; it has 
the ideality of the living man, and will stand with posterity at 
the embodiment of wisdom and goodness after they shall have 
been exalted to a higher sphere. 

Mr. Ives was unfortunate in the loss of a bust of the Rev. 
Nathaniel Taylor, professor in the Theological Institution 
of Yale Coll<^. The vessel was wrecked about three weeks 
before our interview with tlie artist The statue of Mr. 
Calhoun, by Crawford, it will be remembered, was also, a few 
years ago, buried in the sands l>cncath the sea, on the coast of 
America, but it was recovered with the loss of an arm. 

"gtinxn frjont ^Ijortiut U l^m. 

June 1«, ISAl. 

When we returned to Pisa after our visit to Lucca, on the 
lOtli instant, we engaged rooms in our hotel, with the intention 
of \n8iting Pisa again, for the purpose of seeing its scientific 
collections and some of the professors, whom we had missed on 
tlie former occasion. We had it also in view to be pres^'nt at 
a great triennial fbUi soon to take place, in honor of St. Renariti, 
the patron saint of Pisa. 

Acconlingly, our entire party resorted to the early train of 
cans which was already filled by well-dressed and joyous people, 
young and old, who were in buoyant spirits, in expectation of 
the coming fote at Pisa, to whicb city they were going. The 
crowd was so great that many were standing, and when the 
train, with a sudden jerk in starting from the diflferent stations, 
threw many of them backward, there was a loud ahont of 

Profess OH Mattkdcci. 


I norrinicnt, especially from tlm girl-^, ami tliu gniliinl ynuiig 
Inen w«ro no wny loUi to ensUin Llii; Cilling damsL-Is. 

In luolcing nround wa could liunlly veo uriy ilidaifncti in 
Iwiiiipluxion, dress, cumxtttaaace, and niunnurs from our own 
IfKiOplQ at home; all wore mirUiful niid tallcL-d iuuQiwinlly, li'r 
u grave. It was a pluasaut exiiibilioii of Uie uvurn^- 
f populntion of tlui miJOk clnsses — there weru no liigh ot)icial>s 
I y nobility, or titlod clergy, but the people thomsclves, wlio, 
T careloM of fi^Tomment affiure and foud of amusaniQiit, weru 
I Don OMomblwl promiscaoiMly, on a lovely morning in all tho 
I brighLoesA of »ii Italian June, nnd witli fuucs as utiulouded as 
I the lieavuns above tbuir beads. Aniung ibum llieru was a good 
I proportion of uoinuly people, and some of tbo girls were bloom- 
I hijr wiUi New England complex ions, but not veiled by New 
^England gravity and reserve. So, on we went witli lltb jocund 
\ party, wnuscd witli tha duv<^lu])niciit of ebaroel^tr, and grntilied 
I by tJio view of a splendid emintry in bigh uultivntion, most of 
I wbieli was liiilden from our sight by ihu durknras of night 
- pfwseii this row! Itofore, on our wny from Piwi to 
At balf-imst ten o'elook wo wero roiustaleil in our 
rooms in tlie Kevenido Hotel on the bank of the 
Kclasiiieul Anio. Rootils were in great request on ae<»>uul of 
I thd nppnmching C&le, and without a pre-ungagemcnt we eould 
|Kiar<!cly have been Bcconimodntud at nil, or only at un unor- 
I tiious axpenti\ Wo had retained uU our rooms except one 
I bed-chumber, which a Pmssiau nobleman ei^rly took at 
B for the occasion. Fur our own aparUnents we 
nid forty dollars for n night and a day. 

I'RoreseOR Mattsl-ccc. — Wo hod been invited to breakfast 
h this eminent phil'Hophur, at liis Villa Carliana, four miles 
n the oouutry, but our limits of lime would not permit iis 
invilAtion ; some of tlie gentlemen of our party, 
'efore, met both him and his lady at tiie rooms of the phy- 
kl department in tlio university, and paswl a very ugrevablii 
; witli (hose interesting poopin, wlio traalod u« with 
ndneM. IMiels'ly i^fn^m K<linbnrgh,andtH>lbhcr Rng- 



lish tongue and her early sympathies were <fa\ie in harmon; 
with my own ; for I could talk with her feelingly of good ol< 
Scotland, and of Edinburgh, which in my youth I loved, havin 
passed there five very happy montlis, and I had never bee 
estranged from the warm-hearted Caledonians. 

Professor Matteucci enjoys, dcsen^edly, a high reputatio 
throughout the scientific world, on account of liis able n 
searches and writings on general physics, and especially in an 
mal electricity. He is a man of noble person and cordii 
manners — a true Roman, or rather a Tuscan of Galileo's stam] 
He is charged with the telegraphic communications of Tuscan] 
which are conducted exclusively for the benefit of the govon 
ment, and the wires are not accessible to private individuals 
How long would such a system of wires, tlius monopolized, n 
main intact in our country ? Professor Matteucci is, howove 
privileged, for his own personal correspondence. At Flo: 
(?nce we received and answered a note from him by tek-grap] 
at the distance of fifty miles. He has a fino a])paratus in tli 
physical department, which wo saw. 


tienien of our party passed the afternoon in the University wit 
the eminent j)rofessor of mineralog}' and geology. For moi 
than three hours, he was very kindly and zealously employe 
in exhibiting and explaining specimens, some of which, esp< 
cially many of those from Tuscany, and some from Elba, wer 
now to us. Professor Meneghini gave to my younger con 
panions a lK?autiful suite of minerals from Elba and othc 
plact/s ; and they were bestowed with the freedom of a wan 
friend, as well as with the spirit of a hberal-minded man ( 
seience. HLs department is extremely well filled out, and J 
particularly rich in Tuscan and other Italian minerals and fossil 
illustrating geology and paleontology^ as well as mincralogi 
What adds very much to the utility of the collection is that th 
sp4H:imens are well arranged and labelled. Eiich piece lies on 
block of wood, to the front of which the label is attached. Thi 
department of mineralogy and geology is only a portion of a vah 

/ ^ 




loollection in nil branuliee of iiotuml liistory, uiil iu coinpttro- 
ltiv« aDAtmny. All that 1 hnre said of the museum at Flotvuce 
■« iruo hero, with the exception of the (Icpnrlwitnt of wax 
K.inoOebt, which is more limited. But as n-gnnla tlie annlomy 
mti animiils the deficiency is in sotnn rcspctits more-llian 8U]>- 
■iptiod by projmratioiifi of the nnimals themselvea. Every tiling 
lb pcrftct in ilH kind, and put up in the best possiblo innnner. 
I St was fually ilolightful lo walk through the numerous rooms. 
P In AtnericA, wc Imvc uoUiing cqiml to the coIlecUons m Fior- 
I vaee. Vim, and Pari* ; but the cnbJnct of mineralog}' iu Yule 
I Collc^ would be esteemed a rick collection were it iu a Euro- 
l.fean univeruty; and the Academy of Natural Sciences in 
rfluUd^lpkia 1> entitled to a high rank oven in Europe. Pro- 
r Ueocghini showed us a spocimen of pisolite in which 
I Ibo ooncroUons were as largo as a bullet of the largest »i»<; 
I tnd they showed the usual concentric structure in a very perfect 
I and beautiful ntanner. What appoarod very extraoflinary, 
I they were inelowxt in crystalltaed calcareous 6par, and even in 
I emupHct limusione. 

8uiuu uf lUe fuanb nf ihe geological coll«;tion were also 
i Tety r«ninTkabl<>. Tli<.-re were juws and bones of tliu fo«sil elu- 
I phMit and of Uio mastoilun, fwui the vidley of tliu Anio ; and 
the same region lliero was a vory lurgc Ijoad of the fossil 
I fcippopotsmua, ticMdos other bones of Uiat animal. There was 
I 1^*0 a groat numt>vr of tusks of elephants, which were discovet- 
I «d in cutting the railroad bvtween Florence and I^sa. Bones 
[ froui tiit^ caronis were also rcmurkabht. Tlic head of a cavern 

r juBtiliiEfi Cuviet's remark, that iLe cavern benn were as 
I hrgii Ki an Euglislt hunting horse. An induhitjkblu petrified 
I Uuiku, of small siKe, was nttMhod to a («rtJary rock ; and 
I' Konus, eome of thvm giants of their race, were adherent to a 
I tertiary liraestona mck, or inclosed in it. Wo must not leave 
I Frofissor Menegliini without mentioning liia predecessor in 
, Pfofvsaur IHIn, who, during tlm popular struggle in 
Ll848, fitll in batll<^ lie took sidw with tlio palHuts and was 

06 Pisa. 

cut down in the morning of life. He was diBtingoished in hk 
professorship, and was the author of valuable original works on 
the geology of Tuscany. Men of learning in the contineuta! 
universities have been generally friends of liberty. 

^ it\t. 

Jane 16^ 1851. 

Tmli^t before Evening. — ^I should enlarge somewhat more 
upon the beautiful museum, and mention other interesting par- 
ticulars, were it not that the town is now all alive with moving 
and animated thousands, many having come into Pisa firom 
the country around. The crowds form almost a dense mass of 
human beings, covering the bridges and the wide streets along 
tlio river. As I wrote tliis notice while the events were passing, 
I shall presence tlie language as it was entered at the time in 
my journal. 

Half an hour ago, the grand dnke, Ferdinand II., with the 
duchess, drove into the town, followed by their suite ; and as 
they p.'iHscHl in front of our hotel, and near to it, with hats off, 
and in ojwn carriages, \vc saw them distinctly from our win- 
dows. Tile duke, with a gray head and gray whiskers, ap- 
)H'ai's like an old man, but has no marks of imbecility. Ho 
bowed re}>eatedly to the people as he passed ; but there was no 
manifestation of enthusiasm ; — there was no hurra ; — no God 
save the duke !* and heads remained generally covered. 

I must now stop writing, as the town is bursting into n 
blaze of glory from ten times ten thousand lamps, which dazzle 
my eyes, as daylight declines, and I am catching too much of 
the popular feeling to write any thing more at present 

Quarter past ten p. il The illumination is now at its height 

* The duko was formerly very popular, as he was believed to 
be a friend to the liberties of the people ; but having proved faith- 
IcM to their eause, by eonniving at the despotifm of Austria ovor 
northern Italy, he is no longer regarded with favor by his siiljeetiL 

A Fetr 


iVinilows, arcliea, dours, colonnades, (>orliuoes, corniuee, and luJ- 
IcBtrnilw; tliu ud<« unit- arch«a of ihe bridges ; the wliole lino of 
^(lio river, for two luiliti on bolb side*; the numerous boftts fly- 
ing upon the etroiun ; tho low«re of pnlnces, nnd towers and 
Ejiyniiuiilft arooted for the occssion ; iLo famous leaning to«ir 
■io itB highest arch; the great cnthodral, in ita lower windnws; 
■ipublio squares, churches, nnd hotels, lire now in one univen«tl 
■Uaw, from double rows of lamps thnl Sing their radiance nvtr 
city and ita beantiful bow-like rircr, and seem to illuminalo 
[ even llio Jicaveos, Ornamental figures of light; circles, with 
I Iheir effulgent radii and periphery ; stars, crowna, trianglea, ami 
l^toons, and innumerable other ornamental forma, give diversity 
> m exhibilioQ vboae overwhelming splendor and intense 
■■^auly 6ir eiceed my powers of deacriplion. Our hotel is Iti ibe 
Dentre of a largo sweeping cuno made by Uio river, nud iJio 
ttrevU which follow it; nnd ihuii, looking from cur open win- 
B duwH in the third story, wo are dazzled in every diret^tiuu by 
is gorgeous display. 
Having walked for an hour in tlio principal parts of iho 
pty, &iid among the dunsu crowds In front of our hotel, we find 
v|ho illumiimtlou geDernI, and the moving flood of people is in 
■ iniiel plocts e<)Uolly full. Cavalry, in splendid uniform, are 
levery wbcni to bo tiucu on their horses, with drawn swords ; and 
Infantry, with fixed bityonets, are at tlie comers of all public 
Martial music is plaj-iug from n military band march- 
ing up and duwn tlie Btreete and squares, sod Jong lines of eie- 
jaut caniagofl move slowly through the crowd. The borses 
3 uf fiuu form, and in |n.'rfecl training; tlie servants are in 
^lendid livery; and mure attractive thiin all the r^t of ihu 
ml, beautiful women In tasteful costume, grace the open cai^ 
a, aud iliapluy their feiitures and formaat the open windows 
f thu hou!)«a, in u w:irm night of nn Italian June. We bad 
lot souD so much female beauty in Europe before, and we could 
^raost feel iJiat we were among our own Eiir tounlrywoinen 
: home — for huru the most l>cautlful snd clegnnt wonipn 
i not aoca in the bIit«Ib of the cities, as with nn. On Iho 
V-. ti,-fl 

08 Pisa. 

continent they rarely mix with the masses, and we are satisfiea 
that very erroneous impressions would b^ received by the tra 
Teller who sees only the humble and often laborious and over- 
tasked women, who frequent the fields of the country and the 
thoroughfares of cities. The moon, nearly full, has just risen 
in a cloudless sky, and now looks down with mild effulgence 
upon this scene of man's humble emulation — ^a scene which in 
a few hours will pass away, while her silver light, which for 
ages has beamed upon the world, will never go out 

In November, 1805, 1 saw the great illumination in Lon- 
don in honor of Lord Nelson's victory, off Trafalgar, over the 
combined fleets of France and Spain. That illumination is the 
only one among those which I have seen, that can compare 
with the one now blazing around me, and tlirowing over this 
city a scene of enchantment But it is not draped with sor- 
row as was that in London, where naval emblems, anchors and 
warlike prows, and Nelson's name in letters of fire, reminded 
tlio spectator that it was tin illuminated mouniiug. The na- 
tion mourned for her naval hero, and multitudes more bewail- 
(hI thfir friends, slain with their voteran commander in the 
lionr of victor}'. 

I have again looked out at the windows, and am more de- 
lighted than ever with tliis fair}' scene, which this bow-like 
river presents to great advantige. The palace of the grand 
duke is illuminated by candles, instead of lamps, and there are 
peculiar figures of light to distinguish the ducal mansion. 

In the beginning of these remarks I hinted at 100,000 
lamps ; I now believe that ten times that number would still 
be within limits. The cost is to the city 25,000 dollars. As 
to the saint, I suppose the people neither know nor care much 
about him. This f(5te is to bo regarded as a grand ipectaeU^ 
got up to amuse the masses, and to keep them in good-humor 
with the government and the priesthood. 

Eleven o'clock, p. m. — Again I look out upon a scene 
which I never expect to fiee equalled. The gentle breeze, 


which Tlie hcftt of the lamps has created, dow prodi)«« a RJelt- 

I V^ttg of the fIntnM, which mlds much to their splendor, with- 

I out ^xiingiiiahing nny of Ihem. 

June 16(A, o'etoek, k. m.— Afti-r a brief slumlior, I rose 
■t half {Hist oun o'ohiclc, a. m^ and all was still in full bril- 

I Kanry ; the |u^ple were clustering in compnct groups, and 
(fwatniimbeis pawed the night in \ho stroels; indeoil. in my 
lialf-wftking slenp I haaivl their outl'UtBts of vociferous joy, and 
when, at my usual morning hour, half |)aat four o'clock, I rose 

I ft>r tiie day, the throngs still hung around, and most of llio 
tatnjtg \-iHiblo from my window wore still burning ; but tlii'ir 
diroinishod light faded away before the Orient sun, now com- 
ing Forth in all the glory of 'an Italian summer morning. 

Reflkctions. — As in the journal wliich I wrote in Europe 

I in my youlli (1805-0), I was sparing of polttjcnl remarks, 

I have generally preferred to avoid them in I his journey. The 

liihirtat they excilo !» often IranHiont, and the course of events 

k fr*qUL*ntIy so different from the predictions of poUtitnana, 

[ that human sitgadly is moclced by the result. In l]ic vory 

I mtcresting position in which our travelH have plucL-d us in Ilaly, 

I we hare nut, however, been inditferent obaenera of what was 

I jKusing around us ; we have not exhausted our sympathies upon 

piotum and statuee, and have felt that the welfare of living 

mon and the hopes of posterity were of moru value than all ttic 

productions of ilia fine aria. The few suggestions wliidi I shall 

now make aro derived not more from our own observations, 

u from the superior knowledge and opinions of enlightened 

[ people, both native and fureign, to whom we bt^vu hod access. 

Lombardy, in ihc north, and tlie throe southern divisions of 
I Italy — Tuscany, Rome, and Naples, including Sicily — are now 
Kauhject«d to a rigorous military despotism, without a shadow of 
I politics! liberty ; and personal freedom and sccurily are entirely 
f U the mercy of thu&e who rule. I have already ruentioneil, 
I that the many thousands of prisoners now confined in the 
B ud fortiMaes of Ni^ koj tlin fapd uMm, tnt. 

100 Rbflectiokb. 

quently on suspicion only, are hoperessly immured ; there is no 
habeas corpus; they are usually ignorant alike of the accu- 
sation and of the accuser, and there is little hope of release except 
from revolution or from the relenting of despotic power. The 
faithless and perjured kiug of Naples provoked his people to 
take up arms, because he virtually annulled the constitution 
which he had given them, and he closed the doors of the parlia- 
ment house, as I have already mentioned, against the represen- 
tatives of the people, when they attempted to assemble to 
organize the government* I have already mentioned tho 
infliction of military vengeance upon Messina, Catania, Palermo, 
and other places by the royal Neapolitan armies, which, after 
opposition had ceased, were let loose upon the people to pillage 
their property, bum Hieir houses, and insult their persons. An 
Italian gentleman apologizxid for iha king, by saying that he 
had evil counsellors, and was himself more stupid than wicked, 
iHiing also very illiterate; but experience has shown that 
stupidity, ignorance, and wickcdneM) are often associated in tho 
s:ime individual, who may then be managed by the art of those 
who arc equally wicked but more sagacious. The king of Naples 
would not be safe in his own dominions, were he not sustained 
by a powerful army of disciplined troops dispersed over tho 

All tlie world kno^i-s that Rome is again a conquered city, 
and we saw, when in the castle of St Angelo, in sight of St 
iVter's and the Vatican, that artillery, loaded and pointed by 
French cannoneers, menaced destruction upon the slightest 
aj^poarance of a popular movement 

The apology for the aggression of the French is, that they 
hold Home for the Romans, against Naples on the one hand 
and Austria on the other. This painfiil truth only proves the 
forlorn condition of the Romans, as regards personal and 

* Thcao facti wcro stated to lu on tho best authoritv, and their 
trath has been lunce fully confirmed by the well-known publioation of 
the Uon. Mr. Gladstone in England. 



'jmliticsl libcrtj. Thay Iwve to «usUin ihu iucubua of thuir own 
I priestly goTnnimcnt, tlia inaitldng dominutton of a fort^gn army, 
I and ihii menace of two powcriul kingdoms, abould t}ieir GiUUu 
inantcTs be wilidrawn. 

U Komo mttnining ttiese heavy inflictiotis as a just retri- 
bmion for her nnnient invasion, spoliation, and eubjugalion of 
nil tliu tlien &cc«Bsib!a world, and for her cniol epiritunl inflio- 
tiom in Inter eras, elnce the has acijuired a magicAl sway that 
Hlill eKeriB un inAuenud, aa powerful sa it is mysterious, 
uwr many millions in foreign lauds, aa well aa in her own 
liumlniuns I 

Tliu PnpiU govcnimunl is In tho hands of Uie cardinals, who 
mnnago as they please, but iho priests, from their Imring tslcen 
aitlrs ngniDst the people, are now so odious, that, aa wo were 
assured, the clmrm of priestly tntlueiice is diasoK'ud, and 
lliat notliing but opportunity is waning to tlirow olT finally 
tliit odious and oppressive sway of wicked men, among whom, 
however, ns I trust, tliero tCte, still, individuals who fear God 
and love tlieir fallow-creatnres. 

June 17. — As wo have Ij-avollod, I have read again Sis- 
mondi's Italian Itepnblics. The Italians, especially in northern 
and middle Italy, have contended long and brarely for freedom, 
and hnvu mado immcnxe sacridces to obtun and secure it, 
ospecially agiuusl the (iermao power, which for eight centurios 
bns wMgol a snngniiiary warfare to establish a permanent 
<1oininiou in Italy. Austria still holds LomharJy ns a provincn, 
nnd Tuscany, with Austrian Iroopa in her cities and fortre^e^ 
and Austrian oounauls in her sUte policy, is little bett«r than 
nn ob»o<juious vassal. 

But the old Italian love of freedom is not ertinct. In 
Tuscany, especially, as iu Sardinia, there is a great spirit of 

i libiTty ; st present it slumbers in Tuscany, hut it will again 

I Awuko whenever there is a fair prospect of sucL-ees. 

Tho pruHout duke granted a oonstjtution to hia people, but^ 

, alarmed al the {topular uio\-umenls, lie retinal from his domi- 

102 BKFLBonoira. 

Tuscan parliament met, they wished to place the duke at the 
head of a constitutional government. For this purpose, a com- 
mittee was sent to Gaeta to invite his return ; we have become 
acquainted with a distinguished Tuscan gentleman who, as a 
member of the senate and of this committee, waited upon the 
duke at Gaeta, and while he tendered the invitation, he accom- 
panied it with a decided expression of his opinion that ho 
should return, <ts a constitutional king^ and such was evidently 
the expectation of the people. He did return, but it was to 
reign as before. The people have hitherto been disappointed 
in their expectation of constitutional liberty, although it is pre- 
tended by the court that the constitution is still alive ; but if 
the principle of life is not extinct, it is evidently in a deep 
lethargy. The people are thus aggrieved and even exasperated, 
not only by this violation of good faith, but because many 
thousands of Austrian troops are quarterc<l on Tuscany ; and the 
feelings of the people are exceedingly chafed by seeing these 
Gonnans in full armor parading the streets of their towns, and 
ready to put down insurrection, a duty tliat might not indeed 
be so safely confided to native troops, whose sympathies may 
be with the people. 

The Austrians are maintained by the Tuscan government at 
an enormous expense. Personal liberty is however more secure 
here than in Rome and Naj)les, and we hear little of state pris- 
oners, except the three young Englishmen who for some acta of 
iin])rudcnce in distributing obnoxious pa]>ers have been placed 
in jeopardy of their lives.* Tuscany appears, however, to be a 
prosperous country ; tlie people apj)ear generally comfortable, 
cheerful, amiable, and kind. 

The civilized world owes much to Italy, not only for the 
efforts and suiTorings of its people in the cause of freedom, but 

* After much effort and powerful intcrfercnco from England, as 
tlioy wore of a high family, they have been released ; but from recent 
accounts religious persecution appears to luivc taken place of political, 
as is attested by the well-known ease of the Madai, released at last, 
but exiled. 




also for the presorv&lion nnd revivnl or lenrning, for t)ie cnlt.ura 
of tL« arts both of utility nnd orunaiaiit, unci for noble discci'eriei 
in scicac(>. Wero thej Dot under tho pressure of the grcnt 
|>onen, nboni Uioy have no ability to nwist, lliey would soon 
return to freedom and self-govemmenL 

Tuscany is a beautiful country, and liberty ia not quite dead, 
for we feel iLat wo hero breathe a different atmosphere Irani 
tbnt of Rome and Napled. Eicopt tho boggara who busicge 
this doors of our hotel, and waidi our egrues and return, Iha 
atjHiot of the people is good. We have beon much iinpregsed 
with the tact, thitt in the great gathering of ihouaanda on 
thouunds At Fi&a, there wu no disorder. All, in great good- 
humor, moved quietly uboul, joyous and delighted with the 
splendid pageant. 

It Mrikea us also very forcibly, that there are do drunlcardn 
visible. In all our wide wanduriDgH on (As fonlinent, wo have 
not won any individual who appeared to be decidedly intoxicated 
or ovon unduly oxcitod. Tlie low wines which they drinlc do 
not appear to bo dangerous to sobriety, for they are so very weak 
that a large quantity must be taken, especially by iJiose acctis- 
tomed to them, in order to produce intoxication, and they are 
not suffieiently inviting to creaU) uiuch danger. 

Wo have m«t with universal civility and the most nspiHitful 
and attentive manueis, both from maxterB and servants, at all 
oar various temporary homes ; and in all the superior churees of 
•ocioty there has been exhibited not only great respevLrulnffis 
liut tile most marked Idndness. Among men of science in piti^ 
licular, wo have been gratified by the grent cordiality and Hbe- 
m1 feeling manifested towards us every where, and eapi>ciMlIy 
in Italy. On this point, then was no distinotion between Sicil]^ 
Niijili*, Home, and Tuscany. While, as roon devoted to sci- 
ence, and coming from a far distaiit continent, beyond llie 
brood Atlantic, we have been warmly welcomed, wu havo never 
lx«R permitted to feel for a moment that we wera straogem. 
Men pursuing lilwral knowledge appear to form a republic of 


To Florknos AoATir. 

where recognized as having claims to kindness^ and to nsefbl 
well as agreeable attentions. 

%a ilmm agsin. 

Jane IT, 1851. 

On the evening of the day succeeding the fete at Pisa our 
party returned to Florence, where much remained to be seen* 

Itily is so affluent in works of art that it is impossible to 
see them all in a few months, nor, indeed, is it necessary. As 
happens in every department both of nature and art, we must 
bo satisfied with a selection of some of the most interesting 
specimeuR, and pass rapidly over, or even pass entirely by, the 
great mass. 

When we shall leave Florence two days hence, we shall feel, 
however, that we have only begun to see its treasures. 

The Palazzo Pitti. — One of our first objects was the 
Palazzo Pitti, which was namwl after the individual Luca 
I^itti, who was its founder. He was, I believe, distinguished 
only by his wealth, and his ambition to rival and excel the 
Medici, who, at the time of his laying the foundations of this 
building, had become the stars of Florence Pitti, however, 
fell into political disgrace in 1406, in consequence of his rivalry 
with the Medici, and his unfinisliod palace coming into their 
hands, is now occupied by the treasures which they collected. I 
felt the more interest in this establishment from ha^inj; been 
long familiar with the well-known folio volumes of prints, copied 
from the finest pictures, and published by the Tuscan govern- 

Most of the (r<*lebrated pictures in the Pitti collection, as 
also in<leed in the Uffizi, have become familiar to lovers of art 
by the master-pieces of engraving of which they form the 
theme, as well as by copies now so commonly seen in our own 
houses. Such is the Madonna Sedia of Raphael, every where 
so well known. Tlie original is in wonderful freshness of pre- 
iervation. Tlie heavenly face of the mother, and the oaao of 

TiiK Palazeo Pnri. 


attitU'Jo in nil tlio fignrca of tbo group, wilJi tliu soficnod lono 
tlut xge liiis given M div bcniitifiil contrwt of color, Iioh luftilo 
till* one oftlio moat colfbrsti^il of tlit- nrtist'a works. Tbo 
Bflla of Titian, tlio Wnr of Riibcns, Uie Three Fntm of Angelo, 
nnd pricults« trensuros of Andrcii dul Sarlo, Ssaafarato, Frn 
Ilairtoloineo, Rvml)niadt, Carlo Doici, oinl many otliurs of tlio 
gront mattere of art mwt you at every turn. The noble head 
of Galileo by Rembrandt, conv«]-s a grand inipreatiou of 
the philosopher. But time would fail to enuuernte oiiu half tlie 
{Hctures and other objects of art which imprces the visitor iu 
the Pitti gallery. Crowds of arlista, with tliulr oaaela, are busy 
making oopiea of the most celebrated iilutuna, often obstrucdng 
tfaidn from tlie view of tlio«e who are curious to »w thftm. 
This we ubwrvt'd partleulurly iu Rouie, in tlie staniu of Ra- 
phael ; and aguiu beru we could obtain a good view of some of 
llio moR.' a;lcbniU>d iiicliinis only wliilt! tliQ oopyints wcru gotm 
to dinner. 

The Suppor At Eiumau.-) is one of the inuet justly u^lebrated 
of the piduru* of Rulicns. Christ is discoursing to two of h 
liittenine difviplcs, who diseovur their master an he breaks 
broad. Tlir intense fccling exprusBcd in the iatxs of tlie won- 
dering div^ipieii is powurfuUy contrasted witli the Godlike dig- 
nity of Ilim who spake aa never man spake. 

tn the several apnrtiiients of this gallery are the most chtbo- 
ratn as well as tlio largest tables of Florentine mosaic which « 
Iinvu seen, and probably the finest which exist. Wu were 
never tired with looking at tliem, and admiring as well tlie 
charming vStxl of color and forni in grouping the various 
piecM, as llie uonsummate skill witli which the work was done. 
One of the designs presented iJiu toinb of OtK^ilia Mutella; and 
anotlier «nall table was fonu'id of a single slab of fossil wo 
NumeruUH beautiful miirblus and l«:avr works of art, as vn 
tif hattl «toues, and works in gold and silver, attracted our 

The domes of the pwveral rooms are profusely dw/)rulfd 
with nllegoiicul frescoM, and enriched with giWed stucco. One 

106 Floresce. 

cannot avoid a certain painful sensation in viewing these works 
of art, hung aloft in their aerial perspective, as they are seen 
only by a constrained effort which cannot be long maintained ; 
and one can never forget how tiresome it must have been 
for the artist, stretched for hours upon his back, with his work 
above him. 

We presented ourselves at the door of tliat portion of the 
palace wliich is devoted to the grand duke when he is in 
Florence. It is his town residence. We could not be admitted 
at that hour, and at the later time mentioned by tlie guard wo 
were engaged ; we, therefore, lost the opportunity. We were 
obligo<i to omit also the Palazzo Vecchio, the ancient resi- 
dence of the Medici. There are several other palaces wliich we 
should have been glad to see had our time pennitted ; that 
time we should have found, which wo had allotted to those 
objects, had not the suc^ieoding day been devoted to a splendid 
religious pageant, when all public places are inaccessible. We 
particular}' regretted losing the sight of the Palazzo Vecchio— 
the old palace — which w:is founded in 1298 as a residence for 
the elective chief magistrate of Horence. For ten years, from 
1540 to 1550, it was the residence of Cosmo I., who, at the 
end of that time, removed to tiie Pitti Palace with his court. 
Tiic l*ahizzo Voochio is now occupied for government oflices. 
It contains a room 1*70 feet long by 75 broad, ver}- lofty, and 
ver}' impressive, with faded gilding and elabonite oil paintings, 
situated in di»ep compartments. Tlie room wjis fitted for the 
a'iMMnbly of the *'Consiglio Populare," when an effort was 
made to restore the ancient popular liberty. There are liere 
st»veral historical i)ictures n?presenting the victories of the Flor- 
entin».*s, esjxM^ially over the Pisans; and tliere ani many por- 
tniits of distinguished stms of Florence. There is a chapel in 
which is an "altar sor\-icc of amlx-r, little figures of saints, rosa- 
ries, v:usos, fte^ snin<» maile of the clear, some of the oj»a«jue am- 
ber, and l»eautifully wrought." There are many statues, and 
among them is h bronze equestrian figure of Cosmo I., the 

ibuuilcr uf Uie U«<licean dynady, ' 
ri««, from l£37 to 1737. 

lliia i* in roune«t.ioii wriUi llie cliuruli of St Lorento. Vie 
L-ut«riHl fint a room coDtauiing twu iniirlilc tumlis of muiiiLurs 
<jf th<i Media ftimily ; iipon eaub in a large a'ttitig figure of the 
iuOivJduttJ wliosu reuiiuus are in die etircophagUB, and on eauli 
loiub Uiurc are afso two rccunilx-'ut figures, wliieti ore nllegoritwl 
reprcscDlntions of tlio sleep of death and of tlic Tetiurection, 
and also of moraiog and et-ening. Tliey are <aecmo(l in Uio 
bold »l\/\e of Michael Angelo. Thuro is anotlier maiuoleum 
nppropriale to liic same family, and ualltid tlii'r Modicean Obapd, 
wbose magnificence almoBt ucceds iH-iitif. It was Ixgaa in 
11)04, and it it saeerted that ils founder, Ferdinand I^ intended 
it for tliQ actual reception of Ihe lioly Bcpulcbm. It appears 
tbat an attempt was really made to cut Uie holy aepulcbre out 
of the iiburch of the ^mo name at Jerusalem, and that a fleet 
H'as rca<lv on the coast to rccciro tbe precious charge, which 
was cunsiJured as the most holy relic in Christendom ; but tiio 
opoiletb were discovered at their work and obliged to fly. Ttius 
UiBappuintuii, they converted the building into a mausoleum r<>r 
tbo Grand Ducal family. By pacing tbe room, I estimated it to 
Ihp Hilly 100 feot in diameter, ami its height is still greater. 
The dome is divided into eight compartments; they have 

I ft hlaating. position, in as many inclined planes, which are filled 
witli ii^y IwAUtiful modem frescoes, executed in a style of 
wleiun dignity. Tlie subjects possess tbe highest moral gran- 
deur ; they are — Die Croaljon of Man and Woman, the Temp- 

I lation and Full, llii! Eipulsion from Paradise, the Murder of Abel 

I tiy hb BrulhtT, the IJirtb of the Sariom-, the Crucifixion, the 

f Kiwiriuction. and itu Last Judgment 

The>' »«nipsw;ut«!d between 1828 and 1837 by Iknvenuti, 

L the diiwtor wf tlio acadvniy. Tbe splendor of this mausoleum 

108 Florknck. 

18 beyond any thing that I hare ever seen. Within, the walb 
are entirely covered by slabs of tlie most beautiful polished 
stones, chiefly porphyry (red and green), marbles and jaspers^ 
mixed with agates, producing a grave and princely splendor, 
which the eye would never tire in beholding. 

The armorial bearings of the states of Tuscany, executed in 
Florentine mosaic, are arranged around the room and upon the 
cenotaphs. Chalcedony, jasper, mother-of-pearl, turquoises 
and topazes are lavished in the greatest profusion. When you 
realize the dimensions of a room as large as the Rotunda of the 
Capitol at Washington, covered on all its interior with the most 
beautifully polished incrustations of hard stones such as I havo 
mentioned, and tablets also of many otlier kinds, which reacli 
continuously to the height of tlie dome, you will then obtain 
some conception of that magnificent temple of the illustrious 
dead which I am endeavoring to describe. Within this vast 
space only four tombs of tlie Medici are as yet erected ; they 
are hu-ge sarcophagi of red porphyry, elevated upon the sides of 
the room. 

One is astonished at the immense expenditures of this 
family ; they are to be reckoned, I am ]>ersnadcd, by millions 
upon millions of dollars. Still this maus<)1eum of unparalleled 
grandeur and beauty has only a p(X)r brick floor, and that is 
worn into unsightly hollows ; the entrance by the door is hi 
rude stone-work, and the front of the great church of Lorenzo, of 
which this cemetery is an apjx?ndage, is in the roughest condition 
imaginable. The frequent recurrence of such omissions in 
grand buildings in Italy, is doubtless to be attributed to th»* 
failure of means. At Genoa, in Lucca, in Florence, and in 
c»tlier cities, we havo seen similar instanct-s ; the outside, or 
]M.>rhap6 only the front, is rude as a brick-kiln, while the interior 
is adorned most sumptuoasly. 

pAQEANt or CoBPfS Cbtusti. 

"^mni of €oxp5 fifetisti. 

Wo have liwl soino compensalion for our (li*«i>poinliiiciil 

In Rnilin); nil fmbUo rooms and shows closed today, by having 

I hwi the ojiportunity to «« whnt is probnWy the greatest [mgoniit 

I of tho yi'jiT. It is mi ncntinl procewion, oetcnnbly in honor of 

the Srivioiir, but it is in fact n ptignn show baptiiiod with the 

' Chriatinn name. 

An nrrnngcment hftil been Inndiy mode for un by the 

piioptc of our hold, by which wo were pi'.raittled to occupy n 

wiuduw or two in the third Htury ol k houBe in Hnothur street, 

tliraugh which tlio proonaMOn was to pass. Tliroc of our party 

had gono to the monastery of ValumbroMi, about 20 vailm Crom 

Florenui ; it was visited by Milton, anrl immortalized by iiiin 

' ill PartuliM Lust, Afl«r the return of our frii^tidH, wc fuunc] 

that tbfy liul n fatiguing jaunt without mudi gratification, nnc] 

that they had better have been witli us in viewing the splondid 

i Bpovtacle, Mine idea of whoa« leading ivalurvs I will endeavor 

I to convey, 

Tb«re were about fifty images of tlie Saviour, homp nloft 
L trader yellow and white tanopiua, apparently of silk ; the stand- 
on which ihcy wore borne was Burmount<«d by a cross, 
I and gilded rayv of glory were streaming from the Siit-iour's 
I hnail. Two flaming wax candle* of very largo »iw) wore carried 
n front of cacli crucifix, and an attendant mardied. side by side. 
I vriih n paper or some other receptacle to catch the copious 
I droppings of the wax, as the c^tndlcs were carried aslant, and 
I the flama flared with the movement of Uie nir and made great 
vwrMo of tbew gigantic tapere, Proocasions, or parts of pro- 
tma, compoMd of boys, monka, and priests, in appro- 
l^ate costume, marched in doable file, befbre, between, and 

■ behind the hnagva of the Saviour, nnd also in the same relation 
■io a number nf gorgeoni silk streamem or banners, flaming 

■ «ith embossed gold and MvfT wmuglit into flguras apparuntly 

110 Florence. 

by tho needle. Tho boys were in squads or platoons, separated 
by the banners ; in one party the bo3rs were covered, head and 
nil, by a flowing white robe, and in front of the eyes there were 
holes for vision. Another platoon was dressed in brown 
cassocks ; another in black ; and still another in dingy red, — 
all covering the head with a conical cap furnished with the 
eye-holes. The same arrangement was repeated with different 
groups of men ; some of them were monks, and others priests, 
and various orders of mendicant friars and lay brothers. All 
these, moreover, had eye-holes in their robes, forming an ex- 
hibition in a high degree puerile and ridiculous. There were 
still other groups, composed of all these descriptions of persona, 
who marched with heads uncovered, but in the costume appro- 
priate to their order, which was always a gown-shaped gar- 
ment ; in the case of tlie monks and fiiars, it was a very coarso 
and slovenly loose gown, girded around the waist ; all walked 
with bare heads, and some had sandals on thoir naked feet 

As we looked down upon tlie monks, their bald and shaven 
crowns were very conspicuous ; while some of them liad only a 
small circlet shaven. Before the silk streamers were borne huge 
candlesticks or candclabras, whose surfaces appeared to bo 
covered with silver and gold ; four in some cases and six in 
others, and in a part of tlicm there were lighted candles. Tho 
groups of boys and men had any thing but a solemn appear- 
ance, for they were full of sport, pulling each other's caps and 
robes, and those who were near to a poor little urchin who had 
ilrr>]>]x*(l his cap made a great bustle in arraying him again. 

Ik'fore the crucifixes and before the banners, there were a 
number of ]>orson3 with printed books in their hands, marching, 
singing and chanting in a harsh and discordant manner, having 
in it nothinor of music orsolemnitv. Tiiose who bore the cruci- 
fixes and the banners appeared to be oj)pressed by their weight, 
by that of the banners esiK*cially, some of which, including tho 
cross, appeannl to l>e 20 or 25 feet high. The standard which 
supportotl the whol«^ was let into a socket of leather attached 
to a band buckled round the body, and tho bearer staggering 

Paokant of OoBi-ita Ciiuisti. Ill 

I undur )iM annroMinnlila lund wiw uocosionnlly rt-liuved by an 
Niimurous large jiicturua were also InrDe nlod in tlia 
I umo manner; one mjirtsviitot] St. Fmni^ia in prayer, with a 
I bidiop or pontiff on tliu revcrae, ond another uonUinciJ the 
I .pic:turu« of Eli»il>pth and Mary. 

After theai! vulgar groufis cnmc genteci-looting eccleeiastica, 
I irith whiW mnnllua, vsriniwly ilucorated ; — most of them weru 
I young men ; and tlien gronps of priests, of various ng<», gene- 
I rally in whito, or deconilod with iptondiJ cloaks of wlntu oillc 
[ variouitly figured. Next succeeded dignilied men, over whoeu 
I nlvercd heads and stixiping framcH, iHany years had iHis»ed. 

, faculties followed them — tlie profeiiaors of law, 
i judgeti, tungifitnklva, and otlier dignitariea in civil lifo, all ar- 
1 Tajred iu cmtuiDea which were often very rich. The sorvmita 
E in ntteDduTiue uulahone their msHters in gorgeous decorations. 
Tlieir eli}thes were in fanciful i-'olore ; nnd th«nr cocltod hatfl 
e bordered by broad bands of gold or silver lace. A dig- 
nified personage, perhaps a bishop, for wc could mo his person 
disCinctJy ihrongh (he folds, whs borne along beneath a rieJi 
canopy, like those BU«peiided in palacos orvr beds of state. 
Immediately fullowing tlie moving canopy marched tl)c Grand 
>Dke himself, alleudod by his suites while two youths botv bin 
engtbened train along. 

I have not yot tnentioned the military part of Llie army. 

^ few gen* d'arinea weru distributed here and tliere to pn»<-rvu 

I order; and after the e<%h«ia8lic« had paNsci], ibreo (liitiuct 

iKinilB of inusio tilled the air willi their loud &ud stirring «aunclM, 

niroation to tlie splendid proceauon, in the later 

roups of which Oio military men were distributed. 

They wotv bolli cavalry and infantry of different uniforms 

•lid untu. The cavalry wore briliiaiit brass liulineta, and rode 

l|>irit«d horns, whidi wetw botii beautiful and it'rfuctly trained. 

u drcu of Uie offinwra was overloaded with urnainent, and thii 

nilitory display wore the appearance ofa pageant, as it was, 

T lluin ofa jirepikraliaii forserioitt and ofiectivc milituy ut 

Ia.aeryiol^ Ua/A uf all iW"^ iha etAtc uttiitjfcs, ait%M 

112 Floiubnce. 

and gorgeous. Thrc*c of them were drawn each by six horees, 
noble animals, in fine condition, of high mettle, but under 
perfect control. Their harness was loaded with gilded oma- 
monts, and their manes were either dressed like the locks of a 
lady, by the tonsor, or fastidiously put up in little bags. 

The carriages were empty, and two other coaches followed 
drawn each by a pair of horses. All the while the bells of the 
numerous churches in the city rang a thundering peal ; the 
streets were crowded with spectators, and the windows exhib- 
ited rich stuffs, hung out for tlio occasion, while the inhabitants 
and their friendts and those whom either courtesy or money had 
admitted, were densely clustered together in gazing groups. 
Several corps of military closed the scene, and all passed on to 
the church of St. Maria de Novella, which is one of tlie largest 
and most richly ornamented in the city. AVe visited tliia 
church two days ago, and siiw them decorating the entire inte- 
rior, vast as it is, with rich crimson velvet hangings. The pil- 
lars as well as the walls were covered ; and in this church tlio 
ceromonios of worship were to be performed. The array of 
candles was on a v^ist scale. The entire front above the altar 
Mas <l('(?4>ratcd by them, standing side by side, like sentinels, 
almost in rk^se columns, and soon to be crowned witli living 
llame?. Some of them were of j^odigious size. I went up to 
the altar, and by comparing their length witli that of the peo- 
ple, I thon£(ht them to be eight feet long, and three or four 
inches in dianirter. 

Candles or lamjvs are constantly burning in all the Catholic 
rhnnrhes; and the theory of the rogime is, that the lights never 
go out, that is, some of them are always burning — the Chris- 
tianized form of the aneient superstition of the vestal fire. 

The militiiry and civil part of the pageant was vei}* splen- 
did. The soldiers apjK*ared in ]H*rlVrt dis<;ipline; and tlie mar- 
tial musie, bursting out from large banJs of performers, who 
seemed a-* if but on«» breath and one soul inspireil all their re- 
sounding instnnnents, might well exiite and animate a host to 
th tu buttle. 

Paoeant Of CoBPce Chbibti. 


TTkc roligioiw part of the *pecUctc, «o far im i(. npponroJ in 

tbe Btrwte, noulil tiave seemed toerely a popilur pngcnni, hiuj it 

^ not exhibited bo puinfui a departure from the noble simplicity 

I end purity of tbe priincvnl CUriatian faith and priKtice. Wiru 

' the Biblu in the hands of these people, and were they able to 

' read il, such pagenntry in honor of the Saviour could not 

I Maud b«fore it. ITow Etrongly contrasted is it with His life 

and luaDuers when on cnrtb — witb His action, bo simple, nnd 

without cxtomal ebon 1 His only rccorde<l ride (except when 

he was carried an infant by bis parents iuto Egypt), was U]>on 

tbe most humblo of animals. Ue had indeed a majesty and 

dignity, derived from his divine mission, from tiis roiracles, 

from the purity of bis life and bis benvenly tMw.bings, with only 

Uu) blue vault over bis bead, which no pope or potunlxte in 

t garguous ti.'m[i1e or palace could ever emulate ; and he reitiainB 

f tmrn's advocabi in beavoii, while in CnlhoUe countries his word 

s hidden IVom the jteople by tlicno who daiui \a be liis buum's- 

■ mrs, and the sole hemlds ofhiit rotiglous truth. 

I will not reitvraUi the trite, although dill unniuiwuri.-d ol>- 
QNitions of Prolestanls to tbe Cutliolie organ iattJDii. 1 will 
idd, faowcvur, llint I do not think more favorably of it aflcr 
i. liaving seen it at homo and in Rotne itsulC 

We have vuilcd many cntliedrals, chiefly, it is Inio, to ob- 

' MTve tlicir architecture, their monumentt and statnary and 

pninlings, and the riches of their sacristy and collections; but 

We hum not been indifferent specUitors of their religious aspect. 

Thure ii|)pears to Ut very little reli^ona instruction dispensed 

In them. We are told that it is occaHonatly given, but we 

huvu hvnrd none. The common people do, induvd, report to the 

rchurdiea in gmat numbers, and their devout demeanor (marked 

y every )^)p«arance of cincerity, which we would not call in 

muiatlon) reads a lesson of reproof to Prutcstnnki, whose nian- 

s in public worship are too often marked by negligeuco 

\ And iudifferuUL-e, and abmetimm by levity. Hardy, however, 

L in the Catholic churchea, cxct'pt on tlic occasion of festivals, 

I bare we aeen any except the poor, and especially poor wo- 

114 Florince. 

men. They kneel, tliey pray, moving their lips ; they count 
their beads, and thus keep the tally of their prayers ; they croM 
tliemselves with holy water, and perhaps confess to the priest; 
but the Bible, tlie source, and the only adequate source, of di- 
vine knowledge, is kept from them, and they know it not 
Their churches are enormously expensive in the original con- 
struction and constant repairs, in their gorgeous decorations of 
pictures and statues, and in magnificent shrines and chapels, 
adorned by the most sumptuous decorations of precious stones 
and gems, and silver and gold. The priesthood also, with the 
appendages of monasteries and nunneries, is maintained at a 
ruinous charge. Their religious orders being in general in a 
state of celibacy, are out of the pale of tlie most interesting of 
human sympatliies : they are not connected by natural ties to 
the great human family, and are, like disciplined troops, ready 
to obey the mandates of the supremo head. 

Many great and good men have appeared in Catholic coun- 
tries. I have no doubt that many such exist in them now, and 
that sincere piety and holy life are found among the masses. 
I would not indulge an uncharitable feeling towards those of a 
different faith, or look at the religious institutions of these coun- 
tries through a bigoted medium ; I am, however, if possible, 
more than ever convinced that they are unfavorable both to 
political and personal freedom, and to the most thorough do- 
velopmont both of human f;iculties and of national resources. 
Were the people universally instructed to read and write, and to 
keej) their own accounts — were they indulged witli newspa^^ra, 
unshackled except by the laws of morality, and above all, were 
they placed in full {)ossossion of the Bible, and were its doctrines 
enforced by able teachers, Italy would again shine among the 
nations, and her latter glories, under a Christian dispensation, 
would eclipse those of Rome of old. 

Seeing so mimy |JOople lo-Uay looking out through cye- 
a their caps aud ruW, brings to niiud a funeral wliich 
t in Portici, noar Naploa, as we wire riding on our rc- 
larn from I'ompcii and Vwuviua. 

In a crowded suimt, our ntten^on was orrested by a loud 

Kclitinting, and we saw cbat (ho people, as spectators, were all un- 

Bcovercd, when soon wo duscriud a long procession of men in 

Trhile robes, covering tlie head as well as the person. Thoy 

« fliraialied witL ej-o-holos cut through tlieir ca^is, the faco 

Iwing invisible. Next we discovered tlio corpse lying in full 

a All! view, upon a gilded sarcopbagui^ supported on 

k diss, over which was tlirown a pull of s<arlct velvet bordvrcd 

I witli gold, and covering from view the persona of the pall-byar- 

KiBTB, upon whoso shoulders the whole was homo alofl. The 

roorpse of a fetniile was in full white dress, with a rose in tlie 

■pouth and another between the fingers. Rome of the yonng 

a white dre^cs were lallcing aud laughing, while the 

ink-bearers and postulanW were chanting a dirge in a droning 

V«nd monotonoua voic*, but very loud. Several wmilar pro- 

«ion& bnve wnce come in our way, with suppticnnta and 

mes in whitu and sometimes in black, but with 

^'0-hol«s as before:. In Rome we met a funernl procession 

kiarcLtng along near the Fantheon, composed of youth in the 

(Doming of life. They were dressed in white robes, and tliuir 

Wing faces were uncovered. Tbey sung a solemn dirge; tlin 

Edunc of tlieir plaintive voices was touching, and their feu- 

s and demeanor evinced deep and tender feeling, as for a 

leloved companion dead. They appeared to be fellow-scholai* 

D aonie Nimtnary of learning. 

116 Florbnoe. 

(Bnimws ef ilaxmt. 

Juno ly, 186L 

This city being situated on a plain, surrounded by lofty 
hills, has extremely beautiful environs, to obtain a view of 
which it is sufficient to ascend a tower within the city, or to 
climb any of the fine eminences in its vicinity. A few eve- 
nings since we drove to a favorite spot for perspecUve, tho 
hill of Bellosguardo, to which, on the southwest, there ia an 
easy carriage road. Viewed from its summit, the city was at 
our feet, with all its beautiful precincts, and the high mount 
of Fiesole, on the opposite point on tho north, tempta the lover 
of scenery to ascend tliat eminence also, as we have done this 
aAemoon. Fiesole cannot be less than five to six hundred 
feet above the level of the city, but a circuitous and very ex- 
cellent road, constructed at the expense of the city, conducta 
the traveller, by a ver}' agreeable route, to this memorable hill. 
The view from it is very extensive, rich, and beautifuL Flor- 
ence is again at his feet, and in a direct line is not more than 
two or three miles dist^mt, while the circuit to reach it is pro- 
bably four miles. The surrounding hills and valleys show sev- 
eral villages and countrj'-seats. The whole region is extremely 
populous, and is in a high state of cultivation. As at Pisa, 
the river Amo, in its windings, shows itself here and there, 
and tlius diversifies the scene. " The situation of Florence is 
singularly delightful. It stands on one of the most fertile 
plains, and on the margin of one of the most classic streams in 
the world, at the base of the lofty chain of the Apennines, 
wliii-h, sweeping round to the north, seem to screen it from tho 
storms of winter, while their sides, hung with chestnut woods, 
anil their pt^aks glittering with snow, rise far above the grace- 
ful slope and vine-covered height of Fiesole," 

Fiesole was once tlio seat of a powerful city, a i)art of whoso 
ancient Etruscan wall of Cyclopean masonry, on the north, ia 
still standing on its original foundations. Wo examined it at 



Blekura ; it i* constructed of liugo mnssca of stono, laid tip wiUt- 
■lAUt ccmoDt. Fiesole was subjugate by tho Romans, and woa 
vllUurly destroj'cKl during tbo wnn of tho nortbcm Italian re- 
■ publics. ITiero nra now upon Uiia mosl beautiful hill only a 
I law vtstigee of ila oiiuient griuidcur. Tho remiuns of u tlieiilro 

■e dug out in 1609, by (lie zuiJ of iko Russian Baron Si-hvl- 
W tenclioim. " Liug>i and perfect ))oniuuB of lie i-xlernul wall, 
I ftnd of ilia HOaiicirt^le, iuU^aJvd for llie tiptM^totofs, were brougtit 
I to light," but are now cbiefly covered wilii eartb, 

Tliote are oburchee and a convent berc. We entered n 
lurub wbicli was filled willi people engaged in wuraliip ; tlicy 
I wuro angjng with a devotional ununer. Tbere are hero 
I Kvcrnl privoto bouses, of goo<l appearance. It is ftaid that 
I Ontilino cbo&e Fie~'uilQ as Uie plucu for the deposit of bis Ircji- 
^■urcA. "In 1S0D, a treasuru of about 100 pimnda of Hninnn 

rer raonty, a)I of a date iintcrior to tbo Catiline oonapii-acy, 

i fciunil iu tile gonlen of tliu Villa Mozxi, erected by Coadhi 
\ il Veocliio. Tliia pbwM w.ib deniguated to uh a« wu drove 
I down the lull lu the vicinity, and almost in night of Fimule, 
I Ike battle was fougkl,* which proved fvlol to tbo conspiracy. 

The c«ri!n)oniea of tho day hud clontd the doors of tlie 
I IiouMi of Michael Angcio, in the city, to which we drove on 
1 4ur rnturti, hut were obliged to content ourselves with a view 
I 9f tlio outside. Il is a la^ mansion of good external appear- 
I Mcc. I have already mentioned tbo bouse of Galileo, in tho 
I country, which our time did not allow us to viait. Both these 
MS contain n^lics of their great possessors. 
We drove several miles nround tho walls on the outsido. 
I They are in good preservation, and it is btondcd to extend 
l.dieiu so as to incloso a more ample area for the city. Tiie 
I g&tes also are EU&lainod. But such walk as these, and those 

) of Lucca and PiHa, altliough sufficieui for the age in 
Imluch Uiuy wun» erected, would be quite ine^cetual against n 
Elioinbarduiciit, or even a cannonade witli heavy artillery, tu 


the present nge, ihpy answer the purpose of |>oIice, to c 
duties, and to r«^guUte tiie ingress And egrcis of the < 
and of strangera. In our rido we passed by the public gardcM 
w]iic:h are adorned by fine shade trees and grass. A mile 4 
two out of the city, wo uime to the Cascine, where tben i 
very extensive shaded walks and drives, adorned with founta 
and statueg, and beautiful fields in fine verdure. There I 
three roads k-uding to these grounds, parallel to each i 
the middle is for oarriages, and the two side roads are ; 
priated, the one for equestrians and the other for pedes 
and thus interference is avoided. 

Botii here and in the public gardens, we saw many 
hundreds of people of all ages and conditions, uod of 
both sexes, recreating beneath tiie dense shades rendered 
grateful by the heat of June. The Cascine is n favorite drive, 
where, as in Uyde Park near London, and at the Bois de 
Boulogne near Paris, the beauty and fashion and the gny 
equipnges of the city are daily displayed in fine weather; t 
hero, to-day, the number and style of the equipages were i 
prising ; it was almost like Paris, and the more oxtraordioM^^ 
as the city has a smaller population than that of Boston. 

Every where in Europe we have found, in the immediate 
neighborhood of great citiM, fine public grounds for the re- 
creation of the people. They are laid out and niaint^iied 
from the public purse, and are the universal resort of all 
ciflssea. Here the aristocratic noble, the wealthy merchant, 
the prosperous tradesman and the poor employe, meet on terms 
of equal enjoyment and freedom, each in his own way, wilb 
their wives and families. They walk or sit, lounge, read, chat, 
or drive, exactly as they choose. Every one is regardful of the 
righU and enjoyments of those about him, there is no breach 
of good manners, no unseenily conduct, no abuse of the pro- 
I>rietieB c^ the place. There are beautiful plants, choice orua- 
meiilnl and flowering shrubs, velvet grass, perfectly smooth 
walks, regu!arly-cut edges, sparkling fountains, secluded re- 
treats, public drives, national moniiTnenls. all, in fact, tlint can 

Flobencb to Bolocsa. 116 

sudor ninl grounds attractive. If there is n garrwoD sto- 
Kdonod Doar (aod wbere on liia coatinent ia there nol !) thum is 
ft Mt times the most perfect instrumental music, nnd on sudi 
the crowd in tlie public grounds is imraeose. Wlien 
BibII we in Ainericn learn to copy iLa good wLicb wc Jtiay 
nd in the Europetm system, and eucure for ourselves and our 
Hterity such Lealthful and innouunt enjoyment for tho 
rowdod miuscs of our popukliou, ns we may do if wo will, 
bsforo all tho points of beauty in our suburbs are appropriatiMl 
|r city lota. In America, where ttiere is mora land to be hod 
it ft nominal price than in any other civilised country, there 
I Wn less provision for public parks and pleasure grounds. 
FIThy do not tlie people provide for themselves? 

The nnrm season is now so far advanced, that wo are reluo- 
tntly forced to abandon the long-cheriehed hope of a visit to 
Vienna, and to the boracie acid lagoons of Tuscany. Tlie 
f oountry surrounding tliem is represented as one of the most 
T malarious in Italy, and we are strongly advised by our triendH, 
I rwidcnt in Florance and foghorn, to abandon the excursion. 

The water of the Amrt is very low, and tho effluvium from 

I'tho broad surfaces of exposed mud under the powerful rayn 

%tt tlie sun, baa made ua s>-nublo that it was not desirable to 

Ifmluug our elay in our pnsent wtuation. We have, Uiereforo, 

Kidcd to lam our faoee toward the Apennines, and to forego 

e pleasure of seeing more of tlie wonderful art-works of tliis 

dighlful oity, having secured already tlioso of greatest in- 

At Kloronce we had the plonsure of meeting Frofusor 

wke, of Cambridge, Maw., with a family [larty. 

iiamtt la lalognn. 

were now to paan a loonntainoiM country, our courier 
1 engaged two reUitrtnc*, one willi four, and ono with three 

120 The Apennines. 

kind wishes from our American friends, and a hearty " bon 
voyage ^ from the whole corps dli6te], who were assembled to 
witness our departure, with evident kindness of feeling, which 
wo could but regard as sincere, since they could never expect 
to see us again. 

Leaving the city, we began immediately to ascend the hills 
which surround Florence. Fiesole, where wo were yesterday, 
was in full view on our right The country through which we 
passed presented a constant succession of high rounded hiUa 
and of deeply indented winding valleys, with nothing peculiar 
in the cultivation. An excellent road led us circling round 
the hills, which for many miles were so steep tliat our contrac- 
tors added more horses — six on one carriage, and five on the 
other — ^with an additional postilion to each carriage. Here, 
for the first time, oxen were brought to assist in liauling the 
vehicles up the steep hills — they were hitched on in advance 
of the horses. 

Our stopping place fi)r J(jcuner, 18 inilos from Florence, 
was a very antique house, I presunio 500 years old ; it was a 
plain and humble bniklin<i^, hut with cliarnctcristic national 
tasUi tlicro was hanging in tlio common room a large picture, 
I Kit s(> smoked and dotUcrd that wo could hardly make out the 
story of Actcon intruding u|>on Diana's bathing nymphs. 

The Apennines. — In our progrcj^s (after the mid-day rest 
of three houi-s) we were soon embosomed in the high Ap- 
ennines — an ocQ'dXi of mountains rising all around, far and 
ni'ar ; many of them were drear}-, with cliffs of naked rocks 
and stoney valleys, relieved, here and there, by a smiling vale 
or village, or by a few scattered habitations. In the progrreas 
up our winding road, we ascended and turned, and turned 
ngain, reversing frequently our course, while, in our gyrations, 
we sometimes looked down from a great height upon the road 
over which we had just passed. Frequent precipices, defiles 
and thickets, reminded us of tlie bandits who have heretofore 
infested these mountain roads. Some of the robbers have been 
captured and shot tlie present season near to Bologna, an e?eDt 



[ whloli may hflvo wntributod to our security. We pnased 
I atuiy [ilaceB where ri>bt>crs could be peHeotly concealed, nod 
i from wbioh tbey could dart out at the itislant upon a carria^ 
, tluwly UiHing «p the winding mountain road. 

DorBt *T CAri-AOMOLO, — At tlio end of our Oiij's riJp, 
I tro found a most coinfort«ble inn, ncitrly on the i^rvst of iliu 
mouutsinR, nt tho elevation of ue&rty 3000 feut. Hon; wu 
enjoyed n cool invigorating almoephure, quite above malariH. 
Tho droves of BUowwhi[« cattlu* gave us promise of good 
tuilk Hiid butler. This U (ho fint iustauc-e of our finding guod 
butler in Italy ; it is nut suited, which Is the continental cus- 
loni, hut vaa tiwuet, and of a pale yellow color. Wa wltc 
lodged in a subelantial und spacious house, built 
plnoi^ for lliQ acconimudatiiin of travellers ovtr the 
Wu felt tluit wo iTum in n\x\U) anulJior climate ; o 
I }iul liuea reuderud Ufccptablo m ne nwe to kigl 
higher elevatioua, and w<i were glad at twilight I 

A comfurlablo supper and Icind attentions 
fill ; our books and pens employed 
enliven*^ by instnunental music, it 
JiUyinf; the national airs of Italy. 


at and yet 

a i-ery grate- 
evening, and we were 
ir parta of tlic houM, 


It !1. 1*S1. 

We n;ached tliia city .it 4 o'chji:k, }•. u., having Iravelled .fft 

' English miles from Caffagliolo, and about 75 or 70 miles from 

Florence. As yesterJity, we rode in the midst of aiounlains, 

\ until we were within a few miles of Bologna. Many of ibem 

V bWk und barren, but among tbcm Ihne weru fruitflil 

i slopes nnil val1c)-s, and habitations here ami tliere, but ills vil- 

lagw wure fow and siiudl. 

• Id M Simlliora Itijy nn.l Sicily w 
[ Imt nans in T^ueany. 

t lierd* of sojit«. 



GROLoar. — Soon after aiitting out in tho morDing. W4 &i 
entered lli« dorainiona of ibe Pope, Near iho boundary, iIm 
limesloni-, whit-U had prevailed through our journey. Was wio- 
ceeded by snnUstonu of various consistviiicD, from fine gmiiMd 
to [ludding-Btonu, and Urn diaiutugmtcd rock produced the 
appearance of banks of auud upon Uie tops and slopes of 
the mountains. In manv places, however, liio rock nppnip- i 
ed both distindly stratified and inclined. It was very n 
cut up by dihivial action, and tlie mountains were frcquuotly 
sharp-pointed and conical, ninning up into very high poalm 
and ridges ; iJie valleys having n d<^pth of many hundred d 
We had now Iwen travelling 50 or 60 miles ncrtwa the Ap- i 
enninen, and we found, witliout interruption, a most bcAutiful I 
road, whieh was c-arried with great skill arounil tbo mountAiiM, | 
It WM every nliero guarded by a stiong parapet of hewa [ 
Btonea, laid in mortar. Snow-posts wcrc-Btanding at abort i 
tervak, to inform tUe traveller in winter where the buried road J 
runs, when, as always bappcus at that season, lliMe high idouih J 
laina are covered by beds and drifia of snow. 

In tlie morning of this day, as well as iu ibe preoedinff I 
evening, our warm outer garments were quite comfortablei but | 
now in Uio evening our usual apparel is opprauivo. 

Our few hours in Bologim were diligently ciuployed I 
seeing as muoli as jwssiblo of this city and ita eni-irotu. lakn J 
most otiicr Italian cities it lins many narrow Btroels, ami on J 
both sides high bouses, which, in hot weather, aflbrd groat J 
relief by tJieir almost continual sliadvs. Tlitiro aro, however, i 
itologria wide streets and open squares, and pnlauee, aud I 
niim'Tous cliuruhcs and otlier jiubtic buildings, Tho Campaiula I 
or beil tower is tlio must lofty iu tho world, b«iug 3T5 Iwt tiigb; 
and, just at hand, tbero is a leauiug tower, aim very cl«rat«d 1 
and built of biiokx. llieru is bero a church which is 100 fiwt ] 
lunger Uiuo St. Peter's, and loogor tlian any other in eiuiUi] 

1'bo environs of Bologna fonn an exlfinsiTo plain with Oi 
ligtious hitla, all in liigh.culUiro. Upon 006 of thom liHU, h 
f$rf cuncpicuoua ditqiitioii. siwids the ohoicli of SL 1 

C'BMKTBttV. 1S3 

finch i» connocled witb tho city by u covered way (wo nnd 
|| hn)f or tlmo milva lon^. 

Ckvictekt. — In tJiU ricmity in llic piiWiu coraetery, a Campo 
inU>, which no found to bo a most interesting place. 

n Napoleon wns mnslcr here, he fotbttdo iDtennents in 
Itlie city. In consuquuncc of this order, they appropriated tho 
■OOrridurs of a Carthusian convent to this purpose, and have 
w added other vory extensive slructures upon the same plsn, in 
r Hk form of a hollow square. 

The middle of the area is left open for tho poor, who are 
ftlMTied in trenches contiaaed without interruption ([uite across 
I'tto ground ; llio oorpsea are ImJ in, four Jwp, and are covered 
I with uarth. This inner area is surrouudod by a hedge-row of 
r kept nviUly trimmed. 
The eorridora surround these interior squares, and in Ihem, 
li hen^th the pavement and along tlie sides, are deposited 
a remkins of the distinguished dead, whoso story is to be 
mJed and iheir memory peri>otuat*>d by a monument 
Ifost of the graves have simply a slab of marble, laid even with 
e floor or inserted in the side wall, with a saltable inscription. 
Otero are, however, many niches or rcocsscs in which tliere are 
ibborate raonumenia. Usually tliere is a sarcophngus con- 
fining the mortal remains, and statuary often adds its beaQtiful 
tnbellishments. Often the Inisl of the defeased rests on the 
cophagus or stands in a niche contiguous; or there is a 
nilj circle, one parent or both attended by the children, or a 
aiitiful female form sloops mournfully in sorrow, or joyfully 
Mints iipWAfd in hope. ^Ulegorical figures, among which 
Kine, with his hour-gla^ and scythe, is conspicuooa, stand as 
bolemn admonitors of our frail and brief tenure of life. There 
ako a few diitttncl. ch.ipels, for particular families of distinc- 
n which all that ihu art of tho sculptor can eflect hui 
Mil done, to embellish the receptAclea of ihc dead, and Lu 
nnnou the horrow of the Kring. 

nii» gwat cKinelory cnntxins, I Ufrlifva, ux square* of 



si^uare for the common jiaopl^ Tlieie is ono square for n 
mid another for womnu ; oue, ulsu, for Viys and aitotber ^ 
girls — with avunnes twtwueo tine dilTeh'Dt sijuarcs, and otq 
aveouuE liwdiug: beneath ruofs, whidi aovvt loinbs ami l 
Wo amv aUo ancient tombs uiid surcophagl ; oue waa pointy 
out, wUk'li waH said to dalu aa far ba>-k as tliu Liurd oL-ulury.d 

llio entire cemetery is surrounded by liigh brick w&Ilfi vt 
gatea. It is a very pleaiung, aud. at t)i« aaiiie time, & ' 
place; there is nothing distasteful or diMgroeabla, aad tl 
whole arrangement \a in harmony with our boat feelings. 

The Picture Uallerv at Boloqna contains thu 1 
profincial collection in Europe, The school of BologflUt4 
colebraled in tlio history of art, and many of the great wor 
of iti masters still reniain. We dovotod all our available ti 
to the study of the Acadcmia dclle Belle Arte, which occujii 
several roomsi in a very largo buildiog, formerly tbo Jomillj 
College. A chronological order is obeervod in the j 
mont of the picture;. The 'early xnuatets of tLe fin>t epoch d 
the school (1320) occupy tlie hall of enlrauce. wlit-ro an J~ 
turee rctaiuing tbo goldi'U grounds of the Uyiaulian [ 
and othi-ra by Francia, in a style n^-mbliDg Ibat of t 
tiic maBtur of Raphael, But it was (o tha works of tlw C 
ci, of Guido; of Ouerdno, ami of Domcniobino, occupying el 
ly (be UrgMt rootu of ihu gallery, lo whioh our 
dirocLed wilU pvculiar iuten^L Amuug the works of C 
we wuru particuliu-ly impressed by tiiH Traitafigarutlori,lLaO 
version of St. Paul, and a Madonna by Ludorico CaraDOi— 
nobift pictures. Among the works of the other brolliiA (A| 
lino anil Annibalo Caraeci), tbo Convi^rsiou of St, J 
ibe Assumptiou of the Virgin are prominont. 

llie pictures by Guido in this cullccliou are uumerona, h 
and very fine. The CrntifLviou is a work of the gruudeat m 
ami iflt isi-viirdi!sirab]u In pr«cut to painful a)iulijoc(,it(ic 
nut bo ■lonn with morn dignity and aolcmnity than ii 
derful i-oiuiHwitioti. A diiititifpiished uritlc baa wid of it, ifc 
i^ jierliaps, the fiuust and oiost fiuished jdutuni Ji 



Mv, as iisiifti, many Mndnnnna ami iiifanl Saiioiira. 
Some Hre very bcftutiful ; nnd lliia gnllery is very remarkablo 
for UiB nuinlwr of its lovely women. Our view wm quite too 
ra|ud to ftironl timu for detailed remarks. One tJiing of minor 
iinportunco «triiclc me forciblv in tbeau rooms, imd that was tlie 
•in^lar buiiity of tlie nnangement, which is such as to (lis> 
[XNH! of llie Inrgu and small pictures in tlic happiest manner, so 
la io produce nrmm'ttry and to lieighUrn cffocl ; the light also 
is iMcclleot. 

Ouido's picturo of Satnson is a noble work ; it is not, liow- 
(ivcr, tliu unwieldy animal ginnt lie is often represented 1o be, 
but A perfect Apollo in mniily form and grnccfol beauty. In 
hii linnd he grnspa the natural weapon which he used with so 
mucli effect ; his victims are tying all about, and, his foot is 
plB«4 on the ni'<^lc of one of tliem. 

Thv Immolation of the lonoccutd, by tJie same master, 
ts a most painfiil picture — horribly beautiful, and full of the 
most inlcniw Hg«ny of f««liiig. The figures are of fiill size, and 
Hie murdered infiuitD, thrown coitfuHcdly into one corner, upon 
a marble pavement, — (he naked ruffians, reeking nitli the 
Blaoghter, and the utter dismay and defi]>eration of ihc mothers, 
convey to the olmerver a conviction of the reality of this moat 
afflictive scene, second only to the impmsion of an eye-viitnciia 
of tJio mawacre. Such scenes of slaughter and agony are very 
paiiiftil to behold, and it seems to mo better to leave ihe details 
I to be painted by the imagination. 

I have seen in tlie Italian galleries so many pictures of the 
' murOer of the innocents, and of niarlyTdom in all lis varied 
* horrore, dint I shrink from meeting them, almost as I would 
I do from ilie ai<Bussiiis tlicmselves. 

k'c cliowlicre* expressed my cllsapprobntion of any 
I attempt to develope from the marble, or to portray by the pencil 
f an idwd form of Jehovah — ^Uio Supreme God. No bwuan 
I roind is equal to the onccption. for no human eye lialh »«en 

126 Bologna. 

or can see bim and live. Still in the Italian galleries this fruitr 
less, not to say profane attempt has been often made, as here 
in Bologna, by Guercino. This picture was painted, it ift said, 
in a single night ; and had it been called the image of a saint, 
or of an apostle, it would receive unqualified admiration. 

Wo passed some time with much pleasure in the halls and 
cabinets of the University, which is a noble institution of 
high antiquity. In the thirteenth century, it had ten thousand 
students ; and there were so many from foreign countries, tliat 
it lx»came iiecessar}^ to employ professors of the different na- 
tions to which the pupils bi'longed. The University of Bologna 
hivs produced many emini*nt men, and eminent women too, for 
several of ib* <listinguislicd professors have been females. " In 
tli»^ fourteenth century, Novella de Andrea, daughter of the 
eelt*l)rat<Ml canonist, frequently occupied her father's chair; and 
her l>eauty was so striking, that a curtain was drawn before her 
in order not to distract the attention of the student?." Laura 
Bassi was professor of mathematics and natural philosophy. 
Her le«rtun»s were attended bv learned ladies of France and 
(xermany, and she was made LL. D. At a very recent period. 
Madonna Manzolina was professor of anatomy, while her 
husband tilled the chair of surcferv. We saw a series of wax 
preparations of human anatomy, that were skilfully and beau- 
tifuliv modelled bv her own hands. Portraits of two, and a 
bust of the third of these ladies, are preservcnl in tlie University 
Halls. A lady is at present the librarian. 

Matilda Tambroni, in our own times, has filleil with 
li'arniuf; the chair of Greek literature; and she is said to have 
b«Mn th«* friend and imme<liate predecc^ssor of Cardinal Mez 
zoFAXTi, who made the jH'rhajw unprecedented att^iinment of 
s{»eaking forty languages, and who, as Byron says, ought to 

TnH U«iivEftarfi\ 


hn¥« li«ii inl*rprv't*r-goiierftl at Ualx?!. lie wna thy win of n 
inochnnic, and dW a CflMinsI at Koine. Hero wu IimJ iJio 
ptoasnro of sit-ing tho portr»it iif Tialvani, whoeio uame is per- 
[ii!tunlc<I in tlie bontitiful dppartniL'ut of »i!iunc«. of winch, in 
ITOO, he wot Uiu iliMorcnn- and founder. Ha is r«[>n««nted 
UB silting ul a tublo wiili u diaRtcted frog Iwfore bini, kod two 
plati's of niiilal ore added witli wiroa properly vonnect«d, to 
bLow the coDtractJon of the m uadcs. His costumo ia Uiat of a 
gvutleman of ifao old school, with frilled ruffles over Iiia hands, 
a powdcrod wig, snd flowing cravat. Tliere ia nUo a monu- 
ineni to his memory, with a Latin iiiKription cointnemorntirQ 
of hia discovery, and his bust is plao«d over the monument. 
We Mw in tbo physicul catiinot several of iho articles of appa- 
ratus which ho used, and wo visited the rooms in whicli ha per 
formed his eiperimenta nnd gave his lectures. 

All Uio depurtnivnts of this University are exlnjmiJy well 
furnished, as was fully apparent even in the rapid survey whicli 
we took of them. Thero is a very large suite of epocimons of 
fiHsil fish from th« celebrated locality of Ilolua, nnd one npeci- 
mcu surpnsBca in magnitude any thing which I have seen 
from that or from any other place. 

The dcpHrtmeut of coiiipamtive anatomy in tliie museum 
is probalily Uie richest and niuttt extenmce in Italy. The spe- 
cimens ara in admirahle jireservation. Among them I observed 
the jaws of an imnieiiM modem shark, Laving a gape of 
ei^'litpen inche*, and bi'longing to a fi«h not less probably than 
twnty or tncnty'five feet in length. The heiglit of the teeth 
above tlie jsw wus about one inch. Wliat stiall wo say iJien of 
' ihoM /oMiV sharks whoso teotli were three or fijur Indies high, 
and of a jiropordonale brcadtJi t There aro fossil loetli of 
ahnrka in exisl^'nce whose dimmsione, root nnd nil, were liltht 
luM than ihom of llic hand of a mnlare man. Such sharks, if 
ihvirwntira fnme was in proportion to that of tlioir t^ctb, mtut 
bnn< approached a hundred fi-nt in limgth; nnd tlit-y doubtlesi 
had soveral rows of teeth, like tlieir muderu r'-i>n'iK'nl4live». 

At IHsa I alluded to Cuvier's rvinnrk, that tlio lAi'uni boor 

128 Bologna to Ferrara. 

must have been as large as an English hunting-hone. This 
inference is confirmed by the specimens preserved in the mu- 
seum here. 

Attached to the University is a library of 140,000 volumes, 
with 3000 manuscripts ; and there are other public libraries in 
the city. 

Bologna is a very ancient city. It was founded, as is said, by 
the Etruscans 084 years before Christ It is surrounded by a 
wall, and, as at Lucca, trees arc planted on the battlements. The 
ditch at the foot of the walls is filled with water. The popula- 
tion of the city was, in 1845, 71,000. It abounds with churches 
and palaces, and some of them contain interesting collections 
which we liave not time to visit Ample colonnades or piazzas 
run along the .princiiml streets. They are not added to the 
frt^nts of the houses, but retire within them. They are wido 
enough for three or four persons to walk abreast 

The remark already made reprarding the walls of Pisa, 
Lueca, and Florence, is true also of tliost.* of Bologna. They 
would not protect it against the niissik>s of modem war, as was 
proved here in 1 840, when the Austrian* threw a few shells 
into the town, which oc<ra.sione<l its immediate surreinler. Bo- 
logna has ever been distinguished for its int(.>lligcnce and love 
of liberty, which it maintained in the early ages, nor are this 
spirit and its projK^ results even now annihilated, notwiUistand- 
ing its present political connection with tlio Papal government. 

Estimated by time, these cities are five hours apart, equi- 
valent to twenty-five or thirty miles. Thi ; morning's ride, be- 
gun at five and a half o'clock, took us thrmgh a perfectly level 
country, covered by wheat quite rijxj for the harvest Hemp 
als4> and grass abound. Indian corn is in vigorous growth, 
and nearly half mature. The weather was hot, the rood very 

FcaRARA. 12(1 

I- docty, niHl hM\g tmapA two or tlin-o y^Ms ubuvu tli>^ RrIiIs, liml 
I dwp diltlim on iu aitji>s, voutjiiiiiug iKjigaaiit wator, iwvcred 
a grveu inaiitle, wltiuli gavo ua uo very fuvomlJo irapfrs- 
I von of (he litinllhinesa of tliia disUiuI. Kami buiises occum^d 
\ Btihortintcrrals. The people whom we met wt-m deoently dnd, 
id wo were Icaa HTinoyeii than tito day belbru by tx-ggars. 

Wo entered (be gates of tlie aiiciont city uf Korrara bvfcmi 
I noon. Our hand-book very truly |X)rtray« the condition of Fer- 
I mr*. Itwas''oncotho rmidence of & court culebraled ibrougb- 
rout Europe, and it still retains uaiiy traces of its ancii^nt grati- 
I deur. The broad, regular, and ample elreute ajtpcur like tli(»a 
I of a (ltA«rt(.'d Mpital. Grass grows on the pavements; Dio 
I lOHguiticviit ]>a1act« are untenanted, und fulling into docny ; tlio 
t walhi, Bi'vi'n inil« in ciruuit, which once contninod nuarty 
i 100,000 souls, now inclose little more than one-fourth of thnt 
I nunilim-. 11ie population is coll«ut«il together in the centre of 
I die city, and tUiuIy scattered over the remaining portion, like n 
I body Etill reljiining lifa while the catremi'tiee have lost itieir vital 
1 power.'' It was iiujiosBililti Ibr us to aSord iJmo to range ov^r 
\ till* fallen city ; and we were Uie less disposed to do it, bccAUso 
nugh to oonviuce us that tlie above sombre picture is 
r sotchwled too deeply. Every thing looks like decay ; and wo ob- 
I' served only one object whi<Ji buro a cliciirful aspect, tn the 
I centre of the city, among churches and palaces, the remains of 
I ancient grandeur, there was a gayly-jmintcd arbor, nwni- 
J bling a Bunimer-house tn « garden. It bounded two aides of n 
I bjuure, and appeared to alTurd l>otii n promenade and a shelter 
I fur the veudeni of fruils and ^msll wares. 

Ferrara w unfounded in the fifth eenlury. by fugitivps ^¥llo 
I eticaped fn>m tlio invHiiou of the Hun, Attiln. lu widla wero 
I built by the exsrcha of Itiivcnna. iu the sixth ct-nlurj'. It 
I became a eity ISOO years ago, and was tlie ivsidence of the 
I'llIiiBtrioua family of U'&te, from which, tlirough the house of 
I Brunswick, the roytil family of England it d<.'acende<l. 

During t]ie siiLleenUt contuiy, ihii traurt of Ferrara waa 
1 by any otlicr in Eiiropo for its refineraout and 


' Stvdi 


intclligciKMi ; hikI its university was bo famous lUut, i 
Tii)lqgnti, the Eij^ljitli stucIeTib hent formed n <list!ii«l I 
Fc^ra WHS llie rclrvat and Hia bunul-pluce of Aiiosto, a 
here Ta<eo endured n long imprison l^<^nt. Tliis city 1 
duced a seriea of djsljnguialied poets tind arUsts, and I 
R^orniation raut with great favor, under Ihe tiillu«iic« of tl 
Dunliess Ren6e, daughter of Louis XII. aud wifu of 'Ercolt I 
Previously U> Ijcr departure from Franco in 1527, she bad b 
eiilEglitcnud by tlio good and learned men who treqnonted ti 
court of Margaret, qaowt of Navarro. Hero, tlie fugitives froi 
religious persecution found nn axyluni, and &mong ihnn « 
the French poet Marot, nnd his friend, Lyon Jamet; ber 
Calvin hIso, under tin: assuntod name of Oharlus Nq>pevill|j 
«[wut Hoine montlis; and Olympic Morata, the most dittllM 
guisbe<l female of bur ugn, beejune bera acquninted with U 
religion which supported her inluJr AituM trials For 
in t]ii> middJa ag^s, on« of the great commercial dtim at ltd 
but ila Iradu begHn to deeiine in the fifteenth century. 

Tliu library of the Studio PuUito tWDtains 80,000 v 
and ttOD luanuscripts ; among the latter, are Uioae of KAt 
and Tasso. The library ponesses copies of £2 «ditioni i 
ArioHto, and his house And tomb are Mill in existence here. ' 
leaving the city, wo observed that the exteomv^ dildws c 
rounding it« wnlliv were filled with stagnant wuter and e 
grow n with swamp plants. Femtra is but six and a-bnif fiwt nWf^ 
the level of the sea ; the ground having bfen reilevmei) from n 
<ixluDaive morass. A religious council, assi!mblc<t htra in a 
former centur)', adjourned oo account of (he ^akUni.'M of tl 

TiiK RircnPo. — About five miles from thu iuty,wiiisun«i|j 
tli« riv«r Po, which apponrs hero about liulf « Rlilc widit. 
cmwwi by n ferry having « peculiar iUT«ng«mnnt of b 
nine in number, attAch«d to a rojw, nod ancborMl bi^ up U 
stream st suitable dis(anc«s; being lit lltii.-rly lu turn with il 
fluctuation! of the current. 

AiAJBYiAL AccvttJUjLjiosa or thb Pa. 


I platform to recei?o carriagee, and tlie passage is efiecW by the 
unprcM of tho current, vtLkli, aa long as the rope does not 
break, muil necessarily carry tlio ferry bual from one shore to 
[ Ifao other. 

Tho rope is al this ferry ijnite too small, and il apjiean, 
f ftoni the Dumoroiis knot*, to havo been frequently broken ; but 
I the rivoTi ns we snn it, wao so smooth and tranquil, tliul had tlie 
[ lope fiiiled, there would lutvo been nothiog to fuur tnoru tlian 
f delay. 

Au-uviAL AocuMDLATioRa OP THK Po. — Sir Charles Lyell's 

ticmcnts respecting the allurial nccumulatinns of this rivur 
[ veK rcmembiircd on this occasion. He states that the river 
r bed, iu iKXiseiiucnrD of tlie allunnm and ruins which the current 
Fi }ias buruc along, hn» been «o much raised, in tlie cour«o of 
I J&any cmtturitfl, tliat it now flows til a higher elevation than tho 
1 top* of the hnuBcs in Fermra, It must bo recollected, boweTer, 
T that tlie nily being five miles distant from Uio To, iho coinpanEon, 
I as to retftljvo olovaU'on, can bo made only by levelling, or by 
I observing the embankmenU of the river; there is a high levee 
B'along tho margin on both sides. Upon this high artificial ridge 

e road runs, except in one place where, for some distance, it 

curve of the Fo and strikes two miles through s 

W«»p, where again an elevated causeway, over which we 

V tn>rvll«d, lins bwn con«tructr«i, with much labor and expense. 

I After passing this distance we returned to tlie levco, from which 

B enjoyed a beautifiil view of this river — the great river of 
I Italy, whoee coar«e is 410 milps, while it drains a basin of 
fts^.HSS geographical Mjtinre mil™. The Po has it« source* in 
Rfaigb niul unowy moautains, and is therefore liable (in cuminun 
fwrlh all its tributaries) fo pr-i' ■ - ^ ■ - " - ■' .-,.t;tig:, from the 

iclting of Aljiine snows. I ■■ tniuHi-.rl*.! 

fttnntmnl* ilrrivod from llti- -^'Urco "f tlie 

^ilqiiMit. in its b«d and tli<* tn..--.- .._. . . lb 

■ mrrtit iDcnt Ire vvvr maiDtaitied " 
Border tii •einir* tbe ooml'' 



wftBon. Hrn* iJic road npiWHrs to Iw from 20 to 25 lc«t It 
and broad enough for an aDipk carringu way. Thn clasio F 
n on one side, and a very fruitful country in lil^ ■•In'atSon on tl 
other. TheleTce,ofcou7se, proves the incH-aeiii;jGl<?valkm of t}i 
bedoftLePo.and tbe great rirerMiasiteippi prcaeDlBncMetisactljrfl 
parallel. In both cases, the artilidal batTiKT (on Ui« MimtMii^ 
this barrier is in part llie work of tha riivr itself) n 
raised, from time to time, in order U> aecnre adequate f 
tion s^inst inundnliona, oflen very dostruclive in spita of en 
preotuU'on. Tho wnfinemeirt of tlio nwm i 
Telocity, and thus more allavial matter is depodted, as well i 
borne onward to the sea ; tlic river beds ore tlierefora ft 
and the barriers must ho raised c«rr«epoiidently. In the dryl 
season, the materials to form the embankments are Utken patlly^ 
trom within the banien, htit tho l>ed of ihc river iis on t 
whole, rising, year by y«ar; tliiu, in coDsei|uonco of the hydra 
static pressure^ tho wal«r pormmles tlie soil, and this la t 
reason why all the ditches and hollows are filled with t]i« tl 
Dating fluid, which may thus become at on<M; the Kinrro t 
vegetable fertility and tlie vehicle of minamata. 

A few miles before wu reitched Ferrarn, wo croaaed a 
river, which was restrained on both sides by a high and el 
erobaTikment exlendlo^ away in the distnnee beyond the li 
of vision. The country adjacent L*l evidently Iteou swanivl 
and some parts of it were sUII in lliat condition. 

All theee regions appeared to us eminently Dudariots% a 
US thi! Weather had become very hot, wu wure atuious U> re«uili m J 
mure salubrious region — althougii we ha>l expcritmcwl noi ll 
■litthtLiit iueunvonieiiL-e in heallli, evtn for a Mugtu hour, ilur 
nil our Ibdtau wandtrin^ 

Nevcrthcleea, the hints which we had reveiveu at Floi«nottl 
fi'um the BiL'knesa of a t'llow-travuller, aud from the t^uvia of 1 
the Arao, tho mahuious regions through wtUeh we had naetOij I 
Imvelied, and a sudden, nltlniuiih brief illness of onr wortkyJ 
courier, convinond iis that nu hnd bwn limg enough niuonii U 
(Utrnd iNMutifiil SM», apuB wbwh jifr Ijit liw 'g 

Hot Spuihos. ISH 

]iDurin^ (lotvn his fiill flood of ligliL nnd lii':iL nhicli tiiiiHt. ex- 
holu miAsiUHU from tlic putrid wntors. 

'I'lic nncient port of Adrin, wtiieb, 2000 ycms njfo, wns on 
tliu cotiBt, and was a priiici|inl Romnn sUtioD for sliips, is now 
20 gi;np'nphical mil<a troin the Bea-shore ; iu ruins cnn bo but 
irapurfectly Irnced, but iu site is believed to have been ncnr to 

Our morning's ride curried us over tbo Adigc, only two or 
tJiriM miles from our comfortable rifsting-plooe at Itovigo, whicL 
U a Mitnll, Active, nnd chuerfuMouking dty. The Adigo i> not 
linir as wide as thu Po, Bllbough the current, as we saw it, is 
more mpid. Our pns»igo was quickly effected by the some 
mode of fcnyinf; us ai the Po. As we travelled onwnrd, llio 
countiy was, for two or throe hours, like Llmt which wu hiul 
pittocd ufUti Ivaving Boli^a. At laat, however, satiated aa wc 
were \nth the rich scenery of a perfectly level region, wo with 
^at ploseufv descriol A moimlRin, nnd at a little castellated 
town, cnlled Monwilice, wo emerged from the low luntHri- 
oii« cntintry, at the distKnco of ten miles from Padua. Here, 
more than almost any where else on our travels, misersble, dc- 
fomwd and imporlunntc beggars clustered around our cnrriiigcs, 
and could scarcely be repelled. A few miles farther on our jour- 
ney we c»m6 to another town coiled Battaglia, where thiTC is n 
spk-ndid establishment for Uot-wat«r balh», fed by natural springs, 
i.'^nt».TiilDg which I was not adetjuatfly hiformed until we 
maiiheil Padua ; otherwise we should have slopped to see 
them. These springs are copious, and a natural mounil of 
tWWn fi«t iu height has b^u raised by deposits from the water. 
Lhiublhss these hot springs belong to the system of internal vol- 
cauie lieAt,of which there arc many indications in northern Italy. 
The sjirings are iu the territory of the duke of Moduna. whose 
cMtle-like palace we ptte(«d> It appoare to be on ample catab- 
liahmout, but contiguous to it. there are barren lialds of n wry 
forbidding appe.iranc«. 

No rain having fnllun lor n lung time, and Ihe wuathur 
; very hot, onr n<lu waa rendered umwmfurlalilu by de 

134 Padua. 

clouds of almost impalpable dust, which, even when the windows 
of the carnages were closed, penetrated through the intersticeSi 
covered our clothes, and almost choked our respiration. 

We had only a few hours in this venerable city, which is 
said to be the most ancient in northern Italy, and more than 
600 years ago, was a rival of Ferrara. We hastily visited the 
natural history rooms in the university. They are well iiimiBh- 
ed, and the department of fossil fishes is particulary fine. 
Tliere appeared to be about 400 specimens of ichthyolites, 
chiefly from Monte Bolca, near Verona. Some of them are 
three or four feet long, and a large proportion show both sides 
of tli!3 fossil on the two parts of the rock, which was dextonmsly 
split at probably a natural joint, or at a partial separation made 
by the bo<ly of the fish itself. These impressions are singularly 
perfect, and in many instances nearly every bone and scale is 
in its place. 

There is in this museum a very perfect specimen of a fossil 
shark. It is about four feet long ; and this fish has the peculi- 
arity which distinguishes the modem member of his family. I 
allude to the long fluke in the upper member of the tail. 

Padua is said to have l)een tlie earliest school in which dis- 
sections from the njccnt human subject were miide. We vis- 
ited the anatomical theatre, which was the first ever construct- 
ed, and which is singularly like its modern representatives, 
but vur}' small, and provision is made only for standing students. 
I remember often to have heard, in my youth, at Philadelphia, in 
the Medical School there, from the lips of the eminent Dr. Wis- 
tar, the names of the illustrious proft«sors of the University of 
Padua, of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries — Ves alius, Fai^ 
Lopius, Fabricius, Spioelius, Sanctorius, and also Mor- 
OAOKi of more modem times. The roofs, and, to a great ex- 

<;i0TT0'8 CUAPEL. 

tODti liu! HJili-a of jiia interior of tlie corridors of tlio Univcrsily 
■um>iiiidiDi| llie included hollow squsros, arc almost, entiroly 
covered witb armorial bcariugs of academical men ; but time 
has done much to render the ioscriptioDs nlmost illegilili!. At 
tlie lop of tbo staircaae is the etatue of the colcbratcd Eli.bna 
I.ccntinA CoRNAHo Piscopu, who died in 1648. aged forty- 
dght jean. In addition to Ijet native Italian. " she spoke ivitli 
entire fluency Uubrew, Greek, Arabic, Ldtiu, Spanish, and 
KfCDch. She wna a tolerable poet'^ss, and excellent musician ; 
wrote mathemaUcal and astronomical dissertations, and rc- 
cav«d a doctor's di-gree," and of choice, died single, having ro- 
fmcd the most ailvuntageous offeni of marriage. 

We visited several of tlie cliurchea ; two of them were very 
largo, and very rich in all the ciDbullishmcnts llmt am uhuaI in 
Catholic count riea. 

Han as olsowlieru, when it was posaiblu t<> do eo, wu |>ro- 
(Muvd the oBicial calendar and scheme of study of the Univer- 
aty, OOnUiniiig the names of the profvesors, the timm of tliu 
tetend courses of Iccturi.'w, ami tlie laws and regulations of thti 
iiMtitUtioti. As all tho saints' days, uiid religious observances 
of tho Catholic chiircli, are strictly regarded in t}iu Itjiliati 
ralloges, it happens, of course, that a very hirge pruporllun uf 
idle days full into tlie al^holafitic terms. On the calendar of the 
Univoraliy of Padua wo coualMl 160 such days, on which lliore 
arc ndlhKr leclurea nor rfeJUtions. Tlie profrsjon, however, 
i-i)Olinuu thi-ir IuImts of rcMorch nn tliese days. 

Vfe visitivl A small eliapel, well kuowu as Giotio'a C1ih|h.'1. 
whirli was adorned by tho fresco paintings of that artisl, wliiili 
mru among the earliest specimens of the modem era of this art. 
Thu sulijecls are Jrawu entirely from the Scripturea: and 
although the pointings am dimmed by time, lliey are still beau- 
tiful and iuteresting. The inctusure b whlcli tliis chapel is 
tilnated is the silo of a Roman amphitheatre, of which all that 
reniflins iii a portion of |]i« stone irall. 

We hail no lime to luuk into any uf tlie jMtlaoM of Padua. 
In i^vrnl the city has a grave and auUijUe appearance ; tlicre 



is, however, a jxiblii: stjuarc, tliat is mnilu chcuiful by u grave, 
aiixiikI which nre urrangcd a multitude of maH>Ui siatuts at 
lliu great men of Fudiui, funning * lirilliaiit Mscinbly. Liku 
Bologna, Fudiui bn» its corridorii ur pinzsis receding inti> tlM 
body of tliu lioiiK, luid tLns tnitking the Btrcela effbfitlveljr 
wid«r, while they afford protection ngninst sun and rain. It \* 
also Burrouiidud l>y walK oa which trees aro planted, a* A 
Lucra. Padua hns bL-en iuvolved in the calamities of Italian 
warfare, and has bucn takon and rulaken ouc« nuil ng»iii. Tlia 
^'(■^etians once captured it by a iiiglit Msault. 

Hi-'ru wo art) at tlie easUirn limit of our journey, so long do- 
sired, and ut last attained. We aro in Venice city of the 'lAtt, 
qUfwn of the lagiinM, fnllcn iiidcud from her glory, but still beau- 
tiful in sorrow 1 

On a line railroad, in little more llinn half an hour, wa 
came tweutj-fivc miles from Padua, and arrived, in full day- 
light, at Msven o'dock in tlie evi^uing. Wo passed tliTOugh n 
lovely diampflgoe country, in high cultivation, adomt^ by 
rows of iTL-es, often the Lomlwirdy poplar, which has, inderd, 
attended iw all the way from liulogna, bordering both side* at 
tiiu mad ; and blniilar liniA of trees and shrubs griniTTRlly form 
tltu bounilarim of thu small fields into which ihe coimtry is 
divided. ' Vine* Wern often »c<?n hanging in fe«to«>n8 from ftiw 
tree t« another, ihun fonning elegant curves. 'Ilti? feature of 
rural Rumery we have ohaervcd every where tn Tuauauy Mil 
LoHihartty, As wi- appronclKxl V«iiio«. we began \o dJxMfn 
its lowent, rising, like those of Qolland, out oftlie wavw; axl 
almost before wo were awnm of our n]rproacli to (lie dty, W» 
wore darling iiv>-r a gmnd KtoDO riadnct tou mil(« and a <]tMr- 
t«T long, wlii<d> now conu'id* Vi«ic« with tlio mun land. 



waitjng ready to rccoive U«. Tliey triMh^ lu wilh miic^ 
I civilitj ; and wo verw iti'Uini-il ouly half au hour, itntil our (tirii 
' for the examinalioD of bagga^ should come. The traoka aiid 
I hnga of oil tlic jinrty wore grouped together nnd displayed on 
N'kind of counter, nml from its <(un>itity might well huve excited 
I nttcntion, if not suspicion. But Friin^oia, who has great tncl od 
llic«u ocrnaions, found nn old iic(|uniiitance among the ofSuiuU, 
and iillhuiigh wu hnil, ns u&uni, girun him our koys, to be at 
I tho command ofthe iiispcH^tora, uotaparcci was opened; every 
I thing wns cleared xt oncu, nnd both wo and our baggago wero 
' promptly received into the same water-coach — a Venetian gon- 

Bcliotd IB now, ilarting along in the grand cannl of Vonice, 

thu " DroodwDV " of licr i<itixcna. As our oan wore cutting tliQ 

WHt«r, and ttio light* wore already flickering in tlio windows, 

wo had hardly time to rciliie our novel position before wo 

tumnd into a side canal, V-lwccn the palacB of tlio Doges aud 

the priuin, ila gloomy comimnion. With no small emotion, 

I we passed beneath the Bridije nf Sifh ; nnd soon we stepped 

from our gondola upon tlio stairs of our hotel, h wm tbu 

I Alberpti Jtealt JJanieli, very nL-ar to llio dm-al jinlnio. 'ITiu 

hoti^l was formerly the puliice, ciiUud ihu Jfani Moerninijo. 

I The mortiing light of thu n<^xt day diB|ilayf.i to our view 

Iho broiid basin that fortaB Oiu hnrbor of Vtnicc, in whieh 

e steamen and eailing shiin at anchor, while gondolas nml 

I other boala wero plybg \n diffurant directions. The new 

[ from the fronl windows over iho Cuual and the Lngoun In 

rery fine. The city forms a crescent along the bay; and frum 

iinr windows several domes and towers of churches riw iiii'> 

Venice, at the end of tlie aeveuteenth ccnturt, hail 200,000 

I inhabitaDta, but now has only 12S,000, without including tlia nu- 

us ialel« in its waters. Tlio chief island is called Isola du Ki- 

Rialto meant iha dinjp ttivjun, and ilio la-idgo trwiod 

T tho great caii»1 is ther^>fr>re, ivilled 1li>i Uiallo. Thii is ilio 

a bridge tlial is mentionvl in Ih'.' ~ M>Ti.-luitil of Venice," 

138 VfiNicB. 

and H the ouly one over ibe great ciiiial,wliir;li U, Ibuji^bisu, 10) 
yards wide. 

There are 146 smaller cannlii, crossed b}* 300 pnU 
bridges. In Vuuief, neither horse, donkey, nor mule, nor ri 
uarriage of any kind, is seen. A barrow, or some other bu 
machine, fur the tmnaportation of conunoditics, is occamosal 
Dbaerred, but in gonumt the gundolu is tlie solo v^cle for p 
sons Btui eficcta. The far-famed gondoln is Hhnped (omewhi 
like na Indinn cnnoe, and will carrry n doxeti persons. 
sra 3000 gondolas in the uity, and more than 6000 gomj 
For promiscuous use, and for merchandise, tbura nre 
boats. Tlie gondola ia almost universally black, and 
hwt any ornament bt^des its beak of polished iron, fantutici 
wrought. For the comfort of prissengere, there arc cushiot 
seats, and nn awning averts boLli the sunbeams and tlio n 

In thd gondola Uia iiiorchiint trnnsporlfi hu casks of n 
and the lady of fashion makes her calls. Instead of a ( 
wailing at the door, you see a gondola reposing on ila oat^i 
TCcured at the front door by tying it to a painted peal, wmtt^ 
of whioli are frequently soon planted at the doors of the pril 
pal housea. Thuir steps come down to the water, and f 
most tiplendid palaces are on the water line of the nauols, 
•ome Uw instances there is a green area, with idiruha and ti 
but this is rare. 

llieni are some advoutages in this mode of travelling ia I 
etty by water; the conveyance is easy, espeduJIy for the ( 
and for invalids, and the machine will not run aw^, and t 
hardly sink ; tliere is no dust to annoy ficrsonii or appard, ai 
in the houses there is much less dust than (n towns win 
[lopulatiun move through streets. There are in Venice nm 
ous narrow streets and alleys, and along some uf the t 
theru is a bnwd walk, 'lljarrs is a ipactoiu area of ■ 
ground in fmnt of ilm princi|)nl linsin, luside* ihci la^tt p 
wju&ro of St Mark, in front of tin- ducal palaiKi, and *< l] 
church of Si. Mark. 

-BcforanwttfttlKclui in il w iBki^tbiy^ U jip u 

! Uridob c 


■Venico » buill upon T'J islands; Gibbon nontioiiB 100. It 

I.bIiouM bo remarkefl Uint tbo bridges are constnicled willi 

I'JbroHd sLiips (if Ascent for liumun fe«t only, as no vehicles or 

» iivtr puss over Uiera. The reader will recall, in tlii» 

■Cunncvlioit, thu di^scriptions of VenicQ by Rogers and Byron. 

Around Uiu H<iiiari! of St Mark cluater wimo of ihe most 

litterMting asKot^intioTis of Ven^itiim Listoiy. It is the centre 

f bUKinew, of I'ashinn, and ivorsliip. It is surrounded by bril- 

■liaut shops, stored willi tlio richest producUons of Venetian 

Lftrt, and you approach tli^m and the saloons of rufrealimeni 

Lnndcr lieauUful piaitms. Here tlia people promenade, an<l here 

fttba saOTMl p!g>;on« in largo fiocks are fed at the public ct- 

Tbo church of St. Marie, willi the celebrated bronw 

on the front, the palace of the Doges, and tlie lofty bell 

rww, form one side of the squaro. At present, Austrian cnn- 

1 attended by Austrian cannoneers, and pointed from tlio 

Ml of lh« palauu into tlio square of St Mark, leave you in 

doubt Hs U) whttl would follow any popular moviTOcnt 

The Dueid Palace is n magnificent Byzantine pile, witJi 

tfiental uchltDcturti and regal grandeur, little impaired by the 

lapse of centuries. Contiguous lo [be palace are the two fa- 

Bioiui granito columns brought from Coustuutluople ; and there 

a a third, wliicb, in tho altenipt to land iheui, was lo»t in 

c mud. 

