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> 8» 7 











Of ike Middle Temple, Barrutier-at-Law, Lord Almoner^ e Reader and Frofenor fff Arabic 
and Fellow qfSt. John*i College in the Univerei^ of Cambridge, 






[All rights reserved.'^ 







Preface v 

Tub SiMPLiriED Grammar 1 

Table op Irregular Verbs 36 

Table tor A.H., and A.D. . . . .41 

The Diotiokaey. 


The full and sympathetic "Life of Edward Henry Palmer " 
which Mr. Besant has lately brought out exonerates me 
from adding any biographical notice of my friend to his 
posthumous work. It will, therefore, only be needful to 
explain what my task has been in preparing this Dictionary 
for the press. 

On my return to London from the East in November, 
1882, I learned that all hope had been abandoned, and 
that there was no doubt that the three brave men, Gill, 
Charrington and Palmer, had met their fate in the Wady 
Sudr. A few weeks later I was requested by Mr. N. 
Triibner to see through the press this Second Part of the 
Persian Dictionary, some pages of which had already been 
set up in type. On consulting Mrs. Palmer as to her 
wishes, I was happy in being able to obtain her full con- 
sent to the proposal of Mr. Triibner, and was immediately 
placed in possession of the slips which Professor Palmer 
had prepared, the greater portion of which I found had 
remained at his house, though some were already in the 
Lands of the Publisher. 


As long ago as the spring of 1880, Professor Palmer had 
shown me many bundles of these slips, and fortunately 
then explained to me the method he intended to pursue in 
the compilation of the second, or English -Persian part of 
the Dictionary. 

The basis of the work was the First Part, the Persian- 
English, a copy of which had been cut up, and each 
paragraph pasted on a separate slip in order that the 
English renderings might be arranged alphabetically. 

In this manner a good stock of words was acquired, but 
much still remained to be done in the way of elimination 
and addition, while some considerable alterations also were 
needed to render the English word -list complete; this last 
especially, inasmuch as in Persian the number of simple 
verbs is extremely limited, and further, the majority of the 
Persian compound verbs would only occur in the reversed 
Dictionary, under the English noun or participle, not under 
the more appropriate infinitive: e.g. 'To advise^ would be 
represented by 'Advice,' because the Persians, to express 
the verb, make use of the phrase * To give advice.^ In 
1880 I discussed this with my friend, and remember his 
then telling me that he intended merely to indicate in its 
proper place the auxiliary verb to be used with the noun 
or participle, avoiding thus the repetition involved by 
adding separate paragraphs for each compound verb; but 
I found that up to the time of Professor Palmer^s last 


ill-fated journey no steps had been taken to indicate these 
auxiliary verbs, though the word-list proper had been con- 
siderably augmented by him. 

No one can be bettei: aware than myself of the dis- 
advantages under which the book labours in never having 
been revised by the hand of its learned author. I have 
endeavoured to carry out what I believe to have been the 
intention of my friend. I have made additions to nearly 
every paragraph for the purpose above indicated, such as 
he would assuredly have made had he lived; and I have 
also completed the list of words from my own reading 
and colloquial knowledge, and from the works of my pre- 
decessors, Messrs A. N. Wollaston, A. Berge, J. B. Nicolas, 
and others. 

The Persian Grammar which stands at the head of this 
work originally appeared as the second section in the 
''Simplified Grammars of Hindustani, Persian and Arabic," 
published in 1882. For this such slight alterations as 
were needed in the references have been made, and on one 
or two occasions I have added an explanation of my own 
in square brackets [ ]. In all other respects this portion 
is merely a reprint, for the benefit of those who may be 
learning Persian but not Hindustani and Arabic. 

Furthermore, I have written out a Table of the Persian 
(so-called) Irregular Verbs, and also a short note with refer- 
ence to the years of the Hejrah, 


As regards the transliteration employed in the work- 
bearing in mind that the object was merely to give the 
pronunciation, and that the Persian original invariably pre- 
ceded^ — it has been deemed sufficient to use but one dotted 
letter (*), consequently the Persian homophones of the 
Arab Alphabet have not been indicated. Furthermore, as 
in Part I., no difference is shown in the Persian character 
between the G and K^ since the diacritical bar is never 
written in Modern Persian, while the letter to be pronounced 
is clearly indicated in the transliteration following. 


46, Chaeles Street, Maypair, 

September, 1883. 


Mb. N. Trubner has lately called my attention to a work 
professing to be the composition of Sorabshaw Byramji 
Doctor^ but which is in fact no more than an incorrect 
reprint of Professor Palmer's Persian-English Dictionary. 
Mr. S. B. Doctor is *' Persian Teacher '^ in the "Surat High 
School,^^ and his book is printed at the "Irish Presbyterian 
Mission Press/' at Surat, in the year 1880. 

Professor Palmer in 1881 had seen this Dictionary, and 
had some intention of seeking legal redress^ but other 
matters had occupied him up to the time of his last 
disastrous journey ; and it therefore remains to me, in 
vindication of the literary honour of my friend, to warn 
the public of this attempt to take away from Professor 
Palmer the fruit of his labours. Mr. S. B. Doctor, it is 
true, does notice Johnson's Persian and Arabic Dictionary^ 
together with some others as having "been consulted in 
the preparation of this Manual;'' and here and there in 
his work we find some pages so altered as to imply that 
they were borrowed elsewhere ; but there is no mention of 
the work of Professor Palmer, from v?\v\c\i\vaa \^fc\i ^o^v^ 


at least nine-tenths word for word. It seems to me need- 
less to print long parallel columns of extracts from the 
two books in proof of the above assertion : but I will 
quote a passage which had caught the eye of Professor 
Palmer, where Mr. Doctor had ignorantly copied an ortho- 
graphical error, for I find in the handwriting of my friend, 
"My mistake bbpeated,^^ written on a slip of paper and 
stuck into the pirated edition of Surat. 

FrofessorFalmer's Dictionary, 


\ zain. Z. The eleventh letter 
of the Arabic and thirteenth 
of the Persian alphabets. 

7 zhd, Zh. The fourteenth 
letter of the Persian alpha- 

p. J zi. See^U 

A. ^}^J zdhiL Short, dwarfish. 

p. ^\j zdj. Vitriol. 

p. A. ^>--j— ji m;\j zdj i ahyaz. 

p. j^ J^j zdj i sabz. Green 

P. ^jfS^ ^\j zdj i kahud. Blue 

A. \^J^\j zdhif. Fatigued. 
&c., &c., &c. 

Mr. Doctor's JEdition, 

J ze is the thirteenth letter of 
the Persian and eleventh of 
the Arabic alphabets. In 
the denotation of numbers 
by the Arabic letters it 
stands for 7. 

P. J ze (contract, for jl). 

p. J-_>]; zdhil, adj. Short, 

P. ^Ij zdj, 8. Vitriol. jA \^ 
Alum, y^ ^1^ Green Vitriol. 
:>^j^l; BliTe Vitriol. 


A. uJ».l^ zdUf, adj. Fatigued, 


It is almost needless to point out that the mistake of Pro- 
fessor Palmer, ^)_-jl — ]) (for ,ji---*l •.!)) has been copied by 
Mr. S. B. Doctor, verbatim et literatim, as is the manner dis- 
played in the remainder of his work. 

G. LE S. 




The Persian Alphabet is a modification of the Arabic. It is 
\t ritten from right to left. 


! Alify a,eyi,0fOT u This is the spiritus lenis of the Gn?ek, 

a mere prop to rest an initial vowel on. 
i^ Be, b 

%z> Te, i A soft dental t like the Italian. 


As in English. 

1^ 8e, 8 

^ Jim, j \ As in English. 

^ Ohe, ch 

^ He, h An aspirate strongly breathed out from 

. the ehest« 






Like eh in Welsh or Gt 



German eh as pronounce 

J Da/, 


A soft dental das in Italic 

J Zii/, 


As in English. 

J ^. 


A distinctly pronounced r. 

J Ze, 


As z in English. 

^ Zhe, 


Like the French j in jow 

^ Stlly 


ui SMn, 




^ As in English. 

^ Zddp 


j Properly pronounced with 

k Td, 


full against the front 

]i Zd. 



palate, but ordinarily pre 
o and^. 

^Ain, ' 

at etc. 

A guttural sound only hea 

in Persia it is not often 


c, Ghain^ 

. y^ 

A guttural sound sotuet 

French r grasseye. 

i^ lb, 


As 1T\ "Eng^rfx* 




d Edf, k 

^ Odf* g 

J Ldm, I 

• VdVf V 



A yery guttural ky like (?ib in thick^ only 
much stronger. 

As in Eoglisb, but j^ is always hard be- 
fore all vowelsy as ^ giy pronounced 
gheey not jee. It is sometimes also 
pronounced with a slight y sound, like 
the Cockney mode of pronouncing the 
g in gardeUy "gyarden." When it 
occurs between two vowels it is often 
sounded like y, Vi&^ eyer. 

As in English: before h ot fit is sounded 
as m. 

Nearly as in English, but a little in- 
clined to w. 

As in English. 

These are joined to the preceding letter by prefixing a small 
curve or stroke, and to the following letter by removing the 
curve with which they all but alifendi : thus 






O u> 

* [In modem Persian, print or MS., the diacritical bar distinguiahm^ 
^g from e^ ?e is rarely emplojeSi,'] 





































^ J ^ if deprived of the cunre would become unrecpgnizaUe ; 
hence they do not join to the left. 

The aboYO letters are all consonants. 

The Yowels are 1 1» (as in huU)^ and 1 a (pronounced like u 
in but) J both written above the letter; and . i written below 
the letter. 

Combined with \ a, j w^ and (j y, these become f aa (a), 
J uw (m), {J iy (*), J aw (pronounced as ow in eouy)y ^Jai (like 

No word can commence with a vowel in the Arabic character : 
if it does the vowel is introduced by alif I 

When a syllable begins with a vowel, the mark 1 hamzeh is 
used to introduce it. 

But this hatnzeh being written above the line requires a 

* fSometlmea prououiiced 1\]l« «^ vatfiA)),! 


prop: this in the case of a is 1^ in the case of u it is j,* and in 
the case of i it is ij* only that in the initial form this last is 
[often] distinguished from the ordinary y by losing its dots : 
e.g. JI5-. su-dlf "a question ;" J^ mas-uly "inquired of;'* »jJl» , 
fd'idah^ " advantage." ' 

* Tashdid doubles the letter it is placed over. 

^ Sukun shows that the letter it is placed oyer has no vowel. 

'* Wasldh is only used over an initial altfin an Arabic word, 
or over the Arabic article Jl al^ and shows that it is elided. 

^ Maddah is placed over an initial alif^ and shows that it 
should be pronounced long, as ^jXi\dmadan^ " to come." 

If the first letter of an Arabic word be a sibilant or liquid 
the article Jl ii^ elided before it, and the consonant itself 
doubled^ as ^Ul j^js. 'avdmrnu-nnai^*^ common people,'' 4UI Juc 

'dbdurlUh, "Abdullah " (the servant of Allah). 


[In Persian words j after >> followed by a long vowel is not 
pronounced, e,g, ^J^ khtsh, ^^\j>> khdatan."] 

In old Persian, and in the language as spoken in India at 
the present day, the long j and ^ have two sounds, u and «, 
called %^jj»* tnd'riiff "known," and and ^, called ^^i^^najMly 
"unknown." The modem native of Iran does not [often] 
employ the latter sounds. 




^ The Pabtb of Spsich. 

Like other languages, Peraian contains three parta of speech, 

namely, Nouns, Verbs, and Particles. 

It is useful to bear in mind the meaning of these words* 
The Noun is the name of a thing (nomen) ; the Verb ia the 
action word; and the Particle is a useful word not requiring 
to be defined bj inflection or conjugation, but itself used to 
define, qualify, or restrict other words. 

Old Persian — or rather Zend — had a very elaborate gram- 
matical system. This has disappeared, and we have the rela- 
tions of words to each other expressed in modem Persian with 
a simplicity equalled only by our own English. 


Oasis ojr Noukb. 

The only case-ending for Nouns which has survived is U ri 
for the objective. 

The other relations which the case-ending of other languages . 
imply are expressed by the ixdfat^ and by the use of such pre- 
positions as ^ fta, " to," l| W, " with," ^ az, " from,"^ Jar, 
" upon/'y> dar, " in," etc. 

Izdfat implies the relation of one person or thing to another, 
aa genitive and dependent, or ttubataxktl're «ad «k.d\Q<&t\.^e. 


Of the application of izdfat and the use of the ohjective case 
I shall speak when I come to treat of the Syntax. 

The Yocatiye is formed bj prefixing ^1 at, as ai mardy " O 
man ! '' or (poetical) bj a£5xing \ d, as dustd, *^ friend ! '* 

The language has no article, but a common noun is re- 
tricted to unity, expressing one (specified or not) of the species 
and no more, by adding (j. When this is the J^|:^ ^^b yd-e 
mqjhul (see p. 5) it makes the word indefinitOi whether it be 
a noun ova verb. 

NovncB Sttbstaktitb akd Anjsonyi. 

All nouns are concrete, that is, substantive. 

A noun only exercises the functions of an adjective by being 
used in a subservient manner as qualifying another word ; e.g. 
^^ ^ mard i hhuh, '' a good man," not as in English (where 
good is abstract and meaningless without the substantive being 
expressed), but '' a man (I mean) a good one :" hence we can 
use a so-called *' adjective" as a substantive, as ^j^ khubt, ^' a 
good (man)," »j^ murdah^ "a dead (man)," whereas in English 
to say ^'a good," *' a dead," is nonsense. There is, in fact, no 
such thing as an adjective, though one substantive may be used 
to qualify another. 



The Plural is formed by affixing 

^j\ an for rational 

creatures ; 
and U hd for irrational 


as ij^^ marddny " men," l^^ sanghd^ " stones." 

When (he word ends in silent s A an euphonic (sTis ins* 
as txj handah, "a slave," ^l^j;; bandagdn, ** slaves.** If 
in \ dy an euphonic (^ y is introduced ; as lib </ana, *^ 
pi* ^J^\i\^ ddndydn, 

Persian, borrowing so much from Arabic, has adopted 
plurals from that language, i at the end of a word, repr 
ing the Arabic i, often becomes o1 di in the plural, acc< 
to the Arabic usage. 

In "irrational" words derived from the Arabic, Persian 
frequently use the Arabic plural, but they insert a^' for eu 
in the case of the feminine plural in ot dt'^ as Axii koTi 
fortress, pi. cili kild\* or oU^ kaVajdty " fortresses.** 
even erroneously transfer this construction to purely P 
words; as 4sJi»y navishtah, **a writing," oUF**^ navis) 
"writings;** but this is only done in words implying ai 
tional being or thing. 

* The irregnUr or <* broken" Arabic pluraU are treated of 
Arabic Grammar, [and those in common use will be found 


When the Arabic feminine in • as g is affixed to a noun im« 
plying a rational object, as j^JU» mashuky ^ beloved/' AiyLn^ 
ma'shukah, **a mistress,'* it becomes at, and not jdt. 

In colloquial Persian U Aa is used as the plural for nearlj 
all words, rational and irrational alike. 


In some words the Arabic dual form is borrowed ; as wi^k 
taff, "a side," ^J» tarfain,*^ the two sides" or "parties": 
this always ends in ^ ain. 


Erom a grammatical point of view the Persian language has 
no gender. Of such words as^j^ pader, " father," ^^U mdder, 
*' mother," the gender is self-evident ; and in cases where it is 
necessary to make the distinction other additional words are 
used, such as s^U mddah, " female," ^ nar, " male "; thus, 
y ji S^v i noTy " a bull," s^U ji gdv i mddah, " a cow." JFor 

human beings, ^ mard, " man," ^^ zatiy " Woman," are added; 
as .^^ ju pir i mard,^ an old mau," c^ j:^j pir i zan, "an old 

Sometimes different words are employed, as in English, to 
distinguish the sexes ; as ^ jc gMeh, " a ram," ^Ji^ mM, " a 
ewe " (hut m literary Peraian yj^ wgaVBL'B^*^ t^TWfiL'*''^\ w-^ 


U9p^ ''a horse,*' ^U^L» mddi^n^ "a mare," {j"x^ khuruSy 
" a cock," ^liU mdkiydn, " a ken." 


_ • 

The Personal Pronouns are : 

^ fTioft, I, ph U mdf we. 

jj H, thou, ,, Uj^ shumdf you. 

jl tt, he, ,1 ^^\Ji^\ ushdn, thej (those).* 
^1 fit, this, „ ^IjLil ishdn, thej (those). 

The only thing to notice in ^ man and j> ^tf is that in the 
objectiye case they become ]^ merd (for man+rd), \^ turd 
(for ^tf+i"^, the rnual ^^ and the /ofi^ vowel both becoming 

In ^1 fit and j1 m, and their plurals, we notice that 
f or y expresses n^ar relation, and i^ or ta expresses renwte 

^^1 ^it, ''this," JT 4ii, ''that," make ^^y ishdn and ^1^1 
4ihdn in the plural for rational beings: but they some* 
times form the plural quite regularly, as ^UjI fitan* and 
i2)\iT dndn * for rational, and \^ inhd and Lit oit^a for irra- 
tional beings. 



Note. — u* " to " or " by " takes an euphonic d before these 
pronouns; as ^^jj^ hadin^si^\ ^ ha'\-in^ "to this/' ^Ijj hadan^=: 
^-jfta+aw, "tothat." 

The plural forms are not required for nouns which merely 
qualify a plural noun, since the plural termination of the noun 
itself sufficiently explains it; as ^j%> ^^^^ marddn i khub, 
"good men." 


The pronouns sometimes take an affixed form, as follows : 
A am, abbreviated from ^ man, " me or mine." 
o at, n f9 y tu, " thou or thine." 

(ji 09%, " him or his." 
A ^ seems to have once belonged to the pronouns, as we 
may see from the plurals ^ll^t ushdn, UJ» shumd, etc. 

These affixes are only used of rational beings, and have the 
usual plural termination in ^J dn, though the final nasal n is 
dispensed in the first person ; thus, 

U md, " us or our." 
Jo itdn, " you or yours." 
^ll shdn, " them or theirs." 


The sound d k asks a question relative to rational beings ; 
as A^m kih, " who?** and the correspoii^^ «oSXi ^y^>aA v^&& 


question relative to irrational things ; as ^ ehih^ ** what ? " 
These, with other words which have become absorbed or 
amalgamated in the form, make up the remaining interroga- 
tives ; e.g. JSikuddm, " which ?** (of two), the J being a sor- 
yiyal of ^j M, ''two;"A>^ ehigunak, ''how?" (for a^ ehi, 
''what?" and ^^ gun^ '^phase, colour, sort,") and ^^^ cA^, 
"how? like what?" (the (S having a tendency to disappear 
between two vowels); x^ ehandp "how many'' (=«». chiy 
"what?"+jil and, "some") (ef. djii andak, "a little") ; ^ 
kai, " when ?" etc. 

Beflexiyb PBOironKs. 

These are formed by adding the personal pronouns ^ khud, 
" self," etc. ; as, 

j^ ^ man khudy I myself. 
^j^ ftu khud, Thou thyself, etc 

The affixed forms may also be used with ^ khud ; as^ 
^^ 4j\^j^ dar khdnah-i'khudam, In my own house. 
From (Jt^j^ khudash, " his-self," we get ^j^ khtsh (" his 
own self, his-self") and ^^^lit^ khtshtan, "himself" In the 
last the word ^J signifies " body " or " person." 

Examples of the Pebsonal Pbokovks. 

The following examples are useful as showing the various 
asea and combinations of tbe -^^tonouxA \ 


Si^j^^ c)^ ^ U* ^^^ ^^ yvZiit /MMT ifiddnam, I, so-and-so, 

the son of so-and-so. 

KzJj Mjm** S ^ num kihpisaram raft, I whose son went. 

uuij o^ *^y ^ hihpUarat raft, Thou whose son went. 

%zJj 1^^/^ ^ ^ ^ i*^ pitarash raft, He whose son went. 

With S hi may be compared the qui of European languages. 
It serves for all relatives, bat maj be defined bj other words, 
as in the above examples. 


The comparative is formed by adding^ tar, and the superla- 
tive by adding ^^ tarin. A single example will impress this 
<m the reader's mind : 

af hih, good, ^^ hih-tar, better, ^>^J^i hih-tartn, best. 

Sometimes the Arabic comparative form ^\ ttf'al is used 
in Persian. [But of this form examples are cited in the 


The numerical figures arelJ34tl789o ^^^7 ^^ written 
from left to right as with us, and are combined in the same 
way as our oirjD ; e.ff, /aaIssISSI. 



The numerals in 

Persian are : 


eb yak 


•djl> ydzdak 

30 ^ */ 


ji do 


s^l^ davdzdah 

40 J^ ehihil 


Ju. 8ih 


9^)s^ nzdah 

50 ilj^ panjdh 


.L» cAaAar 


»d.L» ehdhdrddh 

60 cu^ «A€W^ 


ue panj 


»^li pdnzdah 

70 dU» Ao/^iJ 



s>pll «^;tz<2a^A 

80 dliJU hasJUdd 


c:«fl» haft 


•juA* haftdah 

90 ^ navoJ 


oJU A^«A^ 


ijuulA hashtdah 

100 j^ mJ 


aS nuh 


i^lji na{7a2^^ 

lOOO^I;* Aa^ar. 


s^ {fa^ 


CU^ M9^ 

They are quite regularly compounded, as follows : 
eb J u>,..^ t 5/«^ yai(; (20 and 1) 21. 

eb J ^\:ul* J Ju# isJU J j|l}ik (sb yaA; Aois^ir o Aa«^^ sad o 
hashtdd o yak, One thousand eight hundred and eighty and 
one, 1881. 

The ordinals are made by affixing « vm ; as, 

^ yakum, Ist 

^^ duvum, 2nd 

^ sivum, 3rd 
[orx^ seytim.] 

For " first " the word 
at^aZ, may be used. 

A^La. cAaAarM^, 4th 
jti^ panjum, 5th, 
and so on. 

nukhmtin,* or the Arabic Jjl 

» ^abid«te."\ 



The numerals take the noun in the singular ; bb ^ j^ do 
mard^ " two men." 

We say in English " two head of cattle," and so on. The 
Persians have several such qualifying words for yarious 
objects when used with numerals. The principal are the 
following: — 

Persons, yuj nafar^ indiriduals, eu^^ jLj ^ panj nafar 

dust, 5 friends. 
Horse, cattle, ^\j rds, head, k^,^} ^\j j^ do rds atp^ 


2 horses. 

Bhutwr, 3 camels. 

Elephant, ^^j zanjir, chain. 

Jewels & fruit, «ib ddnah, grain, 

J-»y-jej ^l^ chahdrzan- 
jtrfil, 4s elephants. 

j> jjb cu&ft haft ddnah 
durr, 7 pearls. 

»«^ Alb oJL» &a«^^ i!i^aA 
«t5, 8 apples. 

In colloquial Persian the word IS td is used as a determina- 
tive for most objects ; as v-^liTlj^L*. chahdr td kitdb, 4 books. 
(The word " piecee," as " one piecee man," in Chinese Pigeon 
English, is a relic of the same use of qualificative or deter- 
mining words.^ 

16 PXBSLUr GBAMli:i.B. 


The Persian Verb oonsists of a root in combination with 
yarious participial affixes and the auxiliary verb " To be,*V of 
which the simplest form is the affixed substantive verb. 

^ am^ (I) am, ^ tm, (we) are. 

^ t, (thou) art, jj tJ, (je) are. 

^ ad, (he) is,* jil and, (they) are. 

Tei^sss of thb Yebb. 

The root expresses mere action, as ^^ ratj ^^arriying," hence 
p+-^ raa-^-am, "I arriving," ^yh-*; ras+i, "thou arriving," 
j^+*<^ ra«+aJ, "he arriving," etc., is the simplest tense, or 
aorist, which must be further defined by context or by particles. 
The prefix ^ mi (or the older form ^ hamt) does so define 
it, and gives it a present meaning ; as ^^ ^ tnt rasam, " I am 
arriving," etc. 

The Hoot, as the shortest form of the verb, is also used as 
an imperative, as ^j^ ras, " arrive." The prohibitive is made 
by prefixing « ma, as ^J^^ ma-ras, " do not arrive." 


* When this is used separately it takes the more rcgalar form \£^\ ast, 
" 18," as ia Greek or hfitm. 


Then comes an afEx expressing past action, which is, as in 
English, generally a <^ or ^ sound, as " macZe," " pas^." 
In Persian this is, in most cases, preceded by a vowel, as 

Si^j ras -\-{-\-d, " arrived . ' ' 
ijjlt 5Am-f M+J, " heard." 
^L«l w^+aH- J, " stood." 
The first, or t sound, being the most common. Sometimes the 
^ d becomes o ^ ; as ^J^\^ khdstan, " to wish." If to the 
*' stem " thus formed we add ^^ we obtain the infinitive ; as 
^)j^ rasidauy " to arrive." This, further combined with the 
simple tense in a, v5, ^, etc., makes the preterite (tJ^^ rasidam, 
" 1 arrived," ^x^^j rasidi^ " thou didst arrive," etc. But the 
affix (5, as we have seen above (p. 7), makes any 2(7£>r J indefinite. 
We therefore get again 

^j-«#^ rastdamiy " did I ar- i^At^j rasidmt, " did we ar- 
rive," or "were I to arrive," rive." 

^S^, = t5 + l5*^j-^ fciM% KS^Ai^ roMdidi, " did ye ar- 
" didst thou arrive," rive." 

fjs^i^j rastdi^ ''did he ar- ^jjJlm^ rastdandty ''did they 
rive," arrive." 

By adding a short a » to the past form the same idea is ex- 
pressed with a sense of incompleteness. Thus, in English one 
says, "I am going— eh — to," etc., the hesitating "«^" suggest- 
ing something to come. This form, e.g.i^^j rondoK^ ^\%v:^^^^ 


" having arrived," and is used vrith those tenses which t 
formed from auxiliary verbs, without which the sense would 
incomplete; as 

J *x^% rasidah+am, I have arrived. 
* iX^j rtmdah 4- 1, Thou hast arrived. 
\zj^\ %s^j rasidah+ast, He has arrived, 
and so on. 

The Auziliaby Verb "To Be.'* 

We must now speak more fully of the Auxiliary Verb " 
be," (vj^) J? hu (dan)y " BE(ing)," both being derived from t 
Sanscrit Bhuv. DecliniDg this as far as we can with the affis 
given above, etc., we get 

Present, ^^ hUvam, I may be. 

jjj^ htivi, thou mayest be, etc. 
^ bilvady he may be. 
Past, ^y hMy he was, etc. 

%^y hudah, having been. 

Again, by combination with the tenses of another verbi 
^^ TiS^j rasidah hudam, one come I was, etc. 
^:y ij^ rasidah budamt, were I one come, 
and so on. 

^»)^JJ^ bidan makes its imperative ^L) bash. This I' sh: 
explain when speaking farther on of the " irregular " forms 


the verb : for the present we must assume all the forms to bo 

Then, by the rules given above, we get ^U ddsham, " I may- 
be," and J^\» *Sii»»»j roMah hdsham, " I may have been." 

With the verb ^^lj». JcMstan, " to shall," as an auxiliary, 
the same combination may be made as in English to express 
the future l e g, x^j **|^ hkdham rasid, " I shall arrive." 

There is another auxiliary, ^^j-i shudan, root ^ sJiav, " to 
become." This often has the sense of "to go," and is employed 
to form the passive of an active verb, being analogous in this 
respect to the English " get," " to get beaten," " get " being 
connected with "go :" e.f, American, " you get," and our own, 
" get out." 

^JS^ shudan may be inflected throughout like ^)Xj-»^ rastdan 
or any other verb, and the tenses thus obtained may be com- 
bined with those of another verb to make the various tenses 
of the passive. 