On the top of one of thorn !s tlia win«;od lion of brjuw?, 

Miich, ns well ns tlie four gilded bronxe horatu on Bun Murco, 

tenng, under Nnpoleon^s sway, made a journey to Paris, have 

Den, in coUHetjnence of his reverses, restored to thtrir places. 

Between these granile columns Carmagnola, one of ihu 

L Venetian commanders, was beheaded, because lie had 


We have been conductcti tlirougb tlic Ducal Palace, and 

Ibrough Uie prisons, and bnve croascd [he Bridge of Sigh*. 

1 hoard (be sighing nf (be prisonen, although no pity was 

Ut for lliom by the cruel aristocracy of Tt», who, on mere bus- 

m secrul accusation, ai><l often without trial, cod- 

140 Venice. 

dcmncd the prisoners to death, which was often inflicted within 
the prison, and nothing more was ever heard of the victims. 
Sometimes, when they chose to make an impression on the 
public by some illustrious sacrifice, the victim was puUidy 
beheaded, as in the case just cited. 

The only communication between the Ducal Palace and 
the prisons of Venice was by this gloomy bridge ; a covered 
gallery, high above the water, and divided by a stone wall into 
a passage and a cell. The state dungeons, called pozzi, or 
wells, were sunk in the thick walls of the palace ; and the 
prisoner, when taken out to die, was conducted across the 
gallery to the other side, and being then led back into 
the other compartment or cell upon the bridge, was there 
strangled. The lower portal, tlirough which the criminal was 
taken into this cell, is now walled up. The pozzi are under 
tlio flooring of the* chamber at the foot of the bridge. They 
were formerly twelve ; but on the first arrival of the French^ 
the Venetians htistily blocked or broke up the deeper of these 

In Byron's time it was nece^ssary to crawl through holes, 
chok(*d with rubbish, in order to descend to the third or lower 
stor}'. The })assage is now cleared, and we went down by 
torch-light to the lowest cells contiguous to the water. Byron 
thus accurately describes what we saw : 

" If you are in want of consolation for the extinction of 
patrician power, j>erhai>s you may find it there ; scarcely a ray 
of light glinmiers into the narrow gallery which leads to the 
cells, and the places of confinement tliemselves are totally dark. 
A small hole in the wall admitted the damp air of the pas- 
wiges and sened for the introduction of the prisoner's food. A 
wo<.Klen pallet, raised a foot from the ground, was the only 
furniture. The conductors tell you that light was not allowed. 
The cells are about five paces in length, two and a-half in 
width, and seven feet in height They are directly beneatli one 
another, and respiration is somewhat difficult in the lower 

Thb Dcc*i. Palace. HI 

All this oorrespoDdfl p«rfuclly with wliat ive saw, but uni 
I imjMrUDt fuel » omitted. Tlie pHsonuis wurc Btrangled in this 
I loiTflr region also, in aplaco pointed oul bv tiiu guide. Ue 8llow(^d 

t niclio in the wall, where the vicliin wna seatuJ, aud jwr- 
j haps, until thai moniaiit, ignorsnt uf his inipeudiug fate. Wu 
I iiilcrrcdtliatu cord was Uicn applied aliout hisni^ukand u wrench 
r or wheel (vrUose place of fixture in thu wall wo saw, although 
I h ia now removed) being turned, tlie deed was done in silenue 
nnd darlcnesa. In this deep Uell, lliere was a still more protound 
I abmle of dentil, to whieh the cor|ises were conrcfcd, benealli 
I the place of execution. 

TliUD, not only real criininnls, but tliesuspect^.'d or accused, or 
I tbuso whom iheni was an interest in removing, were (|uicLly 
I Btruck oul of life by one of the most hcartk'ss and cruel deapol- 
I isms liiaC over existed ; a government Mgncious and cfScient 
I t6 firomoto tlio inbtnat* of the state, but terrible to t}ie ^ubjoct. 

Wp mado tlm lour of the aUte rooms of the ducal palace. 
' Hiey ure nuraerou* nnd large, and embellislied in n^al style, 
irith spWdid paintings in oil on canvas ; botli tlic sides nnd 
I till ceiling of tlio roouia are thus adorned. I have neither apace 
I nor inclination t« describe them. Ofcoutselhc glories of Venice 
I and the portrait* and actions of her eminent men are prominent 
I subjects. 

in painter (Tintoretto) has devoted one end of a 
I Tery large hidl, 70 to 80 feet wide, to the subject of the last 
I judgment. In executing hia work, he has taken the occAsion 
1 to pantlieonixo his friends, and lite great, by exalting them to 
I heaven. Among them he introduces the ]tortrait of a lady who 
I Invl aci>eptod h'm addresses, while ho sends in the opposite 
1 £ir««ion another latly who had rejected him ; the figure of thin 
I aeuond lady in n [M>rlraiL, and she is pitohing down headlong in 
I oompnny witli un many more, both women and men, as ho chose 
I'to diiipose of in that manner. 

At Vvui we saw uii immense fK-soo on the fame subject, 
I by Orengiio, occupying a larger space, and in (roalmunt even 
per? oiycetioiinhh^ -^ .__ _ 



The painter bna tiken mmiiur Ubcrttoi, and the prieitM, wU 
stem to have b«en objin.-ts of purlitular displeaaure 
are fnthnA (Jowuwurd hy demows, iu fonu both hidaous a^ 
ludicrous; wliilti tlm ]>niu:» of darkncM is )D ihg Mil t 
swiillowing one vk-liui, wliu is writhing and MfUgg[ai^ u if li 
were in tiiv tblda uf an aiiucouda. I need not wty th&t such a 
liimpto art! uqually vain and iiujiroin-'r. 

Among tlie numerous Iinlb wliicli we saw in the due 
palftoc, wasthatin whicli thcstturetCuuncilufTen — thuefiectifl 
government — huld their Besions; and iwntigiioitt 19 the M 
faraeii mouth of the lion — ^an aperture so i^uUihI — into wlii(| 
flecrpt information was conveyed by Jetlnn, 

The door was shown to us which leads to tlio li» 
lure, where the victima were put to that borriblo test, in o 
to extort a confession, llie infernal tnatratnenlB are still ] 
s«n'od in the nrsonal, to which, wtieii wo were in Yen 
Btrangers were not adinitlt-d. 

CHuacii 01' St. Mark. — I have but a few rcmarhs lo n 
upon the splonJiJ old church of St. Mark, both becauaa 1 hvm 
neither room nor time, and bocanie I despair of connrjring m 
adequate idea of this stupendous pile of Oriental tnagniflc 

A tlinutand years do not cover tlie wholn period of i 
existence. It is adorned with the columns and gems of tl 
East, and no wonder, for every Venetian captiun of n ship 
e\-ery traveller of tliat nation was roquired to bring homo « 
tiling to adorn this temple ; Greece and Consign tioople, P«1<t 
tino and all Eoropo have contributed to its cmbeUishinant. 
lA toUtlly unlike to any other temple that I have mod. 
mund nrches and rofular domes, and from every jiarl of t 
there look dovm upon you, in permanent mosalu of gold I 
colored stone*, and even precious gems, uobwial Itnagw rf ll 
Saviour, of tlio virgin mother, of biiusUm a 
nmlliform beings of religious alk^ry 

o fru«h. rich, and gorgcoua, that you am alincnt ImwlMffr 
and involuntarily drop yuur in-M tu iIm floor, nln-iv yua n 
atrao^ usually daMJci! l<^ Llie ptud^ loar blu^ am 

f Sr. Mai 


■•erpentines, uiil vvni-itiititiue, uuti rod porphyry, Uigposud ta 
I endless rariety of mou Ix^uutlful ]mtturus, as if it liad boeii tbo 
l.irnrk of > nuigicuui arlist You rvad there also Uiu instjibility 
lof liumnn glory in tlio worn uxl mutilaletl cuiidilivu of purtii 
R of tbn [laTi^niciil, And in tlie witving lioliows und ujiwurd (.'urvm 

wliicli provo tbat its foundatirins were liiid in tliu sc-n. 

You again lift your eyes, and in tlie permantnt inoauica (for 

no periahabltt frescoes or oil pnintingn aro here] you rond in Inrge 

■ Mid distinct historical figures the early liiblo history of our race, 
I wd tbu nniuils of tho patriarchal fntniliea. 

nd tfie c.liurch. Jiang rich lamps of silver and gold. 

■ Hugo candles and tights perpetually liiirniQgfSynibolizQ the ini- 
Bortality of tlio raul. 

Paiung out of llio church, precious columiu are on your 

iglit Knd on your left, columns of niarblo and porphyry brougUt 

ioni ConstantiDopli), and Jerusalem, aiuI St. John d'Aere. 

Lifting your eyes again to the roof, you there aee doina^ 

1 dome upon domu ; miuarvta and carviogn in arabvB({ui^ 

lod other rich fomu of Oriental architecture, with imagen and 

merahla, standing as eetitiuelft on all tJio coniicia 

Bnd angles, and in the niches. 

Crouing the area in front of the churiji, yon look op U> 

a giddy U>p of the Campanile or B«I1 Tuw«r of 8c Marco, 

d although it is 32« feet high, you cauoot rccist the tt-mptA- 

1 to ascend to its gaUi>ry, especially as the inclined spinl 

blane which tc4ida you up is so geUJe in Its asc«nt, l)tat yun 

G M tlio srnnmit witlioul fiilKUi't fuid tberu enjoy a ^uriutu 

Uriow nf the city — of the numerous islands and thnr village* — 

|f Ut« more distant ship harbor of Venice, in th« long island of 

'"Ido — of tho Adristtn strHchins fsr away ia the diWanoe — of 

jQCoatiuiintal itx.t' ritaina. You learn aW 

arhcro were plaDl> i ri ^ rth^ itt 1048, 

( a hraro and y- 

"flown iho Kpirit of ii:.n"i'.ii mj. i-i...... 

a luty^^ yok'}— not t' 

144 Venice. 

Descending from the tower, you see Austrian troops all 
around you — their burnished arms gleaming in tlie sonbeams, 
and their field artillery planted before the National Palaoc, 
ready to put down any popular movement 

Walking down the Square of St. Mark, on your right and 
on your left, and crossing before you at the remote end, arc 
the splendid piazzas of St. Marco already mentioned ; it is a cir- 
cuit of a third of a mile, in which the fronts of the piazzas or 
corridors are filled with shops, glittering with the beautifel 
manufactures of Venice — in silver and gold, in glass and silks, 
and in innumerable other productions of art 

As you walk on. you hardly disturb the numerous flocks of 
sacred pigeons, which, from time immemorial, have been fed 
here at the public ex[>ensc ; they pick up the grains of wheat 
and corn in conscious security, as no one dares or wishes to 
molest them. They are not of the domestic breeds ; they are 
wild pigeons tamed by the kindness of man, usually their 
enemy, but here acting as their friend. 

The Cemktekv, which we visited, is on one of the islands. 
It contiiins a department for Protestants, and there repose the 
remains of Mr. W. A. Sparks, late American consul here ; he 
was in Yale College a classmate with my son, and came to 
Venice, as he little thought, to die. 

Manfrini Palace. — Wo have visited the splendid Man- 
frini Palace, one of the most magnificent in Venice ; splendid, 
not so much in its external architecture (for tliere are many in 
the city which surpass it in this respect), but splendid in its 
vast gjillery of paintings, numerous and various, and among 
which are chefs-d'oeu\Te of the Venetian school of art It has 
also statuar}'. 

The noble proprietor of this palace has also amassed a small 
cabinet of minerals, and excellent specimens of the fossil fishes 
of Mount lV>lca, which we hope soon to see in their place in 
the mountain. 

Glass. — ^The Venetian glass has been celebrated for centu- 
ries, and although it is now much surpassed by the Bohemian 



I wJ Austrian, m well a» by the prorluots of other countrios, 

Mill iiod nn small L-urio»ily to arn sontc of Uic process:* of its 
k mauufiLCtiire ou the Mine islnnda where it hns Wn miulc ni 
p long. The curioui BpiraJ-wnrcd, and intcrUrcd paltcnis of vuri- 
l< OiH colcira are prudacol in thi> most simple muancr. Thu vnii- 
I oun colors aru prcpttruil ecpnratoly, and emuU rods uf eudi <!ukir 
I wu drawn of b uniform siEe, about ai large ^ a uiiall goosv-quill. 
I Bume aru colurlvn, others of evory ihadtj which art I'au pro- 
duce. As many colors are selected as it is dcsirud to introduoi^ 
for example, into a toilvt-bottle. The rods are broken off of on 
I even lungch, and laid oidu by side, touching each otltor, upon n 
I slab of iroti, which ia tlicn introduced into the furnace. Hera 
[ the glaw is sofUmed by the heat, and the aovoral rodii adhuro 
[ togothtv like sticks of candy in the sun. When tlicy arc sutli- 
I dontly plafilic, the workman, with his blow-pipe, rolls tliutn 
L inlo a kcroll, cloeca tlie opL'n end ndruitly iu tliu tire, bents llio 

H until it is soft, and ihcn blows and moulds it into any do- 
I sired fonn. The oripinal colore are preserved, but become curioon- 
I ly entwined in the prD<-«s; and the article, when finished, oflurs 
n grvat puzzle to tiio uniuitiatcd to tell how it was done. 8everfd 
[ apccimeiisofVonotiunglassweromadofor us while westoodby 
I And Itfoked on. Theeq colored rods are spun so fine that tho 
I glam is woven into mala and basketa, quite flexible and clostii;. 
I ^e saw also beads of many cotora made from glass lubes. 

C'HCRCnEB. — The I'liurchea in Venice are very numerouf), 
[ laut we have seen only a f«w of them. In Catliolio countries 

,• are always open and accMaible. Commonly uo foe is 
I demanded ; i( however, any thing particular is shown by an 
I'fttteudanl, a litllii money will hv (^xfMuled ; but n small sum 
iswer, and nurer, oxwpt iu a single instuniw, have w« 
KIedowu mure to be dcnmuded. We were surprised at Die 

■ Kadiueas with which thu attendants in tho churchM conducted 
^t» inia Ihu most sncrtd phms ; within tlie altar, into tlie sa- 

■ crisiT, into prival* moms containing Ireasuru!! of gold and sil- 
J ver, and gems, and relius itw-jnc-d Bacrcd — into the crypta among 
Iti"* lombfi of the vunej7iti.-d liead, jind into privala chB|«ls — nor- 

14C VicsicK. 

tions of the diiircU»s l>eiiig often filled up as cUap«ls by partin 
lar fmnilieB ; they aru usually mm-h decorated, (vnd eoi 
rplendidfy adorned by the greal and opulent 

The inUmal spluiidor of die cliurcUes iu Venice u 
Kive ; at least, lUis is tme of seveml of tioso which ' 
The andenl prosperity and opulenco of tlio republio 
mheto morB strikingly recorded than in the wealth lavished 4 
the fhurches, in every form of iugtjuious, and often tasteful ■ 
well as gorgeous decoration. 

The line arts have been in Italy much indebted to tbe U 
tor decorating the churches ; many of the finest pictoras t 
Btatuca being found in iLem ; and the tirta connected 1 
architecture, both in ite substantial and ornamental (onna, Ii 
been much encouraged by tlie same csuae, 

The vast size of many of tlie Catholic churches admils <j 
sepulchral monuments of great dimensions and prodigal C 
[K'nditure. In Venice there are colossal structures of )' 
kind erected to the memory of their great men, i 
of llieir military commandere; some of these i 
uf Btupendous magnitude, and consist of many pnita, all i 
- H'Lich aro gigantic, and still so combined, that tlie t 
appear in proper proportions and in unity with the dengn. 
example, in one of the cliurches whicU me vUiled, 
tvhidi a]ipeared U> rise 50 or 00 feet high from the floor, i 
eruwned by an e<jucstrian statue of the deceased. The i 
commander, mounted on a bronze or gilded horse (botli n 
and steed of colossal size), aeoms prepareii to rida in tho I 
ott>r tho bends uf the humble ]>eople who vtnik on tlit,- 

A grand monument has been erected in another cliureh | 
the niemoty of the ^»l Kculptor Cnnovn, from dtKvi 
which Cnnova desi^e>l ior a tumb tu Titian. It i 
pyramid — a tomb, whose dour nlnnjbi viiia ojicn, and i 
idiegoricnl mourners, iu a fuueruol train, are monntjag j 
s(<!pa, M if to eiilw and wirp lhcr«. niia (lenolaph i« m 



duultt >ad beautiful. It was okuUkI by a subscription tnken 
up in all the dtimt of Eurupn, nnd U> some exUinl in Ami'rica. 
A mngniliccnC Uimb is in progress, to ibe lUt'Diory uf 
Titiutt, ibo KTuiiL nntive painter of Venice, ut the expense of 
the Kmpcror of Auatrin. Wc resorted to the worksliop of tliu 
sculptor, anil saw the principnl stittues and bns-reliefa for ibu 
Mructure. Some of Titinn's own pictun^ for exumplc, ibu 
Assumpsit Maria and llie SL Putur Martyr, nru liorc per- 
pi7tuat«<l in Mutptured marble. His own figure is of course 
a principal object ; and it ia br beyond the sia) of life, in onlcr 
to correspond witli the magnitude of ihti tomb, in which it will 
occupy, as it ooght, the most conspicuous position in the ar- 
miigement. Honors to the illustrious dead are tbe projn^r 
tribute of posterity, and should excite the living to wortliy 

TiiK AcADKMT 0? TUB FiKK Arib at Venic« n much cele- 
brated, and demandH for it^ study more lime tlian wu conld de- 
i^otu to iL I passed rapidly through its nmple saloons, admir- 
ing tbe splendid coloring of tbe gorgeoun pictures, often 
repreetuitiug Hia grand state coremonials of the Yenclian 
guTerninent in its days of conquest and gloiy. The mRgnifi- 
cunt picture of Titian, the Assumpsit Marin, or translation of 
this Virgin to tlie regions of celestial bliss, remains Ibrcmont tii 
miud among nil the strpcrb things with w)iicb this gallery 

^aretoell ia Stmt. 

We left this city of ibo islands and lagoons with feelinp* 
of op]irosoive sorrow. Vmico ia n fallen city. Et'en the "jikn- 
dur of bor pnlac-es and rhnrchm fills untt witii nwlnncholy, for 
it is a waning splendor. The ■ 
boiwra, as well ^" '' -■■ — ■"' ■ 

tba*hil»lUat fr ,■ 


RuLWAT to VnuMU. 

qo^ aail whanca ; evM Um jOTow ^wlfidMs of Iicr iai|«mi> 

utona, aiii) tin: UoM of D 

to Mill Ictnmg pofmbliafi, doManng IB front t/ oar hotel, M 


bat of ■ loM^ tlwpoliBlD, wbon cobora naet fan at ens; b 

The doqnent anl I 
bf Ttni, M *1ki Imi] been, in ber dsjn of pntspctit j mmI gJoijT^ 
t> aJnuat poriectlj ^)pGc«bl« to Veuee as abn was, and l' 
piclari! of what Tyre WM doomed to twm to day of h itintlirttn a^ J 
nay yet be naliied here; tb» tinH niar oomo wImb tfa» It i fcfi * 
man ahaU Bpnad hi* net apon th« rnine of to palaces. Ibtba 
arm of » fore^ nutater holds b^ down, im foot » on bar fi 
nock, and wo can see no bt^ tbat abe will cmr rise aganu 

Bailwaf. — We led. Vuiikm at 4 p.K, id tbe nilraad b 
for Veruna, and arrired there at 7 o'«I.vk. I suppow t! 
Unu: in About 75 miles, allowing 25 miles na hour lor tl 
■|H.fd of tliu cum, nnil the stojii were vury Wiet. Alt&ov 
tho road » vwy gfiod, ibo curs do not run unoolhlr, ( 
in «a mniib noiB« ilmt wo found it rcry difEcult to ( 
Smoking wiH very common nmotig tin; psascn^rB, and no o 
n])pviir<.il to rvgard it na an lumoynnco, inneb less oa Ha O 
Koioklng, K> littltt known in Enginnd, except among o 
pcoplt^is very general on tlie continent; nnd as noindci.'urumfl 
iulHndtid by ita introductioD in public plac*s itnd Tuliiflea, I 
would Iwi rory foolish to quarrel witli this TtMierablt^ folly. 

Tbia ridu of tliree bours conducted us llirougli 
irountr}', clolbod in the exuberanctj of summer, with a cloudld 
hky, and pcqivlua] sonabiiM. Duiing two moolbs ibat wa h«| 
pasBcid in Italy, tniversing it in its whole length, wo ham n 
boon hindered an hour by rain. 

One is at first surpriu.'d to soc wch exuberant cropa nii 
i-ountry iu whidi, nt the Kiuon when it would sppea to I 
tbu mo*t nuvdvd, min i» nlmo«t unknown. I have alrmi^ J 
mArkiil that the ti-mody Is fbucid in irrigatiuri 
mi-ntionod, ttiat tliu couriucmtnl uf ihu rivets iB>^ 
aoeurwl from ovorjlow bv liigh niomuht of eatll 



league tifter kitgua in cixtcnL, and tba ultivation of Use river beds 
by Uteir own drpo«iti>, afford tlie explanation. The Alps are 
penmiiiiU •ouroes of furtiUty to Lombordy and Piedmont, nod, to 
a degree, to Tmc&ny; the dissolving and yet perpetually renewed 
snowa of ttiotte mountains, afford ineihfiiistiblc supplies of wator. 

The Boil thus roposes \i\foa a subHtralum thoronghly imbued 
willi wnlvr, wbidi, ua alroady stated, ajipeata in all the ditclies, 
ooivs out tbrougli tlio ground, nnd is boUi raised by capillary 
utttutition, and by bydroetattu pressure, and baik-d or pumped 
up to »op]jIy inoimure. 

A ItilJ crop of wbeAt now loads llio fields, and the sifkle is 
busily M work tn levelling the golden harvest In the vicinity 
of Verona there are also l&rge fields of melons, of the different 
kinds, flouriahing in great luxuriance; and the Indian com is 
now in prnmUing progress. At tite station opposite to Piidun 
we Htopped only a few minutee ; and we gliuiued nilli regret at 
its fine towers which we wore so soon to see for Uio last time. 

I-eaving Pndua, in an hour more, wa were near Vicenza, 
but the railroad powul only within a mile, and not into tbo 
town, whose buildings made a Iiuudsome uppeariinoe. It cod- 
tuins, with the contiguous viUagea, 30,000 inhabiUnta, and has 
nbe bridgea oeroas tlie river Bitccbiglione, on which it stands. 

Viucnu in the birthplace ofPalladio, a celebrated architect. 
whoau buildings adorn IiU native city. It stands in the midst 
of a region bcnntifully varied by hill and dale. The country 
continues eijualiy bejuillfiil quite to Verona; and the lofty Aljis, 
with their snowy ridgea and crests, bound the fertile plains on 
the northwest, and produoe n splendid uintrast 

Battle Fiklus. — In tJiia vidnily were fought two of Nn- 
jHitmn's grrat bailies — llint of Mo^te Bkllo in Juno, and that 
(J AacoLB in November, 179C. Tlie first was a drawn battle, 
in which neither party could doim a dccisire victory. In the 
lotl, afl4>r a ImniHuloUB coDfiid. whidi continued two days, Na- 
puleon with "r.-r il,,-. (,pi,|^.,. ,.r Ar.-nte, 

> 'lourisb 

160 Ekc'Uiieion to Moktk .Bulca. 

there, nlartneil tiieir comraHTxlur, and thus llta victory « 
The surpriiiing career of triunipLa which w.tu iLen nchiovnl hy ' 
Napoleon in the north of Italy astuniHhcd atl Europe, and tha 
Itnlinn rqmhiics were, for a scaaon, liberated from the lint«d 

dominion of Austria. 

^ittursion its ^mit §0lia. I 

ThiH celebraltd locality of fossil fishes, having long coio- 
mandM] our attention, both by tJio report of tts uitcreatliig ' 
geolo^cal uliarttcters, und by the Sno specimens of ite li^itiiy»- 
lites in the cabinet of Yule College, and still more recently by 
conspicgous specimens in tho coljinets of Italr, we gl>d)y 
svailod ourselves of this opportunity to nsit the spot 

The dlHtance &«m Veroua is Uiirty miles; and for tlio firet 
siiteen miles we retraced oiir journey upon tlio milToad as fiir 
AS the Rljition at Saubonifacio. A carriage for our acoommo- . 
dation, had gon* forwai-d firom Verona early in the monusg, , 
to be ready at the ebttion ; and on our arrinl wo lost no time I 
io proceeding ten miles by this conTOyance, which wo left 1 
HI the village of Ar^gnano, where we were r^vidid with 
five horses and mulea. Our valet declined going any AiHlMr; I 
and was, in fact, a iiselets cDOumbmnce, aa wo could Well have I 
reaufaed this [ilace witlioul liim ; and as he knew noduag of I 
tlio region of tlie fisbvs, we took a monnttuneer, and an t 
mole to tranNporl him. Two men inoro, unhi<ld<^ by i», pro- 
(weded ou foot, and a third was added on the moitntUD, our | 
«ntiro pivrty numlxiring then eight Our whole course wi 
ccnding, and dVr lh<i first mile tlie road bwame steep. 

Soon afUir leaving tlie «(ation, we obiwfved trnp pebble^ I 
fflinglf<] witli quartz ; llie dry beds of llie mountain atrean^ | 
and llio bnnb«, wore temellntod wilh ihin Iwaiitiful wltenii 
of lilaclc basalt nnd whil« qnarlz. Near thi> villa^ r 

I \mmi>ki^ 





lying about tooso, or tliey were iwod for corner slonea; bnt 

wo had not prot-cciied far before wo found lliem in place, in 

I «do of n hill, (ind projooiing at nn angle of forty-five de- 

I gre«a. They noro regular, well-defined prisms of five and six 

I lideB, but did not exceed a foot in diRmeter. 

The group extended aovent/ or eighty feet in length, along 

I iLo front of the hill. It was a grand loiuiing colonnade, as if 

[ tome vMt building had been partially ingulfed by an earth- 
quake, and bad left ita columns aslant in the ruin. This, how- 
aver, did not bear the appearance of a ruin, for it was symmet- 
rical, and orderly in arrangement; and had the eotumna 
been washed olcan &om the dirt that was iiprinkled upon them, 
they would hare been beautiful. We thought ourselves fortu- 
nate in having seen three fine examples of basaltic culuinns — 
thoaa on Mount Etna, tbone at the Cjrclopean iKlanda, and 
tliu columna just described. 

Aa ws ascended tlio inuuuUtin we found a great deal of trap 
rock, and the structure of much of it was columnur. Our jour- 
ney proved very fatiguing and uueomfortable. On the bucks of 
our humble animals, or upon our own feet, wo were exposed, 
during five bour^ in ascending and descending, to a burning 
gun. We damborod 2000 feet above the sca-lovel, and j>laoed 
DUTwIreB on the very crest of the mountain. Near the summit, 
we found an inhabited coltnge, and on the highest rock a 
church of smalt size, but fumiahod with the usual Catholic 

The moater of the cottage went with us to the church, and 
liispitably offered us a porlion of his wine; but it was a very 
lour and miserable beverage, which none of the party wcru 
Killing lo drink. The view from this nummit was glorious ; ou 

I evury side was a vast billowy ooean of mountains, aud the 

Bp>rgca and ralleys aoemcd like the deep hollows between con- 

■ flicting waves. 

Unit the direction of the local guide, residing on the 
L, wo dEBc-niW in a new liircctiou quite dowti to the foot 
if th« mountain, over cxwiodingly rough and precipious place^ 


UoKTK BOI.04. 

wWe we w«r« t>l>l'g«il u> duBKHmt from our hone 
Mnl trual to our hel 

TuE FiBu Bem. — Tliis was tlie «tf)w.i of our 
cf uur jouniL-T. ArrifKil kt tliD ()uatTy of aUir biijiiratul mi 
in «l)icli tliu fwhis are riiand, we liiul iIil- tntu&ction 
Bct'iDg tliLiu in phce, nIoii]{ wid) tW tegctuUe injifncii 
wllicli hUuuJ tlicm. 

Il nas not our jmrpoeo to uiploni for tliu tiOcK of dt*cOT- 
triiig lien Epecimuiut of funjl SslieH, wlikU tiuntil havu ivqi 
muck mora time than we conld comnumil. Our idmh o 
wad to Ku liie plut^ and to murk ita guologicnl positSon. 
time WHS Euflit-Jent for tliot [nirpoM, and we w«re not will 
U> cspotie oarKltes longer tLoii vua ncc«Hary to the ii 
action of an almost vorticsl srni, which, from a perfadlj di 
Ion tky, waa pouring down u]k>u ih a flood of light and 
iu a deep mouQtaiii uivity, wliilc ttiu Tsst ina»ffl d* 
calcHTiiHiB •Init!, nliidi lav in immuriM piles, tlirew Imck &■ 
tbuir grnviah-whitii surfaots a moet opprtasivo reili-filJoa 
there wan no brucMi lo Hgitnlis ihu eta^ant and 
air. Suuh Ua» bovu the ileinaiid for fmEit iiah(« from 
bmoiu Iwiility, that il liiw liv«u loug uud pvi^vfringlj 
plored ; lienco the great namlM-r of these icbthyolitw wlucli 
fbnikl in gwlogicul collectionfi, and which wo have ao 
Ken in iho CAbin«la of Italy and Paris ; htruco aito the 
)hIw of broken marl »lat« at tlie place. 

We »3ti)<&.'d oursulres a» to iho geological position u 
aa the cbarauter uf tlm rouba. Tlw stnita containing ilia 
aro evidentlj a muddy calfaroo-iir^llniX'CUs dupuetl, 
in delicate layers hy dupoailion, from a atate uf turbid 
Am in water, ami in this \h« &bM wetv eotombol. Tbu 
mediate iKiglilfom of tliin &am.\v liMv are trap rorht, and 
Juiu-'liuu b ijiiitu diatinct. At tlw junction, tliu marl roci: 
bruk>.*n, and iln ktmi'turo dLsturbvil im by violiuicu, bnt 
no diittinul L-haiigu iu tlkv di>u'iu;l«^r of lie alaly ndt 
on tliu iiitruHiin nr vii'inity t/ ihu trujh TU» ooli 

FoBfiu Fieti. 


Uanjr years since, lh« eminent geoluj^ist, Profeeaor Alexxndru 
[ Brougniarl of I'aiis vtMte^l this place and reportod ii)n>ii it in n 
I ^jirinl«<l memoir. Wo were wiUBfieJ, bolli from an examinaliim 
I of llie iyhthyolitti quarry and from ticc]uninlanco with (he mt- 
} uuir uf Ur. liruiigninrt. Unit Lo luul lurreully desuribed ibe 
t .pfcnliorilies of tbe locnlil^. 

larl slato containing tlio fishes is referred by geologists 
I to tht) early tcrtiury (Eocene of Lyell). Ueeides purtii)na of 
Mvoral fishe*. we saw « large and good ichthyolile lying in the 
I quarry, but tliero wan no time lo dress it out from the rocks, 
wiiich, on account of tboir cxtrenw! briltlonosa, requires greal 
I caution, and wc preferred purchasing some fine specimens to 
I bring avray assouvenlis of Uie plae«. 

Among tlie iclittiyulile quanies of Kuro|)e Lhls iii one of 
I llie must celobraUd. More than one hundred epei^iea of fossil 
I fiahut liavu been obtained here, including many Uiou«and ia- 
I dividunls, and gonemlly tliey are in a Ligh sliile of pre- 
I eervation; and are figured in Professor Agassii' splendid 
work on fo«il Kshes. They are of every size, from two or three 
inches to aa inauj leet in lengtJi, and some of tbcm by a happy 
I Vpliuiug of the Bione [>r<«eijt both sides of tlie skeleton, in con- 
cave or in relief. We could jien^tive aeroHs the valley, Btrala 
Rpparently of the sam« kind of limintono as thai which we had 
been inajiecting, and we were asaured by our mountain guide, 
Q fbesil fiahra are not uontinod to thi« locality, but are 
found elsewhere in this region. 

Tlio mouuttuns here are on » grand scale ; they rise into 

L very high peak% torrents have cut deep gaslica in their sides, 

J tiieir appearance is that of savage wildneas. We saw fielils 

r snow lying iu an elevated valley, at Uie distance of a few 

C(>iii.!,(;..i. i*. (..verih.i..-. ■■\i-wu\ iiicii i,|> 111... ,<i.!«j 

rfthem... ■"■■^'- 

:fa Mons BoiCJu 

i:.^':T Wi*. : -i .-rito-si. •i.-iosAsis mc€^ «nf<f«d up in die eilca- 
t^z-i*^ zzL-ui Lrotsi:!: tl-r trap p?p-?6e mKkr thk great mountaiii; 
a£^i vf: =i%T z^T'rSGrzK tLa: c-dbrr sohook or alioak of fidiei (con- 
v/i'irrz.:: tLrrir ^^i:<n:>i:nz n'smScn ii>i fhar grett powcn of 
I>y.<::K<:->{:j ttat \^ &>ir Ivi!:^ l-eQ^aih odier mouDtaiiis in thii 
\ 'jr.ii:\'j. It M oLT:.:.^» that set theoiT whicli pfoposes to ao- 
ryy-jr.t f'/r tL^ i^iolnxre c^ thes« fishes, almost 100 miles firom 
tl«^ iHsaire^ w:a. and in a chain of moimtains eo elevated that 
^it'i'm r<bfna:ii& in rieir in th« high Tallers. even now when it is 
9^.nk*f(f, RiidwifflnKrr, must aco>ant for the momRains aba 

It %\i\^iaas pr>babl<f that erapdons of volcanic mnd* or of 
^■Aini*zi\\ movzd br volcanic power, maj have suddenly buried 
t}j<; fifhti*^ and sul^^^juenilv another outbant of nnJly mohen 
fx-k Jlowwl fjv(;r tliem ; Lence the origin of the trap which the 
^nrrouh'lut^ waters would soon conzeaL and the heat woald 
rri;tk<: b'Jt little impre^eion upon the iehthvolite bed, which, 
Urin^ n jfrjTous material, would b*? a very bad conductor. All 
vol'-^nic action fiub<»iding, sun-i^ing fishes might reaasemble^ 
►f^jrtifijf over the graves of their predecessors — mud might ac- 
eurnulat/r again, and a renewal and alternation of the phe- 
nofriena already d^scriU^d, mi;;ht result in the formation ci 
rt'ifriiU-A i':htbyolite deposits with attendant igneous rocks. Sno- 
ri-fc>iv*-ly other strata, calcareous^ argillaceous, &c^ must have 
l^-'-n d'-fioniterl by the waters to form the volume of the moun- 
t;tiris All this was evidently done beneath the water, and the 
entire n-gion was afterward lifted by geological powers above 
lljir wiivs wher*i we now find the mountains and their contents. 

Similar vir'ws I ha^l long entertained, and the inspection of 
tlie cjniutry and of other fossilized and volcanic regions, espe- 
<:ially in Italy, has confirmed me in the opinion that some such 
hi:iUi of things an I have described must have existed. We 
w<-re viTv much imprusfted by the conical form of many of the 
smalh^r mountains, ver}- exactly resembling the parasite oonea 
wliich We have n.'cently seen on Etna. I will not, without ex- 
amination, vi;nture to say that they aro volcanic, tfaar ip«v- 



hftvo been explored by uompotunt goologista, but 1 hnve not 
Beeu ttiiy socount of them. ■ 

Uescknt from Momte Bolca. — We were obliged 6rat to 
I lucend thu rugged steeps fmin llie deep pit in which the ichtby- 
I olile i^uxrry is Hituatisl, und then very slowly la descend the 
jiitHin ude, depending on very infirm saddle furniture and ill- 
truinud unimala. On wo went, tsrdily indeed, down n i>leep 
I Hud stony mountain — feet and kneea sorely ptesaed upon the 
stirrups and against their leather straps, with no small appre- 
hension of a fall. It reminded ua of our still more tedious and 
i painful descent from the Vol del Bove on Elnti, nnd as then, 
I but now at a more advanced season, we were roasting under a 
I burning Italian sky in tbe hottest period of tlio day. The ex- 
I ]H«ure was very fatiguing, and not quite safe in a climate \» 
which we were unaccustomed. Gladly therefore did we resign 
our dwpliable (juadrupeds and our craving guides, happy to 
bitvu brought our beautiful fossil fislies * safely to the village. 
In the small village wliich terminated our ec|ueetrian trip, 
e found many of the common people assembled to see the 
I Mrangc tmvcllurs nnd to inspect their fisliea. With these they 
L were delighted. Mid we were (.H)nelly pleaacd with their pretty 
ftt^iildren; trilling pn-st^nts and caresiiea from ua to the little 
I'peuplii of course won both them and the mothers. Thus we 
f placed on friendly terms with these simple people, and 
e alluwcd freely to use their apartments for our ablutions 
I juid litttn;; up again af\er our rough fatigue. 

Wu liavo now been many times in company with the corn- 
on [mople iu dilfereut piuls of Italy, and after assuring them, by 
[ KMoe little advance, that we were disposed lo be on good terms, 
I ne have (L)UDd them Lind nnd warm-hearted. Besides the 
(iliildreu, wliioli were botlMiaadsame in their features, and with 
mjilcxions as line as thw% of our children at home, we saw, 
V \\L-u\ l!.rijuj,'h the village on our way to the mountain, a 
..|.l..yo.l in winding silt from the cooootia, 

iMn ■[.wiiuen. iMlh udtt pcrfut, and newly 

156 Vbbovj. 

which she did rerj adroitlj. Sbe was oat of doon near b 
comfortable stone cottage; she* wore shoes without stock- 
iDgs; but was neatlr dressed — ^her h«ir tasteloUj pat i^oq her 
head, and on the neck she wore a gold chain with a gold cross 
and channs. When we retained, we foand the resolt of her 
indostrj in sereral beaotifal skeins of raw silk, dressed and 
read J for nse. Hiis scene of Italian common fife was a {feasant 
one to 08^ nor did we see any marks of mlgar Tice or ooaias 
manners among the Tillagenw 

We were right glad to be transferred from the backsof oor 
poor qnadmpeds — first to oar Tettnrine — and then, after riding 
in it ten miles to the railroad, it was a laxory to sit quietly, 
at eyentide, in the swift cars, and thus to find oarsehet agvin 
in Vereaa after a hard day's travel of sixty miles. 

\'erona is a waRed town, with 58,000 people, and firom 
early times has been conspicnoos in the history of Italy. 
The excnision to Monte Boica deprived as who went thither 
of the day we should have gt\'en to Verona, and we coold 
not spare another to look into its antiquities and its arts, 
both of which, it woold appear, are well worthy of atten- 
tion. There are more than 40 chnrelies, ancient and mo- 
dem, some of them of cnrioas architecture. There are col- 
lections of pictures and statues, but we had seen so many 
such things that we felt the less regret at missing them; 
tliey were, however, visited by those of our party who 
remained in Verona. There are aI)K> objects of local inter- 
i^ especially antiquities^ 

There are public buildings fer civil and military par- 
poecs^ and for those of humanity ; there are palaces of Vero- 
nese princes, ancient and modem, and tombs of the Scab- 
geri and other distinguished persouage:^. 

FortH d«Ue BocM»v ^f^aek mam MaMk w a tl wi mto^ » «i3» 
I alTM ; k a man tbHi IfiOO nan «U. We dra«« !&»■■& 
I, aa ia unud with Boamm fOftah, lk«v an Ihma 
ftvenuoi, the centnl mie lot ttnitgt*, mad ihe l«o mit 
I onus lur p«lMtri«a>. TlMte ««fe »)n si ^inJoi ia Ihna 
rows, one »tKive uwliier. A lofrr evapeaile ii cww e rtwt wiifc 
■n uaciunl duorao. llie >ile of Venn » veiy bMBlBhl — 
the blue hilb and tnounUiai, Uie raiU^ Mnaai, aad Ika 
finely raried laadscape, (loUed with villain MiTHUiled bj- 
grovm, in ivliich the UJI cj|iraK LuHUiti with the ctfaar 
' tn>ni, vnd Uie towere, wbich rve upon iIm boM Hid pio- 
tuic«]tt« hilU. contribute to (vnn a lich pictote. 

In general, tJie housus, lofty ami sonibre, wear tbe ai|«el 
f other old Italian cities. Some of tbe ctraets are wWle, 
l>ul in gvneral tliey are uarrow. Ther« are pabric iw]iiar«)i 
and inarkot-placex. 

The Adigv, flowing down from tlie Alps, ruabes ttihxigh 

tlic <!ity with grvat rapidity, and is crosied by four bridges. 

H conimoa in otlier cities in noulhem Europe, the Data- 

i tMJ current turns Diimurous mills, which nr« anchoml in llie 

I •troaio. The vicinity to the snowy Alps mjbjects Verona to 

(UetnictiTO floods. In June. 1737. tbe Ponle delb Narie wu» 

f destroyed; and on the last day of August, 1845, after three 

days of deluging rain, the greater |iart of llie city vould bo 

travened only in boal& 

There is & fine oollecUon of Doica &th>!B in iJie Patau<j 

CanuHtu, and in tbe neiglibnrb<w«i of this town ihciv are fossil 

1 abclls which early excited atlention. In 1517, certain excu- 

I valJons, that were made for repairing the city of Vdroiin, 

" brought to light a multitude of curious petrifacliona," nnd 

f Fmscataro hnil tlie couruge tu give the opinion that they had 

B belonged to living nnimals, and had not been produced, 

I a(>cording to tho nbsuw! Inuguage of Ihe day, liy the ptaMtie 


!• longFT dn)ai)nd, and mt ]H)rMD wliu 

1^ y 

k vr^] iMMSied m c^e^^ogr ^c«l«s ilot mariae minMih, now 
£>mM2 in tl^ scJid fsnoak «k» find a ^ seaiL* . 

AnTHiTHKAnLS. — ^Tbe flxvt iHMKECiBf aBtMpritT in Verona 
k a RoouA amphhiMUKi. vhk^ is in a Id^ slate of praaer- 
Tation. at ieast. as ne^ai^ liie iaienor. die seato haiing been 
Kfodned or Kf^aMd fivvn isme to ttBaeu SdlL the outer ciicait 
has sn&Kd mnch 6viin sfwliaxioB« and was gnatiy damaged 
bj an eanhqnake in 11S4. It cowisted oi%inaDj of 78 
arche&. of vhich onhr fom nenuin. Rut it is sdll a most impos- 
ing min. It b bai3t of the nK«t Kmntifnl marble of Toona, 
f^und in the vicinitr. The diam^cer </ the amphitheatre is 
513 A^ec bj 410 : the arena k ^4$} ie<eC kng br 147.broad, 
and is Terr peiiecc The divnmfeKifeM is 1470 feet; the 
height of what lemains is^ 6v«m the paT>em«nt, 100 feet. It 
was capable o( containing 22,000 people ! Its age is soppoeed 
to lie contemporaiT with that of the Ci^isemn* between 81 and 
1 17 of the ChnstiAn era. Tbonf aw 43 step^ each 16 inches 
bigh. This amphitheatre i$ much larger than that of Nismcs. 
There are sculptured on the arches of the outer circuit the 
numbers LXQIL LXV. LXVL LXVII., as guides to the spec- 
tators where lo present their tioliet"^ We saw smiths and 
small tradesmen occupying some of the arcades as shops, and 
the interior is Sequent! v used for exhibitions of horsemanship, 
ropt-dandng, fireworks, and various shows; in the twelfth 
cenlurii- it was used for judicial combats. We have seen so 
many Roman amphitheatres, that we can form a verj* correct 
<:oni.vption of their appearance when they were filled with 
cruwJs of all rank^ eager to see the bloody comKits which ap- 
|K-ar to have been a feast to Roman eyes» and doubtless there 
wan a higher zest of enjoyment when human K-ings, and espe- 
cially Christians ^^*re the \ictiuis. 

Tlie fortifications of Verona have l>een celebrated in all 
agvs, from that of the Roman Eni|v?n>r Gallerius to the present 

* See the llistory of Geulogical Opi Dions on Lyell s f 

ts |«Btia. 

unil widu trum'b ; tlicra it 
stnictuil in n similar tnnni 
nil sirlts fur tnusqui'tir, a 
iti:y troops tlinl might til 

Wliun wc! Ifft Vt'ronn in Ihe morning, on our wny towArds 
Itrvwia, afU-r [>aasitig tlii! gate, sutne of iis dosfiendcd Troin tlio 
curriagea to observe the stroug defences erected by the Aiis- 
trisM, Mid w« lind just time to gliwcQ al tbu formidnblo work 
of hewn stone which tliey hnve constnieted in the profound fosse 
that lurrouuds the city wiilla. It extends nil along in that deep 
\: biistions at the angles wkieh arc t'on- 
icr ; loop-holes huve been made on 
nd are obviously designed to destroy 
mpt an escalade by crosaiug the dit<!li. 
Our first stage lowanl Brescia wna 20 miles, which, through 
oppressive bent pnd sufTocating clouds of dual, brought lis to 
the beautiful Laffo tti Gartla (Benaciu of the RoiaaiisJ, on 
«hc>w outlet, at the town of Peoehiera, h a strong fort, and 
tbo town is inclosed by high walla. We passed along the 
Inke to Iha town of Dufenzano, whuro wu dined c 
sshnon from the lake. Our hotel was iiluated < 
show of thaw now pcnccfid waters, over which 
siiblimo view of » semicircular barrinr of Alpiti 
of great altitude, which form iw remote boundary, 
frowning tiilus, cspi^inlly that of Mount Bnlcc 
shore, which is 3000 feet Iiigh, formed a strong conlrnst with 
-ihe ([uiet lake, fiO mllea long, which is however, frequently 
agitated by violent lem]K!sls, and has been visileil by Uio 
stuniut of war. In tlint c«Iebrated vamf^aigD of Napoleon, in 
ITB*, in which he destroyed army tifter army of the Austrians, 
a powerful host of that p'mplu marched along the western 
shoru of the Lngo ili Gnrda,* and, inMiyid of remaining em- 
bodied, iu wtiich case they would have been too formidable to 
be KiAcewAilly nllacked by Ihe French army, diminished as it 
a bynnmeruuSMiiguinary conflicts, the Austrian commander 

■ I dt« Uifl fart IrDm menury, wilhoukua autliorily Ufum m 



1ieir dark 

I the eastern 



dividod tlicm iulo two tmuiec, wkioh pasaed around Uia op|Kf1 
Ht« HDiLi of the Inkc, iigTutnMf to Na))olooD'a most »rdet>t] 
wishvB, for he Until Ulacked and destroyed them succesMvely. 

Suiuu of our young mon made an eii^uniion in a row-boal 1 
on Uid Inlcis but I jireferrod tlie view fhiiu Llie balcony of tlia 
hoUH. There U a Bteamcr Lcre, wliicli gived great facilitf in ' 
visiting tlio tnniintain scenery. Leaving tliis buuutiftil lake, v« 
passed Lonsto, an oncient wnllt^l village, witli a lurgu catliiy 
drat. Tlie wall waa in some places broken down and rumornJ, 
and appiiars now to be of no use 

BuKsciA. — Wo nrri\-ud at Brescia before evening, but not 
in M>naoD to obm'rvo llio town, and as we were to leave it <r 
early in tliu ni'<niiiig, tlicrc uas no uppurtuaity oven to walk j 
•bout tliu strcH'tM. HiGscia contains S£,OOD people, and ia tud ] 
to bo proajwruus. In passing tbcuuglt it, Uie appearanoe ws*J 
niui:b like tliat of uttier lUlito citici^ It U well built, tind Q 
■Cniels intonioct vacli other at right anglta. It has guod | 
mimts, ami Bidowallct laid with flat slooos. Fiat Elones i 
placed, also, for the wheels of carriages, while round i 
fbrm the remainder of the pavement. It b worthy »f [laftica-l 
lar notice tliat most of the Italian cities tliat we have aeea ai«| 
paved with very largv and heavy atoitce, quarried fi 
pu«e, and flitod to each othtr, but not in regular fumu. Tbt I 
pHvements (wnstructod in this manner, being very smooth, pr^t J 
duco no jolting. 

In this region wale^woru Btones, home down from the AJpi 
abound in every water-eounte, and in every excavation. 

lireecia is a walled city. There are beautiful aveuuot a 
tree*, among which hurMMslieatuuui are cousjucuoui, encirdiiy J 
its fortiGeations, ua at PUa, and thuy am equally pioturcsqu^ J 
and gmtcAil to the eye. Bnacia hm U;cn conspicuoiB in t 
wars of Italy. In Ial2, when vn&tly raorc powerful tl 
it WW captutrd by tlie nruiir« of Louis XIL afior a bnva Ii 
iiinffi^tiial rr*3»lani'c tlnitnn dn Foil, tbn commatdori •! 
Ucpbew n( till! Ling, ^v>- up tin; <ily In lueiueinalion, p 
lid v iiilatiiin; a nd it wattlut Uwst of llw FromJi 1 

Ride to Milan 


lnUj^lunii] 4(1,000 uf )U iiiliabiUiits, many mure tlinn idl 
which it now contains. 

An iutercating story is relut^d of tlie furiiviia CliefaliiT 

InjftrJ, who, being dwpcmlely wounded, was iMinie by ill" 

Kidiera on a door torn from its hingi^ ta tlic Iiouim of n noblii 

nily, whore he wat kindly cnrod for nnd sttvod, chiefly by 

the assiduity Jtnd devinticni of the noble lady and her two lovflly 

|<laug1itore. llie mother, suppufing that, according to the ba<l 

Wustoms of war, her house was forfeited to the enemy, pre- 

kvenled to ibe brnve knight ^500 ilucnb ua a ransom. IIu rc- 

fitactimtly a^^cepted it, but on going awny to rejoin tlie French, 

army, ha gave 1000 crowns lo caoli of tlie daughters towards 

her marriage portion, and the remaining GOO he directed to 

be distributed aniong the poor nuna, whoso eonvenis had 

' been piUagod. 

DEsoi.AnoKH or War. — ^llie invasion and difiaioii of 

LltAly «nr]y in the ISth century, by the three great powers, 

■FranMi, Austria, and Spain, neting ia malignant i^omrert, was 

« unprovoked and wanton as it was wieked ; the war wa» 

raged wit)i a degree of ferocity and cruelly charaeleriitlio of 

ivage rather than of civilized uatiuna. They Biaughtenul not 

mly troops which had cease.! to resist, but the entire popula- 

ion of cities, towns, and villi^fes was indiscriiiiiimtvly inaiKa- 

ttaly 1 fair and beautifiil Italy, has been ravaged less 

■tiy tlio volcano, tht> earthquake, tJie hsnipesl, and Uie pes^- 

lence, tJian by the cruel wrath of man. 

RiOB TO MiLAx. — lu our ride of <7 mile* from Brewin to 
iMibn, we passed llirou;^ live or six towns, hut tlioy did nut 
qip?«r lo possess any particular iuterest, tiud tJierefore I omit 
Iki'jr names. There was one pliM», however, tolled Cjilcwo, 
I rested at mid-day, and opposite to the hotel our 
attention was called to a garden and omamentnl grounds con- 
lected with a gentleman's liousn, through which wo were 
^nitt«uJ to walk to sec the Arrangements. At the bottom 
4 a long descending lawn them appeansl n aparkliog fountain, 
iting from a pile of rtx^ks ; bvyotid we saw a group of low. 

162 Irrioatiok. 

pointed mountains; in front of tbem, and nearer to the oIm 
was a tall pugodn tower. Thera was niso 4l templo, witli «tM 
and a koigLt in fitll armor mounted on borscbauk. Had « 
gunc nviuj witkout a nearer approacJi, wo abouid Lave hud n 
KuspicioD (unless from the presence and quietness of Ihe knig 
nnil his hone) ihnt it was all an illusion ; but on approaobii^ 
nearer, it becftine evideut that tJie whole was fresco, paUi 
<iu Iho end wall of the gnrdcn. 

We tlioiigUt that the gentletniin proprietor should prohi! 
his visitors froin aiiy other than a distant uispectiou, a 
would then remember this remarkable comltinalioQ of s) 
as one of the most beautiful thingB in Italy. Our detention tH 
throe houis in tliis small town was far from being agreeable^ h 
a hotvl where there was neither neatness nor t^omfort. 

Through the whole extent of country which we paued I 
day, there was apparently a perfect level for nearly 5 
not the slightest inequality of surface was perceptible to tno <i] 
but as the rivers, flowing; from the snowy Alps, which k 
full view, moved witli vivacity in their chanuels, an aotoa] t 
cliviiy of surface was thus proved. 

Irkigatios, — The system of irrigation, which I 1 
already mentioned, has here some pocuhar features, 
rivers are, at proper points, diverted in part from their c 
nels, by Icadiug otT rtvulele in iirtiliciAl courses, and thuK ■ 
again suhdividwl to such an extent, that wat4;r not only p 
lutes through thu soil, but vaa be dipped o 
olVn done by hand, and thus in both ways it is copioDsly tl 
Iributeil over the Hctds. 

lliR vicinity of tJio snowy Alps, aflbriling abuudanoa i 
water from the melting of the ice and snow, and tbu tUlfiil u 
made trf it by the jioople, explains tlie astonishing futility a 
exubuntnt cn)|M of tliis gardi^u of tlio earth. 

' The country is divided by rows of troes and shnib*, asd li 
Mftiftuinl liui^i, into uuiueruus emntl lots, of one, two, oi 
atvta; nnd the whole refriou, although tlin »ur{iie« of ll 
-j»<Bi«uiid into in^MtpfiUe diul,a(ai^'<^' 


I dnctions, &nd ia bo benutiful, that it fonns u lovely pidure, or 

IwriM of pictures, which sppear very brilliant under the uzata 

Knopf of a sky without, a cloud. It is no wonder that the 

li rode barbariaiu who first poured down their fierce legions from 

[•Iho AIpe wore charmed with luty, and iheir dcacendnnts have 

f Bot (wiiBcd, tor 1500 yettn, to contend for the poeeeasion of a 

l-eonntry which ia still so delightful and lovely, sltbongh in 

lehnini. The Alps are more valuable to Lonibanly than would 

Kbe tho gold of California ; from iJie coldness of tbcite mouiitaios 

tkey condense the watery vnpor of the atmosphere, and form 

1 everlasting snowa and glaeictB, which, despite gf the 

rouglit of summer, irrigale the fields and insure perpetual 


()ur ride was concluded by n railroail of eighteen and n 
half miW It is intended evcntnally to connect the road ironi 
Venice, which now reaches to Verona, with this fragment of a 
road from Milan, and there is already an extension of it to the 
Lake of Como. 


Milan i« a beautiful city, and the fuw days wo have passi'd 

1^^ it have Miahled us to undcratand its ))rinclp)U fuatures. It 

ta very, well built, with largo and handsome houaes, the prin- 

I dpal streets are widoi, and the whole town, with iu »olV yellow- 

^wtored masonry, has an airy and agreeable appcamncc. 

Its Resphbbctios. — Probably it may have arisen frum its 

u beaiitllul tlian before. I allude to its compile de- 

A. D, 1187, almost seven hundred years ago, by Fru- 

)Hu du Barbarossa, Emfuror of Germany, who, in liis atteuiplH 

} mibjugate Italy, met with a determined opposition from 

Milan, which rueisted him during three years, and was finally 

Iduced by famine to surrender at diacretion. He then raMii 

y from its foundations, demolishing completely both ita 

» and \ix walls. In this work of deetmcrion he was 

wly aided by the rival dtiea uf northern liaJy. Pavia, 



Cremona, Lodi, Cumo, and Novatb; tiiay ev«n inoitad tli« B 
peror l.o lliis barbarous course, and thu inhiibiUinU of I 
were distributed in four tteigliboring Tillages, after th* ycti 
of UiQ rirnl republics Lad effecluully performed Uu.-!: 
priate Ualu iu doutroying difl'orent parta of Ibe city, \Vhen I 
Emperor departed in triumph for Pavia, only a few cliur ' 
wore hft Etandiog in llio midsl nf Ute general mio. But I 
(iceno was soon reverwjd. Ouly five yenrs after tLu dcsi 
tiou of Milan, tiie Lombard lejigue was fonncil, being f 
foderafy a^iiist tho imperial autbority, and several of .1 
eouid citicB whidi liad auUtd ah auxiliarius in tlie dwUi 
of Milan, now coinbinod to elfmit its rcelurulioD. 

C'rcmonn, Brescia, Bergumo, Miintun, and Verona, Q 
tbu work. "Xbo city was rebuilt ; and, beiug restored to p 
ri^, it ultimately attained to wealth and a high ittate of lh« ■ 
Milan WII8 Backinl by Attila, (he ravaging IIiui, ia 452; | 
tills may account fur the absence of UoDian n-m^ns. 

It is surrounded by wulls, whieh inulotte » larger areft d 
ils population of about 150,000, ur, including the j 
about 106,000, would imply. A« at Lucca and Boloj 
beautiful drive has be*n formed uiwii the wnlls^or rather t^ 
a rai^ area witliiu the walls. This area b splendidly A 
with stately trees, chiefly horse-chuilnuta. The drouit 1 
the walls is eight miles, and without teiL lu driving tl 
lliis circuit towards uroniug wu mel many eijuipages of Id 
nud strangers, for whom it is a fkvoriUi resort. There an 
nnaa within tliu walls, lliat are not occupied by 1 
and, in moat instaiiocu, thoy are planted with tre(« and t 
Tlmrc in in the X. R, and buyond the inliabitvd portioni of fl 
i-ily, bat Hlill within thu wults, a hugu military jtanwle g 
Tliis area wai cleared by Napoluoo, who removed old ft 
lions and otli«r xlructnKs in order to aHord rouiu (br troopafl 
llivir Qvotntions — a opnco in which, n* in tlic (Ibuap (l« ST 
at Plain, 100,UI}0 men can mntiorurro. 

In llin midst of tJii* gruund, th" n'nuiin*. uf tlw MM 

Tus Aticii OF TiiiLnpn. 165 

AfLer the deatli of that ruthless tyrant, fiiovstini Marin 
^Konli, in H12, the oistlti was deolrovcd W the peoplu; 
t Sfona, a tyrant hanily liss fonntUnblo tlisn Viaconti, hnd 
■e wldreis lo pi'tsuadc iho Milanese to biiSvi him to rustoro 
B cnatle, tinil«r the protonce that it w»s nei^'Baary to thu 
Kanco of Iho city, and it TcmaJnnl until Hiially diamantled 1>y 

Thb Arcb of TiucHPn. — Napoleon, aiU^r hia splendid vIl'- 

iriva in thii conntry, eatnbliBht^ a kingdom of Ilaly, and with 

(1 hand ho placed the iron crown of the Lombards upon 

B hoad. saying, " God hn5 made nie a king, and I will pliico 

e cTOwn upon tny owu head." As bo had broken down iJie 

an dominion in Italy, tho people hailed him with euthu- 

aa a di^livuriT. It is true he had removetl the Auslriau 

>iily to t>uhtrtitul« his own ; but he did »o much during hin 

lign lA Ailorn Klihiti, And t« itnproTO Ui« condition of th« 

ntntry luid poo[>h>, that ho eiijoyed n high Ui'^-<f of popu- 

y ; and to this day, hia mt^moty h fundly chi-riBhod iu all 

i: Hi» son-hi-hiw, Eugvuo lleaulmrnois, tlio «on of Jt-ae- 

10 by Iw-T Unt btuband, wait made vicuroy, and ri-igii«d fur 

^*eD»on ill Uilan. To culcbratu his marriiigu, a terojiorary tri- 

*phal arch was erected of wood and canvas, but it was soon 

Mled by a permanent and beautiful structure of white 

arble, modtlliid after the arch of Constantiiia at Rome. This 

1 of triumph stands at the opening of tho Simplon roaU, 

phich crosses the Alps, one of iho greatest and best of the 

of Napoltmn. It it not as large aa the arcli of triumph 

ft Parii, but it is birgo imougli to bo Tory inagiiilicent. We 

o its Eunimit, and there saw with admiration tbe ton 

1 bronze hoisca, which are thus arranged; six of Uicm 

t placed in the centre of the front, attached to a large trium- 

n tbc style of the old Roman war-cbariot, and in this 

', surmandeJ by suilAblo emblems, stands urcct a grand 

a figutv of I'Daoe, instead of tho statmj of Victory which 

n hiul iuleuded to place tlion-. The otlior four boix^ 

106 Milan. 

figore of Fame riding sidewise, and with npjiroprinU c 
lisliinenla niinouudng the return of pence. 

At tlio Itrtra, forniorly the Jesuits' Culb^c, wo iskvt a 
Rid figure, in bronjie, cf Napoleon, by Gnnorn, wiitdi w; 
fi^adod as the statue of Tictoiy, to occupy the triumph^ t 
On his dowuffill, this statue was set aside, as trcre tlie lou-rcGj 
commemorative of his triumphs, and otliera were substitu 
honor of Uie rictoriea of his enemies. 

Napoleon's Plass for Milan. — Napoleon, in 
to the general tono of hie mind, entertained large views for H 
adoruniGut of Milan as the capital of hU Italian kinjcdoin. | 
fonira was in conlomplatioo, probably on the pliui of tlwtj 
Rome ; but he hail so many wars on hand Uiat he diil not a 
out hia design. 

A peculiar kind of amphiUieatre was constructed, cnllod ^ 
Arena. It is 800 feel long aad 400 broad, and it ia 
of containing 80,000 people. As it could be 611ed witli w 
it was intended as a naumachia, and a bath, in which 20^ 
soldiers could bathe nt once. ltepeat«K] batlis wore Airnid 
by drawing off and renewing the water. It was used likeM 
as a hippodrome. It is at the present day much tned I 
horse-races, and for shows of various kinds, and ii 
it is often filled with spectators. Being surrounded liy » o 
of stately trees, erected upon its eitwior border, 
niral aspect, and is adorned by grand portiuoua a 

Thb CATttEDRAb ot MiLAy. — A good ]iioluni is nac 
to give «Ten a faiuC impreaelou of the ridiuefs nod liarmuiild 
jiniportions of tliis wonderful building; but it is powiUo, fi 
ik-Kriplion, to form a correct uoncoptiou of its magiiitu<l<% ^ 
I'filHprinciiial parts. lUlitnglli b 4ea font, hroadth S&3, 1 
M-ne« the InuistipU 287 feut, hHi){lil nf the nnvo lft3 fnot. ' 
height from tlie pavemuut to Lite ttip of lini crown of tin ■ 
doima, on the summit of the sptrv, iH HAS feuL TbUd 

ilin mott stupuiidous piliw cvur crochiJ ; bntiiiij 
Itdnish^. allhoU)(b il tiaa b«en nimimt ftOO yean in 1i 

Tub Oatiieoilal. of Milan. 

ISevornl duoniM have been dwtroyed that once occupied tliis 
fhce. The first cnthcdral wiis clratToyed by Attila in the fifth 
eentury; tlie second wm burnt by accidvnl in 10T<^, Had thu 
third was partially minimi by Frederic Garburotsa. A lofly bi/II- 
iDwer, demolished by him, crushiHl thu duomo in ita full. Tim 
int Rtune of tlio preaent cathedral \fm laid in March, 1386, by 
0. O. Viwsouti. 
The inlwior presents a wildemeas of coliimnB, some of wliidi 
are almoal twelve feel in diameter at the baeo — more than eight 
in the ahnft. Fifly-two pilbra, of the height of eighty feet, 
I support tlie pointed nrubua on wbit-'li the roof resta. The cxl^- 

L nor khows equally a wilderness of stiituea and pinnacles. Eacli 
k|nnnade, if plaiued on tlie ground, would apjiear a considoralilu 
I Ipiro. Tbo statuea already in place number 3000, and 4501) 
I an necosaary to carry out t!ic plan. 

Each pinnacle or miimrct is crowned by a statui!, and tliere 
o many more in ibo niphea, nmong the pinnacles, iv» well aa 
I In otlier situations. In order to become acquainted with them, 
[ jroH inuit aacend to iho roof, and then you will see life and 
I neaninjf jn them all ; if scon from bolow, they appear indeed aa 
I B multitude of xtAluea in marble, hul without any ob^-ioua dc- 
K«ign. WhatcvLT the momi may b«, it is OKhibited at an im- 
■ incnac expense of ireaauro ; but, in Italy, it is a national passion, 
Kwliicfa Uiu come down to them from tho Romans, to people 
I thdr ideal world with marble form*, commemorating those who 
Lnnce Itrud on cartli, or tin' imaginary beings of allegory and of 
I * fnbulous mythology. 

In this CAtliedral, in addition to statues of the size of life or 
■'bfiyonditsdimonsiouN, Ihcrearemany of inferior magnilude; lil- 
■4lo protty cheraba and imaginativo beings are seen, single or in 
ftolniitim. In all part« of the building, there are delioate and 
B'«liiborat«ly wrought carriuga in marble, and even in situatiomi 
whero they cannot be seen except by a diligent explorer. 

Wo Mc«ndad to the roof of tho cathedral, and while walking 

^«\-er it, obserrcd tliat it is composed of massive blocks of 

narble nccnratfJy AdjtMtni tn each other, and although the 


weight U imnuriiso, no cracks are visible. We moved fmly ii{ 
the roof ns if il hful been a mounlMn of marble compoocd of d 
natoral strata. Thu riew was glorious. 

In the beautiful dty at our fuel, our cicerone iwanbKl a 
iiiiuierous pnlacui, and a vast hoepiul founded by tb« g 
Catholicsatnt, Carlo Bororaeo; we glanced also al llie palacafl 
the civil and military' governors, the Itouse of Uic police, llie n 
the imperial palace for the Empemr'a occasional reaidunoo, tl 
Ambrosian library, and many otlier inrtitulions. Inclwi 
within our view, was the canal, which passes throngb UtUi 
al»o the wall encircling the city, with ita splendid boulevu 
adorned with forest trees of stately form and denae f 
being llie scene of the fine drives which have been menti< 
We saw also the splendid fields of Lombardy, the Champ de H 
and its ancient castle, the inttg:uiGcenl arch of triumph, and tl 
verdnnt nniphittiwitre. lii muni distimt vit^w, were Uie c 
Alps crowned with ic« and snow. Those who are familiar wi^ 
the landscape can diwem Bergamo, Cremona, Mantua, Novae 
and in a tranii]>an<nt atmosjihcre, even Turin in Sardinia. 

We ascended to thw higficsl attainahlu puinl (if thf jiriiK 
pal pinnacle, on which is lliocfllomal gilded figure of UioVtn 
in lir>in»\ We wore surprined to mv many muli 
daily among thi small stalnes, and the more dolicat* puta d 
tlie carvod marble monuments; pieces are knocked off, e»1f 
w>iTo nnmrcd, by tnaraudera, who, in the uumcroos windim 
among stairs, balconies, and spires, and behind iunumoraUj 
[irojoctions have little difficulty in skulkbg unobserved. 

Siifliciont care has been titlien to guard against stfokM ■ 
lightning, llie beautiful niadonnna and the dignified i 
and apostles who stand as sentinels on the pinnadca, Mn A 
nished with metallic chiuns, terminnttng abovn i 
plnmes or other metallic ornaments, expanded inio poiMs a 
held in the hand of the statue, to conduct harmlessly sway ll 
electricity uf thu atmosphere. All thcea conductoma 
Connocled below witli ibe cani). 

Tho intealion lo finish tbis cadivdta), ntthcnigb not a 

TiiK Cathedral c 



I AilHr Into etttxt during roiir or five centuries, npp«u« not to be 
I rcliiii[uisbed. They un.' slowly erecting moru pionAcles aud 
I buluslroiles, und oilit^r cnuiDientiil yiuts, iind tlie contriksl 
I bvtwinm t}io dingy appenmncc of tlio old morblu, tuid tin- 
I hrillinnt while of tlie nnv, is i^uilc sl.rilnDg. Miicli of tliu olil 

nuirlilf, llio sUluca ineliidcd, u* inveatud by n coating of parftsiu- 

vrgcitnblo, moasea, nnd licbens. 

In Rome parts of tlie walls, bmncking evergreens have fixed 
, tliidr roots, and commenced tbat invasion, which, a thoiunnd 

or lwi> years hence, may cause this catliedral to appear in nrini;; 

but perhaps not without tbo help of mnn'g despoiling hand, 
[ which, mora than time, has mutilated Parthenon, I'nnlbeon, and 
I Coliseum. 

so complex a building, groat vigilance and constant cx- 
k peDSB are necMaary to keep it iu repair, and much more lu 

Carry Otit fully the vicht of Jbt folltidcrH, iti eoti£lruclibg a glori- 
na temple to Jeliovali, in every part of which should lie 
iw^ribixl, M tlie design was diHilnred to be, " holiiieBs to llio 
; Lord." 

Wlaiiiver wo may think of their faith, there can bo no 
I clonbt, that tliose who oroctod this building were in eamott, and 
I believed that the millions thus ci|iendcd wore given as n 
I religious duty ; a tribute of enduring and beautiful mati^riaU 
f which tJicy intended to pay back in an acceptable form to 
I tlia great Creator; iloiihtleBs also some have intended thus to 

oipiatn kin and piirchaso merit, forgetting that the Saviour 
I wrought out our Bolvation, and that it is not of works but of 
I gmM through liis uame. 

NapohKin gave a strong impulse to tho dTorls [o finiHli the 
LcntliodrBl of Milan, and during his reign tliren aud a-half 
I millions of franca wen eipcndml, derived fivm the sale of tho 
I Innihi belonging to iho establishment, and &0111 the property of 
1 <tlie supprKscfl monnsicrios. ThtHe funds h&d been bndly man- 
aged, and tlicir income impaired by the luxurious living of tJie 
I eommiidioners ; when tli>i ilownfntl of Napoleon frustrated hh 
wrpuM of fiuishing the eotliedral In tnulve ^vnrs, and iln ratn- 



pleljon DOW remuna u cliorge upon the Austiian g 
There is much p^tcd glass in the windows, mid a < 
sideraVle part of it k modoni, having been fkbriualed to replw 
tliat which, during the reigti of the French, was broken, not it 
war, but from Uie cuncimon produced b^ tlie discUnrgu ( 
arlJIkiy near the building. 

One of our ladies, who (;hose lu rumiiin below while t 
gentlemen ascended to tlie roof, was fortunate iu being pre 
at the baptism of £00 children. An oecasion so important H 
quired lliu attendanco of the bishop, and we uU saw the < 
elusion of the ceremony. 

Tlie interior of the cathedrid is grave, and not so biilliai 
AH BOme of lUe cliiircbcB which we liavQ m^va ; tliu floor 4 
ttaselnted marble is very much disfigured by showers of mrilfii 
wax that have lalUiu from tlie caudlee, and wlueb ap| 
have been long aoiuniuliiting. At the mniti door, i 
l>enutiful monolitliic columns of pvllvlied gray grauitu — 3fi U 
in luiigtli and 4 ft-et in diameter, which cost £1948. 

Among die relics of tlie cliureh, tliey sliow a nail from i 
true orosti, whiuh la r^nlained in a iiryslal box, in the cenin a 
a solar circle, Iii^h up in the naro 1 The asuuut to brii^ J 
down for a solotnn annual procosaion is made in a balloon, whi 
we «aw. U is kept in liie church fur this purpose; 
nail is afterwards relurue<l In the same manner to its elerati 
position I There nre, liowover, otlit-r relica hero which a 
twbly genuine, In the sacristy, tu which we were admiti«d,fl 
an ivoiy cup presented by Archbiiihup Godfrey ntarly 800 y 
iigo. Il Is curiously onianu'ut«d with carved images in Ttim 
r«pre«eiiliiig the Virgin and Child and the EvungetixbL 
are oldo fiill-hnigth silver alalues of SL .iVmbroeu and St. < 
Doromeo; also several buxlii of eniiilji and ominsut cccIohj 
in Milvor. Precious gems or KucceaafUl irailatioos of Uiem, ■ 
n'lt in the silver. 

Tonn OP Sanrr Ckaw BtinouBo. — The Imiicii of thb w 
ihy man ura tbf^ n-liiv u|)(iu wlucli, at Milan, tJi>:y apjiear to J 
|h» bi(th.«t valiln. Tligy urn jti n x-i.aml.- .lisivl. annlt Mj 

Toun t 

St. CakLO BoROMKt 

I Uiu pavcmtmt of tli? clitiTvh. To t)iis sncreil recess, tight is iiti' 
I purfocUy Bilmittwi through a grated opening ; and wo wora iiid«<d 
f in our insptiction by Mvcral burning cntidleB, fiimisbod by » 
' priest wlio atlcniJi-'d ns, and oxplaioed llie treimureB of ibe 
placo. It is a clmiwl coiuuMiratcd to tliu niuniory of Uie luiint. 
Ira fomi in tbal of a leiigtlieiied oclohedron. On tlio watls uro 
o«l lia«-rolie& in nuisaive siker, gilded. On tlwm are repre- 
sented tlio principnl events in lit* life. Tbey are all extremely 
well brougiit ouL The subjects of tlio two principal are, 
bis distribution of 42,000 crowns to the poor, nnd tiia e»::ipe 
from naKi»ination by apritiit. As the bull fired by the assassin 
glanced, it wns. of courte, bctioved to hare been tniroculously 
turned ; and it was indeed rcmnrkablo that San Carlo was, at 
the moment, on his knees at prayer, when tlie people pre- 
si-nt were singing, " Let not not your heart bo troubled, neither 
liT afrttid." 

lie was not diwonwrtod by tho explosion, but continued in 
prayer, whilu his eompantons were agitated by terror nnd amaEi'. 
inimt. TJie wicked priest, whose licontiousness, and that of bit 
(ompnnions, 6t. Onrlo Iiud dcnouncMl, was afturwnrds aj)pre- 
hended and executed, although the Iienurolent inun, in the (rue 
spirit of his Maalflr, endeavored to save his life. 

When Boromeo died, his entire body,* gorgeously app.irelled, 
WM deposited in this GUinptuous Bhriuij, and tlioro it remains 
a hideous spnctjicle for posterity. The shrina was a gift from 
I'hilip IV. of Spain. There is a movable front of massive 
silver, superbly wrought; and tliis front being let down by a 
windlaas, "displays tlie corpse, dr»»sed in full pontificals, 
mitre, nope, uuidals, gloves and ring, rcpoung in an inner shrine 
or coffin, and seen through panes of rode crystal." These panes 
MB so large, transparent and perfect, that we might well suspect 
them to be glass of the flncet qnality, were it not tlint by tho 
li^ht of ihe tapers the crystalline stnicturo of tlie interior can Ito 
itiuclly neen. Stilt wu were auuized at wli.u wo saw : plates 

172 Milan. 

of rixik ctyslal set in rims of gold, and the tpnccs batwc«o fi 
with solid silver I Silver ruliela wuro also in front, and tii inv 
etiite of HUcb brilltHDcy, as would bu iucredille, (Specially in ■ 
dnrlc nnd damp place, where silver in so prone to tamiah, i 
it not oft«ii cleaned and Luraishcil by human bauds. But li 
custodo would not allon- thxt the Hllver fia ever bumiol 
nnd, of course, va were left to believe, if wo would, that I 
this case as well aa io others, the sacred bones oould w(q 
tniriiclea, fur wliicli thuy eiijoj' n high lepntation. 

The dress is Kpleiidid embossed silk ; the slippers and gloi 
lire embroidered ; n gold<>ti crown by Benvenulo Cellini, rid| 
witb precious gems, diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and mppbin 
hangs over the poor naked nkull ; a crosier of gold, set ia tl 
same manner, is hold in the skeleton hand, and the tiHigt 
month is open and void I 

I never biihcld any tiling whiith is at ance so puarOfl a 
revolting! Miserable delusion, tlint repoecs conlldenee on ll 
rclica of our poor bumanily, which ought to find tlici 
ttic dark grave^ instead of Unng sumptuously and ont^ntatioii 
denoraled in princely attin^ ! A fortune has Ikh^h lavished I 
lh\i tomb, which in tiuid to have ritinid thnsu who nwl 
tiKik iLi coiiatructiou. 

^mlirosian f ibrarj. 

In tills establishment, wc visited ils nunteruus and exbtiuufl 
nioriis, which are replete with interesting objects. Many ji 
tnri«, nriginnl drawings of lai^ diiui^nsions, by Loouonld ^ 
Vinci, Michael Aogalo,ftnd otiier emiueut artiata, and a 
sivo library, not only of books, but of raanusuripts, llui Ii 
amoonting to S60U volumes, ore tbo oUrautiona of lli« pi* 
There ia a manuscript pealt«r of the itevcntli cuntury, vi 
rueiitary by St. Jerome, also Virjiil copied and comu 
I by Petrarch, nilh bunutlful illuminUtoiw. l'li«« 
(. tmiyjlalHl into .L'^ti'L bj 

Tub Ahbhosiak Libhart. 


upon papyni* ; and fragmi^nla of Homer, of tho fourth contuFy, 
witli fiftjr illnmtnntions. Uera is a ling« volume, vith origin&l 
draninga bj Leonardo da VincL Ttiure is a minal of San Carloi 
very fintlj iltumioatwl, iind an early copy of DnaUt, \a excollcut 
ronditioQ. Tli« printed volumes in lliis library are about 
87,000, and 13,000 more are to l>c added. Wo saw bera an 
original totter of Gn]ili;o,auotfai;r of Tasso, and onu from Lu- 
creua Borgia to Cardinal Bembo, and a lock cpf her hair. Un- 
fortunately, tlio arrangement of the library ia not by anbjects, 
but by tbi< fiiie of tlio volumes, as soldiers are assorted, infantry 
and greuttdiuni, by stature. 

A gallury ia attnchcd, containing important historical mon- 
uments and works of art. Rnpliael's cartoon of tho School of 
Athens is in the second room. It is the original of the great 
(raw which we saw in tho Vatican. 

Thn immense picture gallery of tho Drern can only lie men- 
tioned, as my time idlowed me only to wnlk tlirough tlie very 
largo and numerous rooms. Tlio building, a vast quadrangle, 
formerly tlie Jemiita' College, is almost entirely filled with pic- 
tures; some of thorn are of very great size and superior ox- 
ccUunce, but they »r« badly arranged for study, and badly 

In the chapel, wo saw a largo and beauti^I fresco of 

tho marriage in Cnna of Galilee, which Iiad been removed 

bodily from an old convent. We wont also to tho refectory 

of the convent of SiintA Maria dolle Qruae, to see tho original 

of (he celcbmted picture of tho Last Su{)per by Leonardo da 

ci. The room, a very lurge one, was for a lime used us n 

I stable for cavalry belonging to the army of Xapoleon, and con* 

I trary lu his express orders. It has also more tliun onca been 

' inundMl/xl; and the picturo has been the subject ofslrKngu 

I viciMitudes. It is very hirgi. — by my estimation, without roeft- 

mcnt, twcnly-fivo foct by twelve. Although it i* in ruins, 

i{ i* Blill vury int(trc»ting, and especially as it ia so generally 

known in all Christeudum from the print of Itnpltaol Morgan, 

I to oftcai copied. 

174 Mii-iN. 

On the opposite end of the lai^ room containtng Uia I 
Supper tbcre is & picture of equal leugOi siul greater dapt 
It IB Oaadenxio's Scourging of Obrist, pninteU In 1542, o 
efill in tolerable preservation ; nliile tlie picture of tl 
Supper, wliich woa painted in oil. Las fluked off ciUaiKvc 
and has been besides wantonly abused and nrolcbodlv duulx 
hy repainting. It is observable also tliAt a Kinglo 
the Crutfifiiioii, wliiuh was repainted by Leonardo in Ml, h 
entirely tailed. 

Tub old Seat of tub Ixqcjibitio:! is just acroM 6 
court, witliin tUo same qundran^la. We, cif eoune, enla 
the builiiing ; but it is totally changed, biung now occupied ■ 
stablea for the Austrian cavalry, where tbe troopom, in f 
drc«s, wero busily engaged in grooming and feeding tfaj 
horses. A venerable church is also at hand, which Wfl ( 
(ered ; it is full of inloresting relics of antiquity. 

Cadinst of N*Ti;nAL HisTOur. — By appointment i 
]>nid n visit to the Ifamo Civieo, or History i 
fieiiu), and wore highly grntided. It was bcgu 
ago by a privnte individuul, who laborifd in the uaum i 
great suoeetB, and at his death, Icfl his collection to tbo t 
of Hilaii. PtofesBor George Jan, who now has the care of 1 
huB greally enlarged this cabinet, which embracM all dcpo 
niunla of natural history ; the atrangeinent, Iho labelling, a 
the enrcful proti-ution of the Bpeoimens are all tlie work o 
his own hands and hciuU and are worthy of all praise, 
not enter into pATtJculsni, but it is only jtiBlice to say that t 
museum is worthy to stand eide by side with those of Pisa a; 
Florence; In tlie deparlnient of the fiwsi! fishes of Hot 
Itolca it is rich, and some of tbe ielithyolitot are very larg^, 
measured one, of wliicli botli Mix are prcsen'ed 
feet long. A spacious pulacit has Itntn purchased lo rtcdll 
this oolleution, and it is soon to be removed to tliOM ntN 
nniple aceutunuHfatious. 

In tliiv pnlaon thoro i* nhio deponted a Collection df ll 

MiLAir TO Cquo. 


ocenn, (IodMpm conteroporaneoi 
of tbe tertiary, or early alluvial e 

with ttl(^ tcrrostrial auimaU 
, Tliero are fossil dolphins 
and nbalm, whoso skoletons aro nearly complete There ia 
one wlinio wbicl) wa» ne<ar1y 80 fi-et long, by my measiiroraent. 
Those BkeJL'tons were found near FlaoenEO, in the alluvial, or 
tertiary, 60 or 70 miles from the sea, and, of courao, tlio 
country where they were entombod wni onoo beneath tlie 
wavea, although now far inland. 

Oim Hotel. — I cannot leave Milan witliout stating that 
iT« were lodged in a noble hotel (the new n6t«I de la Ville, by 
Bairr), where comfort, court«Ry and olcganco made our brief 
stay very agreeable. The master of th« hoiiso is well known 
in Europe, a Swiss, whose wife is English. The apartmenta 
of tliia house were in the style of a palace. The Milings ware 
', the halls were amplo, and the dioiiig-room bad a 
f riulily ornamenttsl in sijuares. Twelve largo cariar 
icircled the room aud auj>iJOrtud the coiling. Tlie in- 
UAa court, into which the oaniag>M were driven, was quite 
clean and free from any annoying effluvia ; this ia more than 
can be sard of moat continental inns, and even of many pri- 
vate CBlablishmeuts. Wo found no otiiL-r holtl in Europe 
butter tlian thLs new one nt Milan. 

Wbo liM not h«ard of tbe Lakes Como and Mnggiorv f 
They wore embraced in the plan of our journey, and, leaving 
Mtlau at 6 o'clock, a, m., ujion a railroad, we were quickly 
conveyed 40 miles to Como. At Mihin, Fran9oift uncjq>oct«dly 
fell i« willi our old vetturiuo, Giovanni, who had taken us from 
Nico to G«rK>a, and ho was Immediately engaged to wwsom- 
pany us over lliu Simplon to Geneva, witli I'aulo, whom we 
liiid brought from Flor<nc»i. We bad tliu» two fuur-liot«e car- 
ria(^ for our Alpine rambkw. and tic"! wi'« neut forward 


Lakk Cohq. 

with iha bnggHgo from Milan to mi-ct n* nL Como, lit t 
true Neflpolitan style {for lioth our conohmim were N«i 
tans), OUT horses were much docorated with ulvor, ] 
pluroe»s and tinkling; bells vibmting over ^eir heads. 

Wc passed on tlie niilroBd tbrou^i a lovely country, in tl 
highest state of cullivation, nu<l adomtid with numerous fif^ 
imd villages. Upon the summit of a coslcUnttid building oi 
right, wo obsurvcd horses in bronzu, as I suppose, and tie 
eluded that tlie palace was that of Monza, wlior« Nq 
held his court after his Italian TJctoriea. 

Lakb Coho. — We nero in time for tbe niniatnro utM 
tlie Vflooe, which shone conspicuously in bitunng rod. 
of our young ineu, who was somewhat indisposed, Tema 
for <iuiet nud repose at tht! hotel, while Uie not uf the party ed 
barked without delay upou tlio bosom of this [•eaccfut lalu. j 
is bounded on both sides by barriora of moiiDtaius,ristDgal 
from tho shores to the harglil apparently of 1600 to SWO li 
vi'rduut to tht! vi>ry tup. The lake may be, jud^'ng by these 
lliemap,40 or &0 tuilos long, and including its branchesoftj 
nnd Mesola it must exceed this extent. Our navigation i 
it, however, did not etcctd 20 milc« ; as wo intended, a 
lug to>the arrangrmonts of Francois, to visit villiia ui»d paioi 
in the vicinity of the place where wo dimaubwkwl, nt a c 
fortablo inn, which we mode our head-quarters, while the I 
proceeded on her trip io the upper end of the lake and b 
But n powerful rain (only the second that wo had inet in Ita 
Uio other having occurred in Genoa] drove most of tbo [ 
sengem to take refuge in tiie small cabin, while our puty, t 
ladies included, imwiUlng to lose the scenery, kept tliQ d 
iDoat of the lime, both on the out and in passage, proi 
oitnelve«^ imjierfectly indeed, liy umbrellas and a torn 
«!iutvns awuing. 

We sliuuld have preferred a bright day, such m «« 1 
luijoyod aliiiont all ihu time tlitit wa have beiiii in Italy, h 

■ iMmfiirt to Ih) freii fmm heal and dust, soil it was io 



Iflkc Iins not Ixwn ovorjiMbcxt ; it Ik, inili>i.*il. 
itii a mild twauly ibtit would uevur tiru tliu 

Mfuery of tliis 
channing, and v 

Tbo sliores, nil ttlong, nnd tho griWD slopes of the inounUina 
nn dcnomhNl both by villas and villager, And niso bj tfie p«r- 
tnancnt rwidencoK of native Italians, who here eii}oj timir 
homes, occupied by niral affaire, or by usefil anil oniameiital 
Mis, for bolli of which the Kalians have a peculiar aptitude. 
An intclli^nt Italian, biit calAblished in England, was a fellow 
pasH'Dgcir, whose perfect knowledge of the country and good 
Knglish mode him a useful nnd ngrai>able companion. 

Our Kimbre day was not without lla advantages. The 
cloada, in dark and dense massea, rested upon the crests and 
ridgOA of tho mouutiuns, leaving their slopes and the hnbilAlions 
ujwn thciu in full view, and the narrowness of tho lake prevented 
any of thi_'ni from being far oflf. Sometimes the grave and 
ilusky (lni|>ory that wua festooned upon the mouDtiuQ tops was 
rolled gracefully up, diBcloaiug tlio liighest summits, dec«rat«d 
ocuiMunally with rocky pinnacles. In tho lew places where 
the ribs uf tlie mountain!* were exposed, iho rocks wore dt)4inct]y 
stTBliHod; they aro mainly primary slatos for the northern and 
limeaU>a« for the southeni portion. 

A hope that tlio sun would break out upon us before we 
should leave the lake, was realized the next morning ; and from 
what we then saw of the splendid gilding of the Hotar beams 
ATOuod our little harbor at Como, wo could easily, in ima^- 
oation, invest the whole luk>. — with ila niouutwii ban-leis, ita 
pieturcaquu vilhts and villngis, and ila tjuiel axure bosom — 
with the glories of n brilliaul Jny. 

We wepB disappointed iii our jjhin of visiting villas and 

palace* during our Bojoum of four hours, while wo waited tlie 

return of iho bout; tho jwworful rain conline<l <is to lUu houw, 

when, bctwvcn tvnOtng, wntbg, and repos«.wo pnaaud our timo 

it un]>niGiahIy. 

Wo found here oscollent strawbi^rries from the hills, and upon 
< tho bnnlers of llio lake wo saw ihu Ixtautifiil vilU where Quo«u 
Vot II— 8' 




Caroline, Ibo wifu of George IV.of EuglaiiJ.liviKl during a p 
of bcr exile, aud in wiiiiji also Najioleou for a tima nmdi 
Quocn Caroline was the viclim of a cruul perwoutioo worthy d 
Ucnry VIII. 

If site was guilty, her liusbanil was inBuilely mare bo, K 
against him, ns the primary cause of her erron, the ihundet 
elionld have been Lurlcil. Napoleon, from colJ uiluulatians ^ 
nUittsi, repudinled his devoted and csUmntilo JuKi^ine ; \ 
he never assailed, and always vindtotted her charaut«r. 

Coroo is n walled city; tho walla ore bij^li, and u 
etnictod of elon<!, while tliosc of the other cities which « 
aren in northern Italy arc built of bricks. Oomo oonbdi^ 
20,000 inhnbitanU and was founded very early l>y the Qie 
of whose language traces remain, in thu namvs uf pUc«s in li 
vicinity. It was anciently an independent republic, aniJ 1 
wnm with Milan, by which it was fiutilly guU1u«1. !t lu» {m> 
duced eminent men. Pliny, the younger, was bora faon>; 
probably Pliny tho elder siso, and it was a favnrita Ksmt at 
both. A villa bc.tring liia family name is said to eland u 
site of Pliny's villa, on the shores of Lake Gumo. Tim o 
bratod phi)osoj>her Volla was also a native of Como^ 
residence was at Pavia, where, in 1800, ten years aftor t 
otisurvation liy tialvoni of the muscular contractions of the £i 
of n frog, he made the great discovery of the pile which b 
riis name. This discovery opened Uio way to wonderful n 
both in sciouue and art, and is still in succwaful progi«9i. 

It was tlicrefore right and laudable in tho dtizena of C 
to do honor to the memory of their distingitished fallow-d 
This duty they have fiilfillod by erecting to his mi-.muiy ft g 

It stands in a publiu place, aitd !s a iiill-length n 
the siie of life. 'I'be [Mr^n, countnnuncti, and manner of tl 
philosophor )iave u commntidiiig ilignily. Mtiimlod « 
{wdottti, Vultn KlAnds witli his right hand buining upoa 1 
k Voltaia pHe, while in the other hand hn h<ild» a vtdunu JH 

folded ill bin tobtr. Upon the pant'U uf Um [Mdwljil n 
vnrlotH pLiloeopIiical iustrumonls wUiuU ha iuvonted. 

Comff to f flitt Utaggintt. 

A U-niiUfuI morniBg mwlc amenda fur liio clouils of yi»lur- 
>liiv, and we wero early in our €4UTiages on our v/ny to thu 
gt%ni«r laki>, as the word Maggiore implioo. Tho country 
tliruiigh which wo pas&Hl, vaa epleodid, and id tho highest 
*IiilQ of cuttimlion uid produulivuniss. The people woro 
eogagt-d in linrristing tlanr wheul, in which lalKir a large share 
(alls upon tlie waniun. They are usunlly without shoes, and, 
mom frvqucntly llian tho uion, arc scoti with the sickle in 

\Vc took our morning ropast at tho conHiderable town of 
Viirvsc, containing npparontjy t«Q to Iwcho thouiand inhabiU 
iiut«. It is surrounded by iJio villas of iho opulent Milanese, 
but wu had DO time even to walk in tJio stroets. Soon after 
WL- WL'rc on our way for our afternoon's ride wo met a thunder 
xlomi, nnil Uie rain descended abundantly. Still our coachmen 
kept bravely oa tlieir way,* and we were delighted with the 
■■xtftrtne Ixuitity of tho country aud with its productions. 

Wu left the level oountiy before we arrived at Como, and 
■siii.'ti wc passed that place we have been travelling among MUa 
und valleys, and bouldera of primitive rocks having began to 
oinke tlieir appearance, indicatu our approach to the primitive 
Alps; for a lung way back the gravel pita have conlAined 
primitive materials. 

i!y a strange misunderstanding of our wislics on the port 

* Wu w«ro iutprcsljiil la tie Paalo slop Kai lianoi, mnd dsscenil 
trvm liii boK to rIiI a [inor j'oulli, who wm (tmirglin; *tii1 we<!|iing in 

' Ihu lucir»tiuil atlcmiit to pull Ii'm loaded hsnrl^onrt u|i B hilt slippery 
Willi iiiiiil. Pallia klnilly inking hoM with him soon placed the onrt 

I 1. I l l ■ii^ B ii%i M i l .|iMmftapdtifciigiroJBtr. 

180 Lakb Magoiork* 

of our coarier, wu missed seeing the celebrated statne of Sao 
Carlo Borroineo, which stands on the shore of the lake, and as 
we had paused ten miles beyond it, and wore near laola Bella, we 
did not turn back. 

At Scsto, before we reached Arona, which is an ancient town 
of 4000 inhabitants^ we were ferried over a river which forma the 
outlet of Lake Maggioro and the boundary between Lombardj 
and Sardinia. On entering again the latter country, we were 
liable to a strict examination of our baggage, but Francois 
managed, I presume by an adroit application of bwrnthmanOf 
to get through with the officers by opening only a single bag*, 
our trunks remaining unmolested ; and so the affikir was 
funs^lKHl in ten minutes. 

A little below Sesto was fought the first great battle between 
Ilannibal and Scipio, in which the foniK*r was victorious. It 
was called the battle of the Ticinus, that being the name of tlie 
river now called Ticino. 

In the village of Soma is the ancient (;yprese», whiirli is 121 
feet high and 23 feet in the girtli. Julius Cesar atnl his legions 
are i«aid to have passed under its Khado, and if so, it must have 
Ix'on a niature tree in his titix'. We vcre very glad to find 
ounk'lves extricateii from Austrian domiiiion, and breatliing the 
air of a country in which freedom is still a vital principle. 
Neither in Naples, nor in Rome, nor in Tascany, nor in Lom- 
bardy did I feel free to write my thoughts without reserve, but 
here both tongue and pen are free. 

Tlie admirable road over which we have travelled in Tuscany 
and Lombardy is continued in Sardinia. Before sun-setting, 
we were establii^ed in a comfortible inn on the borders of the 
Liike Maggiore, and we found a neat and substantial vilkge, in 
which we had time to visit an old church, to see a pic- 
ture of LtH)nardo da Vinci. We proi.'e«?dod in tlw rain, and 
TOi\ii 8 or 10 miles along the sljore of this most lovely lake, 
on a part of Napoleon^s great Siniplon road, which is al- 
mo(»t one continued mass of solid masonry, skilfully built up 

IsoLA Bella. 


from the than ; tbo wall sustains Uic i 
leiicc cjuinol bo surpaBscd. 

At tbe little villBge of Bnvcoo, T milts from Aroiiu, n Uuut 
cnn be obtAioed to tnalee nn excursion to Isols Ilcllu. 

IsoLA Bklla. — 'llio beautiful ialunJI a UHiue wUicU wo 
founil to bo well dcaervcd, but it» bvauty in attribulabk' quitu 
M much to art aa to nature. Tha islaud aud lla paluc« bvluiig 
to (Jount Borromeo, one of wUobo anccslom, in tho yi-ar IttTI, 
couvuiImI a small island consixtjag of liltlu eUu tbu:i a mass uf 
liarreu alate-rook, into a luxuriant garden, rich in tropiuul troift 
and plants. A magnificent palace now raniJcrs famous and 
innnnirable this formerly obscure «nd barren rock. It i* shown 
with great til<onvlity, and wo w<to courteously conducted 
through the ontirs catabKshniiuit ; which, both within and 
without) is replete with every tiling that can gratify taato or Tiy 
ward a liberal curiosity. In making our circuit through !» 
halls it soomod as if wo should never bavu done. One »]ilun- 
(lid room (bllowing another, displayetl numcroiw aud many of 
lliem beautiful picturra and statues. There were alio caliiueld; 
and the gardens were embellished by all tliat nature and art 
could produce. 

Count Borromeo — father, I pnsumo, of the prtseiil posww- 
iwr — was n warm friend of Na|>uleun, who fuutui a huuiu in iliis 
palace, and the bnl in which he slept waa shown to ai. I prv- 
tume it ta more than 60 years Rinco il wn.i cn-inipiiil by tJiu 
great Captain ; for wc were conducted to a tree in (he ([iirdi.-ii, 
on which, with hia knife, he iusuiibed his name, and Uie wurd 
battaglia, Tlis inscription is said to have beisn niiidu jnsl 
~ before the battle of Marengo, which was fouglit on the 13lJi 
of June, 1800. 

Although the tr«Q is still living, most of llic hark has iH-en 
plundered for relics of Nai>oleon, and only the tlirce first Iiittcrs 
of his name are now visible. The present t'onnt Iiiirriiui>?i\ 
having Uken part with his counlrrracn in the gmat »tni(^lo 
of 1648, is nnw an n^lo fmm Milan, anil ainul 30 ollxet unbte 

182 Lake Maggiore. 

this state of things bo endured I Native Milanese exiled by a 
foreign invader ! 

The views from the palace of Isola Bella are very grand 
and beautiful ; sublimity and beauty are combined in the fine 
mountain ranges, and in the milder scenery which surrounds 
the lake. It is not unlike Lake (George, in the State of New* 
York, except that the mountains here are less ragged, and 
much more has been done by cultivation. The garden, as seen 
from the lake, rises in green terraces, supported upon heavy 
arches of masonry, which stand upon the solid rock of the 
island. Every particle of soil, having been brought from the 
continent, has been accumulating during nearly 200 yean, 
until it is equal to the support not only of plants, but of 
forest trees. There arc here cypresses larger than any we have 
seen in Italy ; there are also southern exotics, for example a 
large camphor tree (laurus camphora)^ whoso leaves, plucked 
by our attendant, exhaled tlie fresh odor of camphor. The 
tree is also here which produces tho shattuck of tho West 
Indies ; it was loaded with fruit, as were also numerous lemon 
and orange trees. Many American flowering trees were tlicre, 
the magnolias, the rhododendrons, <fec. 

The en>irons of the garden are, in fact, a wilderness of 
trees and shrubs, growing in tho wild exuberance of nature, 
but so far subdued and regulated by art, as to form an appro- 
f>riate inclosuro to the paradise within, which the garden ex- 
hibits in perfect beauty. Two fairi'-liko little girls, just bloom- 
ing into early wonianhood (daughters of the Count), flitting 
a]>out the garden, seemed gracefully appropriate to the place. 
As in Venice, the structures of this palace come down to the 
very watorV edge, and ev«*n project into it ; and from tho walls 
tlie happy flshes can always be seen sporting in tho clear crys- 
tal water. It appears that those flying (piadrupeds — bats — 
Wm*f denizens of the islan<l, and probably not easily extirpated, 
have b<*en provided with a comfortable cavern, beneath 
the foundation of the arches of the garden ; when we were 
appn^aehing the mouth of their cavern, their twittering oould 



e livnni, nnii tlic/ could be Mcn HiLling fliong on louden wings 
liliruiiith Uic twilight of tlic care. Beneath Uie palace we saw 
iiilc of roania in rustic work. Pebbles of dark eobr, and 
I alivlls, nru ai-t in rcmcnt, and the [mtteme formed by them are 
L bulh «epDmtc<l nnd connected by rustic mortar, fretted by art 
a to represent rude stone work. Tliete lower apartroenta, 
Lidorncd in thU way, run quite around llie building. 

(6nlrnnre into (he ^Ips. 

We rt!tir<Hl witU ntluclanuo from tlie beautiful Liibi.> Mat^- 

_ i>rp, along whose Bhorcs wo would gladly have pa^ed the 

day. At the distance of t«n mik« froin Arona, our roo'l turii<-il 

into a gr«at Alpine valley; and, soon nfUr ent«nng it, wu 

pamcd two quarries wrought in Ibe aidus of tlio mountxins, 

where (bey were obtaining very h.indsome granite for nnihitut;- 

1 tural purposes. Some of our young gentlemi.'n had previously 

I obtained, at the hoUs\ near dio laku. some good crystals of iAd- 

Lqur from tliii quarry. Thu Bavcno feldspar crystals are well 

lilcnown to collt-ctori. Tbu mountains rose inajcslically on our 

ftdght and lefl; and the rood, still excellent, was ma«k to 6A- 

llow the windings of the t-aUey.hidf n mile or more in breadth, 

lin whiidi buautifut meaduwi and fields of wheat and com wen: 

■In strong contnut willi the wild and rugg«d mountain-i, rising 

n botli sidea in such st««p precipices that scarcely vuuld tbe 

B<ntif« chamois climb them ; while the patches of snow, seeu 

I Upon them here and there, told of winter not yet subdueil in 

Ltiiosu derated aud fnncn regions. Tlie ruin of ycsturdity lind 

■Jmollrn amounUiin river, the Tcsn,over wliiuh there h^d formir- 

I ly bixn bridge* ; but iu two plocvs where we pusiied it with our 

■ Guringes, the bridges had bwn swept away by tJie mountain 

Ltfoodikuf formiT yeam, oii'l we were ferried over by a rope sc- 

I eural ou opposite sid«s vf the river, the strong current b«ing 

lAdlUi^ ifuniig gomtt. 