If, then, we know the root and the past form or stem of any 
verb we can, with the assistance of the auxiliary verbs, form 
any tense we may desire: in other words, conjugate it through- 
out; e,g. 

jjo. ras, " arriving," " arrival." 

^j rasam, I arriving. 
^^ raai, thou arriving. 


j^ rasad, he arriving, etc. 
^j ^ mi rasaiUf I am arriving. 
j--^ rasidy " arrived." 
dfS^j rastdam, I arrived. 
aJumm. ^ mi rastdam, I was arriving. 
•Ju-j^ rasidah, having arrived. 
J *X^ rasidah am, I have arrived. 
jt^y sJuMtf; rasidah hudam, I had arrived. 

^jb^ rastdan, " to arrive." 
^li sJu;^ rasidah hdsham, I may have arrived, etc. 
Xi^j f^]^ khdham rastd, I shall arrive. 

And in the case of an active verb, as ^.^^^Jcardan^ " to do," 
we may fiirther combine it with ^^s^ shudan ; as 

^jJti t^kardah shudan, to be done. 
^yL t^kardah shavatn, I am done. 

^y^ fS *it^^^^^^ ^^ shavam, I am being done. 
^jJ^ %^harddh shudam, I was done, 
^j) »jJ£* n^kardah shudah budam, I had been done. 
jJ!» «f^|^ \^jlcardah khdham shud, I shall be done, 
and so on. 

Other parts of the verb are ^^\ an affixed to root=" doing," 
as ^2)\,*^J rasan^ ^'arriving ; " %Si\ andah affixed to root expressing 
the agent, as »Ju-*^ rasandah, " an arriver." With the latter 
compare the Italian affix -(mU^ haying tlie same meaning. 


Bj prefixing c-» ha^ " to" (see p. 6), we get x»»/, ha rasad, 
" he is to arrive," i.e, " let him arrive," and bo on for the 
other persons of the imperative. This prefix is also used for 
the *' aorist " or indefinite tenses. 

Causal verbs are made by inserting ^^1 dn between the root 
and the infinitive termination, as ^^J--*; raddany " to arrive," 
^jjJl^ rasdnidan, ** to cause to arrive.*' 

Fhonetio Laws ik Febsiak. 

As in all other languages, certain words in Persian do not 
appear to follow the ordinary rules of accidence, and are there- 
fore called irregular. It will be always found in such cases 
that the apparent anomaly is due to some euphonic change, 
arising either from a desire to avoid an awkward combination 
of consonants, or to facilitate pronunciation ; or else from the 
survival in some forms of older radical letters which have for 
similar reasons disappeared in others. 

In Persian both these causes act together, and many con- 
sonants are found in the root verbs which difier from those of 
the stem. To account for these we need only notice a few 
philological facts relative to euphonic changes which exist in 
Persian.* An acquaintance with these will not only enable the 

* Professor Charles Bieu, of the Brit^ish MuBeuxHiYiVA %^N^Xk. vol ^<^\si\£^^<^ 


(itudent to inflect so-called '^ irregular verbs,*' but to recognise 
many common European words in their Persian form. They 
may be briefly stated as follows: — The Old Persian S (pro- 
nounced like th in "there") frequently becomes in Modem 
Persian \^f; cf. the Eussian Feodore for Theodore, e) k and 
i^p before t become -;. Jch and \^f. 

The two sounds of ^, namely, k and ch (as in " kirk " and 
" church "), account for many irregularities, thus : — k passes 
to cA, thence to z, k and g^ d and t, p and 6, are common and 
more obvious changes. 

p is especially liable to be changed into f when followed 
by r, as Sanscrit pra, Latin pro, Persian ^ far ; as Sanscrit 
prashita, "sent," Persian i^Jlrishtah, "an angel." 

Sanscrit hh, which becomes / in Latin and ^ in Greek, be- 
comes simple b in Persian ; as Sanscrit bhru, "a brow,'* Greek 
o^pv9, Persian jjA dbru, Sanscrit bhu, " to be," Latin fuit, 
Persian ^^^ bu-dan. 

Sometimes the old Aryan root had an aspirated d (dh) ; this 
becomes either d without the aspirate, or h without the d; qf, 
^^^b dddan, " to give," ^b dad, " he gave," »^ dih, " give." 


exposition of these laws in a pamphlet published by the Philological Society, 
entitled " Remarks on some Phonetic Laws in Persian," to which I am much 
indebted for thia part of my ftnbject. 


The old d also changes to 9 before t or d o{ the past ; as xj 
hand, *^ bind," past eui^ bast for handt (the nasal being lost). 
Cf, Latin comedo, comestum. 

The old Aryan d or dh is sometimes softened awaj to y, as 
^^L* pdi/ (Sanscrit pada), " a foot," but the s into which it 
changes remains, as ^jjit shuy (Sanscrit gudh), '* wash," past 
omJ^i 8hu8t=:shudht 

r and I interchange indiscriminately. Another change which 
is exactly paralleled in European languages exists in Persian, 
namely, w or v into gu, or simply y, as Arabic Wddi/ el kebtr, 
Spanish Quadalquiver, Latin vulpilla, French goupil. So in 
Persian we have from the Sanscrit vrka, "a wolf," Zend vereka, 
the Modem Persian ^wry. Vtstaspa (Darius Hystaspes), Modern 
Persian Qushtasp, Sanscrit vrt, "to turn" or "become," Latin 
vert, Q-erman werden, Persian gard, 

V also occasionally hardens into p when preceded in Sanscrit 
by p, as Latin equus, Sanscrit agva, Persian i^a^I asp, "a 

The changes of the sibilant are somewhat extraordinary at 

first sight : thus p, in the instance above given, is equal to q. 

Sometimes this becomes k, sometimes c, and sometimes simply 

h; e.g. 

Sanscrit. Hindustani. Greek. Persian. 

da^a (10) das Scica deh. 

sapta (7) sat cirra "haft. 



As the Sanscrit * becomes h in Persian, so, vice versa, h 
often becomes z : Sanscrit sahasra (1000), Persian .1)* hazdr 
for hazahr, Cf, Sanscrit hima, "snow," Persian zemisfdn, 
" winter," Latin hiems, Slavonic zima, j also becomes z ; as 

Sanscrit, Persian. Greek. 

jata, " born," zddah 

jand, " a woman,*' zan yvnj. 

Ibbegulab Yebbs. 

In studying the so-called Irregular Verbs, we have only to 
keep the above principles in view, remembering chiefly that 

1. ^ h ^ 

> become i«j /. 

^ P J 

2. {J-* 9 becomes i h, 

3. a h ^ 

> become •, ^r or h *. 

^^"to do" has ^^for its root; the Zend or Vedic form 
was keren, and the form ^ kar became used for the past and 
^ htm for the present forms. 

In ^^ udan the j u becomes 1 d in the stem ; as 

^d^JLatf bakhsMdan (^JS»^), to bestow, Ui^, hakhshd. 
^,i^T dzmudan, to try, Ujl dzmd, 

y^^^ kushudan, to open, • ItT Jcushd. 

^j^ namudan, to show, U3 namd, 

u^jfj ^ubudan, to rob, \>j rubd. 


AV here the j is a root letter it is retained, but as a con- 
sonant V ; 6.y. 

^J^J:J^ shinudan^ to hear, yJl» shinav, 

^jj^ shudan=z^^j!lt shudan, to become, ^ shav. 

When the infinitive ends in ^jj tdan and the t is part of the 
root the stem is strengthened by adding a nasal ^^ ; as 

^jjj^l dfrCdarij to create, ^_^ afrin, 
^Jw^ ehidm^ to collect, };jc^ chin, 

^^ Jchtan becomes J z (see 3, p. 24), especially after a long 

vowel : 

^J:>^/\ afrdkhtan^ to exalt, ;1^1 afrdz. 

^j^y»\ dmukhtan, to learn, j^i a;?tz22r. 

and sometimes it changes into ^^ b ov ^ sh (see 3, p. 24) : 

^^^Ll ihandkhtanj to know, ^\JL ahands, 
^j:>'jj Jirukhtan, io Be\\ ^jjfirush, 

^jL3 ftan in some instances becomes <-> h otj v (see 1, p. 24) : 
^jiilj tdftan, to burn, cjIj ^a6 

^^^1.^1 dshuftarij to disturb, uj>j^^ dshuh, 
[j^j raftan^ to go, j^ ray. 

^^1 o^fa/i, ^^ t^^ai» (ustan), and ^^^::«^ ii^^^Ti become 1 a, 
{J », and ^ 4 respectively : 

j^l^i ardstariy to adorn, U ara. 

^^^i-jj ztstan, to live, ^j^ «*'. 

^^;:u»^jus^an (justan), to seek, ^ ju. 



Sometimes ^^ sfan become ^ it or ^ tn ; as 

^jlJ^ shikastan^ to break, J^ shihan, 
^^^i«J^ nishastan^ to sit, ^y^jtj nisMn. 

Other anomalous changes are ^^ tshfan into ^ji^ t« ; as 

^^ji navishtan^ to write, ^^y navt«, 
^^1 dshtan into^l dr\ as 

^^b ddshtan, to have, .b ^ar. 

^;i^\$u1 ankdshtan, to think, ^\^1 ankdr. 

There are a few others which practice and the vocabularies 
will teach, but the phonetic rules given on p. 24 will be found 
to cover most of the cases met with.* 

In some instances the infinitive and the stem belong to dif- 
ferent verbs, just as in English " go " and " went " come from 
different radical forms : 

^^^ hudan, to be, ^\i hdsh, 

^^^i pikhtauy to twist, ^j pick. 

^j^a:^ salchtan, to weigh, j^ sanj. 

^^pij^ gustkhfan, to break, ^yS gusil. 

^^ bastan, to bind, x^ hand. 

* [A list of all such verbs is given at p. 37, et seq.J 


FoBMS OF Nouns. 

These are very numerous and various, but although most 
may be left to practice and the vocabulary, some may be 
reduced to rule. 

Nouns are either primitive, such as " man," or derivative, 
such as " manly." The last are formed by adding certain ter- 
minations to the first, and as these terminations are generally 
in their turn derived from verbs, and have a signification of 
their own, a knowledge of them will greatly assist the learner. 
The principal are : 

1. Ail dnah = " like ; '* as 

4it\^ marddnah, manly. 

Aj\^ huzurgdnah, grandly (like a grandee). 

2. j^ dvar, jj avar, Ji dr, all from root ^j^\j^ dvc^dan, and 

signifying "bringing,'* "producing," "displaying" (cf, English 

-er, -or), etc. 

^Vi diJrdvarj brave (hearty). 

J^JJO ^^-^^^^9 strong, 
j^ ^Jst^ 8ukhan-var, eloquent. 

3. y\i bdr, " bearing," " abounding in." 

.U^ shakor-hdr, sugar-laden. 
^lX3; zanffi-bdr^ Zanzibar (fuW ot xiegco^^'^^ 


4. ^J\i ban, ^jL van, " keeping," " managing;" as 

^jl*^ 9hutur-bdn, a camel- man. 
^Lclj hdgh-hdn, a gardener. 
^*^L»Jj pds-hdn, a watchman. 

Jifdm " colour ;" as 

Jj sLm siydh-fdm, blackish. 

5. jb rfar, jU far, ** having," from ^^b ddahtan : 
JcJiiJt fartf-tdr, a deceiver. 

.^jj^ ^Aart<^r=s.b jj^i. kharid-ddr, a purchaser. 
jLl-]^ khdstdr^J^ c^-J^ Ma*N^^r=^b o—ij* 

<?ar, a petitioner, 
jljj^ diddrssj^ jj^ didrddr, the visual faculty. 

6. ^jb cZaw, " place " or " vessel for ;" as 

^ijx«j namak-ddn, a salt-cellar. 
^Ijji kalam-ddn, a pen-case. 

7. ^U zar, " place abounding in :" 

\j^ gulzdr, a rose-garden. 

8. Sirailarlj^U %dr ; as 

X^^^fhoh-sdr, a mountainous country. 
jL^U. shdkhsdr, a place abounding in branches, G 
.U also signifies " like ; " cf. 

.LiU. khdk'Sdr^ like duat (^vvVeV 


9. ^li-# stdn, " place ;" as 

yjc^ gtdistdn^ a rose-garden. 
^Jc^jXA Hindustan, the land of Hindus (Hindustan). 

10. ,jlfty fjt express the abstract idea of the root ; as 

,jlft^^ fiiMhishf goodness, 
^b ddnish, wisdom. 
^}j\ drdtshf adornment. 

11. e) ak expresses the diminutive of rational objects; as 

e)^ mardahy a little man. 

A contemptuous form of diminutive is S Icah^ as 
S^ mardakahy a wretched little man. 

For irrational objects the d is changed into ^, just as in 
S hih and ^ chih (see p. 12), e.g, 
A^j\> bdzichehy a little game. 
^ kqf-cheh, a ladle {lit, a little palm of the hand). 

12. J^ kdr, jf gdr^ ^ gar^ all expresses action or the actor ^ 
and are connected with the verb yj^j as 

}C\ia^ jafd-kdr^ cruelty. 
jSL»^ daat-gdvy skill (ciami^ dast^ a hand). 
^^:i^ jddu-gar^ a conjurer, juggler. 
j^^J^ dfrxdagdr^ a creator. 
jrjy^ amt^^yor, a teacher. 
jCXkamrgdr, successful. 


J^\:i gundh-gdr^ a sinner, guiltj. 
y^\y tavdn^gar, rich (powerful). 

13. ^ gtn, " affected with ; " as 

^jS^ gham-gin, grieved. 
^jSU^L>' khctshm-gtn, angry. 

14. ^ Idkh, « place." 

^V (^M» sang-ldkhy a strong place. 

15. jju mandf " possessor of;" as 

su^^ sud-mand, profitable. 
jJi^^b diniah-mand, wise. 

16. dli ndk expresses " quality ;'* as 

c&)U)^ haul-ndkf frightful. 
e)\j}^ parhtz-ndky abstinent. 

17. A final ^ t signifies " relation," such as that implied in 
the English adjective ; as 

(^jjjb hindi, Indian. 
{jl^^\ ingUzi, English. 

After s this becomes ^; as 

iXj bandak, a slave, 
^jjj handagt, slavery, 
loli. khdnagiy domestic (for ^ jjU.). 
The final ^5 *, when it represents the gde majkul (e), see p. 7, 
signifies "unity ;" as 

(5^ marcSt, oive a man. 


18. ^3 ni signifies " duty," " fitness ; " e.g, 


^^^hardaniy what is to be done (duty). 
^^j^ hhurdaniy good to eat (food), 
^j^ hhctridaniy purchaseable. 


Persian is very rich in compound words, the types most 
iu use for Nouns being exactly analogous to such Eaglish 
compounds as "block-head," "tinder-box," "rosy-cheeks," 
and the like ; e.g. 

m'j i^)l Idlah-ruhh, tulip-cheeked. 
Jjil Jd guUanddm, rose-bodied. 
J> c^ 9aman-bar, jasmine-bosomed. 

Others are made from two verbal roots ; as ot^ j Xt\ dmad 
o rafiy "coming and going;" or two nouns joined by a pre- 
position, w^jmija sar ha tary " individually," " altogether," lit. 
" head to head." 

The Compound Verbs are very numerous, but are for 
the most part quite simple, the principal ones being the 
following : 

1. A noun followed by either vj^^» kardan " to do," ^^U 
sdkhtan, "to make," ^)^j*5 namudan, "to display," ^.a^-*;-* 
fafTnudan, " to order," and the like ; as 

(^L>) 4;/j/'#lkJ/ intizdr kardan («dfcKtan), \iO eiL^^cXi* 


^^JJ^ j^ karam namudatif to be generous, 
^j^^ d^irtJ naAzai Jarmudan, to start (on a march), 

said of a king, etc. 

2. A noun followed by ^JS^^ dmctdany **to come*' {cf, Anglice 

^^\j^ sir dmadan, to become satisfied. 

x:yx!Sjipur dmadan, to become full. 
^Jl*T jj[Jj padid dmadan, to become apparent. 

3. A noun followed bj c)^j^ dvardan, the converse of the 

last ; as 

O^jJ^ jjjj padid dvardan, to make apparent. 

4. A noun followed by j^^^ khurdaUf " to eat," used with 
words expressing passions or grief ; as 

^)^j^ ^ gham khurdan, to be grieved. 
^:)^JJ>' u-fl^\j ta-as8uf khurdan, to sorrow. 

There are many other compound verbs of this kind, but they 
will bo easily understood when met with, and will be found 
in the dictionar}% 



In Accidence we found how each word was capahle of 
certain modifications to express the accidents of person, 
number, gender, or time. 

We now come to Syntax, which, as its name implies, is the 
putting together of these individual words, or groups of words, 
to express one complete idea. 

The Accidence being known, all that we require further 
is to learn the usage of the language in this syntactical 

This depends first upon the natural order in which ideas 
occur. Secondly, upon the history, traditions, habits, and 
disposition of the people using the ideas ; Le, on the natural 
order modified by habits : in other words, idiom or peculiarity. 


Now, the complete expression of an idea is called a sentence, 
which in its simplest form is the mention of a person or thing 
and the telling something about him or it; e.g, 

Man is mortal. John went; 

but if the verb is transiiive\ ue. if, cm its name imilUe^^S^ 


actioQ goes on to something else, we must have something 
else for it to go on to ; e»g, 

John struck James. 

A.11 that can possibly be added to this is : (1) something 
telling us about the state of John or James, — these are adjec- 
tives added to the person ; (2) the manner of the striking, — 
these are adverbs added to the verb ; (3) the manner in which, 
or the thing with which, it was done,— these are instruments; 
or (4) the time or place where and when it was done, — these 
are the locatives. 

The Syntax of Persian is as simple as that of English, which 
it much resembles in construction. 

The Cases op Nouns. 

As has been npticed above, the only real case-ending which 
survives in Persian is \j ra for the objective; as j%ib v^l; •*;* 
mard-rd hitah dddam, ". I gave the man the book,'* where mard 
is the object (its position in the sentence calling attention to 
this fact) ; ^^b ^ \j c^liT kitdlhrd ha mard dddam^ ^' I gave 
the book to the man," attention being chiefly called in the lasfc 
sentence to '^book," both by the objective a£Sx and by its 
position in the sentence: the &ct that *Hhe man" is in ''dative" 
IS then expreased, as in Engliah, \>y v> ha, " ^io"' 

8TNT1X. 35 


The Concordance of Yerhs and Nouns is exactly the same as 
in English, a singular noun requiring a singular verb, and a 
plural noun taking a plural verb. 

Nouns substantive do not agree with their adjectives or 
qualifying nouns in number, it being sufficient to mark the 
plural by the termination in the first named ; as 

cj>ja. ^^\^J^ marddn i khuh, good men (see p. 11). 

The relation of '^ substantive and adjective," as well as that 
of the " genitive case,'* is expressed by the izdfat (see p. 6). 

ciAfUl izdfat signifies ^'adding on," and is expressed by 
placing a short i (kasrah or ztr) between the two nouns ; as 
^ \^m\ asp % mard, the man's horse. 
cj>j>. (..A^l asp i khub, a good horse. 

The order of words in Persian is Subject — Object — Verb, 
all qualifying expressions falling into their natural places ; ^.y. 
a word expressing the condition of the subject follows it ; so 
does a word expressing the condition of the object; while words 
or expressions signifying time, place, or other circumstances, 
find their proper place immediately before the verb. 

The only marked peculiarity in the arrangement is that the 
verb comes generally last. 

The description of the "tenses" on pp. 16 — ^21 sufficiently 
indicates their use. 



The following rules and exceptions tabulate all the irregu- 
larities of the Persian Verb, and for comment the student is 
referred to pp. 24i — 26. 

I. Infinitives in ^)^ udan make their Imperative in 1 a ; 
and in the Present take a euphonic ^ y ; thus : 

^:)^J^ nemudan, "to show;" Imperative, U5 a* he-nemd ; 

Present, ^Uu« mi-nemdyam. 

II. Infinitives in ^jj tdan, ^^\ ddariy and ^Jit stan, form the 
Imperative by dropping these terminations; thus : 

fji\z»»»^Jlri8tddan, " to send ;" Imper. cs.*i^ be-firist. 
^pu^ purstdan, "to ask ;'* Imper. ^j^ dj he purs. 
^ji^\^ ddnistan, " to know ;" Imper. ^^1 j* he-ddn, 

III. Infinitives in ^J^ dan, after ^ r and J n, and some few 
in ^^ tan, after u ^ form their Imperative by dropping the 
termination dan, or tan ; thus : 

Uifjji P^^^^^^^i "to cherish;" Imperative jj^ ie-parvar. 
^^x^Jcandan, " to dig ;" Imper. ^^ he-kan, 
^JlJ\i hdftan, " to weave;'* Imper. u-iU a> he-hdf, 

lY. Infinitives in ^ ^an, afber ». A;^, and JIi ah, form their 
Imperatives in j « ; and ^ r respectively ; thus : 

^j:3fi^ &oiJchtan, "to hang ;" Imper. jijLj hiydviz. 
^^b ddshtan, "to have*" Imipeit. j\^,be4aT, 



To these rules the following are exceptions : 




^)^jl dziirdan, 



^j:iL^ dshuftaUf 

c^yj dshub. 


^JSi/\ dfertdan^ 

^^Jt\ dferin. 


^JxA amadan^ 



. ^u* mi-ayam. 


-^ij^\ afshurdan^ 

JjlA afsMr. 


^^ pukhtan^ 



(j^ burdaftf 

J bar. 


^^jUm> hastdn^ 

jjj band. 



\^^j{ hudafiy 

yilj bash. 


P. , 

CL^ mi-hdshad and 

• •• ■ 

^y>^^ mi'buvad. 


jj^ii^jj pazirttftan^ 

j» jj paair* 


^j:i^* ptkhtan. 



^j^ paivastan. 

jj^ paivand. 


^j2j\j tdftdfif 

cj\j tdb. 



^^^i.^ jastan, 





t • * 


p. fy^ mirjuyam. 
^ju^ ehidan^ ..w^ ckin* 



Get up, 


















cr**^-^ 5ar khd9tan,j^ji bar Jchiz, 
^^1^ khdstan, s|^ khdh, 

^;^b dddan, %^ deh, 

^j^jj^ derHdan, j .^ deHi 

p. (MjJua mi'derevam, 

^jijd davidan, " j^ do. 

p. ^jSt» mi-davam. 



ij reh. 

^jLoj rustan, jj ru. 

p. fij^ mi'Hiyam, 

^j^j rishtany ^j^j rts, 

^jii, raftan^ ^^ro.^ 




^jL3j TuftaUy %^jj rub. 

0^ zadatif ^^ zan, 

^)^;«y« sipurdan, .Lm sipdr, 

^^Ll shitdftan, c^lJ^ shitdb. 

^jj« shudatiy y» sho. 























p. vj^j^ mi 9huyam, 
^jlS^ ahikagtan^ ^^^ shikan* 
^^^liCL shikuJtaHy ksJ^ ahikttft. 

^^^^ shumurdan^ J^ shumdr, 
^^\:Ji» shindkhian, ^liSi ahindi, 

^)j^ shanidanf jJ« shtno. 


fJ^X^ faHikhtan, ^J»j^ faruah. 






jzti^ kishtany 









^^^^ guzin. 

^j^^ guHkhtdtiy 



^j gard» 





Let go, 

IvnvRXYB. Impbbativx. 

p. {4^C* mi-guyam, 
^^^ murdan^ ^^ mir. 

^ji^^ navishtan^ crl^ nai^itf. 

." P4« nihuftan, cua4> nihufi. 
^jLij^ hishtan, Ja ^»7. 

( 41 ) 



The best complete tables are those edited by F. Wustenfeld, 
for the Oerman Oriental Society. The following dates how- 
ever will be found useful for rough calculation. 



1 16^^ July 622 


100 . . 

. . 718 

184 . 

. . 800 

300 . . 

. . 912 

391 . , 

. 1000 

600 . . 

. 1106 

697 . . 

. 1200 



700 . . 

. 1300 

803 . . 

. 1400 

900 . . 

. 1494 

1009 . . 

. 1600 

1100 . . 

. 1688 

1215 . . 

. 1800 

1300 . . 

Nov. 12th, 


The Moslem year consists of 12 lunar months (see Dic- 
tionary, S.V. Month) of 30 and 29 days alternately. Now 100 
lunar years nearly equal 97 solar years : and hence, to turn 
Moslem years into Christian years, we must subtract 3 per 
cent, from the former. 

I. To find the equivalent date A.D. of a year A.H.: — From the 
fear a.h. deduct 3 per cent (or, more exai^^^, tkxJlXsv^^ "^s^ 



*970225), and to the remainder add 621*54. The sum gives 
the date a.i). of the end of the yeai* a.h^ 

IL To find the equiralent date a.h. of a year a.d.:— 
From the year a.i). dedact 621*54, and to the remainder 
add 3 per cent. 




r. verb. 

t* transitive. 

I. intransitive. 

ft. neuter. 

a, active. 

p, passive. 



a, adjective. 

ph plural. 

pr, p, present participle. 

pa, p, past participle. 

For the pronunciation of the Persian letters, see Grammar, 
pp. 1 — 3. 

In order to save repetition, when the Persian equivalent of 
an English Yerb is made up of noun (or other part of speech) 
and auxiliary verb, the auxiliary verb to be used is indicated bj 


an initial (Je. sh, etc.), and no separate paragraph is given. Thus 
the verb *to Advise' is to be sought for s. r. * Advice,* where 
nanhat (dddan) will be found. After hiddry the Persian for 
'Awake,' (k, sk) show that 'to Awaken' is biddr kardan^ 
and 'to become Awake,' btddr shudan, (See Grammar, 
pp. 31, 32). 

The following letters stand for these auxiliary verbs, and in 
the tranaliteration also tbey are used to aave ^\^UiQ^. 



























dddan, - 

























It should furthermore be observed, that in cases of repetition 
a bar ( — ) stands for the English word commencing the para- 
graph ; and in the transliteration, under like circumstances, 
the initial letter of the Persian word is alone given. 

pr. p, and pa. p, are to be understood as indicating the 
Present or Past Participle of the M^gli8h word, of which the 
Persian following is the rendering. 

Thus we have 

Move, v.i., ^jXy^ jumbidan, etc.; pa. p. {i.e. Moved). 
(sJ>a?* mutaharrik ; pr. p. {i.e. Moving), ^j rajj. 



A, an, dbi y^h 

Abandon, jj^^-Td^J tarkle,; 

pr,.p,j^\jk hdjir; pa. p. ^^J^ 

matruk; (shameless) l^ bt- 

Abashed, *S \ -jr- sharmandeh 

(*.) xS^\j»*» sar (xfgamL 
Abasing, \zJ^ ih<mat (k,). 
Abatement, ^Jufi takh/if (k.) 
Abbreviation, ^La;;»»\ ikhtisdr 

Abdication, >>JL^ TehaV (k.) ; 

zdl («.). 
Abdomen, S^ shiJeam ; v^U J 

tah i ndf. 
Abet, (2pb ^j^ madad d. 
Ahhorrence, %\f\ ikrdh (n,). 

(5.) ; {Sy^ mujtavi (A.). 
Ability, ci^U liydkat ; o^ji 

kudrat ; ijS kuvveh^ 
Abject, ^Vj J ^Iji. >bAar o ^rar. 

— ness, ^ji e;?i{;rf ; Jj arw//; 

{jj\j>' khdri. 
Able, dii^j ziring. To be — , 

^^^lJIjj tavdnistan. 
Ablution, c^ t&tf^ti' (A;.) ; J^ 

yhual (Ar.). 
Abode, ^j-:^ moHzU ;. ^Ji>^ 

Abolished, ^j-^^^ mansdkh (A;.) ; 

Jla-A mubtal (y.). 
Abolition, Jliwi i5^a^. 

Abominable, TiJ\i,t^ muitakrih; 

Abominate, ^^^^^j&u manfur 

Abortion, klL«1 Ufcd^. 

Abounding in, j^^i^ masmur. 