Wu pasiiMt 20 iiiilia iu ibis Alpiue valley, nltose nulls of 
l^niiiib: rwka rose iiiiparciitl^ 1500 b> 200U fcot, anil Kt on 
angle uf SO di^eea from tlio liorizou. The slnictura oF tfa* 
rocks was gvncriilly scliietose, ami affordtid excellent Sags Mid 

As wo advAQced, llio putrlics of auow became mora fr»- 
quoQt and more extensive ; ihc Alpine niina wcru scoUored 
more aliundauLly in tbe valloy and on tbo slopes of ihe mooii- 
Ittina ; they accasionally covered largo ficldn, and tlioec tooae 
moasea of roclu, tliat had been concealed in former times, wen 
again discloscil, having been uncovered by more recent Booda ; 
Uiey showed with wliat materials the valleys am fillcl, doubOoM 
lo a profound depth ; they were ruins of primary tocIo. W* 
saw housee, villagca and churches, which had been planted BOt 
only iu Uiu valley but on the mountain sides, and even in aiUn- 
ticins itt«mln^1y iuaceeeuble. Aa we advanced, we oWmrcd, 
with pain, timt ihu goitre became more and more frequent nod 
turrible. Wo jmw alsu with aorrow, the servile toil of wofnen 
and girls, who Uire heavy bunleus, purfuruiing all kiiub td 
HiJd labor, in a very rough region, and usually without abiM* 
or stuckiug*. They not only carried heavy Irardenti, and Etict- 
oils to be borne, ujion tlieir heads ; but tlieir sluiuldera umI 
liocka uftvn imslniiied great baakuta or [Hinniert, filled to tlra 
briui, and bowing Uiem down with the weight. 

Douo ti'OssoLA. Jiili/ 4. — This national nimivnrsnfy was 
not forgotlen ns wu entered the Alps. We lodged at, Doma (TOr- 
Koln, which is ap]>arvntly of some importance, es[wcially from its 
(Kid I ion, being the jiloeefrum which the tmvollertakea hiadepar- 
lura lo croM tlie Alp«. It has good houses, built of stone, wfaick 
alioimds on «very side, and a hmiy Ilaliau population, appana^ 
ly oiqi;aged in tome species of manutacturea lut well aa Id a 
limited sericulture — limited both by the mountain bnnicn 
and by a cold climate — gave an appearance of liJt) and a^ 
tivily in this secluded regiou. The people in thn vUlaiSH wm 
til, alui, uM the eviffliiig of our arrival, liy the uulia of a 
man, who wwi Ualaiiciag a pole iu many ■Iraiiga 

Vj-bokos or Tiiv SiMrLOK. 1^5 

■ud he tlios gstltcrwl a circle of iitlura rtroiiml liirn in iV'niL »f 
the nindowH of our liotol. 

We wore roudercd very comforltiblci for tlto night, nnil 

;<, clieercd by s fine dny, and refreshed by n-pnoe, for our 

Jbtercsting joumuy over tlie mouutoiiia. Tlie t-xpwliitioii of 

viewing tho uagnifio«iit sceni-ry of tlio Al]i» in&du m {<m\ ivsn 

ret Jit loAving beautiful Italy — Ilaly, adorned by tho Creatot 

irilii a dtilightfnl climnto niiil lovely physicid fuatunn, and 

BiBch in tho ppxiuctions of art, but ciirwMi by military iiiul 

Tpriestly dcqmtisn]. 

Ipissiigt Of Iht .^implou. 

All the world hns heard of ibi^ stiijicndous Rtructure, con- 
ndvud and cxucutcd by Napoleon between the yenn 1800 anil 
hl805. Our day wai laboriounly occupied in «1inibing the S!in- 
n lu [(■ summit, and dtvivading n]>c)D its wcslvm side, a dia- 
C4! of nearly Sfty niilcs, from L)c)ino d'Oswln, to thu banka o! 
V Itlionn. In paiwing throitgh nnd over tlie Alps, our pro 
us ronc^plions of Alpine swncry have Iiecn fuliy rcnliKcd, 
> have travoilod through dwp gorges, wlierc the walls of 
k r«M perpendicularly to such a giddy height tliat they 
Kuied to touch the sky. Tlie dark awful clifTa, soinutimt's iiu- 
snding over onr heads, menaced deetnielion, while tlie vast 
i tliat had fallen, and lay in huge piles below, told of 
wigcrs already past, but vrliieh are liable at any moment to 

A roaring river, tho Dovoria, attended our progress, dash- 
g impctuoiuly along over immenw heaps of ruins, the ejioiU 
night down by fro«t and gravity from the clifTs, white many 
taracu were pre^ripitated from tlie mountain side,' their silver 
Kantna nnd snowy cpmy, with rainbow tinlii, adding dullcntu 
Bauty to «oIun:n grandeur. 

Tliis mad wax cotutnieLtx] in tli'i iii<K>t rnhnirablu maiiuitr, 


180 Pagsaok of tiig St»ri.i 

solid, substnDtial masinry. More Uinii 30,000 men w 
ployi-d upon Uie work. Uotwtiai Stslo, wliiiw wo c 
river flowing Ikini Lake Mnggiore luid Bn^, tliu firat tovH 
tlio tbot of the mountaiiis, in tliu rallcy of tiie RboDO, M 
number of britlges is Oil. 

Terraces of massivo masonry, many miles in lunglh, « 
COnstTDcted, Ten galleries wera cut out of llio eolid r 
built of finn stone work. Twenty boused of refuge, &» | 
safety uf travellers, sod for the accoinmodiition of tlifl « 
were reared along l]ie roud. A laigu hospice, ii 
that of St. Uumard,lmt more ample and aceomrnodatiog, ^ 
added; and all these buildings remain, to tlio honor of S»f 
Icon. The road is at least twenty-fivo feot broad, in 
places thirty, "and the avcmgo slope nowhere latcwdi c!s 
inches in m and a half foot " — less thnn an inch to a foot Hm , 
coat was 5000 pounds sterling ii iiiilu ; tlic nrern^g of ibe fl 
lish turnpikes is 1000 pouods to tlio luilo. In point of ti 
road over Mount Cenia to IHiriu was in advance of th6 Si 
but one of our American friends, who roctmlly pnsaod tt (in II 
informed us that, owing to the snow, it required scvcrsl n 
WAlk on each side of his carrisgo to prevent a 

It was immediately afl«r the battle Uarengo, in ivmo, IM 
that Napoleon resolved on the constiucLion of th« fi 
There can be no doubt that his views were chiedjr xaBttm 
and this decisively appeal^ from the question twice p 
lo the chief engineer when he reported progress: 

" Le cannon, quand pourra-t-il patter aw SimplM /" 

Tic intondcd to command Itjdy, and he had «|w 
the dilliculty of paining liis army and artillery over tha gTMtfl 

SliU his large mind. aHiiougb bent on conijnest m 
ion, did not forget the iut>!ri»ta of humanity, lliu lioqiieafl 
tbr! liouses of rijftige redound more lo Ida honor tl 
I'heso arc Kitunted about lialf a mile from the fuminit, il 
>Sde uf tli<; lUione. 

1 ditlanw of » ^ht miles Uw IciiiiHirta uf HB 

Hospice of Napolbos. 18'? 

iB89 clestroTcd a largo part of tbe road, sweeping awHy walls 
d Uidgca, and of some of them not a vestige rernainuil. The 
:* executed by the Sardinian govemmeot are touch infe- 
t Id thoroughness to the original work; they arc still in pro- 
There is, however, no difficulty id passing over tlie 
i of the road with licavy carriages, although some of tlio 
Bfi^ge* are only temporary structures. The highest point of 
a road i& within twenty-«iK miles of Brigg, in tike valley of 
nd more than thirty from Domo d'Ossola. It u 
i»l to the valley of the Rhone, and moat remote from tlie 

I1iis culminating point la 0578 feet above tlte level of the 
I little more tlian the elevation of Mount Wnaliinglon in 
■ew nampshire, the Alpine mountain of New England. 

Tub Uosi'ICB or NAroLSo.v, — This very large building is 

KUpted by thnw or four of the Augustine monts, of the same 

lligioiM community ns thow of St. Bernard. Over them is a 

Wor, Father Bamm, for twenty-five yeara at St. Bernard. Tbe 

i comfbrtttblo limn the more ancient hospice, al- 

Dugh it WAS never entirely finished according to the original 

D of Napoleon. It contains thirty beda for travellers, besides 

Mveral neat bedrooms for masters, a drawing-room, with a. 

3, a refectory, aud a chapel." 

The Hcent of the Simploii road is so long, being thirty 

s or mora from tlie Italian aide to tbe summit, tliut our 

inchmen went forward in tlie night with tlieir own teams, and 

It us to follow with eitra poet-hor^ea. We found them wait- 

lis Ml tlio Inat public house on the Italian side, wbi-re, 

o'clock p. M., wc took breakfast. We liad passed the 

an boutidory a few milea back. Our pussports had been 

1 by the officers, and we wer« aow in a Swiss village in 

1 Vallaia — a cluster of very poor stone bouses, the Uvorn 

ihg tli« only one that appeared comfurtable. 

t This village L) called Seuipiono. The Simplon rond is 

Died uAvr a mountain haviug tlie same appellalJon. The 

188 Passaob of the Simplon. 

rapid and easy. The scenery is grand in the extreme ; indeed, 
t)io sublimity bordered upon the terrific. Instead of looking 
up, as we had done on the other side of the mountains, from 
profound valleys and narrow gulfe, where the view is cut off 
from every thing but a narrow zone of the sky, wo now looked 
down from an awful elevation of thousands of feet ; and below 
was a yawning chasm, a narrow, deep profound, which seemed 
as if cleft down to the very roots of the mountains. In gene- 
ral, the carriage rolled along upon the very brink 6f the pred- 
piccs, with only a stone parapet for our protection ; and still we 
felt safe, while mountains hung over our heads, and almost 
fathomless gulfs ended in darkness below. The load winds 
round and round ; and when having passed the summit, and 
looking eagerly down into the valley of the Rhone, we were 
told that ** there is tiie village of Brigg in full view," still six- 
teen miles from us, it seemetl incredible ; but the time — ^per- 
ha|w three hours — that elapstnl, while the horses were in full 
speed, convinced us tliat the statement was correct. 

The Simplon road is descrilx^d by the houses of refuge, 
which are numbere<l first, second, tliird, ifec, beginning at 
Brigg. Between the fifth house of refuge and the summit, 
there is a portion of the road which is }wculiarly dangerous. 
Tliere avalanches take j)lace every year. About twenty years 
ago, as our courier informs us, an English carriage and four 
horses were swept away and destroyed ; but providentially the 
travellers were walking, and escaj)ed death. 

As we ascended the Simplon from the Italian side, tlio 
snow on the mountains became more abundant as we advanced. 
We hatl seen patches all along, here and there, and they be- 
came more numerous the higher wo mounted, until llie valleys 
on and near the mountain toj)s began to exhibit long masses of 
snow, wiile above, and n.irrowing as they descended. Tliese 
ui-re, in fact, glaciers; and from their great elevation tliey 
must have l»een really nmch larger and deeper than they ap- 
peared. Wo were surprised to see great masses of snow, or 
rather of ice and snow, lying at the foot of the clifb, just bj 

r Pabbaob ov thb Simplok. 180 

the ^^Etd. They uemcd to us to be accumtilalioDa deposited in 

IhoM placcai, probably by the nvatancbea of the winter, and pre- 

■wrveil from melting by tlieir great tliicknesa. Some of thi?in 

I thick thftt mountain streninn, falling from above, had 

Hrforat«d, and run bunuath them, and distinct arcbw of ico and 

Pnow lisd ihiu beuu formed. As our olevation increased, tlic 

} giacien bec&rao both loi^r and more numeroiu, and aonus of 

' them descended oonliauously to the valleya below. The weather 

grow ooM as we asoended, and our winter garments became 

again necessary. Vegetation in a great meiKiure ceased ; some 

■traggliug larclicn and other conifcric l>i;iDg the only trees, 

d they of itunlcd grovrtli. 

A fuw blue gentians, and llio red Alpine rose, with abuBdanco 

mosses und lii-hcna, still presenred some lineaments of vogp- 

P<tllbl« boRuty, oven afUir tlie larches had ceased. One of our lailies 

7 eollocted 32 Bpociw of flowun on tbo high AIim, and this v/a» 

■hy no mcAns tlio extent of tbe flora in UieM unfniitl'ul climes. 

Our day hnd been iino, and tlie sunlight hud been beautifully 

I contracted with the de/p mountain Hhaduws; but at throe 

j o*d<,Kk p. u» clouds and thick mist, with dnslies of rain, rolled 

[ ever the Alplue tops, often by thwr movements alternately veil- 

I ing and ilinclosing tho dtnolate moses of rocks and tho brillLint 

I gUders. As we began to descend from the highest summit, 

tho son huwerer burst out again, and lighted up, with glorious 

cfFulgtnoe, all tha«u wild BC«n(» of sublime and nwful grandeur, 

whicli cuinot be deaoribed in words, adeijunte to convey a full 

I Knd vivid impreuioD of the fuulity. 

Human habitations had almost cenaed lo, still tliere 

ere A few sninl! Btone honses, here and there, and often in 

Situations apparently almost inoccesBiblo ; but where small grass- 

lllota nfipeATod lo have hold ont tho temptation to ascend almost 

e reach of humanity. Still, religion had not Imcn 

rgottcn, for small solitary cliurchw were visible, hero and 

|licr«, lunong die liigli mnnntains. 

In lh« lower rc^ona tliew wcro wws, and in the iiighcr 
>j nn>l tlicM animals nppcaroil in gnnd condition. Amoti^ 



tlie galluries cut in the rocks of Uieec AIim, Uiat <rf Ooodl 
tlie longest, being 506 ftret in lengtb. For mgre than eighth 
montliH, too workmen, in [liutics of eight, viorkvd ilajr a 
night to form tliia guUery ; and ta sliorten the lime, two b 
op«niti|^ were luadu by susjxinding thai minora by ropee o 
tiguous lo the foco of the rook, uutil u lodginuiit wuld b« n 
Tliu number of oecessible points was thus iiicrenw^d, and 1 
openings now &erve as wimloira lo enligbti-D this luDj; i 
gloomy guTlcry ; it n-as delightful to us as wo trsvoUud 
to look out through tliein upon the uhtMirfu] iMX of the sky. 
Btrangor coming from Italy, untuis the gullcry by a Budd«n ti 
tho load, when he piisses over a bridge, buiuulh which nulica a.. 
roaring torrent that descends in a cataract from tlm n 
Bido. Tho scene is both startling and highly grutifynig; 
anotliur place the stream is carried over tlie gallery and bliij 
a graceful cataract into tlie abyss. 

It is startling to be suddenly brought witli safety i 
a roaring woteriidl, from tlie under side of which s g 
view is hod through an ojKfoing cut in the walla ut'tJ 
'\hesa galleries are parOy built up with masonry nnd 
excaviited, auil o¥«r them in winter tho avalanche with ligl 
BjieeU |jd;ea ila fearful plunge to tho nwful gulf Iwlow. 
three galleries, two houses of refuge, and the hos|)tc«, are all ^ 
vided as places of retreat &om danger between tho fifth a 
and tlio summit. 

Our entire journey from Domo d'OssoEa through and nrtf ^' 
the Alps oucuplud twelve houn, including tliu hour of bruokfiwi; 
if we re4;kou from Sesto, where strictly the Simploa bcgioa, no 
may add ten hours more. 

Tiis tiROLoar or tuia Region is exceedingly *inipla and 
intelligible, as regards matters of looL The rocks ar« i 
primary or primitive, the by[>ogene rocks of LycU. 

Granitiu rocks prevail from tlie foot of tlie Alp* c 
Siniplon rood, to about the summit, ami aftrr tliat point il 
there is tio iithitr clinug« tluut llio hitmluctiou uT konilit 
rook*! tlmt into lay, tlivguciMbecomaidhnngMl witii kamW 

Gbolodv of tub Siai-Los. 


KAiupbiboIe, and of course the strata liave a darker color; 

« also, in hoiiiq iuHtouutH, oontorluU, and ])rewnt beauUAil 

rvaturraL la uommetnuiig lliu asivtit of the Siinploa in ihn 

'log, the gentlemen left liiu carriages and cliuilH.'U a euii- 

mblo elevnuon, for llie sake of obsur^ing a (]Uarry of while 

nmrblo, which Lwl bven opened, in years gone by, to iifliird Uiq 

columns for the arch nf triunipli at Mihin. llio Icd^ are very 

thick and tho marble perfectly Bound. TLe marks of the tools 

Uiat had been apjilicd ti; detach the raonolittiic masses were 

Lrvilible. A-road bad lieen constructed down a sleep mountain 

■SMlivitj'. ia order to transport the blocks to the Simplon road 

Con thtflr way to Milan. There are maleriala enough left in tlie 

quarry for any future demands for columns or other works of 


Among the Alpine mountains, there ia great diversity of 
Buiiio rise into acute conea, the luguiilea of Du 8aussuro; 
are so high, tliut only uaglua or other birds of powerful 
iog can acalo tlieir sumniits. They may liavo been ]ras!ie<I 

* into funris reaumbling those in vliicb we now aoe them, 
T, of eoutw, ill the pn^resa of time, more and more 

Hile by exfbliaCioti, in oonsequonee of the cleaviug off of por- 
ta Irom exposure Ui tlie woatlier. Most of llie granitic rot^ks 

[ the Alps have a strui^turu mor« or less like gneiss, with a 

llitatoae lurungcuicnt of parts. 

In other instances, tlie mountains are more obtuse, although 
■dicy appronmaU: to the eouioil form, and whether aiguilles or 
u cones, they stand out in distinat individuality, although 

rowing, as it were, from a ceininun ruoL 
Not unfrecjuenlly a series of cones or of summits, with 

Iftving lioea, forms a distinct outline agninat the clear axure of 

• hearcns. Inothorcase8,thcBtitpcDdouswaUsofper^ndicuIar 
e abruptly from a profound and narrow ch/ism, with a 

rent running between the walls, which seem to close in upon 
u and to touch tuu heavens; not a plant reUcves the dreary 
t of LliD prison, and you l«el alinoel as if buried alive in 
■ profmiml abyn of nalurv'* awful sulitude. Tito appcanuuu 

192 Vallbt or thi Rhokx. 

is absolutely terrific, and jou can hardly draw a long breathy 
until you feci that you have quite escaped from the perilous 

In such a place on the south-eastern slope of the Sioiplon, 
1 realized, more than any where else, the vast altitude of moun- 
tain wall above my head — thousands of feet in height, and the 
brain turns giddy when the eye is endeavoring to scan the 
summit clifis, and to catch a glimpse of the slcy. 

KuiNS. — From the hour of their birtli, the mountains have 
been undergoing degradation. The sun, with the heat, and the 
cold, the rain, tlic ice, tlie snow floods, the incessant pull of 
gravity, and the concussion of earthquakes in countries where 
they occur, conspire, with various other causes, to depress the 
height of mountains ; chemical decomposition aids mechanical 
disintegration to produce a severance of parts, while the tenden- 
cy is constantly downward, as well for minute fragments as for 
i\u)!Hi enormous masses — clitl's, precipicefs and sometimes entire 
sides of mountains, which fall with tremendoiu concussion into 
tlu^ gor<^es, valleys, lakes, and river courses, where, accumulat- 
ini;, year after year and ag«j at\er age, tliey*]»resent convincing 
prtxjt' that the mountains are constantly losing in their altitude, 
while their ruins are elevating the valleys and the plains. 

Vallkv of the Khon'k. — The region contiguous to tlie 
Ulionj* i)r«.'S4*nts verj' interesting jthenomena. The river flows 
throuu^h Urigj:;, a!»d ]>assi.'S on through Visp and Tourtemagne 
tt* Sion, and so on to Martii^nv. 

At the village of Visp, two miles below Brigg, it receives 
tin* river Visj>, and several other rivers flow into the Rhone 
from the high mountains, which, on both sides, form tlie 
boundary of its valley, and Mount Rosa is one of them. The 
main river, Rhone itself, issues from beneath a glacier in the 
Alps ; both it and its tributaries rush along rapidly, turbid, 
and turbulent, while the spoils of the mountains, being spread 
far and wide, evince that the rivers occasionally overflow thior 
biinks and strew the fields with sand, pebbles, and boulden. 
Lirgc tracts are in that manner irremediably ruined, and agri- of tdb Huoke. 193 

f oiiltura is ondenlly vftry iiiBocore, osper.inlly in Uie upper pnrt 

, of tlm irnllwy, as wc Imd ocawinn, in many p![ic«s to obscru-. 

Tho Saltern rinsr Hows by Brigg, snd its cliannel ia cluvi-n 

L fi»rt h^h«<r thnii (ho rillage. Tlio hvA of lliQ Viap, hIso, in 

'ctk feot higher than the villftfro of ihn same nami.'. Tlii^ 

I from the IrnnKpnrtation of loose materials from llio 

riiHmtiiins. whicli, jcar by year, ac^iiniulata in ibo bods of ilm 

n<i thus tho chonco of iniiiidaUou is coustaatty in- 


' Till! inhftlntnnU, witli small and precarious resources, arii 

thuo compdllod to contend agaiuat the viemenle ; tlie rivers, 

r fwollcn by tlio meking of the mountitin snows, nweep along in 

I ftiriotis torrents (ilia very condition in wUitli w« saw them) ; 

* the barriuts are breafhwl, the waters ovcrllow, bearing alon;i; 

over the fields tlie ruins of llio Alpine regions, and desolation 

fbtlowiL Wu tijutid ininiL'UsH atwumulHtioui of the ipoits of tbu 

raotintains spread fur nnd wide over the valley of tite Rhone,* 

Tliny are mucli Aore ironside ruble than tlie greateat collections 

L of rotks and jwbblea which we ever tind upon the shores of the 

^•MU and ocmns. They are, almost eiolusively, tlio fragincnis 

V^f primary roc-ka, and tlidr nocumuliUions are not confined to 

' the liottom of tlw valleys. They are spread out at high eleva- 

|h tionn, far above the present flow of tliese rivets, prox'ing tliat 

a waters have oflen swept over those higher re^ons; and as 

Q fragiueuta are genorally roimdod, and being very hani, the 

acition of tho waters producing friction of the inatorials against 

L each other, must liavo been rciwaled, cither continuously, or 

burith intcrmiseioiiM, which, of course, would require a more prii- 

Bjonged [icriod. Our observations, in tho course of tho forty 

its that we travelled in tho valley of the Rhone, fully auatain 

c slronge^t UatemenU of the distinguished writers on tlii^w 

irgioiisi, and prove decidedly tho great denuding, wearing, and 

uiKporting offecta of the floods that sweep down from the 

■Alpine .summiu. 

* Am dcocriLied by Dc Sauhufo, ClinrpFiitiflr. Agusii; ForW* lor 
FV^iiilmrgliV »ii uther writ«r« 
Vol. .t-0 



We obaervcd, aUo, otlii^r wry iutorealing f&cth A^4 
proceed domi Uic vnlltiy townnk tlte Lako of Gi^evi^ | 
mounUios coDtinue to he very liigli on boUi sidm ; 
of feet — I wUl Lot venture to sity Iiow many — ubovu tlia b 
the ItLoue ; in estiniHting mngiiituile wliero eveiy tliii^ ii f 
Ki vast a scale, llieru U, huwm'er, tittle dfuigur of cxnggtnUid 
'riie high cWfb aro guncriUly inow-cnppLii, or invoated 
glacJera. Tl>e aides of tliB mountains are dce^ily laciv 
grooved, and clittnnclled ; their Eutnniit oiltls oftea stjuid ontfl 
HtroDg relief agaiiwt the bluo akv, like ruinud walls and h 
menta, Biretiihing tilong fur inlles nnd miles, and a[ipniiriiig i 
Hhatturud and iulimj that they arc every momuul tiiimauing ri 
avalanche of rocks, which frost and grnvity ar<^ aunt to proda 
from year to yi.>ar, ani) which enrlliquako ^)o^\inonts amy m 
any lime ncwlcrato wilJi fiightful dpsolalion. 

The immonso masses which wo find here nntl tlim fa 
prove that such events have often happonod, and tliat tliey « 
assuredly recur again and again. ^ 

Tho regular aeciiinulalioti of ruins has formed a t 
or alopu, which sumulimes, »nd fur mites iu tsouliDuity, 
formed a hank of ruins reaching far up Uio mountain n 
ruins aro often lying at the highest angle of dc'valiou at wfai 
(about forty-Hve degroes) loose masses will remiiiu wilhottt n 
iug down. Indeed it was obnuus that nil the luwcro 
thu valley of the Itbone, to llio unknown duptli whioK m 
wack tile solid rock, is funned from the accumulatod i 
ihit mounbiins. Tho doep sections in the masses that ba 
VHt through by tho tom>ntK, disclose nothing but suoh rain 
nm\ it i» saiil Ihal in s-rnie of Oii< Alpine valleys tbey uo 101 
at 1500 toBt in deptJi. 

MoHAiKKs. — lliuru ii n still more remarkable bet w 
tJii« valley. Many mounds are observod, up and down, « 
both adt» of th« river, hut more froqiiontJy on the left or « 
bniffc. llicy are of every sixe, from that of a colUge to ll 
of the Coliwuni at llonio. Tli«y an* utiaurally vontpowil J 
inaC«rii^l«, tliat hara nri'lfiilly bitcQ *huvu<l ll<)<l I 


: Vauxy. 

along until they liHva formed th«s« Hccuiiiulalion^ when Uiu 
cause tlint formo] nail inovmi ihi'in liaTing ceaso) to lurt, thi^- 
bMiima stationary. Tliis canaii Vtotvmut AgMStiz believes to 
liAVR 1i«cn tlu: movement of gkclufs, which aru suppostfl onco 
to have filled tliis valley, and that, by tlidr downward progress, 
thcj' foriM^ along tlio miivobk' matt'riab before tJiem ; or per- 
hnp^ in some ctoi'S, tliu fragments fulling from tlio cliHs upon 
the glftiiiots, wore borno along by llipm, and, when iho ico molt- 
i>l, tlicy were dopooiti^l below. BoUi suppositions may have 
b«en trne; and this vritl explain tlio fact, that wc Ronietimi'it 
find in these mounds largo masaea of mounliiin clifTii, (^ntlrv, 
and rvtktning tho original Btruuturo of the rofk from whiwh 
they weiv detached ; but tlu-y itrii wrapped up in loow mnte- 
rials, pmoecding from iliMntegratinn nud decompcKilii>n; uml 
in EUoh ras«i wc miint tin[i]>one that tlie glai^itTS hare liolh 
tmnripArted iJio nxils, and pwshud iip lli« nioiindiii. 

Tlie maSHM of which 1 nm writing are t^mtc dislin<;t from 
tho general talus or slope of thn n^ountnin ruinH, an<I are, in 
tnoat innUtncca, f^ romove<l from the foot of the mountains to 
tha other dde of the plain. Wo iisnendod some of tlicm. and 
found Uiem very eligible look-out stniiona for viewing tho wen- 
, pry of mountain, valley, and river, and olhpr moruines risini; 
on the right and Uio letl, as tho Pyrnmids arc soen on tho 
Kgyjrtian plains. 

FaATnaaa or rita Vau-kt. — Tho valley of tho TihoTii>. 
whore wo firat cntcrod it, is narrow, not exceeding half a milo 
I in breadth, and a largn pari of it has born buried under moun- 
tain ruins. The floods have disrogarded man's fueblo barriers 
of walla and dikes ; and in the coutm of ages, tJie soil iu the 
I upper regions watered by the Rhone may bo entirely covered. 
Ai we proceeded down the valloy it gradually expanded to 
j two miles or more in broadUi. The river now flowed Ivilow 
I tlio level of the ReldK, i« channel growing doeppf as wo pro- 
I owdod. Below Sion, and qiiita down to Su Maurice, wlioro 
I Uie valley beoomm again narrow, th« surfacn wna free from 
ind WA> expnndoil iiil<> mnnt Ix^utifiil fields, cover^l w\VV\ 

106 Appearanok of thb Peofle. 

a rich harvest of wheat, which the people were engaged in 
gathering by the sickle, tliis instrument being universally em- 
ployed, and generally by the women. We never saw it in the 
hands of men ; and frequently it was wielded by young girls, 
apparently fifteen or sixteen years old. 

The scythe is almost exclusively in the hands of men ; after- 
wards, however, we saw women mowing with the scythe.* The 
people here do not appear to be acquainted with the use of the 
cradle,f which with us so much abridges the labor of reaping. 

The hay is made by tlie females : they toss it, ted it, put it 
into cocks and ricks ; using the same rake as ours. The pitch- 
fork is nearly the same, but often it is made of wood. The 
hoe is longer, like a mattock. 

Mr. McCormack's reaping machine may, perhaps, in the 
course of a century, travel into these regions of unchanging 
precedent. In the central and southern parts of Europe there 
is very little disj>osition towards fmprovement in agriculture. 

Ahpearanco of the People. — In Italy tliero is no want 
oj' civility. The iHK)ple are always kind when^spoken to. At 
tlio hotels, the scr>'ants, the waiters, the coachmen, and the 
niitstor of the house himself, never allowed us to pass without 
touching the hat, or showing some other token of respect. The 
])ri«»sts, who never bowed first, and seemed to wait for an overture, 
always raised tlieir broad beavers when we bowed to them. Since 
we have entered Switzerland we have observed, however, a mark- 
ed increase in respectfulness in the manners of the people. Very 
many of tlicin, even among the common masses, voluntarily 
raise their ciif»3 to us as we walk the streets in towns or vil 
lages, or travel on the roads. It reminded us of tlie good old 
custom in New England in days of yore, when a whole 

•Much shorter, however, than ours — more like what our New 
England funnere call a stub scythe, used with ud for cutting up buslMfl. 

f A scytlie furnished with long jiarallel fingers of wood, which 
receive the falling straw, and enable the reaper, by a skilful move- 
ment, to lay it down smoothly in regular rows. 


> ITS Mountains. 


school of children would turn from tlioir pliiy, nnd bow re- 
r.ipcvtfiilly to the ptiwiDg stranger. 

Tho uppeuaDco of the common people La SwitzerlaniJ, ns 

M we have seen tliem, is rustic. The nomen whom wc 

abroad in tho streets and Holds are couse, sunburnt, and 

nmeculine in their movomenta. Thoy walk with a sturdy 

I'Stride, like tho men, most of whoso duties in the field they ptr- 

} form ; and woman's loveliness of person and features nppnnra 

to be little known, and still less regarded, among them. How 

1 it be otherwise, when they are constantly subjected to 

I lervtle toil and eiposure to tie wealhert Indeed it is, thore- 

■!fbre, llm more to their credit that tlicir manners are always 

llind. They invariably mnnifust an obliging disposition ; and 

|ifrom a rudu external form, and rough, dark features, the 

■tmnger lienrs with unexpected jilensuro, a gentle, winning 

I voice, showiug that although masculine from necessity, woman 

I dwells witliin. 

TuK Goitre. — There is a Rtill more painful circumstance 

I Whiuh often met our eyes. In every group composed of several 

I wumen, you will see the goitre, and among the aged women it is 

len frightfully largo. It is paintii! to observe its incipient mnn- 

|]fustation, even in young girts ; und there ia apparently no dis- 

n to hide these imwyhtly tumors by any arrangemcut of 

* dress.* Among the men, ttie disease uppeors tu be fur leas 


SiOK AND ITB MocNTAiNs. — The small, compact, and hand- 

I «)me town of Sion received us in a clean and comfortable hotel. 

!rhe mannen of the people were so kind, tliat we seemed to 

I luvu arrived among our fViends. To this day, I remember it 

iritb ft Ming uf home. 

Sion, with three ancient ruined castles on its lower lulls, ts 
wrrmindcd by a mngtii&tonl amplatheutra of ver; high and 

• Aa Dminonl |iliyiii«iaa in (lenevn expreoBd to ira the opinioQ tliat 
k •nrgical oparatiuD tii r«niu*a llie ^^Uro wauld ba dkImi^ and pntb- 
il I bcUa** il U nvvor attomptsd. 

108 Dkluob or Mabtioht. 

SDOwy mountaiiis. A bright morning sun, reflected from thdr 
brilliant surfaces, presented a glorious ^)ectacle| and formed a 
strong contrast with the fields of wheat and gran in the valley. 
The husbandman of Sion, while he cultirates the soil, is sur- 
rounded even now, in the second week of July, by the ioe and 
snow of the higher atmosphere ; and one is equally surprised 
that he has the courage to labor, and is favored to enjoy its 
fruits. In the streets, we saw the appearance of comfort in the 
habitations and shops, furnished with the most useful commo- 

Cascade. — Among such high and snowy mountains we 
should, of course, expect to find cascades. We saw a grand 
and beautiful cataract fifleen or twenty miles below Brigg. It 
foil at the remote end of a deep natural amphitheatre in the 
side of the mountain, fonned by high walls of rock. There, a 
mountain rivor plunged abruptly over the barrier, and fell 100 
feet, lK?inff about forty feet wide, and ten to twelve feet deep. 

Here also was abundance of alabaster, lying about in 
masses, and thus indicating both its birthplace and its abun- 
dance in th'j neighboring mountiiin. It was of a snowy white- 
ness, so pure, and of a t<;xturc so fine, that it was well adapted 
to form beautiful and delicate objects of art 

At Salence also, about forty miles below Brigg, a splendid 
cascade rushes from the side of a mountain, just below the 
roa<l. Although it is not quite as large as the cataract of Tour- 
temagno, it is, if possible, more bo.nutiful, as its entire fall cx- 
cee<]s 220 feet, and the vertical chute is over 120. It is well 
known in Amorioa by prints and usually bears a coarse local 
name ; but I ])refer to call it the Cascade of Salence, after the 
place where it is found. xV bright sunshiny day gave addi- 
tional beauty and lustre to the irised spray, and to the brilliant 
white column of falling water. 

Delugk of Martioxv. — We arrive<l at Martigny in time 
t«) see something of the eflects of the tremendous deluge which 
occurred here in 1818. 

At the head of the valley through which flows the river 

DKLoaK OF Martiqmv. 


I Drance, wltii-h, al a high elL-viitiun. niiiH [larallol to llie IHione, 
I ■ lake liaJ huvn Pirmtid lif llie mtriling of tLo ico itnd enow, 
I mod Ihn witter, almuat hI tlie summit of iho taouiitains, wns mta- 
libiinnd hy » g'incier which hnd slid down ^m its plaise. This 
I Jrcry nnmiw nnd prufoDnd vulluy in divided from ibal of iJio 
' Rtiiino by a inauiiliLin Wrier; n siinJlat bnrriur nina jMrHllel 
3 oUier aido, and bolwwm them is tJie deop and narrow 
gorge. Eight luagues above Martif^y wna (lie lurrifiu l«ke. 
with its treaclierous bairlur of ice, liable to b« melted by tlio 
rains tliat had dissolved the mountain snows, and (armed this 
1 ituigermis oollectJou of water, wliiuli was TODO feet long. Thu 
I barrier of ice that suslnintKl it was 600 feet wide, 400 feethigh, 
[ Aid rMt«d on a base of 3000 fuut. 

'The tradition had oome down to the preaont generation rif 

, lite dreadful catastrophe which occurrt-d in Uimw inouolaliis in 

ISOS, in congequen<:e of thi biirstiiig of a twrrier of ice; and 

the catastmphu was preceded by a diminuuon of t)ic luual 

quantity* of water in the Draniw, a fact which wns obB«rved 

I tlsoin 1816. 

On ihi* occasion (1818), Mr. Veriieta, a distinguished 
engineer of the Vallois, with the aid of a party of intrepid mm, 
undertook thedangeTouHserviiM! of draining the lake, by making 
A canal in the barrier of ice. The water was 60 feet below the 
barriirr when ihcy began tJiplr work on the 30th of May, and 
on llio 13th of June the vnter l>egnn to flow. 

In 33 hours the take sank 10 feet, and during tlio following 
L S4 houra 20 feet more, and had it continaed to subside at thiit 
I mle, llio lake would, in a few da}-s more, have been drained ; 
libut Ibo falling water weakened tike fimndadotia of the dam, so 
Rthat,un the 16th of June, the barrier burst, and in half an hour 
B the lake was emptied. Tlic water reached Mortigny, a distance 

■ of eight leagues, In an hour and a half; the HikkI, in the upper 

■ port of its coiitse, flowed four or five times faster than llio most 

ITie How i>r wutKr Iwing arrMtwd by Ur« U* tmrrlrT, ami hi^ 
nI to awull Ihn take. d«pri<r*d tb« ri*er u( iu uuui^ w\i{n^^. 

200 Djcluob of Martiont. 

riipid riv(T known. Four hundred cottages were iwepl •— *, 
find .M \H'ntrt\H hmi their livcft; the deatmcdon of propertr ww 
4'Htiiiifihrtl at ii niilliou of Swufi livres.* Trees, hooseSi cattle^ 
and fill iiiovtthlM thin^ were swept awaj bj this firiglitfid 
d4*lu|^«', which even deHtroyed several houses in lower Martignr. 
'V\lt'r^^ Mi', two villfif^;M, the uj>per near tlie mouth of the gorge, 
Mfid llie low(!r A mile diHtant, on the plain, and near the Rhone 
into tlm I )rfince flows at Martignj. Three of us — ^leavii^ 
tJKs IimHim atid the nmt of the party at the lower village, took a 
lilt 111 cfirria^tf of the (M)iintr}% called a char«-banc, drawn by 
OIK! honw*, and w«!ro driven two miles to the opening of the 
valley of tlii) hranci', tliat wo might see the gorge — the great 
niitnrnl dflil«*, tlin>u^li which the deluge discharged its watersL 
1 1. waH indts'd a nfirrow cjinal for so mighty a flood. It 
a|i|M'nrfd not to Ui more than 100 yards wide, if measured 
nriMMM a( tlin clfvation (*.orn*.s] Minding with the top of the flood, 
Hii|»|Misih;r (|)i> tnrrmt to have U*on 30 or 40 feet deep, and 
tliiuii;r|) tliU narnw clianncl, whirli became still narrower near 
il « lirfiiiii.'itinii, ihr \val<-r must have ru>]ied with the rapidity 
i)t' u mill ra«'c. Altliuiiirji thi*. <*v('nt was thirtv-three voars 
\»W,H' till' tiiiM! of our vIm!, iIhti; arc still visible many proofs of 
(rn-at dfYa^'tati'*!!. ISotli at and Ih'Iow the outlet of the valk'V 
llnTi' an- lar;;*' 1«m)si} nx'kn, that >^ere doubtless brought down 
hy till* mountain thMxi. On a liousi* in lower Martigny there is 
a di«linrt. v\at«'r liu** still viMbli;, which provcMs the torrent to have 
Ih'«-ii lInTi! «'iLjht tet't di'fj), and it kIiouM be observed that this 
in a mil<' Im-Iow the outh^L The gorge is succeeded by an 
I'Xlmdrd plain on which lower Martij^ny stands, and over this 
(■hampa;;n«i thi^ «li'lu^<', wfiH at lilK>rty to Bprcfid ; but still tho 
drpth of tin* water was full two feet above the hofKl of stall man 
htandin«^ on the (ground; as it cami.' on in a violent rusli, it must 
hav«! sw« |)t all movable tiling and animals, ami men before 
it ; and, :ls mii^ht havi* hiX'U ex]H;cted, it was a fatal deluge. 

* Tile Swidi livrc in u littlu laorc than twvnty-fivv coats Amerieaa 


E Salt Minks < 

I! EX. 

Thu duviuUlion along tlie courao of die torrc-ut iii Uiu lilghor 
parU uf lliu nillcy wrta signal, and lias been tniuiti un.' of in 
j^do^uil discURsions or the forco of mighty mailing floods. A 
lilsj- cTenl happened thruo yenrs later in Vcrtnont,* Uniu-<1 
Btntea. In m attempt lo deepen the clinnnel of an upper liiko, 
the WHtcre cut their way through tlie hard eartli, nished down 
into a loner lake, and tlie vratera of bolU were precipitated 
through Barton river, a diatflnco of 24 miles — the esact diBlanco 
Uiat th« swollen Dnrnoe flowed — and were discharged into 
hnko M«'niphr«magog. The devastation along the course of tlio 
torrent was almost aa signal as that of the Alpino floo<l, and 
tito records of both remain to tlds day inscril^d upon the 
lacerated liarriofs, and innrlked liy transported roclcs. 

Martigny is tlie usual place of departure, !>y a raide pnth, 
fuT the valley of Chainouny and Mont BlaiR\ whirh enn, from 
llila poiul. If reached over llie Col do Balme in one day. Hut 
Mveral reasons doeided u« lo lake the longer journey by Geneva. 
This decision enabled Uiose of the party who were geologically 
iuclineJ, le cross the Khone, and make an 

«,««tsi»ii l« th Salt li«fs of Stt. 

We siMit our friends forward to Si, Gingulph, a village near 
tlia head of liie Lake of Geiiuva, whila four of us took the otlier 
carriage lo convoy us to tho minea. 

Tlio distance frotii hlartigny wn* five miles, and wo' pniseil 
through tlio village of \iex, winch contains 3000 iuhabitsnis ; ns 
!l has sulpliureous springs, it is resorted to us a watering-plnci-. 
M. Chnrpcnticr, long known a» a dislingulKlied gGologist, has lliu 
chargn of tlie mines of Ilex. Although wilfioul an in trod net ion, 

tcru eourtooiisly received by him, and he promptly ftimiahed 

itli a tii^kel of introduction to the mines. 

Anivrirnn .loiimal. Vol, xi, p, S'J. Ikwcrijillon Iiy Ihn Rt-r. C, 
V. I>*'igbt vt tJic vniptioD ft Uxif; Loka and Uuil Lake iiitu Il«rli>n 
' nad Lnke Mcmphi-einRgoe- 
Voi. a— V 

202 Salt Mikes or Bex. 

We walked more than half a mile up a hill, and finding a 
head miner, we were arrayed by him in brown frock coats, with 
a capot instead of our hats and caps. Excepting the navigation 
mine * in Derbyshire, England, where we go in by a boat in a 
submontane canal, I have never seen any place of the kind so 
conveniently accessible as the mine of Bex, 

We walked upright a mile in a gallciy excavated in the 
mountain ; the roof and sides were planked, and a plank walk 
covered the mud and water, so that, with the aid of our lights, 
it was quite a comfortable tour. 

When we were advanced between four and five thousand 
feet, we descended about 20 feet, by ladders, to the chamber 
where the miners were at work. 

We had, previously, heard the cannon-like reports from the 
Masting, and when we saw the extent of the chambers, we were 
not surprised that the reverberations were those of subterranean 
thunder. The cavity in which we were, appeared to have an 
area of an acre. The floor was level, the roof flat, and except 
a coiitral block of the natunil strata left as a pillar, it was almost 
entirely unsupported. 

We could not but feel some apprehension, lest the roo£l 
shattered by the frequent explosions, might collapse and crush 
the minors, or imprison them to stjirve in a salt dungeon. The 
miners were engaged in picking oif the salt with tools; they 
work naked to the waist, and pass eight hours a day at their 
toil, which, by relays of men, is continued night and day. 

M. Charpentier informed us, that the saline rock at Bex 
is lijis, the lower member of the oolite, and that it is mixed 
with much g}'psum, was evident from our own observation. 
Fnmi foreign mixtures it is freed by solution, in another 
chamber, which also we visited. There are, moreover, brine 
8priii<rs in the mountain, and the brine, after due concentration, 
is evaporated by heat until it will crystallize. The weaker brine 
is made to fall u})on piles of fiigots in a building, open at the 

* See tlouriuil uf TraveU in England, Ac, 1805-6. 

Salt Mjncs of Bex. S03 

allium nrnl lliua Uie wuter evaporates and Uic gypsum crysUI* 
hKi ui>oti Uiu sticks; tLii u repeated two or three times until 

I tJie Winu is Buffioieotly strong. Tho produce of the mities waa, 

I fk few yam Hnce, twenty to thirty thouannd quiotnlB atiDunlly. 
Ill that chamber in tlie mine whiuh contsins the sniine 
KiUitiun, tliere are moat NHtonisliing echoes, with many repeti- 
tious; iilthou^ they are very distinct, they are too nuiueroiM 
HuJ miiid to be counted, and they die away by insensible grs- 
diitions. ThoM of the party who had been there, remarked 
llint llio ecliocs arc Tcry similar to those of the Maniinoth Cave 
ill Kenlucky, and that there, loo, they Uku place over wat^. 
We had now seen ouo of tlie miuea of Dex ; but there are fifty 

I of lliesD largo clinmbera in diHeront parts of tlie mountain. 

Our young men obtained of a denier beuutitiil specimens 
of crystalliKed rock salt and gypsum, and otlier minerals of this 
ngiou. It !s here thiit the anhydrous gyjisuii) is found, vrhicli 
ta regarded wilh groat interest by mineralogists. M. Chatpon- 
warmly olfcred us tlio honpilality of his beautifid man- 
I, ditiiatod in the midst of rund ntLmctions — fine meadoWN 
gunleiis, trees, shrubs and flowers. Among other scientilid 

' gBntli'inen at M. Chaqwntier's, wo were introduced lo H. 
Vuriii!t2, ihu cngi'iL'^'', by whose skill snd intrepidity the gla- 

l cier Iiirriur in the Valley of the Dranco was sluiced. M. 
ChnrpoiitioT lias added another instance of the courtesy and 
kindni^Aa eYperirncol by us in Kiirop« among men of science, 
nitlioiit nny pcRonal claims. At his bouse we saw several re- 
fined niid eIq;Rnt ladies, with b«nutifui complexions, of whom 
tliere are doubtless large numbcra in Swilwrland, as well as in 
Italy, but they are not usually sven by tlio pnssing stranger. 

I In Italy, evpcuially, tliey seclude tlieiiueh-es more than b t hn 

ftciuituiu wiUi US. 

204 St. GiRGULPH to Gskkta* 

SI 6ittgil|^ to (dentin. 

Ride to St. Gixgulpu. — Wo were again is our caniago 
buforo sun-settin^f and rode through a mofltt charming countiy, 
verdant and beautiful, like the meadows on the GonDectknC 
river. Nigfit soon came upon us and veiled the countiy from 
our view ; bat we retained most agreeable impreflBions of our 
visit to Bex, and of its distinguished geologist Our point of 
d('i»nrturo for Bex was from the Bridge of St Maurice, a place 
<;<!lobrated both in geology and history : but we had no time 
to look for glacier groovings upon the clifis, nor for the places 
r<itiowncd in ancient warfare, particularly where the Christian 
solditirs in the Roman army underwent martyrdom. 

We arrived at St Gingulph at eleven at night. Our friends 
were .'ilroady seeking their repose, in a hotel, so secluded and 
quiet, by the peaceful lake, that they might well dream they 
were at home. After a light repast, we too souglit our pil- 
lows, and found the refreshment so grateful to active travellers, 
and so auspicious for the next day s work. Morning found 
our party again united, and being once more in our carriages, 
we went forward on our jouniey. 

The distance to Geneva is 35 iiiilos, aiKi the roeul passes 
along the shore of this beautiful inlan<l water. An Alpine 
chain attended us on our left, the placid Leman* was on our 
right, and, in the more distant northwest, rose the Jura Moun- 
tains, dividing Switzerlainl from France. 

* T)ic upper end of Lnko Lcraan i» HhalloWp nnd tlio water mvddy 
from tiic Jetritas brought by the Rhone from the Alpine torrents. 
A Ifvcl plain of mendow laud connects it« head waters with Msr- 
ti^ny, iiiid ia clearly due to the gradual shoalim; and filling in of this 
part of the lake. Gradually tike waters becomo clear as the sedi- 
n)(;iit ia (lepositcd in this great quiet re!M>rvoiry until, at the other 
end, by Genera, we see the 

** Blue rushing of the arrowy Rhone." 

Geneva. 205 

Tliu country wsa in full rural eplendor and bt^nnly ; it vtaa 
leb in orops, and tbe wheat luirvesl, as clscwhurc, wuh fulling 
before Uie sickle, which, in one field, was wicldoil by six girls 
group. Trees were numerous, and many of thcni were 
{ good jnnt. Liiaoetone waa <]iiarrit>d in the mountnins, nt 
t! fool of which we paaiod, and there were nuinoroua pita U> 
oiivcrt it into lime. 

At Meiller^, a projecting cliff, which interiered with the 

I load, waa blasted away by the order of Napoleon, to make 

Bloom for the Simplon road. It was at this point that Lord 

^Byron waa in danger of ehipnrock in a storm. Wo paa§ed 

tlirougb tbe town of Evinn, with 1670 inlmbitnnts, and Thouoii, 

a much lai^r place. Near it are tlie ruins of the Gostle of 

AmodeuH VUL, anciently Duke of Snvoy, who had been l'o|>e, 

I but nlHlicntj.'d tile tiiiru and iissuiiied the cowl. 


npproiiulied Geneva, tlie shores of the lake beciuno 
dingly beautiful, and tbe villas were very numeroiu. We 
Uitcrcd the city at 4 o'clock, i'. u., and foimd all tho bouses de- 
Borated with flags, in honor of a public anuivr.rsary of thu Con- 
Ifons of Switnerland, whiub was tlteu being celebrated here. 
~" a lioosm in the principal etreela were adorned by the Hag of 
ienera, which is a s^juare with crimson ground and n whiti' or 
fellow central cross. 

When we were on llie AJjm, we wore iotbrmed bv our 

r that a great festival was being knpt in Geneva, and 

Itat without a ]iroviaus engagement we might not find a ccun- 

IbUr homo in tho city. Accordingly Frnn^ois wrote on, in 

ft to engage our rooms. 

Oua UoTiL. — On our arrival we drove to the 116lel do 

!• Ecu — Holel of the Crown. As we were cip»ctml, cvriy 


Bwms in such a icccpdun tom'^lJiiiig inure noLle th&u a la^Kljr 
menxnuTv feeling) ; »tt wen.- UBl<:n>d inU> a priuculy pArior ; 
OUT dinner-bibla was Mil ; uiir budrooms weru ready, and wi!. 
at onoti, felt quit« at home iu a delightful liouae, neat aual or- 
derly aa England, and elcgaut and tastefal us Fnuic« und Italy-., 
Our parlor is in tlie second story, and has an op«n tialtiotiy 
looking out upon thu Ukc. The housu is ettitnted upon as 
open square, near whora the Rhone, having travctscd tlio Inko 
in a coume of 40 miles, issues again m a powerful current, aad 
pnas(s beneath an elegant bridgis hastening on to mitigla tia 
waters with thtwe of the Mediterranean. 

We left it, as it flowed from its native valley, and enteral 
the hike near Morttgny, a turbid torrent, charged with tbu 
s[)oilB of the Alps ; wu welcomed it again, purifiiMJ b}' trufaing 
in tlie crystal waleis of the Loman. It has been thought liy 
geol<^U that its sediment contributes to elevate Ihe bottom 
of tho lake ; but the eminent I'rof. Fsvn?, of Genera, copreasod 
to US the opinion, that il went rather to increase the extent tit 
the load near the mouth of the river, and, of couiso, year by 
year, to diminish tho area of water. Even if^ iu tho coutso of ' 
ages, the land should supplant the lake, the powerful Kbone^ 
sustained by Alpine snows, would miuntain its channel and 
force its way onward to the 9<^ But it would then b« turbid, 
like the Arve, which unites with the Rhone about a Riil« be- 
low tJiB city. 

One day, we drove down to see thin junction. 0«nmi 
stands upon tho Rhone, and this river in fact flows tlirmigh tb 
city, which is now extended on Imtli »idc» of it, nlthouph an- 
ciently it was confined within tho wnll<i, which are ntill itnnd- 
iag. In order to obtain a good view of the junction Ironi 
a high Itank, we were c«nducl«d thrwigh n bcniitifiil pri<rato 
domain, wlt3i a country-houM) on tlie gronnda, ** if it had 
been an English park. 1 have mentioned lh« purity of Uw 
Rhone alW its paMagu throoftli the lakc^ The Am it u 
fnrioiiii lonvnt flowing from the *now» and ];Ia(^«r« of Aa 


AI[Ht, nnil, like llx' Rlicmo in its awn vulle)', is nil turl.iii v 
nd nni] Mmt nnil flonting wivck. 

Wlien, nt h very acute inglei, Uia rivora con 
e pvllucid Miia Rhone totum to strugglo to ttvoid being 
■leudod with its foitl invnHw. The wfttur of (he Arvo, coming 
II nlmost polnr ri'gioni^ is xery cold; pcnunB who wish n 
If. uS'i'ct, bntliQ in it villi all its impurilJw. Tbo two riven 
Iflow on, side by sido, for several tnilc*, before iLcy become 
lOnited, nnd aftur tliat, the streun is turbid qiiita to the Mcdi- 


I Mw, inMny, 1844, a similar exhibition on a vastly grwitrr 
ilu, st the junction of tite clenr and tranquil Mississippi with 
be muddy nnd violent Missouri ; both rivets being then in the 
tring flood of high wnl«r. Hie MisMiiiri prevails, and before 
ley read) SL Louis, 14 miles bulow, tlio Miseiwiippi flows on, 
muddy torrent quite to the Gulf of Mpsro. 

I wiu uarly attracted from our liotel by tliu sjilondid 
wnory around thu lak«, ami walked over the bridgi> tliat spans 
10 rivur; a mmt beautiful sight is thvre prewnttxl of lliis 
>hlfl city and ils unrivalled environs. The Khomi iasus from 
10 laltK in an imjietuous current, auil, as if impatient cveu of 
Ok partial impediment of the piers, seems to exult in having 
Mcovcmd ite litnirty after a temporal^ arresL 

III sympathy nilh the river, we also e>iiltcd in having 
need from undur tlio iron rule nf despotism into a land of 
»cdoin. Tlic t>u»y popuktion tljat wore walking the streets 
id patsing the bridge, txhibitod in tliea'r open oountvnaaiMsi, 
id evine«d by their erect nnd ninnly movement, that they 
irw conscious of possessing liberty and security. 

8cBXK rmoM tmk Wixnows or tub Hotel. — With such 
Dtinivnts and feelingo. It was uatunil that wl> shuuld sympii- 
iw with the scene passing uudi^r our ct'os. Near to evening, 
I neiro c^led from tlie dinrier table to onr balcony by th» 
Kiming of i-miion, echoed back from the latu and its rc^Km- 
re short*. It was rejuing, ami a wjiule Hold of umbrellas 


■d^«faiBh<— j ii iiiii g MftetfiB 

208 Gekxta. 

bamcr near Uio harbor, to watch the movements of a fiiM 
steamer, the pride of Geneva, which was just rounding to. evi- 
dently with expected guests, who had come, like othersi al« 
ready arrived from the different states of the confodaracy, to 
unite in a national festival, which is held annually in the prin- 
cipal cities of the twenty-four cantons, and this year is the turn 
for Geneva.* This festival was the Tire Federal^ or great 
shooting-match of riflemen from the several cantons. This 
year, as for several past years, it is quite as much a political 
mass meeting as a trial of skill in marksmanship. 

The delegates landed, and were received by the soldiers of 
libei*ty, marching with banners, and martial music from a fine 

It was becoming somewhat dark, with commencing twi- 
light, and a cloudy sky, when the "lightning flash" from the 
cannon^s mouth gave time to mark a second and a half before 
tlic " thunder stroke,^' and then the flashes and reports came in 
such rapid succession that one was almost blended with another. 
The guests were conducted by the guard of honor to their 
lodgings, and the following evening and night were signalized, 
like our Fourth of July, with masic and mirth, and marching, 
an<l singing, and shouting. Awakened from sleep, I rose and 
looked from my window, beneath which a dark cloud of 
young men wiis passing, evidently under excitement, greater 
than that of lilK?rty alone. 

The morning came, when, roused again by martial music, 
1 beheld from the balcony, not the slaves of Austrian despotism, 
HO painfully familiar to us in Italy, but a corps of the volunteer 
r-itizon soldiers of a free republic, marching to the stirring har- 
mony of a band of musicians, with brass instruments of dazzling 
brightness. It was not an imperial, or ducal, or priestly pa- 
geant, but a coq)s of citiztMis in civil attire, with their rifles 
cas(.*d in leather, and slung over their backs, while a promis- 

* A priii«.i)*ul citizen of (.ivncva eaid thtit it wan held here nineteen 
yt'ai's a^<»; aiiothor cai'l thut it lind novor lioen celebrated here be- 

TikRorr SoooTiNO. 


loua nnd i!Xcit49(I crotvtl followiyl witli loud uppiniue. TIr' 
bixou* with rifl*a nppcnrwi ns if they might Iwvo l>ee!ii mun of 
Villiam Tell or DunkpT Ilill prosaini; forward to tight fur liberty. 
Hie OeoevoM woro muvhing to the fi^lil, not for batllo. 
t to prep&ro fur it^ by larget-shootiug with ndvn. Dy a corn- 
etiljun between iho men of Uifferenl cantoiia, & friuiully nvslry 
kt'Xi;it«<l and Riulitinod, which uvideiitly iprings from the uld 
IwiH spirit cif liberty, and is a proof of thur dulermiiiittioii Ui 
DttintniD it against tho de«poiiiiin that sutroauds ihcm. W«n.> 
I not for their mountaJDa and dclilea, thdr hurdy frames, tln-ir 
kill in the use of weapouft. and tht^ir national love o( liberty, 
' subjugation would not be a reinotu evL-nt. 
Tarobt-Smootjno. — The next dny wo visited llia scene of 
irgel-Hhootlng. An admiHalou fee uf thirty francs is pmd by 
e prize shooters; and after a certain number of shots, soiul- 
ing loore iiiuit be paid fi>r each iiddilional chiuim. 

On A large area of ground, the exereiim Is i^rriud on very 

fileniHtiually. The target u .1 lan^e uirculur whit« board, hav- 

g H small black spot in the centre, and a still smaller circle iu 

locentmof that, the hitting of which implies conBUinmatoRkitl- 

D marksmen are aElowol, if tliey wish, to rest tln'ir heavy 

!8 when ihcy aim at tlie target, which is plated Ht the dis- 

■itce of 200 yards ; and sufficient bnrricis of limber are erectiil 

) pTEvent accidents. A long tine of targets, contain- 

ng perhnjM filly, extends across the field ; beneath, Benlinols are 

iIacmI, who, 08 soon as a ta^et is struck by a ball, pull it down, 

d anotlicr target U run up iu its place. Signals are eslAblish- 

also to convey to ttitao who keep the records a correct report 

f tlie result of tlio trials of skill. A clerk is stationed for each 

^lery. The sliooting ground is divided into a targe number 

f galleries or walks, by crergreena planted betwm-n 

bem, and at tJi« end of e-ach are the targetd. The wall to ru- 

the huUclB is of planfcs, strong enoifgh not to be pcrfo- 

Tlio marki<iiii.'o stand in a large sliud, with openings 

inding to each galk-rj-, and in thii rear m-ocwnty neuora- 

lalions for loading and the nauvenicnee irf a>sistaat&, TW 

210 GSNKYA. 

rifles have frequently telescopes to direct tlie ngbt; and tne 
man will sometimes have a large number of guiw, which vb 
handed to him by attendants as £Euit as he can shoot, while 
others reload, cleanse, and take from him tlie discharged pieces. 
One celebrated marksman was pointed out to us, who had been 
put up on a wager by the Genevese against the other cantons. 
He was on the ground at as early an hour as the taiget oould 
be scon, and continued all day, and until evening, cracking 
away the whole time, and this for eight days in succeasion! 
As ho was very skilful, and the highest number of succeaifnl 
shots wins, ho was in a fair way to come off with the priaDB. 
No shot is registered which falls outside the narrow black 
ring, and into the white ground. 

The ))rizes are distributed from a splendid temple in the 
rear of the scene of action. There are also on the ground 
extensive rejstaurants, tenij>orary erections, for refreshment 
Thousands of highly excited jKioplo of both sexes were con- 
stantly in attendance, from the city and country — from Savoy 
and from France ; and the excitement did not entirely subside 
during the night. All day, political harangues were delivered 
from sjMsaking-standiS around which crowds clustered, in pro- 
portion to the reputation and the vehemence of the speaker. 
'J'his feature of the foto was, in fact, its most important aspect 

In the evening after our visit to the ground, there was an 
illumination; and our ladies, with two hidies of Geneva, 
walked the streets with us to see the im|K)sing sight, and to 
ol>serve the spirit of the {>eople^ with whom all was hilarity 
and joy. 

The evening wits serene, with fine weather, and the popula- 
tion, strangers and citizens, were all abroad and in motion. 
After the description which I have given of the illumination at 
Pisa, it would bo su{)erfluous to enter into particulars on this 
occasion, which was very far inferior to the Italian spectacle. 
'"* ) city was in a blaze of light, with many beautiful devioea 
emblems, figured by the |K>sition of tho lamps. People 

ily recognized and kindly siihitcil tlieir friends, and thora 

Nahohal Fktb. 2U 

a not Uie sligbtcet dbord'ir. Tbo only symptom of diasstls- 
ketS<:in exhibited on the occasion, whs by the oug&tive fact, tbnt 
« poopio of the higher data — nod l)tere is an onuiunt and 
Bvated arutooracy here — omiU^ to illumiaate their wiDdowih 
I moat auea of |)0pii1ar movements of this nature, the win- 
tews would havtt paid tho forftnt ; and it b some proof uf 
podi^ation in ibo democracy, who are now in the ancendnnt 
re, that not a window was broken. Tho democratio spirit 
B been dominant in Geneva siuue the revohition of 1848, by 
Aid) tho ariatouraoy aro virtually proaonbed from office. 
6 of ihom have spoken to us of the cliuuge witli grcut re- 
Hs tlicy think it has bee.a decidedly injurious. 
liis militiuy tiite is a popular movomont ; And heneo the great 
•-■incut, which we were vory fortiimito in Imving an oppor^ 
nity ta wiUmse, ns wu hnvu nowhcro elso in Europe eoon 
. upcetaclo. 

The population showed lhi.'ir udmirution of their (lountty- 
tnnn, J. J. Rousei-au, not only by decorating his brona.* slntue, 
which stands on the inland in ihu I!hun<i ; but liis houiw wns 
distingnisheiJ by brighter lights, and by nn iiwcription to the 
oitnl fluthor." 

On tlio triumphal arcbw spanning tiic Rtreeto above. Has 
is inscription : 

"Un pour tom; tons pour ub." 

HeforQ dismiaiiing tho subJL-ct of lliis national fMe, t will 

d tlist tho delpgatis from tho dilTotwnt cnntons bore olon^; in 

r pruotuBioun, soniu emblem or symbol of a local clLirHcliir 

^history of the people whom thuy n-presontt-d. 

' Tho shar{>«hooteTS, when their day*e work was over, returned 

o city as they went out, marching in uloso phalanx, with 

r ritloa slung on their backs, ■hooling-tickela in thoir hala, 

d tho band perfonning somo sdrring national air. 

Hearing their a|>iiroa<ch one uirerLing, I alepped out of my 

r window, aud stood uncovered and alone on the prv 

212 Geneva. 

but two bears — the great brown bear and the still greater 
white Arctic bear, marching, side by aide, quite erect upon their 
hind legs, while their fore legs were pendent like human arms. 
As I was looking intently at them, I know not whether most 
amused or amazed, both feelings were increased when the Arctic 
b<.'Hr, gazing at me through his little elevated eyes, turned in 
the ranks with a momentary pause, and made to me a graceful 
(jrrccnland bow, which, not wishing that Bruin should surpass 
mo in politeness, I of course returned. It is almost superfluous 
to add, that the bear skins, in very perfect preservation, with 
teeth and claws, on jaws and paws, contained vrithin them 
each a living Bernese* man. 

This f&to coutinueil about ten days, and I may say ten 
nights also, until the graver citizens became quite satiated with 
tlio incessant crack of the rifle by day, and with the joyous 
orgit-s of the night. Few of the present generation in Geneva 
will see this c(;lebration ngain, as it comes in rotation to the 
tweiitv-four cantons. 

The Soc'ikty in (Jeneva is of an elevat(.*d and refined cha- 
racter. Geneva hiis always been foremost in learning, and in 
Jill the nrtsof eultivat*.'«l and jKjJite society. Our stay was quite 
too brief to permit us to st*c Jis much of its scientific society as 
we could have wished ; but we have received a great deal of kind 
attention, and have become acquainted with those who Mill 
ever retain our cordial esteem. 

Dr. Mounoir, son of the distinguished oculist of Geneva, 
and himself a man of reputation in his }>rofession, is married to 
an American lady, whose family and friends we had known in 
C'oniK'cticut. By their kindness we were permitted to see 
somewhat of the domestic life of Geneva, and from them wo 
received much valuable Jissistance in manv wavs. 

R<'v. l>r. Mkkle d'Auimgnv is so well known in the United 
Stat«*s, by his History of the lleformation, that he is an object of 
great interest :is a public man. 

On sending him an intnxluctor}' canl, he appointed an early 

* liarne in named fi'oin tho bc&r. 

Rev. Du. Msrlb d'Ali 


IioQr for an inlorview at his owa Itouw, tvli«rc wo met a very 

kip<i rocoptjon, snd with great Mlia&ctioQ pass^ ao hour in 

:i(;ty. Hia person is tali and coDimamling, his lit-od Ihi^ 

d of Iho fincHt moral and intellectual form ; liis ccnjiiteuanca 

iiflBOino,IiiB features being strongly marked both in aymmt'try 

d iu intcUigeucti ; his eyes are deep seatcil, witli ari^bing diu'k 

rebrows and eyelashes, but with u delightful expression of 

Bvolenc* playing on his nohla face^ as he discourec*, in ex- 

9llL>iit English, and with great power and copiousness, upon 

Kligion as it now exists in Geneva — upon ita poUlical and 

iciitl condition, topies to which wo led him, or upou what^vi^r 

ir topic was suggested in conversation. He is one of tJio 

ir great men, who are equally attractive as great; a magnifl- 

iDt tree, under whose shade we are refreshed but not chilled, 

i whose branches droop with ripo fruit. 

W» had to rp^ that wc could not Ikrt him prvsnch, ta it 

a aiid bis church was cloned, llo bad been recently 

1 England, and preached hi a church of the e»tabliBbmeut, 

lich gave groat offence in certain high ipiiirters. He had 

r volume uf his admirable church history tlieii almost 

' Dr. Merle d'Aubigny belongs to one of the old families 

f Oenevu, and lives in the lioumi in which he wns born. 

It stands on the border of the lake in a beautiful doinuiu, 
ia<K-d by large and venerable elms and sycamorca. When 
ini^uired for the grave of Calvin, he said it was unknown, 
i therefortt no confidence can be reposed in a spot in Uiu 
gublio Gcnietcrr, where there is a small monument to his 
^Vheu I 8|K*kc of Calvin as an iron man who van 
that iron ago, he rejtlied that he was a great mnn, a 
y great man, and that he did not want for tenderness, an 
y his lelters written on the occasiou of the death of 
|l wife. He said that there were many other letters of hisextant, 
A a gentleman was deputed from Paris during tlie reign of 
wis Philippe, to prepare for publication those that were nnt 
tUgioos, and that §ii<^ a collection of liix corrcspondrnee wonLI 

• ll.lM*V4MMI^a9pMr«4. 



probably soon appear. I asked him if ha did not ihrali 
visiting Anmricii, wlierc taany Uiouaands hnd tnvi lii« nritiii 
and ilII would give liim a. warm trcIconK;. IIu rt-pliuil, I 
such a voyKge would be undertaken by him only rrom » f 
pact of promoting the cause of religion, and nl prcsunl ba ■ 
HO indication of Uint nature. 

I do not know his age, but he is cvidcnlly pnsEing inl 
curly shadca of the evening of 1ifi>, when its lustre is I 
ened but not obscured; may it bo long before bis Mm i 
go dowul 

pROFsaaon MAUio.vikc jlkd the Uxivxnerrr. — Thb j 
tinguislied chemist opened the public rooms for o 
There is in the univunti^y a stmll, but well^furniahcd lala 
mid RU extensive nnd woll-nrraiigEd rabiiivl of ininitmls. 
Icr's liorbnrium nnd Pictet's philosnpliical n|>{mrBtua ani 
with fossil plants of KIM. Brongniort and I >cc.indoIlB, » 
collections of M. Necker. 

The object of die groat<«t intercut to us, wna tlie origl 
collection of rocks nnd minumla made by Do Saiumrc^ ^ 
labelled by hia own htind. 

There also is his mountain atafT, the Alpriutock with wU 
he asvi<nded MoulBlnno; it is n polo aboiit vigUl Gat liNj 
and pointed with iron in the manner of a pika. 

Among tlie Swiss savatia Profeawr Marigiiiau nijoya I 
highest reputation as a cliemist His research^ Itara 1 
directed jiartjnularly to the more necurah- dut«rminatiaii of i 
equivalent woigbta of various clemoatory suiMlanooii and I 
rtsults ImvD stood llio l«at of tlic KovoTMt roiiriou. W« m«) 
his proparadcin, in Lis tuboratoty large quaiitilieeof somooffl 
rarest subataacea. Ilure aiao wo had the ptoa«UK of I 
Proltasor Milne Edwards, now on his return from Italy; 
iwconijHiniud this morning by ProfesMTs Piclct and Dfl Itl 

PnoFSBBOR AiTc.DSTR DB I.A RiVB. — ^This gevOmwt 
nfune is honorably ntgardod wherever scienoe la colfivH 
'Vhn family of Du U Itivo is on<3 of iho ma«t anient In 8fdt| 
Ii«ni1, mill ihx fatbor of tJio prwwmt Profemr wns diatin||iili 

Profebbor Al-oubte dk la ItivE. 216 

10 line or »cioiice as tbe sod. For many Tears, the 

Utollieque UoiverwHc," of Genevn, has bfeti tntjin»tely 

■nnctnl witli M. Du la Rive as one of tlie editors. Out oc- 

« with iu |irc9ent distiDguished rfiiactcur was long ngu 

Bmnnced tlinjugh llioAnieriuAn Journal of Science and Arts. 

c had been invittsd to visit M. De la Rive'« country rcsi- 

», and my son and tnysolf drove out to it — five miles from 

Thfl hous« is fiitiintcd in the midsL of an ancient family 

I, on area of 600 mires, resembling an English park in 

the richest vordurit, with grand ireca and sotpenlioe wsllts. 

From a hnlcony there were splendid views of the surronnding 

lliit middle of Jiily.and ripe cherries of delicious 
added tlieir attrauliona lo iJie hospitAblo overtures of the 
proprietor; by invilAtluii we stood uudor tlie trees and 
ftpoly pieked tha fruit, A month or six wwIm before, wo had 
been regiilcil with ch«rriu» e.junlly fine, plucked from tbo trees 
Uie gate of tliu nnuieiit city of Ciimi«, on tlie Day of Baiie, 
to Nn{>li«. 

Tlio dtimeslic pnjmLs(« of the (country eslabllslimeut of M. 
'la Rive are ample, and the apartments are decorated nitli 

worlu of art. 

On ancitlier day, he was so kind as to open his town 
r iii3i>eclion ; it is temporarily closed during 
vii the proprietor occupies his villa. The 
houH is a pa1a<-e. It has numerous and splendid apart- 
iia, adorned with very beautiful i>aiiiting3. Among them 
•everat very large and magnificent landscapes by Callom, 
otiier modern Swiss arlista, not surpaesed in ezcellenoo 
iny thing ve bad seen in Italy. 

gratification. Professor De la Rive opened for our 
ition the cases containing hit fine apparatus in the deput- 
it of pliyuqne, in which he lioa been very much distinguished, 
iaily in clectro'magnetlsin. He inqnirod porticuhirly 
; tlio volulilixntion of rliareunl in Yale College, by th« 
deflagmlor of T»r. Hare, in IH23. TTe di»cidndly 



admitted tli« claim, nnd tEe truth uid nccur»c]r of tlia bI 
whioh had boon origiDnlly publislicl in thi> AiniMicU) 3(A 
of Science and Arts ; the originality of the cxpcrimeuls hiu 
farther remarked, beea receuUy rccognired iu raiis by | 
Despretz, nfter b-iing coulrovertcd at home And ncgleolirdl 
Europe. At tliot time (1823) thero worn no galvaoic dif 
grutora in Europe, and the ordinary batteries were not BoffloM 
powerful to volatilize the carbon from one galvanic paid 
transfer it to the opposite pole, there to appear in tlie form d 
protruding cone, exhibiting the curves and glossy lustre of ■ 
fused substance,* while a cavity was made iu the charcoal poJDl 
from which the carbon had been volatilized. Still l«ai mn, 
the European instruments, then in use, competent to ti 
the carbon back again on excliangiug the position of the p 
when the protruding cone would disappear from the oIlU 
point on which it had bc«n raised ; it woulil pass bnck in v 
to the olhar {xile, there fill up tlie cr»tor*Iia]ied cavity £ 
whirl] it had U'on drawn, and the cone would riso on tlmt p 
nliili^ the corrciipondiii<i cnvily nppcnnsl on tJic oppuelte p 

It WAS particularly gnitvful to have tliewi n«ult«, obCw 
iiliiiunt 30 ytain Ivfow, ri^i^ugnised nnil reaffiruied by a 

PitorEssons PicTKT AKD F*vaB. — Profissor Pictot tflofj 
department of Boolojty and coiupuwlivu annlomy; Vk 
b'avTK in thu geologist. These gunllumcn, who oni amongl 
most tmiiiuiit and enlightened citizens of Gunova, kiu^ 
utti^udul thu gMilogists of our party on an (^utinuou n 
city. The Sal^ve moutitaius and their grauil« bouldora, « 
our iinmodintc object. 

Within thrvc or Ibur miles of Geneva, on the cut, ri 
ridge of naked mounl^un rock, 3000 foot higher than tlu \ 
uud 4000 above tlie sea. It is in two diti^ious, c 
gn^utcr and the lowr Sult-ve. The mountains t 
nmipoiL-d of limvstoDc, huloDgiug to the era of the eliaUc, i 
Oolilci and Jam litiii»ton«. 



' In tho <IiiW:Uon towards Uie city the wdes of tlie Sniovo 

B pufpcndicular Cicepl llm talus of ruins. Our oxcurtiion ww 

' h]y Mlkltuitory. Wo found numerous boulders of unqucs- 

laUe ptoti^nii gninite, lying upon the top ridge of (iie 

■pmitaia and upon the eastern and eoutheru slope, looking 

nrorda the Moat Wane range. Thora were mnsses of grunilo 

^ all dimenaious; some were 20, 25 and 30 feet in difuneter. 

r posiUon was evidently due to accident, and they roslod 

it tliey were stranded. Some are on the very apex of the 

mnlun, some perched upon prominent etifls, others on s 

i, OS if just reufly to fall. 

Uany of the bouliler!) had been split and wrought into Uto 

Is of houses aud fenuea, and tlius their number k, from year 

byoar, diminishing; as ivtu remarked by one of the gcnlk- 

1, who said that they were sensibly luss numerous than al 

S last visit A few years before, These boulders are derived from 

tonl Diane, 60 miles off, and have como over all the interven- 

B Talleys. There is no granite nearer, and no known physical 

« could transport lliem, excopt ice in the form of glaciers, 

V floating icebergs freighted with rocki. I will not repeat the 

aisrln which 1 made on tliis subject at the meeting of tlie 

gical Society of London, nor anticipate those that may be 

Icitud tty semes with which we hope soon to become familiar. 

u of tlium were before our cyea. The splendid lake in full 

VKw extended in n grand slieet of tranquil water, the benutiful 

i-ily of licneru was nt our fuel, and beyond, in the distance, were 

the Jura Mountain!. The great volley of SwilierUnd lay as a 

•tural giiir Urtnreen ua and the Alpine ranges — its tiirfac<] 

ing dugnntty varied by hill and dale, and rich in cultivation, 

ule Mont Blanc limited our distant horiion with ils snowy 

We hud usceiided on the eastern .tlopc of the Sal^vc, both 
■* bcility of movement and to observe Uie boulders there. Wo 
* descended by the Pas de rUfhrltf, a steep and winding 
n the front next lo tlie city, where \im naked niouniaiii 



ude, deiiuded b; lime, cliscloaea a li'islind. slnitificnlkin t 
from the towo. 

My Hou Slid rayaoif ncccpled Proftasor Favn't im-itnd 
to Twat him at liia country eeat on the only ereniDg gt a 
dUpoeiJ. A prolracteJ call from soma of our cotintr 
brought ua to 8 o'clock, the hour of our appointment, b 
we left lie hotul, in a hart! rain. By a hluniier of the ■ 
man, we were set down at the houso of Professor F«i^ 
brother on the eoatem side of the lake, so that Iwforc wc o 
drive back to the city anil tlircc mites further on Uie other d 
it was already D oVlock. Our fric-nds had almost denpaiiolJ 
our arrival; but we soon (orgut the vexation of uur delaf ■■ 
most delightful visit The profeasors at Oeuova a 
them men of wealth, belonging to old anDlouratie binj 
and tliey live in a style of elegant afflueniyi, whkh t 
their hospitAlity peculiarly attraottve; and it wis gncoifl 
this instance by refined and sccoinpliahed ladies. 

In thie city we bare received nothing but kindnem; a 
have t«come neqiiaintod with those who will e\'or nUm I 
cordial esteem and good will. Among ench Dr. and 3 
Mounoir deserve a distinguished place. Dr. M., as alroadTfl 
marked, is an eminent physician, and a polished gentleman. V 
speaks the English very well. Madame M. Is an Americas ]■ 
with whose fatlier I had been well acqumnlisl from ha yi 

We were indulged with dumestJc fnmiliurity at Dr. '. 
and Madame M. was the guide of ourladlca among the 1« 
titiop8 of Geneva, replete with walchot, jewL-Uy.and all tliO d 
productions of Swiss genius and ftkill. Not a few oomiafsi 
for friiiDda at home were ta be fuliilled, at well ni 

It ia unii'Qrsally known that Geneva !■ fiunons I 
fialche*. Uauy of the villngw of Switzerland, near and n 
and even upon thti Jura MmtnUinc, uri tht; conftnes of F 
nrv employed mainly in canstnteling the moving { 
watehv>> The watcbos nf [.ondon, t>tci.'pt [Nr!ia[a the b 
tiomotcrK, are oftnn, a* n-^rds the internal tniicliinwv, f 

Memoiiablb pLAOica is Gknkva. 

gltDiocable |)i;tas in @enet)L 

C*LVIn'9 Cul'rcii. — We Imve bctn to tlie olil cntliodral, 
tero Calvin preiicheJ. It is ii (jmnJ and mi;nioruble luild- 
j. originally Catliolic; Imt at tbi- Refitrniiition il was divcattnl 
all tlio emb«11l&liii)>?iiU u«uitl iu Catholic oliurdita, Hnil now 
Tuuna in perfect pre»>rvalioa, iu siittplo digiiit)-. It ii uon- 
notoil of a brown or gra^ undBtoDC. Itsuolumnsare joiiitud 
munj pieces ; mid it i«, on the whole, a fine and imposing 
ific4!. The piilptt is not Calvin's, but tha sound ing-boarj 
ovi; U tJiu siuno that reverberated to the sound of liis voice. 
lis cntlicdrol is the onlylhingof a personal nature remaining 
tionevn that cnn bo cerljuuly identified with Calvin, his 
Uiuscript* «o:c«pted : great numbers of his letters aud ser- 
JDS are prowrvcd tn tlio library. 
We did not open agiuo the painful sabjoct of tlio burning 
Sorvetua. The groat Reformer partook of tlie Ciulls of llie 
;e, «Dd there can bo uo adc<]Uat« juHtiSi^ntlon of this ba^ 
rotu act, although the magistratca who were associated with 
m pnrticipBtcd la llic guilt. 
Thb BoiAKto Oardes, iJio scene of the lalurs of llic cole- 
Decandolle, we could only see from a platform over- 
noltlng the garden just below, 6» a cojnous rain prevented us 
from walldog, as wo intended, among its tribes and plants. 
" In 1815, when Decandolle wished for a IfotAoic garden, 
laljonng classes of Geneva ofiercl, voluntarily, to build a 
■houae, and ^azo it, and ail at tlietr own expense ;" such 
betin the spirit in Geneva for the promotion of knowledge. 
Wt) gazed at this nrra with painful interest, as it was the 
of the bloody revolutionary butcheries of 1704. The dia- 
lical madnosa which hail made Paris a eUughterhouse ex- 
iled ti) Gcn«va. 

OF T>K SA[rsiiniB. — Wo visilwl the Maison dc Sana- 
I the celebrated Alpine travdlur, Horace Bcucdict da 

220 Gbmbta. 

Saussure, eminent in chemical science, died. We were accompa- 
nied by Professor Do la Rive, and visited the hoiue chiefly to see 
the fino collection of the works of living Swiss artists now 
on exhibition there. Switzerland may well boast of her land- 
scape painters, whose works compare favorably with the best 
days of art Callam has no equal as a painter in landscape in 
our day ; and we had the pleasure of seeing several of his best 
works here, as well as at the house of Professor De la Rive» 
and afterwards in NeufchateL The portraits in this collection 
appeared very fine. 

We had just a peep also at the Mus£b Rath, established by 
the reversion of the estate of General Rath, its founder. It con- 
tains a good collection of works of art, and es|)ecially of modela 
of celebrated pieces of sculpture. 

Grave of Sir IIuMPnREY Davy. — This eminent man finish- 
ed his mortal career in this city. I visited his grave, in tlie pub- 
lic cemetery, and copied the following inscription from his 
tomb : 

Ilic Jacct 

IIuMpiicET Davy 

Kqiiea, Magnic Britannia) Baronelus, 

Oliin Rcgiae Soc. liondin. Prceses. 

Summus Arcanorum Naturtc Indagatot 

Katiifl Penzantisc Cornubiensium 

XVn. Dcccmb. MiKX'Lxxvin. 

Obiit Genevao Ilelvctiorum 

XXIX. Mai MDOocxxix. 

In St*pteml)cr, 1805, 1 was at Penzance, in Cornwall, his 
native town, almost at the Land's End, whence issued the 
humble apothecary's boy for Bristol, but in a few years to bo- 
come the distinguished philosopher of London, and president of 
the Royal Society. I had an interesting interview with him in 
the Royal Listitution in London, in November, 1805, and now 
passed a short time in musing over his grave, his monument hav- 
ing been raised among strangers, in a foreign land. Near the 
grave of Davy is that of the great Swiss botanist, Decanddle. 

Gbmcral IIkmauks ox Geneva. 


Thcro ia hero still &Rolbcr moDUmcnt, the etory upon wliich 
miut tuuuh every human heart; " To the memory of the Rev. 
Mr. Uracken, M. A., of Qticen'a College, OxTonl, and his brother- 
in-law, Aug. Cntnpbell, Esq., of Now Bmnawick, who porwhod 
in a Know-storm, witli llieir guide, on their way to the Great 
61. Bernard, 13 llo-wmber, 1880, aged respectively 30 and 20. 
Their remaiiw (buriud in thu unow, nnd discovered by dugs) 
were brought into Genera for intarmenL" 

GiHBaAi. HcHAKXB O.I' Gbkkta. — This city contains about 
32,000 iuhabitantB ; and its amitll territory of 137 square miloa 
lias about twice that number. 

Geneva is very well built, with lofty house* of stone; nnd 
the Rlreels are generally wide and clean. The rapid passage of 
the magnitieeiil Rhone bencatli its beautiful bridges gives great 
sivaciiy to llie cily. The impetuous river contrasts beautifully 
with Uie quiet bosom of its nursing lake. 

I liave ftlrettily mentioned tlie bridges as a tJioroiiglifaro — a 
favorite protuonnde of the citizens, and of strangers, who nil go 
over to visit the bronxe statue of J. J. Rousseau, situated on a 
Rnail ishind. It is, however, not much esteemed n« a work of 

The lake of Geneva is over forty-one miles long, and its 
grratosl breadth is eight and a half mUes, Its greatest depth is 
000 fei't It does not freeze entirely over in winter, although 
it lies 1 1 2(1 feet above the sea. The lake contains many gm- 
nilic iMulilers, brought down from the high Alps. Near Geneva, 
two of them projoet above the water, and are called Pitrret de 
A'ibm, from a tradition tliat the Rumans made use of them as 
nltara in the worship of Nepluue. 

Geneva is slill surrounded by raioparta, erected in the mid- 
dle of the eightMiiith century by the nristociatia magistracy of 
tiiat period, Tho form of the ground gives rise to the distino- 

t of nu uppRf and lower town ; and Uie olasesi of society 
il witli this langungn — the opulent pi-oplo, and grand 
ilbeing generally in the upper town. 

222 EzctJRSiON TO MovT BuLHa 

the number that pass through the town annually is said to be 
about equal to that of its regular inhabitants. 

Geneva was formerly subject to the dukes of Savoy, but 
asserted its independence of them in 1524 ; and nine yean after, 
having become Protestant, it expelled the bishops also. Many at- 
tempts were made by the dukes to recover their authority ; and 
the last attack was in 1602, when a nocturnal escalado was at- 
tempted, which was signally defeated by the bravery of the citi- 
zens, although surprised in their slumbers, and rising from their 
beds to fight without the aid of any other weapons than those 

just at hand. 

Theodore Beza, although an octogenarian, preached the 

next day from the 124th Psalm, which has been ever since 

sung on the return of the anniversary. 

Fcrney, Voltaire's residence, five miles north of Geneva, is 
miicli less visited tlian formerly, as the fame of the brilliant bad 
mat! has waned. 

Of the 32,000 inhabitants of Geneva, or 36,502 including 
its suburbs, 7300 are Catholics. The French captured Geneva 
by surprise in 1798, and it was annexed to tlie Republic of 
Franco, under the name of the Department of the Leman ; 
but, in 1813, when the fortunes of France declined, it was 
restored to independence, which it has since retained. 

Jnljr, 1851. 

Leaving our baggage behind, we departed from Geneva at an 
early hour, with our old vcturino Paulo. With his carriage 
and four we expected to accomplish the ride to the valley in a 
single day. As Francois preferred to remain in Geneva, we 
aecepted in his stead an old man, said to be familiar with 
the road, and who had passed it the last time within a month. 
We drove out to Bonneville, eighteen miles, and after our di- 
J€Hn4:r^ proceede<], as we supposed, on our way ; but our doaiy 
conductor, on crossing the bridge at Bonneville, allowed the 

Ukolooical Fk^ 


[ coftcbronn tu tnliu tli« riglit insteiiJ of the lufl liunit.aDd vru had 
I tnvKllinl twunly milus before Ute blundur was JiscOTured, Uien 
t iiowcvor by liim, but by Puulo, who nsccrlaiiiml from a 
that WQ must returu to DoDDoville ; und thus, like Gilpio, 
f Vo OJLinu buck uda to the yhttx whence we had set out, having 
■ bsrciled forty miles to no piirptiac, nnd loeL n dny. 

The next mumiug we pursued out journey through a mug- 
r Ititicenl country: vcrdunl dales and ruehiug torrenls appeared 
in atrong oonlrut with lofly moiintnina, und snowy peuks and 
fidgM. Thtsu coulnutfi recurred every mili;, und nllbrdixl tho 
I moot admirable llending of (lie Hublimc nnd the licnuliful. Wo 
I travelled betwiMn ranges of ver)- high mounlains, tbnt were iieur- 
I ly pnmtW nnd nmch nearer to the burner on oiir right llinn to 
I tlic opposite side, our course being S. E^ while tlie river Arvo 
^ilowcd OD our led, dashing forward imj>etuouiiy over it« stony 
Auinel. No cotisiflerithle place occurred until wc Arrived at 
Pluses, six miles from Itonneville. Garing bcien destroyed a few 
Ifears ance by tire, the town bus been rebuilt with linudsome 
Btooe housM, Hud with wide streets. As in moitt of the villages 
new to OcDRvu, tlie people are ocaupie<l chiefly with watch- 
making, or with arts connected with thai manufacture. 

Gkouogical FmATfBES. — At Clnses, wc enterud into a 
Isarrow deSto belWMU ihn lutly momtbiin rnnges, whose im- 
■<InenM v/hKb root vertically from ibis deep gulf to a giddy height, 
I or impended wiA menadug aspect over our heads. In tliis 
1 natural deflla there is no mot« room than for a narrow rond 
(und for tJie current of the Arve. On our left, two copious 
IbuntAins rose abruptly out of the eartli, fpringing iVom their 
IwDcealed sources beneath the mountain. The water was lively 
pith gas, wUoee nature we wum not iu a condition to asoertMn. 
^iiwuiv, with hirong probability, attribuUsd these fountains 
u eJevated mountain lake, 
Catakact,— As we ailranuod along this deep nnd nar- 
row deSle, our eyes were arrested by a meet beautiful calii- 
f that of AqHuiax, near to Maglan. U nulied over tlm 
ai,c^ Wifi psA. ia^ Iha coluaui yiM mibrokeD Jjl 

224 Excursion to Mont Blakc. 

its fall, except in one place, and there only for the breadth of a 
few yards. The spray dashing all aronnd, maintained a lively 
verdure ill the sloping grass-plots. This brilliant cascade was 
decorated, by the sun's beams, with rainbow hoes, and floating 
pearls, while the spray, rivalling snow driven by the wind, was 
a delightful object to the traveller's eye. 

The beds of stratified limestone, which had attended us all 
the way from Geneva, were here bent in a very striking man- 
ner. The strata, which in the general s^ucture of the moun- 
tains were horizontal, or nearly so, had here been doubled over in 
the form of the capital letter U, laid down on one of its sides, thm^ 
D . In tliis manner it happens that the stratum which is below at 
a certain place, takes a position above after the curvature, and 
as the bend exists on a vast scale, in horizontal extent, and on a 
front of 1000 feet in perpendicular elevation, a perfect vertical 
section is thus exposed to view. ^\\ the strata of that place 
being curved in the same manner, it presents a most interest- 
ing geological phenomenon on a vast scale. The strata on both 
sid«is of this great cli;ism in the liine^stone exhibit decisive proofs 
of violent upheaval and down-sinking ; being curved, distorted, 
and broken in many forms, i>roving tlw exertion of great power. 
In ono. place we observed tlie limestone rock all shattered, and 
broken up into small fragments, sharp and angular; but they 
remained in place, adapted to cich otiier by their salient and 
reentering angles, having been evidently subjected to a violent 
crushing pressure. 

ViLLAOE OF St. Martin's and View of Mont Blanc. — 
8t. Martinis is about ten miles beyond Cluses, and our carriage 
was not permitted to j)roceed any farther. The government, 
doubtless fri>in regard to the sjifety of the passengers, do not 
allow heavy carriages with four horses to travel up the moun- 
tain road, which is much more safely p:issed in the light car- 
riages of the country, drawn by two horses, and managed by 
men who are perfectly acquainted with this Alpine region. In 
three of these carriages, after our morning repast, we proceeded 
on our way. 


; OP Cii\) 


Ueforo wu wonl forwwil, I walbM « short distniice to tlio 
bridK« "f St Martin's, from which n mngiiiSwnt view of Mount 
C' is obtained. Tliore is no intcn-cniog objuct to breuk lliu 
|)ni»p0ct; tlie entire group ia aecn nt n gknce, ijuile down to 
Uic base, and although iho distance in a right line is probably 
ton or twelve mi!<'A liio mountaina snt-m jtJBt nt hanil, as if you 
could, by a short walk, nrrive at tlieir bnse. It is tlifbuult in 
tiaagino a mom Bublime spiMjtacle; there they stand in serene 
nujvvty, Mtctuing to bcloag more to boavco than to uartii ; tb«y 
bava been oorered by snow and ice over sinoo the lirel vapor 
was ROndvnsed and congealwd upou their awful cliff*, and their 
gdid robe of purwt while they will never put off whili5 the 
«arth and ilA physical laws remain. The distance from St. 
Uartin's to Uio valley of Chamouni is 18 miles by the road. 

The greater part of it is on the asccnl up the mountain. 
At Imlf-piHt four o'lilocli, v. m„ w« nrrived nt Scrvoi, which is 
half way from Si. Martin's, ilero there ia a coinfortable houH 
in wliieb to ruit, and tliuy offer for luile various curious tbinga, 
the prnduutions of ibo mountains. 

Through all our journey from SL Martin's to Chamount, we 
Hero embusomed in wild and grand mounlJilu scenery. It is 
oompnralile (or sublimity to that along the Stmplon road. 
Many of tlui beetling di& and mounUun wbIIh, in naked ruins. 
Mood out iu Uioug relief against the azure sky, and at t>ucb a 
graat tlovation, uraclu-d as ibey were and often overhanging 
fearfully, that we were not disposed to linger long in conlom- 
plntEon, and felt relieved when our slow upward progress had 

I narriud us safUy by tbem. As we aseeod, the ruad grows mure 
I sleep and rude, and tlie uiountaiu fiirusts, as we wind 

I along, (^ve the apjieamnon of retiring brther and farther fnim 

I civilixation. At Inst, the Vale of Chamouui ojiena gradually 
u{iuu tlie traveller, while tlio glauiers begin to a]>pcnr, like 
riveta dencuadiug to the valleys and uougoaled in ibcir course. 

' Firat and nearest wn see the Glai^er of Tacnny, then llie Glacier 
lies BoiMoiia, and, last uf all, tlio (ilacicr dcs Buis, the tennr- 
nation of the Mar do OInce, end^ llie tiist view. 
Vui. It— 10» 

22G Excursion to Mont Blanc. 

The eye runs along up the fearful heights from which the 
glaciers descend, and rests upon the magnificent dome of Mont 
Blanc, 15,744 fcet^ nearly three miles vertical, above the level 
of the sea. The village of Chamouni is 3425 feet above the 
sea, and the summit of Mont Blanc is still 12,319 feet, or two 
miles and one-third above the village. 

The First Impression of the Valley is decidedly 
agreeable. You have been winding through the gorges of 
dreary, savage-looking mountains, and all at once, the mild 
beauty of a long-extended and cultivated valley bursts upon 
you. It is strongly contrasted with the grandeur of vast moun- 
tain barriers on both sides, and ere you are fully aware of the 
approaching change, you are driven in among comfortable 
dwellings, where a cluster of hotels, with liigh-sounding titles, 
iiivit-os you to partake of their welcome comforts. At the 
Hotel de Lend res et de Angleterre, we had a nice parlor, clean 
be<ls and lodging-rooms, and a good table. Although this 
mountiiin valley is far removed from the more frequented 
haunts of men, so many strangers and tourists are attracted to 
it every seiison, by its unrivalled scenery, that it abounds with 
comforts and even with luxuries. 

View of Mont Blanc. — When it is remembered, that 
this group of mountains is not seen with the advantage of a 
porftx-tly clear sky, more than sixty times in a year, or a little 
more than once in a week, many visitors must, of course, be dis- 
apix>inted, as indeed appears from the records of the books in 
the hotels. Sometimes a sojourn of several days ends at last in 
discomfiture, and not every traveller can submit without leaving 
in the album some proof of a vexed temper. Were the hills 
now, as in ancient days, believed to bo ruled by their own 
local genii, many an imprecation would be recorded against 
the evil spirit of the mountains. NVu were favoreil with llie 
fine^'^t weather possible. 

The bridges in St Martin's is tlie only place, as already re- 
marked, where the entire group of Mont Blanc can be seen in 
one view ; and, when we were tlierc, so clear was tlio atmoa- 

Most Blacic nr MooKuonT and StiMiisE. 2'2T 

I plierc, and »o gigantic tlie monarch mounlain, Dint ilUUinrfi 
I K«ni«>J annihilatod. W«ro the tmvelltir even then (o turn 
I back and we no mora of Mint Itlanc, be would have boon 
I wutl rewarded for hii Journey. 

MoKT Ulanc nv MooNuanr and bv tbi Rurvo Stm. — 
J Krum die wiudows and l>alc«nv of our hotel, which looked 
luwanlii tlio mouutain, wo enjoyed a view atill more jjlorious 
tlian llut froDi the hiid^. 

'llie full moon, rising in a nliiudltss sky, ua she attained 
the |iro[H;r altitude, pouriMi down her silver light upon thu cold 
toy dome, whilu the duep nhadows act oll'tlie glitl^ring summit 
in beautiful contract. 

Nuvur did wo beliutd such a mounlighl sceno ; it was n 
biffljMrvil and BofU^nvd grandeur, pumivo and sublime. 

In the morning of ihn next day, ihu sarau brilliant oaure 

I |MirvHiJ>.-d tlie hosvuns, xtii Uie eun, full orltwl, aliono gloriously 

ii|H>n the pure wbitts throau of cvur-during winter — an orctio 

L winter, which even tlie fervid subir beams of July and August 

I bavii no power to dtssolvu. 

Two Miuh magnilioent views, Gist of tho moon and then of 
sun, tlirowing their floods of ligltt upon the crystal tlirone 
Vf Eurupe — tliat tbronu which, on earth, ropresenla the great 
white throne in the heavens 1 

Aecii»T OK THE MoDKTAiN. — Thfl first successful aacent 
WHH moda by Ur. Pacanl, wilJi Jamca Balmat for a guidc^ 
AagUBl 8, 1780 ; tliu wsMnd, by tho oeluhrnled Horucti B«De- 
ilict de S.iussuru, August 3, lIsT. 

Tliirty-lwo oscvuts am recordud for 64 years, averaging 

uud nawut iu evury two years. Ouv of them was made by Dr. 

Howard of Baltimore, and Dr. Jeiuraiah Van RensBelaei of 

I iJuw-Vork, Jumi IB, 181D.* Dr. Grant, of Hartford, also 

BKMided as far as tJie Grand Mulcta.t 

1 IwlievQ tliat two ast^nts have been made since the period 

* Se* AronrlMD Jourskl of 6deiu>a nnd ArU, VoL U.. p. I. 

228 Excursion to Mont Blanc. 

of our visit Tho journey usually occupies two or three dsjs 
and two nights. They ascend fiist to the Grand Mulets, where 
they sleep; the next morning they reach the summit, and 
descend to the Grand Mulets again to sleeps and the second or 
tliird day they reach the rallcy. This adrenture is not now 
worth the fatigue, danger, and suffering which are encounteied. 
Every fact relating to science has been ascertained, and beside 
the scenery and the general prospect, nothing remains, bat the 
self-gratulation which attends success in the enterprise. As to 
fame, that can hardly be an inducement, as so many peiscMui 
have performed the journey. 

David Coutet (one of our guides, and a man of great 
intelligence) showed us his hand crippled by the loss of 
several of his fingers by cold, during an expedition up Mont 
I^lanc. On another occasion, three of his assistants were swept 
away and destroyed by an avalanche. We became ac- 
quainted with another guide, one of whose hands had suffered 
in the same manner in this severe service. The guides say 
that the entire journey, out and back, requires 52 miles of 
travelling. They have no method of estimating tlie dis- 
tance except by the tinw occupied, and Prof. Forbes, of 
Edinburgh, says that the distance is exaggerated by tho 
guides : this is quite natural, since they encounter so much 
danger and fatigue. These intrepid men are represented by 
all who have intrusted themselves to their care, as being rc- 
ganlless of danger in protecting travellers, and that they will 
encounter any hazard for their sake. 

MoNTACNE Vert axd the Mer de Glace. — lo reference 
to this ascent, we secured the two giii<les esteemed the best 
in Chamouni — Augnste Balmat and David Coutet — the same 
that have been already alluded to. We were early on our 
siMidlcs, upon strong mules, but not with decrepit horse fur- 
niture, as in some former mountain jtnirnejs ; all was now so 
strong and good as to command our confidence. The guide» 
went on foot. The ladies wore furnished with fortified sad- 

MoMTAOKB V'eht i 

\ Msn DB < 

dl«« to guard against fnlling off, nod they liad f»uh nn ex- 
tra (ilUmdant walking by the lida of the lunlc. 

This mounUun is vory steep, and rocky ; it ta excewliiig- 
^ CTiCHinborod with its own immeriM mins, 'whiuli, in lliu 
-Courea of ng«i, hsvo rolled down from its Rummit and lodgi-'d 
'^Iher at \\» btts« or on its flnnks. There are piles on piles 
of rorbs, and some of them arc of great dimciuions ; among 
which, to clear eron a mule path has evidently been a 
work of great labor and difficulty. The zigug ascent winds 
■round tarns, wliich are very abrupt and freijuenL Thoy 
oftsn puss along the edge of fearfbl predpicia, where a false 
Kep would »eud the mulo and the rider to dealruction. It 
often set-ms as if the apparently jwnerse, but really iJtilfiil 
Kllle animal, was about to walk dL-liberately off, ao, in order 
Ibat his feet may find their proper position, his head and 
Ii«c1e are projected beyond llie road, and overhang the preeipice. 
Put do not inlerfere with the nice balancing of your mule ; lie 
knoWH better than you can instruct him how to proceed, and 
has not tho luast inclination to roll down the nionntain. al- 
though the wrong pulling up of a, rein, or the sudden cbango 
of poMtion of a hcaty man on the saddle, may force liiin and 
yourself to that reaulL Trust a good Providence, and the mule, 
M the instrumeDl, and you will pasa aaft-ly along llie mountain 

The ascent occupied two hours and a half, when we arrived 
ftt the hotel near the top of the mountain, whii;h falls but a few 
hundred feet short of being ns high ai* Mount Wasiiington in 
New nainpshire. We found that several strangers had al- 
ifeady arrived, hku iw, to see the glacier ; our position on- 
' ibleil US to look down upon the Mer de GlacA, and, being fnr> 
niiilied each with an alpenstock, we cautiously dcwendtd the 
bauk of (hi mountain, whieh inclines with a gentle slope down 
to the sea of iee. 