About, (concerning), ^y»>.j^ 
darJeku9U9: ^^j^ dar hakk, 
— (around), jj^ daur. 

Above, VL{ bdld; j^ fauk; 

AboTe-named, jf^ mazkur ; 

Abridgec^^^^ia:^* muktasar (Jc,) ; 

j-a^a^ muhhtasar (Je,), 
Abridgement, ^\ ^ ; tj iktisdr 

(«•) ; JW^ V^^ (*•)• 
Abroad, ^;|^ Wni». 

Abruptly, »\r\5 nd-ffdh 

Abscess, J«o dwnbal 

Abscond, ^^jj^ dar r. ; jpr. ^. 

^lj:u «ii*toi(7arf . — (slave). 

Absence, is*^ ghaihat* 
Absent, ^U ^ ^Aaw* Aasrtr ; 
v^Ajlfc gkdyib (sh,). — in 
mind,^^^is* mutafakkir (Jb.) ; 

Absolute, Jn;-> musiakUl; 

^^jlk* matlak. 
Absolution, J^j ft«Ai? (A:.). 

Abaorptioa, v*^ ./^^^ (^')* 

Abstain, ^^^j y.^^j^^^ parhk 

k. ; pr. p, s^v 7<i* mujtanib 

Abstinence c:^b^L>^ riydzat ; 

j-A^ parhtz. 
Abstinent cJJ>c *9if\ff Mj) 

Abstract, n, J«^ mujmal («.) ; 

r. (to take away) ^j^\^ jt 

bar dsh. 
Abstruse, jla* mt^A/a/l: ; jJ^ 

i^AiA:. — ness, uui^ dikkat 
Absurd, — j* />*«?A; ^^■•-j ^'- 

mdm ; ^j/^ karzeh. 

Absurdity, cJUv hatdlat. 
Abundance, ^jferakhi ; jjij 

Abundant, ^W *dmir ; ^\j 

Ahxi^e, n.,^J^Juh8h{d.)\ ^ 

Abusive, jI^a ^^bj zabdn-dirdz, 

<m^IjL* mwihdtameh, 
Abyssinian, ^JL^ Aoft^wAi. 
Acacia, ^^ILJL. mughaildn; 

Acceleration, J-s?» ^a^f/ (A:.) 
Accept, ^^ J^ ArflW/ Ar. 
^a. p. J^ makbfU; pr. p» 

Acceptable, »h*M P^^*^^K 
^iU^'** muatajdb. 

Acceptance (bill), oJ^ kabu^ 

liyat (Jc.). 
Access, ^jx^dmdd o shud 

(k.) ; K^Ju takrtb. 

Accession, ^jt^julUs, 
Accident, jIaJI Utifak ; ^jJj 

Accidental, (^W *drizi ; ^JIajI 
iUifdki. — ly, IjUJI iUU 

Acclamation, ^^^J\ d/arin (k,) 

Accommodate, ^J^ j^JLm fntt- 
tdlahdh k. 

Accompany, ^^^ »]^ ham- 
rah r. ; pr, p, jUiU he* 
ittifdk; ^-JLJ toHhyt (w.) 

Accomplice, (&b^ sharik* 

Accomplish, ^p^l ^;i«» «ar dmth 
dun ; pa. p. ^\^fdzih 

Accomplishment, A^ itmdm 
(r#.) ; ^1^ j^ 9ar herdhu 

Accordance with, in — , J^ 

According to, ^\k« muidhik; 

\_r-n'^ hash. 
Account (news), j^ khdbar 

(k,) ; (monejr), ^L* Audb 

(d,). — book, ^^ daflar, 
on — of, ^\j> hardyt. 
Accoutrements, J%»» sildh. 

Accumulation, &*». jani {k.) ; 
A«ri Ja mutardkemeh* 

Accurate, -i>-»^ sahlh, — ly, 
^jSi he-duriMtt, 

Accursed, ^^^«1* maTuti. 

Accusation, cu*^ tuhmat (bs.). 

Accuse, ^J^ <r» ^zJjCl^ shi" 

kdyat k. 
Accuser, ^j^ mudddi. 

Accustomed, to be — , o^U 
^^^i^b 'ddat dsh. ; pa. p. 
^l:jt» mutdd. 

Ache, ^^ dard (hi, kh.). 

Acid, ^J tursk (k,). — ity 

,z^y^ numdzat. 
Acknowledging,^^^! ikrdr{k.)\ 

v.J^iK* mutartf {gh.)n 
Acoru, ^Jj ballut. 

Acquaint, ^j^b iU?! ittUd d. 

Acquaintance, \ ; ^ dshnd ; 

^\^jj rushinds'u 
Acquieaceucf , L;^ rizd (eh,). 
Acquire, ^^^s> J«»^ hdsil k. 

^J^^ ydftan. 
Acquisition, J^io^ <a&«U (^^."^ \ 

i^Lj;M ifctUdb. 

Ai-quittal, \/ ibr& (k.y ; ^>i. 

khaldt {i.). 
Acquittance, ^^ pj»fdfag\ 

AcroBa, J^J^ 'nMr ; _^_^ jl o* 

tar he-tar. 
Act, v., ,ji^ kerdan; n. JS 

kdr ; ^/e'eli (play), |jJ** 

Active, eiyU. eMUk, i^^-.. 

Activity, |j_* ehutti; jJ^V 

Actor, jiit muiallid, 
Actail,ji\jvdlfi. — ly,>iH; 

Acute, izJf takht. 
Adapt, i;)jX'i_-J,; tartib h. 
Add, t^if *t^ jam' k.; «Ul 
y j^ iz6fek k. 

A.iivr, ^sja^jj.mdr-i-ja'qfari. 
Address, t^\i j^ tar ndmeh. 
Adducing, jl^l trad («,). 
AdKere, iji--— -*■ eka^idan; 

pr. p. j-V /^i(t. 
Adbeeion, j^ 2fi«u^. 
Adhesive lalU. — ■• chatpn&k; 

1 '' - chatpendei. 
Adieu, UiU- l-ia. HiiiU h^z ; 

c/j^( ahida. 

Adjective, is.i* tifat, 
AdjoiDiug, J.AI1 BiHMfm2{«^). 
Adjouromeut, k=»J* ^ bar 

iA^i (i.). 
Adjudicate, f^^Jijn dtvdm it. 
Adjuster, ^.^Ij ndiim. 
Adminiatration, tJJ id&vi 


AimiTB.\,jJ^j^\ amir ul hair. 

Admire, ^if j^ patand k. ; 

pr.p i^,^ muta'ajjib (tk.). 

Admit, ijjb t\j rdh d. ; (agree 

to), ^y^ kabtU k. 
Admonition, oi_ifr^ natihat 

(d.); t-iJ iambih. 
Adopted (bod), ,^-u mulaban- 

nd (*.)■ 
Adoptive, ,j_L muloMaf:. 
Adoration, o^Lc 'ibddat (k.)i 

ij^ tajid (n.). 
Adored, ^j,** mtiHd. 
Adorn, ,ji,~~ij ziiidait ; pa. p. 

*ii~ij ttbandah. 
Adornment, ^J-dj^i jiinfjrMA; 

^^■i;...lj zibandagi. 
Adult, a,, «]l) baUgh, 
Adulterated, ^^ moH^ 
j (*■)■ 
Adulterer, Ji lij «iw» har; 

Adultery, \i^ eitui (A;,) ; ^y^ 

Advance, t?., {j^j ^^ P^^ 
raflqn^ n, {^tiy),jfi^pish 

Advance guard, ^\f ^Jl^j pish 

Advancement, ^i^ tarahki{d.). 

Advantage, x^^jl^ mai\faat; 

Advantageous, jbU nd^. 

.A dverb, k^Jo zforf. 
Adversary, ^« -^ dushman; 

(law), ^Sm muddai. 
Adversity, ojliu* shifcdeai; % 

held : c:*> X* mkbat. 
Advertisement ^;^i t7ait (it.) ; 

jllij^ intishdr (d.). 
Advice, .cujJ^ ^Mi^i^^i^ (<;?.) 

Xjpand (d,)* 
Advocate, m., J^j^^^ vakiL 
Afar, o*mj j^^ ^ur (/a^« 
Affable, jaJL* musJ^k, 

Affability, vjy lutf; ^j,\ji* 

Affair, c-»le hdh; Ju^ Mr ; 

J^jJ^^ea Icaro-bdr, 


Affection, \n- .- *^ mufutbbat 
(dsh.) ; iS-^j^ </w«^i (dsh,), 
— ate, ^jb;4A mihribdn ; ^JJ^^ 

Affianced, ^l3 ttdmze^d {/.), 

Affidavit, ^ kasm (kh.). 
Affinity, o^ niehat; c:^>. 

Affirmation, jiX^ tasdik {n.) ; 
olJ\ w5af (^.)- 

Afflicted, v:;li^ parUkdn («.) ; 
tt)Li«^ ffhamndh; (with a 
malady), ib-^ muhtald (h,)» 
To be — in mind, c^^^ j^ 

Affliction, ^j::fj ranjish. 
Affluence, uu*au nimat. 
Affluent, a;»;J^^ daulatmand. 
Affront, n.y ^shatm; i^.o^^^i^ 

^^^b^hurmat k. 
Afraid, to be, jjJu-rp tarsidan ; 

». 4-ijU. khdif (h.). 
Afresh, i^jjs nwjaddadan* 
After, ^ pae ; ^\ Jju fiaW az; 

^^pey; ^^ 'akah. 

Afbemoon, j^mio. mr ; j|b jl Sm 
ha ad az zuhr> 

Afterwardsi ^ jl ^ haad 



Again, jIj bdz ; ^^^ Jj bar^i' 
digar ; s^Ij j^ do hdreh. 

Against, <^^ khildf, 

Age,j^ umr; JL. j\)^ 
9inn sal; (time), j^L-^ 

Agent, ^\S gumdshtah ; J^ 

Ages, jy^^ duhur. 
Aggravate, {:)^JSi hadtar Je. 

Ai^gregate, in the, JL^l ii/»^- 

Agression, Jk zvi^ ; ^^.>.*^ « 

Aggreasive, jlp o»--»^ ci^*/ 

</im-2r (A:.). 
Agile, (sbU chdhuk; v"- ^^ ■^ 

Agitated (mind), C;^^;ka« muz^ 
tarib (sh.) ; jjltj^ parishdn; 
(body), ^j^jJji* mutazdlxal 

Agitation, kJ\j W it^ iztirdb; 
^^ tashvUh, 

Agony, o]^ sakardt. 

Agree to, ^j^jJI* ^|^ roari *A. 

Agreeable jj^^J^ dU-pascmd, 

Agreement, jj^ Ar^ar (h.). 

Agriculture, ^s^^^\jj ziraat; 

Agriculturist, ^U*^ dehkdn ; 

%lA^ hurrdt. 
Ague, ijjj v^ tab o larzeh. 
Ah ! (^Ij (^1 a» trat / s|^ vah. 
Ahead, J>> jelo. 

Aid, ^«u fnadad (d,) ; el t <«^ 
ArtMn^A; (A;.). 

Aigrette (royal), dx^fi^jikah. 

Aim, J^]^ kerdul{gr,) ; (men- 
tal), Jk^ioS* maksud. 

Air, |y» Aara ; db &a(^. 

Airy;]^blj* havd-ddr. 

Alabaster,^^^^ marmar. 

Alarm, n., <^^-». khauf; v, 
^)jyjLtf|9 tarsdnidan. 

Alas ! (^U (^U A{ii / hdi ! 1^^ 

Alchemist,^ L«^ ktmiydgar. 

Alchemy, l^t^fn Kmtya. 

Alcohol, j^ WflAr. 

Alcove, Ai^lt tdkcheh. 

Alembic, j«^l ambik. 

Alert, ^U. chdbuk. 

Algebra, aL\aJJ^ ^' alj(^ 

Alien, a>\X1^ ^lyan^^. 
Alighting, Jj^ji ^u^^ ("•)> 
J7a. p. »^Lj piyddeh (sh.'). 

Alike, ju^ shabih; Ji« nUsl; 



Aliment, U^ ghazd ; iz>f kuL 
Alive, »j3j zindah* 
Alkali, J fuilL 
All, A*» hamah ; fu^jamt, 
AllegatioD,^^^ takrir (n.). 
Allegiance, c:«clL) i^a a/. 
Allegory, JJuJ tamsil. 
Alleviated, uJiij^ muMaffif 

Alliance, j^e 'a^J; i-Jd*. At^. 
Alligator, eLiJ nihang. 
Alliteration, ^j»^ tajnis. 
Allot, (2)^ ^j,..S » taksim k, ; 

pa. p. ^j-Ju «ui/b^m. 
Allow, ^;:L2»b }^j rai^ c{!9^. ; 

Allowable, V^ rora ; J^ ^a/a/. 
Allowance, ^iJej vazifeh. 
Allo7,jLe Vyyar (Je.), 
Allure, ^b ^^J^farib d. 
Allusion, jijMA ishdreh (k.) ; 

^joi/»^ tartz. 
Ally, ,3&;u m«^/q/iAr, 
Almanac, ^Ju takvUn, 
Almond, ^bb hdddm ; j^ Zotiz. 
Almost, db^ nazdik. 
Alms, A-iJu^ sadafeek; cX^ 

Aloef yf^im idbir. 

Alone, 1^ tanhd; ^ mufrad. 

Aloud, jjf jljl l> &d avazf ^u- 

Alphabet, u-»jf^ A«r4/; 
Already, j^ hcam&z. 
Also, ^ Aom; ^ niz; Uj^I 

Altar, ^Jl* mazbah. 

Alter, ^jJl^^^9 garddntdan. 

Alteration, j . i..,^? tttghaygur 

Altercation, J^U* mufddileh ; 

Alternately, ji^ ^-ito^A. 
Although, 4^ ^^^9) agar eheh. 
Altitude, 9>^j^ irtifa. 
Altogether, \ju^ jamxan. 
Alum, ^jA^l m^j zdjirohgaz; 


Always, jJL^ hamUhah ; U>b 

Amalgam, ^Ja^ makhlHL 
Amanuensis, i^^J^kdiib. 

Amass, ^>dy *^jam k. 
Amateur, oJU muft. 
Amazed, u*^^ tnutaqjjib («.); 

Ji^ hairan (sh,) ; ^^^--^ 

mutahayyir (m.)* 
Amazement, v,»,j^ taajjuh 

Ambaasadot, ,-1^ UdVo. 



Amber, \ij J^ kdh-ruhd. 
Ambergris, [j^^jf^ 'ambarin; 

Ambiguity, »Ll11 ishtibdh, 
Arabiguoiu^ ^uxJU mtuhtabik. 
Ambitious, !•.» ^^^L* sdhih 
liimmat^ tt)Li»^ havtmsnaJc, 
Ambling, tajuptrkeh (r.). 

Ambush, ^jf^Jcamin, 

Amend, y^^^ \s*»-j^ durutt Jc. ; 
. ^fr, p, «^J^ iahzih. 
Amethyst, ^^ ^^\ ydjcuti 

Amity, ^j^ dusti, jy>j.^ 

Ammunition, i^LmI OMbdh, 
Amnesty 9 ^Ij joc qfv ndmeL 
Among, ij\t^j^ dar mh/dn* 
Amorous, a 7..m. ,b dilhetatah. 

— ly, a3U^U 'dshekdafiah. 
Amount, cL* mablaffh. 

Ample, m^\jvd8ih; ^^foBth, 

Amplitude, f-»»y^ ^avaseu* ; 

Amputate, \:^,j{ iztridan. 
Amputation, mU Aat' (is,). 
Amulet, jjjs3 famz ; jj^ hirz* 
Amusement^ -^jJ^ tc^brruj 

Anagram f ^Jkj^ iairifi, 

Analogy, ^j,^ iajnU ; jXtu 

Analysis, a>^ tujzUfoh {^.). 

Anarchy, -y* — ^ harj-mofj. 
Anathema, c:»i»l lanat. 
Anatomy, ^yij tashrth (Jc,), 
Ancestor, j>. jadd; pi, j LI 

^\SaJ\ abd afddd. 
Ancestral, ^^jaddu 

Anchor, ^^.XiJ langar (m,), 
— ^age, »\r^xJ /. gdh. 

Ancient, vJJ kadim; 

Ancients, n., j^^^Jiiu mutakad* 

Andfjva, o. 

Anecdote, ^^^ fcissah; oolx^ 

Auemone, jjiliLl shakdtk. 

Angel, Ai^ Jirishtah; dLU 
malaJc; (of death), %z>yS< diU 
malah ul maut, ^)jy^ *asfrdil 

Anger, , * 'S- hhashm; k^ 
ghaiz ; u,A<ac ghazah. 

Angered, Ljya*^ maghzub. 

Angle, Aij\\ zdwiyah. Acute 
— , 8;>l» '*rji '^'^ hdddeh. 
Obtuse — , ^JLU *K^j s^i 
munfarijeh. Bight-—, -'aj^ 


Angry, ia)\:,^Ji^khT9'hmndk(h,yf 
jli. jr%* kTiulk (ft). To 

be — with, jl c^Ju^fej raw- 
y/^^ az, 
Anguiah,ji^ tashvir, 

AmmsAj jyJi\^ jdnivar ; c)]^.^^ 

ADimate, ^^^^^uS) zindeh k. ; 

pT'p, f\^\ thy a, 

Animpsitj, uu-^-^La^ muk'hd' 

Aniseed, a>U^1^ rdziydneh. 
Ankle, g^f guzak. 
Anklet, ^J^jJ^ pdharanjdn ; 

JUJ^ khalkhdl. 
Annals, i?^^j» tavdrtkh. 
Annexation, jlU ilhdk (k,). 
Annexed, i^Li* muzdf(sh,). 

Annihilate, jl oif^ y-^, J^^ 
damdr bar dvardan az ; pa. p, 
^J«i* mv/fCa/Hm («A.) ; ^Lj 
^^Md (^.). 

Annotate, ^;/:^ aJLU kdihiyeh 

•Amoimce, ^^b j^ khahar d» ; 
pr, p, j^ muk&hir. 

Annoyanae, \j^ iied; uJU^l 


Annuitant, Ji^ ^-i^ vazifeh 

Annul, (j^/^JU^ bdtilk,;pa,p^ 

fj I- mansukh. 
Anointing, iJ? ^ tamrikh <k, ; 

ijjfbSi tadhin (ib.). 

Another, ^^^ digar; js. ffhair. 

One — , ^ji db yek digar. 

Answer, v!>^ javvdh (d.) ; 

pr. ^. cujjlfl^ mujdvabat. 
Ant, ^jjA murcheh. White — , 

isUi^ dimek. 
Antagonist, j^^^ Jchasim. 

Antecedent, ^jii* mutakaddim; 

JJ U md kabal. 
Antechamber, ^;VI^ ddldm 
Antelope, y^ dM, 


Antichrist, JUj Dajjdl, 
Anticipate, \jiJ^ ^^Jl^ sahkat 

Antidote, j|l>^ teriydk. 
Antimony, L^ surmd. 
Antiquities, jjflic *atdik. 
Antiquity, j^iJ-i ij\^j zamdni 

Antithesis, s^ zidd. 

Antler, ^ •Ii4fck« 

Auue, ^ kun. 
Anri), ^\x^ tanddn. 
ADxietf, ulpjL^l iatirdi. To 

feel deep — , ^j^ J^ ^ 

kiuMijigar kh. 
Anxioufl, sLi Jj dStang ; Ai*^ 

Any, jijt kieh, — one, ^jS 

kaii. — tbiafr, ij^ ehtzi. 

— how, ■. ffji' hehar keif. 
Aorist, ^J-^ miaidri \ 
Apart, \iM.jedd. 
ApartmentH, J^ mansiL 
Apathy, ^J3^ tardi. 
Ape, jfkab't. 
Aperient, J4.M mtu-hil. 
Aperture, p^j- turdkh. 
Apex, _j1 ouj. 
Apocopated, b_*jj>^ mahz&f, 
ApocopatioD, t_ij,^ iazf 
ApologieC, ..Iju mv'gir 
Apologising, J Use I i'tizdr(k.). 
Apologue, Ji* maaal. 
Apology, jj* 'war (i.). To 

demand an — , ,^^]^ _P« 

'(Mr khdttan. 
Apoplexy, jjC takleh (z.). 
Apostasy, ^b^l irtiddd (n.). 
ApoBtate, jS^ murtadd. 

Apostle, j,i-.; paigkambar; 

Jj-^ rofiU. — of Christ, 

Uji^ kavdri. 
Apothecary, ^ V 'j^ ^^'^ 

feriah. — shop, i_iL» 1^ 

d. kk&neh. 
Apparatus, vV-l aAdbt^t&t. 
Apparent, ^Lb gakir («L) 

— ly, r^lt xdkiram. 
Appeal, ^y^ffj rujS kardtm. 
Appear, ^jJ namidan; pr.p- 

1j_j paidd (li.). 
Appearance, ^Jii^ namijfuk 
Appease, ^J^^\^ drdmidan. 
Append, ^^^Jiy dmz k. 
Appendix, IwJ tatimmd. 
Appetite, ' I ' *' ithHkd; 1^ 

Applause, ^^^1 4^rtn (*. j/). 

Apple, !_*-' *>i. 

Application, 4»>^ tavopak. 

Appoint, ^^jf^ wuuntirk.; 
pa. p. j^ muharrar (4.)} 
pr- P- Kfi-i-i taytm («.). 

Appointment, s^^b* mamtohs 
ly^ tdeufun. 

Apportion, ^j*,<^— , 1 ^(mm< i 

Apposite, i_uL* «•»■({<»& 



Apprehend (seize) , ^^^ girif- 

tan ; (fear), ^jS^^ tarsidafk 
ApprehensioDy oi]^ dirdyet. 
Apprentice, .>^U» shdgird («.). 

— ship, ^5^11 shdgirdu 
Approach, ^^j^l tt^^ nazdik 

dmadan ; jpr. p. ^j\SJ fakd- 

rtUf (n.). 

Approbation, s, .-.^y pasand ; 

iyu»^ tahsin (k,). 
Appropriate, ^^^L* mtfnoM^. 
Appropriation, ^/u^i takhsis 

Approve, ^Jl^TjjLmj pasand 
dmadan; pr. p. ^^L,^^ is- 
tihsdn ; pa. p. Aafj» muvajjah. 

Approximation, t^jju takarrub. 

Apricot, jff^j zarddM ; ^"t*- 

Apron, i^^fMh. 

Apt, sikj^ taring, 

Aptitad^, ^^LjU shdgutagi. 

Aquafortis, vT>^ ^^ ^* 

Aquatic, ^^dM, 

Aqueduct (under ground), oUi 

handi; ^J^Jedriz. 
Arab, %^>^ *arah jf g^^jfi *ardhi, 
Arabia, ^Is^j^ *arahistdn, 
Arabic, ^^ *arabi; ^jjjU tdzi. 
Arbiter, cJU #a/i>« 

Arbitrary, j^ mutlak. 
Arbitration, ^U «a/m. 
Arc, ^j^ kaus. 
Arch, ;i., jflt faAr; a. (cunning), 

^U» shdtir. 
Archer, jlj3i jy ^«r anddz. 
Archery, ^yS^J^kamdn keshu 
Architect, ^jaX^* muhindat. 
Archive, j^^ daftar. 

Ardour, \Zif^ ghadrat; v£««** 

Area, \z*»\^ sdhat 
Arena, ^1j^ maiddn. 
Argue, ^j,j^j^jL» mundzarah k. 
Argument, k1^ bahs (k,); JJ^ 

dalU («.). 
Arid, dLl>. khushk ; j>\» bdyir. 
Arise, ^^U^ bar khdstan. 
Aristocracy, L^j ^L^l a*ydn o 

Aristotle, ^^j\ Aristu. 
Arithmetic, i^L^ ^ I g *ilmi 


Ark (Noah's), -.ji 'a^jU #fl/^- 

Arm, om*^ <^^ / (upper), jjl; 

bdzu; (lower), XacWu^. 
Armed, . I ., » musallah (k.) ; 

Armenia, ^^ Armcva« 


■ ■ ~- ■- I I IB. 

Armeniazi, ^^1 Armani 
Armlet, xj jJ^^ M»u hernia 

Armour, ^J\ zireh 

Armpit, ^ haghoL 

Arms, jLsT*^ aslahak (&«.); «*^ 

Army,^^ClJ lashJcdr;^l^a9har. 
Aroma, ^ hu, —tic, \m^^» 

ArmiQd, jyi dtmr^ xjt dor. 
Arouse, u^ i^3-j hiddr h 
Arrange, ^j^^^jSi taddrukh,; 

{2)^y kzam»j^ durust k. 
Arrangement, u^^y tartih (w.) ; 

^^4»" tamhid {k.^ ; Jv Tz^rm. 
Array (battle), yjsJi^ y-suo aaff 

ksh,; (attire), ^;;i-»l^i drdstan. 
Arrears, a»iJ tetumTndh. 
Arrest, c;^,j--»' ^««i* ^. 
Arrival, J-i.1^ ddkhil; J^— ^^ 

ArrivB, (jJ^mm. Tttsidan, 
Arrogance, ^pA?i5r, ^^ takah- 

Arrogant, puli^tT^i^vfaH. — ly, 

1^^ maghfuran. 
Arrow, ^ /»r. 
Arsenal, aJI^^j-j t6pkhdneh; 

ii\^ Jk», sildh Mdneh, hwrdtm. 

Arsenic,' J2^ e{^ f»^^ m&i^ \ Add-coVoxxieA. 


Art, ^ fenn ; o^Ia aemat. 

Artery, d, rt^v ^JU^ «A/iryin. 

AiftfVil, :L. JL». A£feii «i2j; v/ 
: Artichoke, ^^^y^ /trdaxhahu 
; Article, c=*yu Tndrefdt, 

Articuhiftion, )i3S^4al€^uz (k.). 

Artifice, aL». AtZ^A. 

Artificer, ^^^kdriger. 

Artificial, AJLft.L* «aMf^^. 

Artincial, AJLft.U sakhteh. 
Artillery, aSU. c->ji ^m/? A;Aa«c^ 

— man, ^cfj^ tupchL 
Artizan, ^^s uiaxI^ sanat gar. 
Artleseness. ^j^^ mdagt. 
As, ^;^cA^;t; iJkiU».t;At«naitX^^ 
Asoeud, cJ'^y^ *^^ dmadan. 
Ascension, J/«* mi raj. 
Atn^ent, .3^x0 satoi^ («t.) ; ^j>^ 

Ascertain, j^^^jJJifahkik *.; 

|?r. |7. i/ua:^ tashkhis (n.). 
Ascetic, ,ji4^^* darvish; ja\j 

zdkid, — ^tfun, j»j zuhd. 
Ascribe, ^^ \zj>^ niibttt k. ; 

fu. p. i^j,^:,^ mansUb (h.). 
Ash (tree), jk\ ahar. 
ABfaam^, sji^ sharmande^. 

To be — , ^^^j>ji^j»^8arfairi 



)j dar kindr, 
Aj»k, u>,)uMi>*^ pursidan ; pr, p, 

AJ\k* mutdlcibeh {k), 
Aaker, 1^11^ ^a/i^. 
Aokew (aslant), ^Teaj. 

Asleep, sJujlj». khahidcbk. 
Asparagus^ *>j^]^ ^ndr eh^bah. 
Aspect, o^j^ surat ; U^ simd. 
Asperity, ^J;rjJ:^^^ khuskuuc^. 
Aspiring, u!H*^ huland'bin. 
Ass, ^^ Jchar; p.)lj\ uldgJi. 