T^M Mau iiK OtiCK.— We vrere again favired by fine 
weather, and the sun ihnne bright. In a rain, it would !« dan- 


ExcuRaioK 1 



(for on tlie high Alps iDow-elorma occur in nil Uiv iiionlb> of ■ 
Uh; yi-sr) in suuli circuiiisttinccs tlm mlvcnlurer would be inj 
(Hiiisunt danger of tAlling into tfao ynwning «] 

Arrived upon its iainenm and cold boBom, we lookod 
fmgetiy around, and mw tlitil it wns indeed a sen <tt ien; o 
ratlier, it is like n great river suddenly congcAkiJ in tho raid 
of a tempQsL By a little practico with our polus pointed « 
iron, He acquired confidence, and made micunions in i 
direclioQB, This glacier is, indeed, & wooder. From Uie iddui 
biiu lop it descends more than 20 milcK, and hivt an oxtvnt, a 
our guides assured us, of more than 50, ir all the nunilit9itk«l| 
are included ; it reaches quite down iulo the valley of C 
mouni. The breadth of this glacier, in that portion wUicii « 
under our iminediate iaBpection, ia from half a mile to & n 
[t is, at present, mucli divided by cross fi§tiurea or c 
nhiuli grow more numerous fis the mnutoa advanctea. Tlie glai 
cicr, by moving downwanl, nt the rate of more than a fool iif 
a dny, is impeded by llie rocky bottom, and lut tJie ice, U 
hooked and grappled by the pointed rocks, bangs tbcr«> ia 
IxMition to gravity, whioh ia coiutantly urgmg the maiB do 
ward, it cracks, forming those open lissuree which the Fn 
call envaiiHi. An inleUigible description of s glacier is nw 
easy thing, It is not, as one might supjKifie, a smooth f 
surface, like that on a quiet, congealed lake ; posaibly ia ll 
vi^ry cltvated regions it may have thut appearaDoo, but in tl 
lower regions it is a continuous series of mansM oMweeUd] 
deed, In'Iow, but so separated above by the fiiMireet thU ll 
portions iipj>ear like vast white rocks — while origioally, but tl 
Unc frngmeitls and dust of the gninita and oilier rvcks, dinat 
grated by tbu wcalliur on llie uipused ultfiii, nnd blown down gpc 
the sur6uw of lUu glmuviv, givui llivm that uiikil aod dti 
asptfit itliich ttiuy [irfjK-nl. It has ulliti Inwu remurkeil by ill 
nbo knvo rjciiminv<l th'^ glHcif^n, ihnt rocks nud ntoucn, fill 
upon ihum, ant butio'l in tliu fitlling snow* of the liiBfaet n 
gions and iff the melting nnd fnwaag of the snow, Ifai^b 
twiue eventually buri«d in lulid ice. lit the propsaa uf « 


■nil tti Uie HKcemon of sumnuin, hs Uiu glacit^r odvaniMa 
downward, bvaring uloug tli(«e rocks ami etuutn, thc^ arc dia- 
oloani liy tlio rndlin;; iif ibeit covcrin);, and llius ibey oomii 
inlo vtuw Ds if thuy liiwl nctually risoii. Soractitncs they e<> 
cffrr.tuall)' covr^r mid protvnt the icQ on which ihey lie, tfant it 
does not M>tisili[y melt bnnfjitit thetn, wiiilu llie general surfoco 
ail around is lowcrud by Ihc melting, nnd thiu it h!ipp(.'ns thnt 
m rwk tnny Htnnd on a pc<icstjil of ico sonii-tiniea several fi-ct 
or yniils above tlie gontnil levt-l — nritl many Mich rock* may 
be in view at once ; but eventually the jwidestalo give way, 
Mid the eleraled rocka fall U> tbtt uommon levvl. 

The Sasures atid creviissee are no numerous and dcvp, and 
llieir vAgvs arc so Hlip[)try, that great cnru is rcqnisilH at all 
limM to avoid folliui^ into tht^ni ; when tliey are conc-alnj by 
•now, ATuhfd ovur tliem, the Janger bciiimcs imminent, nnd 
in stich ciisus thu uauUuUB guidis try the suundncw of tliu loot- 
ing by i4>pl'yin(; Uie iron-pointed a1[>i!nUoak. The sidca of tlm 
cruvacKB am of a splendid blue-green color, and the loo often 
contains pools of pcllncjd waUT ; thu mora superfirial ttavilin 
Br« litllv lakes, aocvssibic without danger, and the wnt«r, from 
its piiiily anrl coldoem, ia very rdVeahing to the traveller. Rills 
of water, courNng over the surface, pliingQ into the crcvnsAes 
M)d are lotit, all but the muxical murmnr of their fall. 

Evun tit<! mas)i«s, whicli oxtcrnally are soiled vid dirty, on 
twing broken exhibit pure and transp&rent iee, looking like tin- 
most twrt-cl rock crystal. Every morning Uie hotels ars eu|f 
|dicd hy renorting tu the tower end of the gtaciera. They ueoi] 
wish for nothing purer; nnd tlius they have an unfiuliug sup- 
ply from tb««o great natural iut^-houFsiis — sources which arc pc- 
rannial and inexhuustiblo. 

Tlie first flppcnraniru of tlic gla''.iort is like lliat of n fearfully 
a^tated ocean, toau'd l>y violent, and contliiiting, and cddjnng 
vrinda, congealed era the billows have had time to subxide, and 
thiM premrving all its higti ridges, iln penka, and deep hollows. 
Still, there i* n drgrM of tvguturity in th<! coufusion: tbe 
_ uunll Jim olMrvtd a law whidi has ii|ien<!d thu fiMniti&, V& 


Exci'RSio!! TO MoKT Blakc. 

curves, pnrallcl, niul ncnrly at right luiglca to llio rocky b 
the couvcxity being downnknla from its 80Urcl^ 

MoRAi\EB. — Tliis is the nnmo given of old to tlie pilw c 

rcK-ke, and stonees mid ruins whicili are crowilud along tlio siija^ 

uf Ihc glaciers, forming laltral uotmnea; and iLo name 

i'lud<n al«o those still more cookidemble pilea thai ai« li 

t>orao along by lira glacier and piahod before it in i(a de*i 

ing course, forming terminal moraines. From oar [iriwint pi 

of view, we could sec only the lateral moraints of the Her d 

QImq ; Uie terminal we reserved for another occasion. 

lateral accumulations are here very great ; they form a hig 

i rough border of granite rock-i, whiuli are, Ui soma v 

\ tent laigu; and as they often lie high above the gUcifll! 

uing a train along the naked rocky sidos, Uiey prove tba^ 

tt glacier hiu been anciently much tliicker, and liaa desoeiid«i 

at A higher elevation. 

KocKE BoaNE ALOKo On the surtacti of tjie gbder an 
very numerous, and like these arranged along the sides, thing 
arc granite, often in enormous blocks. Tbcy cilhor Ua t 
the gkoior, or repoee iu its crevassus, or are froxen into it ii 
mass; and as thuy move downward, with a prngrcM aloilj 
indenl, but aure, they will evuntuslly Had their plaoo ia U 
lower country, or they wiJI be piled up along tlio ndca in hitwol 

Tbn tlieury of glaciers caiinol bu ailiiguatcly d 
iliMH rapid p>i|iular remarks; but titu writings of Agi 
Cbarpenlier, PorW* of illdiuburgli. Guyot, and otlicr cm 
Alpine traveller and wrilem, afford ample information. 
traniij)urtatiua of rocks by glaciers to great diilnnoM is a fii 
fully cstablinhcd- I'be rocks have titllon from thn lil^or vliS 
and liar« tiMiu bomn ainng downward. 'I1ic massw of ri 
and stonen that are prcMed beneath the glacier duTiaj; Um 
HOQ of ila iDotiiHi, in the summer, or butween it and tlte 1) 
nails, product* thowi furrowii, «crstcl)c», and groovuft, a 
poli^ied iiur&c(«i whidi are eUer«:d iu all thf i-iHialnta ftlu 
riMJyta ^ti«^jid^^ftgn al» yhewjjt<ty are "^J 


B MbI 

jinwL-nt liny. The erratic rocks, enllcd bouMeTK, kuvu often ihu 
Mtraii iiri^n n« ihafe on the bnck c>r the great Bn<) iittlu ^ali'vv, 
nvar Ocnnva. Floating i(M.'b«rgs havt^ also 1>een efficient in thu 
tranvpnrtnlirin (if ilio vrmti(». 1'hia nccussarily impHoa mib- 
mcrgetiM of the coiintrtca ovnr which the buT^ have jiuhbui] ; 
jiHt na thoy nro, in Imt, floated in Lhr [ircactit «rB from Uio 
pohtr regions of both hvminpherui ; aiid, therefore!, wu must 
admit the oxiatenco of elevated ice-bound cliRs to form t)ie 
icebergs, and to afford mawm ef rock. 

CurrentB and delugea of water, capeuially when favored by 
gravity, may have U<eii, to a certnin exti^iit, auxiliary to llie 
movement of rocks ; but ihey are not nf tbi-tneutves competent 
to pl(»co llie boulders where wo often find them, [Wrcliod bi^ 
on mountain lops, or reclining on their declivities; and oft«n 
the boulilera, as we have recently seen ou the Sal^ve, are not 
only of on entirely dilTervnt nature from ihu mountain on wbich 
they lie, but tUej- offer no proof of friction, their sharp niid iiti- 
gnlnr ntillinc Ix-ing still well defined. 

" A glacier," snp Professor Forlws, " is an enillem scroll— a 
Htream of time, ujwn whoso stainless ground is engraven llie 
■uceoaiou uf events, whose dales far iranaei-nd the inemury i>f 

** At the usual rale of descent, n rock which fill upon a high 
ghieier 300 years ago, may only just now have n^aclied ila 
final resting-place in the lower country; and a block larger 
tlian the largest of Egyptian obelisks may oceupy the time of 
bis generations of men in its descent, before it is laid low in 
thB common grave of its predeceasors." 

Tbeghtciera oflen tenninale so abruptly tliat corn Iios been 
seen to grow next la the glaeicr, and tlie inhabitants havo 
gatherod ripe cherries, while standing with one foot on the 
tree and the other on tlie glacier. 

Thi ScKSBRT IROOKD THE MSR BB Olack. — ^Tho aspect 

of the mountains here is v«ry sublime.* Far, very for above 
the oliMrver, th« snowy ridges, peaks nnil domes rise iu solemn 

■ Sta tile annaxni] ilUtlnl^cn 

234 Excursion to Mont Blano. 

grandeur, mantled with ever-during ice. Before and around 
the observer are the naked Aiguilles, needle-shaped mountaina, 
composed of rocks whoso sides are so steep that snow will not 
lie upon tliem. They are rude, acute cones, sometimes soli- 
tary and again grouped, rising many thousand feet above the 
Mer de Glace, and so very precipitous that they cannot be 
climbed. Only birds of the most powerful wing can scale their 
walls, or gain their summit. The Aiguille de Dm is the most 
remarkable. It rose before us to-day in solitary grandeur. It 
is exceedingly acute, is very high, perhaps 6000 feet, above the 
glacier, and is garnished with many subordinate bristling points, 
which appear like delicate Gothic turrets, or minarets of Sara- 
ccnic architecture. 

One of our party remarked, that the Val del Bove was 
here repealled, although on a greatly diminished scale ; instead, 
however, of nn amphitheatre of lava it was an amphitheatre of 
ice, but ]>iled up in the same wild confusion. The immense 
mountains of snow above, the rocky w^alls of the yawning gulf, 
and the groups of Aiguilles, included an amphitheatrical area, 
depressed tliousands of foet, like tlio volcanic floor of the Val 
del Bove, and, like that, having a still lower outlet of commu- 
nication with the nether world. 

The Descent from the Mer de Glace. — In our repeated 
excursions among the Italian and Alpine mountains, whether 
on the backs of horses, donkeys, or mules, we have found the 
dcsofut much more fatiguing than the ascent The long-cou- 
tinuud pressure on the knees, the feet, and the muscles of tlie 
limbs, is verv annovinor ; I therefore left; mv mule with the con- 
ductor, and descended on foot. The time occupied by me was 
about two hours, half an hour less than the ascent In descend- 
ing alone, I often crossed the triangles by ]ca>ing the path, 
and cutting short tlie circuit by passing crosswise from one zig- 
zag path to another ; but the descent was usually so precipitous 
as to require great care against falling, and to that end to avail 
myself of the support of tlie shrubs, trees, and rocks. The 
guides reckon the distance by time, and call it seven miles up 



the mounUin nnd »\x miles down. As it was b wnrm dny in 
Jtily, I foiiii<I cv«i the dcacont Bufficiently fatiguing, in addition 
to walking a mile and a half to the hotel after leaving the foot 
of the Mcr de niace. 

Paths op tiir Avalaiecrss. — The paths of iho avalanches 
aK> wry numerons on the sides of tho tiiountMn«, and in da- 
f •wndinif I had li-inure lo olwerve thom, Piutiire to youmelf n 
doiililu barrier of lofly mountains, parallel, and bounding Hie 
Vuleof Ghitinuuni tinbolli sides. The breadlliofthuvulli;}' docs 
not «xc(<ed two niitcs in the widest part ; it ia oAcn much nar- 
rower, and its hounding ridges rise (tdih 6000 to 8000 feel above 
Ok littse. The sides are very steep ; and a» you [mm nlong 
the valley, you nru tlioroughly impressed with the number of 
[ Ifrooved pallis or chnnncis which nm down tliu aidt-s of (ho 
Lfinouutains, frei{uent1y from the very summits to iLc bottom. 

You may tako them, aa we did nt first, for wood-alidca, or 

|)ilDr the clianncis of torronla ; but we were assured by our giiiilun 

that they are putlis of avalanches, whieh, in the winter, arc 

Wttt olmost daily occurrcnee. Tlioso from the glaciers are icx, 

■ *while those from tlie mounlaina, without glnciors, are snow; 

T but both aw tremendous agents of destruction. They sweep 

eveiy tiling before them : the furesis are levelled, and deep 

nnd wide channels are grooved into tliti sides of tho moun- 

I laitis, wkiob may then bcvume llie beds of ot.'ciisionBl torrents. 

. Boine of theaa glaciur patlis arc oneient, being overgrown by 

ir ahruls, but very many appear <]ni(« fresh. 

■ncK OF nia AKVeinos RrvEK. — Tbo glaciers are natural 

r *nd percimiul mngnrinei of ice. Tlie gmdual melting by ihu 

I Tain*, and by the wannlli of summer, irrigalas nil tho tielnul 

' countries and affords ample supplim of water to feed liio 

[ streams of central and southern Europe, as well as to tho Da- 

' Bube and other rivum that How into the Ubck Sea. This boau- 

pttAil etjuilihrium of (tausee and etiects is nowbero more atrik- 

bi^y ethiltiled llian in thtsu Alpine regions, Erajioration over 

« whole earth ttuppliea aiiucous vapor, wlticli bt>ing condensed 



I Mont III. a 

which rvpowa, froni nge to ngn, upon thcur buoiry i 
lieing partially inclU?d by tJie summer sun am] Umi rnioi, ■ 
congealed ngain by the coid of wintor, it txtcnda downtrnnl, y 
fay year, aiid thus gradually fills tlie liigh mountain valWjit w 
glaciets, which in time detH«nd to tlie regions btJow. All k 
the declivities, and espedally at the terminus ii 
living Btrcama gush out, and unito to form rivuleti and riTOi 

Thu lower end of the Mtr de Glacc is colled tho Oladur^ 
Bois. We made an excursion &om our hotul up tluv valhtjJ 
inKjwct the arch furmetl in the glacier, and to oWtru tha ^ 
limt eruption of water at tfic foot of this innncnw nuus of ^ 
wliich is here from TO to lOU feet thick, and fitaads out 
cfllly <{uito above the ground. This is meK>ly th« lower ■ 
llie glacier, whiiJi has pushed before it vaat acimniuhdiont, 
posed of sand, gravel, stones, and large tocku, fornu^. I 
mounds and called the terminal moraine. At present, the B| 
mine i» about forty feet in Ad>'ance of the gkder, and n 
the 6te(, that formerly (tradition says thirty-two or tlui^ 
years ago) it liad advanced thuH tiir, and that it h4M tin 
ceded. Kow, however, it » again odvanniiig at tho tsl« 
font a day. It is evpeeleO iliut in tho counu: of a few v 
or months, it will reuuver ib former pmitiun, and not it 
hatily advance stJU farther. 

The tniall hamlet, de Boia, which giviw name to this g 
is very near to the icu ; but the iuhabitanb of itn humblo <lwi 
ings appKBr to give ihcnisulvea no more concern about tlM n 
ter than do Uiuee who occupy Ute site of the ovcrwhetmad 8 
lagea.* and have rebuilt tlieir houKw over tlic grave* of iJ 
friends. I whh odvnnciug close to llin ginciur, to ohocrre tiiu 
source nf ihv Arvciron, whrn tho guide, Dnviil ('outct, came and 
L'ltnicailycullcdmeback; he then poiutinl out o oounw of daiu 
which 1 had not Ixiforo obmrved. High up on ihe odpt of || 
glacier lay numerous ctonm and rocka, some of them of li 

which mi^i, at any momenl. fall with immJaeul <1 
)o thorn Mow. I. of ooQTse, withdrew to a place uf a 

Tsi QtAonn db Boibsonh, 


where I could « my ease view tbe birth of tlio river. Above 

it ti an ele^nt cmtal arch, whicb, whuii wo «aw it, wim about 

L twenty feet high ; but in August this vaull will b» thirty gr forty 

"bet, or mor^, above Iho stream. It can llien be entered, but not 

without «criou» danger, as tlie long and huge iciclea s,nd other 

IS &oquoDtJy full. Some yeiws since, two young EnglUbnieu 

Nrho hod Miterod the cavero had llie cxtrome temerity to fire a 

Hjlbtol there Tho concussion, as might have been expoutcd, 

3Ught down so much ice that one of them was Mll^, and the 

r snrercly wounded. Tlie Arveiron, even at ita exit from 

mder tho glacier, is a large and vigorous atreain, turbid witli 

fhe pulvoriiod gmnlte from tlie bed of the glacier. It rushes 

onwurd with great power. A little way below, its waters become 

mingled with those of the Arve, which arrives from Uie other 

4 of the pUin, and is derived from tho glaciers of the Col de 

Milme. a few milin nbove. The united streams, as tliey flow 

I! still fiirthur augmented by other rivulels, wbicb, throe 

niles licloa', issue from tho (ilnciers do Boisimns and Taoon^, 

tid all uiiilud fiiriQ tliu impetuous and turbid Arve, whow 

tnioii willi tho Rhone we saw below Geneva, 

Tint (^LAL-iRR HB Boiaaoxa. — Wc next resorted to the 
new do Boiasona, two or ihreo tniles farther down ihe valk^ ; 
I, like Uiu Gkcier da Boia, readies tbe lower coimtry in the 
In order to obtain a good view, we pamed beyond and 
round it, asct-ndiiig by a circuit of a mile and a half, in order 
D npproacli the Hide of the glacier at soma di«titiico from iu 

This Ringnifieent glnr.ier — tbe immediato nprcscnlativo »( 
! monarch monntnin, since it descends directly from ita ipy 
a hardly inferior in magnitude and lengtii to llint of 
the Her de Olace, and has one very ioterceting |>«iuliarity. 

The inclined plBno on which it descends, is sleeper than 
that of Uie Glacier dc Bois, and it has in the lower part of its 
• lal«-nd lutrrinr of rock lo obstruet ibe >'iew. This 

raDgrati'<t r'tvcr <if iee tl 

rt'lorw sUiidit out l-oililv. and 

» iitll)km',kikgti«^'J^.<j'iW'''V^^ %■ 

238 ExccRSxox to Mont Blavc. 

within one hundred yards ; but no human foot can, with safety, 
be placed upon its surface. The fiasurcs and crevaaMS, such as 
were described in connection with the Mer de Glace, have here 
done tli<;ir work perfectly. 

The icy masses arc so dissevered that they appear like an 
immense group of white marble columns, or ruins standing in 
near proximity, but still separated from each other, so that they 
rise up in distinct individuality, or are only blended at the 
bottom of the glacier. 

Some of these masses are 100 feet high; occasionallj thej 
attain double that height, and as the array of this cold army, 
in the portion where the lateral view is unobstructed, extends a 
mile and a half, and in breadth half that distance, the spectacle 
is beyond conception grand ; especially as tliese towering 
mass**s frequently fall over with tlio crash of an avalanche. 
While we were looking on at the close of a very warm day, 
one of these lofty pinnacles, losing its foothold, toppled over 
with :i terrific concussion. 

When it is (considered that a multitude of glaciers and of 
c»th«T oiiormous masses of ice an<l snow, which abound all over 
the Alps, unite to offer their c>ontributions to all tlio countries 
lyiii^ in a lower pcjsition around tliem, it will be evident that 
tluMr ojH?ration is most salutary, and the oirt»le of phenomena 
illustrates beautifully the natural law of atmospheric and aque- 
ous equilibrium. The ice of these glaciers has great purity, and 
is not soiled by dust as on the Mer de Glace. 

The Vale of Ciiamouni. — ^This intermontane valley is a 
most lM\'nitifiil region; it is from one mile to two miles wide; 
is liiii^lily cultivated, and rich in, the various crops appropriate 
to the climate. 

The i)eoplc aj>pear kind and respectful ; many of them raise 
tlnir hats and caps to a stranger, and if you wish them bon 
jottr, it is always promptly returned with smiling features. 
'J'lury are zealous in your sen*ice without being importunate for 
'^ ^ward. They live in the midst of the most sublime scenery, 

during tlu'ir short summer Uicy have constant intert-oime 


' hunt. 

RtTUKH to Gbkbta. 239 

with intelligent gtrangen, whieii produces »n obvious effect on 
thiitr muinen, as well na on their usuun^^ 

They bftvo ii lon^^nd rigorous winter, and slill nppear to 
iTO tho comforts of lifo in euffident abutidnnc«; but straugvis 
tounela xn them tit«rn1ly in the siiminer of their proeperity, 
when, for many moTlth^ wint<!r shuts iJiem in and esclndca 
traveillew, if this region, so smiling in tho slratiger'a eye, 
aiiw a bappy valley, it must bo from resourcea in the people 
iiD«eIves and not from ext«mal natiiro. 

iUKtiita. — To our Kurprien wo found in the humble house 
tho Montogno Vert, n collection of minerals and other 
.ulifkil tliingii, and in tho villa^ litore wenj several cabineU 
the sale of the natural projuutions of the re|poii. The most 
itifbl are the smoky (]uartz and pellucid cryttais— <»oId. not 
ily in tlu'ir naturul utale, but cut and polished into letter 
and other umnmeutul or i^aeful form«. Tha culling and 
iixbing are done nt Obentcin in Germuny ; from that rt^posi- 
iry also, so fnnious thniiigh tho world, they bring to tlie 
mountains the mL«t Ivnutiful polisliod agatea and other elegant 
things : tliia tJieir colk-etions are m*de very attractive. 

Objinrts of natural hUtory from the organic kingdom*, 
vwl from these Alpine mountains, aro offered — fo«il jiluiits 
lined from those Afpi tliat ar« of w-condary formation, 
poliaUud homa of the chamoia, soon to be extirpated by tJiu 
hunttirs, niid also horns and heads of otiier mountain animals. 
Tlieir priea are In general high. For a large crystal of octo- 
hednd lluor spar SOO francs were demanded — it might possibly 
iirth 200 francs. 

■Return to ^(iitira. 

Wa were in our mounlAiu carrii^^<s at ux o'clock, a.m., and 

B rapidly down tho road, Tha morning being darlc, willi 

wda and rain, Mout Blanc was invisible, a most imwelcom« 

240 Gevkva to LAUBAniL 

W(! i» om d<;privc<l of a last look at thk ptinoe of 
thf l>rij;}it ^IncifTH remained long id view; die svoUen Arve 
roll I'd fiiridiiMly along, and the mountai|p were hm^ with the 
h<iiiil>rf} drn|M'ry of black rolling clouds. 

Arriv«:d at Sl Martinis, 18 miles, we found the hones and 
ftiiu'htw.u r^MUu\ and frcfth for tlie journey. After the morning: 
ri'piiMt^ wo uiwUi good speed over an excellent rocMl, took our 
niii!-<lay rent at ] Bonneville, and at six in the evening we again 
(•fitiTctl tlio iN'uutiful city of Geneva. 

6tntb(t to l^assaimt. 


W<i luul, a day after our return from thu mountuns, to take 
Ifiivc of tint frifndn who had l>cen 8o kind to us in Geneva TTe 
Ifft. tliiit. (:liarniin<^ city with no small regret; it had taken 
hiroiigcr liiild of our iM'ttt^r feelings than any place on the 


Oiir two yoiiiig fririhls, Mr. Brush and Mr. Church, having 
d<ti-riiiiiH-<| In priH'ciMl Id Paris din^ct, we left them in Geneva 

\n piiM d nil llif iiioriow h\ tile diligoHco. Our number 

li«-iii'^ Mills ri'diifi'd, \\i> iKM-iijiicd l)iit f>iie carriage, and set out 
nil itiir j(iiiriM-v ainiii; tin; S. \V. side of the L'lke of Geneva, 
Willi our Ni':i)Hilit;in I'aulo and Ids ei^uipage, which had carried 
lu VII niaiiv liiiiidretlH of miles. 

At < 'OjiiM't, 10 mill's from (ieneva, the liorsi^ were rested for 
a ^«lli>l-^ time, while we walked up a retinal street to see the 
rcf.idfiie«' of M.'idame d«j Stael, the celebrated daughter of 
N<>eker, the tliMtiiiguished and unfortunate minister of Louis 
XV' I. The ht>iise wjls built by Xeckcr. All who formerly 
roidi^l here are now dead, and the stately mansion, a quad- 
ran;;le, of stone, on which is the inscription 17C6, in the style 
of the French chatenus, of the ante-revolutionaiy age, stands a 
nn'Ianttholy monument of departed glorj'. As we walked up 
to the strong iron gate, which protects tlio interior square, a 
large ami fierce dog rushed up to the barrier; when pointed at, 

Ekvikoks ov Gkneva. 241 

flew at tiie bars in tlie givulvst rage, unJ rL-minUL'J lu of tiio 

1 at romp.'!]. 

Wo haul iiot access to tiie inlerior of tho house. 'Ilii! 

rounds nro odornol by tliady walks, and » clump of trc(« 

avuraliadowR a nmus'iluuni in which Ni'ckor and tiia daiigtiliT 

u buriiKl. 

Ai tliH haud»oiiio town of Itolle, 20 niilcA from Gcn«va, wti 

^look our niid-duy rost; the town is built chiefly upon one 

cet, wliich nppcatod cltan and neaL 

ExviRDNs 01' Obseva — Villas. — The en^-irons of Genova 

I arc, on lliia sid<r, ciccclingly bcnutiful ; c«rt;iin!y not less «o hero 

ri tho o]>p06il« side of tlie lake. The distant view of tlie 

Al|niaTery grand, and thasnowy head of Mont Blanc rises above 

U Uie re«L The villas along the lake are on a largo acaIi!, bulli 

t territory and buildings; they are very numerous, and the 

Hindi are kept in fine ordor. Tlio whole r^^on from Geneva 

• Lausanne is emiiienlly beautiful, and abounds with most 

eairabte residcncee. Travelling towards Lau»anne, the Jura 

uuntains, at thu distance of a fi-w lea|:uw, U>und tho view on 

I left, and tlie land ou the other aido of tJto lake sIojmm 

iovrard Iho water. The people of this rogion appear univuisally 

DiDtbrt*ble ill their circuinsUtnces. Ailcr leaving Savoy, 

jltLeni beggais abound, we never met wiUt a niendioant either 

n Geneva or between thai oity and LaUBaiinu, a distoncre of 35 

Inilcs, nor indeed at Neufuhalel, nor in the iutt^rni<.>diate 

BffounUy. Such appear to us to ho tlie weulte of freedom, civil 

pui rvligious, ao strongly contrasted with the misery of Italy I 

F*RU-IIot;sKe. — As wo pawed beyond tho region which is 
tndered so beautiful by tho viUaa of Geneva, wo saw both in 
) country and in the agriuultarat villages, farm-houses of 
f ample dimensions, with shingled roof*, painted r«l ; the 
n was (uually under tlie same roof with the house, and so 
o ihfi slablea— people, bonses, and cattle were housed alike. 
n ihu roud in front of tho bam, luid BumetimeB in frcrnt of tliu 
M, tho mauuR) heap was piled ; n lilieral mound of I'omponl, 
f wore important, it woul4 weni, to tho fertility of the land^ 

242 Lausans 

than agreeable to the tenants of the fiunily muuton. Habit 
doubtless makes them little sensible of what wo ahould esteem 
a great annoyance. 


IIoTEL GiDBON. — ^Arrived before evening at Lausanne, we 
found a clean and comfortable house, which occupies the site 
of the mansion of Edward Gibbon, llis house was demolished 
to make room for the hotel, which bears his name, but his 
terrace and walk in tlie garden are preser\'ed. There, on the 
27th of June, 1787, between eleven and twelve at night, he 
wrote the Inst line of the last page of hb rich and gorgeous 
work on the rise and fall of tlie Roman Empire. 

The name of the hotel is all tliat remains to Gibbon in 
Lausanne, unless perchance he still lives in the memory of some 
of the Swiss octogenarians, sixty-four years after his great work 
wjis completed. 

Pamilv of I'uoFKssoR AoASsiz. — The distinguished Swiss 
naturalist, now fuiopteil among us in the United States, whose 
American home is in Cambridge, New England, formerly lived 
at Lausjinne, where we found his sister and his motlier, who resides 
\\\\}\ her son. IntHnluc^'d by Ag^uvsiz, we soon made our way to 
the lioust* of M. Fran<;illon, the brothor-in-law of Agassiz. WV 
were conducted by a vjilct to a parlor in the third story, and 
s«>on Madame Kran(;ill(>n nppeariNl, with a smiling £fice and bril- 
liant black eyes, the sol'tened features of her brother; she gave 
uft a hearty wel<:onie, which wjts promptly repeated by her hus- 
band, who K4x>n came in. He is M. Franyillon Affuustz, ac- 
cording to a custom which ]>revails here; while the wife, as 
with us, takes the name of her husband ; if the lady be of high 
.Nt:tndin<L> in society, she adds her own name to her hasband*s. 

It was near the hour of the evening repast, and we soon 
)H'r(!eived a movement of hospitality. A centre table was, in A 
fe.w minutes, ganiisli<^l with the reqnisito furniture, jind we were 

MoiiiKK ov AciAHSix. 


dniHii araimd the bospitaltle boart! tw if it vera a matter c^ 

eoun«. and nevilwl no funnal invitation. ExoelluDt brvad anil 

butter,* nnd tliu best of raspberries, now in fUU season bere, nitli 

ibo ludiry of crenra in our Rncly flavored ten, gave- m, exnirtly 

M in New England, n ni(«t refreshing rcpaiit ; espminlly to nit>, 

whom lea ia A cordial. They have a \oye\y tlock of fhildn^n, 

a bcniilifiil group, acven in number; the yoiingc»t, ft plump, 

■ joyous liUlu fellow, full of physical liappiness, willi n promiw 

I «f menUt enjoyment ns hi* higher powers unfold. 

MoTiiER or AoisatiL — Althougb it was raining, our new 
E':fripnds look na a conidderable dislanoe to the rvsideuce of tliis 
■Venerable lady in the family of hof son. She soon made her 
1 ippo&nncc, and although nearly founeore, her healtbftil person 
A erect, lall, and diguified, while her animated and warm nd- 
Mi plaeed UB instantly at eaae, Madame Fran^illon had sent 
' before us her brotlier's inlroJuetory note by lier Utile son, a lad 
often years; grandma hftil mislaid her ftpeetaeles and uould not 
read the note ; she said, however, thai her young grandson was a 
faithhil eommissiouaire, and told her that two American gentle- 
men and a lady were coming, in a few minutes, to see her, and 
_ ibe felt at once convinced that they were friends of her son 
I lionis. As soon as we explained to her our intimacy witJi hint 
I'^^bat be bad been oflen a guest in our families — tlint we bn<l 
a pleasure of knowing his interesting AmsTican wife — and 
when we added a Weudly notice of lier son's domestic happj- 
i, and of his high standing and Buc(^(^ss in bU adoptetl cuun- 
l»T, her strung frame was agitated, ber voice trembled witli 
motion, and tlie flowing tear* tuld the story of a mollier's 
ot yet chilled by age. 
A bnantiful group of lovely grandchildren was gathered 
I iround to see and bear tlio strangen from a tiur-^iataiil land, 
I beyond the great ocean. When we inquired of Mad. Agamiz 
r her entire number of grandcbiUretC, she replied 15 ; and when 
I At< waa informed tlwt my whole number exceeded hera, kIio 
I wn« berth amused nnd nurpriiied, nud amilea of sympathy sue- 



cocdcd to tears ; for slia liod coiiBitlcn-J mc^from lay 
sIaII an nctivo traveller — a youn^r iniiii tlian I anu SJm 
ihe widow of u ProhslAnt dergyuiaii, wliu wiui ll)e liitlior 
Ag:asBix. Slit: Uaa a vigorouB tninit, opeaku with great b^mi 
Hiid U a mollior worthy ofsuuli a son. Sbo wu« ^cvod 
(be bt'tiril ihut our stay wns to ho very brid^ aud would I 
be den!od tlut we should become guests at tii-r houM ; 
least, tbat the senior of Uio party should accupt b«r bospl 

The next morning she came, walking abuc, a long 
ill tbe rain, to bid us fkrewoll, and partud, vvidwtly with dw}) 
emotion, and not concealed, for we had brought ths imaga oC 
bcr fuvorit« son near to her intmtal viiuou ag^n. She bronffbt 
for Mra. S. a little bouquet of pansies, And bid us tell h«« 
her ptnsiet wure aK for hJni. 

Such scenes come near to every buoBVokut hi^ort, 
prove that human syrajintbies bavu a moral maguetintu wboM 
attraction is uuivoreal. I valus highly the art of sUluary, 
but I priee more liighly still such a family scono a* tbia; % 
iwone away hero in Switzerland, four thousand miles from my 
liome, on the borders of the beautiful Lake Leiuan ; and I 
would not exchango suob living uxbibltions of tbo human 
heiul for all tlio mut«i marble men and women in tbu V 
although tbi'y have a bigti value ns (.'xhllntion* of 
ntilL more ns repremntAtions of human tliiiract'^r hdiI fanliag. 

Agasaiz, and many others uf the Miwlloiit pno}^ Id iJi 
raiunlrics bordering on France, arc d<»cendants of 
Huguenots who tl»d from persutiiiliun, and, lik« tli« 
f<( Now England, they retain otrong traits of tlie IVuteManl 
eharii.'trt — for they Wure (he Puritaii!i uf France. 

Tiw Anoibmt CATiitDRAL, — Under tbo t^uidunco ot Mr. 
and Uad. Fraa;illon, we viinlol the old c-nlhnlrnl of l.nnvtma ( 
it i« of the Bume era and slylu lu ibul of (iciKV.i. Il Aaim 
orjgimilly ttom tbu ytur 1000, and tlio pniHiit ('itificf fn>ni 
A.I>. l^lS. Its interiot, tapponed and adomud Im gnimi and 
rich coluuine of rarjuus wxu and oinpiUr cumbiiialina, m 
gvd«d as a vej^ bunutiful and inaj^iliounl ■{Naninun at t)Mi< 

I of 

. llrsTOKV. 

I chitwiuni of thAt ourly n^ and aa tho finest builUiDg ofUiu Idod 

in SwitwrUnd. Thu calbedral conUing toRibs of bkliops ttnd 

of other eminent individuak Among them is iLat of Victor 

I AmadeUR VIU^ " who w«s Duko of Savoy, Bishop of Genevn, 

[ K>d i'opfl," but dropped all these dignitiM to end liia days as 

k ■ monk in a convunl of Ripoille ou the oppcsiUi shore of th« 

I Ink?. I ncntiontid him when we were pAuing tliure, on our 

way from Martijpiy to Geneva, liernard de MeulUou, lliu 

founder of tiie Xluspico of St Bernard, is inlerred here, aiid 

lli» hoBpiiM was niiuiutl aftvr hita. Tli«ro are liere E«veral 

I monumontB of Etigliali poople wlio hnva diod iu LaiBsuiie. 

L Among ttium thero is an exp«initivo conotuph to Ui« Indy of Sir 

I Bttstford Cnnniog. This cathedral was of course originally 

r Calliolif. nnd was doiihUesB once filled with picture* and 

LlniHgea. But the ttefonnation stripped it of ita ornament, and 

I like diH noble building at Geneva, althougli plain, it retains a 

I grarti, «everv, and simple beauty which will over command ad- 

] miration. 

t^ABiMCT OF Natural liieTORV. — Wo . made an early 

I fiut, befortt hruakfant, to thiH fuUiHalou, which was the moro 

[ failcTcsting to lis, as Agassix had b«ou ut^tive in its fonnution. 

■ It >* fiximiivo, but unoquid in its departments. In tlio mlleo- 

f 4ion of minerals, thont is a superb specimen of idocnue 

m), the largest that wu hail over seen ; nnd tha ery»- 

) of sukmu from Bok, dqwaitud by ti. M. Chnrpciitier, aro 

>i^nall«d iu beauty of figure and in perfect transparency. 

^bciru are two Egvplian mummies in a glass cnso ; one of 

I lliom ■ fumale, was d^oralod witli a string of glass beads of 

[ VaHou* oolora, and thtiro they hung — poor mimickrj- of life — 

<on her now black and shrivttllod ntick I 

As illiutnitife, ho wcvur, rather of civil than natural history, 

1 they hav« hwe preserved sumo suits of the «i{U»tnaii equipage 

I of NapoUion. These thinga were pKecnted Iu Lausanne by lii« 

I ion, the Duko of R^idista'lt, l>i.>c;nuo, a» wa w^re infitrm*''!, be 

ftneeivud a part of htn inluuulioD iu this plaiw. Thun.- are here, 

d Jw^H'jflatt^QHatfh iWtw HAWmiiJ mmIJjibi ouwc^L Va 

246 Lausanne. 

scarlet velvet, embroidered "with a wide yellow border. The 
stirrups are large and stroDg, and richly plated with mlver ; 
and tlie bridles and trappings are in correspondent style. One 
of the saddles he rode in his early Italian camjMiigns ; another 
in that of Austerlitz ; and the third at Waterloo. In the same 
case, also, are several elegant guns and accoutrements for the 
chase. I was not before aware that Napoleon was ever engaged 
in so mild a warfare. There is lodged also in this case the key 
of tlio house in Longwood, in which Napoleon lived when a 
prisoner in St Helena. A more interesting relic still, is the 
original map on which he traced with his own hands the out- 
line of his Italian campaigns. Napoleon has left so deep an 
impress on the age in which he lived, that throughout Europe 
every personal relic of him is carefully preserved. 

Lausanne contains 1 5,000 inhabitants, and belongs to the 
Canton Vaud. The town, being built on the slope of a moun- 
tain, Ls very irregular in the form of the ground ; it is in 
ridp^(« and ravines, which makes some of the streets very steep 
as they cross the ridges and run parallel to the lake. A high 
viaduct, on a double sot of arches, crosses one of the valleys, 
and from it you may look down into the chimneys of the 
houses in the lower street. The irregular form of the ground 
in Lausanne gives it some reseniblanoo to the old town of 
E«lin])urgh ; like that place, it is very picturesque, and abounds 
with commanding views. The prospect from the platform of 
the cathedral and from the tower, is very fine ; nearly the 
whole lake is visible from tlicse places. The view is still 
more extensive from the heights back of the town. 

Lausanne is intimately associated with some interesting 
reminiscences of my earlier years. The large and rich cabinet 
of minerals brought out to the United States by the late Col. 
(reor^c Gibbs, w;ls compasinl mainly of two principal divi- 
sions — one of which, that of the late Count Gigot D'Orcy, 
was j)urchjis<.*d in l*aris, he having jwrished under the axo of 
the guillotine. The other principal division was obtained in 
Limsanne. To this place Mr. Gibbs, then a young man, had 

LaDSAKSB to VvSRllCK. iil 

Mil Muit from l^rin l>y his pli^'sluian, for the re^x)v^>ry of bis 

taltL. Wliile here lie sluilivd uiliMtralu^ under tie txle- 

tU/ed Prot Stmvo, uid tlius ao(|uirc<l his skill iu luid low fur 

) >oieiU!0. Count Rjuamoiuki, a Russiau nobkninn, lind 

Mn livnig IiGm in relinmitiiit, and hnd wilh hira a lur^ col- 

Otion of minends. Ad hu was about retumiug Id Rnsiin, Co], 

■Sibb* bought his cotluuliuD, rich (W[)«cially In Riusian minerals ; 

■filia eoll«ctioti ho nddod to tliat of D'Orcy, nml brought both 

3loine to Newport, Rhod« bland. They found their final n»tlng- 

ftpUco in Yale College. I had tlie pleasure, forty years ago, to 

Vniroll the specimens, and place them on the shelves of the cabi- 

l wliere they now are, whure hiindredn havo etudiod tlioin 

rilb aJvaiiljtgL', and thousands have gawd upon tliem with 

pasannt ta gtiHliim. 

Jaly It. 

'I'here wns little in tliis ride that wm peculiar. The corintry 

M more hilly, and llie cultivation wns less ntflna] tlian 

r to Genera, but the crops wero very niinilar, I'rocAcding 

kDrtb, the wheat harvest, as might have been expected, was 

» iwlvancml tlian in Italy, and tli» grain immature ; niu(;li of 

LS unfit for t}i« siukli^ We were ascending nearly ihrecw 

wrtlis of tlie wny ; but we at la^t reached the summit of tbo 

Jiill that bound* iho valh-y of Ui.i Lake of Neufchatel. and 

bifniw we rolled g«ntly down to the town of Yverdun, which 

binds at the snuihem extremity of Uie lake, and has 3461 

nliahilnnls. Tliere is nn ancient castlu, with four towers, 

tending in the tniddlc of the t«wn. In this castlo the celo- 

raled Pestalozzi held, from 1605 to 1829, his eiporimentiU 

ahool. At Yverdim uur little pnrty wan for a short time divided. 

ran^ais, with our younger meuiln'rB, prowedod up the take to 

Sleiifcbat^l, while the older membeni went on a little eic.ureion 

K Jam Moimtaiiut. 

ViPMT TO Cftie Avx Fit os tuk Jra*. — A fcw )«ai» agu, 

I acuidimU^ diitcoirery that my family name existed in ^i^tar 

248 Visit to C6ts aux Fis oh thk Jura. 

erland, led to inquiry, and to a correspondence with the Bsr. 
Francis Julius Sillim ak, a Protestant dei^iyinan residiiig at 
a village on the Jura Mountains named C6te aux Ffo This 
correspondence, arranged by an excellent gentleman, Mr. Volts, 
whom we afterwards met at Berne, led us to conclude that the 
Swiss £unily and my own were descended from a common an- 
cestor. That individual, to avoid persecution, emigrated firom 
Lucca to Geneva about the time of the Reformation ; and from 
him are derived the Siliimans of Switzerland. One of tho 
family, Daniel Silliman, emigrated to America about the time 
of the Puritan emigration from England, and from him, there 
is the strongest reason to believe, that the Siliimans of America 
are descended. This is not the occasion to enter into the de- 
tails that were developed in a long and interesting correspond- 
ence with the Rev. Francis Julius Silliman. He was person- 
ally known to Professors Agassiz and Guiot as an early friend 
at the University,- and they held him in high esteem. We, of 
course, wished to pay our respects to him, and to form his per- 
sonal acquaintance. 

At Yverdun, in accordance with his advice, we took a car- 
riage of tho country for this little journey. 

We travelled fifteen miles by a grand road, cut into tho 
solid limestone rock of the Jura Mountains, an immense chain 
which runs ndrth and west of Neufdiatcl. 

l^CLDERs. — In our ascent, wo saw great numbers of tho 
granite boulders derived from the Mont Blanc range, and now 
reposing hero up<^n the limestone of the Jura Mountains. Some 
of them were large rocks ; many had l>een split and laid up in 
the walls, and many more had been wrought into posts to for- 
tify the road. 

In a^^XMiding these nioiuitaiits, which are 4000 feet high, 
we enjoy<?d many splendid views. We arrived first at St Croix, 
on the summit of the Jura, wliere there is a village and a post- 
office. Here we n)et the Rev. Mr. Silliman, who had walked 
five miles over from his village to meet us. Our previous corre- 
spondence made us at once familiar, and mutual greetings placed 

liKv. Khancib Juijvs Uilliu^n. 24D 

U va (lio fifotiiig of frivnda. Wo received bim into tliu cat- 
ringu, niiU prwMHidcd but slowly in the rain, the fond Ixting 
rough, and duop witli mud. 

The couDtiy grew more and more dreary, and was clad in 
gloomy forests of lofty pinw. We had now arrived in the re- 
mote recesses of the Jura Mounljua8, and less and less of vulti- 
vadon aud improvement appeared. It was nearly nine o'clock, 
and dark, when wh arrived at ibu hcrnsu of the Rev. patlimr 
iu the small cbUel uf COtu aui FiSe. We were hoH[)ilA\>ly re- 
ceived by his liidy, wb'ise gentle tDiiiiiJCra we found to bo in 
lionnony willi a good and reHned mind. The bouse ia a par- 
sonage, and the clmrcb is very near ; both are plain und small, 
and in correspondence with the condition of Swisa l'rot«staata 
200 years ago. * 

In llie moniing, the ladies wolkeU into the neighboriug 
housts of uiiiull funni'Rt and wutchntitkom, ami tho gonlloDien, 
iu u bright and warm day, raiublud two miles over the high, 
and gnuBy, and wooded bills, to visit a eavem in the limestone 
rocks. It is ualK'd the Cdle aux F£e,or Seat of the Fairies; 
wheuea tliu usiiie of the vlJtago, It is on a deep and narruvr 
gorge in the mountains — a precipitous vallt^y, which appeaivd 
to be 800 to 1000 feet deep. Down one of iU almost p«rpi<it- 
dicnlnr sides wu Jeeeended, with no small difficulty, about 200 
foot, holding on, as best wo could, by pointml rocks, and by 
Tools and shrubs, until we iLrnred at tliu opening of the cavitm 
n the side of the mountain. 1'he entrance was so low lliat it 
was necessary to lie down llal upon the fucc. and to advance 
sinijiiy by the use of the lous and elbows. Ilaving i[i earlier 
j'Mfs se«n enough of ttiat Idnd of exploration, I dechQud enter- 
ing, and remained at tlie mouth of the cavern, while the two 
other gentlemen made good tlieir eutrauce, witli an old man for 
a guide. Soou the roof rutu su mucii that they walked erect to 
llie oUier end of tlie subt«rraue)kn gallery. It was a cul da . 

; it was open to tbu daylight at the termination, and lliey 
lookol down iiilii a dei-p uUyit) — one of tliosn trememlous gul£t 
with which these mountains abound. It locks, inno^vMiblo sa 
Vol. it—W 

260 KiDB TO Neufcuatkl. 

it is — as if it might be better adapted to become a den for rob- 
bers tlian a palace for fairies. On our return to the parsonage 
an ample dinner was in readiness. 

Mr. Silliman, like the pasteur Oberlin, whose residence was 
but a few miles off, appears to devote himself from principle to 
the care of souls, among an humble but intelligent and religious 
people ; and we doubt not that a pure worship ascends an ac- 
ceptable offering from his small and plain church of unpaintod 
wood. Tliis benevolent gentleman, a man of letters and man- 
ners, and his amiable lady, both of whom would adorn a pol- 
ished Boeiety in a city, will, I trust, find their reward in a bet- 
ter world. Our impressions of them were of the most favor- 
able kind. We parted affectionately and religiously, and leav- 
ing keepsiikes for the tlirce children, we hastened the arrange- 
ments for our departure. 

Ride to Neufchatel. — Our purpose had been to return to 
Yverdon, and then to pass by a steamer to Neufchatel ; but wo 
found this circuitous tour to be unnecessary, as there is a direct 
road of only twenty-three miles to our object Taking a char-a- 
bancs, we enjoyed a rapid ride, almost entirely down hill, or on 
level ground. It was the counterpart of our ascent the day 
before from Lausanne towards Yverdon. Our road was the 
finest possible — |)erftjctly smootli and hard ; and through the 
entire journey of twenty-three mik^ it ran in a profound valley, 
In'tween high rang*^ of mountains of limestone, which is often 
distinctly stratified, and presents walls of great altitude. They 
aflord a {Perfect section with the edges of the strati distinctly 
marked, iis in a geological diagram. The strata aro often 
curveil, or arched, or waving ; and sometimes they were broken, 
the fracture evidently resulting from the violent action of geolo- 
gical forces. 

As we travelled, the valley U'CJime wider ; it was from one 
mile to two miles broad, and cont^iined a series of beautiful 
towns, with large and expensive houses; these towns, whose 
names I did not presene, had wide streets, indicating both 



upuleoiw and task; they are iu luinuuuy willi this oiilundid 
uuuuu-y, wliicb unites dtrtsnie gntodtiur witli iiiltiunu bvauty, 
while \l» people enjoy iJie &uit» of freudoni und gi-curily which 
nro eviDoed in llio proaperity whii'h ie so apparent. Befura 
HVi'jiiijg we arrived iu Nfufclatcl, and found our younger 
frii'iida »afe, and apartiiiuiiN ciif^afjed for us in an escellent hotel 
— Ths Alps. 

Ilnviii^ Wii nlnii^t four months in Catholic countries, we 
were glad to enjoy a quiet Sabbath in a Proiesianl town, and 
■L-veral of tho party attended church, the service being in French, 
"llio Itev. Mr, Siiltman introduced ub to his two siatera at Neof- 
chatel. Ode of them is tbe lady of M. Mntthieu. This faxmly, 
induding two lovely young ladies, received us with warm cor- 
diality, and we were made at once to feel that we were not 
Btmngwra, and all jKHsible kindness was proffered to iw. 

Neiifubattil is n handaume town, with about "iOOO inhabit- 
nnta. It ts ni^ll built, and has wido ntrecls, whiuh are kept ID 
good onlur. It lies beautifully on the slope of Mount Cbnumont, 
a htaueli of the Jura, and tho houses are nrrangcd also all 
■bng the shore of the Lake of Neufuhalel, a beautiful sheet of 
woter, which is 27 uiilt« long and six or eight broad. 

The town hua many fine houses and public buildings, 
ttuuag which iho Academy is conspicuous; it is estahlisbed in 
a very large and handsome edifice constructed of limealone, 
h«wn and drvtaed. 

Titis institution * has about 600 students, who were absent, 
it being vacation. Mr. Louis Cuuloii, n geutlcroan of large 
mi^tis, has bestowed ibem liberally, and his personal exerCiona 
also, npon this institution. He is not a profcsaor, but ia a 
director, and lias mailn it Im pleasure to contribute U> the ool- 

* It i» rvgv\lK<[ s 

>r public school, rotbcr llian a 


lections in natural history, which he was so kind as to open 
for our inspection. There is an excellent museum of natunl 
hi8t<»y, a large library, and a picture gallery containing some 
line things. The department of ornithology is splendid ; those 
of quadrupedal zoology and of entomology are also very good. 
The mineral department is more limited ; but the ichthyology 
is excellent 

Professor Agassiz's hand is found on many of the labels ; he 
was of course active in establishing the museum, and Neufchate) 
has cause to be proud of him as one of its citizens, as he has pro- 
bably no living superior as a successful investigator in zoology 
and phjTsiology. The travels of M. Tschudi in Peru and South 
Anaerica generally, so well known in the United States, were 
undertaken to provide specimens in zoology for this museum. 

The Pierre a Bot and other Boulders. — We made an 
excursion of two miles during our residence here, upon tlie 
mountain Chaumont, attended by M. Chattain, architect, and 
young M. Matthieu. 

Our object was to see the boulder stones, erratics of Mont 
Blanc ; which, in great numbers, are de]>osited on this moun- 
tain, and are described in the works of all writers on the glacial 

We looked with deliglit and astonishment on the vast 
Pierre a Bot, or toad stone, which has been so called froni its 
form and position slightly resembling that little odious animal; 
a name more appropriate should surely have been found for so 
grand an object 

The dimensions of this enormous block of granite are G2 
feet by 48, witli cubical contents of 48,000 feet ; • it would fill 
a largo hoase or a church of medium size. In beholding it, 
we were astonished to see it here, i)erha]K) 30 leagues from its 
])arent mountain, and 800 feet above the surface of the lake. 
There are several otlier large boulders lying very near to tliis 

* 40,000 Icct, De la Bccho's ObserTcr. He qnotei the opinion of 
Necker, that it travelled 22 leogoee from the ereet of the FolUti 
on the north of Martigny. 


ViBW or TUB BKmnB Alps, or Oskulami. 263 

gigxiiUc Ii1i>c1e, anti they are fjund in grcal uuinteni, and 
Mimi.'tiiiius in crondL-d groups, upon many pads vf tlivtm uioun- 
tnina. It ia obviouti tlint ihoy have trnvclled ocrusa Uie grM 
\ii\ej of SwiUerliind, and over Uie plncea vhem Uie peHcr^ftil 
IftkM now wpow, for there ia no gmcite ueamr than tlie Alpine 
raagv, tlia Jiir» MounUins themaelvM being limestone. Tho 
gntnito, too, is the peculiar variety called protugine, and is 
eharscteristid of tbo Alpine lieigfals. 

Ice has un<]U«elionably been tho ^ciout agont that has 
irroughl this seeming physical miracle. According to Agassiz, 
ghddont have effected tho traimportation, and if floaliag ioe- 
beigH be cxoludcd, we know of no oilier cause. 

It was my impression, in common, I believe, with that of 
inoiit geologists, tliat Mont Itlano rnust anciently have been 
muob higher than at present, in order to alTord llie T<?qiiisi(e 
diwc«nt for glaciera to transport rocks across the groat valley of 
Snitserland. Tliia impression has, however, been corrected by 
the eminent Prof<«8or Guyol, whose extensive inatmmental Hur- 
Teys of the Alpine mountains, have enabled him to a»)ertain 
that there is actually a sufHuient descent from Mont Blanc 
with Its preaent elevation to transport the bouMurs, and place 
theio where we now find them on tho Jura chain. 

Vnw or TiiK BcaNKSB Ai-rs, on Obkhi.axd. — Our famili- 
arity with the Cunily of Mallliieu gave us access to their country 
Lo4i8«i, Mituated on the heights in the upper town. The house 
n on the very summit of the hill, on tho declivity of wliich the 
town i* built. It was near evening, and tlie declining sun was 
•>liining in full strength in a cloudless sky ; when, from an over- 
hanging balcony projecting from tho house, we enjoyed a 
glorious view of tho Bernese Alps. 

An Immense ridgey n serrkted liarrirr of moimlnins, covered 
with snow and ice, extends for 100 wil<» or more, in tho fiirm 
uf a bow; upon this tnngnifiecut minpart, fnrniing the enslcni 
Ufundwy of ourhorixon, Ihueruningsun threw has full radinnoe, 
the hrilliaul luiln uf humiiLud silver was reflected W-lc to our 
eyes, wliilu, in a perfectly clear atnioi'phere, wu cuuU •tevW i 



guwli Uio principnl members of die nuif^ Moiit BbUKi U. 
all his gobinu ^mudi'ur, was on thi- eatruin« njj;iit a» we sUMtd 
looking; CHst aiiil suuth ; bis ospec^t wuh wooderfully euliU 
nnd Irilliaal in iLe higliiat Aegrvti ; Uie dimeuMoos of iLe n« 
tain, ulthougU SO at 00 miW frou uh, MppHartMl raloBaal. 

In the centre, is tlie splendid icy moaDtoiiL, Uie UluuiliH AJfri 
Mid more on tlio Ic-ft aro Uie three icy whIIb, o( which t 
Juneau is the nglit They np]ie«r quite wUto, with i 
Htrip«s of ualittd durk rock iu the lower massua. 

Wo weru more ihau ever ttmiaed that AgWHiz should bkn ai 
t«nipl«d to mmIu the Jiiiigfrau, which is 13,000 fevt hl^ S«d 
tuiLu of si^ivucQ liad ever att^iuptei] it before. 1 believe tl 
tliia day, uu other guulogisl has evur mouutod Hafroxeti m 
When Agaaais arrivi-d at the foot of thi] sLMpcst pMt> )i 
guides recoiled and refused to go any fiirther ; but, undieituiyc 
by tho icy precipice, he himaelf cut st«pa with a hatchet. » 
thus, with iiainmeut danger, raounl«d to tlie crest of ( 
•lungfrou. With a telescope these tnountaiiu wore brought « 
near that it seemed as if wo might, from the balcony •mhm « 
stood, step out upon tbeoi. 

I could not have imagined any vision of mountains at O 
so venerable and so grand ; gtnuil, bec«uw of their vnsl 4snuaA 
and their great elevation of many tliousands of feet— n nunpaft 
apparently im|>eiietrable and iDNupumble, nnd EWo<>ping a 
in diuiling nbil^ness, tlirough a large portion of tho hot 
k'eueralile, be<muse tbi«e mountains tell us of a period, « 
afler tli^r elevaliuu into the region of nvcr^uring froet, th« A 
watery vapor which Liul aiMMindcd (o tlint uppuT n^gn i 
crystallized iuto snow, nud begiui to lall on ll 
tQi>, and wrupfted the cold peaks nn<l ridgi:s i 
njantlfl which lliey have i-ver Hiniw worn ; nllhriugh yew H 
fear and age alW ago hnvu paNml awuy, 
ha« IwMii able tit dissolvii tlie fruxeu tnoM; luid we «ra ( 
mill that it will n«r<>r ceoM- h> cover ll 

olil. llutl Aitflit |i"a>ant4 •fl'e(<it!-l 

DoHnn'tti ScKSEfi. 255 

I ihvy niAiutuin l\wir [tntfei-t altitude, BtiU tlie glul>u ami iu 
I iibpiod Inwii nhall cmlure. 

SKcoan SuKSKT. — Fmin llrn balcony of M. Mntttiifu'ii house 

« ctyi)jfi?d ajfiim a glnrioua ricw of the wliolo mnge of tho lofty 

t Al[w, fiT>in Mont BUnc on tlie right Ui tho oslrcmi-st spur of 

I llio BcnioMi Alps on tb« left, a distance of at leut 100 miW 

I Lako Neufobatol lay for twonty-«oTcn milea in ijuint mjKwe at 

r feet. Tho ntmosphnn was most unusually (-Icnr, rvutt for 

Kwitxcrlnnd ; and our fHi^nds nnuml us llinl not twenty occa- 

iuM in the year offered «o unclouded and brilliant a panoriiina 

a we enjoyed of the high Alps, which formed the sunny back- 

[ giiMind. As wu walched ihoso snow-po«k», iha evening rwl bi*- 

I gan to iiiuminal« them, and one after another of llie whole 

group bluHbed deeply at tlie parting gUnc« of the god of day. 

Ill, first on the loft, showeil her own pure whit* com- 

< plexiou ; and gradually eAcli »UcM:K.«v>ive p«nk and vall«y, even 

" bold, nwful front" of Mont Ulnna himself, lost the rosy 

hue, which CnlUm bn* bo well preserved in his suhlime por- 

I trails of Swiss scenery. 

With a pennive filing of n^ret, we mw the dull gray of 
I evening creeping over Cbo scene, when suddenly, to our B»rpri»e, 
the auroral red reappeared upon tho summit of Muut DIunc, 
I and soon, one by one, ««ch succcsiive peak troumcd the same 
lovely tint of rose. Ohimncd with tlie tnagic of this natural 
diuraiua, we walti'd willi deep interest to witness the Seeoml 
Suiurt, tind lo puule »ur Inguuuiiy liir a sntisfodary cxplaun- 
ijou of tltin remorkaklo |)lienunienon. 

DoHSBTic Sciwits. — Tho hospitality of our friunds dn^w u» 
iitlti iJuiir ttgrrvable (iuuily ; and titeir interest in us wne evi- 
ik'Ully inemised tiut only by u feeling of kiudrol, but by th« 
I JiiHiuvvry that jivrMns l>oru and edunilei] on a diiitHtit oonli- 
iiiint, Willi B brood oecnn between, shnuld ha su HSGiuiilatitd to 
liieuindva iu manners and feelings tliat an tu'tive Mid interest- 
ed sympathy [iCTvadrd all tlii muiubtiis of ihn i^irule. 

a warm evening in July, wheti u loug tubte, fur- 



flowera of till! «eaiMiij, wm arranged out of door*) in tlw g 
iMDeaUi a vordant bower, and ve were aeatod wiU) tlin Graiiq 
to jiartAke of their hospitality. 

Tbo h««(l nf tlie hoUM did lionor to its lit»|>iulity, i 
vas most cordially sustained by the ladiesof iboliuiiily, i 
effort of kindness and triendly courtesy to thoM wtio c 
strangers, but were now accepted as friends. The cveniDg v 
made delightful by the line perfomianco of the young I 
u[ion tho piano, who, in perfect concert) played ( 

Promrkahk. — All idong the borders of the lidie thera * 
pleasant shailed wnlhs, which have been redeemed from ibl 
water, llie gruiiud is levelltxl and made liord, and il 
with rows of hewn IJmeatono, wide enough for a walk. 
sloping bunks aru paved qiiilu down to the hike, whera t 
of sporting Ushee are always to hc W6n. Tbiiy an) iaulf omf 
and wo found tlie native pike cxcoilcnL There ni 
with thick foliage near the lake : they form a small boulen 
and are furnished with scats. '11ieT<e is a bi^nutifiil mound n 
onti of the groves, giving a plvaaont variety. Tho pn>pt4 f 
to them fur society auil recreation — a good habit, which o 
to lie more t^ncour^^ in our too busy oountrr, in w 
and towns, and villag«a, stguarcs and parks, made oitmctir* m 
licuutiful, ought to be more extensively pronded. In the 1 
rslniit as well as Catholic countrie* of continental ICurcfw, walk- 
ing iiiit on the &tbbnth is regarded as an allowable libeny ; and 
llicse promenaLlea of Neufchatel are much rasorled to aftur Uw 
Kunday service of tlio aflemoon. Squadrons iif aJtfa 
dieis aba, under anus, were out in full uoifbrni, i 
viewed by their of&cen, 

Tni Old Castuc. — This was the nwduncu of the ¥ 
prineos of Neufcluitifl, of ihu huuse uf Chalnns, who oJaii 
nominal soviinjgnly over the ■mall statca, mdly repniilieaa, It 
ri'Iaining some feudal t«mu««. In Jlo7. thu Fruncli Im 
ClialoiM bocnnic cilinc-l, and thv kbg of PnnMa, In'itig tiJ 



f Bovproiifn or stniltiioMor. Napoleon broke up this connection, 
[ Bud miuJe one of his genemla, Harahnl B«rtliier, princu of Nvuf- 
L clinU^ ; but at thu genernl restoration in 181£, the king of 
I PrUKin reeumed his sway, by appointing' a governor, who niuy 
be a foreigner. At prcienl, however, NeufcbMul is entirely 
diseunuected from FruBgin, and us an indupendenl alale is n, 
member of the Swisa confedenition. 

UoapiTALa. — David Purj-, a citiieu of Neufelatel, who 
from a poor boy became a millioun aire, left the sum of I0fl,000 
pounds to fomid a bospiUl and plXl^bouMl, and for other bene- 
volent purposM conueeted witli bis native town. Anollier bofr- 
ptal (PouHTALts) bearv tlic nnuie of its bencvoli-nt founder, 
F one of u noble family in Ncufchatel, and is noceiwible to all, 
' witliout dintinction of reli^on or country. 

Tbe house in wbir.h Professor Agnsaix risiilcd wiia, of 

coutwj, nn object of attention. It is retired from the main 

street, and wu approoehed it by n narrow nvcnuc. It is n very 

lai^ house, of three stories, from tlie up[ier windows of which 

i* obtained a fine viuw of tlio Uemuso Alpn. There many of 

his cnpitol rmcKrches wore mado. We saw also the houses of 

the Ponrtalis family, of which tlio young Count, who cjuno to 

[ the L'nih'd States with Agttasix, and is now an offieor of the 

I const survey, was a member. In one row there are the houses 

I of his grandfather, father, and two uncles. 

The mantifhcture of watches funns tlio great employment of 
' til* dty and canton of Ne^chatcl ; and almost ei-ory fomily is 
r less occupied with it. The work is distrib»t»d from 
I house to house over the nintt districts ; and the habit of assom- 
I bling large numbers of operatives in one densely crowded 
* ie almost unknown. 


We took the diligence at four and a half o'clock p. m., and 
in six houre arrived at Berne. 

The intermediate country is most beautiful, and filled with 
the results of skilful cultivation. We saw immense fields of 
wheat — a crop which has every where astonished us by its vast 
abundance, and the extent of the territory which it coven. 
There are also some fields of rye, and many more of oats, 
potatoes, beans, and barley, and the finest grass in all its varie- 
ties. In general, there arc no fences : field joins inunediately 
upon field, and therefore, weedy and unfruitful borders are ex- 
cluded. There are no animals wandering at large, and, of course, 
there is no invasion of crops by them. For the first twenty 
miles, the greater part of the country was an extensive plain, 
level, as if formed in the bed of a lake. As far as we have 
seen Switzerland, there has been much less interference with 
agriculture by mountain chains than we had expected to find. 
The great extent of fertile valleys and plains has surprised us. 

The Aar. — About halfway on our evening ride, we crossed 
another rushing, turbulent river, the Aar. It flows from the 
Bernese Alps, and, like the Rhone and the Arve, it sweeps down 
vast quantities of debris from the mountains, and sometimes by 
flowing, covers the land with sterile ruins. The very consid- 
erable town of Arberg stands on its banks. 

Swiss Rural Architecture. — ^The peculiarities of Swiss 
jirchitecture and arrangements, which we had Iwgiin to ob- 
wjrve near Yverdon, became now more and more conspicuous. 
The house and barn are usually included under the same roof. 
The roof is verj' steep and high, and the eaves project downwards 

maiiv feet or vards lx»vond the walls of the house. The roofe 

. " •' 

are sometimes shingled, but more frequently thatched. The 
thatch was often covere<l by grass, and kc*pt in platM? by boards, 
on which large stones are laid. Numerous and large piles of 



I niiuiiire were placed in Uin rowl, and in front of tho houses, 
*ithoul refotenoi to effluvi*. The houses were geDcnilly very 
clums^r uid unarcliittHjtuml, luid wliun omsm^Dt was Attam{it>>il, 
it w«t iBoat ungnioefully cotweived iiiid uiiekilfiilly (? 

G<>nnnn bccjimti now lliu spokun lan^mgc, aud Gurman 
pipes, with a rwun'ed lube and mirighl bowl, wuro frequonlly 

I nccn. Women wore erery where* in tho fieH», einployed in 
Miircly labor; and gimerally we saw more woniun than men. 
Womi^n vOTti tho tcap•n^ with aicklu in hand ; but the popula- 
tion in tho fields waa not in proportion to tba lahor to be done ; 
Iho harvest was great, and tlic laboren ooroparatiruly fuw. 

Wu Jmvu into tliU uuctent c!ty at ti!ii u'ulocJc, i'. u., and 
tho dilij^ntw itopjwd iu a very narrow strvvt. Our party occu- 
pied the inleriear, and we ilid not renlixo until wu dtscunded, 
how many more people them wcru wttli ii^ and wlmt » vast 
pile of luggage lay on tup of the carriage. In our rough roada 
in AmoricK autli a lofty loading would have tumtd Uio car- 
I iingn topay-turvy ; but the roads both here and in almooC every 
part of Europe that we have seen, arc, as often observed Ite- 
for«, BO porfeot aa to put ours to shame in the comparison. 
Our own baggngo being telected, wo foUowed it and Fran;oi^ 
piasing under the ponderous and low arches, which, on botli 
I Mdi« of the streets, susUiin tho hoiuee. By the usual care and 
forecaitt of Krnn'^oia, we found our aparlmenlA in the Faucon 
I Uolet al] iu readiness. A comfortable tea-table, in New 
\ JEngland style, refreshed us at eleven at niglit, bcforu retiring 
I to oar beds, and a home feeling, producod by the quiet, order 
I and courtesy of all the [leoplo iu attendance, mailo this good 
I Hvt'un hotel appear a desirable xubetilute for our own habitations. 

* Onfe uiily (liil «o tv. n ^'""1' "^ """ '" "oatiilcrablc ndiubon 
I worldng witlionl vomcn ; tliU wu in t^iilliili^ «U«rs ton men in nn* 
I oompany war* vnip^cit in mowing. 

260 BsBNX. 

It is not possible to do justice to this venerable and oele- 
brated city, by the hasty observations of a single day, but some 
traits are so striking that they are seen at once. 

Situation. — ^Beme is built on a lofty promontory of sand- 
stone, formed by the winding course of the river Aar, which 
nearly surrounds the city, flowing at the bottom of a deep 
channel, with steep, and in some places precipitous, sides. It 
is compactly built, and has 24,000 inhabitants. Formerly, it 
was surrounded by a high wall, and the parts that still remain 
form one of the favorite promenades of the citicens. 

A connection has been formed with the town by a lofty 
bridge of granite, constructed from erratic blocks, lying on the 
blue limestone of the Eirchit hill. The bridge is 900 feet 
long; tlie central arch over the river 150 feet wide, and 93 feet 
high. I went below, where the appearance is very imposing; 
the two side arches are erected over drv land, in the manner 
of a viaduct 

Upon the hills and suburbs near the town are splendid 
park;*, with drives tlirou«rh long avenues of well-grown forest- 
trees, embracing hundreds of aores ; they are so laid out as to 
give the most enchanting views of the snowy Alpine peaks, and 
the winding Aar hastening on to the Rhine, and laving the 
walls of the pictures<jue old town. 

The terrace on the northe:t>*t j>art of the city is beautiful. 
Divided from the river by a high wall, which bounds the tei^ 
race on that side, we stand bv the wall and Kwk down 108 feet 
upon the river, which Hows over an artificial dam, built oblique- 
ly across the stream. From this place six of the peaks of the 
snowy mountains are distinctly seen. AVhile looking on them 
I found two of my <*ountrymen engaged in the same manner; 
they were intelligent gi'ntlemcn whom I have known at home, 
and our accidental meeting; was to me a pleasant incident 

C>n the parajvt-wall theri* is an inscription as follows: **A 
young student, mounte«l on a spirite<i liors<\ which had been 
friglitemxl by some children, and leajxHl the precipice, raacfaed 
the bottom with no other hurt than a few broken ribt. The 

Tbe Beabs. 

\ hoTM MM killed on iho spot Tho ridur bccntne ft mintBt«r of 
J Xcnvra, nnil lived to « good old age." Whoii wo looked from 
:a precipice, it smmed impossible, in such a leap, to eecape 

HorsBS ADD StnKKTB. — The houses built of Gtone are 

Igtmcraily high ; most of ihcm have projecting and ovorliang- 

ling roofe. In tho principal atreels ihejr ore built upon bi^ 

' oiidcs, mrh ns Lave been alroHily mentioned, and similar lo 

thope which we saw in Chester, Bologna, Paduii, and other old 

towns. TItey form it convenient retreat from the sun and tlie 

rain, and give, in elfeot, additional width to llie atrt>els ; but 

I they impart a eomhru aspect to tbe shope, which arc atill 

■librthur within Uie hnildings, and tlio air, being impeded in its 

Kciroulation, is not always agreeable, especially when unsavory 

E'OommoditJes ^ike tliu bmed Bt-mue cheftsc) are exposed there 

|. ferule. 

Ancikmt CuirK Toweh. — On tho clock tower, which ww 
I one of tbe ancient defence* of the town, there are soma auto- 
bmatic figures, which frei]uuntly ntlnict a crowd of gazers. A 
Bflgiirc, club in hand, strikes the hour, while nnutlier figure, 
mingly a monarch of time, moves a sceptre at every stroke 
i of the bell, and, opening his mouth at eaeh note of passing 
EliRic, appears to r<-port the hour. At the moment before tho 
|. clock strikes, a wooden cock appears, crows twice, and flaps 
• proiKSsion of bears moves around in a circu- 
Whu form, ttiroiigh a hole in the tower. The figures aro small, 
Btike children's toys and the whole exbihition is puerile; but 

■ botli old and yoimg go to watch the hour, and being no wiser 
lAxn a multitude of other people whom we saw there to-dny, 

■ ve were punctual 1 t prenenl at noon, when the automaton strikes 
Ktwclve times. The automaton, however, did not atford aa much 

s on accidenlol meeting at the cluck lower with 
tr. C. of Boston, and tbe ladies of his party, one of whom we 
^od left lick at Klur«nci>. 

Thb Be««8. — But wiiy a procestiiuu of bears at llie tower 
t tho town clock I Tlie city of Benio was faunde<l \\v V\*\ 

262 BcRKK. 

by Borehtold V^ of Zaringen, on wbich occasion, when they 
wero laying out the fortifications, Bruin happened to ap- 
pear in tlie ditch, and paid the forfeit of his life for his curi- 
osity, being killed on the spot ; but the city made him some 
amends in posthumous fame by assuming his cognomen, and 
licnce it has been called Berne, which, in English, is bear. 
The bear, therefore, figures in their armorial bearings, as well 
as on many of their monuments and public edifices. At the 
principal gate of the city, the Morat gate, two colossal bears 
arc stationed aloft as sentinels, one on each side. 

A noble statue has been erected in the City Park to Berch- 
told, the founder, with a bear in attendance. We also visited 
the den, where living bears have been maintaineii for many 
centuries at the public expense. Just by the ancient city bar- 
rier, there are two deep j»it5, walled up high with hewn stones, 
and paved with the siime ; they have the apjwarance of large 
and deep cellars o|kmi to the day. A lofty dead tree, with leaf- 
less limbs, stands in the midst, as in a gymnasium, for the 
gambols of Bruin ; a copious fount'iin supplies him with 
water, and sleeping apartments are annexed, opening into 
the ample play-ground. Here, at present, are two bears ; one 
the common black bear of Europe, the otlier the brown 
bear. They are well supplied with cakes and apples by llie 
spectators who resort constantly to Bruin's court. We were 
much amused at the supplicating posture of one of them, sit- 
ting erect and looking up imploringly, while his pendent paws 
were rearlv to catch the cakes as thev fell. If it would be ir- 
reverent to call I3ruin the patron saint of the city, he certainly 
ap]>ears to regarded as its good genius. It is said that a young 
lady of Berne, some centuries ago, left an annuity for tlio sup- 
port uf the bears ; the annual expense of which is six or 
seven hundred francs. 

When, in 1/98, the French captured Berne, tliey removed 
the U^'irs to I'aris, and the celebrated Martin, the great bear of 
the city, was exhibited in the Garden of Plants, where ho 
Wjime a favorite spectacle for the visitors 

Mt;8iti;M. 2U8 

Hoanrw. — On cnl^ring the Muwum of Bem«, vr. w«ra 
ruott mluteU \iy ihe lai^^t bear tbat I h&vo any wlicro Bi>cn ; 
L tio ttMMJfl erect, with sparkling vygs, open mouth, and e):tcnd<?<l 
VaniUi, and woma eager to einbntco the visitor. X believe this 
cimuQ is ilie skin of Martin, tbo colnbrnlal benr just nRine/l, 
Vn»lor«d to ]3«ni« after the battio of Waterloo. 'Ulu-f hnve 
[■ddod several cubs as conipaoioDs for the great bear. 

Although this museum is not virrj cJitensive, it is still n 

[ very bfoutiful eatablishmcnt I have nowhere seen aninuds, 

whether quadrupeds, birds reptiles, or fisbea, more admirably 

I filled up, or pre«erTed mora perfeclly, in their peculiar forms, 

^•ad with natural attitudes aud accompanimenU. As the na- 

9 animals of the Al])« are disappearing before the hunter, 

p It is very dwirablo to preserve their relics here ; they have in 

this mumnm the Alpine lynx, ihe steinbock, and the chamoia. 

The noUo dog of St Uernard — Bany, which, in the counw of 

hia life, saved fifteen human beings has hero all the perpetuity 

whiuh can belong to poslliumous canine fame. His skin ia 

prr*en-ed in full form and natural attitude, which is that of 

walking carefully over the snow, with a look of allcniion, his 

, head and eyes inclined downward, ns if to observe any marka 

Lvf the lost ones whom he ia seeking. An engraved picture of this 

(lllmost Ivenevolcnt animal, whoM! race has more sympathy 

y other witli man, ia sold at the museum; It is n per- 

r feet likeneaa, his main rolor is gmy, witli a white coreet, and 

m Hiubs and fneu of the »hiu» twlor, and his sixe very lai^. llic 

I [ns<!ription beneath is — "(Jul n sauvi In vio & beaucoup de 

oUiitureux voyageuni sur le grand St. Jicmnrd." * 

Tli« whiUi arctic boar, the zebra, Uie wild boar, and the 

Igiraffe or camelopant, are particularly fine in this collooUun. 

■ They haro also here ihe condor and the vullure. 

The collection of Alpine mincmU and foaails ia very inier- 
I (Ming. TItot« ai« bcautilhl crystals of the telenite of tiex. and 
I Urge rock orj-uols of great trautponncy and beauty ; they ap- 
any nnCirtnoaU travtlliin upon 

• Who has *av*J th« llv« 

2G4 Bbbke. 

pearcd to be 8 inches in diameter, and 15 to 18 inches 
long. Two of the professors in the University were bo good aa 
to show us the geology and the mineralogy of the oollectioD. 
We had letters from Agassiz for several of the Swiss savants, 
and among others for Professor Struve of Berne, whom we 
found a most obliging and accomplished man. His Manual 
on Swiss Geology was just then published. 

In tlie museum are the portraits of many eminent men, 
divines, statesmen, warriors, and others; they exhibit noUe 
faces, and their forms arc clothed in the costume of other days. 

The Library, which does honor to Berne, contains many 
portraits, also the picture and bust of the illustrious Haller. 

It is a city institution, and numbers 60,000 volumes in fine 
condition ; a large proportion are quartos and folios. Both the 
library and the museum arc accessible without a fee. The 
librarian, Mr. Charles Louis dc Steyger, speaks English well, 
and was very attentive to us. He kindly opened to us a MS. 
book of heraldry' of Swiss families, compiled by M. Gatschet, in 
which my family name was pointed out, with a coat-of-arms* 
annexc*il. TIk; l>ook contains only the names of persons belong- 
ini; to Switzerland. 

TiiK (\\TiiKDUAL OR MiNSTEK is a grand building, having 
the same severe simplicity which wo observed in Geneva and 
Laus;inne. It wiis l>e;^n in 1421 and iini:«hed in 1457. The 
t!lioir is ailorne<l by sj)lendi(Hy painted glass windows. The 
ehnrrli is decorated with the coats-of-anns of the aristocratic 
burghers of Heme. Among the monuments, the most interest- 
ing are those that commemorate the death of 18 officere and 
083 soldiers, all citizens of Berne, who were slain in fighting 
against the French, during tlieir unprovoked and cruel invasion 
of Switzerland in 1708. I well remember the assault by 
]>r<»fi*ssed republicans, u])on a country more truly republican 
than any other in Europe. That invasion by the French 
Directory was as odious in the view of mankind, at that tiibe, 

* A fact of no importance^ except to show thai th« fiunily had 
become naturalized in Switzerlnud. 


71 Dav. 265 

I? iiaif a cenlury la)*?r by Napii- 

nor lio 


Fokeio'k HllttSTRHA.^TIio city of Borne is the residence of 

)L of Uiu foreign ministen, &nd it alternately, with Znrich 

I ftnd Lucerne, llio tent of the Swim diet. Berne is iJie InrgcjA 

of thu Swiie cnutons; tlie city is tituntuj 1700 fuel ubovu 

I tHs occnsici, an oppor- 

Their drcsa is grotesi:}ue 

Mlleolod pictures of their 

During our brief stay in ibis jiiuturesijue und Bntii)uutvd 

city, we were indebted to the grcAl kindniaa of Mr. Frodurio 

Ixjuis Villi, an uld citizen of Bume. Pmvious correspondence 

tbruiigh kia son, u n^ident in the Unilixl States, bnd miule ua 

acqiinintml, and tbroujrh him unil iJie goot] olurgyumn of ColA 

i mux Flic, tlio preceding chapter of our Gimily hiatory had been 

I durutopud. Mr. Voix guvu us all bis lime while we were in 

I Bemc. 

In our last eveniug there a fortuitous cainoidence brought 
together a New Uaveu party uf nine persona in iho parlor of 
our hot«], all old acqu^tances. 

Market Day, — We have had, o 
tonitf of seeing the common ])C4pIe. 
tltd peculiar. Oiio of our ladies c 
I coirtuiue, which convoy at ouuo a oorr«cl iniprenion of their 
I sppeAnuic^. In gtmtu-ul, Uie females appear in short dotliM, 
1 with broad brimmed hata and surmounted by couicaJ peabi ; 
r both sexes are fond of bright metallio ornamenta. The wo- 
I men wear shining steel or ulver chains, reaching, in double 
I Hoes, from the necic collar behind, down the back, and around 
I In front lo the collar at the chin. Many buiidreds of people 
l.from the country have filled the streets to^lay, and there 
I is a groat display of native productions. Their cleanliness is 
I proverbial, and tile white wooden milk-pails giro an ndditionni 
I altraetion to the pictorial costume of the Bernese. Tlie inoet 
»romiueiit article in the market is cheese. Every where on 
■ the continent where we had rout with cheese, it has been to 
I^Btrong as to be otR-nnive, and to-iluy it was particularly so. 
mil of iho cheoMS went very larg«, and when they wcr^ 


accumulated iu veiy great quantitiea, as the^ were undtf aome 
of the arcades, tlie odor was intolerable, and drove us awiy* 

§trnt t0 Soltnre, tig^tttn milts. 


On a bright and beautiful morning we left Berne in two 
carriages, with two horses attached to each, as the diligenoe 
was not arranged to meet our convenience. 

The beauty and fertility of the country were deligbtiu], and 
the roads were, for excellence, a perfect model We croflsed 
the Aar on a firm stone bridge of admirable construction. On 
a tract of low and wet ground, the road was raised, and all 
along the way piles of broken stones, or pebbles, are kept at 
hand to provide for repairs. The farm-houses, with the same 
structure that I have ah^ady described, were substantial and 
comfortable dwellings, and gave little or no appearance of 
poverty. In one field we saw sixteen women in one group, all 
stooping to their work, while only two men were in attend- 
ance. All through the continent the flower of the young men 
is in the armies. In time of peace, they are, in a great meas- 
ure, idle, and women perform the field labor. 

As wo receded from Berne, we gazed with admiration 
upon its beautiful environs, and on the grand mountains, seen 
in the distance, cover(?d with ice and snow almost down to the 
fields ; these snowy mountains formed the background of the 
retiring picture. We f<*lt grejit regret at leaving behind so 
much Alpine scenery unvisite^l, but the stern necessity of 
limited time compelled us to proceed. 


At one o'clock, ▲. m., we entered the portal of Boleure, and 
here we dined, and our horses had tlieir long rest Although 
thiA town does not now contain 5000 inhabitapta, it )ia8 evi( 

t Absbhil «in> AxciBXT Aruobv. 


dontly boon rogartled ns nn imi>orl«nt plnw. To tjiinbk' it to com- 
tnarni tlia pnsnt^ of the A»r, sixty yemm wein spent in fortiry- 
in;; it willi poircrful tow(>ri nod walls of hewn stono, wliicU are 
lliick and liigh. Tbo riTer Aar forms a naturnl tk'fence on 
one sijc. Tlid fortlficatioiM have, however, b<«ii converted 
into A promenade, adorned witJi trees, as at Lucch. Sulnuru 
is well boilt, with stone houses, which are in ^neml luAy, and 
both in the town and its environs, there aro cstablisliiiu'iils 
indicAting wealth and distinction. 1 am not aware that there 
is now any thing to distin^lsh Soleure, except ilH antiquities, 
its beautiful position, and Uio licJi treasures of fbatil* in its 
vicinity, many of whicli we saw in — 

Thb MrauuM. — Witli soroo difficulty we found tJio mu- 
seum, ill a remotu part of the town, on the opposite aide of the 
Aar, and wu luid time only to gluniw nt tlio fusEllH of the Jura 
formntion, and of tlio tertiary, in which it abounds. 

llie collection apiMara tu be ueglecied, ill-arranged, and in 
some disorder. It is rich iu foawls, cspe^^ially those in this 
viuiuily. There are thirty specimens of the fossil turtle, and 
many of the saurians. The judatnl bones, llie natural pave- 
ment of the mouths of ftshee, are here nnmerous, and tn tino 
preaurvatjon. TUia collodion was formed principally by the 
hibont of Prot Stmre, and with propw Inisuro would afford an 
mlcreetiag object of study. 

There are equestrian and other moniimpnts in various piiri«. 
of the tow^i, comracmurntive of distinguished persons. 

TitB CATammAL was finished in 1778. Its architeclnrc 
is Roman, with a light, rich, and graceful interior. Wo walked 
through it with the more pleasnro after vi»tiDg 

Tqb Arabxal axd Ancient ARMORr. — The collection of 
aneienl armor in this arsenal is more exlensiv« than in any 
uUi«r plaoo la SwiUterhiud. A very la^ apartment is filled 
with it, and tlieru ant said to be 800 suitot. A considerable 
nutiibor of figur™ are dr^^ssed in fiill armor, willi appropriate 
underdraiBUi, aud thuir couuienanoas and manners aro those of 


one of them, as you enter the room, presents anna, with the 
usual military salute. Next you see a council of military 
sages, who are addressed by a robed figure standing in the 
midst of the circle. Ue is apparently intended for Peter the 
llcrinit, pleading the cause of the crusades, while one of the 
waniors holds up the banner of the cross. On the outside of 
the circle of warriors several ladies, in the costume of that 
period, are looking encouragement These automatic figures, 
although they cannot boast of much dignity, still answer some 
valuable purpose, by exhibiting the manner in which the 
armor was worn. It must have very much encumbered the 
brave knights, and would be quite inconsistent with modem 
warfare. Indeed, but a very small portion of it is now retained 
in actual service. The cuirassiers wear a breastplate and hel- 
met of steel or brass, and I believe also a defence for the back, 
and chains sometimes depend from the helmet, to protect the 
neck from the stroke of a sword. Amazons seem not to have 
been entirely fabulous, for there is in tliis collection a complete 
suit of armor adapted to the female form, and it is not a soli- 
tary instance among the collections which we have seen. 
Several of the ancient wall pieces are preser\'ed here. The 
wall })iece was a very large and long musket, mounted upon a 
stand like a swivel, so as to turn every way. It must have 
been a very formidable weapon, as from its great length, and 
the precision with which it could be aimed, it was capable of 
doing execution at a great distance. 

There also is a diabolical machine, fumisheil with a multi- 
tude of barrels, to discharge a shower of balls by firing a train 
of jH>wdor. It turns on an axis, so as to bring into play several 
of these batteries, and there was, moreo«;.'r, a long central tube 
for distant objects. This apparatus was, in fact, a gigantic 
revolver, almost exactly the type of its moilern representatives. 

How much ingenuity has been lavished upon inventions 
for the destruction of human life I 

There is an ancient clock tower here, which claims to be 
~^ man. It is teven asserted that its date is 500 years befisra 

SotBtiRB TO Walsehboduo Thoubs. 2SD 

ChriBt, but this ia not credited, and it U with moro probability 
of truth KMributeil to tlie liurgnndinn kiag^. 

StAoun ia, Itowevcr, a very ancient dty. Swiss recruits 
eru formerly unl'Mled here for the sorvice of Fnmce, Spun, 
le Pop«, und the king of Naplcn. We saw them io the ser- 
vice of tbo Pop«, and tho king of Naples hu a contract for 
Strips blood wliicJi oxpircs in 1BS5. 

During the ruvoluUon, Boleure was a place of great report 
for dititingui«hed French omigrante. Tlio celebrated Tbaddeua 
£o9ciuako, who fuu^ht both for Ameiiciui independence and 
ibr ihnt of his own country, pa»>d thu latter years of his life in 
'Soltture, and died in tLia city. It is still visited by many invaUda 
&r Uu! sake of the uir, and for the benefit of goat's milk. 

Not miuiy miles Iwyond Suleuru we left tlic rich and beau- 
tiful plnitis of Switzerland, and enti:r«(I a narrow in ountainous 
Talley. boundod on botli sides by liigh precipices of hraestone. 

Ity dvgr<K*, tho mngniGccnt acrnory of the snowy moun- 
tains, which, since we entered the northern parts of Lombaitly, 
had not been often out of view, faded away, and we enjoyisl a 
parting giimpse of the snow-white lops nnd sides, ns we ad- 
vannxl into the narrow vall»y. Tlie flcal view was taken junt 
U the moment when the light, reflected from the declining sun, 
rendered the vision peculiarly brilliont and improeaive. It was 
like parting with old frienda. 

Akcikkt CisTLBs. — Wo pasffd two ancient cuiles, aitu- 
Mod, the ono on tlie Ht, the other on the right, of whose 
bittory Ruiny legends remain. 

I'erched upon lofly and almost iuacoMMbl* precipices of 
n>ck^ they are very conspicuous and grand in their desolation. 
Ill (he daik ages, tlicy must have been very fiirmidable. It is 
•aid that from ono of tliem, tJiai of Falkmitrin, black-mail 

270 RzBB TO Baslb. 

facility as the only pass for two confluent roads was mt its 
foot Rudolph Van Wart, who, at one time, po oBOC B o d thk 
castle, was broken on the wheel for conniving at the death of 
the Emperor Albert 

We now ascended a long mountain road, of rery gentle 
acclivity. Thunder-clouds hung over our heads, and the rain 
descended in torrents while we drove rapidly down the oppo- 
site declivity. We were in the midst of the grand mountain 
scenery of the Jura, whose horizontal strata, projecting in well- 
defined Hdos along the deep chasms, appeared distinct, as in a 
diagram, and were strongly contrasted with the high and 
abrupt precipices. The most beautiful verdure adorned the 
steep slope of the mountains, the intense green being exalted 
by the rain, while a mellow light from the sun, just sunk be- 
neath the horizon, shed a golden hue around. 

As the coachmen quickened their speed, we made a sudden 
turn by another old castle, and drove rapidly into the village, 
lying on one crowded street, in a narrow valley. Here we 
were received into a very plain but comfortable inn, where, 
after our evening repast, our books and our pens gave a quick 
transit to the hours which brought as to the time of repose. 
The German language was now every where spoken around us ; 
how different in sound from the musical cadence of the Italian, 
and the graceful flexions of the French ! If, however, this rich 
and copious language was dissonant to our American ears, we 
were charmed with a sudden outpouring of vocal music in the 
streets, from a number of persons walking, and singing hymns 
in a sacred harmony. 

glh tfl §aslt. 

This journey of eighteen miles presented no new features. 
We passed through the considerable town of Lesthal, and ar- 
rived at Hasle at U:n A. m. 

ri'ULic OoJkcTS IX lUsLK. — After our morning refresh- 


I tnvnt, wo rinted a v«iy hrge and handsomo buikiiog. vrtKleil 
hy the city, which contains mtotb] important mlablishmonb. 

Tint LtunARY baa 50,000 toIuhxm, unJ is rich in idhuu- 
•pri[>t^ TlioTO are here aulograpUs of Luther, Meliuicthon, 
Erasmoa,* and Zuinfrliiw; and ttiore art< also the auU uf tho 
[ Council of BnalD in thrco volumes. 

PimrHK UALLSitr contaius paintings and skotvlies by 
the younger Holbein, and numerous original druwings and ^^o• 
•ign* l>y tJio Kime artist ; slw jiu cxevUvut portrait of EraBmuu, 
aa well as of Bernouillj atitl EuIit, both of whom wure natives 
of H.iale. There aro many otlier piclurea byre. In a distinct 
room ihera is a lai^ ootlevtiun of portraits, alt of onu bimi; 
moiig thom are repnsvntations of Um princlpttt men of Bnsl*!, 
and also a picture of &(iluin]>udiuB. 

The CoLLEonoK of Natural tltsTOBT in ibe great build- 
ing already named is rery c-unsiderahlv, and in the diflWeut 
departmenla, it is highly rospeotable; but there was notliinj; 
very poouliur bi-yond wlial wo hare seen in other cities. 

We had the pleasure of an interview with tlio celebrated 
I'mToMor Schuenbein. lUo well-known discoverer of gun corion 
and of oxouu. lu puraon uiid raaniivn be is a perfetl Oennan, 
but bu speaks tho English Inngnngu v<!ry welL Hu was so 
kind as to unfold to iia, at our n;qut«r, somo very iulf naliiig 
I obwrvations. He showed us also some instructive exp^rimonts, 
mits, in regard to oimne — a subject on whiuh much 
L obscurity has reete^l, and which ap|Kiiii3 to he now assuming n 
) intelligible form. Friendly relations for the future wero 
Vntikblisbed with this gentleman, who is frank and kind in his 
maumTS, and full of informal ion. 

TrtK CATDBoaAL or Mimstkr is a solemn old huilding of 
t It is coDstracled of red sandstone, like the ua- 
|tli>HJral uf Cb«E9ter, in EugUnd. It is not a ooiniuuu archlteo 
Klural inulerial on the continent; the e^ict, however, is not bad> 
^This (utlhodral ii> nior« than 800 yunia old. euunting from tb« 

■ The seal ■nd IwDgsr cf Enunio* arc prcaercsd hero. 

272 Basle. 

time of its foundation. The cloisters are in high p rc a er v a tioB, 
and arc exceedingly venerable. It was vciy interesdog to walk 
under those arches, that have heard the voice of gone-bj cen- 
turies, and beneath ^-hich Erasmus, Ecolampadius, and many 
other eminent men, have moved and meditated, in holy re- 
tirement. We lingered over their tombs with a deep feeling 
of reverence. We gazed also on the numerous memorials of 
the dead in tlio profound crypt into which we descended ; and 
surrounded every where by the impressive proo& of man^s 
brief concern in the affairs of this world. Here, and in 
many other temples and mausoleums, have we seen the 
very marble effigies on the floor, so worn by the friction 
of human feet, that almost every vestige of the features of 
the dead, and even tlie inscriptions, that were intended to 
transmit their names and fume to a distant posterity, are 
almost totally etlaced. It gave us additional pain to see in 
this cathedral many monuments mutilated by wanton violence, 
especially by knocking off the features of the face, while the 
form of the person remains. I have l»efore censured this un- 
holy warfare against monuments, which, under every change of 
religious and political opinion, and amidst the most strenuous 
efforts of reform, should bo held sacred as memorials of the dead. 

Among the mutilated monuments was one of the Empress 
Anne, " wife of Rudolph of Ilapsburg, and mother of the lino 
of Austrian princes." 

We entered the Concilium Scud, in whii:h were held some of 
the meetings of the Council of Bju*le, and of its committees. The 
room remains ;isit was in that era (143G to 1444), during 
which years the Council — in the age when the great lieforma- 
tion WiLs dawnin;; Althou<;Ii it was not fully discloscil until the 
next ct'ntury — de]K>sed one 1*o]h% and put up another. 

The Hotel de Ville. — The city hall was visited by our 
ladies, who found in it many interesting antiquities. lu exterior 
is imposing from its magnitude and many -colored surfiKKJ. 

In a rapid survey of the city in a carriage, we observed ita 
permanent luiissy architecture, its extensive hospital, its ancient 


u'lVK Rkuai 

waili, surroundoij by a wiJc iiuiJ deep fosao, Tuniislitil 
also with lofty tciwors, and sl|oiig i>urialH, and luop-liulcs f-ir 
muskuUy or orehcry, now rendered vain aod uu^tory ty 
tba terrible power of boinbardtnent. Wa saw alsu beuutirul 
promeriadea, iiliadttd by Qnu trcvs, and c-bmircd by gusbing Toiin- 

. tains thwHi deligbtful aourcw of liuulUi, clcnnlincss and recrea- 
tion — a bountirul j^roTUioii, and a rieb blessing, ns rara in our 

^ AnxtncaD citiM as common in Europe 

OoHPAiiATivs Rbmakiu. — If t were to name any leading 
ll itnprovcmeuU, in which almoet all Europe is superior 
B tiia United UtaUis, I would mention their roads, bridges 

find fimntains, nnil, in general, their excdient agriculture. We 
nay add hImo Uinxr niimerooa iiutitutioRs for the promotion of 

, KicDce nnd the artJi, wliiub are found in cities not larger in 
population than Now llafon; for example, Padua, Benie. Basle, 
the Saxon Freylierg, and even Genoa, aro all comparatively 
amall plac««. In tliuao tilies, and others that might bo naroal, 
many institutions hato boicn crcalod, with caipenEiTc buildings, 
weH-fiimislicd Iilirarios,cnbinct8of natural history, and apparatus 
and lecture rooms for inslmction. E<ron the small cityof Neuf- 

I obatel, with a ]><:ipulation not exceeding 7000, leM tlian one-third 
that uf New Tlaren. is greatly beyond us in tiie munificent mi- 
dowmcnt of au institution f(» popular education,* which is, in 
fact, a groat UnivGrsity in almost every thing except the name. 
But I trust that in due time we shall follow out such noble ex 
mples more fully than we bnvo hitherto done. It must not be 

. forgotten, however, that tbo woaltli of our smaller cities !« not 
great, and that many objects of benevolence make heavy de- 

' tnnnda upon American rosourc'e, far more than is known in 

I any portion of (Mjulanaulal Europe. In general, these objects aru 
I tbo Uuitwl Btal^ with great liberality. Considering 

' Ihe comparative youth rf our countiy, much has been done; 

y and we may hope tiiat lung before we have «tgoy«d, like Ku- 

illegle Iiiu ■ diSortnl, anil, in •uiii<i mpvot^ a hiichor dr^ 

274 BA8LK. 

ro|K*, a tliousaud years of civilization, we shall not be behind the 
nations of the old world in noble institutions. We have even now 
not a few, and they arc, year by year, coining into existence. 

We regretted having only a few hours to devote to Baslei 
which, although containing now only 24,000 inhabitanta, has 
been a place of considerable celebrity, and has been distin- 
guished, particularly in the history of the Reformation. We 
crossed the bridge over the rapid and powerful Rhin^ which 
flows impetuously along, a cold, glacial flood, having received 
the Aar, and many more tributary streams, now j&eed from their 
sedimentary impurities, and presenting a torrent of deep green. 
The only imperfect and ill-conditioned bridge over a stream 
of magnitude which wo have seen in any part of Europe, we 
found here, in the structure which spans the magnificent Rhihe. 

l^asle is the re^iidence of many opulent families ; and its po- 
sition, just below where the river becomes navigable, and in 
an angle on the frontiers of France, Germany, and Switzerland, 
gives it ailditional importance. It was anciently a part of 
Swabia, and did not join the Swiss confederation until 1501. 
It still retains many of the characteristics of an Imperial Free 
1 own. 

Who can p:iss the Rhine any where, and especially in these 
higher countries, witliout feeling tliat he is crossing a stream 
more often than any other in Europe reddened by human 
carnage ; the banks of this grand river, which flows through 
the fairest portions of £urope, are fertilized by human blood, 
shed in innumerable campaigns, from the era of Roman 
]>ower to our own times. With few exceptions, tlie wars have 
not been waged in the cause of freedom, but have been pro- 
ducAid by the quarrels of cabinets, often under the influence of 
wicked ministers, and courtesans, or of weak and depraved 
monarclis. Blucher justly remarked, that if those who make 
wars were obliged to march in the van, exposed to the showers 
of lead and tempests of iron, to tlie cuts of charging squadrons of 
cavalry, and the thrust of the bayonet, we should have very few 

^asli ta irejbDrg, in grtstfeaa. 

Au viiuibus atrtmi iii Cuur miles, tlirougl llie UitnUiry of 
■.UhiiIi', ou tliu righl Iwtik of Uie Itliiiie, and fivo iuUgs inoro 
l.bruuf^bt UB to tli« Btatiuti-tiouM of the railroad, wliero we w^tro 
■addrcsHvd in Germiin by thu tnilitnry guards of tlie Duke of 
I BadtMi, in wboM icrriUtriiw vrn liiul now nrrivoU. Our Euffliali 
T and Knuidi were ns uaintiJligible to tiit'm us ttiuit GurmaD was 
I to lis; but tlicy wvrn good-naturui], guntlcmauly in«n, and 
[ IftugLed liturlilf with us nt our mutual jwrplcxitiee. 

AtUr Buuw timu, however, they discovered our courier, who 
I »a> buMly eDguged in wsftortiog our baggagu. By opening the 
I truiikii pruujpUy, and offeriug to sliow uviiry lUiDg, he disarmed 
I nupivion, and w« were mod releaned, afli.*r they bad weighed 
r paokagca; for In Germany all luggage ia an extra charge. 
Lhla ctiae, however, we could not complain, m we bad to 
I pay only eight francs for tite baggage of six jiermna for forty 
I' miles, thrwo^uarteni uf a cent per mile. 

We took a secoml'daas car, which we found to bo perfectly 
B<DmforUble, willi good uUHhiona, ample space for feet and limba, 
BukI inferior to Uto fint class only in decoTalioni. 

The r^lway was good, and tlie weather fine, alltiougb to- 

I wards evening it became neceesary to put on our outer gar- 

I meDta and to dose the windows of onr carriage. The country 

I WHS generally level ; tliere were, however, ledges of limestone, 

, which are regarded by giKtlt^istn as coeval with the coral rag 

of England. We passed ihroiigli three tunnels in tlie course 

of as many milca; one of them was three-fourths of a miie iu 

leugtb. Tbo fields appeared k-ea firtilo thiin in Switzerland, 

^H nor were they as well cultivated ; but there wus a desirable 

^^k diange in the architt'ctnre and domestic arrangements. Those 

^H disagreeable asaoointions of the bouse with the bam, and with 

^H beapa of curupost. hod duuippeared. Wd tio longer saw vast 

^H-tliatvhed ruufaL, vitrdant witii gra»i niid grtten moss, and project- 

^^Bing aIniMt to the ground ; or the domidl of the family cav«s«di 

27fl t'KETRl'ltO. 

witli vsiuillciiwj nnd pftinteil sliingW In yliux at sach In^'fai 
oils builditigis we fouiid n^nt nii'l tnsleful ilwcllnig* ob ill 
farms, nod man; of iIk'Iii dccor»ted the n>aii-«i(lo ; ihej i 
Deall; umbvllfohul b; liglit, ttutuftil omnmenls. Ttie w 
were olworred na in Snitzorlond, «nd, m in iJuil c 
vine Hdorned many of the fields as wall n* llic hill-«d<& 

The bpantiful Rhino was fully in ripw dnr 
jiart of our ride, while the monntnins of ihu Jiim clinn i 
on our left, and those of the Gluck Forest on our right. A3t'\ 
along, bt^nning with the Sret station on the ntilfoad, a 
upon all other housea, public and private, flags were A 
fings with three brond bands of colont. red, white and yeOow 
they were raised in honor of the Duke of Baden, wIm, Utfill 
day before, had passed towards liKsle. 
twilight, we descried tita city of Pntjborg rrpodng on il« l»M 
lying plain, nnd our eyes went arrested bj- a lino rtoijoi)-]) 
8plL-ni]idIy deroraCcd like the reet Upk we took ui omBibl 
and entered the town beneath a trinmphnl arch, enjclcd i 
honor of the Duke, and gay with flag* and cvergretna. DnM 
ing to the principal hotel, we found it fiill — iho only xm 
of the kiud which we have met with in Europe, W« i 
not, howerer, toeers by tlie refusal, fi>r in a widn mid qui 
«trtet we lound another hotel, witli ample apartnienta, good h 
an excellent table, nnd the moat prompt nnd courteous sttleHiM 

TtiE CiTiiEDRAL at Freyburg is in nome r«specta o<w • 
tlie most interesting in Oermany. It is complotety finl 
nnd has c«eaped datruction during the variuna win w\A 
have laid waste other jwrls of Oomiany. It is very laiyi^ wJ 
proportioned, and tartefuUy decorated. Its malerial b i 
(utnrlstone. 'fho principal tower ta 380 feet high, i 
on a si^unrc baac, terminating in a delicate needle of the ti 
beautiful open work trac<'ry, oil in otone. Tlie stiiiitLiI fcloas I 
•picndid. Thfl chuirjh wa» begun in llfi by iJonmd IIL,ai 
the choir in 15)3. Uigh ruBM wu about hu'inn iwli^bntnl I 
we entered, and wo nnnained in our amia duHn|[ ibit irn 
which WM fully Httended by jwopl4i of tbe n|ip«r tIm 

Frktbubo to Sihasburo. '211 

Among 15,000 inhtbitiints of Frcyburg iticrc «ru 1500 
rrotcstniits, who have s bsiid»onie chuich of their nwn. . 

Tub UKiVBBstTT was foniided in 1456. hdiI litu 400 hIu- 
I deotf. We were without iBtroduction ; hat we fonnd here, ns 
I hu been the fact every where, the greatest courtesy and kinrl- 
We •ent in onr canla to Prof Fromlwrg, tlio ^logist, 
y snd to Prof. Von Bftbo, Uie chemist, who promptly appeared, 
I will nttentively showed us the Mtiaeum and L.iborator}-. We 

■ did not presume that we were known, but we counted upon 
tbe romity of men who cultivate liberal knowledge, and wo 

I have never found this confidcnca misplAc«d, 

In this Univereily the collectjoos in science are extensive 
I wid valuable in all the principal departments of natural hi»- 
I toy. and the speciincns are arrange and put up with skill ond 
I taste. There is here the most gigantic caniel which I have 
f wen in any collection ; the brown alinj^ hair hangs in Isrge 
< md thick lufto from the chin and limbs, and lies flat upon 
' the back. There are here also excellent fossil frwh-watpr 

[»pii&l saurians of the tonui-riMtris family, fmm 
L Wirtemberg. The laboratoij is a well finished place, and 
f well used. 

ill city is very well built, witli wide, elean and 
I' handsome streets. It is on the outskirts of the Ulack Forest, 
I M tho mouth of Uie nollenthal (Valley of Ht'll), upon (he 
[ Triusam, which supplies the town with water. It turn a tine 
w pramenide within the town, and tlie verdant mouiitaius iif 

■ noderalfl height, and avoniiM of trees are gracefully grou|H<d 
I around, somewhat in tho manner of New Ilaven, in Connecti- 

Frcyburg is a beautiful little city, and well worth tho de- 
I fulion of A day. 

Irtfilratg to Strastmrg. 

This jfjuniey, of about 7S miles, wns pcrfciniji--d bi'lween 2 
i-.«, a rapid tntunil cotupBrL-d with our ilow j)rogr««s in 
n tettnriufn of It«ly. We imsnecl aUing >iwi ViW^ <A 'St«> 

278 Strasburg. 

Rhine, through a fertile region almost entirely leve!, highly cul- 
tivated, and as beautiful as any flat countiy can be. Beiog 
entirely without fences, it was a vast sea of wheat and gnam, 
and tlie various crops which we have seen elsewhere were 
abundant liere, forming a very rich prospect The peopk 
were busy in reaping the wheat and gathering in the hay, but 
a heavy shower interfered with their labors, while it gave frash- 
ness to the verdure and the landscape. The country orer 
which we travelled was evidently formed by the Rhine, whose 
alluvial deposits have produced a rich soil. 

Arrived at the Rhine, opposite Strasburg, we found Prus- 
sian troops occupying the shore, and our passport was civilly 
inspected and promptly returned by one of the officers. 

The river, with an impetuous current, was flowing by in 
grandeur ; but we passed it with perfect convenience on a 
bridge of boats, which are both numerous and very strong ; 
being perfectly secured from moving out of their position, while 
they are at liberty to rise and fall with tlie varying flood ; the 
entire structure is so firm, tliat an army, with cavalr}' and 
artillery, might pass without causing the slightest disturbance 
among the boats. 

A branch of the Rhine has formed an island, on which is 
the custom-house ; but, as wo intended to return, we left our 
biiggage at Kehl, a town on the opposite shore, and we there- 
fore took only a few light articles, which occasioned little delay 
and much amused the French * soldiers on guard, who laughed 
heartily at our knick-kuacks, destined for our little friends at 
home, an<l allowed us to p:Lss freely on towards the city. 

A conspicuous monument U) the memory of General Dos- 
saix Ktands alone in a meadow on this island ; it is surrounded 
by willows, lie was killed, in June, 1800, in the desperate 
battle of Man;ngo, almost in the moment of victory ; having 
contribut<Ml much to restore the battle after it had been appa- 
rent! v lost, 

* One Hide v( tlie river in occupied by French troops^ and ths 
other bv Prussian. 



iittniBbu^ liwi low, lfk« Uie towns in IlolliiuJ ; and ulUioufjh 
I city <>f 80,001) iiihubitiuiU, it loakeB no gtvsA dgare at a 

KoHTirivATiONB. — Aa wu approacbal the town, il« Dum«r- 

iiiM furlificHlioiiK IwcAiiii.' oonRi'Icuous. It is most tiioroughiy 

lH.<{(irt witU wait* on every mUo, and tliu apjirondi to them is 

giianJcd by ditclies nnil by many outwork*. The river flows 

thrtiugh the city, «n<l ]» so i^oanetilud with tlte works, tknt the 

fotw) cno be tillcvj and the country laid under water, on the 

npproach of an invading army. Straoburg was a free im|>eriiil 

cily. until I*uis XIV, in lime of profound [tvaoe, seised njjon 

it as his prey. The Freucli have now held it as n froulier I'ur- 

trew fur laO ycArs. It being regnrded ua a kvy to (iermany, it 

has an ansennl containing IfiS.OOO atnnd of amis, anil ftQ'2 

piocM of luinnon, 4 1 2 of wiiich are rcijuircd for the dcfunto of 

the town nnd citadel. Application was mode on our behalf lliaC 

WQ might Intra pcrmianon \a see the ar»enal, but it was not 

ui'»>ilrlii on tliu day tlint we were there. 

Tho general appearance of Strosbui^ is tlmt of an aneiifut 

n Uiirn, and such in fiict it i«, for it lias been very little 

iiigcd sinci* its annexation f > Krani^'. The inhabitatita wear 

n national roetnme, nnd speak bolli Pruneh and German. 

9 town is well built of stone ; in a large proportion of ttiu 

« the roofa arc very sleep and high, with two or mure rvwa 

nncr windows, answering to as i:iany dlvuions by fluuni in 

v attic In Stnisburg lliere are uut many objeels of pivrlii:u- 

t interest, 

Ainong tlin mi«t I'onspicuoUB is a eulusial bronze niatue in 
fepublic Riunrc, ereuted in honor of Jolin Gullemberg, who, 
B tiiia eity, tirat jiracliscd llie art of printing, and ooinpluti.-d 
nt Majenee, The jwdeslid of the statue is sur- 
wnHed by groupn of allegoriunl figurL*, n-pre«enting the 
inmplis of thu art and what it has achieved for mankind. 

1 another square, is a large bronze monument, also of 
loloasal dimensions, to comroemomte Oeneral KIcbcr, who, aa 
I Denanix, waa a natire of Slrasburg. He wan left hi 

260 Stbasbi'ro. 

Napoleon as commander-in-chief of the armj of Egypt, when 
the former suddenly departed for France in a FVench oonrette^ 
that had been secretly dispatched from Europe for the purpose of 
recalling him to crush the imbecile government of the Directoiyv 
a work which he so well performed. 

Kleber was a man of gigantic frame and strength, and 
could, in open fight, have foiled a platoon of soldiers ; but a 
single Arab stealthily assassinated him in his tent, June 14, 
1800. In addition to the inscription, there are baa-retiefr 
representing two of his battles in Egypt, in which he triumphed 
over tlie Turks and Egyptians. 

Marshal Saxe. — In the Lutheran church of St Thomas 
we saw the interesting and beautiful monument of Marshal 
Saxe. It is composed of a group of figures, and the effect is 
very solemn and impressive. 

There is an open tomb, an actual marble sarcophagus of 
large dimensions ; the lid is lifted, and tilted a little obliquely 
backward, .is if in preparation for an interment At one end 
of the tomb, is a skeleton figure representing Death — Death is 
slightly veiled by a robe thrown loosely over him, while he 
rccIinf'S his head upon the sarcophagus, and Hercules, with 
sorrowful exj)ressic.>n, stoops and leans upon the other end of 
the tomb. On the riglit, a binding female figure, personifying 
France, beautiful, but in deep sorrow, raises her hand to pre- 
vent the voluntary descent of Miirshal Saxe to the grave, and 
at the bame time to arrest the advance of Death; the Maishal 
stands erect, of fine form and features, and with a calm mien, 
but hiin one foot iidvanced, as if ho were about to seek his last 
resting-place. On his right, are allegorical figures, represent- 
ing the nations over armies he had been victorious. 

Marshal Saxe wjus a natural son of Frederick 11., Elector of 
Saxony and King of Poland ; his mother was a Swedish lady, 
tlio Count(»s8 of Konismar, of great beauty and accomplishments. 
He siLstaine<l a high repuUition as a military commander, fiist 
under Marlborough, in the wars of Queen Ann, and afterwardii 
in the ser>'ice of Franco, lie died on the 30th Novembefi 

Tus Catiiumial. 

17fiO, aged 34 : liis body wm eEnbulinod, nnd bis hvait, iduIuwkI 
in B n\VKt pll box, was dcpoeittKl in llie ciliurcti of St. Tbomns. 

The monument i»wl iu HrtisL, Pig^lle, 35 yi!Ars of lnl>i>r, 
•rid is JTMlly rcganlud ns one of tlie fini«t productions of the 
flhistil. Diiriug tho revolution, Iho clmrch wss used aa a rcpo- 
■itory for straw, nnd « citirjin of Slnubui^, tiftm<^ Mrnigelftchott, 
fiOveriHl ibt) monument so eScvtu&lly with bunilW of bay and 
■traw, that it nas uivcd from the Vandaliton of lliat puriod. 

Marshal Saze va» a strenuous Prolestniit of th« Lulltemn 
fcitb, but was notoriously licentious, and «n ettrly marnnge with 
fbe Countess of Lobii), a ludy of wealth and beauty, was broken 
Vp in a few yean, ns bia b&bils wura inconHisteDt with tliat 
nlation and with his religious profession. 

CorsT OF NAasAcr. — Twilight was bi^nning, but it was 
iiofficient for tho inRpmstion of two human bodies in a Rtate of 

irvatjon. Thoy are reportod to be the remains of the 
'Count of Nnsanu Sonrwcrdcn, about SO years old, and of ins 
dauglitrr of 14. Tbu bodies were embalmed more thsn a 
century ago, but wcr« rediscovered only a few years sincp, and 
fcnve been brouglit up and placed in a small room, where, being 
toreeiied by gla», they may be inspected. Tlio light was still 
'■nfiicient to enable us to see that the daughter was disfigured, 
'but a sparkling gem was vidiblo in the ring upon her finger. 
The fsco of the father was not so much changed, and wna not 
particularly revolting ; it was of a light color, and not blackened 
ns the %yptian mummies are by bitumen. Such exhibitions 
tho human form, art<ir death hu done his work, mtist always 


Tub CATasDaAi.. — ^The Cathedral of Strasburg is famous 

the world. I shall tberufore not dttempt na elabonle 

iptiuD, but endeavor only to convey tome general impres- 

of the efiiMtwhIeb it produced oo un The spiro rises 474 

;t aboTo the pnvemtmt; !t is 70 fewt higher than St. Paul's, 

J it 34 f«4t abovo the gruMl pyramid uf %ypt.* Still, owing 

■ Th« luenniulBtimi ot twiil nraund Um faau ef tJia pynmids hAS 
Inoli Jidilculivd their orginal heiehL 

282 Stbabburo. 

to tho largo dimensions of the entire building, and the fight 
and graceful structure of tho spire, it does not impreaB the 
observer as being of this extraordinary altitude. The nave of 
tlio church^is 230 feet high, and the round window at the end 
is 48 feet in diameter. This wonderful structure was b^^ 
nearly 800 years ago. The material is red sandstone, obtained 
in the vicinity; it has proved very enduring; the church hat 
tlicreforo suflfered very little from time, and the chiselled and 
carved material, after so many centuries of exposure to the 
weather, retains the sharpness of outline which it had when 
first finished. 

Tho Cathedral of Strasburg was intended to have two 
towers, like tliose of the cathedrals York and Westminster in 
England ; but, as tho expenso is enormous, it is probable that 
tlie existing tower will remain solitar}\ This deficiency gives 
the cathedral a disfigured ap})earance, especially as the unfin- 
ished tower, which is square, rises but half way. 

Kxtcrnally, Strasburg Cathedral is distinguished by a light 
and airy gracefulness both of structure and material ; the sand- 
stone is cut and carved into a thousand forms, some of 
them, especially in the finished tower, extremely delicate and 
beautiful. Bven the statues and images, which are very 
numerous, are chiselled out of sandstone, which has an agree- 
able color of reddish gray. I believe there is not an image of 
marble upon the whole buildinpr. The number of images that 
cluster around the portal and adhering to its walls is ver}' groat; 
thov fonii a host of little beinrrs, in addition to tlie statues of 
full size. Indeed the profusion of those decorations appears to 
be extravagant both in point of tiisto and economy, and some 
are quite out of place. In a temple, a building devoted 
to religion, it is not easy to undei-stand the propriety of mount- 
ing men on horseback high up in the tov^'ers ; for such aerial 
equestrians are to be si'on here, 8i.'ntinel-like, in positions where 
saints and angels would seem more appropriate ornaments. In 
the interior of this cathedral there is a simple dignity and 
grandeur — a holy majesty that is almost overpowering. 

Itet Olook. 383 

Tliu magnificent rows of ooiuiDDS of gigantic dimeiiMons 

I and nltiuidfl teea in luug punjiective, eic«ed in eSect hay thing 

r Btat I liad eliiewbere uwn. The extKino richn«3» of the 

I windows, filled, ou both Bides, wilL etjuned gtaw, commemorut- 

I tog, botj] htsUirically and aU<.^ri«&Uy, the eTcnta of Uiq Bibk', 

L wl tho oliaranten and catastrophes of saints and martyra, Slla 

I both tbc eye und tlie miud with delight; and when we turn 

[ from gazing to thu right and the kft along the extended line uf 

[ iMtirral windows, and look upon tie vast circle of gorgeous 

I Itgfat wliioh itrcauu down from the great picture Inminniy at 

L llie end — a <urcu!ar window 48 feet in diaiueler, and pn»ent- 

I Isg, in radinting lines, more tknn the colors of the nuiibow, we 

e ready to exclaim that ut ha» not Men shorl of natiim in 

I beaaty, while she noels her iu the purtnuuency of her hues, 

I which hnre not here been dimmed by the lapse of centuries; nnd 

r If no violence i* coiniultted on lliU Umple, ihey will beoqaiilly 

^ brilliant after a thousand yean more shall have passed away. 

The Clock. — There is in this catliodnd a wonderful clock, 

whiob has been NUbstitutud for nnoiderono that has been reninved. 

The present clock was constnicted by n man who is still living ; 

U appears to be about fiO feet high and more than half tlmt 

I width; it was mute for 50 yean, but is now again a living 

I thronomeler. 

Among iu miuiy performances are lite following. Ii tells 
e houn, hulf hount, nnd quarter hour*, and the bclU nhiirh 
e tho report of the flight of time aro struck by autoiualon 
^rex. A youth strikiis Itie ({uarler, a mature man the half 
r, and an old man, as the figure of Time, the full hour. 
Q)is dock t«ih aleo the times and seasons of ecclesiastical cvnii'S 
R lar a* they are aaaociated wttli aatJononiical plienomenn, and 
It givM tlie pluucs of the moon fuid tlie equation of time. 

niion, a cock,4noantMl on a pillar, crowa thrice, when 

p proocaMoa of Uic apostles coniis out, and passes iu view of 

o Saviour ; among th«m is Peter, who, shrinking from tho 

e of hi* Lonl, shows, by liis embarrassiul dumeonar, that bu 

a heard the orowiug of the cock, nnd has fully undur«tuo>L vIa 

284 Strasbubo to Hudxlbkbo. 

meaniDg. Among the moTements of the automatons which 
we saw, I must not omit to mention, that a beautiful youth 
turns an hour-glass every 15 minutes. There is also a celestial 
circle or orrery that shows the motions of the heavenly bodies^ 

View from the High Towsr. — I ascended one of the toweis 
of the cathedral to an elevation sufficient to afford a correct idea 
of the city and of its position. It is of a form nearly circular, 
and being entirely shut in by walls and outworks, which are 
maintained in a perfect condition, it occupies £Eur leas space than 
a town of the same population would do in America. Being 
in a flat country, and inclosed all around by its fortifications, 
with witter in the fosse, extending as £eu* as I could see, the im- 
pression was not altogether agreeable. 

Departure from Strasburg. July 26. — We left Stras- 
burg in the morning, after a parting visit to the cathedral, to 
obtain a strong impression of tliis magnificent temple. Wo 
returned to tlic river as wo came, and passed one mile and a 
half to the Rhine, and again crossed the stream on the bridge 
of boats. At the town of Keil on the German, now Prussian, 
side of tlie river, wo took u[) our baggage which we had left 
behind, but did not linger in this place, which was formerly 
fortified to resist the invasion of the French, by whom the forti- 
fications were destroyed, and not a vestige of tliem did we see. 

trasburg ta Ijeihlbtrg. 

Again we traversed, by railroad (100 miles in four hours), 
a flat and fertile country, and tlie fields were extremely rich in 
crops, such as have l)een oflxin already mentioned. This region 
is a part of the fruitful alluvion of the Rhine and its confluent 
rivers, which having, from remote time, borne along the spoils 
of the Alps, have spread them, century afti^r century, over the 
plains of level Germany, which they have thus rendered fertile. 

We passed many towns at a distance, and through a few the 
traiu flitted so r.Hpid]y that they hardly produced a picture in 




Uie tve or tlie mind — tliere was Bcarcely time to imiuire (lioir 

Wo ran very new to CarUrubo, thu n.-aidoDtwi'f the 

OrauJ Dukd of Biulcn, and could only obaervu that it is a largo 

llDwo, auJ that ita vnviruns ard in a tiigU sUto of improviiiatmL 

I approached Qeidiilberg, the country Wg«D to rise 

into beautiful and fruitful hilU cultivated in fields of wheat, gnu*, 

and oth^T crops adorning their gonile slopes. The graceful 

oniam«nt of trees and forests w«s not wanting. In the southern 

ions of Italy we had seen few trees ; they were rnore frc- 

it in Tuacany, still more so in Lombardy, and since crosung 

Alps di«y liHve be«n comparatively numeroui. Geneva 

tliu borders of its Uku, N«afchatel and its lake, and the 

nlry between and the Jura Mountains ore not deficient in 

lis fine garniture of the oarlh ; here, in Germany, fgrests ore 

and there is no deficiency of wood either for f^el or 

fur building. 

Floors of stone and brick, and siairv of stone are frequently 
repUcod by wood ; and there is all tlie agreeable diversity crf 
landscape which, in Uio most beautiful parts of our own country, 
is so otlen seen in th« association of cultivated fields, with 
groven, and forests, and clumps, and avenues of trees. 

It is also a groat relief ti:i have emerged from lands swarra- 
il^ with beggars. Since leaving Geneva wo have seen very 
fcw ; in Switzerland and Germany none, except now and then 
• little vagrant, who iniportuneB iJio passing traveller for & few 

AppRoicn TO Hbidilbbro, — Aswedrewnearto thisauciunt 
runownud city, now dimlnuihul to 15,000 inhabitants, its 
lundid scenery orrvstcd our Htl«iiti>>n. Our eyes lingered no 
ig«r on boundleia plains, but high hilla, almost mountains, 
iwd here eUise Ui the Neekar, which is a briLnch of tho 
lirns leaving along both banks only a narrow margin of land. 
Heidelberg stands chiefiy on the left bank. Its long streets 
pflnllel to the river, and nro inloreecltd by othi;ra at 
It angles, 'llie city is clean and handsom«. It has a lnrg« 
iportioa of liousw witli tujjh nnd stoep roo£»< in the <iA 

286 Hbidelbbro. 

German style ; but it has been so often ravaged and burned in 
diffurcni wars, that the number of very ancient buildings is not 
so great as in many other German towns. 

Protestant Worship. — We were very happy to find our- 
selves once more in a city where we could attend worship in a 
Protestant cliurcli, hear a sermon in English, and unite in prayers 
and praises expressed in our own language. Here, as in seve- 
ral other continental cities, we found a small English Episcopal 
chapel. It was an humble building, not capable of containing 
over 150 persons. Not more than 100 were present; but they 
appearc<l devout listeners to a plain, practical sermon, which 
was preached by an English clergyman of very respectable ap- 

This city is dixided nearly equally between Catholics and 
Protestants, the latter having, however, a small majority. It 
was blessed with the early labors of Luther, and of other emi- 
nent reformers. The seed which they sowed has vegetated, 
and the fruit is still apparent It was pleasant to us to learn 
that a friendly understanding prevails between the Protestants 
and Catholics ; and this state of feeling is evinced by an ar- 
rangement which we have not met with any where else. They 
have made an amicable division of the great cathedral of 
Heidelberg between the two denominations. On our way on 
the Sabbatli to the Protestant Episcopal Church, we entered 
the cathedral, and found that a wall of friendly partition, as 
literal jls brick and mortar could make it, had been constructed 
from fioiyr to ceiling. The Protestants have about three-fiAhs 
of the area, and the Catholics the remainder. In the Catii- 
olic portion a full assembly of plain-looking people were earn- 
estly engaged in singing. All were standing, and all ap* 
[H\ir(^d to unite with great zeal in the worship ; indeed, I have 
often Wn struck with the contrast too often seen in our Pro- 
test^nnt churches, which might well stand reproved by tlie de- 
votional aspect of a group of humble Catholics. In the Protes- 
tant division of the church, tlie congregation were not yet as- 
sembled. From what we have been able to learn, wa infer, 

pRonutsoRB Lkokhabo t 


Ml the ProluitanlH itru nnl only in tin; alH'cinilnnt bom in nnm- 
t, bul that thu principal peoplu uro of lliat pen>uHsi(iQ. 
PnorKssous Lkomiaud and Brokn. — A correspoDdeiirio 
Mving keivloforo «xiatnl belwMtn lu and these Iwo emtDent prn- 
■% of the University of Heidelberg, wb teal them our curtlit, 
(1 Kwivod kind ovurturee in return. Professor Bronn being 
1, 1 did Dul 800 Uim ; but my son called on him, And liiid 
1 ngroeable interview Ht hk hoiwc. Profcwor Broun fans n, 
■olIectioD of minerals and foa^li, iiliout 1200 in number. 

With ProfesBor Lconlivd we excIiun^Hl colls, nnd the favor- 

ible iiDprcMiona made by enrly correspondence wuru more llinn 

Kifinued by peisonal coinmunirnlions. Altliough this dis- 

hlgulshed geolagict has passed seventy years of age, ho pO»- 

■ tlie lire nnd energy (if youth, ttitb n delightful eheer- 

(blnesB and wnrmili of nddrew, which at one« placed us at 

6 in his society. Itiehly stored with knowledge, his mind 

» with Intensii vigor, and his thoughts ore conveyed in 

* oonuisu and wull-voleeled language. Many of the most inUii^ 

e&ting of Uie geohigieAl ii]>cdmcns whidi he showed to us 

huvo Wn eolleclcd by himh-lfasd bin son, who is engagci) in 

e pureuitA. While explaining tliein with great animn- 

jn, he often exelnimed, " vmH ! " at iho same time grasping 

nrm of his hi'arer, IrHibing intently in his Ikcn, to obwrve 

■rhi-'tlHU' bv was understoml, and adding ocenEionallv, " Do you 

indcntand t " Aucerding U> lite custom of his country, he 

■Dokea, uaing a long pendent tube, with a porceliun pipe-bowl. 

I Ourinans indulge in much luxury in the choice of ih^ir 

i, And many of tliem are highly adorned. 

Vo had not time to see any otheis among the 40 professors 

n the Univonity, which numbers about GOO students. Professor 

Mnhnrd it the author of numerous original works and memoirs 

n gcob^ and mineralogy, and Ims for a long period of time 

ndited, in connection with Professor lironn, a monthly journal 

dcvol<.'d to these subjects. Mm kouae is full of specimens 

of rocks, and minerak. Ill* private coUedioD oonlalus nearly 

110,000 Kperi 111 ns. Hi* liK-tuiw-rooin bad but amaU acaoarakft- 

288 Heidelbkbg 

dations for a class, iiidicatiBg that the attendanoe was not 

Americans resort in considerable numbers to the Grennan 

Universities. Mr. D y a gentleman from Boston, in New 

England, whose fifimily we had well known, called upon us. He 
ha^l been here two years as a student of law, and three years in 

Heidelberg claims eminent names among the profeasom. 
Gmelin had been ill with apoplexy when we were there. Profet- 
sor Tiedemann is much distinguished in physiology. His pri- 
vate collection contains 11,000 exquisite preparations. 

The University has sustained many vicissitudes. The 
library was plundered of its most valuable manuscripts by the 
ferocious Austrian General Tilly, in 1622, when all the Protes- 
tant professors were dismissed, and were supplanted by Catho- 
lics. Near tlio close of the eighteenth century, after a period of 
decline, the University was again restored by Charles Frederick. 
The number of printed volumes in the library is 150,000. The 
reformer Melancthon was traincnl in this University. 

The I^ridoe. — There is at Ileidelberg a beautiful perma- 
nent bridge of stone over the Neckar, and it conducts the pe- 
<l<'strian to a windin;; ])atli calle<l tlio Philosopher's Walk. It 
Icaijs up one of the lofty hills opposite to the town, and from it 
there is a very extensive prasjioct. It is a favorite promenade. 

ftiitlbtrg (lastle. 

By far the most interesting object in the environs of Hei- 
delberg is its ancient castle, whose extensive and imposing ruins 
rise on a very high hill just back of the town, which they entirely 
overlook. Except .the Coliseum at Rome, and the other am- 
phitheatres, the Parthenon, and some of the mausoleums, I 
have seen no spectacle of ancient architecture so impotiiig. 
Enough of the castle remains nearly entire to enaUe ono to 

HKtnitLDitiKj Castlr- 


(li-Tntaud tliQ wkolu [iluu; iiuiJ tlio portion in ruiiia U w 

kstcnsiro u» lo jirodui'i^ a liiglily piclureisque eflevL IV'vioiiB 

D till! cruel thirty ycun' wnr, wliii;)i began iu 1013 tiiid i-iid^ 

I 1(148, Ilciildbcrg was k splcWitl dly. It baa tM>>-n Hvd 

I Immbntilcil, ttviLit kid in asbua, mid timce tiUcrii hy 

»uit, nnd (I'itiverud ovc-r to pillnge, Tilly, thu HavKgo Ah>- 

I conimandur, in 1G22, sU>rmi.i] und luok tliu town. II» 

KgBvu it over for tlireu dnya to be sacked ; and tlie casllv, sliar- 

Flbg the fnte of tlm city, was obliged to surrendur. In lUi4 

f K Frenuli srmy dvitolatnl the country with fire and sword ; 

I 1688, another French army exceeded its prediioeasorB 


03, Ueidelbeig was again attnuked by tlie French, 
Hid thu utsllu ivas ruined. Its tovnn were blutfn up, and n 
hiTffi portion of tbe H'all of ono of them was previpitated in a 
body into thu dileh, where we taw it lying in uiio mitHs m it 
fell. The castle boa been tlirice bunit, nud has "ten times ex- 
erienusd the borrora of wur." It bits been repeatudly rcslored, 
kbot only as a fortress but lu u splendid pula(«; but in lT64 it 
IS sot on fire by lightning, which was tlie second catastrophe 
n tbut CAiise; for in the Eiitcentli century it wus burned in 
! tamo manner, and since tho destruction of 1704 it baa 
rr been rebuilt 

The material of the coatle ia red aandstone, quarried from 
a which it standi and as in Strasburg Cathedral, tlio 
Jinrvwi] ornaments and images are little injured by long ex- 
it to Ibe weather. 
The castle was not merely one building, but a vast pile, 
usiating of many pnrls, of wliieb entira walls remain, and ex- 
bit, iinpreaaivuly, the beautiful fentnrea of its former dignity. 
e portions of ibe structure aro roofed in to exclude tlie 
(ircatbcr, nnd to admit of being appliol to nae. This is lliu 
i? with the central front, which nppenr* not to bnve been 
materially injnnxl by iJie fire. It is now oeuupiisl ns a mu- 
a of picture!, and of rvlics of nntiijnity, most of which pru- 
klily belonged lo lUo easdu and Uie town. 'Hies are -sw^ 
Vol, rr.-M 

290 Heidelberg. 

interesting and instructive, and a keeper of the collection ex- 
hibits it to the numerous visitors who resort to the castle, from 
which tlie splendid scenery of the valley of the Neckar is viewed 
to great advantage, as the castle stands upon so lofty a hill. A 
good carriage road, which we followed, conducts the traveller 
to the castle by a circuit of two miles, but a much shorter way 
up a steep ascent brings the pedestrian to the same point 

The hospitality of this palace appears to have been pro- 
moted by great stores of wine, which were brought in by the 
tenants of the estate belonging to the Duke of Baden. Those 
large tuna, which all the world has heard of, are still preserved 
in the cellar. The largest is 30 feet long and 24 high ; it can 
hold 800 hogsheads, or 283,200 bottles. Although it is the 
largest wine cask in the world, it is much inferior to some of 
the porter vats in London. In 1805, 1 saw one in the brewery 
of Meux <k Co. Avhich contained 20,000 barrels ; and a single 
iron hoop weighed three tons. There is another very large 
wine cask in the collar of this castle, but its capacity is not 
equal to that of the one first named. 

Fisii Ponds. — In the ascont of the castle hill, at its remote 
end, the traveller is interested in viewing some fisli ponds, 
which contain very large sjdnion trout. There is a lower pool 
where the young fish are kept until they will weigh each a 
pound, when they are transfiirrcd to a higher pool, of which 
there are two. In these the larger fishes are seen sporting 
with great activity. AVIien small fishes arc thrown in as food, 
they dart at them with amazing <juickness, instantly seizing 
the little fishes and carrying them down. These salmon trout 
{^ro raised as a luxur}*. They have much of the flavor and 
color of the salmon of our waters in America, and afford an 
excellent repast, as we exj)eri«»noed at our hotel. 


jptiUtlbng to Iraitlifott. 

A ride of Uiree Iii>uik uu an uxcollpiit milrouJ, us 

prcr the alluvial plain uf the Kliliie, wliidi pn^t^uliH) tlio Miuie 

Bcnca of unbounded furtility atid iiilciiK t>«uuiy tliat Imvu 

»n already de»cril»d. Wo saw many towoa al a disianoe, 

Eiind dmhod aloog the borders of otliere, or occaaiooally tho 

Kiraiu was brought for a few niomenU to a stand siill at a ata- 

■^on-liousD in tbe vicinity of »oino plauo wliow uarao we did 

Tlitft luam. On our right tberu waa a continued scries of Iwau- 

I tlful, roundcij hills, which wcru f^euerally cultivnted. Tlit^y 

I formed tliu boutidniy of the great jilun upon one siilu, nn<l 

I Binny of them presented to our view ruiua of ancient cjisUw. 

[ £veu whon ^eun from the railroad, at the dUtauce of two or 

I three miles, tlieir appcartuicA was imiKMing and grand. Tliey 

1 told Ds of a past heroic age of war, rude hospitality, and 

I JoiIgUtly revelry. Itul thoy record, also, an ago of rapine and . 

robbery, when tlie predatory lords, secure in their stone casiles 

ftvpon the hii;h hills, sallied forth into the plains and valleys to 

b the passing traveller, by taking his goods, or imposing upon 

Sim tlie odious black-iuail. As ruins, these castles excite a 

romantic spirit of ndniimtion, but we may well rejoice that 

,r age has gone by never to return. 

ifrntiston to ^tisscn. 

Wi! were hardly fettled in our fine hotel in the Vautifnl 

y of Frankfort, biforo we decided lo make an excursion tu 

■iswn, and acoordingly the next inoruiug we were in llie cars 

l»t half^past six o'cloelc, and arrived at Geusen at ten, the dif 

rianco being. I sapjtose. about sixty tniles. The ruml district 

I through whidi we {HWBeil is rich in (owns and villages, and tn 

o»t exuberant produclioni of the field, (Iftwwwv '■» w* 

294 GeI88BI7. 

wliicb many persons are engaged. The number of woiUng 
pupils in tliis department of the laboratory was from 20 to 30. 
It being the hour of dinner (at one o^clock, as in New Eng^ 
land), there were only a few young men present, and they 
appeared to be employed as private pupils; but Prof Liebig 
told us that there were 40 young men at work in another de- 
partment^ under an assistant teacher. We were conducted, 
last of all, into a private room, where delicate balances and 
other nice articles of apparatus are kept 

Professor Liebig is a very pleasing man. In liis person he 
is tall and gentcol, and apparently about 40, or not much 
beyond that age. He is very affable and courteous ; and as he 
speaks the English language perfectly, with only a slight Ger- 
man accent, our inter\'iow was particularly interesting and 
agfivable. He showed us some new chemical products, among 
whic'li was cordein, which, in prosecution of his researches on 
the llesh Ihiids, has been extracted from the heart of the ox. 
Ounlein crystal lizes and appears to be similar to sugar, having 
a sweet tiiste. Nitrogen does not enter into its composition, 
which is the more remarkable, especially for a principle ex- 
tracte<l from nuisele. Professor Liebig also called our atten- 
tion to the result of a ]>rocess tor obtaining barberine from the 
bark or alburnum of the barberry ; it is a yellow crystallized 

The expression in tlni published print of Professor Liebig, 
is very ditierent from that of his speaking face. The print is 
true lo the form of the features, but it do*\s not give the impn»s- 
sion of suavitv and miMness which he wears in conversation. 
It is, howoer, a common misfortune to men whose minds have 
been much <'xereistMj Avith thought, that the artists often catch 
the settled fixed expression in which intensity is easily mis- 
taken for severitv. 

Professor Liebii^ exj)resse<l nmeh regretv, which we of course 
felt still more, that our interview must l)e so brief; but he was 
going U.) I/ondon, and we exchanged addresses, hoping to moet 
again in city. 

Escuiiatox TO IlKbsx Dahubt 


To our cftrntwt itiTitntioii Uint be nould viatl lb« United 
States tinil Itvluru in our in^tiluliuiis, liu gate no cnmiirnge- 
l tnent, (^preasiug great ivluolanc^ [a B[>«Hk in a foreign language, 
I ftntl when vrn nani«l Protsior AgawiE bb an ciiftni|i1e of grenl 
mictvs) TU tlin Uniuii Stntn, he adJixl that lio liad a [leculiar 
L fuiliLy iu iic(]uirii]g a foreign language. 

Aa tliia was llie day of the gr«al oolipw of tlie sun, wo 
[ were not surprised to lee crowds of peraono, at tlio proper liour 
I in t]i« ufUrnooii, gazing upward to see this rcmarkablo pliono- 
I tnenun. It was far from btiug total in tlii^ part of Europi-, 
I but lli« oUcitnUion was suQIdenl to cuiible us to look at tLe 
in with uuprotected oyw. 
Tliu Gurmnn giiDllemen and Indies oppoar to Imvu a great 
[ (Irend of cromng tike Atlantic, ond aeem muoh luttonusheil lliut 
[_ Americans make »o light of a voyage, wliich to llicin npjwuis 
I to formidabln. 

f^nco ibo commcncomcnt of tho prosiriit yenr, I'rofvMor 
Liehig haa removwl lo Munich, und (icWn lina hpnccfortli lo«t 
ita principal attraction. 

At ovcning we werv auf^ back at Krankforl, aud n>joined 
our iiule party. 

On our joumoy from Hcidelbei^, we puasvd U'-feu Dana- 

adl, whi-ii it vrai not pOBsible to stop, aud wu returned to it 

liri-duy, at 3 i-. x,, to look at iU museum of pali-onlology, under 

1 direction of Trofeasor Kniip. The citT contAina 30,000 

luhiibiunla. Ita appearanrso ia gmml and beautiful. It lins 

^ride and clean strcela, wiornoii by palaces, and many other 

and apleiulid buildings. As it ia the cjipitHl of Qcwo 

rDarm«tadl,it has n court iifila own. Thn very quiet of tlio place — 

r a aliite uf rejxjw alinust like that of a rillngi', — thi> ample ajmwe 

I. urannd itH bulldini^ and ibi liunuliful grnimda and groves, int- 

296 He88e Darmstadt. 

part to it a peculiar dignity beyond what wo have seen in any 

other German town. 

The most con&picuous monument in Darmstadti is a fluted 
column of red sandstone, erected to the memory of Louis L, 
the late grand-duke, whose sUitue stands upon tho top. It has 
an inscription, which we did not attempt to read. There is a 
public library here of 200,000 volumes as reported, but we did 
not see it. Geissen is the university of Hesse Darmstadt The 
population are principally Protestant ; of the entire population 
of T81,000 inhabitants reported in 1831, 563,000 were Pro- 
testants, and of these 393,000 wero Lutherans, and 70,000 were 
Calvinists. There were also 120,000 Catholics, and 16,000 

Tub Palace. — We drove immediately to the old palace^ 
and after some time, obtained admittance. The building is 
interesting on account of tho collections which it contains. 

The Picture Gallery. — The rooms of the picture gallery 
were first ojMinod for our inspection. This gallery was not our 
principal object, but while waiting for the eminent professors of 
paleontology, to whom we had sent our cardfs there was time to 
walk rapidly several times through a long series of ap'irtments, 
which seemed to mo a quarter of a milo in length. On all 
sides, the walls were covered with ]>icturiis, great and small, 
and many of them are very fine. We had no time to i^tudy 
particular pictures, or even to look at a catalogue of this very 
sj>lendid collection. 

Dr. Kaup and his Muskum. — Tlie main object of our ex- 
cursion was at length obtained ; we had the good fortune to 
meet Dr. Kaup, and we passed with him a most interesting 
hour. With suitable dignity, ho combines great affability, and 
it seemed a pleasure to him to impart to us the information 
which we desired. 

15y him the very n.-markable fi^ssil bonos of Eppelslieim and 
the vallev of tho Rhino were discovered. The fossils most 
interesting to us were those of the dinotherium ; and especially 
the bones of the head, containing the teeth and tlie tusks, tke 

t Kai 

1 um Mu£ 


liter jiuiiiliiii; iloHtiwaril. Il wna ijuite uitlsfaclory to ini; ti> 

• aaHiirttI ly iii8|wclion of t.ln! origiiinl^, Uial die drawings wi- 

m of thin auiiniil «ru piTfuoUy cjonwt, bolli Ju funtt mid di- 

Knuiuiia, Dr. Kuiip has Uio lowvr jaw, and lii» frivnd Dr. Kli[>- 

lein tliu uppor, of Uie diDothoriuio. Thu bones uf uUiL-r liugu 

jniinal)!, fonnii in similar circuiiisljinccs itnd in great abuudaucL', 

) aIm iiore. Thoea of tlm primeval elephant, and of ibo 

idon, ara pnrticularlj' inlcrwting ; they aro nuraoroua and 

Bvery large. Those of the mastodon, especially, cxueod iii siw 

e bonoH of tho aamc animal found in Americik A foniur 

■liich we saw, is a foot longer than tho corresponding limb of 

e largest American animal. Dr. Kaup e!itimat«« ttio height 

It the living animal al 18 feet, and his length at 20 ; tho tiuks 

I add 10 morev making nearly 30 feet, allowance being 

a (or tlie curvature of the ttiska, Thii enonnotu animal 

i been e<juid in Mte to tlio dinotherium, which haa 

Kn regitrded ai the largeat turresirial animal that has ever lived, 

B ihiH colluulion w« uw al»o large skulls of tho cavern bear. 

u nrit likewise remain* of palootUerin, Nmilar to those of the 

is baMii, and there are K>me that are peculiar ; for example, 

ri'ry large jaw uf an animal nuarly allic'd to tlie horse. 

Prom iJio very great number uf the fossil bunes of thu 

l^^ntin aniniaU, it is obvious that tliey existed in this country 

*l imraeruu numbers; and it is certain, that wu are in uu 

Idaugcr of oxnggcration, for whenionu skeleton hn-t been brouglit 

D light, hundreds, perhaps ihousatids, may lie entombed Iwlow 

a reach of human eyi. 

V al»> here llie »rigiiial sandstone slabs of neidcl- 
JHirglmuaicn, conl^ning lliu foMil uopioa of Uiu fi'^et of lltu 
\tirolkeria; I remarked at Urcrpool, that the impn«»una 
made by the animal when waltring, on tin; then plostii.' and 
ieldiug material of what wa» afterwards onsoUdnted inlu 
VaBndstone, were su similar to lliow roadc by tliu human himd 
ftwinn clay, that the iinknrtwn nniuinl rci;eivcd a name, which, 
"b the (;r>*k, inoauR an animal wilh iwliaucL 

From parts of thn fkelvtun wlueh luiVu Wq diKa^«nAt''A. 

298 Frankfobt-om-the-Maiks. 

is now believed tliat the animal was a colossal batracian, or, in 
plain language, a gigantic frog — an animal as large as an ox. 
Similar impressions of cheirotherial feet have been found in 
England, Scotland, and other countries. I pass by in silence 
the specimens of the natural history of modem animals, of 
which there are many in this museum. 

I must not, however, forget to mention the fossil rhinoceros 
in this collection, of which animal there are numerous teeth 
and crania. Here, also, are the remains of the sus antiquus, 
the ancient fossil hog. 

lliis town, which is so named to distinguish it from Frank- 
fort upon die Oder, sUmds upon the river Maine. It is a 
very handsome town, and its principal features are very obvious 
and intelligible. It contains 62,000 inhabitants, of whom 
6000 arc Jews. The population is principally Protestant 
The streets are wide and clean, and are beautified by elegant 
houses of stone, which is almost white. It is a quiet city, and 
has an air of dignity, refinement, and comfort The appear- 
ance of the domestic establishments, and the manners of tlie 
lx»oj>le make a very agreeable impression. Some of the hand- 
somest houses are upon the river ; but the old town is much 
loss agreeable. 

The Cathkdral. — We visited this ancient building; but 
its principal interest is derive<l from its sepulchral monu- 
ments, which are numerous. In this cathedral the Crerman 
emptTors were crowned. 

Thk Town House is a large mo<lorn building, in which 
we saw the full-length portraits of the <ierman emperors for 900 
years. They are generally men of a noble appearance. After 
making due allowance for the flattery of artists, for the effe^ 
of im|)erial costume upoif the eye, and of imperial dignity npoo 
the mind of the observer, I still think that I have never 



BotWution of men, «ithcr on lliu umivns or in fu:lunl litu, of 
^'iDurv commanding Hjipcuranuv. In lliu hull where iIivmi pnr- 
' Uaiu arc arrangud, tlio imperial bnntjuot was formerly lielil 
after tlio crawtiing of hii wnporot, 

TuK J'tLtiiHB 0»ti.tKv was tuUblisLt-d l>^ llio buiiiiiy of 

ail iiiiliviilual of llie uiudi.- uf SLvtld. flu gHVu to tbi iilly Itb 

uulUt:IJuu uf jwiiiuugs, ilrattiu^ aiid eu^ruringw, witli liitt aJ- 

dilion of 8S,0ti0 puundis for building au<l m^uUining h pulilia 

l^llery and scbool of arts. Tha iuatjlution baa an income 

of 600 guinoas anDualk for tho purcbaati of ^JcUiria. The col- 

' lection is very HpleuUU, ami contains mjiiio vi-r}- bt!«utlt\il 

I things. Among tbow wbidi gava me thu must Mtislwiticiu, 

I ivu li(»aiug's Uusa tK-furu the L'uuudl of Ociuntanuv. Tlte tlir«e 

) canliuals, witli lUeJr red napH sliuding thi^ir attentive faces, 

Mtiiawl wwly to iA<t\y u}) «u4 twnfutv tliu ftpiriluul nnd intallec- 

tuul b«ing beforu tiieui. Tlie untunil fauua of Ui« biiihopa hr> 

in strong uontra-nt witb tlio fno; uf Uim. A family auumblvd 

around t)iu di-ad body of a iHlIicr killud by lightning in tb« 

barvwt licld, nnd a picture of Uaniul in tho lions' den, have also 

made an indcJiblo iuiprcssion. 

Tiu Sbskesdeho Mcsm-'H and Da. Ruepfeu, its Cukator, 
afforded u» muvh satisfaction. It oucnpitta a large and ojnve- 
I tkiunt building, whidi was i.'r«uti»d, and is sustMned, by private 
F MintributiiMUk Allliougli it is of only thirty years' standing, it 
I Iws unu of thu livsl wiisciima of uatiiml history tliat we Imve 
licru vei-n. It in vi.>ry mui;)i indvbtcil to Dr. Uilp{>el for 
I many of tli« b«l specimens eipeciully of the zoology of Afrii-jt. 
J It was our gocd fortune U> find him, and he was so kind 
Im to attend us tlirongh tlie inuseum, wberu Lis attention to us 
I WB* equally acceplnblo and useful. Dr. Knppel, incitol by thu 
I Wo uf natural iiistory, passod fourt«cn years in Africa. At dif- 
I forunt limes, he brought home with him many inture«ting ani> 
I mnlit (Voin %ypt, and from the interior rtigiona of Nubia and 
I Abyieinia, anil tliey am put np and arrnngod in the fineit con- 
n lOMsiblo. The giraffea are tioble figures. The tallest ii^ 
\l should tiiiuk, aeTtmleen feot high to tlio craw^ o^ \m \v«^^ 


the hippopotamus is of vast size, dghteen feet long, and finir 
in diameter. 

The antelope family are wonderfnilj well represented here^ 
and better tlian in any museum elsewhere, owing to Dr. Rop- 
pePs succcssfnl researches in Africa. They are exceedingly 
diversified in form, color, and size. In fact, the zoology and 
comparative anatomy of this museum are, in all departments, 
veiy extensive, and the specimens are well preserved. Tlie 
skeletons of a large part of the animals whose stuffed skins so 
faithfully represent their living forms, are uko set np in this 

The skeletons of the fishes arc put up with exquisite skill ; 
and even snakes, and the most delicately constructed animals, 
have their framework perfectly restoreil. Tire geology is also 
considerable. The museum is shown gratis, and lectures, open 
to the jmblic, arc given there. Tins institution tloes honor to 
the city, and caniK>t fail to enlighten and elevate the public 

The Crrv Library contains 60,000 volumes. In a brief call 
at this Institution, we saw an original portrait of Luther, and 
another of his wife ; also a jwiir of his shoes, verj' stout, cut down 
at the heels, with thick and stubbed soles, and heavy heels, as 
if they were made to crush and trample down abuses. If these 
humble apjK'udages of the great Kel«>riuor were worthy of in- 
spection, still more was Luthku's Hoi se, an<l the wiwlow from 
which he preached to the people in the strtvts. His <lwelling 
is in ^i>i)d presen'ation, and hK>ks ;is if it might stand for cen- 
turies to come. We als<^.> saw tin* house in which he was l>on>, 
with the familv amis over the door. 

In the librarj' there is a grand statire of Goethe. It is lai^r 
than life, and represents him in a sitting posture. There is also 
a c()K)ssal bronze statue of Goi'the in one of the public squares. 
It is a V(Ty dignified figure ; both in the statue and in the 
picture in the library, the features and the head art* of the most 
elevated moral mould, and of the higliest intclleetual character. 

We visite<l the Jews* Quarter, and, of courae, tbe boost 



I irh«ra tJio mother of tba celebrated ItothscIiiUU livod; l>iit Ihvsu 

BO cpften described tlat I pass them witliout further com- 

iL The condition of tbo Jews in Frankfort is now jfrt'iitly 

i;lioriit«d, and most of tlio restrictions formerly impoHcd u[K>n 

lliern have been cither removed entirely or grenlly lightened. 

JfranMnrt Iff Ibstntt. 

We returned from Dnmistadt juet in timo to take the cars 

r Krayonea. As nil necensary arrangemenU had been made, 

^o puacd from one station-houK to the other in Frankfort 

twithout Telumtng to our hot«l, and in oae hour wera in May- 

Kmco. Tlio evening wm liol, tiko our American July, and in a 

P'4T»wiled mr we vvn leas comforttiblc Ihitn tiatial, but the timo 

» shurt, and wc took every tiling clieerfnlly. 

U»yenc« ii> Mtuated at the confluence of the Maine And the 

I Rhine. Wc pussed on a bridge of iHUitu, m at .Stmsburg, and 

■&uud our apartments ready in the UAtul d'Angleterro. 

There waa still an iiour or two of daylighl, and as wo were 
r to l«avu Mayenue in the momiug, we took a carriage without 
loHS of lime, and with a commisKionnire luxjuninled with lliu 
[■ city and its cnriron% we druvu llirougli tlio (irincipal 8tn>i.-t&; 
( viewed the catlielral, the theatre, and tlie royal palace, all con- 
I UrucUsd uf rod sllnd£(onc^, and nil of them UuiMings of irojius- 
I ing npjHiurancc. 

Wo wont out of Cif city through u very utrong portal, and 
Kaaw the tliick massy walU, duulde on Uiis siile of the town, and 
P«ritii the deep and wide fosse forming a -lefenee apparently ira- 
f pregnable. There arp, of course, embrasures for cannon, with 
loopholea far moaketry ; and as war ha* often visited tliis strong- 
, bold uf Gurmany, it will not ho Ibund unjirepan.'d when it shall 
i again. PrUMiaii nnd Austrian soldiers mut us every 
■e. Wo wert! ai«un^'i that 10,000 sfjldiera of Hvmo nati>:<nii 
' ve now herd iu garrviun, and in war 30,000 would bv n»iuin>d 
[ to man the wurlia and defend tlie (urtraa. 

802 Descent of the Rhikk. 

As wo bad met with no elevated ground sinoe lesTiiig 
Heidelberg, wo were the more gratified as wo rode oiit of the 
city at finding ourselves in tbe public gardens, which are situ- 
utod so high as to afibrd a beautiful view of the powerful Rhinet 
and of its important auxiliary, the Maine. Their junction takes 
]>lace a little above tho city ; and the Maine is then merged in 
the Rhine, upon whose banks Mayence stands. The prospect 
is rich in mild rural 8cener}% with excellent cultivation. 

Returning, wo drove rapidly hero and there, and con- 
tinued our recognizimcc until the dark curtain of night was 
dropping before our eyes. We passed the palaces of the Aus- 
trian, and of tho PriLssian commander ; also another pahice, 
where Napoleon lodged when ho was here. We saw, also, the 
barracks of the trooj>s, and the best built street in the city, 
where the nobilitv live. 

Mayence is a handsome city, and its position gives it jkh-'U- 
liar importance in a military point of view. Its population is 
.36,000. exclusive of the soldiers of the garrison. It bc*longs to 
the < rrand Duke of Ilesse Darmstadt, and is the most impor- 
viint city in his dominions. It was the Mogimtiacum of the 
Romans, and was founded bv Drusus. 

gtsttut of the gljlnt. 

July 8a 
Wv left Mayt'iico at Si-ven mid a half oVl<H"k a. m., in a beau- 
liful steamer of small size, but sufficiontlv larire to afford a neat 
and comfortabUi cabin, and we arrivtMl at Cologne at four p. si., 
after a smuotli and plo«isant pjissage of alK>ut 100 mili»s. I 
nhall not atten)])t to desiTiU; the various towns, villas, and 
ruins which line l>ulh shores of this river, nor to 8ket<rh the his- 
tory of the memorable events ^\hich have happenetl along its 
bank<. This region has iiuleod been the theatre of much 
blo^xlshod, and its histor}' is, to a great extent^ that of tlie wars 
of the large and important part of Europe, tlirough which thb 
river runs. 

Dmobht c 

! Rkirb. 


Such uiIk' im|iu1w which (he Rbino rcoMvos in itsdeBcont 
:>ni its |iiireril Alps, tlial, men oppoeile lo tliis cjty, it flows so 
I mjiidty, thiit the niLliiral current carries iLe nhoela uf tniils nn- 
I choreil in tlie etrrnm. 

As fi'kr ns wc hnvo Bvtin tho Bhinc, its vater* ara miiddy, 
I liku ihosti of tlio Ohio finil Mimaaippi; not, liovrcver, in «o g^eitl 
I R Oi'^rcc! lu in the lusL tinmfid mer. Flowing from the Alp^ 
} tlio lihoae, and f<id by torrents from tlie ini'lting elituii'rs, 
^in tiBV» exliibit i>ntirvly pclluiid watci^. Unliko thi> Kiiontv 
I tl has DO Leman l^ku to n-ouive its sedimDiitur}- d^jxHita. atiil 
tliu* rendor It cieur — no fountnin in which "to wash lliu Kivur 
f Rhine." 

Ila Mti-tunora, nlthougli of lienutlfkil niodtr), long ntid s)iarp, 
HnH well ndnpt»d to the scn'iw! of lliin river, arc intre toyfl, 
' vheii nfiiifrorcd wiili th^ rati nnvnl etractum which imvignlo 
I ihe Hudson, and other grr-at North American river* and lakoi. 
Their uuinbcr, (vlthough c-onsidnrablc, i» mnch inferior tn that 
ur waters. Itie ntintber of people whom they can trans- 
I port iniMt bo very limitivl, comparei] witli the immense human 
I flood which rolls betw^n the bank* of Lbo Hudson, Ohio, and 
I Mississippi. At our dinner-table I countod thirty-five personis 
I and the people of the tioat being added, the entire number 
I would not, cxcc^ fifty. If wo mQlli|)ly tltew numbers by ten, 
shall be witiiin limits an rt<'gsn)s the number of |H'rsonE 
I unUAlly founil on tho largo Hudson river boats. 

TIi« nidtli of Uio Rhioe :U iu wi'ie«t point i« stntud at SUDU 
[^■ul. I (■rOiwi'd Ms rivi-r (181)5) in Holland, near lo iU inoulh. 
and my rcfollorlion is. that it duL-i not tlicn^ w<^ lliat 

Tim Rhine nboundf with (owns, iillnips, nnd citiw all 

iilong iis hanks. There are also many poini;''* <>f notiliw, and 

I urcn of crownal bcndo. eiiibulliMhcd with ornniiiMital groi<», 

' am) with grotrnda hiid out in princely stylt\. Among thnra wo 

rvgretted In pwa tlint of ilie prince of Ncwid.* so advanl*- 

• We harl an Introjtiftor)^ letter oiidrciiod lo him by oiw Irt* 
f lamcnU^ (ri<n<l t>r. 8, 0. Morton o( PUik.\*\\.V\n 

304 Descent of tuk BniNX. 

geously known in the United States. His mansion is modestly 
beautiiiil, bis grounds appeared in the same taste, and both 
were in harmony with his character. 

The Rhine has bold shores of rocks and hills, rising almost 
to the altitude of mountains ; and for 70. or 80 miles in con- 
tinuation, from Mayence to Bonn, the steamboat dashes along 
between the towering barriers. Many a barren precipitous cliff 
or shelving rock, shows the ruined castles of other centuries, 
with their broken walls and tottering towers, dilapidated by 
violence and by time, and telling of an era of local feuds, of 
aggressive violence, of robbery and murder ; and, these ruthless 
deeds being accomplished, were followed by lordly revelry, 
securely held within the frowning battlements. 

The Rhino passes between two igneous formations. On the 
right, a few miles above Bonn, are the seven hills, or Siebenge- 
birge.* They are, — Stromberg, height 1053 feet; Xeider- 
StrorabcTg, 1046 feet; Oelberg, 1453 feet; Wolkenberg, 1055 
feet; Drachenfels, 1056 foci] an J Lowenberg, 1415 feet These 
rocks are composed of basalt and trachyte, and lava is named 
among their proilucts, but they have no craters. On the left of 
the river, and nearly opposite to those named above, there arc 
undoubted volcanic cones; particularly in the Eifel district, 
between Andernaeh and Cologne. The cones are frequently 
wooded, and not unlrequcntly cultivated. Many of tJie craters 
are tilled with water, and these lakes are called Maars. There 
are, among the seven hills, well formed basaltic columns, but in 
general the sliaft.s flo not exceed eight or ten inches in diameter. 
We ^aw a pile of them in the door-yard of M. Krantz, at 
lionn. They are about four feet long, and by drilling holes 
longitudinally in the en«ls, and connecting them by iron pins, 
they an? made to answer as j)osts. 

Several of the old cjtstles on the Rhine have been fitted up 
as modern resi«l«'nces; and a ver}'^ large one at a distance, 

• rarticuliirly dc^oribcd l»y Sir Charh's Lyell in his geology. 

DftsoK^T or T 

i RlIINB. 


I [ ili'l not lenm, laakei an imposing a pi >i>iirm]C<\ 
Thcri! b wDotlior, cjilled tht Catlle af Bhgincci:, wliicli consista 
of an nncicmt watch tower nnij a modern casleUnlcd rcaiJen<a!, 
bnill at a vcrj grout expense for Professor llolltvi'g of Doiin- 
Bcvcml of thcM mtorcd GiMtlt« nppenr to be very inconvcni<.-nt 
r«iiilcn««, oil Bi'^iouut of Uiu difiicutty of npproucli, anii tliu 
bnnvuuuHs of tlie Burrounding country. 

Most of thu old towns along tko Hliino are wnlled, and hnvn 
lowurs citlier upon tlio wnlla or H«ni them; but, in most in- 
tUmin», liotU oru now entirely uecluen. 

(■k>bl(Titi! is a fortifiod town on tlio left bank of the Rhine, 
lit the confluonoc of tbo Moselle. TliU city now bulonjr^ to 
Prussift, and being oonsidcrctl as a koy of Uuminny, it has been 
runderml very formidnblti by Uiu fortreaa of Elircnbruitslviu, on n 
buigtit upon llio opj>osite aiUu of llio river. Tliese vast dcft-ucei 
form a fortified camp ca{M\blo of coutjiiiiiiig 100,000 men, ftiid 
(heir coimUuelioii ououpieJ nearly 20 yeaiB. 

Tliti RUiiw n navigated by M>a-goiDg vessels oa far as 
Coliigna, and by small craft for 600 miles. 

A comparison is oft«n mjkic butwoon lliu IluiUon and the 

Bhinc, by tboeu who have been familiar with both stroama. 

Both riviirrs have thdir lofly barriers of volcanic and other rocks, 

giving a certain cimilanty of natural scenory, and botli atv lliu 

channels of a large commerco. The romance of ancient Icgunda 

I of cshIIcs and barons, knights and luilios, bd<1 of tho licrce uon- 

1 Aicta of two thotuaud years, tlirows ou iude«cribnblo interest over 

B evr^ry pmmoutory, valley, anil bill along the Rhine. But aside 

I from tliU, and iti comparison merely of natural boauty, it up- 

I peaiH to ma tliat thu advantage is on the »ido of llie Uudsun. 

f The fuature of cultivation peculiar lo tJte Rhine is, of course, 

wbic!) is nltogetliur wanting upon tho Uiidson ; and so 

J' as IxMUiy la cononniud, llio absence of this stitT and ungmcu- 

(All cultiue ii not to bo regntttod. 

Before evening we reached Cologne, whore wu fouud our 
friend and feObw-tmrcllor, Mr. [trutili. who had come up from 
ia 4a nccamiNUiy ua to Berlin. On Hie folliiwingmortiiQ;^ 

806 BoKH. 

before seeing any thing of this city, I went, with mj ■on and 
Mr. B., to pay a ^isit to 

Bonn is 10 miles above Cologne on the banks of the river, 
and is reached by a short railroad ride. One of our plans in 
\isitiDg Bonn was to purchase minerals and fossils, from Dr. A. 
Krantz, the well-known mineral dealer, formerly in Berlin. 
We had for many years been in correspondence with Dr. 
Krantz, and had lately seen in the United States his travelling 
agent, Mr. Seamann. 

The collections of Dr, Krantz are well worth a visit, even if 
one has no intention to become a purch.oser. He has erected, 
just on the outskirts of Bonn, half a mile from the University, 
a spacious house for their reception, and in which tliey had but 
lately been rearranged after their removal from Berlin. In one 
room there are a large number of fine mahogany cases of drawern, 
surmounted with glass cases, in which the more choice and 
beautiful portion of the collection is dbposed, and from which 
sj>ecimens are procured only for cash. In another and larger 
room, are thousands of dniwers in which are arranged the more 
ordinar}' specimens, tliat are either sold for money or ex- 
changed for other specimens. We occupied the whole of a 
long moniing in the collection, and in selecting the 
things which we wanted. Dr. Krantz had, when we were 
there, a number of ver}' perfect skeletons of tlie saurians (ancient 
liziirds) of the perio^l of the English lias, varying in price from 
80 dollars to 150 for the best, according to their size and 
completeness. Among the simple minerals, were a great 
number exceedingly rare and curious from their chemical con- 
stitution; such wiis the thorite of Berzelius lately rediscovered, 
and tlie orangite, of similar constitution. 

I bi^ught a model in plaster of the head and paddle of the 
largest ichthyosaurus that had then been discovered. It waa 


[ thought thRt the auimtil when living must huve bcju 60 fvet 
' long. These [wo models cost 21 doilws. I oLtaiutii also » 
moJul of the enormous henil of tliQ unuiiiDt fo«ail (rtig (balra- 
cinn). Its dimensions nrc such as to jusufy tlio opiniou that 
tliu entire anininl was as largo u d large ox. Wo wlectctt ulsii 
)t coiifcidcrable niinilxir of siiiiplo minurnlA, bolti Ibr private 
cablnelA and for that of YbIo College. Our visit was niaUu 
very plmunnt both by the mtcrcsting things we saw, including 
■omo of ihi: must beautiful mioorkls wo hiid any where seen ; 
Kid tliu courtwy of the heads of llio establish mont was somc- 
thin([ (ittito beyond ibo civility uF trade. 

Tub UjtiVKHsrrir. — Bonn is a hcituliful city. Ila population 
wu etated 30 years ngo ns lO.tfOO, and its huuscs over 1100 ; 
probably both arc now much incrunsod. It is adorned by jiubliu 
squares, and grand avi^uuua, and grovi* uf the Rnesl trees. In 
ihcao i«i]K«t8,it reminded ua strongly vt New Ilarori, and 
ftincmg iho (terman towns wlu'ch wo havu seen, it app«ar« na 
peculiar ta New Uavcn is among tliose of our country, and for 
ihn samn nvisnns. U has a univcmly, with inoru thau 40 profit- 
son atul 1000 students. It waa pn^wdcd by an academy in 1TT7, 
which was oroctcd mto a university in 1780. Tlio King of Prust- 
ns, gnvQ it a charter, under tliu name of tliu Univer- 
niy of the ithine, with an annual income of 80,000 Frumiaii 
■ dollars, 10,000 of this sura Wing appropriated lo the Itulaniual 
I Garden. Tlie old palaco of Popin-Udorf, tho fornicr r«»d«nue 
I bf thu Bleetor uf Coloirnii, was fitted up with great expense, and 
I contains leeturi! hallsi, a library, museum, casts and paintings, 
I with accommoilauons for all the brandies of univorsiiy oduca- 
I tion, and fur tlio reauBrchts of men of loorning. The library 
s 160,000 volutncB. Some of onr New Uavon friends 
1 oihwa from America, have found Boun both an agtvenblo 
K^mkIbdco and by iu groat literary advantages conducive to 

Pnorkssnu FnKixcntCK RaAruER, of tlio depanment rf 
gfology and paloontology, waa, aome live y^ai« bcfori; our rint, 
three years rusident in th« UoiUid i:!>late^ wh<'rc wq IwAViumv 

308 Bonn. 

him well. By his kindness we visited the Botanical Gard^ 
which is large and in fine order ; and he also conducted us 
tliroiigh the very extensive museum of natural history, which 
includes all departments. It contains the fossils that were so 
elaborately figured and described by the late Professor Gold- 
fuss, whose successor in office is Professor Reaumer. 

This museum is rich in the bones of the largest extinct 
races of fossil animals, found in the valley and bed of the Rhine, 
also in the caverns and elsewhere in Germany. Here are a 
head and vortebrse of the mososaurus, brought by Prince 
Neweid from Missouri ; the animal appears to have been about 
25 feet long. 

Professor Reaumer speaks English very correctly, and 
having been so long in the United States, we felt quite at homo 
in his society. He has written elaborately on paleontolog}', 
and made goo<l use of his opi>ortunities in the United SuUes, 
osj)ccially in the southwest. In Texjis, he discovered an equiv- 
alent of the chalk formation of Europe, the chalk itself being 
absent. lie is well accjuainted with our institutions, and is 
able to compare them with those of his own country; and 
regarding the latter, he gave us some very interesting views, 
in aiiiniated convei-sation. 

Several young gentlemen, members of the universitv, 
returned with us to Cologne, and we noticed the various colored 
caj)s, which SiTve to distinguish the members of a particular 
province. Some of them had their faces very much disfiguretl 
by scars received from cuts, given by the small-sword in duels ; 
w hich are still of almost daily occurrence in the Gennan uni- 
versities. It is strange that so reprehensible a custom should 
still be maintained. 

The housi's of the professors, as far as we saw them, are 
large and handsome. Many of the U'st houses in the town 
have their grounds extending (juite down to the river. We 
noticed a statue erected, iu 1845, to the memory of Beethoven, 
the great composer, who was bom in Bonn in 1770, and died 
here in 1827. 

This dty liiLs 95,000 inliubituiila. Like most of Uio towiw 
B tiio Riiiue, it was fuunded by tlio Koinans, aiid its origin is 
tributcd to AgrippinB, tlio wile of Ciaudiiii. It is Burrounded 
J walls and towurn, and like most of the fortified towns on iho 
r. Las bean desolated by war. Like Bono, it is now under 
« dominion of Prussia, and a large number of tJie briliiantly- 
A ticMpR of that nation oro here. 

They wear a glossy black helmet, highly omamontiid with 

, surmounted by n brass cone. The coat is blue, with 

ihitc andcrdren. Among the Prus»an troops, we have often 

" »erve<l young men whoso conntonanco and appearance indi- 

a n, higher origin than that which generally belongs to iho 

Rimon soldier; and wa are informed that tho conscription 

» no one except tho clergy. For this reason, the rucrnila are 

tained from Guniliee of over}- de«cj^ption. Noitlier prof«a^on 

IT condition can excuse the conwript, allliough ho is allowed 

b obtain a oompelent uibatilute, but it requires a large expense. 

e is from one year to four or fivo years. An eminent 

■anco in Berlin told me that his son was then serviiig, 

1 that he, the fatU<;r, was obliged to provide tlie horse and 

equipinunt, which he evidently regarded as a hard case. 

Coluf^nu hns n history of great interest, into which I cannot 

It wns, in early centuries, a city of large trade and 

it opulence ; but its prosperity was prostrated by bigotry 

1 war ; and tlie Dutch, by shutting the mouth of the river, 

■ctually crippled ils foreign comiueree. Since it has been 

Bopuned to the sea, ita business has revived, and the city is 

n expanding and advancing in Wealth. 
^jOologDo is uoC without good buildings; but the streeU ore 
rrow, with lofty houses, and Germans and stran- 
reproaching it for want of cleAnlincn. I'copio in 
^ tJmulil sl4>p in the dirt.^ eVv^ <A V\tv 


logne ^ rather than in their clean and beautiful town. Colog^ne 
is said to have all the styles of architecture that have prevailed 
for 1000 years. Our hotel was near the quay, and we were 
annoyed both by the noise and the evil odors. 

The Cathedral. — It is well known that the Cathedral of 
Cologne is at once its ornament and its reproacL It was 
begun in 1248 by the Elector Conrad, more than 600 years ago, 
but it is not yet finished, although the present Prussian king is 
expending vast sums upon it Since the city has passed under 
the Prussian dominion, and more especially since the accession 
of the present king, important aid has been obtained from the 
government. The unfinished towers are rising year by year ; 
and if the annual supplies that have been granted are continued, 
another fifteen years may possibly see it completed, llie es- 
timated expense of finishing it is 5,000,000 of dollars. 

It is considered as a very fine specimen of the Gothic archi- 
tecture. One tower, that on the front, is completed. This ca- 
thedral is exceedingly gorgeous in decorations, combining all 
the features that belong to tliis species of architecture. The 
choir is finished, and exceeds in splendid beauty every thing 
which wo have seen. It is very rich in stained glass, and this 
is true also of the body of the church. Much of the pictured 
glass is modem : it is set in the same window with the ancient, 
and is not inferior to it in splendor. 

The cathedral is paved with rude, common stones, doubt- 
loss intended to be temiK>rary only, and to be in due lime re- 
placed by marble. It was originally intended that the towers 
ut' this cathedral should be 500 feet high. The dimensions on 
the ground are 400 feet by 180. The nave is supported by 
100 columns, of which the middle ones are 40 feet in circum- 

Colognt l0 §erlin. 

Expecting to roliim m Cfilogne, we M<in>ii nil our lienvy 
bnggnge At the hotel, and Ictl thnt city at ton r. a. At three 
p. K. of the next day wo airived in Berlin, the time boicg seven- 
toen houre, exclunive of sto|t« (in all nearly Ino hours) ; our so- 
tniil flpood over the grouud was about tweniy-«even milca an 
hour, or twentf-tlirtH! and it half miles, Htope included. 

We mwlc two stops of hnlf an hour each ; one at «leveu 
r Unnovcr, (or our dfjcunrr ; and thu otlnv under tlia 
wbIIn of Mi^cbiirgh, to oil the wheels of the luirriagea, nrliem 
we wore vi^n much iiiinoyLil by the powerful ruduclion of 
beat from tliu walls of this stron^Iy-fortifiad city. Th« coocbue 
were very eomfortahk-, niiil tliu police exoollcnt. 

On the continent, and particularly in Qoriaany, wu bavu 
generally taken tlio sciinnd-t'lasa uarriagci Tboy oru in all n>- 
Bpccta dwirablc; nnd few p-.irsons, esccpt llie nobilily, trnvel io 
those of Ihe first clas% which ap]>oar to possess no advantage, 
exwpt t]iQ aristocratic on« of partial exclusion of other travel- 
lers by a hig'ht-r pric^. In tlie second-class carriages we Lave 
met with nono but civil and well-dressed people. As for as M'e 
)mvc seen railroads in Kurope, lioth in Uroat Britain and on 
the Continonl, iho carriages aro distinct uiouhes, without oora- 
miinication with each othpr. Some of our American rmlroods 
b»gan iu that way, but it was soon relin<iutslicd in fiivor of tho 
long coHob, which is more in harmony wiili our slat« of society. 
Tlie long car, by tocans of the middle passage, and the door at 
cooh end, secures an easy communication through the whole 
train, thus enabling one (o find a friend in another cor ; and the 
coutlnctor eon thus arrango all the payments while the cats 
Q full career. In England, the train is stopped just before 
entering n town, ftnd is detainoil until all payments are odjimt- 
rd, and the ticket* Uikfn up. 

itl'J •_■*:• LOG 5£ TO 

''*& tn^ C'-.TiOii-rc^ tii^ •:!: iiiiTLccon. wluLe the mm b moving, 
«IM-i: ilocc. vi:ii ^.a*^ rLsk. TzpiZ'a ihe bars oassiie of the eottcfa« 
aL'i l-.i.-k in a: di-? ^Ic'Li-v?. Th^ ddftcs ai« then exhibited : aad 
a.7 rhr J art; mrrh; j «lic:« 'i-f orcimoa thin paper, a oi:*r&er is torn 
oc bv dir c>:-ci'li«:M'r : ac ^ach 3tAd*>a the ticket b sh*3wii. anJ 
acochrrr pimre '^ tijm c£ or a Knt is moiie in the body d" the 
ti^-k*^ thai ii maj ciim appear that it has been seen. The ticket 
L« then reoxm*:*! to tLe h<:*I-ler. who KCains it until his aniTaL 

Th-^re is on the Continent a thirl class of can. less comfort- 
ab!-^. and x {jarJtu wLi>:h are merelj pens or incIo6iire& such 
as acimals are often coDfin*^! in. In these the pa»engen all 
stand np. as there are no seats : and it may be presomed that 
none take those piacȣ ext:ept those to whom mooev is of mora 
inif->rtaniVr than comf-i-rt. 

In Enz-^z.'L ih-i seoi-nd-class veliioles are made rerv un- 
coin:":'rtAr..:.r. T!i»-v Lave no ca>!i:ocs. bat simi'lr nakeil board 
i?*::.-.*: ill's b:i;k- AT-: h^sti. aci i^rr-rn-iicular. SiiiL iLe second- 
clrt-- •j.'irs in Emriani .ir»: w»rli ri!!-^!. J'-'ulfik-w? fr»»m ec»>nomy, as 
thr -i-ivliij is wrv e:in-:i-^r:iLi!».-. •"•ur exovllvnt srstem of 
(:h':\i^:'.'T \:i^'S^iS''. :i]'\»•r^r^ t-.- i'-* unki.'.'wn in Eur> Instead 
nf i? t :.•■}• I'jk-L- .1 j»niit..-«i { tji-.-r iij-.-ri iLe trunks staling the 
J.I i" \vi:.rr.: rii'.iv..d ani i:;.; «J''»::i*:i.t:.'n ; but thv tra*>:ller has 
r.'iriiir.'j in liairl to vtvi.' as a rvf.-ijti. as ihc chrok does with 
U'». At IVrriin. a-s in i-tii'-r j-iac'-s. uiir c»niri»*r was oblige«l to 
uair iijiii an lii^ur bvtV'rt.* li»: i-«..u'i«i i>btain *.»ur li;i:riiai!e, small as 
it wa-. must ot* it, a.-; air«.a«.lv rc'mark».-«.l, Ii:niD«]r liovn left at Co- 

In our iiiirht ridij from that <jiiv. the motion of the train was 
so sHH^oth that slwp wiis not ]»recludt:d : and the joumi-y in 
the day was comfortably aooompli^hed, except the annoyance 
of ojipresjiivo heat after mid-^Jay. 

In our rapid and unint».'rnipt<:d journey we passed places of 
grt-at ' V ; among them were Dusseldorf, Minden, Hano- 

v k, Magdeburg, and Pots^lam; but to us thej 

Uankf as our limits of time did not permit us to 



hiil<i uur journey.* Mnjrdi'biirg alona wns visible, with ils 

tnmutiHi! fo^liflc«tion^ Wwt-rs, nnd (iwelliiigs. It is sitUAted on 

I! Elbu. The uouulry alto wtm almost one coDtinued plain, 

i [inwented only a suuciwiioD of chtunpaign lands, and such 

» and crop* as have been already d<«cribe'l. 

Km'UAMCK isto liKnus. — In passing out of the stnliou- 

t Iterliii, our pasiport was called foe by a militat^' man, 

ianing with him a guard of soldiers, and wcwcro then allowed 

a into the city. Uaiing no bagga^, except email valiMea, 

I Wo luvk twu uae-horee carriages. Threo of our party rods in 

L fluo caniHge, nnd four in the uUu-r ; but uh we vmn abtiut niuv- 

^, one of tlio coadiiiivii leajfed from liis box, aud ran Ui H 

iliCary ofltcer near at hand, and both came to thu carrlHgu 

)nlaluiiig fuur jwrBona, among whom were the ladies. Tliu 

ir oUuTvIng our number, approached close to uh, and wiili 

I courteous nnile, bordering a little on tho ludicrous, inquired 

p.whotber"MadcmoUclle wnaovor twelve year* of ago;" but the 

illant young »oIdter politely waved Iiis in<{Utry on a point 

which lie [icrhaiis felt lo be one of some delicacy. 

I1ie occurrence was explaineil, when we were informed that 

> regulution in Berlin pruliibila the carrying of more 

n lliroe persons willi their baggage in a single liorsc car- 

; unlcM tlin fourth person, if any, is under twelve year* 



Wq were ouon establialiL-d in llic principal street of Berlin, 
I Il6tel da Rome. AAer lliu refresliment anil ablutions 
idcroil both neoussitry and grateful by our ling and rapid 
aa had only time, tiefurv evening, to walk out Into tlin 

MoxvHSXT TO Fkbokmck iwc Grkat. — .\lmoat ttiu first 
tbjcct tliat arrested -ur attention, wua ibe muguificciil nionn- 

■ BoiUu anJ DriMtlrn trirx n»l urif^inallj in uur piano ; and ihr tiina 
r bwk tv visit limn eitJea wm loxnl n|Kin otbc porta at am toiv<. 


menu which, with a tanlr justice, they have onlr ror reoentlT 
eKvUrd to the nn'morr of their great hero-kiiig. It was finkhed 
onlr three we<eks before our vi^iu aod so new was the bronae, 
that at fint we thought it was gilded. 

Frederick IL was to Beriin what Peter the Great was to 
Russia; he was almost the crcator of his kingdom. This 
monument is b j far the grandest thing of the kind that we 
have any where seen ; in magnitude it is ultra ookHsaL It is 
equestrian, and both the roval horse and rider are laiger than 
any similar figures that we have met with, perhaps larger than 
any in existence. An idea of its arrangement will be gained 
from the annexed enCTavin^r. Frederick wears the three- 
cornered military- hat of that age : which is, howe^'er, still worn 
on many military heads upon the Continent ; his long martial 
cloak flows loosely over his pcrs^iin, and hangs down on the 
Hides of the horse. As he is still within the fiersonal recollee- 
tioii of more than 80 persons, his soldiers and others, who are * 
still living iu IVrlin and its vicinity, we must presume tliat his 
]M'rs^>ii, features, and inanner, ns represented in the raonimient, 
are his own, and would be tlie subjects of criticism if they were 
not faithful copies. 

There is much of character in the Hsnire : cool and calm 
decision and self-possession, ac<juired or confirmed amidst the 
teni[K:8tj» of battle, are strongly luarbitl features. 

The horse is a grand and beautiful animal, with flowing 
mane and tail, and he ap}N.*ars to {>articipate in the traits of his 
master; as he is moving, «»r appearing to move, quietly along 
\yith an ejt^y, natural gjiit, witliout the over-wrought fierceness 
aiid the incredible j>ostures which war-horses and their riders 
are often made Uj assume. Tlio horse is 16 feet high, and the 
rider is in due pro[>ortion ; the entire height of the monument, 
from the ground to the top of the king's head, is 43 feet. 

TIk: ]>ed<;stal, also of bronze, is of great dimensions, and is 
laid ufK)!! bl<x:ks of red granite, beautifully polished. Its four 

• Or were in Augrutt, 1851. 


10 PlUtDKHlCR 1 


lgl« sustain e<]ue8triAD figures, as large as life, of Frederick's 
r greatest geoerals; diiil betweim Ibeni there arc, on one 
E Sgiiros, Mid on eai:h of tlie otlier thr«e sid««, fivo 
BflguTos, twenty-one in all, reprwenting otiicr principal men, 
BfDvil and luililary. Varioiw cliaractere and occupations are 
ulicalMl upon ttii? baa-reliufi) ; uu the breasU of voine are «Uti% 
i 1I1C7 wear einl>roi(lari»d coals ; there is n book in the liands 
|<0( another, and still another, in a plain coat, holds various iu- 
l.ltrunionts, and another displays the plan of a fortress, 

The king and the fuur guneraiN (nil equestrian), and the 

■ SI figures on the [mni'la, give a tutal of 2d flares of men ; 

idd the tivt: liorsM, nnd we have SI Urge figiirca in tliis 

larkablo monument, without cntinting the femnlec in the 

N.>r coiu|iarlmeiit& The men and liurses are not neeri merely 

k ri'lii^f; they stand out in full form, ani] upon a review in a 

■U-'onJ iiii^'ction, I canio to the opinion that the Hgures on llie 

) all larger than life; othorwi«e, at the elevation of 

feet front the gronod, they would apponr Ices than life. I 

K%Ad, by the eye, estimated the entire height at 46 feet; Pro- 

ir llose corrected tue to 43 feet. By pacing, I made the 

mndation 30 feet on a side, the iMlisheil gmnite masses are 

t least IQ feet in thicknem, and there is a broad hasement of 

Iwipolished granite sualaining the whole. 

Nothing can exceed the beauty and characteristic fidelity 
to nature of tbo whole, while the aititudra and manner are 
dignified and graceful ; the men appear like gentlemen of high 
GtAtjon in the olden time. Beneath the ^irca, are cannon, 
mpeU, bteostplaUs. and other paraphernalia of war. The 
Y hoTsca seem intelligent, and all the men have high cha- 
r and indiriduality. Above the groups which I have 
crilwd there is another set of panels furnished with female 
Q bas-relief ; four principal figures at the four comers, 
Hid smaller figures between. 

work nf art, this monument • has probably never l>onn 

* T'-mnniairf iht ■r'iil 'f lUtutk 

.316 Berun. 

excelled, and whatever estimate we may fonn of the personal 
character of Frederick the Great, Prussia owes him all hoiiOT 
as being the founder of her national greatness. 

Professor Rammelsberg. August 2. — ^While the ladies 
were occupied with the great Royal Picture (Jalleiy, those of us 
who were interested in science called on Professor Rammels- 
berg, the eminent chemical mineralogist We found him in 
his laboratory, and were received with great courtesy. His 
laboratory, in both of its departments — ^that one devoted to his 
pupils and the other to his own private pursuits — ^presents a fine 
example of order, neatness, and skilful adaptation to the labors 
of the place. He kindly explained to us some interesting pecu- 
liarities of his furnaces, of his glass inclosures for confining cor- 
rosive and offensive gases, and many practical details of a work- 
ing laborator}', which would be interesting chiefly to chemist<(. 

His lecture-room is also very good ; the backs of the seats 
lean at a convenient angle and support on each writing tables, 
10 or 12 inches broad, for the taking of notes. Professor 
Rammelsberg is a very animated and agreeable gentleman, and 
aj>i)ears not yet to have reached the meridian of life. His 
annual rejx)rt of the analysis of minerals is a work of high 
authority, and at the time of our visit seven numbers had been 


Among our introiluctions, was one from Professor (Juyot, late 
of Neufchatel, but now a citizen of our countr}-, to the 
celebrated Professor Carl Ritter, the well-known physical 

lie is a tall, handsome man, of most noble person and mien, 
and prepossessing address. His dignified presence is tempered 
by a mild and winning manner, and by his musical, altliough 
powerful voice ; and we listened with pleasure to his very c^ood 
English, uttered with dignified delil)eration. His healthful and 
bright appearance by no means indicates his age, as he is still 
in the full eneig}' of ])hysical and mental power. 

Proftwor Ritter gave us an invitation to attend" in the 



jniog tlii! inoctjng of tlio Ocwgrapliica! Society, of wliich ho 
S pi\«idont ; wid be tmaW u» while there wilh Uio utmost 
a and consiHernrioti. 
Stivernl pnpurs were read on geo^rttphiunl snbjectg, nnd dif- 
il guutlenien weru ciillud upon to vluddutopurticulnrtopius. 
Pjniuir cuursu is nut only to JUustrutt! lopograjihy but all alliod 
f thcuivH, iuuludio); the difftireut brsucbis of nntural hialoiy and 
of uiuteorulogy that are coiini.'ctoJ witli thu country under con- 
fudurntiou. Iii tliU manuer, thu ilisciissions bvcouie fruitiul of 
inatruuliou mid vuturtnuinienl, aud tliu lutoKul w grvally 

A supptiF folluvred, in tho great room of tliu society, in 

tfrhit;)! u liir^ uhanduliar, ligliUid by giti, modu noonday of 

igliL Auioug tho eiuiueiit men prownt wlioeui fame was 

i itl homo, wvre ProluoMir EhrcnUirj^, tins philoso- 

ibiit uf tUi! miunwcopiu world ; the two brutliers liuoe, tiustavivi, 

miuoralugy, aud Iluinridi, of analylicid (chemistry ; Prufusor 

rDuvti, iha invtvoiulugitt and physimst; JVolvfeor Magnus, of 

I ,alcctro-mngnclisin ; Profiawor Poggiaidorfi the uditor of tlia 

r wcU-knowD journal which boars his name ; I'roti^ssor Mitsclier- 

licli, of ttl^UL-ral and appli^ vhemislry, busidM many othera 

oIiuoM iH(uaUy dtsllnguiKhed. 

Wo reueiv«d a wanu wclcomo to Berlin, and Uiroughout 
!! intcrriow of llic evening tlio most kind and cordial trost- 
■jntint Wo wcni highly gratified lij- th« interview, and wt-rp 
it hnniH in oiir hotel Iwforo eleven o'clock. Profraaor 
Riltor Bijoko in very wami ttTms of approbation of the rc- 
(carchia made in the East liiy our counlrjiiian, Professor liob- 
nd by tlic lltv. Eli Smith, now uf BttyniU 
had to rfgn:t the al««nc« of M. Von Biich, Uio di»- 
inguidicd gpologist, who wa» on a tour in Switzerland.* 

ProfuBsor Dovn calM the mat day at our hutnl. and lull 
wUa canl, with tlie annouucMnunt that Darou Von IlumboUt 
I would sue lis on Mond^, iMtwuen twelve and two o'clock, at 
I Ilia houDtt in the dty. 

• Till'* <1Uiln|i<iUh<.l man tiao A\i'\ ittiK. 

318 Bbruk. 

Baron Von Humboldt. — ^In folfilment of thia appoiiit- 
nient, we went at one, and were admitted bj his fiuthful ser- 
vant, the companion of many an arduous jonmej. His man- 
sion is a plain edifice, situated in a retired part of the city ; and 
he would not have been now at home had not the king gone 
to Ednigsberg; for his residence is generally with the king, at 
Potsdam, who keeps him near his person, as hb &ther did be- 
fore him, not only for his society and conversation, but, no 
doubt, also as a counsellor, wise from his many years, and his 
large experience in the world. We passed through his library, 
which fills, on all sides, a room of considerable size ; and he is- 
sued from a door on the remote side of the apartment, opening 
apparently from his private toodl He met us with great kind- 
ness, and perfect frankness, and with a pleasant rebuke for my 
haNing hesitated to call on him (I had written a note, asking 
permission to call), implying that he was not ignorant of my 
]H)sition and efforts at home. I then introduced my son and 
Mr. Hnisli, and we were at once placed perfectly at our ease. 
Ilis bri<^ht countenance expresses great benevolence ; and from 
the fountain of his immense stores of knowledge, a stream, 
almost constant, flowed for nearly an hour. Ue was not en- 
grossing, but yielded to our promptings, whenever we suggest- 
ed an inquiry, or alludeil to any particular topic; for we did 
not wish to ocxiupy the time with our own remarks any further 
than to draw him out. He has a perfect command of the best 
Englisli, and si)eak3 the language quite agreeably. There is no 
state) iness or resen'e about him ; and he is as aflfable as if he 
had no claims to suj)eriority. His voice is exceedingly musi- 
cal, and he is so animated and amiable that vou feel at once as 
if he were an old friend. His person is not much above the 
middle size : he is not unlike in form to the late Colonel Trum- 
bull. He sto<:){>s a little, but less than most men at the age of 
8 'J. He has no appearance of decrepitude ; his eyes are bril- 
liant, his complexion liglit ; his features and person are round, 
although not fat ; his hair thin and white ; his niind"very ac- 
tive, and his language brilliant, and sparkling with bright 

IIahun Vok llt:i 


I tiiougliU. H» iilludiil Sn n flalturing maniior to our progress 

I in knowlwlj^ ill llio UnileO Sutea, uuJ ta titv effect which thu 

American Jourunl of Science Mid Arte liaJ productil in pro* 

uotiog iU Ho abbwi>d Uim«v1f perfoctJy ACi]uaiDted with tlie 

I progruM of ph)'iiif«l sciowoo sml gt-iieral iniprovainent in our 

[ CouaUy, and particularly cominei&tlcd tlie latwr* of Colonel 

, liVmonl in iLe Far Weet, of Profea&or Dacho in the coast 

aurvey, and of IJeutcnant Maury in navigation, Itrin^ng 

out Lis mxps, and tracing Im linen witliout glaasvs, he pointvij 

«ut a chnnnul of cominunicntion across the Istlimus of Dnriun, 

wtiiuh ho had observed and described more than forty years 

I tgo, and to nliich his attention had been recAlJod by a paper 

I of C'apLun Fitiiroy's in tlie Jountal of tho Iloyal Geogmphi- 

cnl Suoioty. tie showed us tliat tlicre are no mountains 

ill tlm coiirso tbftt b^ indivstcd, wliich ia iiior<» sotitlOTn 

than Buy of the uxisling routea, and that it pueei'ssod suvmal 

iinpuriant Hdvantages. I alluded to his brief visit in tlie 

United Ktjitca in 1804, whuu ha travulW no furtliet fiortli 

tluui Philadelphia, lie (»|il un tlial hu pa.'ocd Uiree weein at 

Monticcllo, with thu lato Mr. Jefferson, who entcrtaine<l him 

with an cilmr>rditinry project of bis inventive but often vision- 

I ary mind, rcganling the ultimate division of the Atooricau 

I continent into thn-u great Itopublics, involving the coniplest 

f of Mexico and of tlie South American States. He discussed 

luoy topics regnnling the United Stales. Tho discorory of 

k gold in California furnished bim a fertile th^me— our topogra- 

U phy, climates, j>rr)iIuctions, institutions, and even political con- 

t lioversica, wore nit tiimiliar to him. 

Jtamii Uumboldt, nitliough aasociatod intimately with kings, 
Is evidently a friend to human lilwrij-, and rejoices in the pros- 
[ p«rily of our coutitrj". He made soiiiu very interesting runiarka 
I on tliu pnaentstato of Europe, and ou the impossibility of h^it- 
I iug down moral power by physical force. lu bis librae- liung 
I lui ex«llRnt likencHS of the kiug, and anollier of bis own brother, 
L the lata Willtftm Uumbnldl, tbe eminent philologist and ettuto- 
I logical antiquary. 

320 Bbrur. 

We retired greatly gratified, and the more so, as a man io 

Ills 83d year might soon pass away.* 

When we were about leaving Berlin, I addressed a note to 
the Baron, expressing our great satisfaction iu the intenriew, 
bidding him farewell, and asking for his autograph. He readily 
replied, but instead of his signature merely, he sent an interestr 
ing original letter, written on the occasion, from which, I tnut, 
it is not improper to make an extract of sentiments relating to 
the American continents. 

After some very kind expressions of perscmal regard, he 
alludes to his usual residence at Potsdam, where are both the 
rural palace of the king, and the tombs of some preceding 
monarchs : *' Compelled to return in the morning to the coun- 
try, where are the tombs which I shall soon occupy, I have re- 
served to myself the perusal of" — certain scientific American 
papers which had been presented to him. lie then adds : " I 
have moral reasons to fear the immeasurable aggrandizement of 
your confederacy — the temptations to the abuse of power, dan- 
gerous to the Union, (and have occasion also to fear) the 
distinct individual character of the other i>opulationsf (descrip- 
tions of population J) of America. I am not less impressed by 
the great a<l vantages which the physical knowledge of the 
world, and positive science and intelligence, ouglit to derive 
from this very aggrandizement — from that intelligencxi which, 
by ]>eaceable conquests, facilitates the movement of know- 
ledge, and sujKjrimposes, not without violence, new classes of 
population upon the indigenous races which are in a course 

♦ Auirust, 185JI Two yenrs have gone by Bince that interview, 
and I believe the eminent philosopher still lives, although he has in 
tlie interim encountered a serious illness. He tins recently given th« 
n'orld the tkl and 4th volumes of his Kosmoc*. 

I In a marginal note, he adds: "And tlio ])08sible formation of a 
]>owerfnl empin\ independent of sugar, slaves and cotton, and the 
temporizing legislation — la doueo li^islution — whieli aecompanies thk 
sp^'cit's of c'lihure. 

\ The M'ordi in pareiit)ie?<i5 are not in the* «»riginal letter writt«D 
in French, but are add<Hl to elucidate his meaning. 




ft of rsjwl p^tlinctioD. Uowuvpr im|K»iiig t)iia npf^.tfic.ii ntuy 
K bo, ntiicli w buing K<RUxed utiilur our pvn adiI i* ptrpiir- 
I log Miothor still mora remukatilo for the history of iho in- 
■ telloclual development of our ritcta; I already descry the db- 
Y tiuct cpocli, when a high degree »f civiliuiUon, A»d iiiRtilii' 
I'tioM rm\ firm aod )H.'oc(7fuI (Umi! clcmi-nU whiuh are uot 
B»ily wtsociated), eIiaII {MtoatraU into the tropical regions 
I wliero the high tnblo Iiuidi of Mexi<-o, Ungota, Quito, mid 
I VoU»i »tuiU come to nsemblo (in llicir instituliona) New-Vork, 
Bo«lon, and Philadelphia." 

11)0 letter concludes Kith warm pcnonnl good wiithes, and 
I a kind lueMagu to Profeeanr Agassix, " oi^iially distinguished by 
f bis vast and solid acquisitions in science and iJie greut amenity 
I of hi» cliaraclur." 

Thu ^ignntun.* is without a title ; " Albxakduk Uuhudlutt 
allerliiuS JuilU(il«liouldh»veU<eu A^til), 1851." 

It is [>ru[vr to add, thai at the time of our vUil Baron Vun 
Uuiubuldt was vugiiged 111 the preparation of a new pnxluction 
on tlie Outline Form of Munntain Peaks, in which he vaa work- 
ing up original obaurfaiioiu and drawings made during tlie 
course of Uis'variuUH waoduringik Hu aiMired us tlint the 
grealLT part of hi» literary labor was of iioeaBily [wrformed 
•rheu others «tept, oa lliu hours of usual hibor vn-rc with Itim 
coDBuraed by tlio demands of tlio king. He addi'd, tlint he 
early made the dis(!overy lliut ho cnuld get on very well with 
frur houn of sleep. This, as lias been often rvmnrked, ao 
^ iMiuula for Liu prodigious [H-rformancut in lib^nm- Inbor. 

Sueh are llie modest and tinassuining Inngnagc aiiil apjieiir- 
anoo of ono who has, in pei«on, Mplorud n larger portion of 
our globe tlian any other living trnvcllnr ; of n philomipht-r who 
Iiaa illu.slnit«d and enlarged almdsL every dejiurtmunt of human 
knowledge; general physics and ehetiiistiy, geology, uatuml 
tiiilory, phitwlegy, uivil antiipiitieK, and etlmegraphy, have all 
I been tlluatnitvd by htm. 

Ite Imx t-mluml the c^ Ireiiie TieiiisitudM of uppcisite elimalea, 
\ Knd seen men. and annuAls, and plant*, umlur every phase uad 
Vol- II.— n* 

322 Beruk. 

aspect Ilia publislied works are a library. His fJEuiuIties com- 
bine the enthusiasm of poetry with the severity of science ; and 
from the culminating point of fourscore years and four, be 
sun'eys all his vast labors, and the wide panorama of univer- 
sal science, which, as probably his last labor, he is now present- 
ing to his fellow-men by the reflection of that splendid intellec- 
tual mirror, his Kosmos — the comprehensive Hellenism^ which 
expressed both the universal and the beautiful. 

Such is the philosopher, who of all living men belongs not 
BO much to his country as to mankind, and who, when he de- 
parts will leave no one who can fill his place. 

We dismiss him, with the hope that he may inherit b]e»- 
ings beyond the grave, and find in a higher state of being, that 
his large measure of human knowledge is infinitely surpassed 
by the spiritual illumination and revelations of that glorious 

Cabiset of Mineralogy, Geology, and Paleontology 
IN THE University. — Professor Gustavo Rose attended us 
through all these departments, but with more particular refer- 
ence to elementary mineralogy. The collection in that depart- 
ment is \Qry extensive, and is exceedingly rich in fine specimens. 
There are many examples of meteoric iron and of meteoric 
stones. Two pieces of meteoric iron fell in 1847 at Brunau,* 
which are jKirfect nickeliferous iron with pyrites ; these masses, 
one of 30, and the other of 42 pounds weight, fell without the 
adhesion of any stony matter, and were thus similar to the case 
of Agram, in 1757. The iron is highly crystalline in its struc- 
ture, breaking witli a smooth laminated fracture and a brilliant 
lustre. The Siberian and Russian minerals of this collection 
are the finest out of St. Petersburgh, and the American series 
is remarkably well represented. 

I left my companions to examine more critic-ally the very 
splendid specimens in mineralogy, while I hastened to observe 
tlie paleontolog}'. The rooms devoted to this department 

* The facta are related in Poggendorfs Annal^ vol 7S. 



abound in inttireiiliiig and instruulivo foMila, of wliiuh I can 
iniiutioH onl_v n few. The fossil fisli* nnd llie cruslacaa are 
very finif, Soiiiu «f dj« finluM were two fevl long aiiO vnry diit- 
liiu'l. Among llieui wuru wme, not merely pc'rii.'Cl iniitromluna, 
but (iiitirc fislira, fusailimd in full funu. Tbc riisnil craba find 
rriiw-tisties, from Soli-nliofi'ii in Ourniany, arc very pcrfiwl; 
umny nru very tniiiutu, and atill tliuir tegH and antenna! are 
|x;rfiMilly prenerveJ. 

The fiwsil plants of the uoal mi^nsuns, and ollior fuwil plants 
from ditTcrent fonnationH, are excellent. Ainniig tiiu dicolylu- 
dimixw (onil trees, onu s'llidded trunk had l>een sawn in two, 
and being polishixl, presented a [wrfeclly distinct view of tho 
conveutri's annual ringa and of tho mcduUiiry rayii. 

Aniotig the largu fowilized animaK there wore wime very 
I'Hjiital specimens. TIuho of the cavern Itear and of the lion, 
m in the mii»eiin> at Hk^vso [>nnnsladl, were nunieroiu and very 
large, 'fhero is hiiro a great hcaiJ of tho rUphan priinogmivi 
which retain* tho le<Hii in Uiu jawx, and the tu«ks romajn in tlieir 
unlnrnl connection witli the head. There arc alao numerous 
(Ictaelied tusks and t^iitli of tho cJcphant, and many similar 
reinHioB of the mastodon. Thero were tlie cranium, tho jawa, 
the X^Xi auc] tunka of the maalodon, all of wliich, as well 
as the remains uf tlie elephant, aro found abundantly near 
Iterlin. There it) here al»o a grand pair of Iioms of tlie fossil 
IrisU elk — UiB megaluuerviiH. Tliey measured, along the uurvu 
uf tUu horns, over the okuU, nearly IS feet; aurun from antJer 
tu antler, in the linu of the bow string, seven feet tlircu inches ; 
the bruadlh of tlie broad, or polniatod part, was 18 incht^ 
and the length uf this [uirt was m^orly thrco feet I eaw in 
another museum a tusk of the Silnrrtan elephant which was per- 
fect ivory, tit Ui bu uianutiicturtid. Many such tusks from 
ihoae nurlhum fossil depoaita are sold every year, and furm an 
iuiportaul aourco of ivory in nortliem (Himnicree. In the Berlin 

leilin of paluootolugy, tlieru are exciilU-ut caat^ and some 
original epecimeus of ilio Himalaya fowiK 

324 Beru!?. 

higln^r than my head. This extinct animal reMinbled most a 

gigantic ante]o|)o, with four horns. 

Tlic cliirotherial impressions, or rather the natural casts of 
the impressions^ were higlily satisfactory. In two oi the white 
sandstone slabs, the copy of the large foot was of the size of my 
hand. The animal had made five steps npon the materials of 
the slab when tliey were soft and yielding, and they became 
afterwards consolidated so as to retain the impression; the dis- 
tance between the feet was 24 inches; the forefoot was^ as 
usual, much smaller. I hare already remarked that this 
animal was tlie gigantic frog of geological antiquity, that he 
was of the size of a large bull, and might even have rivalled 
that animal in strength of intonation. 

Tlie lily encrinite of this collection, I have never seen sur- 
passed. Many of tlie beautiful heails and steins lay in the 
limestone, as if they had been «airefully put up in a cjiso to 
preserve them. In preparing the f*|KK:iinens, the limestone 
had been skilfully cut away above the fossils, so as to bring 
them fully into view. Here also we met, at his rooms in the 
muscnim, the eminent crjstallograjJier, IVofessor Weissy whose 
system of crystallography has been so generally adopted. 