Wild — ^, jj^ gur. — load, 

jllA Tcharvdr, 
AssafcBtida, ^jyJ^\ ankuzah ; 

Assassin, JJli kdtil. 
Assassinate, ^^y^ijkntshian. 
Assassination, Jii katl (k,). 
Assault (military), ^^^ ii»»> 
hdmleh hurdan, A night — , 
jiCjIt shdbgir. — and bat- 
tery, «-*^j JW lakd kuh ; 
(robbery), ^^^J^ rdhzant. 
Assay, ^j^J^ *iydr k, 
Assayer, jSj^ 'igdr g%r. 
Assemble, ^^^\ ^\jferdhama.; 

pr, p. /*«^ mujtama (k,). 
Assembly, ^jjs:^ majlis. 
Assent, o^}^^^}^^ ijdhat h 

Aaaertion,.^^! ikrdr{k.y 
Assessment, ^l^ khirdj (4). 
ABsetsi, j1 joU jdiddd. 
Assiduous, ^Li sai; jJu mu- 

Assignee, J^ vakU, 

Assignment, i\ja^tankhdh (h); 
olv bardt. 

Assistance, ojicL^ musaadaf 
(«.); K^^ kumak (k.d,) \j^ 

Assistant, i->jiLj ndih ; j.^ 

Associate, (S^^ sJiarik ; j^ 

rafik. To — with, c^i\^]^ 

Association, L)L>.1 ikhtildt {k.)\ 
d|l^ tashdruk (n.). 

Assuage, ^^b ^|^1 arai7> J. 
Assume, ^^jjyoA tasavvtir k. 
Assure, ^j.3,-3 vyuj yaA:m k. ;■ 
^j,j^ju»» ^li- khdiir jam' k. 
Assuredly, c:* ..«*•■ ja> yakinast 
Asth ma, ^ j^ 1 ^^ zai'A: ussadr; 

Astonish, cJ^ul^s^ hairdn k,; 
pa. p, oU mdt ; j^ muta' 
kayyir {m,) ; pr. p. i^ .^g^ 



Astonishment, c>-s-» hairat ; 

jjd tdhayyur. 
Astounded, ^^f^ ^^f^ rndt-oih 

Astringent, dia^ zumukhk. 
Astrolabe, %^)lja^\ asturldb. 
Astrologer, astronomer, j^ 

Astronomical, ^^y4 nujumi ; 

^i falaki. 

Astronomy, xzJitb Jc *ilmi hai- 

Asunder, 1j». Jedd, 

Asylum, i^a-j bast {gr.) ; la^* 

At, ^yj nazd; ^ da/r ; -j hi ; 

Atheism, jAU ilhdd. 

Atheist, (J->J^ zindik; sJ* 

Athlete, (^j^^j pahlavdn. 

Atmosphere, Ija havd. 

Atom, »|^ zarrah; u^ sham- 

Atonement, %JJ^kaffarah {h). 

Atrocity, Ji» zulm. 

Attach, ^j:i^^\ dvikhtan. 

Attachment, ^fiimj J^ dil bas^ 


Attack (illness), JjiJ-i nwM; 

(army, etc.), ^^^ kef urn (a.) ; 

A^ hamleh (k.); ^U tdkJh 

Attainable, jSw* mumktn. 

Attempt, ^ju* sa*% (k.) ; (evil), 
x^ kasd (k,). 

Attend on, c^^^^W hdzir h. 

Attendance, vso ^x >> khidmat 
(Jc,) ; (jf^U hdziri. 

Attention, oUiJl tZ/t/o/ {k,) ; 

j»j» tavajjuh. 
Attentive, *a^y^ mutavajjeh{Jb,)\ 

•li^T ayaA (5.). 
Attesting, jf^juJ tasdik (n,). 
Attire, yjsJ^ji jpushidan. 
Attorney, JJ^ raibtZ. 
Attraction, ^x^ jassb (it.) ; 

^^JJiS keshish 
Attractive, ^^ jdlib; w^W 

Attribute, n,, cuL* «z/a^; v. 

^jy V'. * nisbat k. 
Auction, ^1;ft harrdj. 
Auctioneer, le*-);* harrdjt. 
Audience (people), ^^^^L» 

hdzirin ; (interview), j>a> 

Audit, ^^^4,yJ^ muhdidbeh k» 
Auger, *:;* matah. 



Augmentation, {j^jj^ fttzuni 

takgxr (n,). 
Augur, jSi^i fdUgir, 

Augury, JU fdl (gr.). 
August, a.y Jac\ dzam. 

Aunt (paternal), A«e *ammah ; 

(maternal)y a)U hhalah. 
Auspicious, ^JuM muhdrak* 

Austere, q«»>^ *ahus ; ^j^j^ 

Authentic,^a^«a^i%. — ation, 

jiJuAi tasdik (ib). 

Author, cJ)J« mucdlif; u,bi^* 

Authority, j\ j. ;..»l ikhtiydr; 

Ks^^^ hukwmat. 
Autocracy, J^^iL.»l isHiidh 
Autocrat, Jal.^ muatakell. 
Autograph, Lsf^^ d€ui khatt. 
Autumn, ^^ khizdn ;j)\ifdiz. 
Auxiliary, ^U« mudvin ; c&U^ 

Avarice, ^jCaJio tamakdri. 
Avaricious, ^j»s«^ khans. 
Avenge, ^Ju^ j%Ujl51 iniikdm 

ksh,; jpr.p. Jiz^ muntaki/n. 
Avenue, ^jlU^ 
Averse, t;5/«« muriz. 

Aversion, \£^^kerdhat; oy^ 

Avert, \j^^f»^ daf* k. 
Avidity, ^^ hirs ; juk tama. 
Avoiding, ^^^ tajannub {k.) ; 

cuil^ mujdndbat (ib.). 
Avow, ^Ji^^• ^l^-il »/fcrir A:. 

— edly, \x^ *amdan. 
Awaiting, ^^kLU muntazer (h,). 
Awake, j\s^ ( 
Aware, sl^^T dgdh. 
Awful, c,<ij 4 > muMh ; k^\^ 

Awkward, ^^f kaudan. 
Awl, ^^j^ darafih. 
Awning, ^Ij)L» sdt/ebdn. 
Axe, ^ iabar; aJLJ ^t«AaA. 
Axiom, ^e-^Af bediht. 
Axis, ^j^ mihvar. 
Azure, ^WJla^mant; _jTa5». 


Babbler, ^^fuzul. 

Baby, a^. bacheh. — hood, 

^Jy^ bachegu 
BabooD, ^^**« maitnUn, 
Babylon, J^U BdbiL 
Bachelor, «^ j^ 'azab ; 1 jiP L* 

nd kaikhkio,. 

Back, n., 1=^ piukt ; (again), 
^Ij baz ; ,j-j pas. To briog 
back, ^JJyT Jj has a. To 
buy batk, ijM^ jLj Joa 
kharidan. To come back, 
jyA.1 jlj ba: 6madan. To 
draw back, ^>_,;, ^ j' ■ ias 
tjiA. To give back, ^iU jU 
Mz d. To hold back, jU 
.: '^ ' &iz dth. To take 
back, j^>^= ,j-i pag gr. 
To turn back, ,jJj3^_^1j ia« 

Backbiting, ^Ju. chughuli (it.). 


'JJJ * 


Backing out of (a promise), 
._iUr* mutaJckaUif. 

EackwarJuoHS, ic\LJ takaud. 

Backwards, j«j ^a* ,■ L_»ii«j •, 
ru he'akab. 

Backwater, ljIjj* murd-db. 

BacoD, jl^ i^^ gusM-i-gurdi. 

Bad, A_i Sarf; i;y-j; zahun. 
Bad-living, jIS'aJjj-j iarf 
zindagdni. Bad-looking, ii 
L^ Soii womtt. Of bad 
quality, _,»j> Jj iaff gauhar. 

Baffled, ^^ mahrim (g.). 
Bag, 4_5 A'i«aA; *kj_^ &Aa- 
HioA ; (large), Jlj» 

Horse's nose - 



Badge, , 

Saddle - — , (jj._,^ khurjin, 

Carpet — , tii*. chantak. 
Baggage, vW-1 <MJaJ,- *j 

Bail, n., ^^U^ samdnat; p. 

ijAi i^Lb zami» M. 
Bait, «ib >/ana£ (mAaiJaR). 
Bake, ^yiB pvkhian. 
Baker,^_ i^b ndn-poTS. 
Balance, n., ,^l^__j iwiflkMi ; 

(smalj), jjy /orisii ; (o£ 

account), j\j irfii. 
Balcony, uU. ^Ij hold khdnak. 
Bald, ^Xiai 
Bale, n., f'..- ha»tah. 
Ball, ^fgui ; (for gun), Jjls 

Bamboo, ,_jXa j nai-hindt. 
Band (rope), j-ij fionrf; (men), 

tj^ garuh. 
Band-boi, -^jJ.^ sandukeheh 
Bandit, ^^J t\j rdh zan. 
Bandy-legged, b ^kaj pd. 
Bang, j]/ tardk (ifi.). 
Banieh, jjj^ lJjj->. ^''"un t. 
Banister, jljjl duj ifiuf andiix. 



Bank (river), jLl^^o kindr; 
(money), ij\^ hhezdnah^ 

Banker, uJ^^ sarrdf. 

Bankrupt, ^jJa* muflis (sh^, 

— cj, ^^1 iflds. 
Banner, ^JL^ *alam; jljw^^ 

Banquet, ^^ ^ ^ ^ mihmdni ; 

u:«iL^ ziydfat. 
Baptism, Ju«9o tamtd (k,). 

Bar (river), jjj hand. 
Barb,^li. khdr. 
Barbarian, ^\ d*jam. 
Barber, dV^ dalldk. 
Barberries, esliij zirishk. 
Bare, A:jb^ barahnah (k.). 

Bare-beaded (unveiled), j.^ 

A:jtj> sar harahndh. 
Bargain, L^ shart {k.). 

Barge, ^^JJ zaurak. 

Bark (tree), ir* .?. i pusht ; 

(dog), jc^ Waw {k.) ; v. 

^)ju^ *af\dan. 
Barked (tree), jiJU mukash' 

Barley, j>>jau. 
Bam, ^j^ hhirman. 
Barracks, aJI». jl-;-^ sarhdz 
. khdneh. 

Barrel, J-*^ barmil. Gun — , 

Barren, ^Jc aA:t;7t. ; ^^ 'aA^zr. 
Barrier, »1^ ju«» «a^i raA. 
Barter, ^^^iz^jljumudvizai 

^« f c^ir *-^V ^^jctrat k. 
Base, a.y a,jJ:» shant ; 

Based, dl.*»i« mutamassak (5.). 
Baseness, oi^U kahdhat. 
Bashful, Js?" khijil, — ness, 

liJla?" khtjdlat 
Basil, 4jl5S, raihdn. 
Basin, ^^O lagan. 
Basis, Ajli pdyeh ; :^^ htmydd. 

Basket, j..,. ,-» «a&afl? ; . J * . j^ 

Bass (in music), ^ 5a;7». 
Bastard, s^^l^ hardmzddek. 
Bastinado, n., ^XJLi falakeh. 
To receive the — , *->>->• 
^^^ji. cAwft A;A. To give the 

— » U-^ V^ 

cM6 ;?. 

Bastion, —^ ittr/. 

Bat, »;;-r^ shahparah; (club), 

^jK^ chavgan {z,), 
Bath, ^U» hammdm (r.). — 

keeper, _^U» hamtndmeht* 
Battering, a«9 A; am' {k.)» 
Battery, id»^^ damdamveW. 




Battle, dli^ ji^tg; ci^ir,, Ij 
vakfat. Field of — , *^jj 

Battlement, i^jJl| hangurah. 

Biw], ^^^ :i^^farydd z* 

Baj (sea), .Mm. khaltj ; 

{colour), j^S^kahar; (tree), 
j\^ ghar. 
Bayonet, ^j^ sar nueh. 
Bazaar, ^l^li bazar. 

Be, ^jiy budan ; ^jL^it hastan. 

Beach (aea), %Jc^ kindrah. 

Bead, 4JL shabeh ; %^ muhreh. 

Beak, ^Uu minkdr. 

Beam (wood), ^ »U> «AaA ^m 
Sun — , j^ partav. 

Bean, Altl> bdJeUeh, 

Bear, «i., ,j«^ khirs; (star). 
Great — , ^^ u>a <i£r55» 
akbar. Little — , jStJ\ uj^ 
i^a5^' asghar, r. ^^pj ^t^r- 
i/a«; (fruit), j^^jT^ bar a.; 
(children), ^^^^ zddan. 

Beard, ^jtj^ mA ; pa. p.Jxti^ 

ruhddr. —less, jj »^L-(» 
sddeh ru. 
Bearer, JU^ hammdl; ^b^ ji 
bar burddr. Cup — , ^^L. 
8dk%; Tale — , ^ JJL* 

Beast, «*«4J bahtmdh; ^J^ 
vahsh, — of burden, JU 

Beat, ^^ zadan; ^y^^ku- 

Beating, ^y^ ^ zad kub. 

Beau, n., o&lJli kashang. 

Beautiful, j^,^ khubru ; %^j^ 

cjjJ0» khub 8tirat; J5C^ 

khushgil; eLli fcashang. 
Beauty, ^j„^^ husn. 

Because, 1 ^im\^\ ztrdkeh, 

— that, iXJii) ji Li bend bar 

Beckon, c>^;-$^ i^LlI it^araA 

Become, ^jJ!> shudan; ^^y;^ 
gashtan ; ^^Jj^p gardtdan. 
To cause to — , ^^jJl.)^^ 
garddntdan; (to suit), ^^j^j 

Bed, »\r i^ly. H%<iA; (of 
river), jjU jj|y rt^ khdneh. 

Bedchamber, il^euj^ jlLl 
ofaA;» kMbgdh, 

Bedding, v|^ i=^ raibA/ » 

Bedfellow, i^lfs^ hanikhdb. 

Bedstead, U^U chdrpd. 

Bee, ^^..x ^y J zani^ut*i 'atah 

Beef, j\r u:,jS^iuhti gdu. 

Beer,j^ bjl dhi-jaa- 

Beetle, ^^ hamdji; eL>^ 

Beet-root,^,jJlh cAu^ani^. 
Befitting, t^-^yj:, ahayetteh; 

Isii %<"*. 

Before,^! ^J^^ piih <k; ^1 JJ 

jtdiZ 02; (ta froDt),jl»yeA>. 

To come before, j^T ,j;:-j 

pw& amadan. 
Befriead, u^^s^^ i^tif'i jt. 
Beg, ,;>A^ (jdU^I iltimdi k. ; 

(alms), ^^ ^s\^ geddik. 
Beggar, \:S gedd; jJJ faifir ; 

Beginuei, ^^.U-* mubiadi. 
Begiimiiig, \ji-t\ iblidd (i.) ; 

B^inmugs, JjI^I aita-»/. 

Behalf, in, ik^^^ ho'vdteleh. 

Behare (well), ^j}\ L«. ujl 
a(^ &e;'a a. ; (badly) n^J 
(jj^L_.jl /aril (K^o^ h. 

Behead, ^\ ^i^ gardan e. 

Behind, vr^ 'aka6; uk— 1^ 

Behold, ^ild TiigdA k. 
Beholden, ti^fi** mamnun (A.). 

Being (created), ,j^ titakh- 

luf:; (exiateace), iyi-jViijuii. 
Belch, a,^ arugh (i.). 
Belief, ^jL; bdtar {k.); jUjcI 

itikdd (dth). 
Believer (true), ^J*Jt mimin. 
Bell, slij zany («.). 
Bellotring, aUU iany (z.). 
Bellows, ^li-^ nut^ftA. 
Belly, ^X-1 thikam ; ^Jai bain. 
Belonging to, ,jUia mutdaUaff 

{dt.) ; —- • nitbat. 
Beloved, n., lijim* mdth&fceh. 
Below, ^\i^p6g{n ; y^fari. 
Belt, xj jSkamar band. 
Bemoan, ^jj^ ur'J-*' <!/*''' 


— down, 

Beneath, j^ zir. 
Benediction, d^ tabarmk. 
Benefactor ^6 jC-i ntku kdr. 
beneficence, ^V-^1 ihidn. 
Beneficent, j_f harm. 
Benefit, oajL.!* maufdat {k.) ; 

pa. p. dU-L^u mnitafad; 

pr. p. ^j,™** muhiin. 
Benevolence, jji, ri/k. 
Benign, .-iy^roiif. 



,_^ A&hain 



Benignity, oi^^ raufaL 
Bent, ^ kham, J^kaj, 
Benumbed, a^^l afsurdeh [k.). 
Benzoin, ss^ saltkheh. 
Bequeath, u)<>/ cujm^ vasiyyat 

Bequest, vsaA^ visdyat ; (for 

religious purposes), v_p •j 

vakf (k,). 
Berry, jjb ddndh ; ju» habbeh. 
Beseech, ^J^ ^jA^\ iltimds k. 
Beside, J^ pahlu* 
Besides, ^^ magar ; \y^ sivd ; 

Besiege, ^^^tjj^ mahdserak 

k. ; pa. p. jy^^ mahsur. 
Best, ^>:4> hehtarin. 
Bestow, ^JuJLis hakhshtdan ; 
pa. p. J^ JuA mahzul ; pr, p, 
Ikcl Via {n.). 
Bet, VjH^ shart (bs.). 
Betel-leaf, J|^ tamML 
Betray, ^^^u>sL». khiydnat k. 
Betrayer, ^;>U khdtn. 
Betroth, ^jL^ jie 'akd ha. 
Betrothal, ^J^ khath {k.). 
Betrothed, n., ^U ndmzad {L), 
^QtteT^ji^hehtar{k.), ( — than, 

h. j\ az), 
JReiween, ^^{^ ( -^ dar) miyan. 


Beverage, v]^ skardb. 

Beware !^b^^ kJuiharddr! (h,). 

Bewitched, ^.a.^ mufattan 
(ah, k,). 

Beyond, *«i,-kjT dn-taraf; 

(more), s^IjJ ziydddk, 
Bible, Qi»jA« c-^o kitdbi mu^ 

kaddas. O. T., cy|^y tordt 

N. T., J^l a«;V/. 
Bidding (at a sale), J^ sowdm 

Bier, o^t ^ftwf ; \Jm na'sh. 
Big, (ri^j) huzurg ; (pregnant ), 

aUU. Mmilek. 
Bigot, Up^^aiLo mutaaasib (Jk,), 
Bigotry, u,>^« taatsub {dak). 
Bile, «^ «a^A. 
Bilious, (^]/«# mfrdvi. 
Bill (of exchange), o]^ 6ara^; 

(bird's), (&3^ n2^A:. 
Bind, 17., ^^^i«i^ haatan. 
Binder, ^S^ jildgar. 
Binding (book), jJU jild {h). 
Binocular glass, c%> ij^ d&r bin. 
Bird, c,* murgk ; ^U» /^ir. 
Bird-lime, jj^ ^i^i&Ar. 
Birth, jjj» tavallud. 
Birthday, ^^ j^ 'iJ» maulud. 
Biscuit, tt)l^ A;ai; ; oU^^Jb 6«j^' 




Bit (piece), A^awJ tikeh ; ^J^^ 
pdreh ; (of a bridle), ajU^ 
dahaneh ; J^ lagdm* 

Bite, ^^^^gazidan. 

Bitter, J? «a/>fc*. — ness, ^ 

Bitumen, k^ naft. 
Black, »Lm iiyah. 
Blackberry, c^y^ skahttU, 
Blackguard, ^V^^ jovaldghi; 

%i\y\^ hardrmddeh ; ^Jk^J-^ 

Blacksmith, ^^ ahangar. 
Blacking, ^Lm sigdhi. 
Bladder, ^^x^\Ji» shdshddn ; 

AJllft masdneh. 
Blade, 6xJ tighah. Shoulder — , 

aSUi shdneh. 
Blame, n., j^J laum ; ^^ zamm 

{Jc,) ; V. j^^v->-c "aih gf, 
Blameable, ^uaa mukassar (k,). 
Blameless, >1:^j bigtmdh. 
Bland, ^^ muldgim. 
Blandishment, ^IS ndz (k,). 
Blanket, jiij patii 
Blasphemy,^;© ifc?{/r {gf.). 
Blasts, cj»^ hubub. 
Blaze, 9f»\indireh; simlL shdleh ; 

(on a horse), %^ ghurreh. 
Bleach, ^^ ^j^J^ jfdzurt k. 

Bleed, t?. t , ^f^j^ khtin g)\ ; 

^^S Xaafdsd k.; v, i, ^)jw*l fjj^ 

khun dmadan. 
Blemish, ^^^^'aib ; ixJ lakkeli. 
Blessing, kz^S^ barakat (d.) ; 

jhj.^ durud (gf). Ghod bless 

you ! 41)1 (s3^l) bdrak Allah ! 

Blight, (»)iSj siang (x,). 

Blind, a , U-jlS ndUnd; j5^=» 
kur (k.) ; n., w^ pardah. 

Blindfold, o., vjXjl^ ^^cheshm 

Blindness, ^jj^kurt. 

Blister, A»\ dbilah. 

Blockade, tj J^ < muhdiareh 

Blockhead, ^j^^kodan* 

Blood, ^J^ khun. 

Bloodshed, \S^y^^ khunkhdri; 

Jii katl. 
Bloody, K/^f^ khunin. 
Blooming, jub^ shigufiah. 
Blossom, w., A»y^ shigtlfeh; 

i^ghuncheh (z.); v.,^jJ^ 

Blot, ^ lakkeh. 
Blow, w., tj^ i?a^* (kh.) ; v., 

^jjjjj vaztdan ; (the nose) 

Blue, 4-J nUak; ajS' kabud ; 

Blunder, U» glalhtt (£.); Uii. 

Blunt, iSkund. 
Blushing, uiJl> khijdlat (ktk). 
Boar, d^ khvic ; j\^gurds. 
Board, t:^ takAtah. 
Boaster, UJ ^ khud tand. 
Boasting, ijijj^ ij-^ khud 

fan'iih (^-.); ,^\,^ guedf{k.); 

,Ji^ skeikhi. 
Boat, ^^iSkethti; S3^ lutkeh. 

— man, ^J..^:S keskttbd n. 
Bodice, x> «:-- »inah band. 
Bodkin, (ji»;i darafii. 
Body, f^ tan ; ^>j-i badan. 

Dead—, Ji'i Idth. 
Bog, ■'_' - ma»hilahi ljT^^ 

Boil, n., Jyj dumbal; v. t., 

Bold, jJi rf«/ir. 
Boldness, i^iJ^ jur-at. 
Bolt, JCj patkidlah ! u<i^ 

cA^/? (it.). 
Bond, (£L*> tamattuk. 
Bondage, (j5j*-l o*iW. 
.a7/it> y/ljf-'' ugiuihdn. 

Bonnet, •HT^u/ZiiA. 

Book, LjLJ'iWfcfJ. —binder, 
Xj-J-* Ji'^'W- —seller, 
{Jijji v^ kitdbyartith. 

Boou-companion, uLl** Aom- 

Boot, (jilTia/W. Top— , i.'C 

Booty, o,\t ghdrat. 
Borax, j^ji &ii;-iii. 
Border, >^L£. ;btfl<iniA ,- 4J.U 

Bore, ^^^ *u/b«t. 
Bom, to be, ^\\ gddan; pa.p. 

iiy* mutavatlad («A.). 
Borrow, ^j^J^jo/ harz gr.; 

pr. p. {a thing), i^Ui^) itti- 

drah(k.); (money), ^l^ii^l 

iaH^rdz (i.). 
Bosom, '\ - linah ; u^j-cT 

Botany, ^^ i_iiic 'alafehirii. 
Both,jj^ har do. 
Bottle, Ai^J, thuihah; (euro- 

pean) ^<;Jai butri. Water—, 

isLJ /uny. 
Bottom, Li tak; ^^\i pduii 

(sea, etc.) ^ ka'ar. 
^ Boag\i, iil «hdfc&. 



Bound, v.y ^J:'^J> harjasian ; 

n. (perforce) jjV Idrhudd ; 

(book), jJk* mujallad. 
Boundary, j^ hadd (pi. .3^j^ 

Boundless, j>^js£*\i ita mahdtid. 
Bountiful, ajujUiS hahhshdyan- 

deh; ^^^kartm. 
Bounty, ^jiJ faiz. 
Bouquet, *:l^S!C guldtutah. 
Bow, «!., ^-^^kamdn. — shot, 

i^\J^ partdb. — string, aL. 

chilleh. v,y ^j^^,mja» tazttn 

k.; {:)^j^j^ sarfaru k. 
Bowels, i^jj rudah. 
Bowl, Ja^jdtn; ^j\» hddiyek. 

Box (fight), V,, ^}^ cuJL* «nti«A^ 
i!?. ; (chest, large), j;jJi«# mti- 
duk; (small), jy At*^// ju«^ 
jaheh. Cartridge — , ^s^J 
iuskddn. Snuff — , ^b aJLJI 
anfiyeh dan, — on the ears, 
jI^ iilah (d,), — ^tree, ^U^ 
Boxer, ^^j %z^Jl» mmht zan, 
Boy,^^ pisar; f:^^^kijLdak 
Bracelet, ^j^j^, 4J>«««d dast 

Braces, XjiJJJ^ shalvdr hand. 
Brackish^ ^^ fhur. 

Brag, y,^ *«iV /ofiP. 

Brain, j»« magkz ; cU^ dimdgh. 

Brambles, JJ>^ khaziz ; J^ 

Bran, {^yj^ sahus. 
Branch, n., l,\1 shdkh. 

Branched OMt^^^mutafarrah ; 

— ^ing off, v,>ir^u munshaab. 
Brand, ci^ ddgh (Jc,'), 
Brandy, j^ 'ara^, 
Brasier, ^^L^ mUgar, 
Brass, J;? hirinj. 
Brave, jjV^ dildver; ji^ dalir. 
Bravery, ^^1^ marddnagu 
Bravo! ^l;Uf shabdsk; 4)1 'U» U 

mashdllah : jj a» &aA / &aA / 
Braying, j^li naAt'A: (k,) ; ^^c^ 

War (^.). 
Breach, s^U« maghdreh (s.). 
Bread, ^;\J nan (pronounced 

nun). Leavened — 7{jjs*^iJ^ 

ndni khamvn. 
Breadth, ^^^pdhn; Jetjt'arz, 
Break, t?., ^JLS^ shikastan. 
Breakfast, ^l^i nahdr. 
Breast, ju^*^ miah ; (woman's), 

^Ilmj pistdn. 
Breath, ^^ dam (z,); ^jjj nafas 

(ksh, z,). 
Breeches, j\^ tkoliDOT. 



Breed, J«l asl. 
Breeze, ^^ nasim. 
Bribe, cjyUj riehvat (H.). 

Bribery, {jj\y^ *y^j f'^^^veh 

Brick (imburnt), uuw>. hhisht, 

(burnt), ^ djur, — kiln, 

\jflcurek, — maker, jj eiAJLi. 

khishtpaz. — ^layer, Lj 5a;}na. 
Bride, ^j^ *aru8. 
Bridegroom, ^Ui^ ddtndd, 
^''idge, Ji pul ; (of the nose), 

* • 



Bridle, bi^ dahnd (k,) ; jj 
lijam ; (watering), ^L^->1 
a/»ar ; (rein), jU y^/o. 

Brief, i\3^kutdh. — ly, A-aSJl 

Brigand^ ^j^^^ rdhzan. 
Bright, (sILijLJ tdbndk ; ^^j 

roshan {k, *.). 
Brightness, i\^j> nurdni. 
Brilliancy, o^U indrat. 
Brilliant, ^^ mujalld. 
Brim, e^ i^aft. — full, c--JU 

Brimstone, is^^^JS kehrtt. 
Bring, ^j^l dvardan, — in, 
^•ju»jLy^ ^ ^^i» rasdnidan. 

— up, c^Ai^jj^ parvaridan. 

— fattbf ^^jj]^ zdidan. 

Brink, JcS^kindr, 

Brisk, kJ^ nashit; jJU ^a^^i 

Bristle, jm mH, 

Brittle, ttL; T tunuk; d^lJ 

Broad, ^jo^ *a^t2; ; U4J pahnd. 
Broadcloth, o^U maAt^^. 

Brocade, cjli^ kamkhdb ; ^jjj 

Broiled, ^Joji hiriydn {k,). 
Broker, JV^ dalldl, — age, 

Ayl^ dalldli. 
Bronze, ^^^^ chudan^ 

Brook, ijj>. j{ii. 

Broom, jijU ^arw {k,). 

Broth, \^y^ shurhd. 

Brother, ^1^ barddar. Adopt- 
ed — , t^\j>^j^\ji b, khdndeh, 
Foster — , ^^^ j^\/i b- 
i-rezai, — 'in-law, ij\j^]/ 
b. zan, etc. 

Brotherhood, i^^y^S ukhdvat; 
{Sj^]/, barddari. 

Brown, j.>.r-^ asmar ; 

Brow, «-^^^ havdjib. 

Browse, U<H^ cAar/(/a», 

Bruise, ^}ji;I»l a«Awi*^»; ^jZif 



Brush, «., ^jji brush ; v. cdb 

ij^pdk k. 
Brushwood. a«^ himeK 
Brutish, ^c*s4> hahimu 
Bubble, ujL» liubiK 
Bucket, j)^<Mt;; A^dHlckeh. 

Buckle, ftlXl Mogak. 

Bud, «^ ffhuncheh; ^^ 

Buffalo, ^J^^gdu mtsh. 
Buff-coloured, ^bb bdddmt. 
Buffeting, JoSul^ mutaldtim 

Buffoon, s^-Jr^ maskharah ; 

A>ji lutt, — erj, jk**^ ta- 

Bug, ^j»U 908 ; J-xJ^ ahabgez. 
Bugle, ^yj^ thaifiur. 
Bugloss, J^^ ihingar; J^ 

u\j 9^^ zabdn. 
Build, \:^jf\i3> band k. 
Builder, ^b bdni; li^ bannd. 
Building, o^Ue Hmdrat {k,) ; 

^L> bandL 
Bulb, jL-j pigdg. 

Bulky, d;&«» SfUurg; jjiJL--> 

Bull,j\r^ iMry^u. 
Bullet, iJjU«» yo^u/tf A. 
Bulwark^^^;5L^ sangur^ 

Bunch, jJ^ khu8heh; 

Bundle, a: ^> basteh ; . 

Burden, ^U ^r ; J.«^ ^am?. 
Burn, v. t., ^;:l»>j<«* 9ukhtan ; 

V, t i:)Sijy^ suztdan. 
Burnished, ^^ mujalld. 

Burst, (jjJy tarkidan ; pr. p, 

Bury, ^jip (s)U. ifc^ifc ^. 

Burying, ^^sJ tadftn (*.); 

^^^ dqfn (k.), — place, 

^Vi_ ^^9 guTistdn, 
Bush, jJ^ b4iah. 
Busied, Jj«JU mashghul {shb,). 
Business, (^L* j) JC kdr {o 

bar) ; aU,! ^ mashghaleh. 

Important — , ^ mt#Aim7/i. 
Busybody, ^jAJfuzul. 
Bustard, $f>yb hubareh. 
But, Ul amma ; ixJb balkeh ; 

^jjCJ^ valtken ; ^ magar. 
Butcher, v^l^ kaasdb, 
Butler,^lj ndzer. 
Butt, 11., uJJJ^ hadaf; v,, ^11 

Butter, 1^ ^ora^ ; (clarified), 
{j^jj roghan, — milk, fy^ 



Batierflj, *i\jj-i parvdneh. 
Buttocks, ^J>J^ iurtn; 

Button, jlJ^^ or aS^ dukmeh. 

— '- hole, iffilU madagu 
Buy, ^^)^ Jeharidan, 
Buyer, ^b^ khariddr. 
Buying, ^L-H^ ibtiyd (A?.); 

i>l^^iJ:*l ishtird (ft.). 
Buying or selling on credit, 

cuU nasiaU 
Buzzing, ^jjk> tantn (kj, 
By, * ^tf; \i hd; \\ az. 
By all means, aJI albattah. 
By chance, ^liJi jUJi ittifdk 

uftdd; IjUJI ittifdkan. 


Cabbage, J> kalam; ^^.^^ 

Cabinet, 4j\j&\^ nikdn-khdnah, 
Cable,^^xjj ^j^j rasani langar. 

CsBsar, >aJ kaisar. 
Cage, fjji kafas. 
Cajolery, -c-i^V ^^^P^^ C^)' 
Cake, ^^i^ ^jli na«» shirtn. 

Calamity, % held; f- ^ ^^t 

Calculate, qi^l^L^ hisdb k. 

Calculation, .lj;> Mhunidr. 

Caldron, (sJL^^ dig; J^^ 

Calendar, ^JLj takvtm. 

Calf, i2LtjSgau9dleh. 

Calico, jM cH^Uri pi^^^^i 
shdhi; J^Ji kalamkdr. 

Caliph, AsJL» khaUfeh; (pi 
*\a^ khulafd). 

Call (awaken), (ji^'J^H ^>^^ 

k. — out, 12)4^ ij-» ItflW 

k, ; ^jAy ^Ij^ J ^b ^^ 

ferydd k, 
Calligraphist, ^,y^^ kkwihr 

Calligraphy, W-a^^ khush- 

Called, to be, ^^b ^1 urn 

Calm, ^)La mcddyim; Jj, 

dram (gr,), — ness, ^jSj-l 

Calomel, ty^jivek. 
Calumniator, ^Jo^ jj had zahdn. 

Calumny, yjc^ huhtdn (hs,); 
sza^ tuhmat (hs,) 

Camel, j " * shutur. Two 
humped, riding — , j.*. 
bukhtu — driver, vjGjNli 

$huttirbdn. — litter, ijjj:ii 
takhtiraodn ; *j\J kajdveh. 
Female — , ulj ndkeA. 

Comeleopard, t— ijij zardf. 

Cunomile, ujjIi btibUneh, 

Campifl., XJ^/nghkafffdA; 
J6 fi . ■'- khahieh gak; c. 
^p) pW ehader x. 

Cam phor, ^^ jtd/wr . 

Canal, ^li nathaj; jij^kdriz. 

CKacetled, ^^f-l* tna«tikk(k.). 

Cancer, JS^ tareian ; J-y, 
'1*^ Jiezar eheiltmeh. 

Candid, jjL> tddik. 

Candidate, jIjJl^ I ummiSodr, 
' Candle, bJi tham. — stick, 
^loiu^ tham'ddn. 

Candour, ^^'ii^ ikhUt. 

Cane, ^^jj^ khaitvt^n. Sugar 
— 1,^-iJ nei/-tiekar. 

Cannibal, ^jj^jT ddamkhvr. 

CaoDon, i^j^ tip. Small 
cannon carried on camel- 
back, oljjjj zambdrak. — 
ball, lijAm guleh. — ade, 
*"•' O^j VJ^ '"? '■ — ®®^' 

Canon, ixjL* ffdidek; (^^Li 

Canopj, ^ti «>La t(j^«A (an. 
Canter, i*t^ yurtmek {r.). 
Canvas ^^ paid*. 
Cap, («.). •Ujb JtW^A; v., 

(veraea), ^*jj i^jsLl, mu- 

thaereh k. 
Capabilitj*, i^JaI ahliyat. 
Capable, J.^ *<fi»7,- JlT kdfi. 
Capacity (skill), *=J_;li *<fJ»- 

Hyat; (holding), yl-ilJ* 

Cape, y-lj ni». 

Capital (stock), Jl*Jl j-l^ rdt- 

vlmdl, or JU— j^ rdtmdl ; 

(town), is_ittlj pditakit ; 

Capitulate, ^Ij «l-j tfuii'm if. 

Capricora, ^^s^jidL 

Caprice, ^j^ j^^ kkud lari. 

Captain, yU«L auUdn. 

Captive, ji-l aitr (gr.). 

Captivity, ^J,:ui^ girifidri ; 
i_,_fc Aafif. 

Carat, L>1^ kirdt. 

Caravan, ^jji kdravdn ; ilib 
kqfilek. — serai, iSj-i^jJ^ 
kdravdn»erai ; UIj , ribdt. 

Carcase, J^V lath; tk^J{fah. 

Card, v., ^jj t^-^ pambah t. 

CardftiDums, j^^ kaljiiAUk. 



Carder, jj^ a .y ; ■» pamhah duz. 

Cards, ^Lj^ ganjifeh. 

Care (fear), |^^ parvd (dsh.) ; 
(attention ), ^\^Zit\ ihtimdm; 
cu-jLfi) ridyat ; (effort), 
a\^ ; y\ ijtihdd; (caution), 
j\ i ; ij ztnhdr ; (circum- 
spectioD), V\js>\ ihtiydt (ib.). 
Take eare ! ^jiLj j^^ dur 
hash ; J^ y^ khahar ddr. 

Careful .b -i. khahar ddr 
(«jl.) ; *.>jumutavajjeh {h,). 

Careless, J-^b araAiZ; J-*Lii 
ghqfil; jJ^, hikhahar. 

Caress, (j^|y navdzish (k,). 

Carnage, Jii katl. 

Carnal, ^^^^,^ jismdnt, 

Carnelion, j-ic *aktk. 

Carp, jbU ^1^1 a-fao? mdhl 

Carpenter, ^1*8 najjdr. 

Carpet (of pile), ^U *^//; 
A-jJ'Li kdlwheh ; (woven), 
^Z^ giUm; (felt), j^ 
namad ; (at top and bottom 
of room), jljji Ij and^^ ««r 
and pa anddz. Prayer — , 
i^lsi** sajjddeh. — spreader, 
U**1h farrdsh. To spread 
a. — 9 ^^IjJl (ji^ farsli 
anddkhtan (or kerdan). 

Carra way-seed Ij^^^orvty^ 
Carriage, JSLJ^ kdlitkah. 
Carrier, Jl^ /iammiiJ ; J^jj 

Carrion, ^^ murddr. 
Carrion-bird, j^t Idshkhur. 
Carrot, d^^ zardak;jjS gojsar. 
Carry, jj^ burdofk — away, 

^^b^ bar dsh. — down, 

^2^^ jjj faru burdan. 
Cart, 4j\jc> *ardheh 
Cartilage (of the nose), ^ n^ 

pardahi bini; j,i^\»^ khayd- 

Cartridge, ttl:J^ JUhang, 
Carve, (food), ^jSiji burtdan. 
Carving, «., (stone, etc), ,ji5j 

naksh (k,). 

Cascade, ^lljT dbMhdr, 

Case (legal), l^ ^ davd ; (box ), 
j^X;^ sanduk. Pen — , ^^^jfe 
kalamddn ; (affair), JW ^a/ ; 
^ ^t omn In any case, 
\Zj>jym j^ j^ dar ha/r 9urat ; 
JU^ behar hal. 

Cash, jAJ J^ puli nakd. 

Cashmere, a^ tirmah. 

Casket, ti^ hukkeK 

Cassia fistularis, jc^X^khiydr 



Cast, v., ^^S-a>U-Vl anddkhtan, 
— in a mould, ^/as^ rikhtan, 
Castie, AjJi (toTah ; iaL\ arg. 

Castor oil, ctUp^ji^ raughani 

Castrated, ^. .a-» i&AoM^ (k.) ; 

«:&.) aA^A^^A (A;.). 
Casual, ^li-)l ittifdki. 
Casualty, a^L» sdniheh. 
Cat, ij^gurbah. 
Catalogue, iji^^a^fihrist 
Cataract, ^lijl a&^Aar. — in 

the eye, i^ zafarat 

Catch, ^ygiriftan, — cold, 

\^^j^ ^j^ sermd kh. 
Catchword, a»-^U. khdrijeh. 

Caterpillar, vio.1^^ ^^ kirmi 

Cattle, ^1>« mavdahi. 
Cauliflower, ^ 2^ kcblam gul. 

Cause, Cgrf^j^ mojib; 'y^- j^ 
jihat ; t-^.*^ 9ah(ib (sk. ) ; 
(author), v-^^U «aAi& For 
this cause, kza^ ^^\J\ az in 
jihat. Final cause, ^JW oic 
'i/Zo/i gkdi. Material cause, 
^^U cuk 'illati mdddiy. 

Causeless, aW«*|^ Uvdsiteh. 

Causeway^ c'V!:*' >4^>^/y^^a«. 

Cautery, ^ifcat (A?.) ; cb (iayA 

Caution, l>Ls».l ihtigdt 
Cautious,^b^^ khabarddr(k). 
Cavalcade, c.^^ mai^^a5. 
Cavalier, ^Ij-. soiowdr. 
Cavalry, ^j\j\y*» sowwdrdn, 
C&vey j\t. ghdr ; \^Ji^kahf, 
Caviller, ^». a:Xj mi^^'^^A £;^t;». 
Cavilling, ^Jy>, c,-^ ^aihjui{k). 
Cavity, v-»j». >w/. 
Cease, ^^^^L-jI i^ vd tstddan ; 

0<^ v.-»^^ maukufb. 
Cedar, J^kdj. 
Cede, c).)/ (•JLJ tasUm k. 
Ceiling, coft..* «a^ 

Celebrated, jj-4-l* mashhur ; 
pr, p. (a mistress in verse), 
Cy^j^) nastb (^.). 

Celery, ^^karafs. 
Celestial, ^j^ charkhu 
Cell, jlXj takiyeh. 
Cellar, \j^jjij ziri zamtn. 
Cement, n,, ^^^ sarish (Jc,), 

f., ij'^-i^j^ dustdan. 
Cemetery, ^^\zss^ kahristan. 
Censer, j~^^ mijmar; J s w 

Ceutt'oW, \s^^ «a,dbar9« 



Centipede, \»j])^ hezdr pd. 
Centre, jjT^ markaz ; J\x^ 

Century, JL» ju» sad idl. 

Ceremonial, ^c*--; rasmt, — 

pollution, sz^\:^ jemlUfat 
Ceremony, uJi IfTTwT takalluf. 

Master of the ceremonies, 

Certain, ^^ yakin (A). — ^ly, 
Aiji albattah. — ty, ,;. . ,i -^ 

Certificate, jiji o-»a efcwi^ aw2^. 

Cesspool, 4^j» mazhalah. 

Chafing-dish, Ji:u mankal. 

Chain, j^j zanjir (k. hs.). 

Chair, ^^XJ^ aandali ; ^j^» 

Chalk, jCXio tabdshtr; jJL» J^ 
^ili tqfid. 

Chamber, ^jl o^aA:. 

Chamberlain, v-^^U ^'t&. 

Chameleon, ^j^ kalatnun. 

Champion, ^1^ ibar^'. 

Chance, jUJl ittifdk. By — , 
liliJl ittifdkan. 

Chandelier, c];». J^ chehl ehi- 

Change, JjjJ tabda (iL); ^jc 

puli khurdah ; pa. p,, jjju* 

mutaghayyir («A.). 
Channel, vj[/^ mujrd. 
Chant, 4i\J tirdneh. 
Chapter, c^b hah, — of the 

Jl^ordn, %jya surah, 

Character(good), AS^ntkndm; 

(bad), aLJ X-> had nam; 

(reputation), J^^— >T dbru; 

(quality), sz^^jS^ k^fiyat. 
Characters, ^j^j rukutn. 
Charcoal, J\^ zughdl. 

Charge (custody), viuiUI ami- 

not; (accusation), \z^}Cjt 

Charity, o^ khairat ; oJj^ 

Charm (written), n., U^ dua. 
Chaste, *ji^^\ pdktzah. 
Chastisement, c^lic 'ikdh. 
Chastity, xzJ^ 'ifat; %z^^ 

Chat, y^j ^i^ guft gu h. 
Cheap, ^jl^^i arzdn (Jc,), 
Cheapness, \^)j^ arzdnt. 
Cheat, n., J6 ii^ hileh kdr; 

^'f uiK aIj*- A*^«A k, ; ^^^ 



Checkmate, oU ilJ^ ahdh mat 

Cheek, ^j rukh ; s^Ui^ rukh" 

Cheerful, «;» khurram. 

Cheerfulness, %^Ja tarab ; fj:\^ 

Cheerless, ^U* \j na %hdd. 

Cheese, jCj panir. 
Cheeta, j^s fahd. 
Chemist, ^\^Hmiya gar. 
Chemistry, \^ kimiyd. 
Cheque, it., oj^ hardt. 

Cherish, cJ^^^/-j parvardan ; 
pr, J?., jly navdz (ifc.). 

Cherry, ^j.'iS gilds ; jlb jll dlu 

Cherub, ^j^karubz. 

ChesB, J^ shatranj, — man, 

j^^nohr. — board, LLj bi- 
idt. — square, ajU. khdneh. 
The pieces are, king, iLl 
ikdh ; queen, ^JlJJi farzin ; 
bishop, ^fil; knight, y^\ 
asp, or Jy« sovowdr ; castle, 
^ rukh; and pawn, i^L^ 

Chest, jjJu.* sanduk. 

Chestnut^ ]o^ »U sMh balut 

Chew, jjjJUi khduian ; pr. p., 
iua* mazgh (Jc.). — the cud, 
ijSi^ khavtdan, 

Ohicken, la*^ jujeh. 

Chicken-pox, d^j zahrek. 

Chiding, cuJlsu mudtabat (k.). 

Chief, ^j\»- khdn ; j^j^ sarvar^ 
— of village, \s»J^ kedkhudd. 
— of tribe, ^j^j rais ; aJJu 
mukaddiMn. — of army, (ju«*) 
jVl— {sipeh) sdldr. — of 
10,000 men, ^jU^^l amir 
tumdn. — of nomads, ^jlafe* 
ilkhdni. Chief, or head- 
servant, ^\* cutjiAsi pish- 
khtdmat hdsht (thia last word 
can be affixed to most names 
of offices). 

Chiefly, U\h ghdliban. 

Chiefship, \jjjj»» sarvari; ^jU. 

Child, JiL tifl ; a^s bacheh. 

Childbirth, ox^ vazai; ^JjujJj 

Childhood, cuJjak tufuliyat. 

Childish, aj^UL tijldneh. 

ChUdren, ^Vjl auldd. 

Chill, dL». khunuk. 

Chimney, ^jl^a ^3^^ ^ti J kesh 
— apiece, ^J^^bulcKari* 



Chin 2j '^c^Mtkh* 

China (country), c^^ Okin; 
^ Khutan. — ^are, ^^ 
chtnu • 

Chintz, j\j jL*L». jamah vdr ; 

Chip, C»\J tardsheh. 
Chisel, jJCI askanah. 
Choice, j\^\ ihUiydr (k.)\ 

^J^^ intikhdh (A?.). 
Choke, jj^^Afli. khufeh k, («A.). 
Cholera, Uj vahd. 
Choose, ij^^{j> bar) yuztdan. 
Chorasmia, ^jj\^ khdrezm. 
Chosen, «-*«*** muntakkib, 
Christ, ^j^ iZy^ Hazrat-i- 


Christian), ^y^^ *tsavi; ^3]^ 

Chronicle, ^^J5 tdrikh. 
Chronicler, ^j^ muvarrikh. 
Church, jL«J^ kaluah ; ^.^jV *^ 

Chum , »., cdJU wM3f«AA; ; r., 

Cinder, ^^Jy^ kkdkister ; jy» ^ 

n%m suz. 
Cinnabar, ^^^j^JJ shangarf. 
Cinoamon, ^x^j\^ ddr ehtm. 

Circle, s^sb ddireh ; jc^ eham' 

Circumambulating (of the 

Kaabah, etc.)* uJ|^ tawwdf. 
Circulation, ^\jj ravdj {d,). 
Circumcised, ^jJL*^ makhtun 

Circumcision, Al,r,^ khatnah 

Circumference, ^j^=» gird, 
Circumspeci', Ll::^ muhtdt 
Circumspection, LL^! ihtiydt. 
Circumstance, JL»i hdl (pi. 

Ji^l ahvdl)\ sz^iJS keyfiyat 
Cititern, ^j^ ham ; ^Ljl ^i 

db ambdr. 
Citadel, e^l org. 

Citation (before a court), ^U»l 

ihzdr («.), 
Citizen, ^j^^ shahru 

Citron, J^ tv/ranj. 

City, ^;^ «Aaikr. 

Civil, v<^>* muaddab ; t-igVi! 

Za/t/: — ity, «^jI odlff^. 
Civilian, Js J^l ahli kaiam. 
Civet, ^bj zabdd, * 

Claim, (^j dat^. 
Claimant, ^e^J^ mudda'i. 
Clamour, ^\i^ ^b ddd o fir- 




Clandestine, ii. hhafi. 
Clarified, ^J^om mmaffd. 

Clarify, ^j^uJU *a/ Ic, 

Clarion, \j^ samd. 

Class (of people), jijlk tdifeh. ; 

(school), u-i:^ ^tVi/I 
Clause, i/LsJlkrah. 
Claw, (sLfti cAany ; c-Ji* miM- 

Clay, Jf gil ; ^ shuL 

Clean, ellj /^aA; (^.) ; c^U sdf 

(h) ; i^jM^sb pdktzah (A.). 
Cleanness, cusUaJ nizdfat ' 
Clear (evident), ^H ^^y*w; 

^^ «ar*A; (bright), ^^j^ 

roshan. — profits, jl jj\ ^j.^ 

j?a* anddz. — away, r., 

^jJI»b^ &ar ddshtan. 
Clearly, \jd»\ (xshkdrd. 
Clearness, o^J^ sardhaU 
Cleare, ^pj^ burtdan. 
Clemency, szJlm^ shafakat. 
Clerk, ^^yjL3^ daftar navts. 
Clever, dbU ckdbuk ; ct)LJ,j 

tiring, — ^ness, ^^i zihn. 
Climate, \y^ j^^\ dh o havd. 
Climb, ^J^J ji barraftan. 
Clime (country), j^\ iklim. 
Cling, ^jjij M>.^ chaspCdan^ 
Clip, ^>x^ chidan. 

Cloak, ju-.a. jubbeh; 

Clock, lsacL* «a'a/ (i y^ib, Jo, 
etc., one, two o'clock). — 
maker, jL* oxL* «a a^ «ar. 

Clod, ^^l^g ktdukh. 

Close, a., db^^ nazdik ; v., 
^^«Smo bastan. 

Closet, AJUs^ khalvat khdneh; 
AjUi A^^ tmheh khdneh; (a 
privy), ^J^;-*-« mabraz ; 5U. 

Cloth, A».\j ^a^A^A; (woollen ), 
c>^U nidhut Table — , 
s^ sufreh. 

Clothe, (jJuoU*^ pushdntdan ; 
pa. p,y i^mJU mulabbat. 

Clothes, Kz^j rakht ; ^j-LJ 
/i5a«. Bed — , %^\^ vi*i., 

Clotted cream, j^jU kdimak. 

Cloud, ^1 abr ; — y, AiJ;^» 

Clover, A^ guncheh. 

Cloves, dlij* mikhek ; JiJ/i 

Club, v^^ chub. 
Cluster, ^j^ khusheh. 
Clyster, ^ • ^^ liuknekv 



Coachman, _^ S^^kdliskeh- 

Coal, JU^ zoghdl. 
Coarse, iji^JM^durusht ; \z»ii^^^ 

huluft ; txSgundah, 

Coast, »;L:^ kindreh ; J».L# 

Coat, li Tcahd ; aJLi^-j ntmtaneh. 
Over — , jji^ V\j bdld push, 
— of mail, jjjb yalmah 

Coax, ^;;:^iy navdkhtan, 

Cobbler,jj^ ai^ pinah duz. 

Cobweb, cjjXsC' »3;j pardahi 

Cochineal, tS^jy^^ kirmezi 

Cock, ^jrfji^ khurus. Gun — , 

^jUi*- chekmdk. Cistern — , 
^^ shir. 
Cockroach, dUj^ 9usk, 
Cocoa-nut, {JSJa j^ jauzi 

hindi; J-^-^Li ndrjiL 
Cocoon, iL-j^ptlah, 
Code, ^J^:..) tanzim. 
Coeval, J4>t*ife hf/mahd. 
Coffee, 5^ kahveh, 
CofiBn, c^«jvJ tdhut. 
Cog, AJlj)^ danddneh. 
Coherent, ^ytj^ marbut. 
Cohesion, ^xji^j^ paivastagi. 

Coin, j5CLm Mkeh ; J[^ j9i^^ 
Base — , uJi AflZft. -— of 
copper, ^d,, ali. «^aA/. — 
of silver, worth 10 J., ^jjl^ 
krdn, or ^Llj^ j]^ hezdr 
dinar, . — of gold, 10 krdnSf 
^U^ tumatim v.y ^^ S^ 
zarab k. 

Coincidence, ^IjJ tavdrud. 

Coiner, «->]/-> zarrdb, 
Colchicum, vjWf^j^ SMri«;a«. 
Cold, a., ^ far J; f»., U;M 

sarmd ; (illness), ^^^T, zukdm 

Coldness, o^^ burudat. 
Colic, J^ kulinj ; ^-j jpicA 


Collar, ^is yakJieh; (ring), 
jjL tauJc, 

Collating, Jjl£o mukdbil {n,), 

CoUeage, ajU *a ^«w pdyek. 

Collected, in mind, &«>. ^l> 
kJidter jam. 

Collection, • » «w ^am* (^.); 
^\jiferaham (a.). 

Collector of reyenue,^ 

muhassil ; j$^\ bdjgir. 
College, ju^jcA madraseh, 
CoW'^x'vMTCk, Ajfc^ surma A. 

Colocynth, i^ ^ khar zak 
rah, — gourd, Jlij. hanzal. 

ColoDel, i_,.J^ sartib, Lieut. 
— , bL»^ tarhang. 

Colour, iiljj rang {k. z.) ; pa. p. 
K^SLij rattan. ^jL mulao- 
van (eft.). To change — 
(face), ijJ^jj 3j eiij rangi ru 

Colt, *j^** kurrah, 

ColumD (stone), ^JfiM ; (book), 

Comb, ^\ii ahdneh (2.). Guny 


' uti> c 


Combat, *ini* mukdtUeh (n,). 
CoRibinitLlnn, u^L> «dzi«k. 
' Combustion, (Jj^ takH^ 
Comu, ^JiJ•\ dmadan. — out, 

yA»l jjj bedar a, — up, 

,jij.\ j> bar a. — to pass. 

Comet, jlj^j iJiLaiitdrehidum- 

Conifort, L.Kj dildsd; ^^-J 
tasalld (k.) ; pa. p. ^^«i. mtt- 
taaaUi («A,). 

Command, ft-, S^ hukm {k.) \ 
^\.^farmdn{k.); jl^ 


hukmrdnt; v., ij'Ji;-* ■^'^ 

Commander-iD-chief, yiL, t^ 

iipeh sdldr. 
Commencement, \xij\ iblidd 

(k.) ; ^j^ shuru' (A.)- 
Commendable, t^_i^ pasan- 

Commendation, ^J>— • "todk 

(i.); lyu^ tahsinin.). 
CommentHiy, —^ shark {k.); 

ji_i_; tafsir («.). 
Commentator, —.Vi tkdrik. 
Commerce, o,W te^drat, 
CommlKcratioa, j'^j^^ ghatn- 

hhdr (».). 
CommiseioD (of sins), ujlxJ^l 

irfiiiiS (n.); v. ^^-JXi ffu- 

Commit, to, ,^1,— > sipurdan. 
Common, -.L* 'dmm; j^4^ 

mashhur. — people, (■■j-*^ 

Commotion, J^j-J tazalzal. 
Communicate, yji^jUW ixlidr 


Compact, J*W ta'dhud. 
Companion, j^J^ ri/tj ; j;*^ 
aharik. Boon — , ■ lA ■' 



Companionship, oa-»j^ mu- 

Company, ^jj^majlig ; c^^ 

suhbat ; (of soldiers), al«*^ 

Comparison, aLIa« mukdhileh 

Comparing, jj^ A:aw, 
Compass, n., UJ a)>^ kiblah 

Compasses, .\S^ pargdr. 
Compassion, o^i^ muruvvat 

(^.) ; ^j:<>q.a^ shqfakat (k,). 
Compassionate, j^^ dilsuz. 
Compel, ^J^ jjj> hizur k. 