AcADEMr OF THE Fine Arts. — A large palace, lieretofore 
belonging to one of the princes, is aj)prc>i>riated to pictures, 
statuary, and antiquities. Tlie building is very liandsome, and 
the entire front is iidomed by a line of columns. Imme<liately 
before it stands an immense syenitic vase, higidy polished. 
Til is Vitse is 22 feet in diameter, and wa*^ worked out from a 
boulder which travelled over from Norway in an ancient geo- 
logical age. Professor Kose coutirms the statement that tlie 
bouldei*s within reach of l^rlin have been used up in archi- 
tec»ture, but that great numbers still exist in this country, in 
almost mountain piles^ especially contiguous to the mountains 
of Silesia. 

Beneath the portico, which is supported by columns, there 
are very large fresco paintings. In the interior, room after 
room is gorgeously decorated with pictures, great and Hnall ; 


but 1 walluil rapiilly tliroitgli llietn as, ii few (Uya Ago, 1 did 
througli those of I)uriusta<lL 

Tbu eye awl the miDd K-cumu satiatL-d by frvi]u<.'nt iv|rati- 
tiun ul'gnll«rics of pbtur^, ntnong wliich some are bad, niuny 
aro indiff«<rent, and » few only are in Uie first order of kjmmsI- 
[eiic«. Tlio KiinunciatioD, the oAtivily, tbo mudonna, the 
infant Saviour, snd John, tho flight into BgiF^t, the crucifixion, 
ihe dMcent ftom tlie croaa, and the traiuitigu ration niwt us in 
almost livery gttlli>ry. The madonna and infant iflaviour are 
often r«|i<uitod, many liiuia iu ihu Mime suit* of rooms, and the 
solemnity of llie imprcosiun is lhu& impaired by reiteration. 

We lutnnot eay muuh in (nvor of Uiu perpetuation of the 
absurd &bli» of ancient inylliology nnd bcntlicn jxHilry, and 
some of ihem aro morally offensivu, Europa and Iho liull, 
Loda and the Swan, Jupiter iu a ijiower of gold. Mars and 
Venus, Bact-'huB, aud Kaun«, and Satyrs are the ofifepring of a 
morbid imagination, and evi.-n Diatui and her bathing nnd 
hunliiig uymplia, if real women, would hardly be admitted, at 
the present day, into decent society. Bsttlea have beeome 
trito, and Immau slaughter is both revolting and off<.-nsivo to 
moral taste. The martyrs of the battle-field, sgdendidly decoratwl, 
as wcro anciently the Tiutims adorned by garlands for tlie altJir, 
may march to their deaUt under the fa»cinatiua of martial 
iimxiii; bat, by reflection, we come U> detest war because it is 
wicked and cruel, and to loathe it because it is Irite and Tiilgar. 

Uut scenes of nature and of real hfe, aud morals anil man- 
ners, will, as subjecta for Ihe art of painting, ever liarmoni»! 
wiUi human feelings, nor will sucb pictures ever tiro the bc- 
holdur. A portion of Eucb pioturet was found in the present 
culleetivn, and probably an artist would find hero productions 
of superior merit, which wo might have overlooked. 

StalHary and Aniiqaitiet. — The collection in the lower 
rooTOi of llie same building is extensive and various, but it oon- 
tains little tliat in iliSerent from similar tilings already described, 
and thtrnfoRi I am not dik-posod to eut«r into paiticulare. 

SiaUu of yaiKltoa. — One fact impressed me (aTorablj 

326 Bbrun. 

regarding the magnanimity of the PniflsimQ govemment. It is 
the preservation of the statue of Napoleon, which is here in full 
im|)erial robes, and mounted upon an elevated pedestal — a 
noble figure and a fine work of art He had, indeed, inflicted 
upon Prussia such deep injuries, that it would have been very 
natural to have removed his statue, as was done by the Aii»- 
trians at Milan, and to have placed it in durance, as there, like 
a culprit, in some dark comer. The opposite was, however, the 
course of true honor and 8elf-req>ect ; for Napoleon, with all 
his faults, was a magnificent man. He belongs to history, 
and no narrow-minded prejudices or resentment can banish 
him from its pages, or obliterate the stem records of time. 
There are in the palace many interesting relics of him and of 
Frederick the Great, which we have made an ineffectual effort 
to see. 

The Arsen'al. — ^This is a magnificent building, standing 
vcr}' near to the Museum. It is externally decorated by statues, 
and by emblems which indicate the panoply within. It con- 
t^iins cannon and mortars of prodigious size, cast for the siege 
of Cadiz, which the French long pressed ineffectually, until they 
wore compelled to raise it at last. After the downfall of Na- 
j)oleon, these cannon and mortars were brought off from Paris 
by tlie Prussians as trophies. The arsenal, like other reposito- 
ries of tlie same kind, is filled with the weapons of death, ar- 
ranged in tasteful, symmetrical groups all around an immense 
room. There are not only modern arms, kept in perfect onier, 
and ready for immediate use, but there is also much ancient 
arnn^r. Curiously wrought pistols, and guns, and cross-bows, 
with machines to wind them up, or rather to bring the string 
to its j)lace, as the most powerful bows are of steel, and ex- 
tremely thick and ricrid. The rooms are adorned with many 
grouj)s of colors, standards, and flags captured in war during 
the numerous conflicts for existence which Pmssia has sus- 
taine(l. These soiled and tattered remnants of sanguinary 
8truggK>s, purchased at an immense sacrifice of life, tell of 
battle-fields in which Austrians, Swe<les, and French, *and 



tri>n{» of oilier distin^inhed oatioiiB y/en tliu antagonblic 
cnmbatnnts. Even PolaniJ, oppreweU and crushed by tha 
triple lang^c of cnpklity mid cnielty of die throe great powers, 
her pifftticjil nt^ighhors, bJiowh, in Uits room, lomJiiug proofs of 
tlif wverily of her Inst dyinjf mruggle fur tlie recovery of bur 
libi.'rly, nnnioly, the scythes cf the {wnsnnls, mouiitod upon long 
poll,■^ Tremendous instnimunts they woro in tlie bund* of 
itn exaspcruUfd poopln, ' 

Palackb. — Under roj'iil goremmeuU, jmlnceit uw, pcrbiipH, 
necunnry exbiliitionn (iT nnlional wcnlth itnd dignity, nml nppro- 
printn illu«tnitiona of tlic triumphs of art, Tliey are rcnrtMl, 
not DO much for the pci«nnnl nccommixliition of the reigning 
sovereign, ns proofs r>f nnlionsi wcnlth, nnd of n ngnrlt bo:h 
Inj'nl nnd pntrioti(% Undrr rII mnnnmhiM there nr« usDnFly 
Hcveral jmlitceft, botli urbnn nnd rural, nnd the siuno is tlia fiict 

In rr>nipnn)' with the Indie« I risited two of Uiem, whtio 
the oilier gi-ntleJnen wuro more usefully employetl in seeing 
«omo l>c«o(ifiil and itistnictive experiments in optics, wpocially 
in the polarixation of light by Prof. Dovu, wliich, much to my 
regret, I lost. 

The immcnH palace in the eenlru of the city, forma onu 
side of that square, or group of Mjuaree, which, in thu magnifl- 
eunce of liB publiis building*, Is not »uri)iuB«l, if it is eriunlli^, 
in any capital in Europe, cvrtsiuly not any one that we linvu 
seen. Ilaving no uxact measurement, I can only i-onjw'lum 
tlint nil its four ctterior wnlln, and the croM divisions of its 
vast interior court, if extended in onu lino, would npproximnlo 
to half A mile. The outside of tliis palace is disfigured in con- 
seijuence of the dropping off of tlie cement in ninny plnce», 
nnil tha whole pile, although graci?ful in iireliiteeturu and 
dignified by magnitude, is nistj and dingy willi the effect of 
thnc. TliQ included court loolu still ttorsc in all rwpeota, 
tlian the exterior. Thu holes made in tlie wall to sustain ths 
scalTolding remain open, as in many of the Italian cathednli, 
jost aa tlicy wcru l«ft at Uie moment when tlie btwmBiN 

328 Berun. 

pulled out) exhibiting roughness and neglect, in strong contrast 
with tlie splendor of the interior. 

Wo passed the guards, who, in full military costume, with 
brilliant arms and burnished metallic beknets, are found at 
every public place in Berlin, their long and sharp-pointed 
bayonets, glittering on their muskets, and their swoids hang- 
ing by their sides. In peace they are a harmless pageant, 
altheugh, with all their splendor, they are &r from being 
agreeable objects ; for, with few exceptions, in all the cities. 
and in most of the towns of continental Europe, they remind 
you of tlie afflictive reality of a military despotism, bearing the 
people down with a tremendous pressure. 

On most of the cannon in the arsenal liere in Berlin, I read 
^ ultima ratio regis^ not regum, but a more exact and per- 
sonal reference to the reigning sovereign. There was also the 
following sentiment in Latin upon other pieces of ordnance, 
" Do your duty and trust in God '^ or, as Cromwell used to say 
to his soldiers, " Trust in God, and keep your powder dry." In 
all wars in countries nominally Christian, the combatants pro- 
claim the justice of their cause, and appeal to God for his 
support ! 

But to the palace again. We ascended an inclined plane, 
like tliat of the great bell tower of Venice, or St Peter's at 
liome. It was winding, and the ba.sis on which we trode 
was made by setting l>ricks upon edge. By long use they 
were much worn and distorted, forming a rude up-hill walk, 
quite worthy of a barn. The coarse floors and banisten of 
wood which follow are in keeping with tlie stairway, and it 
would almost seem as if they were intended to prepare the 
visitor to be the mure impressed by the contrasted splendor 
whi(!li bursts uix>n him when he enters the rooms of state. 

The flt)ors of most of them being of wood, resemble mosaic, 
exquisitely poliished, and beautifully inlaid with ornamental 
figures of ditl'erent colors. You are, therefore, desired, on en- 
tering the palace, to slip your feet into heavy woollen socks, 
lidi there is an abundant supply at the door, and in thew 

1'auom. 320 

u aatl about Kku boj'S sliding on i<», cantntty nvuldiiig ti> 
I lift yont linibd, iw the owl'i fuvl would drop off. 

In Uiis coetiuni: wc glided lliruugh a lung BUccwKivii uf 
magnificent ujinrtinotib), mmt of lliem very targt*, and lulomoi] 
liy 8]ili<iidii] furiiiliiro and tajiwlry. On tli« walU, Linbelli^lied 
I wJtli a prt>fu«ioD uf Riding, are riiJi damask buigings, witU u 
host of picturm gf olectoiB, aod king*, and queens, and sUtu*- 
1, and ^Dornls, intcnptirsad among landscapes and battlb- 
Kcncfl, wbile complex groupe of sbitaary, or of ailogorical and 
mysliiial bdngs, diiftt^r in liie anglus, or linng (r»m tliu cu|>ing 
of tile BparUncnts. 

Tliero arc also gu«r<l-«x)ms and RjccptioQ-rooms, and levcts- 
rooins, and a dining-room of vMt oxtonl ; aomu of tlio bctl- 
roonn n'mnin just na, ptn-linpis n nvntiiry ago, llivy wi.-r« k-fl 
by Uiu Uiun royal ocimimnt tor it narrower cuuuli. If llii«e 
giuivrnl U.TmH full Ui convoy diatinct iinpressioni, I may add, 
witli more pnrciuon, Uint much of tliH funillure nnd ducort^ 
tion is of massivn silrur, and orcn of goM. Tlit^ro arc cnndelabni 
of silver, of great sim and huiglit. At tlic fool of a groM pinturi', 
Goranicuiorativu of tli« ciorouatiun of tliu jiriMunt Icing, llivro \a 
a broad scroll of gold, vrilii an inscription, wtioso letters am 
inlaid wiih precious stonis. Tliero is n cliandi'licr formurly 
belonging to Madame Pompadour, niitttreM of Louis XV^ of 
France, all the pemlanla of wbicJi — nin^rly a* broad as tlio 
palm of tlio banil — aro of rock crystal, cut and polisbi.'d, and a 
solid globe, sevon or dght inches in diameter, imtdD of iJia 
e material, bangs from the bottom as a finlHliing omMnent. 
1'hore are many vaaot of precious pictured porcelain as tall as 
t bead, and the skill of Huaaia, I'fuaiia, and Pranuu is 
I brong^il into rivalry by vasas from ibeir napcclivo rihuu- 

llie most bvautifnl of iho omnmonU 14 a vas>i <if mnl.-knbitD 

(green carbonate of eojipur), prcscnt<nl by thu Em|ioror Nicho- 

luH of Ittt-HsiiL It i« a rounterpnrt of tbat in tiio Vatican. It 

is of KXiiuislte beauty in tliu matitrial*, ami it h a.\m of cxquiMte 

ja^aWJwWWlWWwIWBjyWjil iwiil^iiiitoiliiBiii.f 

330 Berun. 

polished, and although it consists of manj pieces, th^ are so 
skilfullj joined that, until it is minutely inspected, it appears 
to be all of one mass. It measures 56 inches across from out- 
side to outside; its interior depth is 12 inches, and its height^ 
from the marble pedestal on if hich it stands, is 37 inches. 
The apartments that were occupied by Frederick the Great 
when in Berlin are in this palace, but those rooms were not 
open to the public. 

The rooms that were occupied by Napoleon during the flix 
weeks that he remained in Berlin are beneath the great ro(»iis 
of state. They are very elegant, but much plainer than the 
rooms above. The present king resides in this palace only one 
month in the year, and during the other months it is unten- 
anted. Thus, in the language of the Bible, the great men of 
the earth build desolate places for themselves. The usual resi- 
dence of the present king is at Potsdam, four or ^ye leagues 
from Berlin ; but during our visit in the latter city he was in 

There are no gardens in the rear of the palace in town, but 
tlie ornamented grounds in front are a substitute, and in them 
a single jet d'eau rises perhaps 25 feet, being lifted by steam 
power, for in this level country there is no natural hydraulic 
head to feed fountains and elevate jets of water. 

Palace of Cjiarlottenhof. — ^With the ladies of our 
party, I drove two or three miles from the city to see the an- 
cient palace of Charlottenhof, built by the grandmother of 
Frederick the Great. It is a plain, unostentatious building, 
covered externally with yellow cement, and stretches out 
mainly in one continued line, the front of which looks into a 
iKjautiful park. 

It is the winter residence of the present royal fiimily, and 
from its comparative modesty of decoration, as well as from its 
lovely rural associations, and perfect quiet, it appears to be a 
very desirable abode. Although comparatively plain, it is 
very elegant ; its tasteful simplicity is most agreeably con- 
trasted with the oppreflsive inagnifit^nc^^, and unmeaning 

PxulCK of CBiBLorncKBor. 

splendor of the paiac« in town. Thora itro indo^l stntncs Mid 
jnutun's, and oCLer regal omamtiuta, bnt Uicy ecem nppmjirinte 
to Uie place, and not to have been introduced for mere rlisplnj-. 
Tliere are bero good portraits tioth of the Inte king and r|uc('n, 
mid of their prtoent inajeGtiea. There is alto a statue of ihci 
Enifrees of RiiMia, who is a aiatar of the King of Prtisaio. She 
h a lovely lady, ns was tho qiiGco of the late King of Prassin; 
and m tliey appear both in tho marble and in tlio living tints 
on tho canvas. 

I forbear to mention othur particulars of the contents of this 
pitlace. PalaM» are but liumun dwellings; and domi»tiu afTei^ 
tion se(.-ks nitiremont ratlier than ostentatious display. This 
trutli is Ibrcibly and be.iiilifully illustrated by a little boudoir 
which they shoved ue. It is a ilinrming miniature room, hardly 
twi;1vv feet sijuare, and >vns a favorite v'wh the late tjn<im, 
whore she and her husband usrd Co take llieir dinner quietly 
togrtlier. In front of ihc jmlaec was n long row oforangiv-tree*, 
standing in tubs, to bo removed before eold weather returns. 
The air wai delieioiuly porfnined by their blcMsoms. 

The IJme at our command allowed us only a limited walk 
in the park, wfaoae nvetiUL-a, winding among the stately eedara, 
and other trees of tlie forest, were very inviting. Our guide 
led us lo a laks well itoeked with carps, to which fiimily of 
fishva it eicluuvely belongs. Among tlicm, he assured us, was 
A t-eleran carp which has lived in this lake 100 years, lieing 
coeval with the kingdom of Prussia from its dawn as a distinct 
empire. Tliis venerable feh has nttaine<l a length measured by 
a man's expanded arm*, mid wo were, of course, desirous of an 
interview. Accordingly he was summoned by a boll, being, 
it wuuld seem, a disoiplined tish — a true Prussian — and the 
more pnivgJIing motivH of appetite was addressed also, by pieces 
of biscuit thrown u|)C>ti tJiu water. A flock of swniu at the 
water's edge was fitut driven away, with some menaces and 
vociferation on our part, and iinicli hisiog on Uteir^; Init all 
in vain. We were auiitod that tbu patriatrh of the lake was 
idal«) by the noise, or offended by onr fte«dimn'., to V*. 

832 Bb&uv. 

did not corae, although invoked from his puny deep, while 
multitudes of smaller fishes dashed instantly at the floating 
fragments, and bore them away, perhaps, to the oozy bed of 
their finny monarch. 

Mausoleum of ths late Kino and Queen. — ^A more in- 
teresting subject, a touching reality, next engaged oiu* attention. 
The late king, Frederic William ILL, and his queen, are interred 
in a beautiful mausoleum, erected beneath the shades of this 
his £sivorite park. A portion of his reign was rendered a season 
of intense suffering by the wanton invasion of Napoleon in 
1806 — by the slaughter of great numbers of his people, by the 
military occupation of his capital by the conqueror, and by the 
temporary subjugation of his kingdom. He survived to the 
age of 72, and died in 1832. The queen was removed from 
life at 36 years of ago, having died in 1811.* 

In till** secluded mausoleum, whose front is adorned by 
highly polished pillars of red granite, the mortal remains of tlie 
late king and queen repose, in the palace of death. Tlieir 
forms are exquisitely sculptured in pure white marble. They 
are not standing, but laid ujwn tlieir tombs, which are separate, 
although cofitiguous, marble sarcophagi, elevated to a proper 
height above the floor. 

They are not in funereal robes — not in imaginary classical 
attire, but are dressed as a gentleman and a lady would be in 
full life. Thus they repose upon their sepulchres with tlie na- 
tural expression of sweet and undisturbed slumber — he, manly 
and dignified ; she, so beautiful and lovely, that the observer 
might naturally linger for the awakening, that he might hear 
the sound of her voice. 

* Xupoleon haa, ever since his Prussian campaign, suffered much 
in tiie estimation of the worlJ nn a man of honor, a gentleman, and a 
HoMier, hecauso he permitte*! gro-;s ribaldry and abuse of this lovoly 
aii<l excellent hidy and patriotic queen to appear in his bulletins of 
the progress of tlie war. I well remember the painful impressions 
which, at the time, were made on my own mind by those coarse eflfu- 
•ions, worthy only of the vilest peiiod of t!ie French Rcvolutiou 



Thewj tomb* »r« not In a gloomy vimlt; lliey are on the 
flixir of tlio mausolcuin, in full UayUght, in un elcgunl hall, and 
exliii)lt nothing i>f denlJi liut its ropose. I liavc nerur earn any 
lUTvai inuniiiiient so («nJerly toncliing, escept that of the laic 
Dukc! of Orleans at Pari*. The fomiB of the Knigbta of Jmiwi- 
I, in Uieir martial slumber, in tlit^ir c.hurcli at Temple Bar. in 
Limdon, prodocwt an impression of pathos, more heroic, but less 
ti>niler and aOccling. 


Warofthb Restokatiok ix18H-"15. — The late king CHUsed 
I monument to be erected in honor of those brave men who 
fought and di«<i to restore the indepondonce of his kingdom. FU- 
tuniing from the palace, we drove out in an opposite direction, to 
« lliin beautiful Hlrueture; and being attended by some of oar 
I'niitaian friends, we enjoyed tlio benefit of their explanation*. 
It it a mile or two from Berlin, nnd Rt4iiidi> on almost tlie only 
hill in it! vicinity. It is a slight elevation, not of rock, but of 
■nnd, and gravel, and loose slon<^ and ju«t serves to ^ve a dis- 
tinct viev of the city. The monument appears to hi eighty 
fiiti high, and is eomjioswl of the elegant iron castings for 
wbich Berlin is celebrated. Nothing could be more nppropri- 
ato. The asiMct is funereal, and tlie sti.-rn nmterinl is a very 
tiatuml embhtm of war. We nscendod by ten granita stejis, 
armngvd in on octagoual form, in oorrespond^nni iriih tliat 
a surrounding iron fiance, and with tJie figure of the nion- 
uiueut itself, w\ii<-\x is an oi:tagonal pyramid, rining by grada- 
tions, with o^tfl. and tapering to thu summit, like a staple, 
and all is in the GoUiic style. Tliero are at the angles eight 
sninllcr pyramiils, in the .tame stylo as llie monument In tho 
Dit<:he8 there are iron nCutuee. On four of the eight sida of 
the great pyramid rve inscribed in gold, alternating between 
I angleo, the names of four principal battles, in wliich the 
unnies of I'nuitia worn engaged ; niimvly. La Bella Alliance, 
Leipeic, Pariii, and G««li Itinhon. The places of eight other 
bottles are aLu> inacribed in tbo niidiee, in Ictturs cost in the 
iron. The monument ihwa honor to ih" monaroh. by whoM 

334 BxBUN. 

care it was erected, and to the memory of the devoted meo 
whom it commemorates. 

Boulders. — At six p. m^ August 5, agreeably to the pre- 
vious arrangement, we made an excursion with Professors Gu»- 
tavus and Hehrich Rose and Mitcherlich, to see, in the vicinity 
of Berlin, some of those Scandinavian boulders which were for- 
merly found in great numbers on the plains of Prussia, and of 
middle and northern Germany. The drift of loose, unconsoli- 
dated materials of foreign origin was also included in uur plan. 

The progress of the Scandinavian boulders south and west 
was arrested by the mountain chains on the borders of Silesia, 
where, according to the decided testimony of these gentlemen, 
they are piled in enormous masses, and attain the height of 800 
and even 1200 feet above the base of the mountaius. While 
writing upon the Alpine glaciers, I have already remarked, that 
this is not a fit work in which to discuss tlie tlieory of drift and 
boulders ; for altliough glaciers, and water, and icebergs have, 
unquestionably, effected their removal, the subject is far from be- 
ing cleared of all difficulties. In one particular regarding tlie 
boulders, we have not found things as we expected. In our 
progress over these immense plains, 600 miles at least, we have 
not seen, as we expected, numerous boulders lying on the sur- 
face, as wo saw them on the Jura Mountains, and on the 
Salevo, near to Geneva, and as I have found them in the 
Western States of America, north of the Ohio River. Proofs of 
the former existence of boulders are indeed seen here on the Prus- 
sian plains, in houses constructed of primitive rocks, in much va- 
riety, while no such rocks are found in place in these countries, 
covered as tliev are with drifts and tertiarv beds. I believe the dil- 
ficulty is solved by what these gentlemen, our immediate com- 
panions in this recognizance, all of them expert geologists, 
have enabled us to see. In the vicinity of Berlin there arc 
some boulders on tlie surface, two and three feet in diameter; 
and there are many of smaller size, which we saw as we wan- 
dered witli our Prussian friends in the fieUU, and upon the law 

SoitifK At THE UousE OP pBoFKBaoii MiTtiiKni.ini. 336 

hills nronnd the city. But tJiU is not nil ; iii Addition to thcw, 
nnd to the iiiDuinortibl'i [irimilivu boulJura whidi liavn b««u 
worked up to meet the arcliit«ctiirnl duiniinds of u gruHt city, 
and which are now built into its wulla niKl tnoiiuincnls, thcru 
ia a vaiit tvpoailory. of tbese erratic* in tho almoat inti^nniDablo 
bed of clay, which, Iwing cut into near tlio dty for ucunomirnl 
purposes, «liow3 a thiolciicsa of twenty to forty fwt. This biv], 
which coutaitu no imbedded sholK exl^ods over tiioiiaands of 
sifuaro milm, in continuity, or rarely broken. It reiKiws ei-vry 
wliero upon ailiceaus sand, in wliicli tJielinee of arraDg«itiient 
in strata, with flexiooa, di>licalo and beautiful as if sketched 
in a diagram, record tlio more geiitio undulations of water, 
pn-cvding tliut mom violunt luovemuiit wbidi brought the 
bcvda uf day and ibeir uonlvnla over tlie arenaceous strata. 
Tbo ulHy bn« no arruiigumt-iil ; but in and amoag its maw«a 
are ftGalti>Ted every vlmm liiu fuIdb of tJie Scandiuaiian pri- 
mary mountains, mainly granite, and its aMociated roclok 
There nro not wanting, moreover, representatives of the chalk, 
whitJi formation is still found in the Me of Kugeo, and iu oiiier 
[iluctA uf thu Biiltiu region. Tliey appear in tlie funn of i»niall 
hnbiiddud jKwtions of tlit; wbit« chalk itself, as well as in fre- 
quent and otU-n large ui.-um« of tliu cliulk- flints. From tbeae 
lieds of clny luborvrs arc constnndy extracting great numb«tni 
of buulders, botli loi^ nnd small, which arc laid by iu piles for 
use; and as tlia washing by Uie nuns also uncovers tJie boul- 
dtia, these bods of eJay prorq rich iguarries for building stonus, 
whioh, Hs far as man can mo, will oovor be exhausted. These 
fitdA, connected with tJie greid erratics which were, in ancient 
lime, strewn over the surface, and still cover it more or leea in 
ports of these great plains remote from the wants of arohilec- 
ture, prewnt a rich theme for contemplation, and for specula,- 
tiono, in which I will not now indulge. 

Soih£c at nu lIocsB of FaoPsasoR MrrcHEnucn. — Our 
geological excunnon was cuncluded by a vi^t at tho house of 
the eminent Professor Mitclierlicb, a geiuleuiau of noble [lerson, 
sud opCDj wi nninj ; n)(!IiQetH. . In jcfd , ih^ Berhn ^ <<v ;m ti» iufii,. 

336 Beruk. 

in this latter respect, a common character ; all, without excep- 
tion, have been cordial and zealous in their efforts to inform and 
gratify us. 

Professor Mitcherlich has an ample mansion, and his 
laboratory is in the basement It is on a large scale, haH 
several smaller apartments annexed for chemical analysis, for 
furnace operations, and other purposes, and the entire establish- 
ment embraces every necessary facility for teaching both the 
science of chemistry and the connected physical sciences, and 
their applications to the arts. There is also above the labora- 
tory a convenient lecture-room, with accommodations for a 
large class. Professor Mitcherlich is known throughout the 
scientifiG world, and has distinguished himself, especially in his 
discoveries on the dimorphism (double form) of crystallized 
bodies, and the artificial formation of minerals. 

In the private apartments above the laboratory, wo met 
the laJv of tlie house and members of her family, and were 
introduced to several invited guests, mostly men of science or 
travellers. One had been in the United States, and made 
many inquiries regarding mutual acquaintances, while anotlier 
ha<l travelletl extensively in the East, and Wius full of information 
iTganliiig tlie Oriental countries, from which he had recently 
iN'turncd. Dr. Bruwn, of Heidelberg, wjis there, a brother-in- 
law of Professor Agjissiz. Dr. B. is a botanist^ and well known 
for numerous reseaches in his own departments. A hospitable 
siij>j)er, in the German style, >vith meats, and wines, and ices, 
(•ompleted the evening, and we tf)ok leave of our kind friends 
with much feeling. Our personal acquaintance of a few days 
had elicited so much genuine kindness and cordiality on their 
part, and sentiments so reciprocal on our own, that we felt as if 
wo had known them always, and as if we should be delighted 
to 8<ie them every day. The scientific and literary society of 
Berlin is j»robably the finest in Europe, and in the presence of 
such men as Humboldt, Ritter, Ehrenberg, the Rosea, Mitcher- 
lich, and others whom we have before mentioned, one sees the 
highest result of the refining influence of modem ciyilixatioii. 

PniLosopiiic&L Abtistb or Berlin. 937 

PKOFeesoR EnBESBBRo. — We eaUcd at Uic lioiiao of tills 
dinliuguiahtid miviter of the microscepe, «iid of Hie wonderful 
world wliich it lius disclosed to our view; wo found also in 
him K gluw and atiimation which atisurt.'d us of a hearty 

At t>ar rctjuusl, he sliowed us his microscopes, and the iii- 
Ki-nious nppcndnges hy whieli hu brings the focus to boar upon 
ihoso viinishing. alnioal muduiuiatical, points, which in tli« 
mineral mwows oflen (tit-cloGU a delicate animal organiiation, 
whcrv noii« was susporled before ; and in the Vmng Hnimolciiln 
uf infusioim, and utJiLr province of tliusu iutiiiilusimala of tlio 
cronlion, rowal a Btruoluro hs iK;rf<«cl for llieir purposes as our 

a is for us, and when their tmnspnrL'nt films are rendered 
Tistlil« by the abBor])tton of culurud lluids into their orgun>s 
ihey often display a dflicato K>auly of arrangement, tlieir 
picturod forms rivalliug lUu niotit beautiful flowers and iho fintat 
vegctnblo structure. 

Wo made a porting call upon our eorlii^st Berlin frii-nd, 
Proffflsor Carl RittiT, a particular friend also of our I'roft-ssor 
Kobinson ; and at the moment of udieu, wo found tliat, although 
in diilant <»7ntincnts, vre firet saw tlio light on the very same 
day of the some year, August 6. 1770; a circumstanco of some 
intcmtto us mutually, and not likoly soon to escape our recol- 
lection, until memory itself shall fade away. 

TiiK PniLosoi^iciAL AnnsTS or Bfciats are cclebmtfld for 
ihtiir skill in the construction of [ihysicAl and chemicn] appara- 
tus. The microscojH« nhich wo san nt Profe^or Ehrenbcrg's 
wero coustrucluil liyOberhnnscr, now of Paris, who is well known 
to all microscopicAl observers; we thought tliat wo lind soon 
IwUcr results obtained with otlier instruments, and that our own 
artisbi luul little to learn in this department. Not so, however, 
n otiier dtrL-ctions. At tlie atelier of iha celebrated t>ertling, 
ro saw the well-known gradiutting engine for the graduation 
uf aalruniimicnl and oiher iniitruuii.-nts of researcli. This engine 
» \nnin tvgnrdtKl as the most esm-l ever iwnstructed, and wa» 
built at a cost of 30,000 lha]cr^ whicli wna pnki by th« Vrwr 

838 Berun. 

siaD government The portfolio of drawings illustratiiig its con- 
struction was given to us by Oertling, and has been of service to 
gentlemen in the United States interested in the construction 
of such apparatus. The chemical balances of Mr. Oertling are 
ver}^ well known in this country, as among the very best which 
are made. One of our party was so fortunate as to secure one 
already made, a tiling not often possible, owing to the demand. 
The establishment of Messrs. Luhme & Co., for chemical and 
physical apparatus, is one of the best in Europe. We found 
M. Luhme just departing for London, where he had a large 
display of his goods in the Crystal Palace. From his well- 
furnished warerooms we were able to select many things for 
our future use. 

The Environs of Berlin are extremely beautiful. On the 
avenues leading into the city there are many rural residences ; 
detached dwellings witli ornamental grounds surrounding them. 
Very extensive public parks and pleasure-grounds have been 
rescr\e(l near to and around tlie city. Many hundreds of acres, 
880 in one tract, are thus appropriated for ever, being govern- 
ment property. Thoy are filled with groves, many of which 
contain beautiful tlowering and ornamental forest-trees. There 
is a park joining upon the city, in which the trees are so 
numerous*, that the jwople, following along tlie serpentfhe gra- 
velled walks, are in a deep forest shade, through which the sun 
tlirows only a checkered golden light, flickering among the 
dark slia<lows, and the pedestrians appear like a show in a 
moving panorama. The groves, stretching fartlier, are continueil 
for two or three miles into the countrj-. Ever)' where, gravelleil 
yvalks and tiisteful seats invite the rover to rest Houses of 
refresh inent are scattered also along the borders of the forests. 

Not far from these scenes is the Royal Botanical Garden, 
acecssiblo, gratuitously, on certain days, to the public. We 
found it in very cxwllent condition. There is a v;ist area of 
gliiKs for the prottKition of tender j)lauts and exotics ; the pots, 
when we sjiw them, were in tlio o[»en air exposed to the summer 
^mperature. It is in these grounds that they hold their afteiv 

ttsnuN lo Dresden. 339 

noon (jDticr-rtji nml rurul thoatri^, nnd nninsriiK'ntH of a likn 

TliR poinihtion of Berlin is n-puti^l lo b« nboiit 400,000, 
tndudin^ tti<^ eoUlii>ra. 

KnrcATios. — Wc ciknnot Ivavg Berlin without adverting lo 
Uia Priwiian tyMinn of universal irutruction in eleunJnUry wJu- 
catioii, in all cIsRsea in thi> kiiigilon), a pMiiliarity by which 
I'ruMia is, 1 bulieve, (li8tingui»hed from every other kingdom 
on th« Continent. 

Convi?r»iiig with a Prusuan gonildman of high poaition 
and inl«lliganc«, 1 aaid, "You require all your young men U» 
learn the art of war, by actual aervico for a tenn of yuim ; you 
require that all your children ahauld leani tu reiul, and wriw, 
and keep accounU; what is to come from nil thin course of 
dJMjipUni!, wbon your {xiople have all eouiu U> know tlictr 
rights as well »■ llii'ir Jntiin, and Laru noquinyl tliu okill 
lo vindicate thum ! What will Ix* tlw final nsultl" He replied, 
wiUi unergy, '■ A atru^lo will follnw, more w!vero limn any 
one lliaL has preceded It, in which deiipuliiiin will bo pit down, 
and the folas potentatiM, who linvo deceived iho peoplu by 
promises of conHlitutionnl libi^rty, wliicli tlioy li.ire e\er sup- 
pTosaed and broken down, will tli^nuctvos be e.-kcrificed by 
papular vengoanc« 1 " 

Uo looked evidently to n general niovcmenl among llio 
oontinental nations: which, however, seems now (l8o3) farthir 
off tlian ever. 

Wo l«ft Di^lin as we had ealered it, by the gmnd Bniaden- 
burgli liaUf, at seven «.it^ on the riiila for Dresden, and ar^ 
rived there nt <inc r. w. 

The cduntry Ihmugb which wo passed was very aiinilar ( 
that Iwlwven Ctilogno and Berlin. It was an interminabU 

340 Excursion to Frieburo. 

tioD, and crops were identical with those already described. 
We passed b}', or near, only a few towns. Sand and sand hills 
were of frequent occurrence, but no boulders, altliough some 
houses, as already intimated, were constructed of primitive 
rocks, doubtless split from boulders. As we approadied Dres- 
den, tlie country became more hilly and more beautiful ; and 
we soon after arrived in that ancient city, passing into it over 
a stone bridge. The structure that was here in 1813 was blown 
up by the Fiencli, to enable their army to escape by retarding 
the pursuit of the Allies. 

We found every thing ready for our reception at the H6tel 
de Saxe, in the great square of the city. 

As we proposed visiting the mines at Frieburg, we accord- 
ingly made arrangements witliout delay, proposing to see the 
most interesting objects in Dresden on our return. While our 
horses were being made ready, we took a hasty glance at the 
picture galler}'. The Dresden collection Ls justly celebrated, 
for it contains the largest and best selection of the Italian 
school, out of Italy; and among them are Raphael's San 
Sisto and Correggio s Magdalen, which alone would give char- 
actor to any collection. I do not, however, now remember 
any gallery in which there are so many pictures that are ob- 
jectionable in point of decency. Some of them are too gross foi 
public inspection, and should be banished. 

The Saxon Frieburg, the seat of the School of Mines of the 
celebrate<l Professor Wcnier, is within twenty-five miles of 
Dresden, and the gentlemen of our party made an excursion to 
see it. Without losing the remainder of the aflemoon, wo 
took an extra jxwt carriage, and at six o'clock were on our way. 
One mile from Dresden the coachman }K>inted out tho place 
where General Moreau met his death. When Napoleon began 

Pkmalk Slaverv. 


U> iinfuM Ills vdsl plftOB of n«tBonal ambition, Moroau, who, 
tilc« La Fayett'>, was really a patriot, declined going on with 
liim, »oJ, being ttit^ for liia life, wm condemned to two ymw' 
iitilirisumaent, but was permitted to flmigratu to tlio TTnJtod 
Stabw, wht^ro bo lived in rotiremont near Trenton, Now JerMy. 
Wlmn thn grent atruggln winsequont on Napoleon's inwion 
of Rauin came on, lie mtumed to furope &nd joined tlie Al- 
lies. In tlie tiattld before Dresden, Angust 27, 18in, Nnpo- 
leon, ob«!rving a group of office™, directed a cannon to 1« dift- 
eliargwl at tiiiini, niul that shot proved (Htal (o Moreau. While 
convofsing with tbo Einporor Alexander, the couimitsioned 
ball Bhattorcd b,\» timba, and he died five days nflur. A luoau- 
ment (o his tnomory was creeled on tliu spot when ho full, but 
h« was buri<id at St. Petershurgh. 

The counWy through whioh wo roijo wm very Ixiaullful. 
Thu tir»t (en milca <ki.: travelled in n winding defile or (corgo, 
and alongsiilti of a lively ri\iv, whidi was liouuded by ItilU and 
vortinil strata nf roc'lu. Tun miles from Dreodcu, at tlie uou- 
liidurahlo village of Tbarant, wo wcru overtaken by night ; but 
on our return I observed the country through whic^ wo travel- 
led ia th« dark, and found it to be oqually beautiful as that 
whicli we had seon : wide sweejnng, vordaut hills and valleys, 
wore lidi in grass and crops, llie towns, villages, and rural 
abodes, appeared in a high degree resixfclahle and comfortable, 
Mauy huwua and manufactories indicated wealth. Tbo people 
were well claii, and their aspect and demeanor indicated con 

- FsiiALE StAVKBr. — ^Tliero was, however, one important 
drawback — and the remarks J am about to make are applica- 
blo to other parts of Saxony bdsidcs tliis beautiful rvgion ; — iJio 
•lavcrr of women appeared in very tvvolting form*. Not iwly 
w.-re aUthulwinl 1.,1m.|-^ .-.ri!,.. f,.'nn ;>..TC-.m,-,l !,v ih.-m. .ucU 
BA mtping, moM II' : mn- 

mirr, liociiig, pLm ■ ..»rt; 

thu drawing of v ■\siu 

342 Frieburg. 

all along the road, pressing hard upon the head, shouiden, and 
backs of females. In Dresden we saw, for the first time, women 
wheeling the long and heavy barrows, on which great burdens 
are carried. Old women, those of middle age, and young 
maidens, were there engaged in these laborious occupations. 
Among the burdens borne by women on the head and should- 
ers were hay in bundles, packages of brushwood and other 
fuel ; and in Frieberg we saw a feeble old woman carrying 
up several flights of stairs, in a kind of basket on her back, 
enormous loads of solid wood for fuel ; they would have been 
a full burden for a strong man. In the School of Mines, she 
toiled up one flight of stairs afler another, tottering under her 
load, a spectacle which was a disgrace to humanity. I after- 
wards saw, with mingled sorrow and anger, that same old 
woman stasrgering up the same stairs under a heavy load of 
furniture, apparently the beams of a bedstead. 

It was past eleven o'clock at night when we arriveil at 
Frieburg. As we descended into the valley, a chill atmosphere, 
loaded with vapor, and charged with arsenical and sulphureous 
fumes, saluted us, and announced our proximity to the smelt- 
ing works. We found, however, a comfortable inn, and the 
next day (August 7) being bright and cheering, dissipated tlie 
damps of the night. 

Frieburg is in the centre of a vast region of mines. There 
are 130 within an area of a few square miles or leagues. 

Descent in'to the Mines. — Our younger gentlemen were 
disposed to descend into the mines ; but having seen enough 
of such subterranean regions in earlier years, I declined the en- 
terprise, and preferred the quiet of my chamber and pen, and a 
promenade about the town. Forty-six years ago I made a simi- 
lar descent into the Dolcoath mine, in Cornwall, England, and 
to the same depth that was reported in this case, i.e., COO feet; 
and now, by (ro<rs blessing, I found myself here, in the heait 
of Germany, still in active health, as a companion Uy those who 
Were not born until many years after the ]>eriod named. 

The party were gone several hours ufHin their subterraoofin 

Uescbst isto 1 

1 MlN 


journey, nnd rvtarnod highly gnititi>NJ but Uioroughly uonlwl 
witi4 mild anil well futile']. Oon nf thoir niimtwr nlWvfiutk 
famhili'NJ mo with tlio following nnrmtive of thu iteMtunt : 

" U is iiccwMry to Imvo n written wrlct or punnission from 
tho tnnaUiT of tlio mines tkcforo iicca» onn be hud to tho work* 
nndor gnnind. ll is n prinhMl farrn, tsovuring hnlf a [wgo. 
Armed with this, no iwt oS. nt «tght a.m., to lli« IlimmeUfurtli 
mine, which is about one milo from iliu huiul, and nl |)n^iit 
one of thi! moat actiroly worked uin««, not lew tlmn I'JOO mun 
and buys being engiigwl In its vnduua (U'[>nrLment». 

"Wu won) lint conductud to l)i« ollici! of thi! overeuer, 
where wo found a party of hcwd inincn M hrcnkfost. Wo pro- 
duced the ordor, nod w<>re reiguest^d, in (ierman, lo be (oiU«d. 
No onti of ihEin «poko Eogligh or French, and we did not 
*jtc<ak much Ocnnnn. PrcwiiOy, a young woman, who had gone 
out, Toturued, bringing a quantity of mincn' clotbon, into wbicli 
wo inseHod oimelroa aa well at we could. Thom giv«n lo the 
writer were lnt«iidtKl for a deeidwlly slender man, and defied 
nil hiH nflbrti at cnusiug tlru butluiiK tu appruncli. Another tuit 
WHS, howcvpr, fonnil, wliiuli was a hcllpr fit The Ukm Is pecu- 
liar. Tlii^ stutr i» Mock g1u»Mi mmbrifs of which the cont aud 
pantnlomis an randc. Thu uont has u cnpa, ih buttone<l elosti to 
the wrists, and is provided witli a ring nt the collar lo hang the 
liuit«rn In. An apron of stout luatiivr wna Rtmp|MHl ou btkind, 
in a aitii^ular hut very ussful podlioa. All mim-rs, of t-Tury do- 
gfw, wear this Anxs. The lantern is a little bon of wooil, lined 
witli bnuM, round nt top, and opim in frunt. On the back is a 
long loop to hang it tlirough tlie ring on the wiA. Thun ar- 
rangod, wo followod our It^ndcr, who was n young head miner, 
and entered the centre and liighcet of a Urge number of buUd- 
uigA, in which ia the opening of the mine. 

"The rfiaft '» divided mto four purta nearly eqiiid, of which 
the two -yritl-al -.av fur liiiulim; u}i tliL- ^n. .iiid refiisn nidw; 
I'Ump rods and 
(lie I.i ' < jikteral, or end 

S44 Fribburo. 

into a cellar. The lowest depth which has heen reached in this 
mine was reported as being about 1500 feet The rock is grani- 
tic gneiss, of a reddish color. Our guide seized the rounds of 
the ladder in a firm way, and instructed us how to place oui 
hands ; he then went down, and we followed. The ladders ara 
nearly vertical, and about 36 feet long each. At the foot is a 
stage, or platform, on which you land before you enter on a new 
one, an arrangement which secures greater safety in the descent 
*in case of accident We toiled on downward about 550 feet, 
when we were led off by a horizontal gallery. In our descent 
also we passed numerous other levels or hori^ntal galleries, which 
we discerned dimly by the light of our lamps ; but, during our 
progress, we saw no metallic minerals in the gneiss. Afler fol- 
lowing our guide about a quarter of a mile at the level of 550 
feet, wo began to hear tlie noise of hammers, and, before we 
reached the workmen, we saw tlie line of junction between the 
gneiss and tlie granite. The ore in this mine is a rich argentif- 
erous galena, in a vein of considerable thickness, accompanied 
by mispickel (white iron pyrites) and yellow copper, in all 18 
inches to two feet thick. They were working on the course of 
the vein, which runs in an oblique direction, at an angle of 
about 40^ and in the general directit)n of N.N.W. The yield 
mast be immense, judging from the miuss of Uie vein which we 
saw oi)en. This mine is certainly very vast — a labyrinth of 
passages, a few of which we followed. It is very dry, aiwl tho 
hydraulic apparatus required to pump it is, consequently, not 
very large. The steam engine used is a high-pressure one, 
and the cylinder, about 15 inches in diameter, is placed 
horizontally. Its power I should think not over that of 100 
iiorscs, perhaps not more than 75. 

" We ascended by another shaft than that by which we de- 
scended, and this brought us out nearly half a mile from where 
we went down. The apparatus used in preparing the ore is 
very simple. The ore is picked over by boys, who select the 
good pieces, and break out the rock with hammers. The 
selected ore is crushed dry by a battery of nine vertical stampa 

. llKl 


Uri>'L-ti l.y stfiiiii, vw:h Htainj) Iwiiig eliud with u hvnvy Imuiinor 
of oasl iron. Mi-ri nni pouslnntly eiigii}{i«<l in tlirowing ibu 
miiTsu bits wilti n lung-linndlLtl sliovul tindur tlin limnkiirs, anil 
in »itli<lniwing the liticr piirt, whiuli is piisscd tlirougk iron 
sm-uf, nai is then rcmiy for tlio pwci'ss of rousting. 

" Aa no tedioits prwwM of wni^hing the on is ivjuired in this 
mine, tliB DiBtliod in mfy, simple, npd cconomicn). Tho roasl' 
ing i* pmformed nt nnother plnc«, which wo did not Tint; but 
the evoaing of our nrrival, owing lo n htavy Atmosphere, aa 
lilroidjr remarked, wo had an opportunity of smelling the mixed 
rapurs of eul[Jiiir and nriKaiu, with whicJi lltn nir wks loaded. 
UnfoKu nattily for Ui, nil the profrsaora of the Hchool of Mmt* 
v/taro nlimtnt; — Mc^rs. I'lultncr, Schonror, mid ollKfru, wliowi 
Bbaeiioo wo lixd otM-nsioii lo regret. It wns tho summer vikcntion. 
I'his Tc^on is very iu<>tmclive tw regards tho occurr(ino« of valu- 
nblo ores, in a grnnilic ro<;k, And in a region frcD from niouDlAins, 
Tho yiulrl of silver continuM to bo good, and tho mines nrt> farmed 
by liio government. Minom from llio Ilartx Mountains liret 
•ottJed inKrielmrgiii Ulia.auduonimcDced working the mitieH." 

Obmkiui. Rkmakkr. — Prieburg was anciently an iniperiat 
city, with 40,000 inliabiUuits, and was tho rcsideneo of tho 
Saxon prinove, who conferred upon it important privileges; 
now, it ovntaina letA t!imi 12,000 inhabitants, white its mined 
walla and tijwers all«t il« former extent and imponanoA In a 
walk around the town, I Haw them eng:u^ in ftllinf; up its 
deep and widu foiwe, as has already been dune to a great extent, 
lu form u prumenaile ; hut enough of walls and towurs roniaiuH 
lo ftirm an impressive ruin. 

In tliid city of tho miners there iiru beiititiful public walks 
with fine imti, and nour uiie of Ui« promeiiades is a moniuneni, 
oomraemurnling vititoriw iiblainwl in tho sevenleutli cntary 
r iho Swede-. 

Ill uf an ancient Gitmbq 

:-, covered with red tilea, 

I III the HtroetA are nmum, 

U.-.1 dri.-ii, and by th™ aproni. 

by the soldiers of Pri'-hiircr o' 

TI.. . 


846 Frieburo. 

often worn behind both in the mines and out of them, espe- 
cially on days of ceremony. 

The aspect of the country in and around Frieburg is not 
that which we usually expect in mining regions; it is not at 
all mountainous. Gently swelling hills, and beautifully curved 
valleys, give no indication of nature's great doings beneath the 
surface. Tlie enormous piles of rocks brought out of the 
mines, and laid up so as to occupy as little of the area as possi- 
ble, with the various buildings erected at tlie mouths of the 
mines, usually with tall chimneys, and steam machinery ; these 
appearances, with the peculiar costume, and the physical and 
moral as|)ect of the miners, are nearly all that, to a passing 
traveller, indicate a mining country. 

The mines have been wrought for nearly 700 years, and 
the silver obtained from them has been a great source of 
wealth to the Sfixon princes. Many of the mines have been 
sunk to such a depth that the heat* of the lower passages, and 
the water, have stopped the operations. A stupendous enter- 
prise has been carried through to drain the mines by a tunnel, 
cut 24 miles, under the mountains to Meissen on the Elbe. 

Prof. l>reitliaupt, an eminent living professor of the School 
of Mines here, calculates that the mines had produced in 640 
years, down to 1825, 82,000 hundred weight of silver, equiva- 
lent to 240,000 millions of dollars. Tlie product in 1835 was 
523,952 dollars. 

In the venerable oathe^lral are contained tombs and tro- 
phies of Saxon princes and eminent men. The tomb of Wer- 
ner is there. 

A flat, round stone in the market-place, indicates the 
spot where Thaufungen, the robber knight, who stole the two 
young princes, Ernest and Albert, was beheaded in 1455. 

The School of Mines of Werner. — My early profes- 
sional studies created in me a high admiration of this tohool 
of mines, founded in 1765 ; and of Werner, its flliMtnoO^ 

* An additioaAl proof of the hofttod condition of the iais 
the earth. 

' », 

Riucs or \Vk: 


oiDamoot, wboee atmt vim, tot lidf u ciuitury, of deciaive itu- 
tliority u]K>n tdl ifUtslbus rvliitiiig l<) Uie scicncva uonnected 
wiUi Uio mineral kingiliitii. 

Thu piir^oTMi] koowl«(lgQ whiuh 1 hod vf Wumcrun 
tcnchcn, o«[>ocU]ly of Uie InW Ur. Jolin Murray, of Edinburgh, 
wiioau pujiil I WHS in t6(JS ; und of wriicn wliose works were 
fouudeil ujHin tiiD iloclriiica of this jsctiool, uinung whom yten 
Jameson, of KUiobui^li, BrocliHat uid d'Auluiwon, of P&m; 
or of the works of mi-ci tTnin<.-d by bim, wbutber odopling all 
bia qniiious or not (Iluiuboldt tuid Vou Buob wore uf tbia 
clatti), or of anlvnl ux|)luruni niid geologiuul Iruvellens formed 
upon tbu Wemtrinn niodvt, of whom, ImIIi in Europe- and Norlb 
AmuHcii, tbu Intu Willium Muclun: wm [lie iiiosldialin);uialiud; 
—all tluso Eouri:(» of inJluunuu, und iniuiy muru of tbe hiuiio 
cloM, baving Uv.a brought to bear upuii my niiud in ibo 
usciiiidiiiit of iny lifn, pnuluutid n strung itiid limtiTijf I'ffucl, and 
llitttniiiru WcRNKu liM cvur uuoq runiiuiiod wilb uio chrum tt 
vrnrrahik nomen J 

Tlia gtvat ndvAiioo mnde silica tbo limo of Worrier in tlio 
knowledge of ininctalps and of thdr cutn|Mi9itioii, bus, as rv- 
^nln elcnu-nUr}- miiiiTHbjgy, introducod improrod im^tliods 
both iif nrritngpmiitit nnd d'Tcriplion, and tbe jirogreaa of geol- 
1^' bns shown tliAt Werner's vii>«a, dmrttd obuottt exoluuvely 
from Ml i'xnminution of bis own nntivo Boxouy, were tax loo 
iimitu], mid in ionic roprcls erronixiiis. But etjll, bo, more 
tban uny oIIkt mun in bis liinu, nnpartl^d intcrust nnd gavo 
impubo to tbcM studies, »o fraitful to importnnt naults boUi 
lo tdence and th* arts. 

Sudi view§ and fMilinga, diarcd also by my compimiona, 
tiatundly In] us to make Frieburg n cipital point in oar rapid 
glancu At ticnnaiiy. 

RkUub or WaRNKD. — It was no nmall sAtisfactiuo to us 
that W« Ibmnl all tbings pcnonal to Werner romMning as be 
bA IbeiB in 1810, whrn be di>^b Both in the lecture-room 
nad in bi» privul" niuirlmK-ndi, tbu t^nbinvts of miuenils remain 
>^ .miyniL mm KnmgNd priacifalljF ia . 

348 Fkiebcro. 

drawerH, in plain cases, painted white ; large and showy gpeci- 
mens were placed on the tops of the cases, and protected by 
glass covers. Many of them were fine, and a smaller number 
are unique, while all are interesting in a high degree from their 
personal association. The building for the School of Mines is 
plain, but of ample dimensions, and affords all necessary 
accommodations^ In an upper room' there is an extensive col- 
lection of models of mining machinery, of the structure of 
mines, of the pumps for clearing them of water, and of every 
thing else connected with the business. There is an ingenious 
contrivance for putting these models in motion. Water, from 
a reservoir, descends in tubes, and by an easy arrangement is 
made to fall upon the parts to be moved, while, at tlie same 
time, the water that would otherwise accnmulate is discharged 
by the pumps. There are also models of bridges, and of build- 
ings, and of various objects connected with civil architecture. 
Prof. Fischer, of the mining school, was so kind as to open 
every thing for our inspection. Breithauj>t*s collection of min- 
erals is in the same suite of rooms with the model*, It is racxl- 
erately extensive, and contains many very interesting things, 
but is crowded, and badly arranged. 

Werner's sword and cane hang in his Iccture-roorn. They 
are gold-hilted and gold-headed. I drew the sword from its 
scabbard ; it was bright, and elegantly ornamented. Tlje por- 
trait of Werner was also here. The form of the face, round 
and full, is decidedly German, and his head is large and grand 
— an excellent phrenological model. The expression of his 
countenance is delightful ; high intelligence is blended with a 
glowing good humor, and softened by benevolence ; in a word, 
the development, both in his head and face, is in perfect 
correspondence with the uniform report made of his character 
and talents by his pupils. Such were his talents zeal, and know- 
ledge, and so amiable and attractive was he as a man, that he 
drew to Frieburg students from all the countries of EufODe.. and 
even from the distant continents of both Americw^ * 

tnres were highly instructive and delightiiil. Hit; 

ItETURN TO lJitt;siit.\. 349 

iiiV«ti.-<l evon tho dry stones with inlerGsi; mid In; a snJi! lo 
Ua,v6 added A charm U> his dUcussions id gv^uloj^ by digr»> 
Bioii*. growing indeed naturally out of his RubjocL Ho re- 
iHiniil tli« iJuc, liowovur, iu his hand, und !n due ttniu rtrtumcd 
ngftin to tlio proper point. 

Id t4>pngniphicAl geology hi: often introdiicod liistorical 
facts of high in(«rc9t. Thraugli this gorge an army advanced 
or rclreatod ; from thai clifT stonis wero hurled down venge- 
fully ai>on the invader, ond tJiis plain, a great battJe-field,-waa 
soaked with human h\ood. Thua thrilling associations wero 
formed with die natural features of scenery, and tliuau who did 
not care for the granito precipice, or Ibe sandiitunD Urnta, 
would rememhei them if the former had been sculed, or the 
latter marched over by advancing or retreating armies. 

MiffBKAi^ on Sale. — Tliero is a rooiii duvub-Hl to Uiis 
ohject on ncxnunt of the School of Mines, ns a puhlSi". establish- 
mL-nt. Our niineralogisis selected a cuusiderHbli: tiuuW of 
g«id npeeimeus, al prices more modera^s than any where else 
in Kurope, m for us w a have teen; mid Ix-ing pm bd al micv, 
they were brotight away wilU ns. 

|i(lurn to ^rtsijcu. 

,\l five o'eloek, i*. m^ wo werw again in our onrriftgi-s, and 
wftro Mifc in Dn^en nt hnlf-pasl niMi oVlock. 

KoBESTs,— We hnvc often ohecrvod, and more parlicnlnrly 
to-doy. the extreme beauty of llio fonsis of fir-trees obtained 
by planting. The successive crops arc sown annually, aud 
thus a regular progress is made, year by yi-ar, up to 40 years, 
wiicti the timber is lai^ euongh to be mit for use. Huh 
every ywr a new crop is coming mature, and if the work is 
fiiillifully followod Up ihure nei-d UL-ver te a scarcity of timber, 
wpodaJly if a tiTOilsr eijii^«.> m followed with oilier forest trees. 

On the Kr-tr-vik f-.n limlA aiv teen, except near the top; 
tfimi ftwftBig<«7'iiimfi1iii)iv 

350 Dresden. 

A forest of these trees is extremely beautiful — as evergreens 
always are — and here they are marshalled like a regular army, 
in rank and file, forming a singular oontaiist with the irregu- 
larity of the natural growth of self-planted trees in forests. 
Since we have passed the Alps we have seen no proo& of defi- 
ciency in timber. Trees, both for beauty and economical use, 
have been numerous. Clusters, clumps, avenues, groves and 
forests, have appeared abundantly, and there seems to be a 
sufficient supply for every purpose. 

It is maintained, however, by provident care; for, if the 
demand for use were not supplied by planting, the forests 
would, in the course of a few years, disappear. The trees are 
pruned, and tlie woods cleared by public authority ; superflui- 
ties arc removed, and deficiencies supplied ; but every thing 
is saved. The brushwood, and small tops, and pruned shoots 
are made up into bundles and carried home for fuel, chiefly on 
the hcids of women. 

Wc were in Dres(^lou at an unfortunate juncture. Tickets 
of admission to several of its public institutions are issue<l only 
in a limited number at a time, and we were obli^ixl to wait 
nearly a day for our turn to see what is, indeed, well worth 
waiting for 

The Greek Vault. — This trivial name has been bestowed, 
I believe, on account of the color of some of the ornaments, 
but it would be quite appropriate, and far more ])roper, to name 
this establishment the Saxon Regalia, for such it really is. 
Saxony is an ancient kingdom, dating back, I sup|)ose, loOO 
years or more. There has, ther<.'fore, been time for the amass- 
ing of an immense collection of gems, and of other rare and 
curious tilings, which occupy eight large rooms in one wing of 
an immense palace. Through these successively you are con- 
ducted. The mines of Saxony have contributed their wealth 
to enable the Saxon princes, in the j)rogress of many centuries, 
to amass such a collection as is, I presume, nowhere else to 
be seen. I believe you cannot name a icem, or a faeMdafitl 
•tone, which is not A>und here in pra 4Sii;«*Piiif' 

TiiK Ubkicm \'\ 


moiuU nro in ibvMi nionu, I will nut my bv huiiilruK bul 
lit«rollv liy Uiouiiiniis. Many o( thoni nr" of Inrgi? siw ; we 
uoiiqIihI over two hnndrcd mounted na Inittaos, uach ono of 
wliidi WM u Inrgn w buys' playing niHrbloa. 

Tlio ciiiliWnia of roynlty, \ha aword of ntJilei, tlio sword-ljelt, 
thu Rtuia, iliu gnn«ni nnd tiiitton!i, tho collnr nml vnriona oHon, 
luii] iiiiiumi'mblu oiIht thing^ spHrltlo witli dinmonils of fine 
water and brillinnt [K>li»)i. We saw hen nn iiiim<;nw 
(liiunoDil, of Lhc highest hisln.', whoao color was tliat of the 
iui;i[ihire, and also a grven bnlliftnt, wai^biug 100 gmiiui. 
Tho iliiiinoiKh nm lurungcd u|H>n a dark viJvet ground, and 
intcnpiirBHl arc nibice, HHpjihinv, emcrdd-'S topomis, ttmiiioUMi, 
annetbyMs, nnd opaK all of Inr^d (ism and moat cxi]iiixiti) 
bwiiity, and being art in gold, they njipenr the moro «ploiidid 
fay contHMt. Niil only tbo slate drew, but tho minw's co«(ame 
of tba king are all sparkling with <liamonda »«t in gold. Tha 
king ia, by uourteay, head miuer, and on ocrlain dnVB loitdit tho 
pruoaiMoii of mini'rit, in full coHtutn«, lo (.be L'buruh. 

The Bword of tXAlv, a very long weapon, is brought ont ul 
the (pronation, and that it >aay bi-fit thu angust occasion, both 
tlwi hilt am) tliti wmlibanl ant covered nith diamonils. This 
ondi'nt swonl is ttUI in perfci-tion, and is indecil a splifndid 
emblem of power. 

All tlie more common hnn] stonm, clinlcodony, agat«, jm- 
|ier, onyx, &i%, are harv, in imnicnse profinion, and lieing i-ut 
in tho moat b<wilifnl form*, and hi^ily poliKbed, thi?y tnake a 
apkndid nppi.'aniDce. 'I'he largcet onyx in liio world is hero; 
it is black, and of an oval form, niv and a half iiiebea loug and 
four and a half broad. A while elliplicHi baud rum tbroiie-h 
aud aruunil it, and {uiraUi-l to its exterior. The viasels of niick 
ervRul, omolcy ([uartA and otUer varietioi of this Bpeci*", n« 
nnmetvus ; kudo of ilifiii nro very bwge, and are i:iit into the 
taoet grarjeful and elegant figures. Tlie transpan-uoy \a to 
jKdeei, tlmt it is tfit muy t^i believe that ihey are nol glaw, 
a trial of linrdnrwi ii mndu. or their uitcmal irryatnllin 

352 Dresden. 

feet It is suspended in a frame, and turns so that there are 
two mirrors seen on the opposite sides. 

Among other rare things are numerous ancient vessels of 
enamel ; the enamel is wrought over metal, which it covers 
and conceals. It was an anticipation of the most beautiful porce- 
lain, the art of manufacturing which was, in that age, unknown 
in Europe. Of this sort is a miniature representation of the 
court of the great Mogul Aurungzebe, preserved as an exhibi- 
tion of the skill of the artist Dinlinger, who wrought at it seven 
years; but it is a toy, and not worthy of the dignity of a palace. 

There is in the Green Vault a vast amount of silver vessels, 
richly wrought, and gilt inside ; wine-coolers, of such weight 
that they can hardly be lifted by one man ; ewers, 6pergnes, and 
various vessels of utility or ornament, fashioned in different 
epochs from the silver of the Saxon mines. These arc only 
parts of extensive sets of silver service, and of gold also, for the 
royal tables, but used only on great occasions of stiite or set 
feast davs. 


Time would fiiil to enumerate, in tlie briefwit manner, 
the riches of these imperial apartments — costly tables of Flo- 
rentine niosiiic, toilet services of amber, ivory carvings, curi- 
ously wrought specimens of ostrich eggs, and nautilus shells, 
]>earls without number, and the celebrated Nuremberg egg of 
gold, inclosing in its yolk a chicken, a ring, and a crown. 
But in this world of treasures I have only glanced at a few 
principal things. To a mineralogist its chief value is as a 
cabinet of gems, which he may never see equalled. It is sur- 
prising that in the numerous wars of Germany this collection 
has never been plundered. During the revolution in 1848 a 
battalion of soldiers was constantly stationed here, within the 
hollow s«|uare of the palace, to prevent the ingress of the mob. 
That there was sufHcieut reason for this fear is but too appar- 
ent from the outrages committed in another magnificent estab- 
lishment, a v<ast and grand palace, which contained a museam 
of natural history, a great collection of antiques, an opeim 
onse, and other institutions. It was burned, whether lij 

Mt'SKi'M OK Gkuliiuv. Sa'S 

I dent or lif^igti u DDl cerlAtn. Tburu il Btand*, a y»<n. niiii, 
I b1aL-ki-iif<<I willi siiiokr, nqiI dilnpidnled by Uiu Rk. lu stoDo 
I wnlla aro Mill witirii, with ilicir nunit-rous slatuia aud artlii- 
I tectural ornaincmts Init iiiulilnliil nnd dcfnn.i]. In lliis [mrl 
I of tho city, M io Genoa, Nnplus, Messinu, Oaluniii, Btrliu, nod 
r ciliea which wc Iiuvii visitLiI, Uto imjinwHis of bullvta 
I upon tba comoDt of tha housua iiro nuincroiiB, nnd snvai^ w«r 
I hiis luarlccd its progrcM by mournful ruins. 

Mi;becm op GBot^or. — X porlioD of tbo nstunil liiatory 
[. coll^^(!tj^ntf wbich wi-re in Uiis jMlace waa saved from dMtruo 
ind already, wb«ii wa wen.' there, ibe buildin)r bad Ixwn 
I 10 far rcpairad tiiat we wi^re able to buv a part uf Ui« geolo- 
I gical specimens. They were kindly cxbiLitnd to un by Dr. 
I Goiuitic.* Hero is a compk-tn inoiintcil skuletoii of tho fomiJ 
f tnvirn U^ar, the only t-nlire one tliaC wo had over aeeu; and 
rof t!ii^ snme great auiniHl tliuro nn< hIho beads and many other 
9 bones. Thf skeletou of tlio boar h 87 inchen long; that ia, 7 
I fcol nnd 3 inehefc ; the lens^tli of tho eranium i» 17 inulios, of 
[ Uicfuro feet 12 IndieM, of the hind feet IS. 

This bear, bring and clothed with inuiicleti, funiisbed with 
[ blood -vessels, wrapp^ In inU-guini.'nIa ami far, and rounded by 
I Iht, would have been a ginnl nmon^ thi.- prinievnl niiimaU. 

In this collection there it an nitcT<«ting serios of teetli, fo 

lOw. in soTernl fossil animals, tlio pregresi of dentition frnai 

\ Infancy to laaturity, particularly in the boar an<l iho iiucient 

lelephaDt. Tlio bones of tlie fbesil bear are fkim Suudwich, 

I Benr Trwiohn. We saw aUo liero the bonea of a fo«il oniinat 

t Bjiproxi uniting to a hone, and the head of the cttinct W 

I, tdlied to, but not ideuliiuil with t)ie nuronhi^ or wild 

(, which, by the cnre of the Emperor of Kussia, is still proti^eted 

inid preserved, aa n living r»co, in the forests of l^ithuanin. 

if-ro lN.:!iiiiii'iil tvith of tlio KVglodon, of Alabama, 

: licalogy iu tlie I'Dlylvuliuic Hdioul uf 
:- iT»J tu ia A pnrt of th« moaiu of la- 
iiirlilulioii, in wliitli tJicr* nm tw«n^ 

354 Dresden to Leipsic and Cologks. 

brought out along with a vast collection of the bones of thai 
immense fossil cetacean, by Dr. Koch, who is a friend of Dr. 

General Remarks on Dresden. — ^Mj hasty survey of 
Dresden was finished by a ride through its principal streets^ 
and around its ennrons. It is a thoroughly built city, of 
strong stone houses, with streets generally of tolerable width, 
and with several expansions into areas, like public squares. 

Dresden is situated upon the Elbe, which flows by it with 
a rapid current The city is in the midst of a fertile and beau- 
tiful country, a part of that vast region of level, or only gently 
undulating land over which, in different directions, we have 
been recently travelling many hundreds of miles. 

On seeing it, we were not greatly surprised that the tide 
of war has often rolled over this region, as there is so little to 
arrest itB billows ; so little, I mean, of ph3'sical barriers ; and 
those of art, in tJie shape of fortresses, which the skill of man 
has erectcHJ, the asj^aults of man hjlve been able to dejftroy. 
The famous Dresden jwrcelain manufactory was broken up by 
Frederick — certainlv nut in this instance entitled to the usual 
epithet of the great. He selfishly transferred tlie manufactory 
to Berlin, with its materials and tools, and as far as possible its 
workmen also. The manufacture of Dresden jwrcelain is now, 
however, c-arried forward in the countrj^ on private account. 
We had not time io visit tlie Berlin mjmufactory of porcelain, 
but we saw specimens of it in tlie (rreat Exhibition at London, 
and also a superb vase at the house of Baron Von IlmnboKlt. 
It was almost identic^il with that of Sevres near Paris. 


An evening ride, between six an<l nine o'clock, wjis at- 
tended with very little interest. We regretted very much 
to arrive at Leipsic in the night, and to leave h et*'^ *" tha 
uioniing, without even entering the city ; for the 

DftEBOBK TO Lbifsio and Cdlogkk. 


I Hon )uid tLo bonne where wo lodged vcm just at it» uouSocs, 
' It bad l)cnu ^ilii me a favonta object to mney that grwt 
k field of blood, whcro, in Uie autumn of 1813, was fouglit Uia 
dMusiiro hnUia of th« nations ; where, for three successive ilayn, 
' 186.000 of tho French, and 230,000 of the Alliw, with !«00 
[ pieces of cannon, conlcndod with d«fl[>t!rata obHtitiany ; when 
ihii coDi^aeroT of nation*, with tho odds of 04,000 mva agaiiut 
I liini, wns himevlf compelled to retreat, although his fiiiul over- 
throw WAS not accomplished until Juno IB, IBIS, at Waterloo. 
I It was imposaiblo for ng now, being within It** than a miinth of 
our timo of Miiling from England for Amorion, to give n day to 
' Loi|Mic Out road carried us, indcod, over a portion of Oio 
I field of battle, but we could hnvo no int«Iligi-'nt mihtoiy obsci^ 
) vation of the country. We could, howcvcT, undcrslnml tlutt 
there was room enough on this ImmenM plain for )ISi],000 
I and IflOO piccw of cannon to play ilieir deadly game, 
< As they contended, with nothing but tbeir own bravery and 
milibiry tikill to prevent & decisive rush, thero must havo been 
8 scene of uiiinitJgalcd slaughter; and we cannot wonder ihat 
iniiro than 50,000 men were laid low. The rapid flight of the 
can soon lioru us away from (lie sight uf Leijnic, although not 
Bwny from the associatnl reeolloctions uf Oiosv grout uvenu, 
Btill fresh in my memory. 

c has fiO,000 inhalitanU. It n culfbraled Univi'T^ 

sity, with 200,000 Tohim<.-s, and ita annual book-fair is faiiiuun 

1 ovur the reading world. 

Atiff. 9. This day's rid?, b^gun at mx a. m^ and ended at 

I eleven p. tt., must have carried us more than 400 miles, and 

most of it on tho Mine road by which wo passed to IWrlin. 

I The same towns came in our way, but without the slightest op> 

portuoity tu know any tiling of th«m ; nor did th« couutt^- pre- 

it any new fcatiu^ cjcc^ipt tnctiMtwd hetiU of grazing cattle 

taui] Saxon slieop, wh(«o flooc<?« vrm m foul thitt it vtna won- 

I lliuy luiulil vv■^r l>o made cN-an. i''iir tlie firsi timij in 

Vjft, we uw to-day cxtcnxivR fields of buckwheat in bUm- 


350 Arrival at Cologne. 

We were surprised at the great length of the railroad 
trains, and at the deluge of people that poured out of the cars 
at the different stations. Tlie conductors are much more atten- 
tive than with us in giving notice of the length of time that 
they will stop. Instantly, as the cars come to a state of rest, 
they make proclamation — three minutes, five minutes, ten 
minutes, or whatever time is allowed ; and they are very punc- 
tual in starting. 

Refreshments are ready at the different stations — ^fruit, cake, 
coffee, and, above all, the favorite German beer. We saw no 
inebriety any where in Germany. The day was very hot : the 
dust, in fine powder, covered our clothes, and annoyed our 
eyes and lungs. This was quite a new trouble for a railroad 
in Europe, although so common on our American railroads. In 
all other instanct?s in our various journeys abroad, the railway 
path was grassed, or gravelled, or watered. On the continent, 
it is usually watered ; so that this instance only excepted, we 
have been protected from dust. The termination of our day's 
ride was, therefore, welcomed with satisfaction, when an omni- 
bus took us again from the station-house over the magnificent 
Khine, upon the admirable bridge of boats ; the silver moon- 
beams played with the waves, while the flood rushed along as 
if impatient of the impediment of the fast-anchored line of 

We again found excellent apartments at our old home in 
the ll6tel Royal de Cologne, but were greatly disappointed 
that tliere were no letters from home, as our friend, M. Bos- 
sange, one of the most punctual of men, was charged to for- 
ward our letters to Cologne, if any should arrive while we were 
gone to 15erlin.* 

* It is not acrriM'abU' to mar my narrative with the only instunct* 
of fal<oh(M>J nn<l breach of trust which we met with abroad. The 
master of the house at Cologne dcnieil that any letters had eonie, 
and his servants knew nothing of the matter. But on our arrival at 
Pari-s we soon learned from M. li(»8i(ange that a largo pareel of let- 
ters hfttl been forwarded ; and on corre«pondence with the post-ofRee 

CoLOOXK TO Brvssbi^. 


CoLoaiTK. Auff.W. — A (Injr of rest was mont woluomo after 
ItUo Inngrido of ycsteTday, nnd tho nioro wuleomo liwaiuso it 
l«as lh9 Chrwtiaii SabhaUi, and bccsiiso we bnvc ngnin cnjiyod 
X wonhij) in our own langungo. 

With our guide, wo found a small English ctnirch, "an 
I i^pcr room." as in tho days of the nposllcs. Wc could neror 
f liaT« found it alone, for it was in a n>mote street, nnd wu clain- 
Vbered up to it from a Iwck yard by a narrow, corkscrew »Uir- 
s of caBt iron. Tiioro we found about fifty people, appa- 
krently Eoglbb, and two civrgyuien, who coudunted the twrviti! 
f iritU dignity. One rend the [irayera impnisEively, und tlie olbtfr 
f prcaihed n very good semion, ultliougli brii-f— cigiitoen niin- 
] nte* luiiji— fVoni tiio parable of llic tig-trei?. 

Cologne to f russtls. 

Wo had to regret the necessity of nnolhrr night journey, 
[ cliiefly becauM Uio oouniry through which wo were to pass 
I would be. In a graat meusure, loel to uh. Thb journey was 
I porfornml on the rails, between eleven ul night and eight tlio 
I tivxt Dioniing, nine hours, tlio diabinco probably 180 miles. It 
H very unfortunate to pass I.iega and Aix-ls-Chape!lo in tho 
I dark; and some portions of tlie country between the Rhine 
ind Briisgels ore rei>ortod to be very beautiful. About one in 
E tliu momiug we eiitertid Belgium ; and on passing the frontier 
I of tho kingdom we were detained forty minutes for the cuslom- 
■itouse inspection, wbich was not rigorous. 

In my trunk, the eyes of the officers were attnoted I y a 

•^t Colour, thty vera roi^nvercJ. with Ilia infurniatiiin tliiit Uia mM- 
I ttr of tiM holcl itcoliniKl loliiiiK tlii-m up from unit tit iiieneo to ad- 
■I llin pontaic^ slwny^ it in true, heavy en Ills conlinenL But 
f ha liul >ll vur Irunka in deposit, ami ww. thfrcfopv. (ure of oar r*- 
I Ilia ho'iiir. utitl. of miirv, coiilil tint, fnil to be ri 
Tilt only cnuitia we liinX oertaAeai la lua abroad wm adniiQl*t4r«4 

tr bter fmrr rfW-f'T hi 

858 Brussels. 

pai>er parcel, secured by a string. This was the only thing 
that they unrolled ; but it proved to be my travelling Bible, 
wliich was returned without remark. The station-house was well 
lighted, and the cars were superior to any we had seen on the 
Continent ; but their nice and comfortable cushions were ren- 
dered almost unavailing for sleep by a violent lateral vibration 
of the coach, swinging constantly from side to side, as if it 
would leap off from the rails. The night, however, passed away 
safely. The declining moon had not yet sunk below the west- 
ern horizon before the dawn purpled the eastern sky, and dis- 
closed to us a splendid country, near the city of Mechlin, where 
we paused for a few minutes, and had just time to realize that 
this was the town so distinguished for producing the most beau- 
tiful lace. 

The full daylight regaled our eyes with the most splendid 
crops, and the most beautiful cultivation, every where apparent 
around us. There were also excellent buildings, and frequent 
hodgo-rows, neatly trimmed. We had, in fact hardly time to 
realize that we were flying through the garden of Euro{>o, bo- 
fore we arrived at tlie station-house, and an omnibus soon 
placed us in the midst of one of the most beautiful cities in tho 


Altliough we had arrived after a sleepless night, we allowed 
ourselves no time ft>r repose. The refreshment by ablutions, 
change of apparel, and breakfast, sufficiently reinforced our 
physical powers ; nor did we permit our eyes to linger on the 
beauties of this gem among cities, whose features broke upon us 
with a charm. A more exciting object was in view, and we 
made, as early as possible, the neccssarj' arrangements for an 
excursion to a place more memorable than Marathon and Ther- 
mopylae, and which will bo >isited and explored until time 
shall cease to count tho hours. 

Wu WITH in our cnrrindu sA U'li. unci nt i/m'« JriiVf out 
U[iuii Uiti nmd, wliicTh lends Uinjufjrli tlic CiiniHl womi uf Soigutw. 
Miiiiy tnHw liiivu Wvn mit uvrny siiicii 1915, Iiul a (;n3nt forest 
■till rumains, wliich wo jiBawil clii«lly on ttiu Idl, niid for a 
lung OiNtnncu. The Ircca oru large, wid to thickly {iliiiilcil 
tliut only n pcdKbUinn or a single liorsemiui cun Iruvurau Uiu 

Waterloo now bctongi lo liistory. It lins no longer llie 
thrilling, trngicAl interi'at which it poisesaoi] whnn our eara 
wero Hret iiinilo to tingle with tha nKloun<iing tiding^ which, 
in the sumnwr of 1813, were borne on tlio winga of the winii 
to every qoarlnr of tho globo, and called fortli tlie eH'usions of 
pacta anil louristK, and tlic ctl'nrla of (lio p«ncil, to portray 
till- uetH of the (Wp tTMj^y uf Juno 18, 1815. 

I will not linger long upon it« historical dutaila, alrc-ady 
familiar, wliilo I oniliiavor to convey in some degree to others, 
I the impreauona mode upon my own mind by a viut lo ihu 

Approaching WalorliM through a highly picturid'jue ond 

tMHuUful couDlry, varied with hilb and dates, and prmunttug a 

rich harvQSl iu ita cultit-ul«d fields, I turned my eyea eagerly lo 

duscry tlie first liuunea in tlio village. Soon tixa domo of tlio 

church — the mausoleum of many of thu slain — arrested our nl- 

luntiou ; hut reauriing it for our rutum, wu passed on tlirough 

I thf) village of Waterloo. Thu buildings that were hoi« in 1815 

I arc easily distinguishod by their nntiijue style, while many now 

I houacH, and among them sorao beautiful dwellings, have sprang 

f up, ovincing a decree of prosperity which is, doubtJafa, duo, in 

' a great mnsaurc, t^) the celebrity conferred by the groat baUlo 

npon a village fomi-vly ol link- imjwrtnnw. Crowds of vfcsitois 

reK)Tt to Wal«rloc\ I'ruMiHit^, ii..>rniM», Bolgian*, and Ilolland- 

3G0 Watbbloo. 

Were assured that during the present season the Americans had 
exceeded all other nations in number. There are very few 
Frepoli visitors ; for to them the view of Waterioo must be 
painful. As we approached the tillage, three men met us on 
the rood, offerinjir their services as conductors. 

Pierson, whom we accepted as our guide, was not in the 
military sen'ice, but being then eighteen years of age, he liv€Kl 
at the time, on the very battle field, and was personally ac- 
quainted with the events. With him we traversed the ground : 
and by the aid of the published plans, and his explanations, we 
were able to understand the localities. No battle, probably, 
was ever more severely contested by hard fighting, without 
strategy or military tactics: these were excluded, because 
Wellington maintained through the fight the highly advanta* 
goous ground which he had chosen. The strong chateau of 
Ilougouraont was the key of his position. Tliis country-house, 
in the manner of the chateaus of France, was constructed in so 
sulistantial a manner as to be of itself a fortress; and the brick 
wall immediately inclosing the premises was so thick and high 
as to afford an etH-ctual protection and defence. The adjoin- 
ing field or park was surrounded on all sides in the same man- 
ner, by a wall thick enough to resist bullets and graj)e-shot, and 
to sustain, for a short time, a cannonade. The approach also 
to the wall was defended by an orchard, and by a wood, with 
a high hedge, which served for an abattis. In the brick wall 
as originally constructed, there were some loop-holes for mus- 
ketry, and many more were rudely knocked through the wall 
by Wellington's men the night previous to the battle. Through 
these holes, which are still open as then, the soldiers sUmding 
on the ground could fire ; and to provide for a lino of men 
above them, a platform was erected on tlie inside of tlic wall, 
so that bullets might bo fired over the top, while comrades were 
also firing below through the loop-holes. 

Tli(> English army was arranged around in a bow in the 
rear of Ilougouniont, and to the north of it, on ground so de* 
vated tliat their artillery sent a destructive fire of caoium baBi 

OTur Eougoufnont, whilo the Froncli artillnry in tum could 
lunlly bo brought lo bear upon thu part of the Engluh po«i- 

Iloiigoumunt, Wm^ in tbo midst ofa grMit bAltlc-fidi], was 
sevonil timvs aesaultiid, and Ha uoostaally dufunded with .tho 
most poneTuHng valor. Tlie Frunch again and agaiu Alormod 
riiD court-yard of lht> Louso, but were driven out al tJio fxaut 
of till] bnyonot, or slHUgliU.Tod on tbc? epoL UougouTRont woa, 
in fnct, A fbrttvM biitwMn Uic English and ?'rendi anuiue; 
Rpd could this peat havu boon carriod, tberu might Imve bv<:n 
B chiinco lo break thu Knglish lino. 

Such was tile slaughter at this po«t, tliat llie orchard near 
□ougouniont wan all obstructed by uorjieus lying thick upon 
tho ground; and the old trees, when wo were tliere, at tlio 
time of our visit, ihirty-bix yeara after the battlci, still exhibited 
in Uieir mutilated (Juido and limbs the dTvcls of the miwilcs of 
that day. 

We wore aasurvd thai after tlie battle, 2000 corpses, col- 
lected from the slaughter-ground of Ilougoumont, were burnMl 
hure. The pilot wore made near tho scene of conflii^ and, by tho 
aid of fiiel, tliyy conljuued to bum during five or six days, friends 
and (oes I>eing tninglud without ditilinntion. Tliu squares (bmi«d 
by Lord Wellington on t}ie ridge, which wns a low swclliDg 
boundary, were maintained to tho lost; not one of them was 
broki<n, although tliey were inccsantly CAunonaJed and impiv 
tuoiwly charged, again and again, l>y tho Cuirassiers, whoso 
mail of iron defended thetn, in a great measure, from the bul- 
k'ta of tlie English. The troopers rwle around and between the 
I squares, deliborately looking for a weak spot tlirough which 
I they might break;* but none was found, althougli the squarm 
\ suffered severely from the artillery of tho French. 

Tlio English resarrH bty, in n great measure, proU.-ctwl bo- 
L hind llie low ridge on whioli tho w(unrus wure funnul. They 
) in «■ natuml hi-llow, and had not yet been bruuglil inU) 

362 Waterloo. 

actioiL The f*o&itioii occupied bv Weflington in penon, and 
those occupied by yap<:»leon, dunDsr the battle, were pointed 
oat to ua. as also the places where G^oieral Picton and Colonel 
Gordon feU. The Utter is designated by a monument, oppoote 
to one erected to the memory of the German tzoopSi who de- 
fended La Haye Sainte, a fanning establishment near at hand, 
where, their ammunition being exhausted, they were all slangli- 
tered to a man, to the number of three or four hundred.* 
On a distant part of the field, at a place called Flanchenoit, 
we saw a monument to the mcmorv of the Prussians. It is an 
unassuming pyramid. 

All have heard of the great sepulchral mound of earth 
erected by the Dutch and the Belgians, over a great number of 
the slain. It is 200 feet high, and its circumference is 1680 
feet at the base.t The top is surmounti^l by a structure of mar- 
ble rf'iK>siiig u[K>n an internal column of brick-work. Upon 
this r«*.st.s an enormous lion, of cast iron, with op»?n mouth, and 
the right j)aw rt-sting upon a glol»e. Thoro is no other inscrip- 
tion than simply the date of the battle — June 18, 1815. 

Thon,* are stefw cut in the sIo[»e of the mound, which 
rises at an angle of twenty -four Jvgri^-es; by tht^» stops we 
ascended to the top ; from which elevation we had a distinct 
view of tlie whole rvgion, and could form a clear conception 
of the situation of the armi^ and of the important jxsitions 
which were rxrcupie«l by them in the field of l»attle. 

The wearisome dav of san<niinar\' conflict was woarinjj 
away, and the battle was not yet deride«l. Evening was ap- 
\fTiy4('\yi\vj^^ while Wellington was most anxiously looking for the 
arrival of the Prussians, under lilucher and Bulow, and Xa|v> 
leon was equally solicitous for the junction of Marshal Grou- 

* I recollect that in ihc di>patehei of the day, TTellingtoa ez» 
iiroriHi'tl \\\rs n'^n-t that in the heat of tht* hattle he had forgoCtatt tD 
hHV«: th<'iri Mii'plieil with aniinaniti<*n, 8'J«iinjr, that it wa« iiiipMi||i|| 
I'D n-miriiilM-r fvcry thine. 

f It reiM'nihieH very much the preat barr«>w called King ' 
Hill, in Wilti«hir<% in Kncliiml. v -lot! in S^pt«ni1i 

Waterloo. asa 

ubj'n ourpa of 80,000 nten, cltlier of whitii events singly 
wiiuU, iloultUctM. hiivfl dfci-ied llio bstlle. At Irut, tli.- Freodi 
hniinl u licnvj' Sriug on Umir right, nnU sii[>[}osiug it to arin! 
from Hm coTiMof (irouistiy coming to thuirimsistanco, uslioutof 
(^xulLUJoQ wiiut up from tlmir decimntol culiimns ; liut nlus, it, 
WHu uot Oroudiy'n HMuy — it w» Bluuher ruid Biilow, with tlio 
I'niBaiiuis, wlio liml arrived, altliougU late, upon tho fluid of 
biittli!. A Lfiuriur was dLspatdicd to NajHik'on, who savr tixnX 
all wan tiovi loot, uuluui hu ooulil, by n Inst effort, brcnk tliu Brit- 
iaii line, wLuih liwl nnvor wavvTMl during this longest of tho 
dkys of summer. Tlio British tino mitst bo broken immediately, 
and boforo the PrussiBiis bad fully completed their junction 
witb the British. I'he French giianb, which bad hitherto 
been huld in reserve in tha rear of their army, were now order- 
ed to oil vnnco— first tb« Vouug Ouurd, and Lben llio Old Ouanl 
vtho hod never been known to wnvur. Whilti tln-y man-Jied 
ncrofls Bu intervening hoiiow, nixl up a genlla aclivity, i^niiMt 
the British cavalry, they seem nut to havo lHu.>n aworu timt 
tht-y maaked a powerful batturj' of many cannon, which being 
opened upon them, tliiiy were mowed down in sncli nninbcrs 
tliBt all hope was soon lost. A colonel of Polish UnccrB, who 
was at Waterloo, has recently nssurod us tlial not a man of tlie 
Old Guard survived. When challenged to wirrcndor, tlio woJI- 
known reply was, " We know bow to dio, but not to surren- 
der." A HDgle officer alone remained alive. lie wrappe<l 
himsuir it) an imperial «nsigD, and thon f>>ll, pierced with bul- 
lets thus mingliug his blood with tliat of his sUught«r«<d com- 
railea. The FrvDuh army was now broken, all order was lost ; 
nod altliough groups of officers and soldiers, here and there, 
voutinued Lu fight, tho rout soos became general. 

I at this momenL that ^VelliiigWn gave the brief, en- 
1 wigelia order* to his prostrated guards, who, as before obacrvcd, 
[ lay proiActcd !□ a natural liiilluw behind the £<)uai««, to spring 

864 Waterloo. 

to their feet and pursue the flying French. They were prompt 
to obev the mandate, and death trode hard npon the heels of 
the fugitives. 

Thus ended the tragedy of Waterloo ! Had the French 
succeeded in taking Ilougoumont, had Grouchy brought up 
seasonably his reserve of 30,000 men, or had the Prussians 
failed to arrive, this memorable battle might have had a very 
different issue. 

Our guide assured us that six different couriers, who were 
dispatched to summon Grouchy to advance, were all killed or 
captured, and ho would persuade us that Grouchy was not 
treacherous. The French army, however, regarded him as a 
traitor, and as such ho was insulted in the city of Philadelphia 
by surviving, officx^rs who, like himself had escaped to America. 
It is said, also, that Grouchy was caressed and honored, and 
appointed to high oflices under Louis XVIII., as a reward for 
his treason. 

There is a museum here of relics of tlio battle-field, which 
cannot be viewed without deep interest. It contains all kinds of 
deadly weapons and winged messengers of death, in the form 
of missiles ; also insignia belonging to the different classes of 
combatants, and of some of them the particular history is 
known. The collection was made by the late Major Cotton, 
an English soldier, and is shown by his niece, a ver}' intelligent 
and courteoas person. Major Cotton published a small 
volume, which he entitled " A Voice from Waterloo ;" it con- 
tains intere«tin;5 particulars of the campaign, and of the battle 
which closed the military and impttrial career of Najwleon. 

On our return, we visited the church, where are numerous 
monuments to British otHcers and soldiers who fell at Water- 
loo. ()no young officer had been exposed to the fire of tho 
French in tliirty-three battles, and died at hist at tlieir hands, 
when only 24 years of age. Another, and he a Colonel, who 
fiidi'd hin brief career at Waterloo, was only eighteen yi 
old. Several of tho monuments, in a spirit at on<^e of 
"um itiid JMstic(»f pommemorato tho private soldiers^ and 

KxciTHSioti TO Antwrrp. 365 

few instiuiGu) their numva sra cut into the marble — the only 
fitine they CMi enjoy on eiirtb ; fur tliii private iiulJii-r ilJts un- 
dUtinguiftliod niid oflun unluncnkil, and tlio deolJis of tliuu- 
annds falling in on<i bnitle lire rumiuabered onl in tlin cold 
ledger account of loa«*. 

La IJdlo Alliance, h fmm-houw), Iiaa benn rendered mcnioni- 
blu w butng the ]<laco where Wellington und Bluchor met 
after the baltic, and SU Jean, tho farni-house whera lOUO 
llritiab wounded died, will ever be re^rdod with a mournful 
interenL This numlwr engageil on both sides at Waterloo 
was probably aUmt 200,000, with Grom three to four hundred 
pieces of artillery. 

When wu sue, ns in our travels we have every whcro seen, 
of wlmt raatnriali th« nrmi<« of Europe are now composed — 
diicAyof young men, luuel of Uiem belwueu IS and 35 years 
of ago — it is diitressin^ to think what a tiweop of dontli a few 
gn«t bnlllce would muku aiuuiig the riHing youth I nnd what 
interest, n» iudividiinis, hnve they nt stiikc! 

It liiul been in our plan to visit Holland — a country which 
I liad once seen and should have K'en well pleased to Bee 
again. The remuioing time, however, was too limited ; but wo 
tlceided tt> make on excursion to Antwerp, which is but one 
hour from Brussels. Our principal object was to see some of 
tiiu meet celobmted pictures of Rubens. 

A bright und warm day gave the country and tho city of 

Antwerp a cheerful appearance. 1 was the more willing to 

a il in that guiee, as my recollections of it were not very 

. BgTvcnblii nn ncciHint i>f iJie repulse I mot willt (hero lu October 

whi-u Aiiiwcqi Witt in poMt^oiion of th* French. U was 

I a dark and rainy night, wiicn on gning for my pnMpurt I wn* 

866 Antwerp. 

proceed to Paris ; * and I left Antwerp in the morning on my 
return to Rotterdam, without the expectation or the wish ever 
to see it again. But circumstances were now veiy different. 
We had full liberty, and I was not, as then, under suspicion 
and espionage. After being refreshed, we took a one-hone car- 
riage — called here a fiacre — and drove to the two churches 
where we were told that the pictures of Rubens would be 
found ; but we were only partly successfuL 'We found indeed 
some fine pictures of Rubens, but the two which we most de- 
sired to see had been taken down and placed in the hands of 
the cleaner, whom we endeavored, but in vain, to induce to 
denate from his rule. The two pictures were, the elevation of 
tlie Saviour upon the cross and the descent from it Of the 
former, however, we saw a good, small copy, by Rubens hioi 
self^ in the public museum here, which has a very extensive 
colk'ction of pictures ; some of them are very fine, and several 
are of very large dimensions. 

Among ihosa of great size, these is one representing an 
attack by the Spaniards ui>on Antwerp, and its defence by its 
own citizens. It was a suddun Jtssault, and wivcj^, and 
daughters, and sons were witnesses to the cruel slaughter of 
husbands, fathers, and brothers. The picture is splendid, but 
very revolting, the murder seems so real. The treatment 
of the people of the low countries by the Spanianls was to the 
hist degree cniel and wicked, and was equalled in enormity 
only by the sufferings inflicted by the same people upon the 
Mexicans and Peruvians. 

The elevation ujwn the cross we saw in these rooms; it is 
of great size, and is a picture most distressing to contemplate. 
The Saviour is self-sustained in his sufferings; a heavenly 
serenity beams in his countenance, and not having struggled 
und«T his torture, his w^ounds are onlv those of tlie nails 
driven through his hands and feet ; dreadful enough certMOij, 

♦ As related iii my corly travels in Enirlnnd and Scotland, If 
1806 ; they took it into their heads tliat I might be an Englii] 

Gkkkkai. Vutw or Amtwei 


but Uie morUl agony of Uie tiiieves especially of one of tbvm, 
wbo hta torn his Iwwratvd blcodiug fuot from tho spike, U 
too liorriblo even fur i]uscri]itinn In wordu, 1 did not mi 
iiiuuh rr-gnit fuiliug to suo Uie uri^nnl, for who. vxcept an artist. 
would wiali to ntuilf the borrore ofsufb n scone! 

Tltia Bplundid gallecy euutjiins many llnu piinun^ but thi^ru 
are tomu whidi, it ecvnuud tu luu, uuglit to bu committod to tbe 
flames. Of tliis doacriplion, ia k lai^ and elaliorulc pleou, at 
ono! liorribla and ludioruuii, the subjeul of wliich is, tbu lull of 
the rebul lUigoU. 

Gkskuxl ViKV or Aktwehi-. — While my fric^nds liugerud 
in Uiiit giillery, 1 drove rapidly with iho gui<Io tlirougb Uio prin- 
(ujinl streets, that I niigjit obtain aooio jiut notions of thia 
ancient and celebrated city, wbicJi Iwa now but 70,000 inbnbit- 
unta, instead of 200,000 which it oontAinui] duritij; iu dxys of 
prosperity in tho sixt^enlli century. 

In the reign of Charles V. of ^paln, who ruled idsu the 
Notlierlanda, 2S0U vtemtlt wore KUnetiijios lying at the qoays 
of Antwerp, and 500 loaded wagons ditily passed its gate* fivm 
the country. Its circulation of money was 600.000,000 of 
guilders,* and 5000 merchants met daily on its exdiange. 

The infamous Dulie of Alvn, as Ihe instrumeut of tlial cruel 
bigot, Philip U. of Spain, and of the In<{uisition, by pentecution, 
torluros and defttii, in many forma, infUi.-led unmitigated sufliir- 
inga u|)an tJiis country, whii'h drove off many thousands of the 
survivors, and among thcni a largo porUon of tho most valuable 
part of tho population ; thus skilful artiste were transferred to 
Hiigland and other countries, and foreign lands reaped gi«at 
advantage from tlie horrid reign of religious tyranny. There 
ire 18,000 persons eiectited by Alva, ainl 100,000 fleO from 
uir country. 

J^twerp has boeu often assailed in open war, and has been 
the fictim of [Hjlilical baig:uus,T0Bukingfr(im Iho intrigues 

A4(l{|l«k cul4*«%a» nbiUuiBand nin« paaoe (Ivrliog, w M 

368 BBrasELS. 

of cabiceUL The Isst act of Hs erentfol dnmAi was tbe de- 
stnieti(Hi of the immeiue works constnicted h^e hy Napoleon 
for the purpose of makiDg h a great nafal atatioD, and upon 
which ondertakiDg be bad expended £2,000,000. 

In 1832, the dtade] of Antwerp sustained a protracted and 
rigorous siege by the troops of Loois Philippe, and the brave 
old Dutch general sorrendered only when the post became 
untenable. I drove to the gate, hoping to risit the scene of a 
conflict, which, as Europe was then erenr where else at peace, 
attracted universal attention on account of the signal bravery 
and skill of the defence. I was, however, refused admittance ; 
but many things were obvious to the eye without entering tbe 
gate. Great numbers of long heavy cannon were Iting* at the 
gate of the citadel, and a large area o( ground was occupied by 
the worbs which appeared rather like a group of open forts 
than an 1001060*1 fortress of stone surrounded bv bastions — a 
citadel in the more common acwptation of the wonl. 

Wc rode along the quays upon the Scheldt, which is a 
grand river. IIktc was only oi>e large vessel, a steamer, which 
is a regular packet to England. There were many small vessols 
and river l»oats, but no indication of great commerce. What a 
change from three centuries ago I 

I was glad that I had s<.*en Antwerp agjiin, and I now lef^ 
it with more favorable impressions than in 1805. As we 
passed out of tlie town I gave a glance at the public hall, I 
suppose it was that in which my repulse took place. 


We returned to BrusseK but it was only to leave it in an 
hour. I cannot, however, dismiss so interesting a city urithouft 
a few additional remarks. 

lief«>re going to Antwerp, we visited one of its modem palacei^ 
where we found a small gallery (.»f wiy gi}od pictures, and naiiy 
other elegant objects, such as tire asu:il in such establishmeolA- 

Mamtach iiKfl, ;iO0 

Wo saw. nl*ni, in a [luWu- s<juim>, Oio nririi^nt S|>niiMi 
pnla(«, witL its gotgiMua iiitvrnnl ndornnit^nts, intOuUiiig miii;b 
Oobetiii titposlr/. In unis uT those pieces the ddivbihlti Duko 
of Alva aliiiula iMinspiouous ; liu lias a ruund face, wliich is not ao 
barsh In Cliv itxprfssson oa wu mi^ht vxpcxtt from liis o)ian(rti!r. 
Thtro is a room huru, in w}iic!h all tnarriAfjc wlltTacl^ wlirtlier 
orpriiiwHOrplubviuna.areHxucuUd aoumliDg Itj Icgnl formx; tli«i 
pnrtics Ijcing present, who then n»cirt to noatQ cliurch, to crown 
t}io civil conlnieJ. hj tiie religious u«romouial. On tko utlior 
side of the street i« the palace in which th« SpaaiKh guvemors 
icaidcd, nhcn this country was under the (luminion of Bjuiin. 
Both palaces have a good degree of grainit-ur ; ihcir »tylo of 
Krchltwtuni is that of tlie fuurteentb ecotury, and Uicy would 
bo more interedtiu^ ol>j'>cl«, if their history wuro nuL aaxicutU'd 
with that of hloiKly petsii.ullon. C»ue cannot look at Ihcm 
vKhmit bitter remerabrancu of the viudiutivi.' intolurann) 
wliicb, unly 800 yenra ago. ounxi^ied human belufpi Ut tlio 
dnnj^on, tlie rack, lliu M^afTold, tuiil Uiu flame*, on account of 
tiietr religious Ivllcf or i>uliti(»il opiiuous. 

Bni!«i-Ii in ntie of tlie Ixnl built <utics in Kiiropo ; iu hnuwa 
flf vtone are jfi^nemlly wbilK,and in ibo nuwur parts of llie town 
m strixiU are wiite and clean. The upper piirt of lliv city is 
OtagnificcQt Tba park is n very large tract in iJie midst uf thu 
■ Wty; it is, in feet, a superb forest, uritli iibadwl, tfruvellud walks. 
%xc«pt in Paris we have mm-u nothing on the Continent tu 
«qual it in extent, and it is superior to Paris in Uie size and 
riolines of tile trees, [t U surrounded by palacoa, public 
officea, and principal private liouses. Thu town i* omamentixt 
witli twenty public fountaiut, all einbclli»hi>d willi sculpture 
'The lower part of llie uly lies on a flat, has narrow sin.-tTig, and 
b tntenec(«d by severd canals connecl«d wttli th(i great canal 
the Sdwlih. 

Among thu manii4actiir>>)> n( Brussels, tlloso of cwqints and 
« aru moot remnrkab!". A few rears since 10,000 ]ie»ons 
emittnyrcl Iwru upon Ihe making of Inoe. Wo viniled a 
ifci.tMv iif thl* Idnd whetii 3000 (i'mnlea wwr« *nv^W!«A- 

370 Brussels to Paris. 

We saw 33 of them at work m one room. Most of the fine 
work i< ilune by the needle ; it is veiy trying to the eyes, which 
rarel V sene more than twenty vears : the women do not be- 
come bliml, but their eves lose the delicacy of vision which the 
manufacture requires, and they are, therefore, long before 
middle-life, incapacitated from pursuing this employment! 
Tliere are few examples of mere luxury in dress, which are so 
expensive to the most important of human senses ; it would be 
happy if the same amount of industry and skill could be tamed 
to account in some other branch, the prosecution of which 
does not impair vision. Small samples of lace which we 
purchased as gifls for friends at home, cost but a trifle here 
compare^l with the price charged in America. 