Compendium, j».^ mujiz. 
Compensation, ^IjLJ tdvdn 

(k,); j,)^ taldfi {k,y 
Competence, %z^\kj^m kefdyat. 

Competent, jjiV Idik; J^kdfi, 

Competition, tjj^ljs* mujdJiedeh 
{k,) ; oi)L^ musdhekat {k,). 
Compilation, ejJlJ taalif (A;.). 
Compiler, uJl^ muallif. 

Complain, jj^c:^\Ci. shikdyat 
k. ; pr. p, ^ :JL^ mushtakt 

Complaint, 4L^» gelleh; (ill- 
ness), ^^LJ ndkhusht ; 
tjzJc 'illat. 

ComplaisancOi o^U^ maid- 

Complete, a., j»L.»-j fammdm 

{k,), — ly, (J^ hekulU. 

Completed, to be, ^jjui^ ^\ 

be-anjdm rs. 
Completion, Aj\ itmdm (rs,). 
Complexion, ^j dii^ rangi ru. 
Compliance, d-alo^ rezdyat 
Complicated, iJusH pichideh 

Compliments, J!L» saldm (d,) ; 

jlJ^J tahniyeh (k,) ; ^.a^ ^^ 

cham kham. 
Comply, ^jjJIi ^\j rdzi sh. 
Composer, caloa musannif. 
Composing (verses), ,^ ^ - « 

tanztm (k,). 
Composed of, k-i^ mutarah ' 

Composition, (lit.) Ll5l insM, 
Composure, ^U. c:i>irj»afc. jamx- 

*ati khdtir. To get — , ^\ 

^jLJ^drdm gr. 

Compound, n,y ^jf^ murak' 
kab; pr,p. \^j tarkib (A:.). 

Comprehending,^ J^^LJL* i»wA- 
tamel bar; cs)^j^ madrik. 

Comprehension, ^fahm. 



Compromise, aWU* mutdlehah 

Compulsion, jj^ zur; ^J,b 

Computation, sz*,^\^ muhd- 

Compute, (j.>/-3 i^Li^ hisdb 

k.; pa.^. ^y^ mahM 

Concave, ci^l ajvaf. 

Concealed, Jy^*^ maatur (k,) ; 
^\^ panhdn (k,). 

Concealment, {•i^s katm. 

Conceit, .Ijuj pinddr. 

Conceited, jijj^ maghrur. 

Conceive (mental), yjXuS ^Ij 
ydd dmadan ; (pregnancy) 
^pJli 4}^U hdmileh sh. 

Concentred, j^^»^ marJcuz, 

Concern, ^^JL^b J-^^ £^a^^/ 

Concerning, ^j^ai. j^ dar 

khusus ; ^ ji dar hakk ; 
s» \^'i-rr* nishat he. 
Concession, i^UI ijdzeh (d,). 

Conciliate, c)^^^^ (Vl; ^^^'^ ^• 
Conciliatory, j-*T cs*sJ*** mas- 
lahat atntz. 

Concise, maIji^ mukhiasir. 

Conclude, (jJjU; ^^b &^ 

anjdm rasdnvdan. 
Conclusion, cu^Lc *dkihat ; 

Jsi\^y*0 sar anjdm. 
Concoct (a fancy), ^ " ^ 1j-* 

havd pukktan. 
Concord, cuAil^ muvdfakat 
Concordance, v4;0 jL— sdz 

Jcdrt; u>ft)\k« mutdbakat. 
Concubine a&u mufih; Ju^ 

stgheh ; aI^Jl* madhhuleh. 

Concurrence, ^©^ marzt. 

Condemn, ^j^j^ Ss takakkum 

n, ; <j3^ j^;^ mujram n. 
Condescension, A>.y tavajjuh. 
Condiments, ^j\^ javdrish. 

Condition, JL». hdl ; cjJL*. 
hdlat One of high — , 

shdn ; (stipulation), l^^ 

shart, — al, (J»r» sharti. 
Condolence, ^*^ ^^*i}»> ta'ziyat 

Condoling, j\Jx^ gJiamgusdr, 
Conduct, n, (manner), J^^j 

raftdr ; (leading), oji JJ> 

heddyat (A;.). 
Conductor, ^Ij jU jelo dar ; 

Ui i\j rdh nemd. 

Conduit, *\^\ ttbrahi. 



Coniectionary, jl^ murahha. 
Confectioner, jL* ^^>^ shirin 

Confederacy, tjjbU^ mudhedeh. 
Confederated, jjIm mudkid. 

Confer (discuss), ^^^^ aJI^sco 

mukdlemeh k, — a favour, 

^J^\^ ciaU minnat nthddan. 
Conference, lsa-JI^ mujdlisat. 
Confe^smgy JU mukirr (sh.) 
Confession, j]^\ ikrdr (k.) ; 

v^l^l tttrdf(n.). 
Confidant, jl^ ham rdz ; ^j^ 

Confidence, ^U::cl itimdd (d.) ; 

^litel ttikdd (p.). 
Confidential, >)>»;«# mutamad. 
Confiding in, ^l:u mutaam- 

Confined, \^y^ mahhus. 
Confines, s^jm sar hadd ; ^j^ 

Confirm, ^^ csaiU dhit Jc, 

Confirmation, ^l^ii^il isiikrdr. 
Confirmed, jj^s^ muakJcad, 
Confirming, ^jjJ^ tasdik (k.). 
Confiscate, ^.3^^9 la^ ^^5^ Ar. 
Conflagration, ^\f^\ thtirdk. 
Conflict, a^^janff, 
Cou£aence, iuf* majma. 

Conformable, j^\^ muvdjik. 
Conformity, \zJLi\j» muvafor 


kat («.); JU .7-«l imtisdl 

(k.). In — with, i-^»— ^ 6^ 

Confound, ^^y^ f^ y. ^^^ ^^^ 

zadan; pa, p, ^^^^^ sar 

Confront, v:)^j[^ j. ru heru 

Confused, ^)lJL-i^ parishdn 

(sh.) ; ^j9 bar ham {h,). 
Confusion, ^jJL-)yLJ tashvish 

Confuted, ^^ mulzam (Jc,), 

Congealed, j » ^^ munjamid 
(sh.) ; j7r. jp. s.^jamd. 

Congelation, ^^^ Jusurda^, 

Congratulations, ^^^Lj <s)^V-* 

muhdrak hddi (gf,) ; vi^-i^J 

tahniyat (k.). 
CoAgregation, uucU»> jemaat. 
Congruous, j-ku muntahik. 
Conjectural, % '^ i^a^OTi ; 

Conjecture, y;}^ gtimdn (k,)\ 
^js^ takhmin (k.). 

Conjoined, ^j^adU mttltastk. 

Conjugation, i^Juij^^J iatrif 




Gooj unction, yz^jJU mafirtini- 
yat; (in grammar), <_»Wc 

Conjurer, \\i iS^ hukkeh hdz ; 

Connect, ^'**»^ j-.) paivastan ; 

\^^ ^W^ t^a^Z ^. 
Connected with, J^i^^ muta- 

Connections, j^^ *aldik. 

Connivance, Ity^ ^l.y cheshm 
pusM (k,). 

Connoisseur of wine, ^L-X--* 

Conquer, ^J^r ^^ f^^^ ^' / 
pa, p, »— »jli* maghluh (sh.). 

Conqueror, c-JU ghdlih; ^Ik 

Conquest, ^j^^S^ ^J^ jehdn 
giri ; (jg;-J csU* tnulk girt. 

Consecration, ^j^^sJLS takdis 
(n,) ; ifOi^ takhsts (k.). 

Consecutive, J.,J.^.» musaUal, 

Consent, n., U, rizd (k,) ; J^J 
kabul (k,) ; V, ^^s^ ^\j rdzi 

Consequence, J/U maal. 

Consider, -^^ ^^ fikr k, ; 
pr, p. J*»U# mutaamil (k). 

Consideration, a^jjI and i shah 
(k,) ; J_*»LJ taamul {k.) 
(iraportaiice),^Liftl Vtihdr, 

Consign, {^^j^ sipurdan. 
ConBignment, ^^n i^a? ^a/bi-r 
(A:.) ; ^^^aJIj*. havdleh k. 

Consolation, ^J-J tasalld (A:.). 

Console, ij^^ ^jj^^jJ^ dilddri 
k. ; pa, p, jj-<j* mutasalli 

Consort, .Ljb hanydr ; ^^jLjb 

Conspicuous, j^W^ munjdlt. 

Conspiracy, ,ji)L» sdzish ; j^sJ 

Conspirator, j^c ^^ ^am 'a^(/. 

Constant, ^^ nasuh. 
Constantinople, J^iL*! Islam' 

bul, or ^A "-^ IstamhuL 
Constellation,^^! akhtar. 

Constipated, ^jn.5 ;• munkabiz 

(sh.), — ness ^j^i kabz. 
Constituted, ^^^-acu mutaayyin. 
Constrained, mJJL muUazim 

Construct, t).*;^* Uf i«wa ^. 
Construction, ^)L:j bunydn. 
Consubstantial, ol j^ hamzdL 
Consul, j^Vj bdliyua. 





CoQSultatioD, cjjj. 
varat (Jc,), 

Consume, ^j,j^cJ^ sarfh, 

ConsummatioD, cJU^ zifdf{d,). 
ConsumptioD, ^^ hulas. 
Contact, JUJl ittisdl. 
Contagion, ciajiI^ sirdyat. 
Contagious, {jSauM munadi. 
Contained, ^J^^ku mutazammin 

(k), — in, yj talv. Self — , 

^j\^ j^ khud dart (k.). 
Contaminating, ,j^ nejis (k,). 
Contemplated, k^ malMz, 
Contemplating, \^\^ murdkib. 
Contemplation, ak*.^ muld- 

hezeh (k,); ^jj^LL* mushd- 

hadeh (n.). 
Contemplative, m^"*/^ mutaras- 

Contemporary, ^U* madsir. 

Contempt, jsid tdhkir. 

Contemptible, j j ■?..'>> haktr ; 
J^jki^ makhzul. 

Contend, ^jJL^Sy navdstan; 

^;jjjji*# sittzidan. '' 
Contending, cjLo mandzi (A.). 

Content, «., ^1^ m^Ji'; Ju-^ 
khursand ; pa, p. .y^- rj "^ 
Jchttshnud ; JUc^Li fdregh- 

Contention, jJjl^ mujddeleh 

(k.) ; JJi/Mjihish Qc.). 
Contentious, J^l^ mujddU, 
Contentment, cuaU kind'at. 
Contents, ^2)J^*aA mazmun. 
Contest, d^L^ mundzaat; 
(poetical), t^llMfnushaereh. 
Contiguity, JlaJl ittisdL 
Contiguous, ^j^'3u muldsik. 
Continence, (jLa>1 ihsdn ; jjb^^ 

Continent, ^\SjJb;i parhiz gdr^ 
Contingency, c,Jj vuku. 
Continually, azmj* > paivastah. 
Continuance, J\j^:LtA istimrar. 
Continuation, ^IjJ tavdU. 

Contortion, (j^ pichish. 
Contract, aILS kahdleh; 4jJoIa« 

mukdtdah (Jc,) ; \>j!i, shart 

Contraction, ^jaIoJ takallus; 

jLoi^l ihhtisdr. 
Contradict, ^^i-iJ Ju^ ^ 5ar 

-?*<?<? ^. 
Contradiction, uJ^HiS^l ikhtildf. 
Contradictory, ^li* mundkiz. 
Contrariety, «juiJli' muhhd- 

Contrary, c-iiU^ bar hhildf ; 



Contrivaace, ^^^ jj tadbtr (k>). 
Control, Wf0o zaht {k,). 
ControTersjy s^L* mundzereh. 
Contumacious, jj^ marid. 
Contumacy, ^Lc *indd^ 
Contusion, o^ part {kh.). 
Convalescence, oiUl ifdkat 
Convalescent, ^j^ muflk. 
Convenient, u^^itlu mundiib. 
Convent, ilLJU. khdnekdh. 
Convene, ^JSi>*^yb havdndan. 
ConversatioUj^j \;ia^ gufb o 

yf< (k.) ; IJ^SLa mukdlemeh 

(k.) ; xJs J uul^- guft 

shanid (k,). 
Convert, n., jjij». jadid; Jjj 

4iilji »> doJoZ (^ar ydfteh ; 

0., c^ir J*^ hadalk. 
Convey, ^j^^ibl ihldgh k. 
Convex, i^jk^ muhaddah. 
Conviction, J^l t7«a»i (A:.). 
Convinced, |«^ mulzam («.). 

Conviviality, uus^L^ mi^^o- 

Convulse, {j^jji ^ heham bar 


z. ; pa, jp. 

Cook, w., jJlil dshpaz ; »., ^^^ 

Cookery, v::«>.Lk tibdkhat 
Cool, (&L^ Jehunuk (k.). 

Cooling, ^j^ mubarrid. 
Coolness, ^X^ khunuki. 
Copious, jfy^ maufur; ^y]/ 

Copper, ^j^ mis. 
Copperas, -.1^ zdj. 

Coppersmith, ^^kL* misgar. 

Copulate, ^^Si!^ gdidan* 

Copulation, cusmI^ mujdmdat 
{k,) ; o^iL* mubdsharat (Jc,) 

Copulative, ^^j vasli. 

Copy (writing), ,jJU ^ *flr» 
mashk; (book), asH nw*- 
M^^. Bough — , jlj— «ai?- 
va<? ; V,, ^^^^ JftJ n«A;Z k. 

Coquetry, ojJLc 'ishvat (k,). 

Coral, c)Va*^ marjdn ; Jmj iw- 

Cord, ^UmJj rUman. 
Coriander-seed, yj.^.y^m kishr 

Cork, ^^n^-' j^ sari shtskah, 

— screw, --f-j /j/cA. 

Com, («JJ^^9 gandum; 4^ 

Corner, jui^^ gusheh ; J^u-j 

Corporal, ^\j s^ JeA 5a«Ai. 
Corporeal, f^\^»^ jismdnu 

Corpse, cL*«j% mai\|lt \ yj*^ A<WK.' 



Corpulence, uij^L^ jasdmat. 
Corpulent, jj\ ^^ tan dvar ; 

^y farhih. 
Correct, ^ z ^ sakth (h,) ; 

og-*^^ durust {k,). 

Correction, ^^ tas-hth. Tin- 
der — , \^y^j\ ztri chub. 

Correspondence (of species), 
kzt^.^^y jinsii/at ; (bj letter), 
c>Jix-^ mukdtahat {k,). 

Correspondent, J-^^ •? t mutor 

CorrespondiEg to, aj ^^ mu- 
tdbik he. 

Corroborated, ^jJU mushad- 

Corroboration, jjjJLJ ta^hdid. 

Corroded, ^^jj~>' dLJj zang 

Corrupt, ^J^fdsid, 

Corruption, \z^ys, ^ufunat, 


Cost, iiA^j kaimat (d.). 
Costs (law), A>^ kharcheh. 
Cosy, i— ftjT kif. 

Cotton, A-ij pamhah ; ^^aJ 
kutn. — pod, ^^y^ jauzak, 

— carder, cJIjlJ nadddf, 

— carding, cjjj nadf{k,). 
Cough, JU^ audi {k,) ; 

surfah (k,). 


Council, o^yL» mashvarat {h). 
Counsel, . ^5!^ rdi ; Sa^ nasi- 
. hat (d,). 

Counsellor, jjlI* musMr, 
Count, t?., ^j;^ shumurdan. 
Countenance, Jlai* manzar ; jj 

Counterfeit (figure), a J .5 5 

takUd (k,) ; (coin), «-*-!-• 

kalh (k.) ; ^eXs>.L« sdkhtagi. 
Counterpane, i«ilL lahdf. 
Country, c:*iV^ vildyat. Native 

— , ^^j vatan. Hilly — , 

^^^2^,»Sb^ kuhiitdn. 
Countryman, ^^^o^ ^ ham 

Couplet, cz^ halt. 

Courage, ^^-i^^ Tnarddnagt; 

{jj^^ daliri, , 
Courageous, cSs^ shuja. 

Courier (on foot), Jl^\5 kdsid; 
(mounted), .LjL>. chdpdr ; 
j»5lc gholdm. 

Court (king's), »o .^ dargah. 

Law — , A«As:* mdhkamdh; 

(of house) i^L*. hagdt 
Courteous, v.>^ muaddeh. 
Courtesy, aaJ»^ muldtifeh ; 

\j\j^ muddrd. 



Courtier, ^jU mukarrib. 

CousId, s^U ^ 'arnmu zddeh 
(child of pat. uncle); i^\\ i^ 
*amme'h' z. (child of pat. 
aunt) ; sVj jJU. Mdlu z. 
(child of mat. uncle) ; aIU. 
1^1^ khdleh z. (child of mat. 
aunt). Male — , j*a j..^ 
pesari 'ammu, etc, Fem. — , 
j^ jJl>'^ dukhtari *ammu, 

Covenant, tj^ 'ukdek (^r.). 

Cover, «., ^jiji jM sar push ; 
v., ^^xJ^y^ pushtdan. 

Coverlet, cJlJ lahdf. 

Covet, ^j^^J» tama h. 

Covetous, el^ tamma^ 

Covetousneas, (j^o itUy tama 

Cow, jO yaw. 
Coward, ^U ndmard. 
Cowardice, ^j^juhn, 
Co-wife, \jyL^ hamshuu 
Crab, (»L^^ kharchang. 
Crack, n., i^\d shikdf; dU 

c^A; («A.) ; v., ^^l^ shi- 

Cradle, %j\j^ gaJivdreh, 
Craftiness, ^Lj iL^^ ru^aA 

Crane, tt]i,J,4ro kulang. 

Craze, ^^^ shurt. 

Crazy, jiotstUi. khusk maghz ; 

Ajlj^j divdneh. 
Cream f^J^ j^ sari shir. 
Crease, iJ td (n.). 
Create, ^jJj^I dfrtdan. 
Created beings, cj\sja^ makh- 

Creation, 2a1». hJiilkaL 
Creator, jCx^^j-9\ Afridgdr, 

— of the World, ^^1 ^^l^*. 

Jehdn dfrin. 
Creatures, ji^ khaldik. 
Credit, n., (money), ij-J nfisi- 

gat ; (honour), .LlcI ^tibdr 

(dsh,) ; v., ij^^jj^ bdvar k. 
Creditor, »lji. jj^ ^ar^? A;AaA. 
Creep, ^^Sl)> kJiazidan. 
Crepitatio vjentris, ^^ guz. 

Crescent, J^ heldl. 
Cresses, t:^^ tizak. 
Crest, ii^jikkeh. 
Crew, c-^ Tiizh, 
Cricket (insect), jiJ^ ckirghad. 
Crier, ,j^L* manddt ; ^e-^V 
jdrchi; (of mosque), ^;)i'jA 

Crime, «^-^^- gundh;. 

taJESir; 4d%>^ jorxmoK. 



Criminal, J^i\:^ gundh hdr / 

UiJjb* muznib, 
CrimsoDjjA^ kermez* 

Cripple, jVj». chuldk. 

Crisis (of disease), ^1^. bah- 

Crisp (hair), Sxs^jaad, 

Critic, ^Ij a:X1j nukteh dan. 

Criticism, ^j^ aiXj nukteh 

cktnt {k,). 
Croaking, u^Us nudh ; jJu 

Crocodile, ^L^ timsdh. 

Crocus, ij/cj zafardn. 

Crooked, j^0 kaj ; ^ kham ; 

-.jc 'avaj, — ness, ^ kaju 

Crop (of bird), AL»p. hauseleh; 
(of field), J^U. Aa«eZ ; ^U> 

Cross, UJLft. chalipd; y^U 

Cross-beam, cs^aIjo nadmat. 

Croup, dL<)^ khurusak. 

Crow, w., c^L^v keldgh ; q\\ 
zdgh ; v., ^^j^ dlilj iany 5?. 

Crowd, #»U.>^i izdihdm ; jLil^ 

Mflr ambdr. 
Crown, pU %*. — of the 
head, ^^ jmj\ qfsari sar ; 

pr, p. J-l^aJ ^flA?Z*7 (*.). 

— property, a ^lU ^. ^W- 

Crowned, jU ,^LJ ^* ddr ; 
Crucible, aJ^ ^u^aA. 
Crucified, v-^jLx* maslub (^.) 

Crucifixion, i-JLoJ ^a«Zf& (A;.). 
Crude, |,l». ^Aim. 

Cruel, iZj>jj*^ b(-muruvvat. 

Cruelty, [Sj\f\ [:^jdn dzdru 

Crumb, ijij rtzdh ; *y^ khur- 

Crushed, aJ lih (k,) ; ^^ 

khurd (*.). 
Crust, is^^y^pust. 
Crupper, ^^Jupdr dam. 
Cry, «., jLj^ fergdd; — v., 

(weep), ^j^ 6^^^ geriyeh h 

— out, ^J^\s^ sedd k. 
Crystal, jyb bullur. 

Cube, K^0jokaab ; jjJLl «^a«A- 

Cubit, c^S 2ar\ 

Cuckold, jL.^ kurmsdk. 
Cuckoo, ^^kuku. 
Cucumber, ^Li* khiydu 
Cue, s^Uil ishdreh. 
Cuff (slap), oJL« mu«A^ (^.). 
Cuirass, tjj zerah; ^^^^ i«2* 



Gull, c)J:^>> chtdan, 

Cvlpahley j\j ^^^.aLj takstr vdr. 

Culprit, ^^.aU mukassar. 

Cultivated, j^4Ao viamur; ^L>1 

Cultivation, ocKj ziraat (A?.); 
{jj^ iSiSS^ keshteh kdri. 

Cummin-seed, ^^^^X ^flwimt*«. 

Cunning, ^^y^ j J zu funun. 

Cup, 71., (large tea), aJLjj 
piydleh ; (small coffee), 
J^ finjdn ; (large), ^.U 
jam; A-^\r Icdseh; ^J^ 

Cupboard, a^Uo tdkcheh. 
Cupola, xS gumhad. 
Cupping, cuols^ Tiajdmat {h). 
Cupper, J^ hajjdm. 
Curable, jijj -j.5lc Hldj pazir. 

Curb, j,la: Zyaw. 
Curds, c=Mi*U 77za«^ ; c^^ dugh. 
Cure, Ui sAi/a («?.) ; -.^ i^* 
(A:.) ; AaJUo mudlijeh {k,). 

Curiosities, oL^ nafisdt. 
Curiosity, »\aI .m»»1 istiksd. 
Curious, j-jfc. ^^-— «*rr yti; 
(wondrous), c-^ *a;aJ. 

Curl, iil». halkeh ; v^ sr^Z/! 

Currants, ^^i^ijkishmish. 

Currency) ^;r/ /^r«^«;* (fl&A.). 

Current (coin), ^\j,j ravdj 
(dsh.) ; ^\j rdij; (stream), 

Currier, jL* ^ charm sdz. 
Currying (leather), ij,j dabgh 
(k.); (a horse), jUJ </mar 

Currycomb, yti kasho. 
Curse, o^«l Za w«^ (^.). 
Cursed, ^^^ maVun, 
Curtailing, ^bl ihtdr {k,). 
Curtain, t^^pardah. 
Curve, ^^j^^ pichish. 
Cushion, ^\i bdlish; \d-« 

Custody (of), cJolto. hafdzat ; 

dJlj». havdleh. In — , j> j.i 

Custom, ^^ ra«7n ; cj^Ic 'aeZa^. 
Customary, jc*-^ rasmt. 
Customs, (!s)^^ gumruk, — 

house, jlJLs^^;.4^^9 ^e^mrt^^- 

Cut, ^;)J^ burtdan, — out, 

^\J tardsMdan. 
Cuticle, o^ basharat, 

Cut-purae,^ ^^ ktseh bur. 
Cutter (of gems), ct)\^ hakkdk. 
Cylinder, JjJ luleh; jjl^l 




Cymbals, jjz-Lm sumtur. 
Cypher (zero), ^ i .• sifr ; 

(writing), J-^j W-^ khatti 

Cypress, jj^ 5art?. 


Dagger (large), ui kammah; 

(small), j^ khanjar. 
Daily, ^j^j ruzi ; jjj jk har 

ruz, — allowance, ^]^^ 

Daisy, a)j>\j bdhunah. 
Dale, ij^ derreh. 
Dam, jjj 6aw«? (^.)- 
Damage, jj^ zarrar {rsa,)\ Jl>. 

khallal (^^) ; u-a^c *ai6 (L). 
Damascus, j»U» Sham, 
Damned, ^;j«U maVun, 
Damp, w., .o-j^j ratuhat; a,y 

J tarr {h, k,). 
Damson, A»>j)i dlucheh. 
Dance, ^j raks (L), 
Dancer, ^^j rakkds. 
Danger, ^^loi. khattar ; y^y>. 

Dangerous, <s}L} Ja^ khattar 

ndk ; dl^^ muhlik, 
Dapple-grey, Ja^) abrash. 

Daring, kzJ^ jur-at {dth.) ; 

iZ>jL^ jesdrat (n.). 
Dark, dii^lJ tdrtk; (colour)^ 

i;J. tir-eh. 
Darkness, tc^^ tdriki. 
Darling, v^^«^ maA5t^6; Ji)c 

Darning, ^ rafu {k.), * 

Dart, ^^^jertd, 

Dasb, ^jj^ ^ biham z, ; pr, p, 

9^j^^ mutamavvij. 
Dastardly, i^^^^^' bihamiyat. 
Date (fruit), U^ khurmd; — 

stone, cj\y navdt ; (epoch), 

^^JS tdrtkh; pa. p, ^J^ 

Daughter, j:^^ dukhtar. — 

-in-law, jj-jj^ 'arus. 
Dauntless, Ws^. btmuhdbd. 
David, jjb Ddud. 

Dawn, jl»ub bdmddd ; ^j\ ^ 

subhi zud, 
'D^hj^jruz, — light, ^^^j^^ 

ruzi roshan. Day by day, 

JX/' J^) ^'^^ ^^ ^^^' T^^*7# 
jjja\ imruz. Day after to- 
morrow, \^ ^j«j pasfardd. 
Day-book, a^U j^j ruz ndmeh. 
Dazzling, yv^ ^>. chethm 
kkirik (fe, ih.\ 

Dead, tj^ murdah (pi. fJSiyt 

Beadly, «>U4* ntuhlii:; J*^ 

Deaf.^ior (J.)- — neaa, — . 

Deal, a greatj jUw hUydr. 
Dealer, y£>1^ aUdigctr. 
Dealing fairly, jli^o— I, '■o*^ 

Dear (price), )j[;-S giran; 

(affection), ji^ft 'aziz. 
Death, t^ mary ; tzjyt maut ; 

Lulij vafdl. Angel of — , 

Jjj^l lirafil. 
Debarred, »j^ makruTn. (i.). 
Debate, tzij^JLA mmli&taTtit. 
Debauchee, jj, rvnd. 
Debilitated, ui-« sa'i/^ 
Debt, yo^ Jarz ; -Ij 



Aanr (fur. 

Decanter, eU-i ^n;;. 
Decapitate, i^i) ^ifgardan z. 
Decayed, ti^y__pazh murdeh. 
Deceased, fj^- marhum. 
Deceit, \^^jfirih; ^^ mahr; 

J,i&. gul \kh.). 
Deceive, yj.^.Ji-ij-» Jiriftan; 
■ pa. p. ^^fJumaffhblin{ 
Deceiver, aj\i. hhidt. 

Deception, ^^UJ taghdhun. 
Decent, ,jai--* iiatiashakhkh^. 
Decency, . v ■....■l-- ihdyittagi. 
Decision (law), fr^^ hukn 

{d.) ; (mental), j^ mafcar- 

rar (dsk). 
Decisive, jiLU kali'. 
Deck, n., ti^ 'arshah. 
DecJaniation, iLUl inthdd (£.). 
Decluratioci, ,^^1 i^lan (i. d.). 
Decliuation, J^jj' tanazzul. 
Decline, re., (decay), Jljjaato/; 

0., i^^itM ji dar guzathlan; 

(refuse), oi^i^ ^<^fi *■ 
Declivity, ■ -. * • nathib ; ^ 

Decoction, ^~Jb taUkh. 
Decomposition, JiUI inkeldl. 
Decoration, li^j zinat (i.); 

(order), ,ylii nithdn. 
Decrease, «., jjijJLi «aj:«, n,, 

ijj^ S kam k. 
Decree, ^yi Jatvd (d.) ; ja\ 

amr (k.) ; pa. p. jji^ mw- 

Decrepit, ^^^ fartut ; ^^ 

harim . 
Deducing, ^4-i_i. manlahij 

(*.)■ ^ 

Deduction, \^;^ minVAb l^^. 



Deed (of gift), a^H ju» hibbeh 
ndmeh; (of sale), JLi ka- 
hdleh ; (written), u>s^ huj- 

Deep, ^^ god ; j-^ amtTk. 

Deer,jftl oihu. 

Deface, v^^j^ trwLhv k. 

Defame, ^j^^j»U Jj had nam k. 

Defeat, kzaJkL shikast (d, kh.). 
Defect, i^v*c 'aib. 
Defection, i2.*2ifl«< musiyat, 
Defective,^^.a£« mukassar. 
Defence, c:>3L« siydnat {k.) ; 

i£AiU»> hwidyat (d,). 
Defendant, aJIc i&^ muddaa 

Defender, ^^U hdmi. 
Defensive, cUj difd\ 

Defer, j^ljji sij daf* an; 

pa, p. «— 9^^ maukuf {sh,). 
Deference, ^)j^\ ihtirdm (n.) 
Deficiency, jj^i-J twA*. 
Deficientj^^li kdsir. 
Defile, «., Xj^ tangah ; Ji3 

Defiled, ^j^ nejis (A;.). 

Defilement, jcMjU ndpdki. 
Definite, c^jS^ mahdud. 
Definition, ^Lj bay an (k,). 
Deformed, c^^^ou ma'yub. 

Deformity, ^^ zishti. 
Defraud, j^ j/V««^ ^• 
Defray, cP;> p-^ A;^?^ (1;.). 
Degenerate, uJl». U nd khalaf. 

Degenerate, wm^. u 7*ur ivfM*ft»f. 
Degree, a>.^ darajeh; jjL.b 

Deity in, or of, oub^l uluhiyat. 
Delay, ^^'U taakhir {k.)] ^jHJ 

taannt (k,) ; ^j rftr (^.) 
Delegate, JliL« mubdshtr. 
Deliberately, Ijy^ *amdan. 
Deliberation,^^jJ tetdbtr (k.) ; 

o^yL* mashvarat (k.). 
Delicacies, '-^^'^ \ ? .> mtM^o- 


Delicacy, oiiy Utdfat. 

•Delicate, c^\i ndzuk, 

Delicious, i)w» (j^>^ khwh 

Delight, k^ A^za?; jL^y> 
khiuh hdl («.). 

Delighted, I am, «U4l ^^ 

^Au^^am (-a^, -<wA, etc.) 

Delirious, ^jax* madhush. 
Delirium, (^jjb A^zt. 
Deliverance, ^'!)^ khilds (k,) ; 

ols? nefdt (d.). 
Delivery, xJLJ tasUm (k.). 
Deluded, yc yharrah. 



Demand, ft., o^.^!^ j^ dar 
khdst ; ^j^l^ khdheah, v., 
^jAj-yl V> talabtdan; (jiJ\j^ 

Demolition, ^sjb hadm {k,)\ 

u>U», Jcherdh (Jc,\ 
Demon, j)^ (^tv; ^j^jtnn. 
Demoniac, (jy^ majnun. 
Demonstration, .L^J^I izhdr 

(^•) ; cA*;? ^rhdn {k,). 
Demonstrative, ^^fy^ mubar- 

Demur, ^^P--* j ij»t»p^s o pish. 
Den, AiV ^an^A. 
Denial, ^\C)1 mArar {k»). 
Dense, wOj^^^ A^stj^ 
Density, ciJU^o kisdftU. 

Depart, (;)jj^ ^Ij^ ravdn ah. 

Departure, kzSa. harakat {k,)\ 
^^hwih (A;.) ; cJL^ rihlat. 

Dependence, jJLsJ taalluk 

Dependent, jlau^ mutaallak 

(&.) ; «-^j« maukuf. 
Depopulate, ^j^^9 ^l^^j t^ai- 

ran Ar. 
Deposit, fi., ouJLaI amdnat 

Depraved, x*»\»fdsid, 

Depravitj, ^U tabdhi. 


Depredation, o,U ghdratijc.). 
Depressing, t^jis^ mukibb (Ar.). 
Deprivation, y^^SJjikddn, 
Depth, ^j^ 'ttwA: ; lij^ zharfd. 
Deputation, aUU* murdseleh 
Depute, c)-i^>»'U wwamwr A;. 
Deputy, c--jVi nddh. 
Derision, ^\j^\ istihzd. 
Derivation, jl5«i-i»i ishttkdk. 
Derivative, ^j^fart. 
Derived, j^Xoj^ masdur (6.). 
Dervish, ,ji^^^ darvtsh, — 's 

cup, ^fj^kashkul. 
Descend, ^^j^i ^^ fdin dma- 

dan ; ^^x*\ ^jjfarud d. 
Descendants, jV^I auldd; iSs. 

Descent, Jji>-i nuzul (k,) ; 

c,^j>t) nashtb; (origin), J-J 

nasi ; c^^^J nasab. 
Description, eJj/J ta'rtf (k.) ; 

J,j^ Q? ^a^*7 (A;.) ; ^W^' 

5a;yan (k,). 
Desert, w., ' v^UU-? Uydbdn ; 

KzJ^^ dasht ; t?., O'^^iAj^ 

ru g. 
Deserter, yjjjferdri (sL), 

Deserving, ^JJ£'^ mustahakk 




Design, ^^ *azm (k,); ^^ 
^haraz (Jc,) ; (drawing), ^Jjlj 
naksh (Js.). 

Designer, A^j rassdm. 

Desirable, <^j4/* marghuh. 

Desire, jjjijf drzu ijc,) ; ^jiftl^ 
khdhesh (dsh.) ; ^L* murdd ; 
sz*^j righhat. 

Desirous, Ji^jT arzumand; 
^h^ mushtdk. 

Desist, ijXi*j\^^ kz^^^ dost har 

ddr sh. 
Desolate, vl^ khardh {k,) ; 

uU^ ^^i^dn (s,). 
Desolation, ^l^j vatrdnt. 
Despair, k^ ^u;tt2^ ; iSS^^ l-i 

ita ummtdi. 

Despatch, n., ai^ navishtah ; 
r., ,>p *jl|^ raran^^ ifc. 

Desperate, ^yi U mdgus. 

Despicable, sJua^Cj nikuhtdah. 

Despise, ^iXjj^ ^^«^ ^. ; 

pa. p., J^ muhakkar ; ^^^ 

Desponding, jjlyj yuvmh. 
Despot, Jfl ;^« nmstakilL 
Despotism, j5Uj-i w^iVkZ^i/. 
Dessert, Jii wwA/. 
Desiating, sc Uju mutakaid. 


Destiny, ^jj (^adar; sz» ».^ j 

kismat ; \zJfi hakkt. 
Destitute, \SjXf"^' hiruzi ; 

^jmX«j hikas. 
Destitution, ^^)^ hichdregi. 
Destroyed, l^\^ kkerdb (k,) ; 

aJ^U munhadem («.). 

Destroyer, ^L^Lj^ yahdbkdn 
Destruction, el^ tahUk ; ^ 

hadm ; Jjfil Cdam, 
Destructive, sUU hdlik. 
Detach, ^^L* \sa^jedd 8. 
Detail, J^^ tafstl. 
Detailed, ^^du mufassed. 
Detain, ^^bjU hdz ddshtan. 

Detection, t^itxJ\ inkishdf. 
Detector, s^JJii^ kd$h%f. 
Detergent, («i-^ munakki. 
Deterioration, Jl^j zavdL 

Detestable, *i^ makruh ; a)^ 

Dethronement, &!». khaV. 
Detraction, a«^ namtmah. 
Detriment, ^j^S ; > tanakkus. 
Devastation, «-^^;-i^ iakkrib; 

JUjIj pdimdl. 
Development, uJ^A:a«^(^.). 
Deviation, ujl^-^l inherdf 

(k,) ; j^l^ tajdvuz («.). 



Devil, ^jm-JLjI Mis; Ji 

Devilish, ^U»> iAa»n€Uu 
Devisety cj^^^iH*^ iodhir k. 
Devotedy ^jaU^ mukhlis ; ^^ ji 

fedavi; %^^ muhibb. 
Devotee, jm\j zdhid ; jjW ^dbid. 

DevotioD, o^^l ,;.g *ibddat; 

uJLMc 'dkif. 
Devouring, fi!lb^ ibtUa (n.). 

Devout, aJIjl^Lc *6hiddnah; 
j>y»:# mufatMid ; ^ ^>t 

Dew, ~i^ shahnam. 
Dewlap, CjJLc ghahgkah. 
Dexterity, cu-5;Jbft marefat; 

fj^jj ziringL 
Dexterous, ^ napak ; jjU. 

tfAo^a^A: ; dli^ ziring. 

Diabetes, J^l ,jJU «a/a« «Z 

Diagnosis, ^jAsss^ tuskkhts. 

Dialectics, jWu mantik. 
Dialogue, Jl^ i^j^ Jawwab 

Diametre,^^ katr. 

Diamond, ^Ul almds. 
Diarrhoea, ^\^\ is-hdl. 
Diarj, ^Jjj ''^^ ndmeh. 

Dice, jS^LJt skUkdar; j\ 


Dictation, \m\ imld (k,). 
Dictionary, i^JLl lugkat. 
Die, ft., iC^ sikkek ; r., ^^ 

Diet, Iji y^t2ra ; ^^-fc^j parhh 

Difference, o^lJLJ tafdvut 
(dsh k,) ; yjj^fork (dsk,). 

Different^ )x^ jidd ; ij^ ^^ 

*dld haddeh. 
Difficult, J^^ mushkil. 
Difficulty, ^^.XL* muskkiU; 

Diffident, *^j vahimeh. 
Diffuse, ijjjl^il afshdndan. 
Diffusion, ^^-JLJ nnshr ; k^^ 

Dig, ^JJL^9 kandan; ^^SJtjC 

Digested, (M^^f* ma^te^/t («%.)• 
Digestible,' >;|^<^» gavdrek. 
Digestive, ^^^-i* hazmu 
Digestion, JJi^ taUil (k, r,); 

DiggOT, ij'.'>f^f kanend^k. 



Dignified, i^^j^JL^ musharraf 

(*•) ; j^^, bdvikdr. 
Dignity, ^Ll ihaan; ^^^;,^ 

mansah; oJ^^ datdat. 
Dilatory, JjJ tumhuL 
Diligence, ^,ft>.;.) tandehl; 

^Uiftl ihtimdm (n.). 
Diligent, jJu mukayyid. — ly, 

j^^ be-jidd. 
Diluted, Wjk* ^^toJ^^Zii^ (k.). 

Dimension, ^1 j£« mikddr. 

Diminish, ^p^^^^s Aram ^.; 
/w. p., JJLiu takUl (A;.). 

Diminution, y^^^^Mst. 

Diminutive, ^^jiuJ tasyhtr. 
Dimity, J<»L«j dimydtL 
Dimness of sight, ijll^ yhash- 

Dimple, lU c^<S^. 
Dinner, JJ1» shdm (kk), 
^^Pj ij>y«^if,^ khUdnidan, 
Direct, fl., c>-|^ ra«/; t?., jli,l 
j^^^9 irshdd k, ; ^.3^-«3 il^ 
ra^ ^. ; pa,p,^ fjs:^muhtadi 
Direction (of letter), JJuj Jj 
nam o makdm ; (way), u>«m* 
tamt; ^ 9u ; (guidance), 
^Ujb^ rah namdi (Jg.\ 

Director, ^^^SjC kdrkfun* 
Dirt, d^ chirk {L). 

Deity, ^j^ chirkin ; 

ka9%f {ah,). 
DiBabled,j».W 'djiz. 
Disagree, u^^^^* cJ 

tiUf k. 
Disagreeable, x^ li n 
Disagreement, ^^UJ 
Disappeared, jjjj U 

Disappointed, ^o \J 

(k,) ; ^]^ li nd mm 
Disappointment, ^ja» 
Disapprobation, ijx 

Disaster, kzJ\ dfat ; 

Disavowal, jC~J\ inkd 

Disbelieve, ^j^j^^ aS 

nah k. 
Disc, ^j^ hurs. 
Discernment, ;j-/-j J 
Discharge, r., ^^^^ ^^ 

rakhkhas k, ; (a g 

^j^ AAaZt k. 
Disciple, jj^ murid; 

^j\^ havdru 
Discipline, ^» h » n£ 

i^j\J /a(ft6 (Ar.). 
Disclose, ^;).i^v.^ 
Disconcerted, i. 



Discontented, y}j~^ malul; 

csLjJ.) dUtang, 
Discordant, ^J^ l3 nd tnau- 

zun ; jL* U nd sdz. 
Discoarse, n., k^Lk>. khetdb 

Discover, ^^J£9 Ijui paidd k. 
Disooverj, JL^-ii isr-^ar (it.) ; 

v_*V*^ - - ^ istiktkaf (n.). 
DiBcrimination, J:^-^ tamyisi 

Discussion, s^i-^ailju^ Muzei- 

A0r/?A (A.). 
Disdain, ^;f^* kibr. —full, 

Disease, ^ji^ maraz ; \sJ^^s-4 

Diseased, u«^ mariz. 
Disgrace, v=«».U» fazdkat (k) ; 

tsJj ziLltU ; \s]y^j ^^^^ 
(A:.). — ing one*s fiftmilj, 
j^ 4J\>> khdnek »iz. 
Disguise, JijJ iabdil (k,y, 

Disgust, oyu nifrat («.). 

Dish, i^UUli ^^t^A^tf^. 

Dishevelled hair, ^j^ jcLJLll 

Dishonourable, j^^t ^ hi dbru 

DihoDoured, cu«.». ii di iiir- 

Disinterested, ^j^/t^ ^^S^^^f^z, 
Dislike, ^j^^^Llj tanaffur fu 

Dislocated, el.a-;-» ffi«M/^A;A; 

(^A.) ; Aii^ ^i <fer rafteh. 
Disloyal, Jjj^ e)i,»J ttoma^ 

Disloyalty, ^^j;^. eU> namoife 

Dismissal, \^--^^j rukhsat (d,). 
Dismissed, fjoi^^.^ murakhoi 

(k. 4h,) ; Jj2^ mazul(k.). 
Dismount, ^^x^\ ^jj^ farud 

Disobedience, (jU^ li nd far- 


Disobedient) ^Uy li nd far- 

man ; m^y^ ^ke^f muti. 
Disobey, j)^* ^^j'^j ^ '^'* ^^^ 

Disorder, ^JL^jJLS tashvUh; 
pa. p., (mentally), )aJ^ «i»- 

Despatch, 9., ^^\2^JM firiita^ 
dan; m., jjLly navUktsh, 

Disperse, ^jxl^j^^ pardgandan ; 
^jilJLfl afshdndan ; pa. /?., 
j^tju mutqfarrifc (A;.). 

Dlapensvou, 3^ tofarruV 

Diapensive, ^f^ tnuiri. 

Displaying, Ul^LSU Mufet- 

Displeased, jtt ^k<^kkiiih; 

Displeasing, x—i t> sa fotatti. 
Displeaaure, ,J—4j r^jeth 

I'ispositioQ (of mind), _!;_ 
Btizdj; (of things), ■•-.■ zji'' 

DisposseseeJ, Jio--^ Indakkl. 

Disputant, c^L. mtibdhU. 

Dispute, H^X^muhahetth {k.); 

Dia^uietude, ^J^Ji3 Itukavtmth. 
Disregard, v., ^ \_ 'j ; • - 

ehethn puthidan. 
Disrespect, ^j*,»« hikurmatL 
Dissatis&ctioD, ^jlP j- '"'■ 

DisBBtiaSed, ^ j^ tar goroM 

(S-) ; i^\tj^ 9^'^^ »^^ 
Diaaection, ^J^ /(wAriA (t,). 
IMsBMoble, i^^lj ndziSan. 
Dissimulation, iJV; ba^dntk 


Diadpated, ^yk.:.^ fmimU^ 
Dissipation, eht httk. 
Disaolre, ^^\JS'ffadtiihtatl. 
Distaff, *^j Jdiche^. 
Distance, u>-il_^ muttyaf; 

Distant, juB baid; j^ <f^' 
lUatioh, is*-s4 hidt. Last — 

of ode, uL^ tLL aA(U 6«fc 
Instil, i^UCb. cJutfcdnimt. 

— spirits, jj^juif,^ "aro* 

Ish. i pr. p., j^aJU iafair 

Distiller, jX.T oJiir, -^, 

Distinct, ^L=> mw^aioyM. 
Distinction, \\^\ imtiyds (t, 

y.); '^j^ '"Mtf (*■)■ 
Diatiuguialied, (jmt^ /(M^aiA- 

Distorted, ^gj^ mahi (siL). 

Distracted, J-JL^^ parigida 
(a.) ; JU .ilJiT dohnflah hdl 
To be — eh>J>i t^uHJan. 

Distress, n., ujU. maed-ifcdk; 
j4j mnJMi (y.) ; wjU y 
rfui- mdndah ; w. #., t^^ij^^ 
ranjdnidaai .v. p., ^ittJU «/ 



Distribution, ^ omJi iakiim 
(k.); <j*»»\^< musdhemat (ft.). 
Distributor, «m«U koHm, 

District, jUSSL^ cheklah ; ts^Vj 

vildyat; %j^kurah. 
Disturbance, < ,; : t fiinah; 

\t^ gkaughi. 
Disturbed, ^jt^ mtuhawMh 

(**.); ^j« 7 » mwtagkaffyir 

(**.). To be — ^;r-*^T^A 

dar dihuftaiL 
Disunited, (^jfar&k. 
Disused, «;j-<i^ niaiMuA:^ 
Ditch, dj^ JbioMiffit ; ^^^ 

nakr; ^^ gaud. 
Ditto, CajI atisMiit 

Dive, ^^ i^^ ghautah k. 

Diver, j^ aL»^ ghauidh khur. 

Diversion, ^ - ^ " to/^ftnvn ; 

LlUl tamdshd ; (to one side), 

t^]^» inherdf{k,). 
Divided, «JLu munk(uim (k) ; 

o^mmj j.) ^11 kUmat (k.), — 

in two, ^ ^ du nim. 
Dividend, myJu maJcsum, 

Divination, Jli fdl (gr,). 
Divine, _4ll ildhi. 
Divinity, fj\^ khuddi. 
Division, ^L^l iktisdm; a^»Jaa 

Divorce, j^ taldk (J.). 

Divorced woman, mUx* mutaU 

Divulged, elL* mwkS (k,). 

Divulging, tji^^U ib&hai (n.). 

Do, ^^j^m her dan; ^^jl^U 
sdkhtan ; ^^^ J^kdr k. 

Dock, r., ^j^ J2^\ ihtdr fc 

Doctor, Vyij .!» tahtb ; d»S^ 

Doctrine, shj^ tarijcat; i^^l* 

Document, j;,t„.» mtutanad; 

ji\r kdghaz. 
Dog, du *fly; (pointer), J^ 

etlLtf fu^A «a^/ (hound), 

j<;Ij ^d2;t. — star, (j^;-«Jtf 

Doleful, ^Ji^ ghamgin. 

Doll, (sILj^ 'ariUek. 
Dollar, Jlji^ nya/. 
Dolphin, ^JJi^dulfin. 

Dolt, ^)ji/ kaudan ; ^ gkaVu 
Dome, s^gumhad (gumdaz). 

Domestic, n., j-^ nokar ; 

pl.f ^\j.^ khavvds; a., 

^CjL*. khanagi. 
Dominance, c^a^IxJ taghMub 



DominioD, WLj tcuaUut ; ^L^l 

Donation, Jm\ an dm. 

Donkejy cVl uldyh ; J^ khar. 

Doom, J>.1 ajal. 

Door, j^ dar; (large), »ji|^ 
darvdzeh. To open the — , 
c^-iP !^ j^ ifar vd k. To shut 
the — , (j.>j^ (j-rf-ii^**^ ^* 

Doorkeeper, tjl>i^ darbdn. 

Dormitory, li^ljft. khdbgdh. 

Dot, aIoaJ nuJfieK 

Double, ijU ^i du hdreh ; \Sj^ 

dutd {k.). — tooth, yrf^-i zirs. 
Doubt, tLuil ishtibdh; el-J^ 

shakk (dsh.) ; ^^US gemdn 

(dsh,) ; A^Jli shubheh. 
Doubtful, (s)^C!^ mctshkuk. 
Doubtless, A^J^ J gi x*r ^ &s 

shakh o shubheh, 
Dougb,^;^ khamir. 

Dove, Jjt^^ kabutar; ^jg^ 

Down, ^^b ji ir;5 |?(i* ; ^^^Jb 

Dowry, i^ mahreh. 
Doze, c^ o^r^ (^r.). 
Dracunculus, U^^la 'a^ir 

Dragon, \a^\ izhdehd. 

Dragon's-blood, ij^H\ ^ dam 

ul akhavain. 
Drain, jj j^, hadar ro ; jijj\ 

dbr'xz ; 


I db sht. 

Draper, j])j bazzdz. 

Draught (drink), ist^ jurak ; 

(air), ^L> bad; (writing), 

j\j^ savdd (k,) ; (money), 

o);} bardt. 
Draughts, ^ nard. 
Draw, V.J (pull), ^jpuiii A;«fA»- 

dan ; (a picture), \:)^ jiy^ 

tasvir k. 
Drawers, j^i^ ziri shalvar. 
Drawing, aUu fiakskeh (kth,). 
Dread, ujy. khauf. 
Dreadful, (sIUja haulndk. 

Dream, i->l>-^ ^^^ (cP"-^ 
dtdan) ; Ijj^ rt<ya {didan). 

Dregs, j>^^ durd. 

Dress, 7t., yrfLJ libds; dlL^ 
pushdk, — of honour, yz^a^ 
khiVat, A complete — , 

jdmeh; v., ^jX>^y^ pushidan. 
Dried, dil^ AriltM^. 
Drill, j^ «»a«^A (i?. <^.)- 
Drink, v., c)^>-^ khurdan; 



DriDking, v^^ sharb. 
Drinker, tx^^ nHshandeh* . 
Dripping,^;.!*^! sharshar ; J^\Ij 

takdiur (k.). 
Drive, r., ^j^\jrdndan; (away), 

^^^j radd k. 
Drollery, ^Jmmjtr^ matikhor 

Drop, n., tjei katreh; 

chakkeh (k.) ; r., ^jAj.V%. 

ehakidan ; pr, p,^ ^ip^-i 

Dropsical, ^jLjl^ tnuitasku 
Dropsy, liLjul istislsd. 
Dross, e^ hhubM. 
Drought, ^iCjL.». khushki; 

Drowned, ^^ ^AorA: (A. sh.). 
Drowsy, ^^^^ 9a«»'ii ; sd^i t^t^ 

DmgSy ji^ji admyth. 
Druggist, y2*;2^ J2^b ddHi 

Drum, J-^ ^aM {x.) ; J^^ 

Jtf^t^Z (^) ; »^U^ nafckdreh. 
Drummer^ ^j^j^JLi na(ckdr chU 
Drunk, ^u.^^ mast 
Drunkard, ^j rind. 
Drunkenness, ^^^ mastu 
Dry, ttLli. jkiu^A/t (Jt.). 

Dryness, o.«»^ yabusat. 
Dual, juULj tasniyeh. 
Duck, e)^jt urdak; \u hatt. 
Due, (j»> AaA:^. 
Dumb, isL^s yt^^y; J)l Idl; 

Dun coloured, u^l (uhhab. 
Dunce, juL fta/in^. 

^^i^S) {j£^ chirkin ; j^^ 
yoA; (of cows), ^^^^.^s^,^ 
sargin; (of sheep), JXjLj 
pishkil; (dried-fuel), (s)^Li 

Dunghill, aL^ mazhaleh. 
Durable, ^[ji-l ustuvdr ; j\xAj 

pdtddr ; ^\» kdim. 
Duration, J\j^ daodm. 

During, J^U madam. 

Dusk, tr5^jl> tdriku 

Dust, dL^ ib^a^; ^jS^ gird ; 
jLfi yhubdr. 

Duty, v-iL-LO taklif; (re- 
ligious), ^j^farz. 

Dwarf, J^ timbal. 

Dwell, (j^ .i ^^sU «aA:»n b, ; 
pr. p., j»-i« mukim (b.). 

Dye, ctU, ra«y («.) ; j^a. 2?., 
iu.aU munsabayh. 

D) cr,^j dlj; rawy riz ; cL» 



Djeing the hair or nails, 

khazb (k,). 
Dying, szj\ffavdt (A.). 
Dynasty, aLL tdbakah; jjj^ 

Dysentery, jG» (jl*/^ jaraydni 

shakam ; Jl^^l tu-hdh 
Dyspepsia, ^^^^ is** m^dah 



Each one, c&b^ Aar yeh. 

Eager, Xu^jj^ drzumand; jlil* 

Eagle, vlift ttArai ; Jb e^o/. 

Ear, ^^gush. — ^ring, i^y^y 
gushvdrah; tyjy avizeh. — 
of wheat, iJi*^ khusheh. The 
cavity of the ear, ^J»y^ Uf 
bind-gush. — wax, ^y^j^ 
chirk i gush. 

Early, ;>jj zud. — in the 
morning, -'Loll ^ *ala ssa- 
bdh ; ^j^ ^^ subhi zud. 

Earn, ^J^ A^\s* muddkhil k, 
'Eaxnest,\j^jiddan, — money, 

aSIjuj baidnah. 
Earth, (»)l>. khdk ; ^j^\ zamin. 
Earthen, ^^^^ giK — ware 
^Ia^ su/dU, 

Earthquake, J^ zHzHah. 
Earthworms, ^J^l^ khardiin. 
Earthly, jX tint. 

Ease, ^UT dsdni; ^jSSs^^T 
Mudagi ; Jj\ drdm (gr,); 

,jl»Y^T drdmish. 

Easily, ^)L*T d9dn. 

East, ^^^ mashref: ; JtJW^ 

matla; ^^ shark. 
Eastern, ^ir« «A<>rj^* 
Eat, ci^^ khurdan. 

Eatables, ^^ khurdki. 
Eaves, ^|^^<>^ shddurvdn. 
'Ehh, j^jazr. 
Ebony, ^>->t dbnus. 
Ebullition, ^^jush (h.). 
Echo, jil cz^ 6«n^tf '^'a5aJ. 

Eclipse (san), \^yS husuf; 

— (moon), i— j^M,» ArAfMti/*. 1 
Economical, ^^ ham khiny. 
Economy, ^5^^ juiU khdneh 

Ecstacy, Sa^j wajd; s^JaJashdf. 
Eddy, ^^ m«t(;. ^ J A . 

Edge, j»^ dam ; v-J /aft. f^A^j 

Edging, s^\^8ar^dfoT wn^j 

Edict, ^1 amr. 
Edifice, o^Ufi Hmdrat, 


EducafeioD, yz^^J tarhitfet (A;.); 

^^^J tartih (Ar.). 
Eel, ^U ^U mdr i mdhu 

JlSwl i&^/ (k). 

mahv {k,) ; 

Effect, v., 12)^ ^^ ^6Mar ^r- 
dan. To take — , ^Jj^ dar 

giriftan ; n., ^\J taa*8tr. 
Effecting, #1^1 (/m. 