Brussels has 125,000 inhabitants, or, as we were assured 
Ikto, 135,000. It is the residence of the Belgian king, Leo- 
jKjld. Tiie English reside here in considerable numbers. The 
K'aiity of the city and country, the companitive free<lom of the 
I)euple, and the short distance in time from the two great 
capitals of EurojK; and the world, sixteen hours from Loudon, 
and t<-n from Paris, present great attractioiLs both for those 
who wb»li to economize their resources, and for Uiose who ar« 
able and disf>osed to exiH.*nd their money freely. It was not in 
our i»ower to visit the Uoyal Academy of Sciences, of whose 
excell<*nt transiictions we have many volumes at home ; nor 
did we succeed in obtaining an inter\'iew with our corres- 
j)oiideiit, its di>tiiiguishe<l secrelar}', M. Quetelet, whose en- 
ga«^ennMits, at the moment, did not permit him to call, nor did 
ours allow us to wait for his leisure. 

Brussels hjts a large public librar}', an JLstronomic^l obser\a- 
tory, u medical school, a botanic gardenia foundling hospital, a 
central 8ch<x)l, and other important public institutions. We 
fi'lt that we had done no justice to this very attractive city, 
when we resolve<l to leave it that ver}' evening at six o^clock. 

grnssds lo paris. 

la itdJitiuu tu Uio luutivo from econitiuy of time (m only 
tliruu wuulu of uur ull»U«<i pttiiod id Europe romainL-U), wu 
wuru vur? liusiruus tu svuid tbo exccwive lieal, naA, as far ns 
|K}8sible, the ilust also ; wq Uiereforo decided on a night riJa 
to l'am,aswo could oiuliira two nighu out of three id lite c«n< 
having Ruervctl ouly uuti for our Itedik lliot portion of the 
cuunlry through vtliich vro pusand l>«tbr<i ni)j;ht wan very beau- 

' tiful : hut tlio twilight mkju yi<'ldud to tliti light of lliu moon. 
I can, howcvor, uiy litllu mom of our niiiti; llmii that vm 
trarell^ tliroiigli Munit. Thiuuy, and Arnions. We were not 
Jiiinoyvd by timt lati:ntl vibmtiou nf thu curs whiuli wuh au un- 
vomfortnhla bvtvrei-n Cologne and DruvwU; on the contrary, ttiu 
\ £11 ijuiut iiud geutlu that a iiluHonnt oblivion camu 
over IIS. Wu were trau!i|i<irt<Hl uloug like prinumirs,* unknow- 
ing and unknown. Thu parly in our coach weru all Ameriuiin, 

, except one Frcncli gunllfinun, who apoke not one word, and 

I probably understood ns little of our uonvunsation. In addition 
I proper fHniily, nu had Dr. Green and Mr. Doiig- 

I lans, of New-Vork. 

^rrilial at ^atis. 

Moriiiog diselofod a^in the beaiilifid fluids of ta BcUu 
I KraDcu, and at half past Ave o'clouk, eleven hours from Bnuels, 
I *ro were safe ilirough the city gnte, and arrived at the custom- 
L hwwe, the same tiiat we entered from Boulogne AprQ I. 

We werw set at liburtv wilhin half an hour, wldch wu ooo- 

* Alai aiwll •« ar*. in Tut, in meat Euri'lnn 
snendly turned upon w ai ooon «■ alj arr icitL 

. vu*, M lb« k(^ k 

372 Taris. 

nzmt^I in examining our baggage. Onlj three or fear trnnks 
of the party were opened, and mine was not eiamined at all. 
The »Yatem of passports and costom-faoune inftpectkm is an- 
noying to travellers, without any adequate advantage fer seen- 
lity or revenue, and onght to be abolished. In general, bow- 
ever, we have found H to be conducted with modi lenity, and 
with verv little vexation. 


IKh-EL M EURIC7E. — As Paris was reported to be overflowing 
with strangers, Francois had, by correspondence, secured for 
OS rooms at Hotel Meurice, so named from its master. It is 
sHuated in the Rue Rivdi, opposite to the gardens of the Tuil- 
eries, and has no obstruction in front to impede prospect or 
ventilation. It is a favorite house with both English and Ame- 
ricans. During the present season there have been bore 
many more of the latter than of the former ; and I have re- 
peatedly mentioned that we have found this to be the fad 
wherever we have travelled. 

Americans \isiting London, of course pa« over to Paris, 
and many proceed to Italy. Wo are now known as a distinct 
cla'w of travellers, and are generally received with attention. 
This results from the gencnil courtesy of inanners in Euro|)e ; 
and Americans not being stately and exacting, and spending 
their money freely, are welcome guests. 

Our attentive friend, M. IJossanw, sent us iinmodiatelv 
onr letters* of a later date than those that lia<l l>eeu sent to 
('ologrie, which, as I have idready mentioned, were in due time 
retUHHwI. Our first day in Paris, after so long and active a 
riKirse </f travelling, was given to ro|H.>sc and refn?shment, and 
to tlio int<.'rch<ange of kind saluUitions with friends, both 
French and American. Of the latter we found a number of 
individuals and families whom we had known in America — 
eMll.Mj,. friends— our own i>eoi)le from CVamecticut, from New 
Ihivj'ii even, and from Boston, Provitleuco, New- York and 
\Vji.sliin;^ton; we saw also our di[)lomatie representativoSi Mr. 

* Dmth had beon busy among our friends at liomc^l 

Kivex, ani] Mr. Satford. I had tho plr-asure of niotliiig hii 
arly fcllow tniTeller, Mr. Elisha Higg^ with whom I tn-wed 
the ocenn to Liverpool in April, 1805; and nfttr forty-six 
yoars. now in ihd evoiiing, aa wo wcro ihpii in tliy morning of 
life, W(! wore jwruilttod to meet agnin in Kurope. 

Pari* Iind uow put on its beanliful liTcry of grw-n : its 
grrivcH ivere In full leaf, and the view iu front of our hotel prc- 
MMilvd »n almost UDinterrupted forest scene, dnttoil witli tbo 
tturourous lirldgei oTer the Soine, and bounded by palaces and 
piililio build IngH. 

I liail only n fow days more for Paris, and had determined 
to prociwl tu London, wht-ru I wished lo pass tlie time that my 
compniiionH preferred lo spund here. In my case, therefore, 
ihpr* wua leisure for ihe nolico of only a few more public ob- 
jtTla, in addition lo thoac Vliicli wen- nifdlionwl wlieu we were 
hrro in April. 1 have not nttvmpti-i] a duscrtpliun of Paris — 
an undnrtaking equally anluous anil unni-cvsanrr, as it has 
been don^ so ably by many otlu-r wriUis, hijtoriwil, stiitistiiuil, 
and miscollanixini ; among llio latt«r of whom, Sir Fmncis 
liead, in his - Fagot of French f^tioks," in one of the miMt ec- 
centric, grapbie, and willy. In addi^on to what I formi^rly 
wtote,1 sliall mention a few public institutions, with MUiie jhim- 
ing remarks. 

Tns Loi-VBB. — Who has not heard of thu Louvrv and 
who can describe lliia mosi mngnitiocnt collection ! 

When wo were here before !t was not accessible, as it was 
undergoing repaire. Now, on iliu sole comtition .-f sliowing 
uur passport, we were admitted, and paa^d around ilirougli 
its spacious and ahnist cndltss Apartments. 

A more catalogue of tho ohjeeta in tho Louvre, with tho 
moat brii'f description, would swell to n volume. The build- 
ing antuallr occupied U situated along the Seine ; it forms part 
of a rout tmfinishcd qnaHrnnglc, upon iJio usual plan of ancient 
and jMiluw*. In »ari(Hi9 sLigi-s nf it* jtrogress, during 
cunlurivs, it has heeu nsod bntit ns a cnstle and a ^lac«. 

374 Paris. 

From its windows, or from tlie windows of a building occupy- 
ing the same place, the infamous Charles IX. fired upon his Prot- 
estant subjects during the massacre of St. Bartholomew, in Au- 
gust 24, 1572, crying, with the voice of a fiend, " Kill 1 kill ! ! " 
The Louvre, as a grand museum of the arts, is indebted 
chiefly to Napoleon and Louis Philippe. Even as late as tlie 
reign of Louis XVL, the greater part of the Louvre remained 
without a roof. The magnificent bronze gates are due to Na- 
poleon. He and Louis Philippe did more for the embellish- 
ment of Paris than any monarch, except Louis XIV. Had we 
seen the Louvre when we were first in Paris, it would have 
made a much stronger impression than now ; and this remark 
can be, in a degree, extended to all its various contents, whether 
statues, ancient or modem, antiquities of various ages and na- 
tions, Egyptian, Assyrian, Etruscan, Grecian, Roman, Mexican, 
or l*eruvian, or of whatever name. Exquisite objects, in 
curious arts, may be included— cameos, gems, crystal vessels, and 
ornaments. Even at this late period of our tour, the Louvre 
has, however, made a very strong imprression. It is a glorious 
spectacle, there is no museum that can compare with it, except 
that of the Vatican. The British Museum is not a fair subject 
of coin[>arison with either of these, as its plan and main objects 
are difierent. The Ix)uvre is strictly a museum of the fine 
arts and of antiquities. Libraritis it has not, nor does it inchido 
natural history, which is so abundantly illustrated at the Gar- 
den of Plants, and in the other excellent institutions in Paris. 
That hall of tlie Louvre which is called the long gallery is 1332 
feet in length, over a quarter of a mile, and 42 feet wide, all 
seen in one view. The walls are entirely covered by pictures, 
amounting in the ag^repite to 1408, of which 380 are French, 
540 are Hemish and Gennan, 480 are Italian, and eight are 
modern copies of ancient pictures. Only the works of deceased 
artists are admitted into tiiis museum, which was formed prin- 
cipally by Napoleon, and enriched with most of tlie chefs 
iTosuvre of Europe. The greater part of those foreign pictures 

Th« Palace <: 

E TuiLKRiKe. 


were cUimcMl and ramoTod by tJie Allies in 181.^; bul tlivy 
Am lianil^ miaMo] ; Tor, even now, Uiis gsllory is onu o( lliu 
fiuufet tu the world. 

I liBvo iilrKoily hiid owiumou to remark lliat in our tour wo 
Unve Mwn n numU-r of pi(-lur«« and sUituca in various cities, 
[mrliculnrlv in Italy, wbiiJi, Unvin); trnvelled to PiiriH, weru 
mtnrt^ nfler tliu KuNiian cnnijiitif^i wd tim bitttlu tif Wntorloo. 
Tluirc wvrc, however, so mimy find tbingN IcH Ixsliiud in the 
diflorunt gAlkirics, from wliiiih tboM pictures hud tiuttii uUchu, 
thnt tho omiuion would Imrdly bo noticed there, nny moru 
thAn thoir nbwnco from tho Louvro is obscrvw) now, esccpt 
by A lew Knilioizing artiste and connoiBseurs. 

Id dMptur of making any progress in this VMt colloctioD, 
I shall not «von attoiDpt to describe any particular picturcn, 
and Uius I must pR» by t]ie graiidi«t gaihry ]icrliap» in tlio 
worhl, bucauM I cannot do it any justieu, and for a hUH won* 
rtiaion. Wcuiuu so many gullcrius uf iam itufHirlxnci; hnre but^n 
vihiled first. The room called SaUe de Bijoux is vi-ry rich in 
tha rnnj and costly tilings wliieli kin^ nm wont to co1]ix;t, and 
which are hvw to nuinuroui and licnutifiil tlint thpy Bur|)iuw tho 
similar collt«tionx in tho I'itti palnco iii Plnrvnci^ but ihcy arc 
inferior in Hpkndor and mHgnilic<.-n(» to thom wo had UU'ly 
ccuu at Drvadon. Th^ro in here, however, a profbMon of geniH, 
diamond*, sapphintt, rubies, Ac. ; and the. renels fnliricatod 
from rock crystal are niimproin, largo, and splendid. 

Tho Egyptian Museum is [wrricularly rich iu every tiling 
whii-li illuHtriitoi iIju hitiory lind mannur« uf tliat eonniry. Ttio 
galUrfy tif aiii'iunC »lBtiwry, ond of miidurn cnpiiw, in m similar 
to wliat we have seen in Italy, tliat I will not enter into pai^ 
^culare. Tliere is nothing here more nurpriwng than tin,- stu- 
[Hindous sculpturod stones from Nin«v>>li, wnt out by M. liolla, 
the WncJi consul. They are not *o numerous as iu the col- 
lection which we saw in tJie Briliah Museum, but lJii--n- i 
tigurvs hvK wkiidi lurpoai iu niagiiitudu any that uru llii-i 
^ haul Midi ia my reuoUuctiun. Tbu wingv-d bulb^ w>t]t » 

876 Paris. 

lion's head, and the figures on the reverse of the stone panels 
are of such vast size, that we are astonished that tney could 
have been transported inithout injury from the other side of 
the world. A tall man is a dwarf bv their ade. 

The Palace of the Tuileries. — I am not about to 
attempt the description of this abode of departed kings. 
Within my own time it has been inhabited by Loub XVX, by 
Napoleon, by Louis XVIIL, by Charles XL, by Louis Philippe, 
and by Napoleon IIL It was inhabited also by several moo 
archs anterior to Louis XIV. 

The principal object which we had in view, was to identify 
the places which had been associated with so many important 
events, and particularly with the sudden and disastrous termi- 
nation of the reign of Louis Philippe. Those events, having 
happened so recently, are fresh in tlie recollection of all. We 
walked with deep interest through all the principal apartments 
of the palace. It is of great extent, contains magnificent 
rooms, and the splendid frescoes on some of the walls are 
of the age of Louis XIV. The palace, at tlie lime of the 
flight of Louis Philippe, was sumptuously adorned with 
pictures, an<l all the saloons and halls were decorated with 
the most costly furniture. But the irruption of the mob of 
l*aris, following almost instantly the retreat of the king, laid 
every thing waste. The dotails, fully published at the time, 
are very painful, and have stamped disgrace upon the licentious 
multitude who waged war against the arts as well as against 
tlie monarch. 

Nearly every thing in the palace was destroyed. The 
throne and the most beautiful and expensive furniture were 
thrown out of the windows and demolL<*hed. Mirrors and 
tables were left, and some few sofas and chairs, for the accom- 
moilation of the siivage rabble, who mounted with their muddy 
feet upon beautiful damask seats. 

They revelled there day and night, in drunkenness and 
licentiousness, and added another proof (alas, there were too 

Tub Talacb op tiib 'i\itucRiEs. 

ivjiH>', ami 

many bnroni), that no lyings cnn bo mon 
bnitnl than a Vant ntob,* 

The pl&co iWr was nol much injured on thU ocauucm ; 
ihf rooms rumain with comparatlvBly littlo niuliktion, and 
limy woru reuderwl nioru duri'iil by fumituro brought into 
ihtm utter th« uatiuitrtipho. Tltu rouud-tablo, covered with 
green clollt, at wbiuh tlie king ua in council, willi hU minis- 
ters, la [>ru«crvod in plucu; and nt tills table llie fatal resolu- 
tion was lokun to forbid tliu Wx^iicts of tlie ]>uu]ilu, and 
llie pojiulnr addnwm which would hnvo followed. Ilad ihcy 
Wn permitted, perlmps, it would huve proved u snfety-valve 
to French excitability; llio dcmocrfttical elcmiint might have 
Spent itwjif in windy haraugwea, and pomilly tlie crisis might 

I bave been averted. Vesuvius i* mere dangerous when (ho 
lava ba« oougealeU iu tlio vuiii aud Moaled it hermetically, thaii 
wlieu It is free to blow off its gas and uteam.f We felt inler- 
csted to SCO the stAiis by which the king nnd queen de^eendcd, 
and the door by which they wont ont, when tlicy i:|Uitted their 
royal abode, and royally itwlf for ever. Wo dmcended llio 
stairs and walked out of the middle front doi>r of the palaco, 

■ where they passed; we tlien followed their mournful way — 

• February !8. 1863. Witliin > few iJayi I liftva nmil Hgalii (for 
I had jMirnsoJ it lasny Jcsps «gi>) (Jicry'i Joiini«J <>t llip iiiipriwio. 
[ meiit nr Louis XVL. with iiis queen and the rest of tlie royal fiunily. 
i in the Temple priMtn, during tii< fonr niontli* tliat prvcMled t)ie eie- 
I calioB of Limis in Janaary, 17S8. Probably no remin), anoiont nr 
mndcm. Don equal Ihis in the eibibilion of vnlgsr. cnutl, and loiulting 
I Iirutabty towards those ioDweDl TJntims at [iiipular Tengannoa. 
I Tlwir privaliona were in«h at tbe Titeel coufku for Uia mod atrv 
■i be lUbjeeted In, and the onlf n came not hum 
I tBs nibbK but from the liigli mon thon ia power, nmt of whim 
I in itieir turn nndur tho uo of tba gnillotinc, a fate whkli 
r many of them richly deaervod. 

li la h" iMixn whi^Lliur Fnafui U iiafi> from rnnvuliioai^ 

ualiji MoJvJ Hguia, at nuw. Friinoi! is a ]H>[itiaal Vt- 

1 muy have luaoy mar« 

878 Pabib. 

their via dolorosa, across the garden of the Tnileriea, to tke 
column of Luxor, where they paused a moment on the reiy. 
place where Louis XVI. bled. A cab then conveyed them to 
St Cloud, whence they proceeded to Versailles, and fled aa 
disguised fugitives to the coast, and by a perilous boat voyage 
to England. 

Verily the monarchs of France, during the last 60 yean, 
have been roughly treated, and all but one by their own polished 
people: Louis XVI., beheaded; Louis XVIL, the dauphin, 
believed to have been murdered in prison ; Louis XVIIL, ex- 
polled from France ; Napoleon, deposed by the allies ; Charlea 
and Louis Philippe, expelled. 

lata it miit 

August IS. 

We obtained admission to-da}' to the memorable city hall, 
the Hotel de Ville. I was not prepared for such an exhibi- 
tion of grandeur and regal splendor. The II6tel de Ville is a 
building of very large dimensions, and of great height; it was 
begun 300 years ago, but was not finished until 1628. Its 
position is very near the Seine. We naturally think of a city 
hall or town house as a place of business. Such is in feet the 
Hotel de Ville de Paris. There are numerous offices hero for 
the transaction of public business; but there are also mag- 
nificent state apartments, with all tlie decoration of the most 
sumptuous palacx?s, reception rooms, a dining-room, a ball-room, 
<fec., all of them large and splendid. 

Louis Philippe, who followed the example of Napoleon in 
his efforts to aggrandize Paris, expended very large sums in 
enlarging and adoniing the Hutel de Ville. The mob in 1 848 
took [)Ossession of tliis building also, and it remained for some 
time in their hands. When they were proceeding to deface it, 
they were appeased by being reminded (a happy thought <rf 
some astute observer) tliat it was the people* s own palace^ and 
that it was fully to destroy what belonged to them already ; tliia 

HoTEi. CurxY. 


[ ntggGetion nirveUd tlieir violcixte. TlieUAU:! ilu Villa lias 
I been mcmomUle as the tamo of niaDy important polilicU 
I eveiittL Here, in 1630, La Faji-tiu procluimc^ Louia I'bilippo 
I llie citiien king. Uure, tbut Hlrououa tuoastur liuWpierru filiot 
I bin»elt nnil hi* bmtbur let>[)«d in dcejmir from tbu wiiidvw, 
[ but miithnr of tlivm wiw killed; ttiey wero botii dragged ti> tlie 
[ guillotine to wliii-li lliey hnd oonirigiiud many thoiuuindti or ia- 

L-eiit people. Tlie building is higbly om»roented with paiut- 
[ ings and Ht«Luary, and iu ibu dtuiugroom itnd ball-room, there 

a very great niimlwr of cbundelierv, of the uiotit elt^uut and 
I' •xpeiwive pattern". A grand f^(« was gimn here a few weeks 
T mga, by Uik mngistrncy of Parig to the Uml mayor of London, and 

» great number of persons of high distinction who wnm 
[ tnvited to crosB iho 01iann<;l on tlio oct-JtBion, 

I. Ui.csr. Au'juil U. — Wo vimttxl tills old a1>odc of 
V loyally, probably the roost ancient in Paris, It is «ud to have 
1 bwn a palaca in tbo time of tlio liomans during their dominion 
r in GaiU, and it is oven averred that it was occupied by Julius 
I CfEMir, Tlie ut« of the lioinaii baths is pointed out in the baso- 
of the building. The appearance of the arclirteelure in 
I' the basement is lioman, but wo have seen so niueh of Unman 
I buildings in Hoine iljtolf, mid in other \>wiA uf Italy, Ihul tlie«o 
re struirtures KXa\a leas inUin^t tlian thuy wciuki 
\ otherwise do. 

This old [lolace U filled witit eurious unliiiiitiu*, ama««ixl, 

I wo were informed, cJiiclIy by ihc efforts nnd nt ihc; cx|ii'ii»ii 
I'Of a private individual. Ancient can'ed «ak is Iikut bisn in 
I perfection, wpon tlie doore nnd panels. Immciiso [win* nnd 
I'greal skill were bestowed in former times upon thew- larvingx 
pUn wood, of which wu hare clBewhere seen many uxurnplai. 

In Cluny, there is mnch ancient porcelain and glaas, and 
ftknnor of past agm, and (hero aro mjuiy artii^lui tliai have Ije- 
Ijongul tu iudividnnli who arv kuuwu. Here is a prayer buok 
Vof diorlis IX.; imo would tliink that llie wMttrh conld never 
Lkavo pmy<«] ; tut sometimo fiumtieisin and vraelty arc uoitod 
Ml»||W>WWiflyJlWlllp«WiiMlM. -- —4^^ 

3S0 Paris. 

The Armory. — This is a place of great inieresL It is 
not an arsenal in the common acceptation of that word- 
that isy a magazine of weapons to be drawn forth to aapfAy an 
army in case of war. It is rather a museum of the implementa 
of death, which have, in many cases, been drawn firom remote 
ages, pa&i»ing through the various stages of improvement in the 
art oi human slaughter ; for such is war, in whatever mode it 
may be carried on, whether by the savage with his war dub 
and tomahawk, crushing and cleaving human skulls, or by the 
refinements of mechanical science, throwing projectiles with fatal 
precision, and followed perhaps by a still more fatal explosion. 
It would seem as if every form of weapon to be managed by 
the human hand was here, whether sword, knife, dagger, pistol, 
musket, or cross>bow; but I shall not attempt to describe 

Among the swords, pistols, and muskets, are many that 
have Ikhh sc-nt as i>n.'s».*iits by furcign jx^tentates ; they are often 
adoriiLil witli a profusion of diamonds, rubies, sapphires, and 
other goins. Out* nuu^ket, in particular, has the breech covered 
with dianionils ; a space <as large as tlie palm of a mau*s band 
bein*; studded with them. 

There is here a series of cannon, from the earliest and most 
simple, ina<le of wrought iron, down to the most improved and 
beautiful mt.Klcrn c;istings. It is a curious fact, however, that 
the great guns now constructed to throw balls of enormous size 
are made of wrought iron, thus returning to the primitive 
method, although they are manufactured in a very different 
way. Some of the Turkish and Algerine cannon found here, 
are of astonishing length, and highly ornamented witli nimierous 
tigures and inscriptions. In one of them there is a deep indenta- 
tion made by a cannon ball ; this cannon is of bronze, and the 
impress of the ball corresjK>nds to about one-sixth part of its 
diameter; the cavity made by it is quite smooth, as if it had 
l»een turned bv art 


The iron chain which the Turks extended across the 
to support their bridge of boats during tlieir siege of Viil 

.Oqmmwrxjoizt nta Arts rr MinsRs. 


( mado for Bimilnr piirposv*, it is of vwy 
Among innumORtblc 'Inggora prcst^rvcd in tiiia 
VWmoiy, they ahow yuu lliat u»ei] by Ravaillac in iho a»6assinn- 
I lion (if Uenry IV. ; it la loug, dondor, and ocuUi, nod liko llio 
I twt, is highly poh^ed. 

As in iho Tower uf London, ancient armor i« hero mounUid 
I figures intended lo represent real life, t>oth horses and inun 
I Wng clad ia brilliant panoply. Tho armor of Louis XIV. is 
I ahowu ; it ia, however, adapl«d lo a much smaller man than is 
T nprvHt-ntod by th« picturtw and statues of that monarch ; for, 
I UiB urtisia do oft«n exagguriito the sim of those whom they 
%Uk to vxalu Ilcru is also tho bright armor of the Mnii) 
|<Itf OrlcHDs. Who could see it without emotion! It seems, 
L however, ill adapted lo tlie femalo form, tho figure being rather 
r that of a man. 

In llu» armory tlie horses, as well as tho men, are more or 

H uoinplolely clad in mail, and some are entirely covered, 

I incJuding tlic head and ne>ck. One of tUo horsea was protected 

1 by movable plates, adapted Uku lliu suales of a bb, and in 

I uotJior, the covering llannl outwiird ut the bottom iu a solid 

1 rigid form, iihulving like the roof of a houoe, so lis to 

I protect the animoL In nil such collections we find shirts of 

1 nail made of wires looped together. Wo bnve scfin many 

I Ktamplus of tho huge Iwo-hnndlcd sword, tivo or six fuet long, 

d re<piiring a giant's clrength to wield it 

We were in theso rooms, in oompauy with a tlirong of 

tFrench soldiers otf from duty, who seeineil very curious lo 

^examine the various iiiBlniments of death. 

CoKsEavAtouui DBS Anm kt KIktisks. — This grand 
tblislunent does great honor to Paris. As it was n S^ta day, 
f we knew that it w.-u ulosed. Although at first decidedly 
) tried th" silver key ; a fivo-fmnc )necju thr«w the 
teit biK'k, iii"l w.' ilic advsntago of a view of tluj 
■ ■pl.'u-it "!'i ■ I" ri crowd. Tho l.\-in«in*aioir>: i» 

I'le and new slono building, all 



ib:s is on .a vast so^iiv : ih*? nnartments are numerous and I arse. 
:liOv arc in i]i-.- l' mi *a •zAilvrix.-^, with walks or n]hvs betw«.^n 

Ma.. m 

A tour ihroii|;h liie whole is a vorr long wjilk, esiK?cially if 
tliv o^»si-ncr dv'uKfS or triplt* Li> track, by psissiug along all 
the soparaie rows of oascs. of which iLc-re ar^ a^ually throo in 
each r<^v>in. [•arallvl to each other; the iuspeciion, ovon if it 
should not lie verr detailed, would occupy the hours of one 
dav. and wxuld lead several miles. Tliis establish luont is 
devote-i to the illustration, by instmnienta or models, of all the 
artsw and the st^'lence? to which ihey appertain. lu so vast a 
field. I can onlv select a few example* bv wav of illuritration. 

Wchhti atvi Me'Wfres. — All the standards of wvinrht and 
mea>;ire, and their parts are hero. TIk- orijr.ual metre, wiili its 
su^=^!^i^*o:ls: the t«r:j:ii:il litre, whh it? ]';irws: the irriiinni'- and 
its i:iullipk\s till are here. 

IL.Te al'-o arc, i'^ a greiit extoiit, ili-- >\eiir]its an«i me:i>tires 
of iitiur countries. Those k>i the riiite-l States ^xitli a lanj^ 
bai:iiiee, wero in liiie order, and c"'Uip.ire very well w ith th«.i>o 
of othor C'jTintries 

^'/cf77/i K)if/iiits, Z".*v/«f. '«.''« A, *t'!-. — A':l that reiateis t-.i this 
irrt-ai sul'jfCi is very fully ir:;:>: rated. Tliere soems no limit to 
the number anil varietv of niriaos an-l K'ilrr^, r\ workin«r 
isteani en^'nes. of loei'niutiv«*s and ears, and nt" manv other 
inarhiiies in which steam i> the motive |v»wer. 

A'jrindturt. — riouirhs, harrows, shiivels. rakes .ixes drill- 
ini: antl plantin;j: machines fans and miIi.t contrivances for 
wlnn^'winir wln-at and i-iher cereals; atul, in sh«»rt, all tliat 
beloiiir- to the rural liell, the farm, the barn, and the garden, 
and to ornamental ^Tounds, has eiilur oriirinals or intxlvls 

Tims, without fanher >}M-eiiieatiun. we may nm through all 
the mechanical arts and their aT']>l!i.'ations and find that none 
of 1 hem have Ken ne;:leeted. 

In ihi; siame maiiUer, the va>: kinL:.l,«m of tbejP^ *\ 

nil ib* great depart *traied. Optics^ 

pririuiS) mirroK, n tclesoo|K^ pn 

Paris t 


y to the nssislanco of vinbn nntt to Uio iUustrntinn of its 

Iswi. Otomrtty, wilh its forms and its ]>atpabli< 'lin^mma ot 

lines in a taugibli: sliape ; ami EUetrlcUy, witb its appropriala 

miwliiniie. Chemutry arvi Cktmical Arts. — Tliia iiDportntit 

dni'artmunt liua re<»iv«I its proper tliare of attention, anj is 

LfiimialieJ nilU Uio rcijui^itts apparatuH and preparations. Tlieee 

onl^ A fuw inatnnoiM iu tlie wide range of tho Bcieno«« that 

^fclntu to ranttcr, nnd tlie nmchiacs nni not mtiUi. Tbitjr lire 

tonde to spoOc snd impart instruction tlirough an able corps of 

Rigin«cn, each devoted to a pariJcular brand). It ia wnrlJiy 

€ obanrvatiou uiao, that all tlie macliinoB capable of motion can 

WIk madH to movu hy sttwin or EOinu other power cxhUng iu tlie 

■iMalilisbmunt, and thus to pruvu the truths they wuro citod as 

« to Bupi>ort. 

It ia high timu tliut our government aUouM institute atMin- 

VAervatory of arts euid trailiw nt Washington. Iliu collections in 

.0 patent ofBcv would scrvij to iiink« a bej^nning, but ovcn- 

inlly ft distinct building should bo constnicted of liage dimon- 

, with ample e]kicu around it, so that it may admit of 

Utonsion as the duninnds of the country and ita productionH iu 

3 and prnoticnl aiuem-e may rm^niro. Such an ostabMsIiniont 

would be truly national, and would form a strong bond of union 

between all tho momburs of our groat confederacy. 

fans lo f onlmn. 

An^ufl It. 

Til'- lime had now arriroil Pjr my departure from Psri»- 

o rest of ll»e ("Brty, ns I have intimated, preferring to remain 

I torn days longer. T>r. Green and Mr. Douglsd, whom T hnvo 

Mitioned M our fellow-paaaengen &om Brussels to I'aris, were 

f companions again. 

I loolrk'arc l^.r !i shurt tjiii.' ..f -mr parly, not forgetting a 

decided to gri ill tho 

t the arrangi'muiit of 


!id n 

384 England — Folkbtone to Londoit. 

Calais and Dover, as I had intended, for I had not a day to 
spare. The weatlier was fine, and we took our passage through 
to London.* 

Our little steamer was crowded with passengers, chiefly 
French, going over to see the great Exhibition. The Channel 
was smooth, and few of the passengers were sick, ^e stepped 
ashore at Folkstone, at three p. m., afler a passage of two and a 
half hours. All the dutiable articles of our party were col- 
lected together in Paris, there to be placed under seal, and 
shipped from Havre to Liverpool, for the United States, and 
thence to go home with us in the steamer, without being open- 
ed in England. This arrangement saves a great deal of trou- 
ble, and some expense. The examination of baggage at Folk- 
stone for our large company occupied nearly two hours. The 
transit of my own was made very easy by the unexpected kind- 
ness of a gentleman (Mr. S. J. Mackie, of London), who, hear- 
ing my name, recognized me as a friend of Dr. Mantcll. Upon 
his assurance, my luggage was passed unopened. 

(Snglatti-~|0lkst0itt I0 ^0nlun. 

Once more in the English cars, we now passed by dayliglit 
over a region through which wo bad before rode in the ni^ht, 
and I was glad of the opportunity of seeing the countr}'. It is 
composed of chalk hills — the chalk api)earing, to a great 
extent, on the surface. It is beautifully varied by hill and 
dale ; and the mature crop of wheat is here also being gathered 
in. The rural scenes were beautiful, but not more so than in 
many of the continental countries through which we had 
travelled, especially in Lombardy, Switzerland, and Germany. 

The cars of the first class in England are generally not 

* Faro through G3 francs and 3-100, baggage 3 francs 63-100, 
making 66 francs and 56-100— about $13, or about 6 eenta a mile land 
and water included. 

Akrital in CsEBTsa Square. 3Sfi 

I better tluin llioso of the aocond class on the contioont, eepccinlly 
ill Oermuf. Wo arrived safe at tlie London station at seven 
p. Mt wlienoa wo di'pjirteil for Pari* on Iho last day of March, 

I Wo experienced nt once thu comfort aoil thfl coDvenienc« of 
tlie oxuflllcnt ntilrouil polW uf England. One of [lie oflit'^rs 

. came forwitrd of liU own accord, took charge of our bnggogu, 
and without dulay suinutoncd a cab, vhoea pricu being fiked 

y by law, he Utid U8 what wu Lad to [lay at Ghestur Squaru, the 

' and of our rido, at iho distance of two or three nilbi. Uo 
aw us corarortobly placed in tlio carriage with our baggnge, 
nd civilly hade us good evening. 

AnnivAL IK CriBstun SgVARB. — To a home already endearod 
by iny previous nsidcnc^ then, and to wliiuh 1 was aguin mcMi 
kindly invited, I drove wiiltout h>«itHtioii, and was rccuivod 
Willi n very warm welcome, but with a kind reproof for lliigi-i^ 
!ng so lung abroad, and leaving k> little time for England. 
I found Dr. Mantell uncommonly well, and very spirited, 

, and we entered nt onco upon a wide range of conversation. 

I In this most intereetJng field he was* cxceodiDgly winning and 
instructive. The stream of his thoughts flowed on and on, rich, 
grand, and inexhaustible. It was, moreover, delightful to me 
(as it was on my return tnm Holland in 1800), to find myself 

[ Bafe again in Old England, where there are no more passporta 

I Dor surveillanco. 

This part of London is new, clean, airy and ^uiet, and this 

I Iiouau is full of truasuris of nature nnd art. I had enjoyed much 

I on the Continent, but lliis was now a home, and In it I was 

[ i>»rpr- 

*1 am. alac, eompolled teuBii the [list dm«I Us had long bseii 
Iia martjT to ■ aarcra DuuralgM affection, induced by a fsU many 
I ]«ar« sgOk frum liis carHsgci, sad st time* auffsrod inWnu jmin, 
I wliiiJi gruluullf )jrukii ilawu his Sue caimlilulion. W* vsre, bow- 
I sTor, periiiiUKil li> have two wkIu more ot lil){h sauial enjoyment 
I tn|;«llipr. He ilivd TloTiMnbrr 10, 1632. a^i St, hi* Inut luttcr to Rid 
I having t>MD writtsii abont a niattth b«f>ir« iiis dentil. 
Vol. 0.-17 

386 London. 

The morning dawned on the Sabbath, and I found in the 
TicinitT an Episcopal church. The building was plain, yeiy 
plain, the people not fashionable, but in appearance Teiy re- 
spectable, grave, and devout, and both thej and their minister 
endently in earnest. It was a pleasant beginning again in 
London. Business followed the Sabbath, and I took a haruam 
(named after the inventor) to convey me to the counting-room 
of the Barings for mv letters from America. A hansom is a 
low gig, but a foot or fifteen inches above the pavement ; a 
door of wood, in halves and hung on hinges, is shut and 
opene«l by tlic pass<*nger himself, the driver is perched behind, 
on a seat higher than the carriage ; he drives over the top, and 
does not leave his seat. 

Call at Clapham, — A return call to some interesting 
friends of Dr. Mantell, of the family of Allnutt, who had met us 
at his house during our transit to the Continent in March, now 
took us to the beautiful suburban village of Clapham. Our call 
was rendered very pleasant by the warm welcome of a happy 
familv, livinsj in a verv deli«jlitful couutrv residence conti<ruous 
to Clapham Common. All the peculiar embellishments of an 
English rural abode are there ; very extensive fields, laid out in 
walks or drives ; water, groves, flowers, birds, and, among the 
trees, grazing cattle ; the high heaven above, and the green 
earth beneath I In the house, books, pictures, and other rare 
objects of art, refined manners, and elegant hospitality. 

I was happy to visit Clapham again ; for it has had a 
Htrong hold on my better feelings ever since my earij rendenoe 
in Ix)ndon, especially on account of its associati<m vidi tlxi 
memory of Lord Teignmouth,* Mr. Henry Thornton, ai 
Wilberf(»r(e. Dr. Mantell, at. my request, was so Ir 

• Once Sir John SI- "^"Vrtrnor of India. 

Call at Ct.ApnA». 


'lirnct his ■errant to drivta hy Ihme large and fino hciu»m, whiili 
WOTo there forty-«w yeoin «go, and in ono of wliioh, Mr. Thorn- 
ton's, I MM n favor«Kl ^Mt in tlie atitiimn of 180fi. I wns nd- 
iiiitt(.-d to iho domcetiu iiitimacj of n rcfinol, roligimia fHraiiy 
nmoDgtho hi^er g^-ntry, patieed tha dny oiid night, and spent 
tlio morning, till dinner of tho n«it day, in tlie PTi1igh(«ncd 
society of Mr. Wilberfonw, whoec residence was at tlie next 
door. Tliercv diwplto uf linie, aUnd llie still stati-ly inauiiiotiB. 
There istheaamti circular fioai^h-drive in ftwntof Mr. Tliomttiir3 
liou8«; nnil, no doubt, in tlie roAr, are (he name »m|)le gruiitiUK 
ntid gnrdi^iis, in wLidi I iheti walked, an at Mr. AlInmt'H now. 
But nil who then ndomod tbom noblo hou»t!s nre gone — their 
di'lightful family drcl« are broken up ; the great and good 
wnntors no longer giiido the councils of their countrj- ; and thn 
eloquent orntor, who swayed th>^ IIoukc of Commons, nnd Iitrld 
thum spell-bounil, as ranch by his goodncs* aa by his 
powM-, is now, we tnurt, a member of a higher nswmbly. \V" 
drove l>j- the site of Lord Ti-igTimoiitli's bmnw — for tbo mansion 
is no longer there— and it i» a subject of extiltntion to Wiseman 
nnd bis fricDdii, that on the very eiwl where the Biblp Society 
was founded* a Roman Catholic chapel has been erected ! 

Such are the TiciMtludes of human affairs in this ever chang- 
ing world. 

Clnpbam Common appeared In mn more overgrown wilh 
wild shrubs and natural griws than in 1805, idthuUgh arehitei-- 
ture has embellished its bordcra. Itcturning, as on our way 
I oul, we drqve through one continued street, or succession of 
I streel^ which now join Clapham to London. In uiy early 
I time, it wan all country between, for several miles; now Cluj<- 
y iinm is bat a cnburh of London. 

We passed V'nuthRJI Dridge, which was not tliero m my 
ft youtlk U is a large and beautifitl structure. The Htreet Ii^ad- 
f\og firnm it towards tlio country is ample, and very Imudsome, 
i line houseM. It wiu evcninif twilight as we 

368 London. 

passed Vauxhall Bridge, and I then saw a row of ligliti on 
another bridge, which, on inquiry, I found to be tliat of West- 
minster. In 1805, this was the highest bridge— the furtheat 
up stream — on the Thames, in its course through London; and 
as you ascended still higher, there was no bridge until joa came 
to the wooden one at Battersea, opposite to Clapham. Lon- 
don has absorbed the rural villages that stood all around it, 
here and there, like sentinels. 

General Impressions of London. August IS, — ^Ibaye 
now passed again through several of the principal streets of 
London ; through the entire length from the extreme west, 
and from the railroad station there to the extreme eaat^ and the 
similar station there. I have traversed the Strand, Ludgate 
Hill, Fleetrstreet, Cheapside by the Exchange, into Leaden- 
hall-street, Bishopgate-street, through High Holbom, Oxford- 
street or Road, Pieadilly, through the parks, and several of 
the public s^^uares, and my general impression is, that of most 
decided im])rovement 

The city is, in general, extremely well built I suppose 
that the streets, except a few that have been enlarged, are not 
any wider than formerly ; but in comparison with those of 
most continental cities, they appear to be so, and there is no- 
where else in the world such manifest evidence of wealth. 
The thoroughfares are more thronged than formerly, and 
well tliey may be, since the population has more than doubled 
since 1 805. It was tliought tlien to be approaching a million, 
but a recent enumeration shows that it now exceeds two mil- 
lions by two or three hundred thousand. 

In my youth, there were no public vehicles for tlie city and 
Westminster, except a limited number of indifferent hackney 
coaches. Now, the coaches are far more frequent, and in a 
far better style than then. Cabs, and hansoms, and omnibuaea, 
then unknown, are now numerous ; intronvenienUy to on ac- 
count of pressure. In riding through Cbea|ndek fiBeeally, 
there was such a wilderness of tliese different 411^ 

"■i^ieB, that the space seemed quite inll ; we « o 


{ Tham] 


slop fre(|ueutly, and wmt a mavem^nt uf tlie Btuggiah flood. 
Although tliQ ninoibus Iins. usually, but uue lionc, it oftcu car- 
ries an enormous looil — tlicra are pt'oplu on lb« fop 08 well as 
fillint; the imide. In 1S05 tlivrtt was only a ik-udta- corps of 
walclimon ; often tlic«u yie.K old tnun, anil tlicrc was no a[>- 
jMAaranoD of an active puliue. Now, some of ttie pulicemen, 
introduced by Sir Robert Peel, are almoM always in view, 
Tbtiy BR! (tenerolly young man, tiittinguUhwl hy a blue drew 
with wliiU) trinmuiij^ and lliey are at hand, ni^it and day, 
to give information nnd uasutonou, and to nid in suppresHtng 
disorder ; but, in gunund, Utoy hnvu no nenpons, except a clul), 
unleM in vxtrvme comx, when thoy carry it sword. 

Ilia constant pasMMSton of il«adly weapons woukl, in i'ilw 
of nfTrnya, naturally Icncl to bloodshi'd. 

In I'ariB, gtndnrmiv hare olwap ewords by llif^ir sidus, and 
in case of disturbnnoo, would not liwlnte to \aa tlieui. Lon- 
don is now, in general, a very quint inty, and very fuw soldiunt 
nru seen in tbu stri.'ct&. In tliis lost nvtpcct London forms n 
very elnng contrast with Parii", and, iodoeii, wich moet of llio 
chioe of tlio contioonl of Europe. 

Etcurmon im the Rivrr, — Dr. Mnntell kindly proposed an 
evening excursion on tbe Tbames. In 1805 we bud only 
wberrii.« or light row-boaW, or for freight, still larger and moro 
tardy craft. The boatmen upon tlie rivL'r formed a large and 
active class, and we were much indubk-d to tliem, na at Venice, 
for cutijfortable transportation, not only from one part of Lon- 
dun Ui another, bat to Wandsworth and Clupham above, and 
to (!r«.-nwicli and Bla<Jtwall below, as well as to other plac«E(. 
Our pivgrcM was then compnmlivcly slow, and the rapacity 
of tho boats for pussengUTB very limited. In tlie present uxcur- 
aiou, wu itt(.'pp«l on bunrd a bniaII steamer, perfiwtly ])lnin and 
nnadonwd, but iharp in t)ie bow, and rapid in uovoneut- 
Har d«ck wns nlrundy full of people, and away she dashed 
rr rapid m s race horse, and the seven bridgw 
w«To p««md in (juick siic('*«<ion. 

• tlumi'mM iiBtlliPin bfiilpK. London Brid^ ««&. 

390 London. 

then, as now, farthest down the stream, and aboTe thk bridge 
sea-going vessels did not ascend. Then going up fltream, there 
was Blackfriais Bridge, opposite to the middle of the city, and 
last of all, Westminster Bridge, near the Parliament House, and 
the famous old Abbey. London Bridge has been rebuilt with 
granite. Westminster Bridge is in decay : Blackfriara is be- 
coming infirm, and both will, probably, at no distant period, be 
rebuilt Now, we have seven bridges instead of three. Vaux- 
hall Bridge, built with iron arches and coveied with stone, is 
highest up the river. Next, descending, we pass Westminster 
Bridge, and Hungerford Suspension Bridge for foot passengers 
only, comes next It is a beautiful iron structure, as lig^t and 
graceful, as if it were only a piece of fancy work, while it is firm 
as iron and stone can make it Below Hungerford Bridge and 
above Blackfriars there is still another called Waterloo Bridge ; 
it is built of granite, and is a capital structure for vehicles of 
all sorts as well as people. Between Blackfriars and London 
Bridge, there is still another, a new one, it is the iron bridge 
of Soutlnvorth ; this is also for vehicles. Thus the wide s|)aces 
formerly existing between the bridges, which rendere<i the aid 
of boats necessary, are now so much diminished, tliat the 
pedestrian is nowhere ver}' far from a bridge. 

r>uring our excursion we saw numeroiLs steamers plying up 
and down the river ; they were full of |x^ople ; on the decks of 
some there were such dense masses of human beings, that thoro 
seemed not to be room for another individual. For the accom- 
modation of the boats there are floating bridges along the 
shores, wharf-like, placed at short distances apart, where the 
steamers touch, discharge their passengers, and receive more. 

We passed tlie new parliament hoiLse, extending several 
hundred feet along the river, an immense Gothic range, pro- 
fus4.'ly adorned with delicate and complex tracery carved in stones 

A little removed from the shore rise the venCTaMi t ope ia 
of Westminster Abbey, in which I was often aooai {». 

mtKlitato when here in my prime. Farther down 
''efl bank of the river, " ' le long, and oi 

EicuiutoH TO r&E IfiLB or Wiuiir. 


of Soinent-'t llouae; il was a paiiic« iu ifae ago nf Clinrlm 
IL, but fau been, for many years, devoted U) piiUic nflic«s, uid 
to afford HccomDiodations for learned sociotics nnii for the fine 

Oh our right, wa saw Lanibetli tliu nociont Episcopal palace, 
the riisiduncu of thu llbbop uf London. Contiguous to it, is the 
dark and frowuiug stono lower of tlie Lollards, wbich, in ancient 
times, was u«od as a priaon. Then, again, on our left, ri»o the 
mouuuient of London and the solumn domu of St Paul'a, look- 
ing just aa tbey did forty-«x year* ngo. 

Ev^ening bad now sot in, and lliu ligbtud bridgea ahone 
splendidly, their illuminated panipeta being disclosed benealh 
the arches, aa we juiswd under diem. The bending chores 
were brilliaut wiib iunumerable fires, shining from houHuit 
ehops, manufnctories, nnd palaces, uiJ tliu lights of thu etrecta. 
This vivid illmuinutJun gave evidence of n vast aud active 
populudon crowding the shores, not indeed of tlic Uigiat river 
in tho world, liiit of the must opulent; n river, from whows 
banks umannles n mow potent and extensive swny of erapiro 
thiui the world has ever known. Not ono of tho empires of 

, ftnti()tuty could compare with it; nor OTon, in modern timra, 
tbo stupendous fabric of NnjKiloon, which coUapacd, and wm 
crushed by its own weight. 

How difierent tlie scene, when, bcforv the advent of the 
Saviour of men, the slcra Roman landed in Sussex, iu a heathen 
Ulaud, and eneouu(«red a barbarous puopio " with pinked and 
pain[«d bid«," nnd clothed with tlie skins and fur of tJie native 

[ nnimals of their forest;. What a contrast between Bondiccn 
ind Victoria! 

e?((«rsion to tfef |s[e of Sirtigbl. 

We left Loiiduu at ili-n:u A. w.. from a hialion housii in 

. iMiHHig oat of the city at nn elL-viiliun ubuve llie 

an, in ft portion of Uw nietrojujlia, not, bowi-iet. 


Tery well built, and the houses not zemarkably lu^ We 
arrived at Gosport, opposite to Portsmoath on the "BinglMli 
Channel, at two p. m. — 90 miles, 80 miles to the luMir, stops 


Our course was over the chalk, and we saw some aectioiis 
in the cretaceous strata; we passed also upon the Bagshot 
sand, and the tertiary was beneath the rails. Bat who can 
study geological features, while flying by them in the can! 
Fortunately I had studied long and carefoUy the geology of 
the south and southeast of England, in the admirable works 
of my learned friend, and with him for a companion and guide 
I need not fear to err. 

Some parts of the country were sandy and barren (Bagshot 
sand), or had only a light sandy soil ; but as we advanced, the 
land became more fertile, and was beautifully varied with hill 
and dale, valley and lawn. 

We passed near the ancient town of Basingstoke, and 
within sight of the venerable Winchester, once a Roman station, 
long tiie seat of Saxon and Norman dominion, and the home of 
learning and of educated men. It was with much regret that 
we relinquished the design wliich we had formed of stopping 

Gosport is a considerable town opposite to Portsmouth, and 
derives ibs importance chiefly from establishments connected 
with national defence ; it is auxiliary to the more important 
naval station of Portsmouth. 

In a small steamer we passed through the harbor to Ryde, 
in tlie Isle of Wight 

In the harbor of Portsmoutli there were several large men- 
of-war moored, as prisons, and as receiving ships, and to noy 
great surprise and gratification, the Victory, Lord Nelson^s 
fljig-ship at the battle of Trafalgar, which was fought October 
21, 1805, lay before us at anchor. On the 14th day of Sep- 
tember, 1805, forty-six years ago, I saw this same ship lying at 
anchor at St. Helens, between this city and the Isle of Wight* 

I was in an advantageous position upon the walk of tk 

ItvnB. 3Da 

(brtificfttions ncnnat iJiu eea, whtti I «iw IjorJ Ni-Uoii sti-ji uu 
bounl his W^ then in naiting, to convi:}- hini lo llio 
Victory, whicb, Willi Admiral Colling wood's Hhip, thu Sovor- 
vign, of 110 guns, was iu full vioir. Tliia was NelsoiiV ailleu 
tu England, ua In: full in tbe great conflict. 

Lilllu (lid I expect ever to see tlio Victory ugnin. Shii 
looks as sliti did on tixe dny of the Wttlu, wlicii from licr opvii 
pcrt-liolve the storm of tuinnan IulIIs was potiivi] into tho lii»lila 
fleota of Franco and Spain. Slio nppoara in fine order, lieing 
coinplctuly ri^^d, paiotfrd in black and wliite strip<», and 
colon flying ai niasthead. Doubtless she is pre»erved as n 
national muuumoul iu honor of thu great victory, nnd tho 
great naviil commander. 

KviiK.— Ualf nn hour from Porlsmonlli placixl us in liio 
beautiful (own of Kydo, riaing elognutJy from lliu wati-r, and 
nded by groves and tuBlefuI rural dwelliagak, Thu vater 
ivi> with small sailing vuasfla — yaidita — which havo con- 
tvnded fur ihi' tjuiwu's pri):e of one hundred pounds, and on 
Friday m-xt thoru i« to Iw a race butwut>n them and thtt New- 
York yaitht Ainuricn, Oajitiun Stui-uns, who luui uomu over to 
ohalleiigu a trial of «peed. 

The English jinpprs sjivnk in the highcsl terms of the 
compIet«D>«a and beauty of the Anicritia, and of lier great 
■peed in thu eiaunioua site has alrondy mailu in tht«e wa- 
titrs,aud lliey anticipate a victory for her; how infinitely lo 
be preferred to a triumph at the uuet of human blood. The 
weather was vur>' tine, and in a crowded htate of the town 
of Kyde, we found lodgings in a very small house, witli minia- 
ture bedrooms, and shared a eomtnon [larlor witli iteturat gen- 
tlemanly Englishmen. Even a ]>arlor in parlnertJiip i* a liu- 
ory unknown on tbe ounlinenl, where tiiero is nercr a ftitling- 
room in common, mid no alcematjve between a himl parlor 
rnur bedroom. This ia generally tliu ease in England 
aleo, (he iMrfTee-rooni and news-ruom excepted. 

Byde is a bemitiAiI ptaee, luokiu|{ young and fresh, hke 
our new American towns. As it rues so rapid!]' from Oaib 


^: "1:-. .-. 

rxi Irii r W:^Hr- 

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J'.rn.'.:- \» ..ii.'i. — I':. ^! :' viiii villi xne a xniic 

Jiiiji ^t«rii . < 'iTjU*' * 4K :!!!■: ■■•■■"iMCir k VKKt 

Atii-ji III ijii.'i'ir htria «.•!' g« 



I bulongs lo Ihd tertiftry era. In our riJ« \¥o tiniircli-il this 
I cluuiiiiiig tovrn, wtioeu euviroiia, with lliu iiiHrino and laud 
icv, ore extremely IxaautlfuL I know uot a mora dcairiktlo 

There ore, iu llie b1iu|h, antnll culli^ctiuaB of tlie fMsiln nnJ 
I niinornls of llio UlunJ, ivlui^li alfurJutl lu catorlAinmcnt and 
1 instruction. Dr. Mnnt*-!) lius ngr.aU licro Li prtMinrn tlie beat 
I •pudinoni for lib own collection. Thu |iopulntion of Rydu U 
j »00D. 

Dr. Mfin(«ll lias many ncqunintancM in the hie of WJgbt, 
I but our time permitted ua to malce only one call, nt tbe Itouse 
I (tf the R«r. Mr. Kimball, a dcrgyman of tlie oetabltshmiiut, 
I wboM ubnrga la iu ibe coufium of Loudon towards Clapbam. 

A VovAOK AROUND TUB IftLAXD. AHjfiiil 21. — A Btcamor, 

lien tUu w<wtbcr is favorable, makos ibia circumnavigation twioo 

I weekly, aud I gladly accepted iJie invitation for tbe day that wo 

1 at Kyde. lu addition to tlie recroalioD of tlio tH]\ es 
I tlio steamer narigatea close iu shora, it affotda an exoellent 
1 o])])urUin)ty to obwrro both the scenery and the geology of the 
[ island ; thu laU«r a atrougly exbibitud in thu cliBk and bnnkii 
[ tliat [iRM-nt natuntl xeutions of tbe strata, and from the dock 
I of tbn steamer Uiey arr> m^u to great advantage. 

'J'bo weather was the fineat possible ; the air was balmy and 
I «>&, witbout being too hot or l»o cool. I'bq pier-bead was 
[ tlirongod with persons of li^tli suxen, and ns eonn u tbo ex- 
1 pn;ted boat from Porl&moutli touolictl tliu wharf^ her dcnk was 
I crowded with pasiongora, to ntim<'roua, that it was difficult to 
I itiovo among liivm. It was supposed that there were 300 ; and, 
I although fur want of Hpaee od the deek of tlie lilUe atuamer, 
' many were obliged to stand, (liey were all in good Immor 
Uirougbout iJie day. 

Sonio friends of Dr. M.'s anluted lis on the pier, and wo 

had for a f'lllow-passrnger, the interesting gentleman whoso 

i &uiily 1 have already lueutionud, the Rev. Cbarics Koinble of 

I Stockwell. near London. Although we were, occasionally, iu 


Exct'Hsiox ■ 

> TIIB htx (. 


ronvenuition widi othere, w« tliTe« formmi n little f 

OsBORN noTr§E. — At CowM, we were very near to I 
Houw, tlie fHVurite rural rutroat of Uie Queen, and wbc 
is at ))rt«ent reaJdiD^ willi Prince Albert and tli«r 
As wu nangatni jjist at tli« Ibot of the hill on wliich thty I 
when in retirciiieut here, we could di.itii«!lly see the p 
very perfectly hj tbe aid of a glon. Tlw building b (tf •) 
it lins two towers, one lor the clovk ami Ihi! olWr fur tba 6 
Tlie territory inclndes thirteen or (bnrtiseti hundrvd acrcB, a 
ift, in part, corerud with ft>rc«t. The prini<e is foud of r 
iinprov<>ni«nt, of which the plnc« is stiscoptiblu, and it K|if 
to need skilful coltnre. The ground is so elcikbnl, ti 
eommande a fine pro«)>60.t, and in tii»f, it will, doubt 
bu bruught into a beautiful condition. Tfafl pTineip«l attn 
however, of Onborn Houee », that it contuinn a liappy fi 
the wise and blamel«e» )ivc« of whose hc^juk !■ exvrl 
excellent influence upon tlm nnlion. With th« gh 
could sen peoplo moving on the lawn. Wa were (uld, tl 
only do the children, ns becomes thiiir ng^ piny ua tlio g 
beneath the trvm, but tliaL in fine, milil wrntber, ■ 
Bpruad in the shade, and tlie family dine Uwre in n 
We poised threu stuamen that nr« coiiBlanlly in « 
obey the rtn'nl will. Two are mL-ru tendtiia, u»e ijnlte ■ 
tlie other larger, and the tliird (a most bcantifnl tbSp) i 
BUfticient siro and utrengtii for ocnnn scr^ifi-, Shu ii 
littiid up, and fnlly mnnnt^l and oftinnxl. TIm oflcun 
in till! nitvy uniform an in the regular nurvinc. Wm | 
cloM niongnde, ami could have coovaiwd nitli thotn. 

Unfortunately Prince Albert cannot boar the sea, m 
groat ship, Ihorcforo, doe* not nftj-n tmnsport the Iti^al fi 
whu find mora agreeable recmtion on aliom. 

DowE§, — Wii were now at Cbwos s wi^-bnown port, « 
liurbor ia often the rvsurt of American ahipa. 
inuuy veaiwla at nndior, iudndiug ti 

tlie AniaiciL Wa 

clow; to li 

Alum Uat. 


(li'>'<l, KR elegant tcskI ; narroir and sbnr|i in Uie Ixiw, 1>rani] 
{u llio stent, low in her qunrtAts, and lier sjiHrs long aud bigh 
for lior sbe ; no goperflmty of ropee ; every tiling is wnig »nd 
iioiiipnct. Sbe appeured almost like ft ecu bird, mid sho iin- 
|irc»od aII with the belief that she must be » rapid vcssul. I 
Ix^licvo all the paaengcrs, except myself, wure Englialt, uiid 
thfy were loud in their commend alions of the yocbt, and in 
their pnxliclions that she would distnnoA all competitorH. 

'I'horo aro many lx»utifu1 rural abodes near Cowes, nnd 
among thorn ia a modern castle, with towen and bsltleinenta 
entirely invested by ivy, and rising out of tho donso foliage of 
K clowly -arranged grove ; while it is entirely inodom it baa the 
sppcaratiuu of gnat aiiti<{uity, an illuHJun which the nrehilcct 
iulviided to produee, and in wliich lie has Ijeen entirely 8Uo> 
ce«sful. The proprietor is a gentlcmaii, connected with the 
Lundirn press, Mr. Dell of the Messenger. 

The shores of the island aro, eveiy where, picturevjue and 
beautiful. The tertiary strnta in tho part looking towards 
Uniiipidiire, forta the immediate coast, and as we npprouuh tho 
soutli west end of Uie island, tiie high elifik of while chalk be- 
come vertical, the strata having been ul-ivatvcl, and their [tosi- 
tinn so nearly mvursed, that instead of euftaiuiog Ihn tertiary 
■train, they lean over upon them obliquely ; ns one IhioIc may 
bo mndo to lean against another. The eonlrast is perf.wlly 
dixtinct, tho t«rttary being n^d and tlie c.hnik white, ex^-pt thai 
e dialk is also colored in stripea up and down. 
Alcu Itar is the name of this place, which ia well known 
' to geologists, and I Uiouglit it a rare good fortuue that 1 bod 
I an opportunity tu see It. The while clialk now ajijieared in 
eliffa, three to four hundred feet high, and wiih a glass tbe 
I fliuls ouuU be dUttnutiy seen, fullowing the arrangement of the 
I Btrata, and marking it by delicate dark lines. Wo soon pnsMd 
beyond the beautiful and itutmelive groups of Alum Bay. 
Turning the southwest t>oinl of thu island with iJie laud 
L gImm aboard, w« pueud aocUier fumous group, the XeeuLsa; 
nn otir Uft and between tli>' Ixiiit and tile eUvXW ^^£k 


39tl ExcuRHUJN TO iiiB taLB or Wioitr. 

The Needles uru huge manes of cbalk, once fonning ■ part tif 
tho miuu clitt', wlik'li Lave btxa eepuniW by llie ctunion iiT tbs 
wavi'B. 'Iliey now stand nlouu 'm the »ea, wliidi coinpliitcly sur- 
raanila tlii^m. Rows betwt^t^u and breaks agninet thent. Tti« 
Needles are not slides — tJiuy are tlie remains of the chalk atn 
the soa by iticessanl action, botii by tides atid ti-nipists, 
breached this stormy hendlAnd, and has cut its way tJirai^li, 
thus carving out several small islands of wbilu chalk. TIm^ 
look Itlce towora of white marble riuu^ out of the sea, wbt<^ b 
coDstantly wearing tlicm awny, and wilt, in time, effcL-t 

TiiE Wavks. — Here, as we drew away from und«r ll)^ 
protection of the land, a strong liuad wind and tido raised « 
beavy swell, which struck the boat so suddenly and powgrfliUy 
that the passetigore were hardly able to keep their ftwi, the 
ladies were agitata, and were sustained from railing by thaj 
friends. Dr. Mant^ll and his two friends stood with arms Ioi*Jcm1 
for mutual sup|x)rt, but a sudden lurch of tlte lioal tlircw them 
with others, all in a honp upon the cable coiled on dMk; and 
as we were down, wo were content to remain upon the mpo m» 
a seat, although none of iJio softest. An we were now i>Mu{iig 
a very interesting region, where some of the finest of tbt> dia* 
coveriue of Dr. Mantell had beeu made, be, with niil from 
those near at hand, unrolled some lar^ atid fine ((oalo^eiU 
disf^Ris, containing bccUoubI viitws illustmUn^ tim wry re- 
markable coast ; but we hoii hardly litgun tii eoinfmni limn 
with thn original before us, when n wave broke over the low 
and floolud tho deck where we sat, to tliat we wdre ^Md U> 
spring on our frwt again, and to save tiio d/awiugx in tbo beat 
mamier we could. 

IIcnsT Cabtlb. — fhi our right, projecting from ibo Uiuni^ 
shiro coast, is a long rvft, called by iho Kngiinb n spit, which 
runs out from the land into tlwi va\v», and npon ils wMw a nl 
extremity stands Uurst Caallo, constraciod of Hot 
of v«Ty large dimeiisloas, it bas a formidable ap| 

n not awan tlut it Iu» boca aaMciatad wkh 

Hl'kst Oabtle, 390 

iilk- evoiit. lieyoud it, further to Uie wwt nnd siiuthwuat, is 
Iho ]>e(iiaBulur liundlaud uf PurtUuid, usunlly cjillud thu iHluud 
of I'onJand, where aro Uie famous quarries of oolitu, which 
afforded building; atoDH for mntijr public odificct in Lonilou. U 
in idso meiimrahio for a fowil forest of trapiuut tn.*es, ogee ago 
(lOttvorlud into agAtv. The Btrata on whidi the foroat gruw nro 
murine, but lliey were covered by other strata of frtiK-unler 
litnrtlonr, eaub lutviug beon, in ila turn, tlie upper siirfuu«. 

Routidiiig this heiulland, wu now liad a glorious view for 
many uiila nloug the eonst of tliu island. Tlic chalk clitTH iit 
thd NumIIch are part of a rangu of the same niattrial, wiiii'li 
exbmds Mulwanl through thu island ; and far aliriad, rosu 
anotlior challc clilT, mlltKl Sl Cathennu't Ilcvui ; twtwccn tlicni 
th(i i^linlk had bum removud by denudation, ntxt a wide hollow 
<rf many mllcB in extent had be«in formed, prodhoin^ a low- 
lying const — a long barrier-Uku line, dei'atiHl but a few y&rds 
alwvo Ihn waves. 

Thi« bBrrifir or Mtvcoast ti diitiuuCly stratified; it is gunor- 

ally of a roddi»h color, and a the fuuous Wcalden * forinntiiin 

of English geology. It is charaeterixud by fresh-water planla, 

fishes, and shells nnd is tlie grave of the gigantic rrptilos so 

nbly describofl by Dr. MantoU, and whoso eolossnl bonw fill ih" 

observer with astonitdimcnt. This nnthor's highly philosophical 

works must bo coR«ulled f»r thf- dvtail». lie Hrrt discovered 

tliJH frvwh water formation nnd ita reptilian and other remains 

in Tilgale fon^it, on tliu mnin land. There is no doubt that 

tliu name l^jrmatioTi extends Ix-ni^ath the Solent Sea, and under- 

'9 tli'i ubalk both on the main land and in the Isle uf Wi){hl. 

We soon shot alung by tliis most in»lxuctire soano. The 

[ lowiT m'tnix-rs n( thu elialk fbmiatiou, nt Alherfiold, were seen 

|ji]>ping over nnd rising ii[>on the Wealden sh-ata ; turning St, 

I Cnthurinii's IleiuJ, which here forms an elevated headland, and 

I proceeding aoiitb«««t along the seaward side of the island, we 

' pBHird, for many mile*, nirar a shorp fovvtvd by the ruins of 

400 Excursion to thb Islb of Wiobt. 

chalk slides, they having fallen from the higher cliffiv whkh 
run along the coast and form the sea barrier. On aooount of 
the ruins accumulated beneath the diff^ this region is called 
Undercliff, The lower members of the chalk formation, lieie 
form the top line of the cliff. They are distinctly stratified, and 
have generally parted with the upper member, the white cfaalk 
proper, whose enormous masses, owing to the undennining of 
the sea, have fallen or slidden down, and now form a slope of 
ruins from the cli£& to the sea, into which they project 

A great slide had taken place here, a litde before the time 
of my visit in September, 1805, and I was therefore induced at 
that time, to take the Isle of Wight in my way, returning from 
Cornwall to London. I crossed on horseback from Newport 
and Cowes, and passed a night in a solitary house beneath the 
Undercliff; the next day I examined the enormous masses of 
chalk that had then recently fallen, and which were all in fresh 
fracture with their fossils in full view — echini, shells, «fec. 

I approached Undercliff by the village of Niton, and returned 
to Cowes by tlie splendid seat of Appuldurcombe and by God- 
shall, not forgetting the grand but melancholy ruin of Cans- 
brook Castle near Newport, the last prison of Charles L before 
he was carried to London to meet his deaUi at the hand of the 
executioner. I entered the room in which he was confined. 

CuAXGEs ALONG THE CoAST. — It was interesting to me to 
observe how time has covered with grass the masses of chalk, 
which in Sef»teinlK»r, 1805, I saw quite white and fresh from 
tlioir fracture and fall. 

From the dirk, I readily recognized a high and very stoop 
hill, then, as now, covered with verdure; I then climbed it for tlie 
j>rusj)ect, and Iiiig»*red until a sea fog envelo|)ed it and me, and 
I wiis obliged to slide rather than walk down its slippery banks, 
wet with the misty rain. It was nightfall when I sought repoee 
in the one solitary house of Undercliff, already named, where a 
merry-making of young people, an excursion party fronn tha 
village, with the violin and the dance, almost 

I now observed from tlie boat, Vsntnsr, 

Raog op ths Avebida. 


villngt^ tlint bnJ dnuu grown up at lliw plac«, whii^h on aocoaiit 

of it* {trob-ctii] ncHition, sunny exposuro, and oompjirntivply 

milii climaUt, a a brorite jilaoe ot tenon /or invalids with pul- 

moiinr}- camplniata ; who, as liappuni willi llio snmo claai in 

Audricn, too ofl«u luavo their own coniforlnblu liompa onl; to 

dio anion^ Htrangoni. Wa wero nssurcil llmt Uio cemt^tcry nt 

Vantuur bean painful le«timony to llio tnilli of this gtntiMncnt. 

Ac this vilUg«, we liad intru'kid to land, and to return 

aoroM the country to tiie coa«l which we bad just pntMMl. in 

ordur to make some more particular obwmttions; but, asn high 

turf K-nderud the lauding difficult, and no boat put olf from 

tlic ahore, wo remained with our companions in the steamer. 

In th«i prognws of our voyage eastward, wo soon opened 

Sundown Bny, innluUiug a long rangu of coast, bounded on the 

KM by another promontory, named Culver ni>a<l, snd hardly 

infunor in grandeur to that at tJia Needles. _ Tlio iutennodintv 

const i» composed of tlie lower mombera of the chalk foruiatiou, 

Willi some stiU lower-lying members of the Wealden strata, 

which here also contain tiio Ixines of colnsanl reptilea. Soon 

I after passing Culver CliU we disclosed While Cliff Bay and the 

Cay of Brading, belonging to tlie village of the luune name, 

and which has been rendered mumorahlo by ila having been 

I the renidencti of the excellent Legh Kiuhmond, the touching 

I history of whose family and of tha Dairyman's L>aughter is »u 

ell known to the religion* world. TbecotUgu of the dairy miui 

OS still Ikrther from tlie ooasL 

TiiK Kace op the America. — We now descriod Ports- 

l inuuth in the distano^ on our left, as we were eolcring tlio 

L:wide waters of &L Ileleus and Spithead, fitmous in English 

ftjutvnl luEitory. llie Kvae was invested with life, by the numer- 

a vi-soels under tail, with a brisk breeze ; among thorn the 

;j|ilouure yachts made * contiptcuous figure, nnd the AueaicA 

inder tviU speed orretiUid every eye ; hur )>L'culiiir figure and trim- 

Btings easily h(±r amon; her rival mropaniona. 

dily distanced all oMuin-Utora. of whuin there were ubout 

402 Excursion to the Iblb of Wight. 

gained upon them as evidentlv as a swift couner distanoCB the 
ordinarv horses of the turf. 


The little fleet of yachts was laying its ootine northeast, 
and a south wind filled their sails, all of which, exo^>t in the 
America, were swollen round and fiill ; they carried a high 
ridge of foaming wave under their cutrwater, while white 
currents parted off from the sides, and they were much careened 
over to leeward bv the force of the wind. 

The America alone rode almost perfectly upright^ hardly 
careening at all ; her sails were even without any swell ; there 
was hardly a ripple under her bow, and the white line on ha 
sides was scarcely visible. It was obvious that her stmctore, 
equipment, and nautical management were very peculiar, and 
formed a striking contrast with those of the English yachts. 
The prize of one hundred guineas to be contested the next dav, 
was at once and by acclamation awarded, in anticipation, to the 
America, by our English party. I was much struck with the 
hearty manner in which these proofs of naval superiority wor« 
received by all my companions ; they seemed quite absorbed 
in admiration of thi^ l>eautiful offspring of transatlantic naval 
architecture, and there was not the slightest expression of 
chagrin from any individual. 

At five we arrived at the head of the pier of Ryde, Most 
of the passengers, including our friend, Rev. Mr. Kemble, went 
on shore, \\hile Dr. Mantell and myself passed to Portsmouth, 
after a very delightful circunmavigation of sixty to st»veiitv 
miles, which occupied five hours and a half, giving a speed t>f 
twelve miles to the hour. At Portsmouth, without stopping 
to look again at the place, we had just time to take somo 
refreshments, and were at once off in the cars for Brighton. 
It was a lovely summer evening, and wc rode through a beauti* 
ful country, beautiful from cultivation, but fiat, and without 
picturi^que features ; some ]x>rtions of the land near the 
had been nMleemed from the sea by dykes and ei 
We passed near to Chichester, the ancient seat of • 
the South Saxons ; it has a grand cathedral. 

r*Liei! or tiKOBoE IV. 403 

Tlia high cbnlk hills of tha South Downs, ou Uio main 
I bnd of EitgUnH, went in Tull riow on oiir li^ft, nnd evening hnd 
f doscH in upon us, whan we pnMed tliroagh n tunnel and a deep 
ftwt in tho chalk, and then tlia station-house received uh, in a 
•positioD tjuilH Hixn-o th-i town of Brighton, lo whii-.b wf dc- 
leiidtsd rayiidiy, in n cah, aud ut tho Ulou<!eiit«r Hotel found 
I a coiufort*blB home with good rooms and hedfl, 

Palacb oir Geoiioe tV, BHidtiTON olim Bhioiitiiklw- 
^WO-fB. — In ihfl morning wn visited tho palace of George IV. 
■Xv«iy ono hfw hearil that h<^ took n fnn^y to build « paliice in 
■ Iho pngodn style, aomcithing bntweon Ohineso nnd Hindu. 

This palocD has bran rec«ntly purchased by the authorities 
►f Brighton for sixty tliouBsnil dollara, alllioiigh it ctmt a mil- 
won of pounds Btdribg. It is to bo used for public pur[Kne«, 
my friend gave a iMture here wouk, to a largo 
^iiudience, which tilled tho music room, 

Goorgo IV. spent inunh time in this pniace, but nhen ho 
woM there visitors were not allowed to approach nuarnr than to 
the iron fence which surrounded the premises. Qmrn Virloria 
niHcte tlie eixpcrimcnt of living here, but Ihe estnMi&limoiit 
, being in the middle of (he town, was quite too puhliu for Ikt 
Bhe could not go abroad without <lrnwing n crowd 
T hur, and slie has exliibited her good judgment and loste 
n preferring the beautiful retirement of 0»lMim Houw, in the 

We could not, at the time, obtain udnii»ion into tlie ])alni» 
I Drigliton, tut t eaught some partial views of scvcrnl of the 
Ipurtinenls by looking in nt the windows; tliey wure plcgnntly 
nbellishcd, but were not as gorgeously adorned aa some other 
s that wo hsva-seea. William IV., the sailor king, ww 
ttid of R«diDg h<jre, clow by the sea. 

u Ai-PKARANCB or BiuoaTON. — Wo passed the 

inif In driving around the streets nnd environs of Brighton, 

d alonjr the shore. In tho slret't imraediulcly fronting Ihi- 

h the bulUuigA aland ujun a liigb lemce, Mcuroil hy a 

404 Brighton. 

of these dwellings have an extensive marine prospect^ wbile tiie 
sea breezes arrive without contamination^ A fine style of 
architecture prevails here, not only along the ienaoe, but 
throughout the town. The houses are loffy, and many of them 
large and grand ; they are generally covered with a light fiiwn- 
colored cement, as at Ryde. The streets are wide, airy, dean, 
and quiet 

There are numerous squares and public places uaed for 
promenades, and the large area, in the midst of which the 
palace stands, is called by the old Anglo-Saxon name of Steyne. 
In this place there is a bronze statue of Qeorge IV., but, except that 
he was a king and the son of a king, it is not easy to discover 
his claim to the honor of a statue. Disgraced by the persecution 
of his Queen, injurious to the country by his immoral example, 
and Avithout any useful act to signalize his long life and short 
reign, he should have been allowed to pass quietly into oblivion. 

Chain Pieil — From the terrace on the sea shore, a sus- 
pension bridge with three arches passes off to the pier head ; it 
is called the chain pier, and forms a beautiful promenade witli 
the advantage of sea breezes and marine scenery ; it is a 
favorite spot, and is one of the shows of Brighton. 

Peculiarities, — Near the palace a gentleman, a friend of 
Dr. Mantell, met us, and in conversation allusion was made by 
mo to a dry fountain then in view in the jmblic square, when 
he added, "Yes, we have a fountiin without water, a j>ort 
without 8hi})s, and a city without business ; most of the people 
who reside hero aro living upon their income." 

As we wandered on tlie shore, I obsen^ed the bath inn 
chairs or cars, in which invalids are drawn out from the 
shore until they attain a sufRcient depth of water to enjoy sea 
bathing. This seems a safe and convenient arrangement, 
which we might copy to advantage. Indeed, I underatand 
that something of the same kind exists at lOllia 
places in America. ■'*- j'4: 

Geological Changes. — Brighton WK 
sea beach, and so nearly on a level with I 



course of time tlio town was reaubud by the wav^ and wasb- 
nl&way: ildUapp«ur<»l, filially, about IfiOyents ago. Modem 
firigliU>D is, Uierefbre, a nuvr town, qa now as oai older American 
ci^cs, and it is as fresh and uaUrnished f» the beet ot tliem. 
As tba seA fornia tho principal fentwo in th« front of Brigti- 
I, «o ihe TOundod chalk hills compose tlio background of 
I picture. Although tile city stands high in relation to 
I tea, it ta actually situal«d in a doop deprcMion between tlie 
{ «liaik hills r^ the environs. 

Indeed, I have never seen a more beautifbl cily, or one 
I which appL'aia more desirable to those who covet ijuiet, and 
Iflne air. It ia a very healthy plaoe, and is visited by grrat 
K'numbers, espuijally of the gentry ; its appearance is so a^rrec- 
^bW and genteel, and so superior to moat other towns, that it 
ilinuA lo bo a favorite resort, although it has lost the 
[iMtraotiona of a (.plondid court, which formerly residi-d here « 
I part of th" year, undur tho sway of Oeorgq (V. and William IV. 
Ur. ManlvU'a museum, atlenrarda pun:linsod by the British 
K ]f uscura, was first opened tu itm public in lirigliton, where its 
feCDUnder, fur auvi-ral yean, enjoyed a lucrative professional 
■ praotJce. 

Brighton is fifty-two milw Iruni London, and has from 
vrnty to dghty thouxand iuhabitanLs. It possesses public 
riibrariis, ruading Monia, vapor btUiis, and biitlis of hot and 
onld and of K-a water. 

Auffiat 23. — Leaving Brighton at 11 A. m., on tlie rnils, a 
^e miles brought us lo 

> A tong indined plane, cut in a deep soclioo into the chiJk, 
is ancient shire town of tlw County of Susbox. 
Ltfwc* wu a lown of dislinctioR in the timn of the Saicms 
d Nonnana, and ovt-n the Romans had a fortroM licre ; the 

406 Leweb. 

Roman, Saxon, and Norman. Two parallel gateways remain, 
the one Saxon, and the other Norman ; and also two towers 
all in good preservation. TJie Archieological Society of Sus- 
sex have now the control of these ruins, and therefore we may 
hoi>e that they will be sacred from any other invasion than ' 
that of time. Their appearance, standing as they do on an 
eminence, and mantled with ivy, is still very imposing and 
highly picturesque. 

From the top of one of the towers we enjoyed a magnificent 
prospect over the Lewes levels, and down to the port of New 
Haven on tlie coast, where, at tlie distance of six miles, the 
masts of ships could be seen. On severals sides, .were the 
rounded chalk hills, gracefully sweeping down into deep valleys, 
and by their juxtapositions, forming also those peculiar retreat- 
ing, winding vales, here c4illod combs, of which there are effec- 
tive sketches in Dr. MantelPs works, lie has admirably 
jK>rtrjiyed all the physical and mineral features, an<l tigurttl 
and dest!ribed the organic contents of this region, in his various 
volumes, nor has he forgotten the historic^il antiquities of this 
memorable part of England. His little volume, entitled " A 
Day's Kamblc in and about Lewes," describes admirably well 
the i>eculiarities of this country. From the ancient tower we 
looked down upon his former residence, near the foot of the 
castle, once the hospitiible home of the eminent geologists, Sir 
Charles Lyell, Dr. lUickland, Sir R. J. Murchison, and others, 
who were drawn to Lewes by Dr. Mantell's beautiful researches 
and discoveries in the local geology of this region. In tlio 
tower we found ancient British sepulchral urns, containing cal- 
cined human bones ; also, various Saxon and Roman remains, 
and among the latter, two balls or globes of about two feet in 
diameter, and very regularly formed from sandstone; they 
were wrought by the Romans to be projected os miHilet from 
their catapults, when employed to batter down wiUii. 

Tombs. — We visited the ruins of the prioiy a^flMB^ 
ing here, and also the restored tomb of Gi lim 

Cralk Pits. 


of Wiliimn t]ioCon<iuoror,andwif0orWUlJnm, Kitrlof Wurren. 
Dr. Miin(«II has lold thu sloiy of ih<^ diacoveiy of her reinnin.t, 
' and of otliar bonea, probnbly Uio«o of Iior hualiand, and of itio 
I infant wliich caused her duitth : tlioy vtiK liiscovcn^d by tliu 
1 cutting mode for the rnilroiul, which pusacd through ttio mIo of 
I the nncicnt priory, long since dustroyud, except eome ruins 
I tLnt still rcmnia on onu fiido of the rood. Two li^adeii coflina 
I wun; found contjiining tliu bones, as nns believed, hoUi of iho 
I molliur nnrl her infnnt, nnd n ni^nt tnausoleiim has b«en erected 
[ by tlioinlinbitanM ; it is nnnuxcd to n neighboring church, Htsnd- 
I Ing on the site of ihe priory. 

On tiio gntve is placed Uic original miirble slab, curioiuly 
K'csrvod and contAining a coinmcmorstivo inscription; it had 
I'beon purloin<?d »ory long ago and cjirricd lo another church. 
■ Dr. Mantell has nlsg told thu Ktary of its nscorery. and has given 
I S copy a( \he ttiscriptJDii in Uia litUo book to vLiuh I hnvK 
I rpfi-rrtnl. 

OnAiK I'rrs. — Tho geology of lUis remarkable region is 

ch in geological antiquities, lliat interested mo still more tlion 

r the historical. 1 hod never licfure visited n cliallt pit or quarry, 

I and my kind friend took lue to several of those in which hn 

I made bis early observations, and which are still full of tntvre.«t 

I one ijuarry or pit, tlieru was a verticiil 

I tho whito chalk of 300 to 350 feet in height : this 

u very sntiitfactory as regards the stratification of tli«i 

Bdialk. which ia htto as distinct in its hori2ontal arroogemcnt 

B that of a pile of books. This pit is not at present wrought, 

d its sloping ruin* sro in part covered witli grass. 

The kill in whose sido it is oxcavaled is so steep, that a 

r jtot sbioe a slide of snow, descending fixtm it as an 

Palanche, buried several houses, and killed some of the inhabit- 

JDtJi at tha foot of the hill. 

Wq vodtiod another (juarry, wrought chioQy tor the lime^ 
ainnd by igniting tho chalk. Thu kilns were near at hand, 
I bad IcKd reoejitly in «])cratiDci, tliu fuel being mineral 
It bJt» frmn 24 tn 39 bouia to comert t]i« chalk info 

408 Lewbs. 

quick-lime. A sketch of this deep excavatiou fomis the firontb- 
piece to the Geology of Sussex, published by Dr. Mantell in 1 822. 
A third pit showed the chalk marl — that is, chalk mizedf mora 
or loss, with clay. Deeper down there is a mixture of sand, 
and then the rock acquires the name of fire-stone, having been 
sometimes used for hearth-stones and for other uses where fire 
is employed. 

A chalk pit is a very striking object, such as we never see 
in the United States ; * its white color is so much in contraat 
with the short but vividly green coat of grass which covers the 
unbroken ground, that, the pit being usually on the side of a 
hill, is conspicuous at a great distance. 

The most remarkable foreign body in the chalk is the flint 
This is usually in distinct nodules, but is arranged both in 
justaposition and in general correspondence with the layers or 
strat:u It is found also in thin sheets, stretched along in con- 
liiiuitv, and somotiines for a considerable distance. The 
oniptiou throujj:h the bottom of the chalk ocean of hot volcanic 
water, holding silica in solution, when this material was verv 
abundant, has evidently sheeted over the chalk in some 
places, and when it was ejected in jets, and by fits and 
starts, it then, we may believe, formed nodules. In both cases 
it attached itself^ in preference, to organized bodies existing in 
the s^>a, and hence we often find it copying and inclosing 
corals, sponges, shells, echini, and other marine beings. 
It includes also myriads of infinitesimal perforated shells (forami- 
nifene), whose forms are brought to light when thin slices of 
the fiint arc exposed in a powerful microscope. The chalk also 
itself abounds in these infinitesimal beings, as becomes apparent 
when its dust is viewed microscopically. Tlie same cretaoeoos 
seas were replete also with larger forms of 
molhLscs, and radiata. 

* Professor Ronumcr, nt Bonn, a<k}urcd us that he bad 
Texas an extensive formation of chalk or of ineohatal 
which was evidently the equivalent of ehslk, si it 
of the same era ; ho will publish his views ia i 

Lkveb to London. 


All these things and many more are sleteotyped by nattiro 
K thaw qtiarriis, wliich are t<> bg n-gardod merely m parts 
Df VHtit formolions, wliicli, wilU tlieir contonU, occupy no nnall 
portiun of England, na null as of sc\vral countries of coittiQent4kl 

Lewufi is a jilain old English town of about 10,000 inhabit- 
■DtA, and lias loat miitJi of ita fonner importance. Once it was 
Wore lirighton ; fonnerty the pliroseology was Brighton near 
to Lowed, but DOW it is Lowes Dear to Brighton. 

II a hill near this city, in 1207, was fought a groat battle 
en Uenry [IL aDd the BaroDs, in whicli the latter prc- 
; in coiueijucuce, the Icing was brought to t4.'niin, and 
ftiiH the foundaUon of t^gliA|i conflUtutional liberty was laiiL 

f tints to $im^on. 

Al Ihreo o'clock, wo woro in tlio cars for Loadon, where W9 
■rrirod at six r. m. Tho country through which we passed 
IS ujittvmely picturesque and beautiful. We soon left behind 
e hills of chalk of tho South Downs, and at the distance of 
ne milus fVom Lcwea we botored on the Wealdcn formation, 
rToro mentioned On the Inle of Wight, bounded in the dia- 
ticc by tho clialk hills of tho North Itowns. The Wealdon 
grun is here iS milos wide and stretched at right angles to 
ir course^ 
Geoloot or TUB Wbaldcs. — Our rapid progteas over this 
Cgiou precluded any other observations llian those connectod 
|4tb the general appearance of the strata. The challi had dis- 
i{>peari.<d, and in ibi plnou we had the sandstone and clays of 
(1 Wiialden of fresh-water origin. 
It hi» boiTn f' Mcertjiined by tho rcscaruhei of r>r. Man- 
atl laid ittliioa. tlio Wealdcn U an exli^n^irc fomiation, 

!'•< ftiul animal proiluctlona of ihu 
■ twoa iuon^ 

410 Geology of tub Wbaldsn. 

those astonisblng coloesai bones of the ancient icptUea, which 
prove that the then existing sur&ce was pecked l^ beingi 
which have long ceased to exist, although there are bemga al 
present on the earth of analogous character, but in no knows 
instance attaining the size or peculiar structure c^ the reptilian 
animals of the Wealden, which are of high and unknown 

Its strata collectively are nearly 2000 feet thick, llieie 
can be no reasonable doubt that the chalk, beneath whoie 
lower members the Wealden is seen to pass, onoe covered it 
entirely, and has been removed by denudation. The ele- 
gant curvature of the chalk hills and valleys, sweeping upwaid 
and downward, and onward, by the most graoefnl flexions, it 
due to water. The chalk formation is altogether marine, aa is 
fully proved by its organic remains ; it was therefore deposited 
in a salt sea, and as its strata were long in the course of eleva- 
tion, the wjisliing of the tidal waves -as well as of the storm 
billows, must have hollowed out and rounded the masses of 
so incoherent a material, and the rains and snow floods 
finished the work, which, however, could not become entirely 
stationary until the green sward had been formed over the 
surface as a protecting shield.* 

The Wealden formation being below the chalk, was of 
course formed before it, with its terrestrial and fresh-water 
animals and plants. 

The oolite again was anterior to the Wealden, and ita 
animals are, witli a single exception, marine or amphibioua. It 
was of course anterior to botli the Wealden and the chalk. 

* I have seen in the southwest of England, earth-works of th« 
ancient Britons, about 2000 years old, which being protected by 
green sward, have not been worn away perceptibly in 20 oentnries * 
and the earth-works of North America are probably of mveh l»»gfi^ 


AttaivAu IN LoKuoN. 

^rtiliitl in f onljiJii. 

Upon tlie rond on which we were travdllng, tbo approach 

Pthi* ooloRwil city u indicated for many miles by an increased 

JBnbur of houaea ; for aoven or eight milee, there in hardly 

J iatormption, and oarriages and moving vehicle of rvery 

nijition increase in the t>ame proportion. 8onn, on niir 

I, wo descried the for«t of masts marking the position of 

I Thames; towers, maaufitctori<3s, railroads, and moving 

ihis increased in nunilwr, and almost before wu wi-re uitare 

re o&me to a pniuu at Die stAtion house in ^ulhwark. 

titude of citrriages wero roady for oiir scrviiMj ; we chose 

nd that, as we soon found, was driven by n dmiiliun 

nan,* who could hnrdly sit upon liis box. He jurkud 

• reins violently, belaboring his ^oor liorsu nnmen'ifully, nnd 

were hurried on under tlio milrn)ul tipon which wa 

I passed in out eirit; a road which, na than mentioned, is 

It over the tops of the houses. 

ire driven a long distance, it appeared to mo two or 
i miles, through the borough of Southw.irk, over West- 
Inster Bridge, by the Purliament House, aiid ihe Abbey, atid 
ii happy to flud ourselves at last safely landed in Clica- 
uoK. Tile journey had been most ioslructive and de- 
Ightful to me, and wns rendered at once peeulinrly useful by 
e sago observutions of my learned friend, nnd most ngrwnblo 
\g his vivacity and exbausUesH powers of entertainment. 

Uany objects clum attention during tbo Rhort time wo 
I lo rcmMn in England. London itself is a world; and 
I Muall portion of time is rcquidte to study it thoroughly, 
I I eod(!aror«d to do in my youth. Some tnstitutiona 
I clcoed on {>articular days. Such ts the fact wilb 

[ • The only Imtnuei) w* hail mitwithinEuri^ among very many 
K hod lunjiloyetl. 

412 London. 

several to day ; but by favor of a ticket from Mr. J. Temuu 
(149 Strand), mineralogist and successor of Mr. Ma we, I hav 

bwn admitted to — 

The MrsEUM of Economical Geoloqt, ivhich is under th 
su]K-rintoudonce of Sir Uenry Do la Beche. This gentlema] 
is at the head of the Geological Sun'ey of Great Britain am 
Ireland, connected with the ** Ordnance Sun-ey ;" the geologies 
(K>rtion has been in progress about ten years, and is not yc 
completod. Ho is now absent on duty in the Isle of Wighl 
England is thus mapped out very much in detail, bod 
geologically and topographically, and probably no country ha 
uvvr been more thoroughly explored. The museum namei 
above is one of the results of the geological survey. It is ai 
ranged in a large and new building in Jenny n-street; access i 
obtaine«l also from the great street of Picadilly, as the hal 
of the musoum extends quite across between the two. I wa 
readily admitted, and passed some time alone in examin 
ing the treasures of this museum, which, being closed to th 
j)ublic to-day, wjis quite free from visitors, and I was, there 
fore, letl to my own retleetions. 

I observed only two jxjrsons, genteel women, in tlie apart 
ments. They had the air of being quite at home ; and it sooi 
ajipeared that they wore wives of two of the gentlemen of tli 
institution, Professors Forbes and Percy, who soon found m^ 
an<l with the secretar}*, Mr. Ilunt, and other gentlemen, j^, 
ino *'verv attention. 


This miLseum, being a government institution, an ampl 
l>uiMing has iK'en provided, ample for the present; and doubt 
less aJdilional accom mediations will be furnished when thev art 
required, which may be the fact at no distant day. The edifio 
is four stories high, with a glass roof; and the museum beim 
in one vitst room, all the collection is seen in one view. 

Galleries extend all around, and thus the different cases an 
visited with great facility. The title of the Institation espbdn 
its olij»»ct, which is to collect, j>reser>'C, and •'•^ '^ the IIHI 

tcrials produced in the British Isles, whii ^ |p 

MusEUU OF EcoNOUiCAL QxoLoor. 


rcbitoctuni, s^citlture, mcUlInrgy, pottery, vitriflcAllon, and 
tlior arU. It cmhnicc* itlso, rs far as pmcticablu, tlie reeulla ob- 
iiieii in llie tnanuracturcd ftiliclca ; for einrnple, gloss, potti-ry, 
1, cmt and wmught, and eteol; kbo Uie various uiutuls, iis 
Eduood Irom their oka, and, orf course, t)ie or«s tLcmtielves; luiit 
« machinca or modoU of lliem fur dressing orta, are iucluJisl. 
u analytical lalioratory is annexed, which for convenient accwa 
a ligUt and air, and jwrhnps fur otlier reasons, it in tlio allJc, and 
ighted from Die roof, Tho lecturiJ-room for geology and iho 
BOnnccted Muencea b in tho basement, and will coutaia about 
(00 penona. It ia entirely Itghtml by a gbut floor over a part 
of the muMum. 

As 1 have dona in other and simihir cases, I will now men- 
tion a few objects contained in the collection. 

In the baaemeut tUons are magnificent fossil troe* — two sili- 

iSed trunks nro twenty-eight inclies in diameter. The attvnd- 

ni said tboy wore from New Holland, but one of the profcs- 

1 thought they were from Xortli America ; as they arrived 

I only two days ago, the facts had nut been fully asciulained. 

l.Tht^re was also a grand siiicifit-tl trunk fruui the Portland fonxt 

[ of England; it is altout twenty inuhcN in diameter, and four 

I'ifcet high. This fotuil furoit li peculiarly interesting in gf>\ogy, 

VWd hna been fully explaiiicil by Dr. Mantell and other English 


'Ihero aro here in the museum very grand vases ; one of 
J granite is trom Aberdeen, and almost ei|uals somu of thotw 
piagnific^nt things of the same kind which we saw at Rome, 
whnru on the ContincnL 1 did not measure this vase ; 
knt fnim rccolloction and estimation, 1 should think it was 
r f««t acroes. There is also A similar vase made of Scotch 

11»a labia iif polislmJ L>i:rbyehini encriniud marble are 
m regonU th« oxhibitiou of tho tiections of the crinoi- 
R and their diTi»iuii^ uuthtnir can be lincr- 

hed alala vi Irish surpvntjne forming the panels 

414 London. 

imitation of Pompeian mosaic ; it is composed of inlaid pieees 
of colored pottery. The building materiab are in cabei, 
jfrom four to six inches in diameter, and are laid away in glass 
cases. Granite, sienite, oolite, marble, serpentine, Bandstone, 
and, in a word, all the architectural materials afforded bj these 
islands, are here exhibited. Here also are the feldspar and feld- 
spathic days that form porcelain ; common days for bricks ; of 
course all the ores of the metals ; metallic and other mannfiu)' 
tured and natural paints ; glass and pottery, ancient and mod- 
em, and many similar things which I cannot even name. 

There is also arranged, as if incidentally, a large oollectioQ 
of simple minerals, although elementary mineralogy is not a 
prime object of the establishment. 

Geology is the leading thing in view, and consequently 
fossils are anxiously sought for. Two of the galleries are filled 
principally witli fossils, among which are many fine specimens, 
w\{]i many more that are ordinary. But I will desist fitHn 
more particular enumeration. A school of mines is to be add- 
ed to the Institution, which, in a country having so many 
mines of metals and coal, and so many minerals, cannot £dl 
to bo useful. 

It is to be hoped that the American general and state 
Governments will follow the European example in affairs of 
science, and c*specially as regards science applied to the arta. 
It is certainly a duty of the several States to establish mining 
and trade schools, and it will be done as soon as the people 
understand their value. 

The Royal Exchange. — I have been led to the Royal 
Exchange on business, connected with Life Insurance, and have 
had agreeable intercourse with several gentlemen connected 
with similar institutions hero; with Mr. Brovm, Eing«treet" 
Mr. Ilardy, in the Exchange, and Mr. M<»gan, in BridM- 
Ktreet, lilack Friars' Bridge. From them I have 
liberal treatment, have received much IdndneHi tad hava 
able to obtain all the books and infr mn a tin a whluli T 

ar. p4Di.'fl. 




Tlie Roynl Exdtnngs which was liore in 1806, oracu-d by 
Sir Thorana Greshnm in tlie reigii of Queun Kliziil*eth, was 
bumifd down aonie yenrs since, witli nil ita sUituea of tlii; vaou- 
arcba. It luu b«eii rebuilt in the loiga of Queen Vii;tonii. It 
k a Urge and gnad building, in ike funu of a Grecian t4Mnple, 
with s colonnade in front looking down Choapbidc and Fieet- 
■trwt. The friozo is crowded witii large figures in relief. In 
front, in the midst of iLe open artn, is a colossal equestrian 
statue iu broni« of Lord WelliDgton. There is a similar one 
over the gateway of the Park in Picadillj. The Iron Duke 
aad his bons are both eagerly looking as if towards thu foe; 
the hocBe, with oulstrelcbed head aud ntsclc, and expaiiduU nos- 
trils, appears to snuff the bnltlo from u(kr, and alrendy U> hear 
the shouting of the captains. 

St. Pactl'b. — Walking from Iho Excinngu along that great 
jiTOr of huinsn life which flows through Cheapaide, Fleetslreot, 
Ludgate Ilill, and tlte Strand, and returus like an eddying cur- 
rent, I could not reei»t the temptjition again to enter 8u Paul's 
CotliodraL It is a solemn place, a Chmtian temple, ovt-r whinh 
niinrly two centuriee hare sited the hoary guise of aiiliijuity. 
It is aoloran, also, as conluning the sepulcUml monumunta ami 
aUtuoi of eminent men, who have vnjoyed their dny of liumun 
applause, and of whom the sculptured marble now tells their 
ilory to poetcrily. I conlcss tliat I have more pleosaro in 
looking at the monuments of Sir Christopher Wren, the archi- 
'tert* of the church, of Ur. Samuel Johnson, the great English 
moralist, uf John Howard, the philanthropist, of Sir Astley 
■Coo|>er, the great surgeon, and others who have labored iu tJiu 
•ful walks of life, than I find in contemplating the statues 
id allegorical figures which are ptac«d in St. Paul's in honor 
graal military and naval commanders. As 1 have already 
r^arding Westmin8t«r Abbey, Christian t4.'niplcs 
to no tiM to be tlie proper place* for fighting heroes, not 

V liMtutifij] anil upprv 



ter. B^^M 
aim McodS^ 

a few of whom have died unid swim of ^ugbCflr. 
the monumonU of Xel»on, of St. Vinoent, of AU 
Picton, of CornwnliU, of Colliu^ood, of Sir Jobu ] 
Admiral Lord Diuicad, and i^ many more gr^at oomtnaaAetf. 
whose memory ihoir country delights to lionor. Tha wonl 
"fflorioiu" is usually atlAclied to their Isbora sad anbioiw- 
ments, and when it happened that they died in bMtJo, Umj 
died figtiting "tflorioaslff" tot tbiui «>mil(y, Tbta Ungnaga '■ 
not ]>cculiar to the £n(;lisli; it is common in all txiUDtrioL 
Generals Fuckouham and Gibbii, who fell before tlic linea at 
Nevr-Orleans, January 6, 1815, are r«pr(9».-ul«d in ono miiaa- 
ment hy two almost youthful figures eUndlng sidu by nit, 
and onu leauing his arm upon the shoulder of tii« oilior. ITm 
monument ia touching; it cannot be aoen without imMtiuu; 
and Btill, although they fell iu a disastronft and bloody iJiiAmI, 
they lire recorded na fighting fflonomtj/. t^iicb lani^imge aaenu 
excessive in this case, nnd ill accords gcoendly with man^ 
humble position in tliis world. 

The impres^on made on me now by St. Paul's was very dif- 
ferent from tlist prodocod 4fi yeim ago. rrobuUy fiuniliarity- on 
the continent with the Bptendor uT vast and mi^^ificunt tonnlM. 
audi ns those at Genoa, Milan, I-1orencG, Tunico, Rome, C ' "^^ 
gtrashurgli, caused St Paul's to appear now quite plain, m 
so grand in magnitude at before. There is also an apf 
negleut, which is not in harmony witl) the tasteful n 
racteristic of England. The statues, and the still a 
allegorical Hgurea which accompany them, appear v 
their foul drapery of long actiumnlalcd du»l. On 
where dmit will lio^ even on sloping arms and liiotw, it ■ 
in A thicic and offensive coating, ^vini; t 

munnmDnta, many of vhich iir ' - 

revolting iipjienrance. I h'- 
niollur, OS anon in numeroii- 

Pnul'ii CiitWdml and in \Vvi 

raouunutiiu wer.- tb.'ti d-uin ; »iv\ -itT.iy (i. 
a few lunua in tliu courM of 'i 

Westmixsteu Abdrv. 


> not only diialiiig, but tliorQUgk clvaning by water, to 
f iMtore Uio purity of tlio*! in Sl Pimra, wliiuh are nut yet ho 
I atunoroui m to make lliu IuIkit greiiL Tlie domo still appLiira 
I wry gnoi, both within Hud without, and I aiu Euaun-d tliut 
I tiu whispering gallery still retaiiia !Iji t^ll-talu garrullly. 1 did 
I not OMMind to it on ihia occasion, altliough fomiBrly ac<|uainto 1 
I wiUi it. 

'Westkinbter Abbet. St^batk, Augual 24, 1851. — I 

divided my time between the Chapel iu White Hall and W>»t- 

min»t«r Abbey. In the latter there waa such a crowd of 

people that it waa difficult to move even edgewise, nnd of 

oourse all the seats were filled. But as 1 remarked when here 

\ IB March, uotliing can be wor»o conlrivcd for hearing than 

I Cathudral. I heard very little moru of the sermon 

I tiutn tiia unen reiterated expression, "Thou art Peter, and 

1 npon tJiis rock t will build my Church ;" but us I could not 

I disi^vvor what una the preachc-r made of Uiis doclamtJon of our 

ur, I will iiiil indulge in conjecture. 

1 casting my oym around u|x>n the n'onumenls, I wns 

I •truck with the contmst between ibem and those in SL Paul's. 

LHio monuments in Westminster Abbey are all clean almost as 

rwly chiselled marble, although they are vastly more numerous 

It than those in St> Paul's, and they are often complex 

Rfrith drapery and omamenia. I sm tolJ that Ur, Uucklaud, 

n of Westminster, was, before his hopeless illness, at great 

ptios and exjioDSo to place every thing in the venerable abbey 

a fine order, and tiie result is much lo his honor. I looked 

round with pleasure, and could not discern a cobweb or film 

r dust. Even Lord Mansfield's old-fashioned curled wig, 

l^bidi I rumembered well, from the time of my early viiiits 

|fe«To, is dean and bright in lOI its muliitudiuous eurU, as be- 

lad from which junljce lluws. On tlio Continent, too, 

n tnuHitudo of (omplM aud muv-ums, and palaces whcru wo 

nw a vi^ gfnat nuinVr uf ^taiu-j., nil was in i>crfwt order. 

ten the ro!o*<'4! [>..!«- »ii.l .■^i,.i;r,..lH in St. Putiir's, with all 

iTioittiraao folds of t.'u^.'fik-tnl v—inirntji. with their lioma, 

VOF. II.— 18- 

418 London. 

and crosiers, and gems, presented their mute statues as pure ai 
tlie originals ought to have been. I must, therefore, hold the 
officials of St Paul's as entirely inexcusable for the offenaTe 
state of the statuai}', so incongruous with the elevated char- 
acter of those who there speak to posterity through their mar- 
ble forms, and so entirely at variance with the habits of the 

On the sabbath it is forbidden to linger in St. PauPa, even 
among the monuments of the illustrious dead, although the 
meditations that would naturally arise are in harmony both 
with the i)1ace and the day. But it was not left at our option, 
for tlie vergers, and other attendants, pressed the people to 
retire. They were decent, although persevering, in their 
urgency; but tlie fhll crowd lingered and lingered to gaae, 
and >\'ith such an example I was in no haste to retire, and had 
leisure to obsene tliat time had registered in Westminster 
Abbey, as I had seen also in St Paul's, men who were in ac- 
tivity and power when I was here before. Mr. Pitt, whose 
voice I heard in the House of Commons, now appears in his 
mute statue, with outstretched arms, as if about to speak from 
his high {)ositioii over the south door of the Cathedral. I hope 
again to visit Westminster Abbey, and of a week day, for it is 
both pleasing and profitable to linger there among the monu- 
ments of departed time. 

Chapel of White Hall. — The palace of White Hall 
has a touching association with the tragical fate of Charles L, 
who suffered death on a scaffold in the rear of this building, 
out of one of whose windows he walked, in obedience to the 
stern mandate of the Parliament. This palace stands on Par- 
liament-street, very near to the Parliament House, and the 
banqueting hall of Cliarles's time is now used as a chapel. It 
is a splendid room, long and lofly, and the ceiling is adorned 
witli pictures of his time. The pulpit is contiguous to the 
window out of which, it is said, the doomad monanih itepp«d 
to meet his deatli. 

BiirnsH Gallrry of Pictures^ %4m yd 

TiiK CuvuTAj. Palack. 



I walked tliroufrli tlia rooms this morning; it ocuupiva a la^ 
building, atSnd Uio Nnlional Galleiy, ou Trafalgar S<juare, and 
coiupritHs, wiUi «oni« good piulurae, iiinny very onlioor)' ones. 
AlWr what uc hnvc scvu on tlio cunlinant, Uits gallor}' did not 
apfxaar ta mu lo be in guuend very aupcrior. In tay li»>ty 
walk, among ihroiigs of jwople whom the Great Eiliibitiou tiaa 
broiigbt to London, I saw, boworer, n few very bcautifu] pic- 
tUTOh All the land&cHpcs of Claude Lormine, and iJwrc were 
BUveral, ba«e Ibat peculiar soft and golden light, which ia bo 
chiiriuiUiristio of hta pictures and of Italian skies. Theru ie a 
huad of the Saviour, by Corrvgio, which lias ineffable dignity 
and bcnuToluncu. A large piuture of tho IToly Family, by 
Murillo, 19 BO admirable Uiat I could liardly laki' my eyea from 
I 1l Jusuph sila in cnlmneea, and with an uxpreaaion of deep 
BcriuURniaa. Mary in lliu litait iileal of a lovuly youthful mo- 
tlior, loultiiig fondly Ujxiu lior wn, who, a brij^ht child of ^n>fl 
or (iiur yeans *fMtd» on a petlestal with a beaveuly eiprcadon. 
A picturo of Lot and hia daugbtorv is vt;ry tine. Tliey are 
walking with tticir fathur, and one of tJiein camus a goblet of 
wine, u'ith whiuU she ioleuds to *«duco bini. With mom 
loiHure I might vcr^ probably liave acvn other pictures to ud- 
t inirei. 

I Tbb Cbybtal Palacs. — Although t have walked many 
' hours, and I presume t«n miles iu thia immense Uruciure, 
L 1 Bwm only to have begun to see it. In despur of my 
. ability to couvey any adequate idea of it, I am almoA 
[ disposed to pass it in silence, but this would disappoint those 
[ for whom I write. Hctun.'e and descriptions of Uiu building 
I ]uid reached America before I left home, and it b known that 
EiU from exLeuUa more than one-third of a m!Iu, besides its 
IbraDohea. The un?a wbich it covers is eigbtoea acre*, and 
Cnoder lu vaulted transept are bclnded some largo and lofty 
■t niM thai wen growing in the park. So many accounts of ita 
BeOQt«nts, and so many views of ita form, both witliin and with- 
mtM, baT« been since published, that a better idea of both can 
K|» obtainttd ftoin nuuiefCUs soonies, than from any thing that 

420 LoxDOir. 

I can wnte. I shall, theieibre, attempt nothing more tfaaa 
some general remarks and will maitioB. a few ezamploL 
When we were here in March, I expreaaed mj admirntioii d 
the general design. So &r as I know it is novoL 

Exhibitions of the productions, whether in nature or aii^ of 
particular conntries, hare often be^i made, and in some coun- 
tries thej are annual, as in France, Kigland, and in the United 
States; but I beliere it was reserved for PHnce Albert to origi- 
nate the design of inviting all nations to bring to one place the 
results of their industry and skill, and specimens of their pbja- 
ical resources. For obvious reasons, no place was so proper 
as London, the commercial metropolis of the world, and I 
suppose now cont^uning a greater population, and certainlj 
more wealth, and exerting more influence on mankind than 
any other city. The invitation was a pledge of universal 
good-will, and it has endently tended to produce kind feel- 
ings among the nations. The Temple of Janus was shut, 
and may God so overrule the passions of men, that it may 
never be opened again! Instead of new fortresses of stone 
and iron, instead of walls and battlements to protect tliis im- 
mense city from invasion, there rises * in its grand domain of 
Hyde Park, a Crystal Palace, the Temple of Arts and Indnstr}-. 
It rose like an exhalation, a magical illision of the senses. 
The framework of iron, although strong enough to sustain the 
weight and to resist the winds, is so little apparent to the eye^ 
that tlie Crystal Palace appears a sea of glass, as in the Reve- 
lations, " A sea of glass like unto crpUil." One might dream, 
as in the Arabian Nights, of such a crention, ^ in the visions 
of the night, when deep sleep falleth upi:)n men," and might 
find on waking that it was all an illusion, when it would 
vanish like the fabric of a dream, and leave not a wreck be- 
hind. But there it stands, a splendid reality, and with ila 
widely extended transepts, wings, and gaHerieSi haa proved 

* I preserve tho preseat time although tht Filaaa k ttiV 

Thk Crtbtal Palace. 



Nufliuienl to recnive nnd prote«t the galhemd Hclwa of man- 
kind. Slal, iUI, mwI I wuh I rnuli] add ilabil^ bat nmior 
Mvys thu it will come down. How (]«ianl>li9 It would sMin 
lo liaTo iL runiaia ub « grand vt^likla cotaemicMj, whore 
jialQM might grow in tlieir full allitude, and the Fudar of Le- 
banon might upraad wid« iu princely braDchcs. Or, it might 
bo H fino e<]UtBimn arena, in which them wonid be room 
enough for all cvolutiuna of speed and skill — albeit, the mettle- 
some aUwd afaould not mistake the tmnaparent iid» for thin 
mr, and doah throu^ the brittle walk. I f«ar, however, that 
the monamental inscripd'on of the CrjBtal Palace will soon bo 
/nit, tie IrantH gloria Patatii. 

[Aapnst 1, 1853. Since the above was written, we are 
bformod Uuit the Crr^lol Palace again rears its stately l7an*ept« 
in u new and more beautiful sitoation at Sydenham, and with 
many important additions and improvements. It now Etands m 
tliu midRt of a mi^ificent rnidulatinj^ park of 300 acres, sur- 
rounded with mral dclighlA, fountaiiui, shaded walks and rrlvan 
lcmpl(«, while within it has been converted into a great per- 
mnnent museum of arls, antiquities, and science, with lirag 
grovm of pnlms, enlivened by singing birds nnd sparkling 
fountains. For eighteen pence the London artisan can visit it, 
including the ride out and back upon the raUway. Itiis is 
bdtig done by a private oasociaUon at a coet of near #4.000,000. 
For a more extended notice of the new Cnstal Palace s<« Put- 
DAm'fl IlliMTatcd Record of the N. Y. Exhibition, p. 1 8.J 

I mentioned that in my late paceage from Boulogne, I was 
in company with a large number of French people coming 
over to see the Crystal Palace. Crowda of all nations throng 
lltit palace ; 50,000 or 00,000, sometimes 7o,000 in a day ; 
probably GO,UOO may be the average number on the shilling 
daj'o. On Friday and ti^alurday the admiaiian Iec t> half a 
erawn, and this haa an ubrioiM elTcct in tliinning the numbem, 

I had occsaion lwi«ti to oUiw.-. j\j> you wnik nbotit, or 
tfanml yaat way ihroogh tli'- gnni riiosMs of Immnn Uinga that 


aiid Bitot of tlic«e <£ tbe OriwL 
reTDTTi ifjin ibe oonnneni Ute dtJnge of B»riow^ would h«re mb- 
nij-Ti. and UiiscioDsdfTvicm vv sotwitbontwdgfat in "tdgfang 
IK ut jinfa k laie inffteaaoti </ the ^jlendid wcnder, but in ♦!>»■ 
particular ire bare beoi dis^^Mtntfld- Tbe nintibcas who 
dailj Kfton to the Cirsu] Palace are nDdiminialted ; it mmj 
W Ut»l ibere are fewer {oKagaea. bnt mnoe tbe price has be«a 
rednced lo a fibiUiog. ibe oodUit people come in, parenta and 
cbildren.aDdiDC(ll)enirillill>eiriii£uiU; steamboats and can are 
crowdtxl, and it •e«ins as if ibe rnnd popnlation of tbe Idng- 
duTu «<fre all rubluDg into London. Ibe &rea of tbe Tebidee 
are reduced to accommodate tbon, and ai many of tbem bring 
their uwD liread and cbe««e (litenllv), and eat their rcput in 
Ui'; palice, tbi^y appear to tbink little of the loes of time. It 
aff'>rds a ji'iii opiKirliiniiv to sec tlie comnionalty of ^nglnnd. 
1'\>i-\- Hre all tidily but plainly drtssod ; an average, howfvor, 
of i-fiarw; jN-oiilf B now floBinp into the cxhibitjon, and thoy 
wem t'l linve dropped, in a ^ood measure, tbe deferential 
n<T-, wliicii were formerly a mnrked characteriElic of the 
iui>ii|><T>pt<! of Kiigland. The same persons mij^t very possibly 
U; n-HiN.i.-tful now, if one were to sec Uiem at their own hom. 
bill lier<-, Hu exeiled and engrossed are they by tbe gJoriouN 
ncNiiji-H around them, tliat they appear not to regard any one 
i-liu>, and ]iush and crowd along in a manner that is not con- 
siHii-iil either with good manneis or with comfort. 

OoNTKNTH Of TUB Palace. — Thesc it is impossible to onu- 
iiienite. A mere ciitalague, with ilie most brii-f descriptive 
iiiitii-i'H, would fill a large volume I can only mention groups 
of ihiiigt, Willi lien: and tlien: a particular instance. Tlie col- 
Inliiiii embrrtcUM the UKefu! as well as tlie fine arts. All kinds 
iif Hgrii-iilluntI inacbiiies uru here to be seen, and tbcru are 
wils, iiii'l specimens of erops, all duly arranged and labelled. 
Tlie AmericMi department Lns been somewhat uudenidiuid, 
bai>au»e it was not so splendid, aud was low btt <diaB Um ool- 
loulioiis from some othi-r (^oiinlrie», bnt Wt^jl^^btn, wbiob 
ki jpiiiurslly nti uufritinlly Imiriiig in 

CosTBHTs OF THE Falacb. 423 

lius mmmcnileil thu Aniorican department on the scoro of 
utility. Indeed it wna not ronsonablo to expect Uiat a country 
ucmipitd but two centuries by civiliEed people, should bo ablo 
fiilly to com[wt« with natjons who have been civilized for a tliou- 
■nnd yasn, and tliat our great dialAnco, and the difiicul^ and 
pxpensQ of Imnsporting articlea ocrou tlie ocean, and of com- 
iiig over to look alW tLcni, mnst have prevented our appear- 
ing as we do at Iioine, in tho great indimtrini exliibitiona of 
Ni»w-Vork, Pliiladelphin, and Boston, [ havo seen socli gather- 
ing» at Niblo'i and tho Castle Garden, in Nuw-Vork, and in 
lioaUm, Dot only of useful, but of elegant things, as I ahuuld feel 
proud to soo in the Aineriann dopartment in the Crystal Palacd. 
Two agricultural instruments are, however, spoken of as giving 
the palm to America abovo all competition. I refer to tho 
pl'iugh and the reaping roachino of American manu&cturc. 
The plougli is said to havo attained tlio perfection of form, aud 
ihu reaping machine to bo recommended by its groat utility. 

The lal« yacht race around the Isle of Wight, has ^ven 
gnyit reputation to American naval architecture and seaman- 
ship. The contttst which I mentioned as appointed for Friday, 
23d iiutant, tAok pla<M on that day, with eighteeu yachts 
sdectcd for tlicir sailing qualltios, wfailu about ono hundred were 
luscmblud on the Solent Sea, anil tlie brotherhood of seamen, 
the nobility and gentry, and tho Queen lierBcl^ witli her con- 
sort, were intenatoil spectalore of the friendly strife. It endal 
titvorably to the Amerii'A, as all liie world knows, wUieh won 
tho pri«i cup of one huudrvd guineas. The aOkir iins bwu 
homirably tre!it*d by tho English, who have manifested entire 
good linmor and liberality on this ounaiou. Cominodoro Slevena 
1 hi* pcoplif lutvo conducted tlmmiielvi's with modesty, and 
I promptly showed tiio proper marks of reepwt to the Queen 
I wlWB she visits the succeMful little vessel ; on whieh occasion 
I manlftiti^l much ^ntiifiction in observing her skilful oon- 
l »^tue^i'■h i^'l taxt^fnl eniliellistimtmbi. 

"1 in the Cri-stal Palaoe, 


Los I.. 

Irok, iia \l a the mntcriAl wliich, mure tliau uUiurs (wood 
exceptod], conlribuleft indispcnsnble nid lo tliuada of IKc, oc 

ciipitts a conspicnoiu place in tlie Exhibition. Ita oiv* mad iM 

cMlitigs, Hud its wrought Article^ whether in a. locoiaotiTe, fl 
the hnir-spring of a chronometor, whether in chain-uablcs or 9 
lADibriu D««lle, nre diBplayed in oadle«8 variety of useful a 
niid lieaiitiful fumiti, anj in this departmoot, En^nd jai 
claims, and fully proves her pre-eininance. Iron, lead, t 
liiBUiuth, zinc, antinioiiy, and siker, gold, and platinnm, t 
euiiHpicuouB here 

England glories iu her tin, lead, aud copper; in tha twi 
latter, we can compete with her ; our lead ia incxhainliblei, a 
our nativo copper of Lake Superior is unequalled for 1 
danc«. A lar^e luaaa of it has been brou^it ovur br tli« e 
liibition, weighing many thousand pounds. 

Nolliing can exceed the beauty of the orliclea of ajlrt 
whether utensils nr oruamenlB, which Ma ctposcd to riaw i 
the gnllcry of the Oiystal Palace. Tlio most gmoefnl I 
both of peaceful men, and of warrioni, armed cnp-o-pso; 
of woman in the very beau ideal of her loYelineaA, stb li 
prufusiun ; and if England excels in theno articles in uln 
Franeo ia not behind her, both in them and in ^Idcd foraitn 
find brume, an eeen in all tbu e{ilei)dor and ulcgance ot I 
ihow windows of the Palais Ko)-ul. 

The silver extrHct«d from lead by I'attinsou's procees 
hem seen in pilee so rich, with n perfect puri^ of w 
and in acaly pymmiibi, a kind of llaky mound, that tl 
server luoka on with deiight, na aUo upon tha same nut 
in ponderous ingota. Here is the gnid of Califoroia, oc 
liaut mass weighs in value £S00, Ki^uivolcnt to noiirljr 4(N 
dollars ; tJiere atv iUrw musKn of ua^vo Siborian, « 
sian platinum, WKJghitig respuctlvdy 21, 2.1, and Sa II 
many wruught orticJca of the eame mclal. tlw eo| 
Uiisaia, in llie form of maUchit«, ham malce* n great 

itiKi luutiiriol whiith wu Haw in the Vatican, and ia I 
palaoo of the King of Pruaia, iu the fortn of m 



is here men wruuglil iutij innuun.fablu funns of betiuty, Tliero 
is even a Inrgts puntilli.'d dour fulriuakxl uulirely of malschilc 
Of coune many piuous lire unil«d Co atfoni tlio requisite trmsi. 
Tliuru nre tnblcs, vii!«a, unis, chain, solleus &c^ mounleil with 
tho sumo rich maturial. The gcni» ftinn a coitHpicuons omr*- 

it of tlic colluution. Quceu Viutoriu has louneJ lier lar^st 

Qond, wilb sevt^ snuilkr ouet, U> Ui cxIiiliilvO, anil licro 
nro Boua uf the most [>n.'<siouB of thti diKOiundB, rubi<ai, 
■appliiru!!, topusee, eiaoralds, chrynoberyls, opuls, unci pourls of 
the rcf^ia of Russia, Spoiii, and Indici. 

Thu Duko of Devansliin has lui etnrrnld ilcjiosiU^i] by Mr. 
TunKUt. riuarly tvo inches in the dingonol diAni^«r, nnd ino to 
thrvu tiii.'hM in lenj^th ; It is of surpiusing lienuty, being per* 
feotty i;rystnllizc<I, bikI of thn nioet inlenan and tiniform gram- 
greun coUir. Tliure is no ami to tlm bijouterie of tlm French. 
A c!n»o in tlie gallon,' is compoKtl of four pieces of pUlo glaw, 
each biitwoon fivu mid six foot long, und four to live broail. 
Thb uasa is onliroly tilled witli ylegiint omamcnlal arlicloH. 

I i-nnoot pretend to eDnmerate the mnrblw, grsniles, por- 
phyries, SDrpentines, and other architectural mnterialH, nor llie 
piloa of mineral coal, and aQt]iracit«, nor tho perfect imitnIaonB 
of bcnuliful and useful mineral compositions, such as (terpen- 
tine*, vurd-aotique, porphyry, and verd-anctque marbles, <tc 

1 rhtmiral prtnlacta too, of grcnt beauty, are nomeroiis. 
The cryainlliutUoiis of carbonate and bi-carbonnte of soda, of 
alum, of tho pruraiutea, yullow and red, of the sulphate of 

I, und the sulphate of copper, and sal-ammoniac are splendid, 

1 «vinue that the chemical arts are not behind the mechani- 
Lftrge cakes of metallic antimony are crystallized in 
I hcautiful fern-lifce radiations. 

Franw\ Belgium, HoiUnd, Austria. Germany, Prusita, 
I Turkey, lite Barbary Sister, Kgypt, Bermuda, the East Indies, 
I Onnniln, Austmli.-i, and other countries have conspired to deeo- 
lellie Uiyttnl I'alacc. Superb rIIIcs linve come from the East, 
t »nd pictured fetu^fthswU,oarpeU,4r<-_ from ('i-minny; tlieaoli- 



lueftil ii]iii«riiiU. leather, hemp, rop«8 of miuiiUft gnw aoA 
olhet fibrous v^ctablw, and glass aod potUry in Uielr 
are not omitted. To give animatiou to the Hc^ne, sl«am g«nar- 
aled uut of doon is brought in through concealed lubea and 
applied to coacLiDery, Cotton gins and paper-making tnaob- 
incB are at work, and ttie Palace r«eounda with the doIm of 
actual and productiTs labor. 

Bliip models arc preEouUd in many forms, enpodally Blilf* 
of war, in liuctionB loiigtitudinal and tranavene, with ail tttcir 
iul«rior atructure. Life-boats and life-preeervera, and in hap. 
mony with tliem, mirrors for iight-houses', but in (ontrast, 
nnords, piotols, revolvers, guns, dirks and daggere, and niiilti- 
furm contrivanctis to do the work of killing the 
numhef of men in the ahon«ftt titue ; such are man's 

But time would fail to tell of the famiture, the 
tlie musit^id inRlruments, tliu ceramic wares, and all tlie cotmt 
luu nnii iudescribahla throng of nrUclca which oontrihuce their 
eliccLin the tout eimembk oi Uiis vast store-house ofllie Bntions. 

The staLunry arranged along the naves is a 
ouB and interesting feature. Many of the prominent and 
meritorious of these marbles, hnve since become 
from the engravings in the Art Journal and other tUoi 
works, that it is needless at this lato day to call attention 
them individually. Tlio famous Amazon of Kiss, Uii 
which was in London, is now the most roniarkable 
object in the American Crystal Palace. 

The most interesting view i* obtained Irom Uio gallortH at 
the moving masses of human life below. U ia a iHinoraiua 
where multitudes An pHssing to and fro, and eioon an seen bo 
more, fleeting as the jeto^'cau which sport among iheia friini 
living fountains, tliat curl over and descend in granTfiit swhiis, 
and seem to enliven ibo stalely palms and other lirtim pla&la 
and trees which grace the some. 

ZooLociicAt. Oanoiuta. — My laU companious and ( 
in Imrel who line* 



\'imit ^bt days \ 

ZooLooioAL Gaud KM 8. 


yeiitordiiy rotiimoi] u> I^ndoD, we made &n exuanioa to the 
7oo\ofpoii O&rOens, which are qiiiU) out of (Jio city, on the 
nonliwmt, and contigaoua to Regent's Park, a tract of 4&0 
iKTTH, which, some yean «nce, was ndded to thu rural 
nltrnctions of tlie nietropolia. 

The Zoological Gardens are, as regards living NnimalB, the 
counterpart of thu Garden of Plants nt I'uHs. The tract 
occupies 30 acres. The eatcrprise is not, hke that of the 
Ganlt-n of Plants, umler tlio patronage of government ; it b an 
allhir of individuals, and the gardens have heen opened only a 
fow years. The number of anim^ including birds, is about 
1500, and l5or 16 peraons are employed in the care of the gar- 
den*. The pablio are admitted on paying a shilling for each 
individual ; ou Mondays, sixpence. I was glad to learn that 
the institution more than supports itself, and that the resort to it 
is ineromtng. Every thiog here is in fine condition. The entire 
area >a clean and in good order. The stables and lairs of tbo 
wild beaste, and the pens of the animals that enjoy some liberty, 
08 well as the cages of llie birds, and the bouses of the quad- 
rumana (monkeys), and of reptilce,are kept in good order, and 
there is nothing to give annecessary offence. We saw the 
attendants cleaning out ibe dens, and using a solution of chloride 
of lime for purificaUon. 

In the bears' den. Bruin seemed to have a cheiniciil (kney, 
as ho was sedulously licking up tlie suSbcatJug fluid, attracted 
perhaps by ila suhs-tline taste. 

The animals and the birds ajipear to be in perfect health, 
and as happy as prisoners can be. Tlie trO|)ical and other 
animals from hot climates, ore in general Gne spcdraens of 
tlieir respective races. The camels ore large, and do not 
i^pear to be suffering in a climate so diirvrent from their own. 
The lions and royal tigers are grand animals, and the leopards 
13 and very beautiful, several of them being natives 
^irdons ; the black leopard was very rustless nnd fierce, 
ng his cagq with incMsant motion, in hia bopelcM 
to oseape from his prison. The rhinooeros was vonr 


428 London. 

acUve, walking freely about his large yard, and was not at all 
fifraid of man, as he approached the grating, thrust his nose 
through, and received eagerly biscuits and cakes from the 
hands of the spectators. His thick heavy skin, folded so as to 
represent a robe, secured by harness, dotted also with tuberdes, 
and serving as a real coat of mail, forms his defence agiunst 
insults and vermin, especially when smeared, as now, with 
mud, while his nasal horn makes him formidable even to the 

Four magnificent giraiSes are here in perfect health; a 
young one of a few months, a native of the place, was six feet 
high when he was bom ; he was kept in the stable and was 
nibbling its hay, which he readily reached 12 or. 15 feet from 
the floor ; the other three were walking in a very ample barn- 
yard, their prison limits, and seemed like some awkward people, 
quite at a loss how to dispose of their long necks and limbs. 
They are tame, and readily place their slender horse-like heads 
over the high fence, and seem disposed to be a little sociable 
with their visitors. In their native forests and in large droves, 
they must present a grand spectacle, when, on being alarmed, 
they move oflf with more than the sj^eed of a race-horse ; bear- 
ing their slender heads and vigilant eyes 20 feet or more from 
the ground, and then they appear beautiful, graceful, and grand ; 
while tliey have the general air and form of the equine family, 
altliough with prodigious disproportion between the length of 
the neck and that of the body, they have tlie divided hoof of 
the ruminants, and are regarded by naturalists as most nearly 
allied to the deer. 

The elephants are not of the largest size, but a mother with 
her calf showed her natural affection by nursing her pet, about 
the size of a large donkey ; which had well learned that the 
suction of the proboscis, applied to the fountains situate<l 
between the fore legs, would produce the desired flow of milk. 

The stupid hippopotamus is hero for the first time, since 
the days of Charles II. Ue seemed an immense and 
unwieldy mass of fat, and rendered more torpid to-day by the 



o&ill of a Blonn of cold wind ftod ntin ; ha vut liardt}' ronwd 
from hU ilccp except to raise his short ni%k, and open hU 
emnll but brilliant eyes, as if to convince the gazen that Le 
was rftttly alive. He and the g^iraffas are attcndmi by a Nubian, 
n compatriot of these aniniab. He dresses in his national cos- 
tume; red cap, and blue jacket, buttoned beneath his auiplL> 
red breeches, which might inclose two or three euch individuals. 
The bears eecmed iu great good humor; a huge brown 
Bruin, by means of small cleats nailed on to the wood, clambered 
to tlie top of a mast, where he es:liibitod his clumsy form ; and 
I two smaller block bears from Abyssinia, indulged in their own 
I gymnastics, by wresUing and tumbling over eacii other, while 
\ they showed their while tcelL, There are two grand arctic 
I bears of full size, with their ample white fur quile clean, as if 
wnahed in the fountain to which they have free access. 

A largo and active ourang-outang seemed very harmless. 
' As ha clambered up the sides of his glaxed wire prison, )ia 
showed the palms of his almost human hands, white and tiaii^ 
1 ]«m like ours. ^Vhen the keeper opened the door he manifested 
dispuGition to escape or to annoy his masl«r. Strange that 
I sanb a mimic uiun, with many of man's vidons pro]>cn8ilie8, 
I should hare been created, and be still a bnito. 

The bcauliliil zebras, with their elegant stripes ; otlior 

limala, ifuaggas I believe, of the e<iuine family, and of nbont 

le size of the Kebras, attracted our attention, as did the rein- 

I daiit with their branching antleis, the hyenas, foxes, and amaller 

qujvlrupuds ; and the noble bovine races that were grazing at 

large in the meadows. 

At the head of the birds, almost wingless although they bo, 

ar« the ostriches, of which fiimily there are here very capital 

' epocaraeus. H«re is the cassowary with three toes, and the 

I African oetricli with two. Three of these t 


I and capital birds they are. Their splendid plumage mantles 
I over them in rich layers, and the flowina: and rniu^h covulod 
es of their rudimentary wings and tails are splendid cuough 

430 London. 

queror. Two of them are black, and the other gray or lead* 
colored. The birds are numerous and various. Geese, with 
long spoon bills ; cranes, always awkward, here display every 
variety of ungraceful form and movement ; ducks swimming in 
pools of water ; pigeons, ever degant in figure and plumage ; 
parrots, dressed in superb colors; mocking, and other talking 
birds, emulating the parrots in loquacity ; and last, and least in 
bulk, but first in beauty, the incomparable humming-birds ; most 
of the 450 known species, and more than 2000 individuals, are 
here in the collection of the celebrated Dr. Gould, the delicacy 
and splendor of whose plumage, and the gracefulness of whose 
form is unequalled among birds, and, I may add, among flowers. 

I must not forget the warrior birds, the condor, chief of 
vultures ; eagles, hawks, in all their variety, and all others that 
lead a barbarian life in rapine and murder. 

The reptiles, unsightly, unlovely, often hideous and revolting, 
are liere fully represented in the protean lizard family of alli- 
gators, crocodiles, iguanas, chameleons, &c. ; and among snakes 
are the gigantic boas and pythons, dormant, and apparently 
lifeless. The harmless creatures of this family are strongly 
contrasted with the terrible cobra di capello, the adder, asp, and 
rattle-snake, dispensing poison and death, for reasons which to 
us must ever appear mysterious. Such are the unaccountable 
contrarieties of creation ! 

Madame Tusseau's Museum. — From the zoological gardens 
I went with one of the ladies to this celebrated museum of wax 
figures, the only one of the kind from which I have ever 
received any pleasure ; but this collection enjoys a high and 
deserved reputation. 

There are three successive rooms, in which are seen a great 
number of personages in costume, and in natural and charac- 
teristic positions in relation to each another. In the vestibule 
the visitor paases through grou|)s of marble statues, such as 
may be seen in many other places. On entering the first room 
of the museum, exactly at the door and sitting in a chair, a 
pleasant young Chinese, a door-keeper, as I supposed, almost 


; Ti:« 

u's Museum. 

i mc, and I did quilu spi!uk tn him, so Ufeliku whs lii;, 

lie seemeil not to nndersland Knglifili we piisseil on. 

next pemmA^, in llie right comer of the room, wns a well- 

gentlemnn, whom I for tlio moment mistook for n 

ing Englishman; he looked so very sftabie, that I took him 

offioinl, and wns about to mako an inquiry of liim, when 

perceived tliat lio too belonged to the deaf-mutes. Next 

those-to whom I mnst not speak, the Qaaen with Prince 

Albert, and four of their sweet children, mounted on an elevated 

platfbnn. The liitencsaes are eo striking, judging from pictures, 

statUM. nnd infonnation (for 1 have not seen them), that the 

royal pereonages might he readily recognized by one who knew 

them ; for, sa seen here, they are all hut speaking, and moving, 

and breatlung, 

Although no figures in Uiese rooms spoke, three gave signs 

:«f life, Onii, a ChinuM lady in a rich orienU! dress, waa stand- 

lier littlo fuut, hy Uor husband, while ho, a Ilong mer- 

a splendid attire, was listening to sorae communication 

im hor; and ulthough we could nut honr what she said, she 

effect to her address by an earnest look and by a gonUa 

imont of her head. Anotlier htdy, Madame , aftei^ 

a victim of Holx^piunv's cruelty, because she indignantly 
beoomo the viotim of his lust, lies asleep on her 
T day dress, i)roliably in prison prior to her execution. 
She breathes, anil her bust, with her dress, risee and falls eo 
iiatunilly witli the rospirntion, that you insliuutively move sofUy, 
lest she sliould be disturbed in hur slumber. 

In these rooms are Eocn imposing occasions of sta(«. The 
leon, in another scene than which has tieen named, with her 
,iiy, is BurrauDded by her ministers, bishops, and lords and 
ies, and by courtiers, and generals, and foreign ambaseadors 
blend two of these scenes into one) ; all ato in full court dress, 
magnificent robes, and sparkling with factiUous diamonds, 
illusion is so oompleUi, that were an observer introduced 
lonly into the scene, without an intimation of the decvp^on, 
ff ould be sUutled «t fim^Qg himaett in such company. 

432 London. 

Hundreds of the most eminent persona, both of the lining 
and the dead, are here, and the likenesses are so good that I 
readily recognized several, either of those whom I had seen 
when living (e, g^ Gfeorge UI., Pitt, and Fox) or whose pictures 
or busts were familiar (Voltaire, Sir W. Scott, and Washington). 
Calvin, Luther, and John Knox are in one group, and the 
latter is addressing Queen Mary of Scotland, on whom ho seems 
not likely to make any more impression now than^e did of 
yore. I might multiply these instances. Napoleon and his 
marshals; Louis XYL and his children and sister; Louis 
Philippe and his family ; Queen Elizabeth and her courtiers ; 
Ann Boleyn and her bloody husband ; Charles L and IL, the 
former listening to a talk from Cromwell ; James I. and IL ; 
the royal dukes, sons of George UL ; Lord Wellington ; Lord 
John Russell ; Admiral Napier, of Aero memory ; and many, 
many more. 

Pictures of eminent persons and of interesting scenes are 
hung all around the lofty rooms, which are gilded and adorned 
in the manner of a palace. A throng of visitors were in the 
apartments, but from their dress and appearance, it was obvious 
that they belonged not to the upper ten thousand, but to the 
lower million, and most of them were probably of that class, 
who, having been drawn to London by the great exhibition, 
take the opportunity to see other wonders of the great metro- 
polis, and we were pleased that they could be thus gratified. 

Passing tlie Room of Horrors^* where an additional sixpence 
is demanded for the pleasure of seeing what all should desire 
to avoid, we entered a room called the Hall of Napoleon, oc- 
cupied chiefly by reUcs of that great captain and emperor, who 
made such an impression on the age in which he hved, that his 
name and his deeds — the deeds of more than twenty years of san- 
guinary conflict, with only short interludes of repose — are now 
enrolled in history, and will go down to the end of time. The re- 
lics here preserved are personal articles, which once belonged to 

* Murders and executions. 

Madaub Tusseau's Musecii. 


nis own li&ir is inrloeud in tlio sama lockut wltli that 
1 son, the Dute of Reiclisladt. There la the sword of the 
^ptUu campaign, whiuli irai waved in iqniiy sbloodf bsU-le. 
I! tUa more hnrmless utensils of his table ; but llici most 
ii8|iiciioUB things are his carriages, tlirec in nuiubijr. [» oiio 
P-ef ihes<T ho mailii liia oxcursions from Longwood, in St. nolcn.i, 
Etolho liouodariesof thtit small island, rough with volcfuiic rocks. 
( cArriftge is a plain yellow baron chi>,witlt nothing pe- 
Vnailliar in its appearance. Uifl common or neual travelling 
learriiige was in tJio post-chaise form, with inside wats for only 
Itwo (lereons, and there is a low division between them. IIIb iron 
f ttcdstvad was folded like the legti of a gmsslioppcr, paelced 
ft case, and hung bcnentli tlie coucbman's scat. Inuiilo of 
> carriage is a writing-desk, whieh oun be drawn out nt 
* ptousnr^ to accommodate tlie travi'Uer, and it still relnined 
Its connection with the front of the carriage. There is a 
movable board, which nnswcred for a table ; and a door 
opens in front, beneath tlie writing-dealt, to afford room for 
llio limbs when the traveller wishes to sleep. The bedstead 
. might perhnps admit of a partial contraction, so as to be placed 
in the wirriage, in front of the seal, as a support, or there might 
have been some other contrivance for this purpose, Tliia car- 
riage is siud to be lined with concealed iron plates, to afford 
Lpmtcction against the bullets of assassins. That found on ttie 
^Held of \ynterIoo is jellow, and the paint and varnish have 
Dome off in certain places, so that it is defaced in appearance. 
This latter carriage is a common coach witJi two scats, the 
Kfront scat, as usual, reversed ; but there is notliing peculiar 
n its appearance or conveniences, and it was probably tAken 
■ifn haste after the return from Elba ; for the 100 days included 
VVapoleon's fffpira — his brief sway in Paris and his downfall 
X Waterloo— and to tliat fatal field bo njdu in tins carriage, 
But the most interesting relic is the bed on which the fallen 
l«nperor died. We were assured that it was iho verj' bed and 
f K<dstcHd of Sl Helen.i, and that it was tlie «nmp •:»lnlili6hmcnt 
f his campaigns. His figure and faeo in vrax &ns KQiivVk^hKL 
K,. ir.— 11) 

434 London. 

bed. It will bo remembered that, in the death scene, he was 
fully dressed in a marshal^s uniform, with boots and cocked 
hat, as he is here seen, thus sustaining to the hist the unity of 
his military life. 

Our guide book for Berlin mentioned that Napoleon's 
Waterloo carriage was preserved in the town palace of that 
city. We did not see it It appears, however, improbable 
that the English army should relinquish this trophy of their 
sanguinary day's work, since the field of battle was theirs* 
Napoleon^s station was on the right of the English army, and 
the Prussians arrived only at evening on the English left wing. 

Britisu Museum. — We made a brief ^isit to tliis noble in- 
stitution when hero in March, and 1 have mmle another to- 
day ; but being limited to two hours by other engagements, 1 
therefore (confined my attention to a single department. I 
walked rapidly through the long rooms Ix'low^ that are occu- 
pied by statuary, and by the more than colossal sculptures of 
Egypt and Nineveh ; nor did I sutl'er my course to be impeded 
by the wingod bull and the winged liou, nor by the stupendous 
heads of the Sjiliiiix and of the Egyptian kings, or by the black 
biusaltic statues of anoieiit Egyptian idulatr}'. Hastening to the 
flat al)Ove, I there, by appointment, met my son and our fellow- 
traveller, Mr. Brush. Our first^object was to survey the very 
extensive and rich collection of minerals in the fonning of 
which no expense has been spared. It would be in vain to 
attempt to enumerate particulars where there is so much to 
claim attention. The collection is arranged in sixty cases, con- 
tained in four rooms. 

Fossil Woman. — The Fossil Woman of Gaudaloujxj I had 
never seen. The skeleton is headless and footless ; but ribs, spine, 
ilium, and limbs, leave no doubt that it once belonged to a 
living womiui. It j)resents, however, no difticulty, historical or 
g«?ologi<"al, because it is inclosed in a very recent limestone, 
such as is now daily forming in the seas of tlie Antilles; and 
there Wire numerous other human bodies f«)und in the s:imo 
plnee. as well as utensils, nid<^ weapons, iW. It was probal>ly 

I a placo of iippultiira on a battl« field of tlio Alioriginals.* 
f Tbo Ulancl may liara eiibsidod niiCQcioiilly U> allow of Tli<? for- 
I'luaUon of Ihis limeskme arotind this skeleton, ns woti a» otbcrs 
and then been elevated ^ain, sueb oscilladoiw having evidently 
I been of frequent oocurrenco in the crust of tlie earth ; or more 
I probably, as the sepulchre was on the sea-sliore. the tlfwhing 
I of tbo waves may have incrualwl the bodies wiUi csrbonate of 
[ lime, enveloping shell-tisli and corals thrown up by the tides. 

The principal subjects of our (ibaerviilions this iiiomin({ 
I wcro Llio ruinains of the enormous lizards of gt^ulogicnl anti- 

TuE Fossu. Sauriaxs, in tli« collt>(!tion of Mr. TIllwldn^ 
purttlittsod by the museum, vcro skel(-ti}ns of ichthyosauri, plo- 
iri, and other forms of reptilian life. Them is a perfort 
I fossil akeluton of the ichlliyosaurus, whiiih I mcnjiurnd. It is 
fully twenty feet long; and Uiara is beneatb it a series of ver- 
I tubrte of another individual, doubly tiuji-shaiKd, like Iho vurto- 
brw of fisbes. They suum to be nil pretwut, and must, hnro 
belong^cd to an animal still larger than tlio one whioh 1 have 
natnvd. Tbo fi^ires of ibeae ancient distinct races are now 
familiar in our elementary books, and 1 shall not enter Into 
any minute details. 

Host of the fossil sauriana were marine. They appeared 
on after the period of tbo eoal furmatiou, and were continued 
I to that of tlie clijilk. A niiniiituru lizard has been reeeiitly 
I found iu tlie old red sandstone. 

The collvolioa iu the Britisti Museum is appalling. It fills 
[ one with nslonishment, us we here con tern plntv the indubitable 
an a^e gone by, never lo return. Slill more oston- 
I ialiing are the reptilian remains, brought lo light chiefly by the 
I rccenrcbes of Pr, Mantell, aided by Dr. Buckland and other 
1 tMuutjutoTB. But to Dr. Mantell solely belongs the credit of 
1 having ostjiblislied the existence of several families of land lis- 
I nrds, whose miignitiide far exceeds that of the ma 

■ Pimanif wByt— Iff lyrawiay^ 

436 LoKDON. 

The bones of the iguanodon, oi the hjUeosauros, and pelo- 
rosaurus, are colossal — equal to those of the largest elephants, 
and in some individuals even surpassing them, while their 
k-ngth, in some instances, was equal to that of the longest 
whales. Tlie form of their teeth, and the hollow condition of 
their bones, with a large canal for marrow, prove that their 
habits were those of terrestrial animals ; while the form of the 
teeth, and the solid condition of the bones of the saurians, 
before named, adapt them to a marine life; since the buoyancy 
derived from the sustaining power of the water would enable 
tliem to swim with this additional weight The bones Gt these 
land lizards discovered by Dr, Mantell, and now in the museum, 
with those in his own house, studied and disposed of anatomi- 
cally, by his skill in comparative anatomy, and in the general 
principles of physiology, prove the existence of these giants of 
antiijuity, which were not carnivorous, but were vegetable 
eaters, in a climate capable of producing a tropical vegetation, 
which then existed both in England and on the European con- 
tinent, and probably pervade<l, more or less, the entire planet 
Dr. Manteirs original memoirs and published volumes must 
be consulted for the proofs of these positions, and for the 
details of anatomical structure. He was with me in my last 
visit to the museum, and gave additional explanations on the 
grand fossils deposited there, especially those of his own gatlier- 
ing, and also on those obtained by Mr. Hawkins, of Glouces- 
ter. Both collections relate chietiv to the extinct colossal 
liziirds of the gone-by geological ages. The immense collec- 
tion of fossils from the Himalaya Mountains also passed under 
review. They have added much to our knowledge of zoologi- 
cal antiquity. Dr. Buckland discovered near Oxford the 
bones of a large carnivorous reptile, the megalosaurus, which 
approximated toward the miignitude of the lizards of Dr. 

♦ One principal object of my last visit to the muiieum with Dr. 
Mantell, was from a wish which he kindly expressed to introduce me 




diic1«d through this most ioteresting insutiilion by FrofiiaBor 
Owen, wboae repiitaLioo a known to the whole scieDt'ifio worid. 
Ue was i>iutJculitrly Idiul and aUvntivc, uul wu ^nt three 
bouts tliere io s very inlureBtiDg manner. This museum w» 
founded by the celet>m[«d John Uuolor. AIUt his dcnUi, in 
1703, it WHS purdiAsod by govorniiiunt, nnd rcmovrd from the 
vicinity of Leiceatcr Sqimrc, where it been nrmngwi by Dr. 
Hunter, to the lurge building which it now occupies in Lincoln's 
Inn fields. I snw it in the early states as tlie Dunleri&n Muse- 
um, in Windmill-stroot, when I was in London in 1805, Its 
leading objecU are comparative anatomy and phridology. Here 
ia ft oomplcU) skeleton of tha ancient Irish Elk, larger tJuin 
thnt in llic British Muxeum. It muasarca six fbct high to thn 
top of the williun. Tbu tips of tha aullors are nine or l«n 
fuel apart, along the cunc not less tbnn twelve kvt ; and the 
entire length of tlie animal, from his nose along the head, neck, 
nnd spine, could not have been leaa, without including the 
horns. I have elsewhere remarked, that, when alive, this must 
have hvisn n mBgiilftceiit deer, far aitfumog any umilar ani- 
mal now on thu csrth. I roeuUoned, in connection with the 
Liverpool Mum-urn, Profe«8or Owen's opinion that this tomH elk 
was extinct liefora tlio creation of man, although approximating 
to the human era. Uu says, that all the stories slating that 
the bones of ibis mcgaloBaunis have been found in the Irisli bwp 
with those of man are fabulous, and that the bones of the fossil 
elk are found in tlio shell marl below the peat The skelii^on 
of tlie American elk, placed mde by side witli that of tlio me- 
g;^osnurus, appears of diminutive sixe. 

Elkihiant. — Here also is tlie skeleton of tlio great clepliont, 

tolho venvmlilfl fiiiraliM-, Mr. Kiwuif ; but at tlw thrcabold of th« ta- 
■tilntioD we were [xunvd tu hear that tills excRllnit imn, havinjcJiiM 
rctBtiied fmm n rcrrMlJnz lonr in lii* naiJT* Valliiy of tlie Khiii«, 
a f«w lioora Ii«fopc fallen iien>l liy opoplcxy ; kd.I early Id tUn 
foll Hwltn^^nar, my invaluable friend stid jdIiIq fiillaw«d titia Ui the 

438 LoNBOir. 

Chunee, formerly exhibited in Exeter ^Change. I was acquaint- 
ed with this elephant when living. She has taken things from 
my hand, and from my pocket, and has picked up my keys 
and pieces of money, dropped among the straw, and re- 
turned them to me at the instance of her keeper. I was once 
in her den with a gentleman, and his wife and child, when the 
keeper said she would tell our ages by grunting once for every 
year ; with me she stopped at 25, which was my age at that 
time, and the gentleman said she had grunted correctly for 
himself and his family. How the keeper guessed so well, or 
how ho communicated with the elephant, we could not tell. 
Many years afterwards, this noble animal became furiously 
mad, as it is now believed from an intense tooth-ache. They 
then brought up platoons of soldiers to shoot her down ; but 
they had little etiect until she had received 100 balls, when 
she yielded up her life, tenacious as it was of its tenement 
Althuuirli mad, she was still so far obedient to her keeper as 
to kneel at his word of command to receive the fire of the sol- 
diers ! It seemed like murder in cold blood ! Manv carts 
Were in requisition to transport the body when cut up, weigh- 
ing prubably, bones, skin, muscles, and all, 10,000 pounds. 
The dry mastodon skeleton of Dr. Warren, now in Boston, 
New England, weighs 1000 pounds. 

CiiiMrAXZEE. — We found the distinguished Hunterian 
Professor occupied in examining the skull of the Chimpanzee, 
that most powerful of the animals of the ape family. It was 
described in the American Journal of Science, from the testi- 
mony of Dr. Savage, an American missionary in Africa, and 
afterwards by Dr. Wyman, of Boston. This skull exhibited 
marks of great strength, especially in the jaws and teeth, and 
in the ample provision for ])Owerful muscles to move them. 
Tln'ir full height is between five and six feet ; and they are ob- 
j<*cts of great terror to the negroes, who have no hope of con- 
tcntlinir with them, unless thev can shoot them, so Jis to kill 
them outright, or effectually disable them. They are not, 
Jike many wild animals, timid and retiring at the approach of 

TUB CoLLE<ie Of SuBOEOssi. 430 

I maD : on the contrary, (Jipy ntUick him ; and so atmiig nra 
I tboy thai tlit-y cnn crush him with Uieir foul embriice^iin 
I'tenr his flesh from his iKtncs by tlieir tcrriUi; inciKurs, and wring 
I lis hcml to strangulation with their powerful )iniids, Tlioy are 
I peculiarly irritable. If a negro approacheo a true in which a 
Ichbnpanxco Is ensconciHl, with his wife snd children, ho thi-n 
»darts down, fierce with mgo, wa^ war, and gives no qutirtcr. 

■ "We must not inquire why 6uch savage brutes wor« cronled, in 
f the near resemblance, but in caricature of man's npble form. 

MoA. — The bones of thu moa are lii^ro, and there is a plu- 
I ter cast repreaenting a restored skeleton, of which, einc« tli« 
Etnandiblcs bare t>ocn dlscovor<Hl, few of the parts are now 
I wanting. Even the shells of tlio eggs havu Iteen found, far 
I 'Exceeding in size those of the ostrich. This extinct race of 
tlirds of New Zealand was first brought to light by an Engliiili 
Kmisuonary, Golonzo,* who sent out Home of the bones to Lou- 

; and afterwards Mr. Walter Mantell, eldest mu of Dr. 
EUantell obtained, by great exertions, and at no small liamrd, 
Ib la^ colleudon of the bones of the mua. lie sent them to 
I tiJB fittJier, who, with great liberality, subiiiittud them all to 
ItiiA critical examination of Professor Owen ; and he was thus 
Kmabled to draw np his mnstcrly reporbt on this subject. The 

■ ffnon, when living, must have stood tun to twelve feet high. 
I a wingless bird, probably approximating tn tlie ostridi 
:. It is remarkable tlint Mr. W. Mantetl lias also ob- 

Itninod, and trnnamitted to his Either, the only known living 

lindividual of a bird, whose fossil bones have been found associ- 

lated with those of the moa, and, therefore, tl)oy were probably 

BODtemporaries. This bird is nearly as large as a domeMio 

I turkey. It is very handsome, with its variegated plumage, red 

bill, and red legs. It is named DOtDmia. a bird of the South. 

There are also threw other speei's of wingless bird* (Apleryx), 

"which Dr. Mantell has two. It Is a plcaaing rwult of the 

uinparatjve anatomy of the present age, that Professor Owen 

440 London. 

was able, from a hollow bone of a few inches in leDgih, be- 
longing to the limbs of the then unknown dinorsis, to aaceitain 
not only that the bone was that of a bird, a fact which was 
in the traditions of the natives, but also the family to which it 
belonged ; and the ample supply of the bones which after- 
wards arrived, enabled him fully to establish his conclusions. 
This bird may have been coeval with man. The' natives have 
some traditions that seem to look that way. The geological 
era of the bird was certainly very recent, as the bones are 
found under peat, and drift, and volcanic sand.* 

Among eighteen thousand specimens catalogued in this 
museum I can name only hero and there one, and must pass 
by the rest 

Mylodon. — The mylodonj a great extinct fossil animal, 
was allied to the sloth, and a real skeleton is here, in the 
British Museum. I had already seen a largo model in plaster 
of the megatherium, a fossil animal of the same family. Both 
are colossal ; and it is obvious that the locomotive power of 
such an animal must have been very limited, and his progress 
very slow. His feet were astonishingly large, and his 
fingers and toes were furnished with long nails. Pro- 
fessor Owen infers, from his great strength, and the peculiar 
form of liis hind feet, which enableil him to throw his weight 
back ui>on them when in a half-erect posture, and from the 
form of his hands and arms, which enabled him to grasp a 
tree, that therefore it is probable his living was obtained in 
part by embracing trees, and wringing them one way and 
another, until he brought them down ; and that then he would 
feed ujvon their leaves and soft succulent branches. He tliinks 
also that a fracture in the occiput (back part of the skull), in 
the cranium of the individual, whose skeleton is in the muse- 
um, favors the idea that a tree, or a portion of it, fell upon 
his head, and thus proiluced the fracture, which tlie double 

* And among hunmu bones probably rcHcs of cannibal feast& 


:, t.10. 441 

t.phrte of Uis orNiiiiim ennbW him to Buntiuo witliuul riiUl 

museum is rich in prpparntiona illustm^vo of [Atysi- 
I olt^y Jind morbid noatoiny ; but I will not eoler tUis jirofcir 
p^otinl Rolil, rich as it is, anil rii^li too in preparatiuria inudu \>y 
f&ui culubraled John Hunter liimself. 

KxcuRsioN TO H&MPTOK CoiKT Pal^ob, &c. — Tlii» littlo 
I journey I mado twice wlien I was liere in 1805, and now 
I went agaiu for tlie gratilication of our friends and trurcUing 
I eompaiiioiiB. 1 shall b« moro briof, iMcauao I huvo nln^y 
I Bi^d sODietliing of Uninpton Court in my youthful journal, 
LA nulroud gnvu ns a tntnul, but not a veiy rapid ona. 
I.AItlioujrh it is but twelve miles from' London, we were 
I |U1 hour u[K>n tlic road, as the care stuppol frequently for 
k Mccommodntion oftlie jieopli;. Hampton Court Pd ace is of 
Itwd brii<k. It wan begun by Cardinal Woolsoy, who mado it 
rtlie princniHil theatre of his luxury and splendor; but liis tyran- 
ntoai mnster, Henrj' VIIl., becoming jealous of him, Woolsey 
made him a present of it, a. d. 15^6. It was finished and en- 
larged by William III^ and it was, more or les», the residence 
[ of all tilt) monarutis down to George 11. The palace ineludm 
rthree large quadrangles, and n great multitude of apartments. 
I There is no grandeur in its appearance, except what is derived 

■ from magnitude. The gitrdens and grounds are very beautiful, 
f boing kept in fine order ; and there are grand forests, with dcirr 
E tunning at large. The country being entirely flat, there is 
I nothing picturesque in the scenery. It has not been a royal 
t Ksidetiee for nearly a century, but a number of famillen aro 

■ permitted to reside in the palace. They are cliielly of the de- 
eayud arisbjcrotle cloaa. Tiii.-re is a guard of toldiers statiuned 

■liere, ovidenlly to Intco care of tlie place. The faulte of public 
Is extensive, and as they arc opvu to all clasps of pco- 
■<plo without lee, the rvsort to tliis palace is very great. We 

■ passed through tlies! apartrncnU in company with n great 
I throng, among whom were lumiy of tlie (-ontincnlal people, who 
I'liave come over to see tlic Exbibiiion. Most. oC tl^ft viwna v\ 

Fot II,— IB« 

442 LoKDOx. 

Uampton Court are plain, being finished in English oak, 
witliout paint, but with much handsome carved work. The 
grand staircase and several of the rooms have frescoed cdl- 
in^ in the Italian stvle; and if one could see them without 
twisting his neck awry, and could comprehend their obscure 
and often absurd allegories and fables of mythology, they would 
impart more pleasure. 

The pictures in these apartments are more remarkable for 
their numl»er than for their excellence. There are more than 
1000, the greater part of which are indifferent productions, but 
still may possess a degree of interest in the history of the art. 
The pictures painted by the late Mr. West are good. There is 
one larije room devoted chieflv to the family of his great 
patron, George III., and all the pictures there are by him. The 
cartixiiis of Kai>hael are contained in a splendid room devoted 
to them ; and all regard them as chefs-iTccuvre of tlie art. They 
are seven in number, and the subjects are — 

1. The Death of Ananias. 

2. Elvnias tlie Sorcerer Struck Blind. 

3. The Miraculous Draught of Fishes. 

4. Ileal ing the Lame Man at the Beautiful Gate of the 

5. Paul and Barnabas at Lvstra. 

6. Paul Preaching at Athens. 

7. Christ's Charge to Peter. 

In King AVilliam's bed-chamber are nineteen j)ortraits of 
the most lK\iutiful women of the court of King Charles II. 
These are chiefly from the hand of Sir Peter Lilly. There is 
re;i>on to believe that many of the pictures, which in these 
apartments are attributed to eminent artist*^, are copies, as they 
are not at all in harmony with their beautiful works whioh 
we have seen on the Continent. 

Among the apartments, the royal InHl-rooms are memora- 
ble, with their bed-funiiture remaining. Tlie IxnJ-rooms of 
William and Mary, and of Queen Anne and Queen Caroline, 
4l« particularly memoTa\)\e. TWivi \& ^ %\\l<iudid and large 

KXCUBSION TO Hahptok Coukt Balack, etc. 

^^Hlutll, which wns built by Cnrdiiinl Woolsey for ban<|iiuU nod 
^^1 fttes, and for theutrii'.nl I'liLihitiuns. Tliis has beuii restored to 
I' its former splendor, and is a grand and beautiful room. 

'I'hero are many historical fiicls conncottd wiUi Hmnpton 

J Court; one of tlio mosl. iiitenating is the final flight of Chjirics* 

jT., which look ]>liice froni this palace Ho flwl to the Isle of 

fWigiit, aud from Cnrislirooke Castle was brought hack to Lon- 

in, where he was executed. 

From Hampton Court ve ]>assed, by water, id a row boat) 

Bio Itiehmond, nine milc^ in the coursi) of the river, witoso 

Iftanka are fliki, hut beautiful with verdure and villns. We 

1 the house in which Louis Philippe lived a* n private 

todividual, when he was an cxilo in bis youth. Our titno did 

Aot permit us to ascend Uichoiond Hill, to the Star and Garter 

■itavoni, as I did in ISOS, to sec the splendid scenery of the 

I Valley of tlie Tlmmea. We passed on in an omnihusi, lo Eow, 

^svliem are the exteneire. Botanical Gardens. Tbcy now inclose 

Mvrnty-fivo acres, field,' forest, gardens proper, and extensive 

ted numerous conservatories, Unfortunately wo were no near 

e time of closing tlio gates that we could only pass rapidly 

Hirougfa the pnncipal liot-bouses. The moat intercstittg of 

■ that containing the tropiail plants and trees. The 

temperaturu within, especially when contrasted with that without, 

h n cool evening, was dt^lightful ; and wo found ourselves in the 

Kiidat of a tropical forest, of palms, bauftnas, troe-ferns, and a 

pnuUitude more of the natives of warm climates. The glass 

ufaigbaslo admit palm-trees full grown. There was one 

Miservatory devoteil lo the heaths. We returned to London - 

1 a small steamer, stopping at all the places on the river, 

vhich I formerly deecrihed. We disembarked at Ilungerford 

fridge, on which our friend Reginald MantcU was so long 

mpkyed, under bis distinguished master Drunell. 

AruiOAX Taontiee. — Mr, Roualyn Gortlon Gumming, 
Who passed fiie yeais of a hunter's life in tlie far interior 
f Soittlicrn Africa, and whose book was rrgarduil by many 

444 London. 

of his slaughtered animals, and this colIectioD we hare this daj 
seen. The walls of a roon), as I suppose, sixty or aeveoty feet 
long, and twenty-five feet high, are entirely corered with the 
spoils of the African forests and desert wilds. It is an exhibi- 
tion which is almost terrific ; as one can hardly &il to transport 
himself to those untamed regions where these animals roam 
at large. The skins of lions of both sexes and of various ages, 
are numerous in this museum. There are among them the hides 
of very old lions, with shaggy manes, long and dark, sometimes 
almost black, which fully answer to the pictures of the noble 
lion, as drawn by artists and naturalists. The orifices for the 
eye^ and the bullet-holesy by which the noonarch of the 
forest fell, are also visible. The elephant makes a conspicuous 
figure, and especially his tusks, which are numerous^ and some 
of them very large. I measured a pair, which were ten feet 
long. The foot of the elephant is inclosed in a homy shoo 
which exhibits merely the rudiments of toes, projecting a little 
in outline. When this shoe or sock is detached, it presents a 
canity which being all around quite tight, is made use of by tlie 
natives as a containing vessel for their food. I measured one, 
which was five feet in circumference. The heads of the ele- 
phant are numerous, retaining the teeth and tusks. The value 
of the ivory in this collection is very great The tusks on 
view here vary in value, from 40 to 80 pounds each, little 
short of 200 to 400 dollars a tusk. They are often very 
much worn by friction with the bushes. In old male elephants 
they arc polished down at the end into a wedge or sec- 
tion. There are many spoils of the rhinoceros and hippopo- 
tamus ; and their skulls and bones make a great figure here. 
The heads of the hippopotamus are of enormous size, and their 
teeth, too, are very much worn. The two-horned rhinoceros 
is of frequent occurrence ; and the lon^jjcr horn is always on the 
end of the nose. It is a very formidable weapon to every 
beast of the forest I measured some of them, which were 
tliirty-threo inches long, and sharp at the vertex. There are 
heads and limb bones of girafies. I measured a leg bone, 

LoKUON. 446 

wUicL waa fifty-two and a lialf indue long. Tlic buffiilu beiuis 
uid bonis aria tmmerous, and also tlios« of ths Africao ox, ivitti 
broHd spreading home, lliere are, for comparison, heada of 
tbts American biiou, as well as of other members of tho bos 
fatiiil^v, fixim various countries. Antelopes are very namaroits, 
and of many varieties, Wben living, they are not only fieut, 
I 1)ut some of them are formidable, from tbeir long, pointed, 
I Rlrutig, and often twisted, horns. There are also many other 
I animals from dilferetit regions. The room it hung all around 
with skins, and many of them arn in the form of robea, or or- 
uaincnla worn by the nutives. The wagon used by Mr. Gum- 
ming ill his hazardoiu adventures, ia in the room, willi bis 
I Brniis and tlie bullets, some of them very large and hard, usihI 
e occasion. A Ilottentot boy, who «penks English wull, 
n the room to give wplanationa. He ia intelligrnt, and 
knowB muoh of the history of the animals, and of the advenlur«A 
in whicli they were killed. He said, in answer, to ray in'iuirieii, 
[ that ho belonged lo the christianiEed Ilottentotfl, but we judged 
r from the odor of gin about him, that he did not very clowly 
f observe all the teachings of the gospel. Something of the 
[ character of the barbariau still adhered to him ; for alibough 
Kmall in stature, and not robust, he resented some freedoms ibnt 
Were taken with him by a young man who v/an prcseol ; and, 
following him around (he room, witli menaces, he could nut tw 
isily appeased. 
Mr. Cmnming has published two rulumos containing the 
I narrative of his perilous warfare against the wild animals. 
There b a high degree of romance in African siienva, among the 
I funsts and desert wilds, and we find our enthusiasm kiudlcd by 
' sympatliy witli the amateur hunter. Jn my youth I rviid 
I Uio travels of Vaillant in Southern Africa, and my imagination 
was thtin so warmed and excited by his adventure^ and tlm 
fascinating maimer in which he de«cribed ihem, that I aeeom- 
jmnied Mr. Cumming with somcwlint of the spirit of wirlitT 
years. Tie appeiini, however, to have ha<t no ulterior object in 
iMi*Aiul w«t '^^ '^ >-^ dia^OKd to laki adm nltli Uu> foot. 

446 Departure from London. 

persecuted animals, and to feel that they were consigned 
to destruction for tlie sake of indulging a spirit of reckless 
adventure ; altliough some additions have been made to their 
natural history by a long continned acquaintance with them in 
their native haunts. 

The next day we *attended divine service, it being the 
Sabbath, in the Scotch Presbyterian Church of Rev. Mr Hamil- 
ton, an eloquent and fervent preacher, of deep-toned piety, and 
much esteemed. It was interesting and gratifying to be again 
juvsociated with a Christian people in worship, not only in our 
language, but in forms so similar to those in which we have 
been educated. 

At evening I rode over to Clapham wiUi Dr. Mantel 1, and 
while he visited his patient I remained in the carriage and took 
my last view of that bttautiful village, which is associated witli 
so many interesting recollections. 

My residence in the house of my distinguished friend, h:is 
been rendered very agreeable to me by his kindne^ss, and that 
of his lionseliold, all of whom have been zealouslv devoted to 
niv service. 

Last evening I left his hospitable mansion, when he came 
up with nie to the hotel (Morley's in Trafalgar S(juare) to bid 
farewell to the family, and we parted aftectionately at nine 
oVlock p. M. 

departure from lI'Dubmi. 

At ten, we ro<.le to the station of the Western Kailway, 
expecting to proceed on our journey by a night train ; but, 
owing to a change of arrangement, it was already gone. AVe 
found, however, at the place an excellent hotel, the Victoriii, 
where we had comfortable beds, and the next morning we were 
in the cars at half-past six o'clock. 

In leaving London, many interesting reflections rushed upon 
my mind, but they soon gave place to the sensible impressions 

Warwick Cabtlb. 


I jinxluRcd 1)3' llio sploridiU coimlry, one of llii- mo«t fertile wgiotis 
F of England, titrough wliicli we luaitu our rapid trauHiL No tun-ns 
lorimporbince lay ill our route; but at niiil-(l»y, we (bund our- 
^Colvns at lingijy, a plaee renderod eoineivlmt fiiiuoii* liy ihe 
I InWre of the Ial« Dr. Arnold, now well known in America ; 
I but wa had no opportunity even lo »oe tlie town, as tlie KUtroii- 

bouut waa not in tlje populous part. Here my son left ur, 
I And proceiideil witb tlie baggage to Liverpool, while tlio rest of 
I tbe parly remained to visit some interesting objects in llie 


Warwick CAnxE. — A lateral railroad brougbt us in Iiulf 
n hour, to Le.tiiiinglon, a mile or mora fVom the castle, and 

«Q took a carringo to be at our coramnnd. 

When I was in England in 1803, and on my way to Si'ot 

land, r visited Alnwick, the Percy Castle of Nonliumberland. 

That lino example of llie slrongbolds of the old barons of 

Engtnnd, was. matntnined in dignity and iii ftill repair, I »iiw 

Windsor Ciiisllo also, in 1805. It liaa never, 1 believe, be«n 
• neglerled, but Khb been in nil reigns a royal abode. We lind 

Beeu Chirk Cnstte, in Wnlits, early in our present tour, and tliat 
LcAMtle we bad foimd in perfect order and inhabited; and it is 
Lvery probable ibat there may be oilier ca«Ues th,il are hu«- 
Ktained, of which I have uol beard. I was very anxious to Kee 

■ Warwick Castle also, and the opportunity was now fovomble. 
i-Warwiek Oaslle is in fine condition, and is still a perfect 

nxumple of the castles of the feudal ages. I have not time tii 
) iuto its history, which is involved in that of Uio HAn of 
BEnghind, but T will say something of ils prvsent appearance, 

Tlie ground is only moderately elevated, but the height of 
Vtlio lowers giv-ea command of all the neigliburing conntiy. We 
I naccnded one of them, on itiB right of the entrance; it is 128 
[ fed high; the steps are much worn by the friction of many 
\ tiiotuauda of feet, during the long course of ccnturiua, and 

■ some of llio steps have been replaced by wool. The baM of 
f the tower is 30 feet in diameter, and the wnlU are 10 feet 

448 Warwick Castle. 

with the Normau conquest, and therefore almost 800 years 
old ; it is firm, as if it were one mass of rock ; its height is 147 

There are other towers; and battlemented walls connect 
them all around into a continued line of defence, which, as 
usual, includes a large area of ground. One portcullis still 
remains, and in entering the castle we pass beneath its pon- 
derous bars pointed downward and connected into squares. 
The present earl is 73 years of age, and his son. Lord Brook, 
is the heir apparent ; the countess has recently died at the age 
of 66. 

The dwellings of the family are included within the limits 
of the castle. We were conducted civilly, but rapidly, through 
them, in company witli other visitors, and I found it difficult 
to make those inquiries which such scenes naturally prompt 
In all the nine apartments which we saw, there was beautiful 
simplicity, combined with rich and tasteful elegance, far more 
agreeable than the gorgeous display of excessive ornament 
which wo have soon in some palaces. Every thing was in the 
most porfoct onlor, no mutilation or defacement, and less of 
the marks of time than 1 remember ever to have observed in 
any establishment which has seen many centuries and many 
generations pass away. Most of tlie pictures are very good, 
and after having seen on the Continent many of the produc- 
tions of the great masters, we entertained no doubt that 
numbers of the pictures, which we saw here, are truly attributed 
to the names which thev bear. In the hall there is an 
admirable jMcture of the unfortunate Charles I. on horseback, 
by Vaiulyck. Most of the palaces on the Continent contain 
his portrait. This surpjisses them all. The horse is bearing 
his rider directlv towards vou, but so excellent is tlie fore- 
shortening, that both horse and rider are fully seen. In the 
great hall are hung many suits of ancient armor ; and among 
them, we were assured that a helmet studded with brass, and a 
shield studded with silver, were used bv Oliver CromwolL 
'* Near the middle window is the doublet in which Lord Brook 

Warwick CAerui. 449 

JRU killei) al LiuliS«i<l in IC43." It U a jacket of thick buiik- 
tu my jiubliahetl ttavoU in Guglanil, I bavu nieutionefl, 
Jflmt llie Hou. Clmriua (Jreville. son of llie Eiirl of Warwick. 
lUutiHl bi itiu at Ilia own house (PtuldingUiU Qreea), that Lord 
K£rrK>k, wliu wns liis nncrator, viua killuil hy u single sliot, Iiy 
1 nnmt.'d Dyut. The bultlu was over, uiiil Lord Brook, 
tsnding nt tlie door of a housu, iind riii!>eil liis visor, wlicii 
S)yot, who was a sure markstunn, fired at the distanra of linlf 
■a liiil« (J) and sbol liiin througli the eye. Lord Brook and 
LLord Say, as joint patoiiluc<8| gave name to Sayhrook in 

Among the trophies in tlio groat hall am the horns of dour, 

id a magniflcent head of the great extinct Irivli vlk ; of all 

[ IboHe whicli I have sceu, this ajipoars the largt.«l. Thu horns 

o disproportionate to the heiul whieli carried tlieiii, thut It 

Ktppears astonisliing thoy could ever huvo Imii sustaitiml, and 

Euill more that they should have been rejiroducoil annually. 

Tliere are splendid tnbles of Florentiuu tnos^w;, and one 

that belonged to Mnrie Anlotnotto, the Queen of Franee. 

rkcre is also a full-length portrait, by llubens, of Ignatius 

jyula, the founder of the Jesuits. The apartm<-'Uts are rich 

D beautiful anljque fiiruiture, iu the most [lerfbet condition, with 

innumcrahle other produutjous of art. In coutro-st witli nil ihb 

elegance and splendor, is the horrid, damp, and dark dungeon 

I'benratli Cresar's tower, where slnte prisoners were confineJ, 

ider privations such as wo sliould not intliut upon brulea. 

We did not forget the famous Warwiek vase contained in 

green-bouse. It was dug out of a lake at Uadrian's VilU 

or Tivoli, where bo many otiier nia^iificent things wore 

fouud. and was obtained from the latw Sir William Hamilton, 

British ambassador to Naples. A Latin inscription euuimemo- 

rates its discovery and transfer. The vase is circular, and !U 

icily is mor<^ tlinn four barrels. It is of white marble, and 

> large banillm inwrought with vines. It stauds on a 

I bSgh pedestal at sudi on elevation, tlint when mounted on a 

il 1 CQukI not sec intp iU 

450 Warwick Castle. 

Th» v?PTir ijBi frAnt of tbe green- housc is most beautiful — it 
is an English park scene ; trees stand about in irregular posi- 
tions as they grew, and the green sward, mown and trimmed 
into perfect smoothness, looks like green velvet. The place is 
rich in trees, and among them the cedar of Lebanon is con- 
spicuous ; there are six or eight of these grand trees in perfect 
vigor, spreading their wide branches all around, so that any 
two, to have abundant room, should be 100 feet apart The 
branches are so thick as to exclude the sun ; they shoot out 
almost horizontally and depend with a gentle inclination. It is 
a rich sight indeed, and enables one to realize, in some degree, 
the appearance of glorious old Lebanon, at the period when 
her cedars were felled for the temple of Solomon. We have not 
seen any cedars of Lebanon so fine anywhere else. 

Tlie river Avon flows by the castle, and adds much to the 
picturesque effect. A relative of Lord Bagot, while rowing 
on this river, was drowned here, January 10th, 1800, and there 
is a brass tablet on the rock commemorating the sad event. 

Who could leave this castle without inquiring for the 
renowned giant Guy, Earl of Warwick ? At the porter's lodge, 
a gudo dame gives notices of his history, and points out 
appendages of his person. If wo admit the sLatement, that he 
was eight feet eleven inches high, then it may appear credible 
that the armor there exhibited was his, or, at least, that it 
was fabricated for a man of his volume and stature. I placed 
the enormous iron helmet on my own head, which was lost in it, 
and the weight would soon have been insupportable : the rest of 
the armor is in proportion, including that for the horse. In 
addition to the helmet, here are the shield, the breastplate, the 
walking-sUtF, and tilting-pole, all of enormous size. There is 
here also an immense brass caldron, called Guy's porridge pot, 
holding perhaps two barrels, with a flesh fork to correspond. 
The two-handed sword was here, all rusty with age. Wo 
have seen many of these ponderous weapons, which must have 
required a giant's strength to wield them. The height attri- 
buted to Guy is not without precedenL An Irish giant wa:* 

Kesilworth Casile. 


kliibit«iil, when 1 was in London in 1605, whose leiglit 
l^roiidieil nine feet, and a few days since I saw bis skeleton 
t«I)nro<lan<lexhiUitedin tlie museum of lliuCdlege of Surgeons, 
WWre his bones were fiunlly lodged, in spiw of his having 
K friund a retainer to carry him after death out to sea 
hd sink his body, for fear tliat Dr. Hunter would get liim. 

Kkkilworth Castle, — Scott has hung a web of fascination 
roand this castie, and wbu that has perused the slury would 
Pbtwieh to see this B|4endid ruin ! The carriage, which we had 
tajned, took us five miles to Kenilworth. On our way, we 
1 a scat called Guy's Cliff; the house appears through n 
Rig avenue of trees ; it is memorable as having been n resi- 
fflca of Guy, Earl of Warwick, and the place where he died. 
rangers are not ailniitted wbllu the family are lliere, which 
■ the casu at present. 

At Konllworlh we were very iniicK gratified by the sight 
f the highly interesting niiu of a magnificent castle. The 
Ptterior walls, which are to a considerable extent still remaiti- 
1 originally inclosed seven aerea, with several gules, moat, 
^w-bHdge, portt^ullis, and all the appendages of a strong 
idal castle. There was also u place for a tournament, and a 
Ipusidentble lake, long since dry. The country, for twenty 
tiles around, waa a forest for deer; hunting, next to war, 
fting the most favorite amusement of barons and kings. Thi« 
Dlendid castle remained perfect until it was taken by Cromwell 
i tho civil wars, when it was despoiled, broken down, and 
Sduced to the condition of a ruin. 

The grand portal was given by Cromwell to two of bis 
Ceers, who converted it into a dwelling: tliuy stopjwd tlie 
htrauce, which remains closed to tliis day, and we now 
d into tbo premises by a side _ passage. This building is 
e most perfect portion of Kenilworth ; it is still vcrj- hnnd- 
pblno, and even grand. Cromwell "gave the whole manor to 
Ivcrul of his officers, who dismantled tbo towers dnuned Iho 
ike, ctit down the woods, destroyed the park and chase, and 
i' lli ! ! j pp i i'i MW 'i fc B ii mpaag ttmftiriTt% -wtitA dm 


continued to bold till the restoration.^ The present proprietor 
of Kenilworth is Lord Clarendon. There is much previous 
hUtory regarding this castJe, especially in rdation to the war 
of Henry IIL with the Earl of Leicester, and the other revolted 
barons, but I have not time or -room for these details. 

I must not, however, omit to mention the famous vi^t of 
Queen Elizabeth to the Earl of Leicester in August, 1572, 
which is described with great minuteness by authors of that 
time. Here the Queen passed 17 days with a grand retinue, 
and attended by the highest lords and ladies. The expenses 
of the host were £1000 a day, a vast sum in those times; 
during the whole visit, ** the great clock was stopped, and the 
hand kept constantly pointing to two, the hour of dinner, 
implying that it was one perpetual banquet" Teetotal- 
ihin seems not to have been fiishionable in those days, for they 
drank 020 hogslieads of beer, besides a daily consumption of 
10 hogsheads of wine, and ten oxen were slaughtered every 
morning, livery species of amusement was introduced on that 
occji-sion, tournamtjnts, plays, music, mock fight^ bear-baiting, 
fireworks, foi^leries of clowns and tumblers, and rural sporL* 
of the jM-asantry. Jiut the pageant and the actors passed away, 
and almost J,hree centuries liave succeeded. 

In its days of glory Kenilworth Castle included an interior 
court, three sides of which are distinctly traced by the remain- 
ing towers and battlements, which have a very imposing 
aj>j)(?arance ; but one side has been broken down and removed 
so cirectually, that no trace of it can be found, except in the 
mounds of earth by which the ruins are in part covered ; the 
greater portion has been carried away to be used in building. 

I will not attempt to describe the ruins of Kenilworth, 
i'xcf])t by a few very general remarks. Several of the apart- 
ments can be distinctly traced ; the great hall in which the ban- 
(jucls were held has its walls nearly entire, as are also the rooms 
which wen^ more esjMH'ially the private accommodations of the 
Karl of L<'ice>ter, and they even designate those occupied by 
Queen Elizabeth. Some of the towers are still nearly of full 

RiDB TO Lii 


The entire Btrncture » of red snnJstone, chi&vlled nml 
jiturecl in a very beauliful manner Even the delicnW 
BtTj iu some of the windows in in n good degree pr^ervol, 
I tlm sUine has endured remarkably well ; trme has done 
man lins done much to mutilate and destroy ; hnd 
not wanton injurios been inflicted, Kenilwortli, like Alnwick, 
Warwick, Ohirk, and Windsor, would have remained in its 
pristine grandeur and beauty, Uje admiration and wonder of 

t ceding gen erfi lions. 

lUbe to JiilJtrpooI. 

^After retiring from Kuvilworth, we drove a mile to llie 
Uion-hauBe, and had liuie to enatcli a hasty lunch before wo 
were oK fur Liverpool. Our rapid ride of about lOQ miles 
pr-Tludud any very einctobservationsof tliispart of tlio country, 
through which I travelled in my former viait to England. 

We passed near to Coventry, and through Birmingham, 
where we lingered half an hour, but it added nothing to the 
iniprea^ons received in two other hasty transits, unless it were 
(<> tnaku even more conspicuous the dense volumes of blnck 
smoke vomited fimh by innumerable chimneys, add which 
tonnod a dark cloud tliot hovered over the city. This annoy- 

I) ia a part of the price which Birmingham pays for its 
nenso metallic manufactures, while, as I remarked in Marcli, 
not behind the other provincial cities of the empire, in line 
lie buildings and in sumptuous private dwellings. 
Birmin^am has been honored as the place where llio 
ta engine received its finish of perfection in the hands of 
It and Bolton ; and it has a still higher honor in possessing 
tlie Rev. Ange! Jumes, whose lalonls and bonevoloneo, us mnni- 
fi'^ied in his excellent works and iu his moel useful life, nro 
known to tlie whole Proloatant Christian world.* Tlio truest 

■ Ilf lias recently rttlrcd from liU Ubon u paitor, baving sai- 

454 ExcuKSioN TO Manguestkr, etc. 

honor of a nation resides in its great and good minds, moro 
thnh in physical structures, but the latter may result from the 
former, and then there is a double honor. 

Arrival at Liverpool. — ^The way trains of England, 
making even more frequent stops than they do in our country, 
arc not more rapid than with us, and it was nearly ten o'clock 
before we were again at our old home, the Stork Hotel in 
Queen's Square, where we found my son safely anived witli 
the luggage. Again we occupied our former comfortable apart- 
ments, and were, I trust, grateful that we had returned in safety 
and without the slightest accident, to the city and the house 
from which we first departed on our long and diversified tour 
five and a half months ago. In the mean time we had traversed 
many countries, and been conversant with nations of various 
languagos, habits and institutions ; we had never been embar- 
rasst'd in our progress, or met with any disaster, or with any 
tliinii: but kind treatment. 

Wo had interviews with our few friends in Liveqxx)! — few, 
but warm-hearted and kind in action. Mr. Taylor, Mr. Wash- 
ington Jackson and family, and Mr. Clare, a young gentleman, 
some ycai-s ago at my house, are gratefully remembered. 

Exclusion to Manchester and Norcliffe IIalu — The 
morning was occupied by arrangements having immediate 
reference to our departure on the morrow for our beloved 
countrv. 15oxes which had been forwarded from Paris and Lon- 
don having arrived, and being safe on board the Pacific, nothing 
remained but to transfer ourselves and our jKjrsonal baggage to 
the good ship. In her list of j)assengers our names were 
enrolled two or three months ago, by correspondence from 
Italy, that we might not only secure our rooms, but have a 
choice among the first, especially at a period when we might 
expect that our returning countrymen, unprecedented numbers 
of whom have been in Europe this summer, would be flocking 
to our now favorite Collins line of steam«^rs. These matters 
being all arranged, we had a few hours to spare,' and nppio- 
printod th«»m to a visit to NnrcJiffH TIall, the soat of a private 

NoRuMvi-K IIjiu.. 45.1 

ffitloman, Mr. Robert Orey, whoso rcaidonco is 15 miloa 
ifoiid Mauuh<;9tcr. Our objpct was to iitspeul liU colloctioD 
E miuiiraU, nrrnngetneuu for wbich purpoeo bad Wq kiiitlly 
by ilr. Lelaoni, formerly ruBidoiit nl Wwibinglon, 
B connection with the Diitisli embassy, I wns difslrous lUoo tu 
B a gJEUiM St Mancbeeter, aod two iraiuits, ulthougb rupiij, 
twouid serve to give ine some idua ot tlie rulnlivc growUi of this 
mtky einoe I saw it iii 1805. 

Tbis purpose was unswored, And tbc more ciTiiclually, 

KlwcMiM the railroad enters and passes MBnebeater at a level 

t&^her than the tops of Uie houses, and from tbo cars we eoiild 

a good part of the uity. It is indeed immensely cxtenilcil 

n all sidt« ; ita pupulaUuu instead uf boing, as then, leas Uiaii 

BlO0,0OO, is now, ijieluding Salford, between threo and IViur 

■'faindrtKl tltousand. A view from above rarely preseula a oity 

I ■til ftn agreeable n^peirt ; and MancLester doea not appear to 

p ftdvantage when we look down upon ils numerous small houses, 

crowded on narrow streets, roofi>d witb tilea, and presenting 

cltimnt-yB iunumanible. But «li«n we took a carriage and 

rode ibruugb the city, ample amends were mode by tbe wide 

imd hnndsoroc streets tlirongh wbieb wo passed, contatuitig 

■ muncroiu large houses, and several grand public establlsbmenls. 

hte of these was ibe Infirmary. It has a very extensive front 

rhad wings; and I was pleaxed to hear that Uio benevolent 

Iffenny Lind had erected one of them. On our return Cmiu 

If excursion to Noreliffe Hall, as we then travelled in a private 

BBrriogc, we had opjMrtunity to admire llie numerous, ample. 

Ud beautiful country-fieats, whieb adorn tlie environs of Mnn- 

l^9l«r. While they prove the necumulation of wcnlLh by 

uiy individuals, they equally evince arcliitectural skill in tlie 

dldings, and rural taste in the laying out and embellishment 

if tJie grounds. 

NonruFFE Uali. — The vill^g(^s through which we passed 
fo in a state of exeilJimimt on account of races in the vicinity, 
1 a favorite aniusMnonl with the English, and wo were not 

456 NoRCLiFFE Hall. 


WO were stinding at the door of a miserable dirty alc-hoasc^ 
waiting for the return of a carriage which had gone to cany 
people to the races, an old man thrust his hand into the coat 
pocket of Mr. B., who instantly hurled him into the street : he 
staggered but did not fall ; he seemed too dnmk to be offended, 
antl perhaps was hardly conscioas of what he did. 

Although doubtless many such instances might have been 
found on the race-course, it is but justice to say that this is 
only the second instance of drunkenness which I have met 
witli in England,* although faces red with beer-blossoms are not 
uncommon among the cab and coachmen, and in such cases 
I have generally observed that the men were ragged, their car- 
riages worn and dirty, and their horses poor. 

Arrived at Norcliffc Hall, we had to regret that Mr. Grey 
was not at home ; but his steward treated us very kindly, gave 
us a lunch, and opened for us the mineralogical cabinets, to see 
whi('h had boon the object of our visit. The minerals are 
arranged in drawers, and we inspected them with interest and 
pleasure; the cabinet contains a choice collection of specimens, 
and fonnorly belonged to the late Mr. Allan of Edinburgh. 

It appeared that Mr. Groy had expected us to stay over the 
niglit, whi(;h explains his absence in Manchester, where he has 
an olhce, and was to arrive at an hour later than we could wait 
consistently with our returning in the cars from Manchester to 
Liverpool. After passing nearly three hours, we left notes of 
aj)ol()u:y and took our departure ; not, however, without looking 
at the beautitul territory of Mr. Grey, which is laid out and 
embollished with the tiusteful elesrance of English rural scenes. 
The house is completely in the country, and surrounded by 
trees, groves, and green banks in the most perfect order. 

The appearance of the fields, between London and Liver- 
jK)ol, demands a few remarks. The russet brown of Autumn 
is beginning to apjxjar, especially in the fields of wheat and 
oats, the harvesting of which, and of the crop of horse beans, 

* None on tlic Continent. 


Appkabancb op riis CoosTRr. 


is now drawing ne&r to a close. The hay U also, to a great 
extent, mown, and although the meadows still retain their ver- 
dure, il U not the fresh remal green, which we saw in our 
transit through England and Wales, in the early spiing. I 
have more tUaa ouue mentioned the abundance of the crop of 
wheat on the Coulinvot ; it is also abundant in Kugland, ivLosu 
fields are rich with an exubcriinl harvest 

Wti have every where met the wheat banest coming to 
tnatonty, progressively as we have travelled north, Tlie harvest 
'wsa mature in Sicily in May; and now, in Englnnd, we haTu found 
it ripe for galhering in, during August; near Liverpool and in 
the north, in the lost days of that month or in the first of tlioeo 
of September, 

The country is still beautiful with an intense verdure in tito 
postures, parks, and pleasure grounds, and in fact it does not 
oeaAs even in winter. The trees ue nuaerous in Engknd ; 
th« hedge-rows and divisions of fields are generally adorned 
with rows of trees', and clusters, and even groves, are not very 
nncommon. Indeed in looking across a wide range of country, 
llie trees in the divisions of fields are so groupvd in tlio petspeetive, 
that the oountry Bpi>ear^ almost as if in fua>st. Some fields 
are ueglccli«l, when bushes spring up in tliem, as with us, and 
the hedge-rows in some districts are suffered to shoot in wild 
exuberance, cfiectuatly indeed as regards protection against 
OUtlu, but without that finished beauty which in the Itest culti- 
vated parts of England presents a perfect pictur« of rural 

We wore delighted with the fine herds of cattle wid sheep, 
which we saw in great numbers graritig in the fields. In some 
parts the cattle were black, but more generally white and bUck, 
or white and red, occasionally entirely while. I have been 
Struck with tlie more extended cultivation of England since my 
fermer vi«t Still common lands arc found, prot^'clod, 1 sup- 
pose, by prescriptive rights, Clapham Common still shows n 
wide oxti-nt of l^nd covorLvl witli fittao and Torn, and on tlm 
to Maudi^(«r we s;p(. very ei^lfiqttv? iWVS l^ll witU ^UL 

458 LiYiRPOOL TO Nkw-Tobk. 

beautiful heath in fiill blossom, and apparently almost to the 
exclusion of other plants. 

Regrets on leaving Europe, must of course be many 
with every intelligent traveller, especially if an Aoierican ; for 
unless he has years at his disposal, he will* be compelled to 
make painful sacrifices. 

Some of my readers may be disappointed to find that I 
have, although necessarily, omitted a large class of institutiona 
intimately connected with the interests of bumanity. I allude 
to hospitals, asylums for the insane, for the blind, for the deaf 
and dumb, and for orphans ; refuges for the poor, houses of 
reform, prisons and penitentiaries.* 

Among the omissions relating to science, which I had the 
most cause to regret, was the exploration of the tertiary basin 
of Paris, especially Mont Matre, and the volcanic district of 

These places and many more were included in our plan of 
travelling, but we were compelled to pass them by. My last 
and greatest source of regret was Scotland, and especially 
Edinburgh, which is, in my memory, associated with very 
interesting recollections of my youth. Almost to the last 1 
cherished the hope of revisiting Scotland, but the Continent had 
detained us too long. Imperative duties and engagements at 
home alone prevented my waiting for the next steamer, that 
good old Scotland might have been seen again, but it is still 
loved as of yore ; I was compelled most reluctantly to submit 
to iin]K;rioiis necessity. 

^lintpul to ITeto-gflrk. 

September 2 to J 4. — The pecijliarities of ocean steam nav. 
gation having been recorded in the outward passage, only a 
very brief notice of tlfo return voyage will be given. 

* Amply illustrated l^y Bifrs. Fry, William Allen, Siyr Tbonuf 
BoxtOD, and my late friend, Jqhn Grisoon). 


. Nicw-Yo 

The Pictric, another Collins mul-sbip, lay in Ihu uiouth 
if axis Menicy, aud we boarded )icr in a sranll itoanicr crowded 

■ by pMaengcra and their friunds the Intkr ^ing out for n uke- 
1 leave. Already the people of the sliip were in active pniparR- 
I tloQ fur our immediate departure, and tliere wna hardly ttma 
I Ibr a hasty ndieu before, at half-past two o'clock, p. u., onr 
I noble Rhip was in motion. Soon Liverpool, with its cpirM and 
I forest of masts rapidly receding from view, sunk beneath the 
I lioriiton, while evening was upon us l)eforo we had rounded the 
lisle of Anglesea. A quiet night, in the Irish Channel, was 
I ibilowed by a pleasant morning; the coast of green Erin was 
B on our right, and ere noon, wo passed again the ever roeniOT- 
1 able and ever moumfiil head of Old Kinsale. The Pacific bora 
1 Blong about 400 persona, of whom one half were passengers. 

:k Ezra Nte, an able seaman, and a courtiioua geu' 

I Ueman, was our commaiider. Our second ni^ht found us on 

a broad Atlantic, pushing bravely onward, under the united 

' fbroc of steam upon our wheels and of a fair wind in our caU' 

vas. Delightful weather, a smooth sou, and n log of 300 

miles for twenty-four boura, favored the willing delusion that, 

IB we had bogun, so we should go on, and tlius shun tlie rough 

L knd tumble of tbo ouean. But, vain hope I The next morning, 

■ 'All on a sudden, the wind chopped around, am! cnmu exactly 
B abend. All sails were furled, and a heavy sea soon filled 
B our before cheerful saloons with sad faces, and the sofas and 
rBGlteea with disconsolate patients. For fuur successive days 

nd tbn^e nights we encountered an unrelenting atorm. The 

Bwind blow an advene gale, and the waves ran high ; but out 

mng ship, with able management, despite of tlie tremendous 

■ t)p|xMing forces, kept steadily on her course, ani] mode more 
n 200 miles in every twenty-four honre. Like n !>e»^1l, 

■he rode, with graceful ease, upon the billows, and plunged 

hdown into their yawning valleys, only to riso again upon tho 

fewBt of the BUdcedinfT wave. RIio never dipped her bow, or 

dipped a aua, although the dashing »pray often showered her 

460 LiYiBPOOL TO Nkw-Yobx. 

To those who were wdl, it was a sublkne and beiuitifii] 
aght, but to most of the passengen it was a scene of severe 
suffering. Some of the Udies reclined upon the sofiu, while 
the greater number kept their beds ; and many a strong man 
was prostrated. Among the exempts were three gentl^nen of 
our party. For myself^ I was not disturbed even for a moment^ 
but walked the deck with a firm step, and was never absent 
from my place at the table, where there were long rows of 
vacant seats. 

But on the evening of the fourth day the sea went down, 
and the howling wind was lulled to a gentle breeze, while a 
splendid sky, with richly-colored clouds ia the west, and a 
bow of promise in the east, gave us assurance of a hapf^ com- 
ing morning. 

Our languid invalids were assisted to the upper deck, when 
their faces began to glow in sympathy with the beautiful 
heavens, and to catch responsive smiles of gratulation. 

A quiet night followed ; and the next day, September 10, 
was one of positive enjoyment Many of the ladies returned 
to the almost deserted tables; their features resumed tlieir 
woDte<l lustre, and, leaning upon a stronger arm, they wero 
able to walk the upper deck. Before evening of this reviving 
day we were alongside of Newfoundland, coasted for twenty 
leagues within a mile or two of its bleak and rock-bound 
coast, passed Cape Race, and at night left behind its last head- 
land. Cape Pine, from which a brilliant revolving light, ever 
grateful to the mariner, threw its cheerful beams over the 
ocean. The coast is boundo<i by a barrier of apparently pri- 
mary slaty rocks, which dip at a high angle beneath the waves, 
form a bold shore, with deep water, and in good weatlier 
afford safe navigation. 

All around, ujx)n the vjist bosom of tlie deep, and in the 
very verge of the horizon, we sjiw innumerable vessels fishing 
for cod — fishing on the long-celebrated shoals, the Banks of 
Newfoundland. The shores wero verdant on the slopes of the 
hills, but the country was witliout trees^ txnd we descried only 


1 N'Kw-Voiui. 



hero *nd there a. house or ivo, in some sheltered cove, Joutil- 
Jen the abodes of fishermoii. The island conUunH 100,000 in- 
bahitantfi ; and 150 mileii to the north ia St. Johns, its lorgmt 

Our r»pid progress continued, and our greatest log waa 
826 miles in twenty-four hours. In a thick fog, on tha 1 2th, 
while under tearful headway, wo just raisaeU, and only niisaed, 
A collision with a large ship Bailing on the opposite conrs& 
The crash, hod we met, would have been fatal ; bnt God pru- 
■erred ua! 

This very sliip, the Paci6c, only one day out from New- 
York, on her last passage to Liverpool, ran over a brig, which 
went down ; but her people wore all saved, and are now on 
board, having sailed to England am the oidy way of return- 
ing home. Colli»ion is one of the greatest dungeia encountered 
in navigation ; it is, indeed, not peculiar to stetiiueTB, but is 
tdore to be dreaded in them, on account of their greater spceil 
and tlwir raaseleas progreaa, whether iu storms or calms, in 
dense fogs or under a starry sky, or lunid tempests of snow, and 
in impenetrable darkness. 

In tiie absence of amusement — for even the sea-birds, 
porpoises, and whales have rarely visited us — the pasgeiigorn 
have resorted to a very rational source of entertainment 

An Ocb&h Concbrt. — Among our intelligent and agree- 
able passengers was Miss Catherine Hayes, with her friends, 
snd a corps of performed. She b not only an accomplished 
vocalist, but a polished and ffltimablo lady; and she cheerfully 
agreed to tlie proposal for a conoert, with the assistance of a 
part of her own fine band, and several volunteer singers. 

The large saloon was our orchestra ; and while we heard 
without the hoarse roar of tlie billutvs. and tlie sighing of 
the winda, within we had a full bunt of vocal and instrumen- 
tal harmony, whicli attracted not the passengers only, bat 
of the ship's company, who, as if spell-bound, hung 
d the oompanion way. Our concert produced two hun- 

462 Liverpool to Nbw-Yobk. 

dred dollars, whidi Miss Hayes generoualy retioquiBhied m a 
present to the eeamen. 

A cheerfbl day followed, with a biilliaDl Aj\ and our ra- 
oovered invalids, the more happy for having been ill, were 
bright and joyous. 

As we passed along the ooeao^boreof Long Island, with m 
smooth sea, the promenade deck was so steady that at the ap- 
proadi of evening all our happy passengers were assembled 
there, as if for a review ; but it was a review of a splendid 
celestial display by which our prosperous voyage was U> be ter- 

A heavy thunderstorm was just breaking up ; and as its 
Mack clouds were rolling away west and sooth, the lightning 
played among their dense masses with intense splendor ; now 
darting zig-zag, in forked lines, now shooting out in fiery 
arrows, and now blazing in one universal illumination. 

Evening twilight was upon us, when the sun, partially 
veiled, presented a well-defined orb of fire, while his setting 
rays, slanting upward, painted the clouds with azure, crimson, 
green and gold^-colors delicately beautiful, and splendidly 
gorgeous, but every moment changing their hues. The double 
illumination of the sun and the lightning produced a scene 
which was most magnificent, as if liglit effulgent from the 
Tlirone of God had burst out in overwhelming splendor upon 
this lower world. 

To the European voyagers emigrating to our country, and 
who now, for the first time, beheld the glorious illumination of 
an American sky, it was intensely exciting and delightful, and 
tlicir expressions of surprise and admiration knew no bounds. 

When the sun's upper limb, reduced at last to a line of glow- 
ing yellow light, shining like an ingot of burnished gold, sunk 
beneath the horizon, the whole company, as if by a simultaneous 
impulse, gave the retiring monarcli of day three hearty cheers 
for pood night. 

It was not quite fully dark when we arrived at Sandy 
Hook, and we looked in vain for a boat ; for, with the aid of a 



pilot, we might have boen moored in the dock in Ma«on tu 
■ sleep on shore. Agnin and ngain bluu lights Vfure burned, nnd 
rockets shot ofi| and cannon fired, but do pilot cmbw, nnd wi> 
dropped anchor for the night, safe and happy, however, in a 
quiet ship, while wo were lulled to sleep by the music of the 
surf breaking on the shores, which now closed in all around us. 

It was early on a Sabbath morning, September 14, wliun 
the pilot arrived, and ouranchore were again heaved. As wo 
passeil the Narrows, our eyes were delighted by the green 
shores of Long and Slaten Islands, Soon we entered the 
great expanded bay, adorned by villas, villages, and cities, by 
a vildemees of masts, and by sailing ships, and dashing 
summers, which imparted life to the scene. 

Our gallant Pacific being moored at the dock, wo hastened 
to bid farewell to our fellow-passengors. With several reflnod 
and lovely people, gentlemen and ladies, with whom we had 
beiwrae intimate, wo exchanged a warm adieu, and our own 
harmonious little family now separated to the abodes of our 

For myself, I resorted to Brooklyn, to the house of tliat 
brother to whom tlie narrative of my early travels was ml- 
dressed, and who was permitted now to witness the happy con- 
clusion of another foreign tour, performed in tlie evening, as the 
early one was in the morning, of life. 

Being in season for divine service, I was glad to resort 
once man, in my own land, to the temple of Jehovah, and 
with a heart grateful for our preservation, I was delighted to 
unite in a spiritual worship with my near relatives and felluw- 
Clinelians. The neit day restored me to my own house in 
Now Daven, to the warm welcome of many friends, aud the 
affeclionute embraces of my children. 


St. Pbtbr's is beyond the "fiber, on llie oxtronio west of Uw 
tnrxlern <;ily, quitu out of tbe Itmiteof tbe Kome of t)io CiL-9an>, 
sail is not inuladed within llie nnciont witlla, although it is sur- 
roimiicd by Uie modem defences. 

T^a a|>parent mngiiitiide of iho grenl temple is, perhapB, 
rather dinrinishcd tliun incrensod, by tho vast double colon- 
nadci, which nearly incloses t)io eilcnsivu niva in front of tho 

I CblTPch 

P^eh colonnade is conipoeod of four rows of columns, ar- 
ranged in the form of a bow, bending outnard. Near the 
t«Ri|.<1e, (he colonnades form a right angle, thus bringing tho op- 
posite rows parallel, and in that way they protwed to the build- 

Tlie number of columas in tile t«o colonnndes is 284, beoidea 
64 i^Wcrs, They are crowned with coloMal Rtaliies, which, 
with those standini; on pedestals in thb immense court, nro 
nboui 200 in numW, and, as well ns those on I he temple 
iUelf, tliyy st'em like warriors poslod tJiere in jteejilnss". 

To Uie summit of the temple we ascended up the inelinnd 
piano, circling around within thu buildinir, wilJi nn ncclivily 
so gentle that we mituntnl without (atigue, even to the galli^ry, 
wliivth, nt tlio elevation of 400 frvl. i-nrin-les Hie v.ixt dnmo. 
The ball is utill higher, and »ome pBrwms n*i*nd i-ivn to tliHt, 
The proipecl from both is very cxfn'ive and iniignifkwnt. It is 
iIm «>«BiM^Mt«f thMfmS' Ua (m^ of the cftpitol, and both 

460 Non OK St. Pbtbe^ 

oonspire to afford a complete new of die Btenal CSty, and of 
its enviroiia. 

All of Rome, both ancient and modem, the fall area both 
of the city of the Caesan and the citj of the Popes, was before 
us ; and we reviewed at our leisure the seven hills, and the 
winding Tiber, vbible from this position without impediment 
through its tortuous course. Within the walk (^ancient Borne 
is included a large area, now almost in a state <^ desolation'*- 
an area twice or thrice as large as that covered by the Rome 
of the Popes, which, being very near, was most distinctly visible 
from our elevated position. Looking towards the city, the 
Janiculum hill was on our right, with its high walls battered 
into breaches by the French in their late invasion ; and in the 
same r^on were the desolated parks and rural palaces, now in 
ruins, that once crowned these beautiful heights. Immediately 
before us was the frowning Castle of St Angelo, being the 
tomb of Hadrian and of other emperors, but for many centuries 
the fortress of the Popes, and now the stronghold of the 
French army. On our left was the hill of Monte Mario, and 
the Flaminian Way, leading out of the Porta del Popolo to 
the north, as the Appian Way leads to the south. We saw 
also the distant mountains of Etruria, and Latium, Soracte on 
the norUi, and the Alban Hills, in the east, with many towns 
and \illages upon them, beyond the intervening Campagna. 

As we looked down upon the temple itself, we became the 
more sensible of the vast dimensions of this immense pile,* 
and admired the talents and skill that could devise and com- 
bine all its parts into a harmonious whole, which may endure 
for ages beyond the three centuries that have already measured 
its existence. 

We rested awhile in the gallery around the interior of the 
dome, where we were much impressed by the great height of 
the concave over our hejuls, and the still greater depth below. 
Tliere, too, we saw how colossal are the figures which from be- 

* In lengUi 018 feeL St Fbura, in T^ondon, i« 6S0 feet 


8r. Pk 


Mth nppmr only of common dimensiona. The little cberii1«, 
P«faen we npproaclieil lljcm, bei'ame gianU ; and the fresco or- 
narao□t^ which from the pavement seem to delicate, hore ap- 
pear coarse, and almost without beauty. 

When wo descended from the dome to the roof of tJie main 

building, we seemed to bo walking on a solid mounCnin of stone, 

and so numerouH are the balconies and various projcoljona, that it 

appeared liko a village ; when we approached Uie batuslrado wo 

' were inclosed by a high barrier of stone which we could hardly 

I look over, and ultrs-coloasal figuren, hewn from the solid route, 

F towered in majesty before us, three or four times the height of 

our own pigmy stature. Apostles, saints, and martyrs slAnd as 

sentneB on the temple. Statues are also very numerous in the 

interior of St Peter's. They are generally of marble, and 

sometimes of bronze. The statues of the Popes and their 

shrmes are of great dimensions. The ^ar