Effectual ,^^\rAr<lryar. 
Effeminacj, ^^y narmu 
Effervescence, ^j>'jush (k,). 
Efficacious, jt^i^^}^ jdy-g%r; 

Effort, j^ jidd; s^ jahd ; 

^U-^1 ijtihdd; ^^fJU^ kush- 

Effrontery, ^^\::^ffU8tdkhu 
Effusion, ^J»jij rizish; Ji)jl 

inzdl; (of blood), dljU aafk. 
Egg, c;^ ^ tukhmi murgh. 

Fried — jj-^ khdgtna. — 

shell, y:u^j»pust 
Egg-plant, ^j\:f^\> bddinjdn. 
Egotism, kz^\j\ andniyet. 
Egresses, ^}^ makhdrij. 
"Egypt, misr. 
Eight, o^» hashe. 
"Eighteen, #j^ hizhdah^ 


Eighth, ^L^ hasihtum. 
Eightietby a^IjlIa hashtddum. 
Eighty, ^UjL* hashtdd. 
Either — or, l* - li yo — ^ya. 
Eject, ^:):tjjS» hadar k. 
Ejectment, m^^\ ikhrdj (A?.). 
Elapse, ^j:!^ guzashtan. 
Elapsed, o>U U ma ^^ ; 

Elbow, ^^ dranj. 

Elder, n., ^jj:. sheikh; a, j^ 

mehtar, — tree, ^j\^ khu- 

Eldf rs, vj^J; buzurgdn. 
Eldest son, j^l ^^ pisar i 

Elected, ^::s:* mujtahd. 

Election, k^\^^ intikhdh (n.). 
Electricity, ^\j^ J^kdh-rubdu 
Elegance, vsJlU latdfat ; JU». 

jamah — of style, •L-lii 
Elegant, cJuU latif; jJLj 
naghz; dLti kashang. 

^^^SJf ^j* mxiratyah, 

'E\emeut,jjus.*unswr; phjJc^ 
'andsir; J^^l ustiL The 
four — {j^^^!~ akhMjdn. 

Elementaxv, ic-ikA^uiuiuH, 


Elephant, Jj /(/. — driver, 

ElephantiuiB, fXit^juzam. 

Elevate, ^^Ij^ barddthtan ; 
jjlil^l afrdihlan ; pa. p, 
a_iJ^ murlq^ ; pr. p. _« 

ElevatioD, pV«-J,l irtifa (k.). 

Eleven, ^i^\ ydzdak. 

Eleventh, (^^Jj ydz4ahum. 

Elicit, yji/'eJljJi-l Utidrdk h. 

Elision, >_ij*. hazf, 


Elk, i^gauzan. 


Elm, ^J)Ji ndrean. 

Elongate, ^i_' fT- _;^i iftnb 

Elopement, ^ ram. 
Hoqumce, ^5ljT ,^ ntkhan- 

dr&i; n^[^/aidiat: o^^ 

balagkat; jliii ylji iAwaft- 

Eloquent, ^hj/uiA; jjU jji- 

jujtAim-f^n ,- IlJ) baliffk;Ji 

Emaciated, ^^j^ raaAzii/. 
EiaanatioD.jj.^ aud&r (i.). 
Emancipate, ^ifsS^Az&d h. 
Bmbalva, ^ji/iofj^ tahnil k. 

Embankment, (jii^t pul^iuU. 
Embark, ,;fti,j\jii amotodr sk, 
Embarra8Bed,i>.> u^a dtut 

p&akeh (fS.). To be — jT 

^\ij\ ytr ufi&dan. 
ErabasB^, o^ILm t^drat. 
EmhelliBhuieat, ,_Al/-H piari- 

githt ijtjljr liniyMi. 
Embers, ^jj^l akhgar. Livs 

Emblem, t^u^ 'dldwwt. 
Embrace, o. ^rij-cT oyAiitA 

(i.A.);u. ^^*iiU. -.K-a- 

fld^oi i. J ui^/^* Ji-j in- 

EmbraBure,ji^lj b&ri. 
Embrocation, jlw timdJ. 
Embroider, ^jii^J tardzidem. 
Embroiderer, j^a ^^^ chakiH' 

diz ; j^^ mtUarriz, 
Emdroidery, \Sjfij^ «<w diai. 
Embryo, ^j^^Janin. 
Eroendator, ^^ muiaikii. 
Emerald, j^ xumurrvd. — 

coloured, ,j->ij-^ samur- 

Emerj, ii\^ tutnbddeh. 
Emetic, ^ muftaigi; ^ Jijt 

davd i kay. 
\ 'Em\gceX,\ovi, ^j ^jla. j«K i 



vatan; J6^ JJLi nafil i 

makdn (it.). 
Eminence (place), a«J tappeh, 

— (rank), \z*»S^ mushdra- 

jat; y^x^i jM sar-bulandi; 

{j)\^j^ sar-fardzi. 
Eminent, jJli j^ sar-buland; 
^'\j\ ^ sar-qfrdz ; V[j vdld. 
Emission, (..Jki natf {Jc.), 
Emolument, J»>1jl« muddJchiL 
Emotion, f^\Jci^\ izterdb. 
'EmperoVf jj^\^^\ imperdiHr; 

•lliftll shahanshdh; j-j^.^ 

JcaUar ; ^liU. khdkdn. 
Emphasis, Ju5"«LJ taakid. 
Empire, _aL1^L^ pddshdhi; 

JlX1U,# mtHnlakat; \s*\)a\^ 

Employed, JJLlJL* mtishtaghal 

(sh,) ; jyuU mashgMl {h). 
Employment, J«^ shughl (d,). 
Empty, ^ tihi {k.) ; JU. 

khdli (A?.). 
Emulating, oU»tjA muvdtdt 

(it.) ; »jjkla£* mujahedeh (k,). 
Emulation, o^ ghairai. 
Enamel, L^ mtnd (n.). 
Enameller^'^yTLsf* mind-kdr. 
Enamoured, juiis^l Jj diUdrnkh- 

tah; 4iiJiX dshujta. 

Encampment, -* t ^ - Aaim^^ 
(z.) ; j^^^ t#r Jm (2?.). 

Enchanter, J[^^U jddugar. 
Enchantment,^^ 9ihr, 
Enclosure (place), aLI>.1 ihdteh 
(k.) ; (letter), v.^yU ma/- 

j^; cf i«XU mundrij, 
Enconium, ^^x* madddhi. 
Encounter, JjUJ takdhul. 
Encouragement, (j^^b ^;-LL». 

End, ^Iji itmdm ; ^U^l anjdm ; 

jj^ dkhar; •LjJl intihd; 
(extremity), ui^lc ghdyat; 

j^ 9ar. — of a day*s jour- 

^®J> J>* ^r» *^^ * manzih 
— of the month, JL salkh» 

Endeavour, ^u* sd'% (A;.). 

Endive, ^^ kdsni. 

Endless, (jl>L^ htpdgdn. 

Endorsement, \^\ imzd (X;.). 

Endowment, f^J3j vatf. 

Endurance, J » 1^ tahammul 
(^.) ; ci^Uliu mu(:dsdt. May 
it endure ! Jl^ V M a?aZ. 

Enemy, (^;.*iJ^^ dushman ; jj^ 
'aduv ; 4k a ^ khasam, A 

secret — , J^^ kashih. 
Energy, iy kuwat. 
Enervated, vj^>^ maukuu. 




Enfeebled, i^imA:* mutazaif. 
Enfranchise, ^J^J ^\ji dzdd k. 
Engage, v, t, c)iXc;a** muay" 

yan h, — in, »., ^pU ^^ 

tan dddan. 
Engaged in, to be, ^J!^}s^^ j^ 

dar paivastan. 
Engaged, jj« t - mashgMl 

Engagement, JC kdr ; %xj^^ 

vddeh {dsh,). 
Engine, jf.'.^r* manjanik, 
English, j^\ or ,jJ6\ In- 

gilts or Ingiliz, 
Engrave, ^p^i^* kandan. 
Engraver, ^\i^ naklcdsh ; et}\C 

Engravings, (j^joi nukush. 
Enigma, jJLj laghz ; ^^lu 

Enjoined (by law), ^jj k^ 


Enjoy, \j^j^ J, ^^^ khurdan. 
Enjoying, • • t" - mutamatti 

(sh.) ; jji-ft *aish {k.). 
Enjoyment, ajuj tamattu ; la» 

hezz (k,); oJJ lizzat {ksh.). 
Enlarge, ^J^ ^jjs huzurg (k,). 
Enlightenment, ^^^^j rush- 
ndi (n,). 


Enlist, p. ^., (J.>;J (jj;y WU^ 

jam dvari k, ; v. n., jL^ 
^Xl sarbdz sh. 
Enmity, ojljc *addwat ; ^s^^ 

Ennobled, ^_fy-*nt musharraf. 
Ennobling ; cJu^tJ tashrtf. 
Enough, ^ has. It is — , 

^^ o^lfl^a kefdgat kard. 
Enquire, ^^ J|^ nfiZ A:. 
Enraged, ^L^ ghazbdn. 
Enshrouding (the dead), ^J^ 

takfin {k.). 
Ensign (man), ^j.) uJLJ ndib i 

Ensigns, J!kc\ aldtn. 
Entangled, *sjijj zhulidah. 
Enter, ^JS*\ j^ dar dmadon ; 

jjj-i. j^ dar sh. ; ^^ji J».b 

ddkhil sh. 
Enterprise, ^r»^, hesij. 
Entertainment, o^L« ziydfat; 

^Ui^ mihmdnu 
Enticing, ^j^ muharriz (n.). 
Entire, ks^^^ (sb yak-dast ; J^ 

tammdm; J^ kull. 
Entirely, JSCJU hilkidl 
Entrails, i^^ rudeh. 
Entrance, J^4 dukhuL 



Entrenchments, oU)$4^^^ istik- 

EntruBt, cH/^'^!^ ^^vdleh k, ; 
^^^-^.^ sipurdan; pa. p., 
ijO'yu mufawaz. 

Entry and exit, ^J. j ^j 
vuluj u khuruj. 

Enumeration, jjJjJ tadid. 

Envelope, fUJ lifdfah. 

Envelop, ^^zi^^os \^ fard gi' 
riftan; pa, />., \^yl^ malfuf. 

Envied, ^y^^ mahsud. 

Envious, jMtLft. hdsid; ^j^^ 
hasud ; j^ dLl; rashk-khur. 

Environs, %^\J^\ atrdf; ^\y^ 
hawdli; ^\y nawdhi. 

Envoy extraordinary and min- 
ister plenipotentiary, j^y^ 
ilii^ vazir i mukhtdr. 

Envy, v., ^)3^ Ju^ T^asad bur- 

Ephemeris, ^j zieh. 

Epilepsy, c^ sar. Afflicted 
with — , Pjj/A* masrtt. 

Epistle, aa\S ndma; jJU^ mur- 

Epitaph, A>\i^9 hit&heh. 
Epithet, cua^ 9ifat 
Epoch, ^Jo fdrikh. 
Equal, It., jL^^ ham-jpahli; 

li** hafn-td; a., j\ji bardr 
bar; ^^y, savty ; ^j^.,1^ 
mutasdvt; jixJl dLj yak- 
anddz. — to, J^U* muddil. 

Equalising, JjjjJ ta'dil (k.). 

Equality, vz^j^ 9av%yet ; hy>S 
taaviyet ; (jyL^j yastavi. 

Equation, oi^L^ musdvdt. 

Equator, A^jz^ k^ khatt i 

Equilibrium, 23^1^ muvdzanoL 
Equipment, j^ tajhtz (Ar.). 
Equity, v:uJ^L«-« muddalat ; 

uJUt insdf. 
Equivalent, .jJUft ham-kadr. 
Equivocation, %Ji» tqfrih (z.). 
Era, o,U fdrikh. 

Eradicate, ^^jui >-^ ^1 az bikh 

Erasing, ^ mahv (k.). 

Erect, a,, ^^^^t-.^ muntasab ; 
\jum\j rdst ; v., ^JSf^\^ fard" 
ztdan; pa, p,, ^yau man- 
tub («A.) ; pr, p.^ 1^^^ nasb 
(k.) ; jt^ tamir (Jc,) 

Erection, o^Uc 'imdrat (k,). 

Ermine, ^\i f^dkum. 

Errand, aU*^ paigMm. 

Error, kix ghalat {k.) ; j^ ^ 



Eructation, 'll*^ junhi' / cj.f 

Erudition, ^b ddnish. 

Eruption (skin), i^ dbileh. 

Erysipelas, ^jij hwur. 

Escape, t?., ^jLoj rastan; n.y 
Ub, rahd (y.); ol^ najdt 
iy-) ; j]/firdr (A:.). 
Escort, Ai.j^ hadrakeh. 
Especial, ^y?^ m -fc* mahhstu, 

— ly, Uji^ khusHsan ; ^ 

^j^ Wa *lkhusus. 
Essence, 2^^ khiddsat ; ob 

2?a^ ; ^^ jauhar. 
Established, ^\^ j\jJt (lardr- 

dad; J<}j^, har kardr (Ar.). 

Establishing, oi,.t,.» musah" 
hit (A;.); (^Ut t«&a/ (ti.). 

Establishment, (.ii^^lil ikdmat ; 
*\a»\ ihkd, — (household), 
JU *ayydl 

Estate, JU mdl ; c^LaS nisdb. 

Esteem, ^L;ci ttibdr (dsh,). 

Estimate, ^1 ^^ har-dvard 
(k,) ; »)Yjj\ anddzah. ; pa, 
p., yjos^ mushakhkhas. 

Estrangement, ^^ duri (k,). 

Et cetera, i^j vaghairah. 
Eternal, (/JljI a^irfi; jJLi. 

hkdlid; ^j3 kaiyUm ; ji^U 
^aot^. — Ij, ij>l dbadan. 
Eternity, sA ahad; jJi». khuld; 
Jl«^ sarmad; ^ azal; ^Uj 

Ethics, j^l akhldk, 
Ethiopian, ^^ zangi. 
Etiquette, ^\^ dddb. 
Etymology^ jUilt ishtikdk. 
Euclid, (jajJil Iklidas. 
Eulogist, ^^U mddik; ^\u 

Eunuch, 1^ j^l^ M'4;^«ara; 
j^j^ Jchojah; ^ja^ Musi. 

Euphrates, o|/ ^«#ra^. 

Europe, ^^li-^ Firangistdn, 

European, ^^ FirangfL 
Evacuation, jJi^ tahldiyeh (k,). 
Evade, ..%!.«* ft.L^ kindreh 

Evaporation, i.jLlj nashf (k.). 
Evasion, 4^ htleh ; axI^j (oAo- 

n^A; JftW tajdhul. 
Even (number), Ki^juft. 
Evening, ^Ll shdm ; ^!Lc 

Event, jwj U wia t?fl'/^«*; ^j^ U 

gnzasht ; ^i^U hddi^a ; 4ai\j 



Ever (any time), <J>ij^ ^^ 
va(:t, — (no time), j.6ayb 
hargiz, — (all times), jJL^ 

Every, every one, Ji^ iiar. 

Every kind, ^j-i*.^ har-jins. 

Everywhere, U yt Jiar-jd. 

Eviction, jm,> «?«/* {h). 

Evidence, ^jf^ wazuh; iz>:\^ 

Evident, .\^T dshJcdr ; JljJl^ 

padid, — ly, j^lk zdhiran. 

Evil, *5i> &«/a / (j?;^ J> ^^^- 
^'ari. The king's — , ^jli;* 
yarakdn, — doer,jl^» a-J 
^a&a^^or. — speaker, ^^ 
hadg^L, — suggestion, ^1^1 

Ewe, Lj<^ fTtttf^ 

Ewer, Ajli-f 1 dftdbah 

Exact, ^^^a/ieA; cza.^^ durust 

— ly, Ai^ hiainihi. 

Exacting an oath, t^gj L ^ 

Exactions, uJJ^ taJcdlif, 
Exaggeration, jj^l ighrdk {k,). 
Exalt, ^ - *■!; 'T dfrdshtan; 

^j^]/\ afrakhtan, 
JSxaltation, (j^j^Jardzt, 

Exalted, p^ marju; ji^i ^ 

Examination^ y^ *S*I 1171^9- 
^n (A;.)* 

Example, Ji« masal; Jj.t^) 
tamsiL To give an — Ji* 
jj^ ina^aZ ^r. For — 5Ljl^ 
masalan ; Jijl j' j^ 7 m^a^ 

Excavation, y^ hafr (k,). 

Exceed, fjZ^jd jft. ^\ az hadd 

Exceedingly, cuoUi highdgat. 
Excellence, 1^- ^ ^ "^ * fazUat 

(dsh,) ; ^ fazl ; cuxj^ 

Excellency, i^\:s^jandb, 


Excellent, J-a»l afzal ; »*w»*^^ 

Except, j».yw2? ; ^ Jq/w^ / jC 

magar ; ^^ bighair. 

Exception, ^Ui:.**! istisnd. 

Exceptional, ^jLit:^.* mustasni. 

Excess, kj^l (/ra^; ^ » ^ . j ; 

hishi ; \yu tafrtt (*.)• 
Excessive, 1^ mufrit. 

Exchange, n, J\jj1 ihddl; J^L« 
muhddaldh (Jc,) ; ^^.^e 
^t;az ()b.). 

Excite, ^jids^' ang\kht<m;'ga,'j» 
xij« mula • 



ExcitemeDt, j<M taghayyur, 
ExcitiDg thirst, ^jIIul* mutish. 
Ezdamation, eLl* hdny (z.). 
Excluded, ^^ mahrum («.); 

J».j^ hUdakhl, 
Excommunication, o^jJ lanat, 
Excoriatingj^li kdshir. 

Excrement, \y^^ 9'^^i ^^ 
gMit. — of the eye, dlJL^ 

Excruciating, yij^-i- J^ dil- 

Excusable, jjjju mazur. 

Excuse, V, t, y)^L^ ji-e *uzr 
nihddan. — oneself, jSs^ 
^^1^ *uir khdslan; n. i^Aka 
mazarah; Jx^ *uzr; yij^ 

Execrable, ^^ lain ; sj^/^au 

Execration, Xic^ muhStanat 

Execute (kill), ^j:Ji^ kushtan. 

Executing a business,^l^v^];afc.l 

ijrd i kdr. 
Executioner, ^'%^jalldd, 


Executor, ^^ vasty. 

Exempt from, ^j hart; ^l** 

mudfd («.). 
Exercise, ^j-i^* mashk (d.) ; 
— (walk), fJt^^ffardeA (fc.). 

Exertion, sJlj^L^ mujdhedeh 

(*.); J^fkiishesh {k.). 
Exhaling, j«n»jJ taiMssum (k,). 

Exhausted, ^ ; ^> ^ hhasUh 

(sh, A?.)." 
Exhibition, ^U3 namdyish. 
Exhilarated, 9-v^ munfarih; 

{J»^j^ sar-khush. 
Exhilaration, ^^^ tafrih. 
Exhilarating, ^jU mufarrih. 

Exhortation, oJa^ mauizat, 

(n.) ; )asj vaz (^.). 
Exigency, »Uiil iktizd. 
Exiling, L^^ taghrib {k^). 
Exist, ^^y budan. 

Existence, ^^ budani ; ^^ 

vujud; ^z,,^ hasti. 
Existent, ^j« mauju^. 
Exit, m^js^ makhraji 
Exorbitant, y^\jdgazdf. 
Expand, ^^:\j^gushddan. 
Expect, ^JLmtbJaZJ^ muntazer h 

Expectation, J> Vi 7^1 intizdr 
(^ksh.) ; (^^ farakkub; way 
tavakku (dsh.). 

Expecting, a sj ;■# mtf/o- 

voMr (^.). 

Expediency, ^t^t iltizdm. 

Expedite, ^^^ \z^A»^ hara- 

Expedition, ^ULI elghdr^ 

Expel, cj^ijjL/H ^^^^ ^• 
Expend, \j^X 9^^ Icharj k. 
Expending, uJV^i isrdf^n.). 
Expenditure, jU-Sl infdh; i£ij 

Expense, kj^ kharj ; pi. 

%zj\a^\^\ ikhrdjdt. 
Expensive, J^^girdn. 

Experience, v., c)<>j-^T dzmu- 
dan; n, cdj-^ khubrat ; 
fJiA^j\ dzmdyish ; ^jJj 


vukuf; hjai tajrihat. 
Experienced, jli^juj^ tajrihah' 

hdr ; » Jj^ ^U^ Jahdn-didah. 
Expert, uum»^ c&Lm sabuk-dast ; 

iju^^ |j(^ ehirah-dast; (i&)VU 

Expertaess, ^«*i^ i^t-^ c^trff^- 

Expiation, tjjfkaffdreh. 

Expiration, ^Uftji mkizd\9'h,'). 
Explained, --j^ tn - mashruh 

Explaining, ^^j,y ^ muhayyin 

Explanation, ^^ shark ; ^l^^j 

Explieitlj and openly, ^ —^ 

Explode, ^^^^dtesh gr. 

Exploration, ujUXL^l istik- 

9hdf (w.). 
Explore, ^.)SJ\^gardidan. 

Exposition, .\4S9l izhdr (k.) 

Expressed (juice, &c.), jj^»^ 

Expression, kalJ talcvffuz. 

Expulsion, pl^l ikhrdj. 

Exquisite, o^Uj nafdaat. 

Extempore, ^c^*^ ladihl ; ij^ 

Extend, ^jJ-lS^l;^ dirdz ksh, ; 

|?a. 2?. ^Ji.» ♦ mamdud; ^^ 

Extension, vzJUol itdlat; ^^ 
tul (ksh.) ; «u maJ(f ; ^^^^^j) 

Exterior, (^^Ib zdhiri. 
Extermination, JIa-i-»1 istisdl 

External, -^U» khdrij. — ly, 

]^\k zdhiran. 
Extinct, jj^Ai* munkariz. 
Extinction, g^|^i inkirdz{y.). 
Extinguish, cJl;^* jji^-»Li. 

khdmush k. 
Extol, vJi^v-jt>^ tttttrMTc- 



Extort, e^^^^ hezur gr. 

Extortion, ^^j^j^kf^ takhtgtri ; 
i^Ju^M taa88uf(k,). 

Extract, ^J:!^ j> har hikktan ; 
pr. p., ^\j^\ istihhrdj (A;.). 

Extraction, jtlS JcaV (Jc,). 

Extraordinary, \^^ *ajab» 

Extravagance, uJ^ saraf. 

Extravagant, ^j,^ musrif; 

Extreme, te-*-*^ dk%a. —Ij* 
oJ)U) hi'ghdyet. 

Extremity, ^JA^ pagan; kzA^ 

Exudation, {J»j\J tardvish. 

Exude, c)J^]/ tardvidan. 

Exultant, ^^T^l^ shdd ham. 

Eye, *^ >■ chashm. Evil — , 

J t ^ .* 'fc chashm i had. 

Squint-eyed, -jl Mch, The 
eye-ball or pupil, dL-»^;_A 
mardumak. Eyebrow, ^jj\ 
cibru. Eye-glass, (slbl ainek. 
Eyelashes, J^ mazhagdn. 
Eyelid, J^jafn. ^ 

Fable, ^JL^fasdnahi 
Fabric, *Lj bind* 


Fabulous, i^':!^kdzi'b. 
Fabricated, ju^U sdkhtah. 
Face, jj ru, or ^j?j^ rwy. 
Face to face, ^ijj ril-i-rtt. • 
Facetious, ^jl» shukh. — ness, 

^^^ ah-dkhi, 
Facilitated,^;^.^* mugassar (h.). 
Facility, ^UT dsdni; kz^j^ 

Facing, j^j, rti he ru ; 2^1^ 

muwdjahat; cufisi^ hakikat 
Fact, ^^T kdr. In — , ^jU al 

Factory, Ail»> Ji kdr khd/neh. 
Faculty ,^lxL5l iktiddr* 
Fade, ^x^J^ khushktdan; pa, 

p,, t^j»^ pazhmurdeh {sh,). 
Failing in duty,^^.aa« mukassar 

Faint, {J»^^ hi-hush (sh,), 
Faintness, J!^ ghash (k.). 


khush ru. 


Fair dealing, jlivj/>a^ftai?. 

Fairy, (jjiparu 

Faith (religion), c^l* maz^ 
hah. Article of — , ij-JLc 

'aktdat ; pi. jJ\ L^ 'akdidi 

(confidence),^lj hdvar; ^li:;^! 
ftikdd* Good — , \jj vafi. 



imdn-ddr. The — ful, c^cJL^ 

mtislimtn. — less, Uj-j hi- 

Falcon, ^ji hush ; c^ubU thd- 

hin ; jW^ shahbdz. 
Fall, n. b^JL^ «tf^z^^ (A:.); v. 

^^liil ufiddan, — in love, 

Fallow, oljA mavdt. 

False, JbU 6^iZ; Ji^ daghal; 

^L(»> yt»7L — coin, l^JLS 

^a/6. — politeness, jt^lji 

fjy ^ t -' tavdzui Samara 

J^andi, — reports, <— «j»l^i 

ardjifi, — hood, cj^^ <ifa- 
rugh (jf,). 

Falsified, ^j^ muzavtar. 

Fame, v^^b ndmvari. Good 

. . - r 

Familiar, a. cJpL^ maalvf; 

It. •Mii'^ 97itf niff. 
Familiarity, cua)1i«^^; uu«J1j« 

Familiarized, vJtlLu mutaallif. 
Family, \s^ JaI a^/ e belt; 

i^tyl^ khdnavddah; JLe 'tyi/. 
Famine, JU» W^ kdht'Sdh 
FamouSy^l Jl«U ndm-ddr ; j^^ 

mashhur ; jy Jj ndm-dvar. 

To become — , ^)^l Ji ndrri' 

Fan, A»M|^ mirvahah; c^ ^If 

Fanatic, i,,».a«;» mutaassib. 
Fanaticism, u,^^ir> taassub. 
Fancy, n. Jls. Jchaydl (bs,). 
Fanciful, Jl^ hhaydlu 
Far, jj^ ^wr. IIow far ? Li 

Fare, ^Ul» fa'aw. 

Farewell, cbj vida (k.) ; ^Ji 

padrud (i;.)» 
Farm, i^UI ijdrah (A:.)* 

Farmer,yh.\2.,^ mustdjar. 

Farrier, xj^ J« ndl band. 

Farrier's twitch, JU j^ puz- 

Fascinated, ^Jyju maftun. 
Fascinating, ^>---*l i-af^ *i^r- 


Fascination, ^JJ^\ a/sun (k,)» 

Fashions, jy<»\ atvdr. 

Fast, V. ^jJlJj,^9 9j^j ruzdh 

giriftan; a. ^j zud ; (of 

watch) ; jjJ tund. 

Fastened, ^^Jf mazbut (^.), 
Fasting, tj^j ruzah. To avoid 

who fasts, JU sdtm. 
Fat, n. 4-jj piyali •, \^j^ cKo.tV> \ 



n, A-»;-i farhih (*.) ; ^yL 
Fatal, i&U|^ muhlek. 

Fate, ^HlJii takdir. — and 
destiny, ^^jj> j lai Ara^ra o 
kadar ; o*«Ji kismat, 

Pated, .jjA« makdur. 

Father, ^ pidar ; Ub ^5a ; 

S^j wdlid. A father-in-law, 

^;«*i ihusur, — Ij, A-»);J^ 

Fatigue, ^^^Jl^L* mdndagi; 

^L^ hhattagi; i_«oJ fa^. 
Fatigued, »jjL« mdndah To 

^ — > ypiU j^ dar-mdndmn. 
Fatness, ^^^^ farJnhi. 

Fatted, j^|jj^ parvdri. . 

Fault,^^^A} taksir ; U^ ghalat 
(Ar.) ; »«*-ft 'aii ; i\:!fgttndk» 

Favour, ^Uii irCdm ; uJU ?w(/* 

(At.) ; oIajJI iltifdt {y,) ; 

ia^^y tavajjuh. 
Favourite, c-*».Lm Musdhih, 
Fawn, i;>j^\ dhU-barah, 
Fayence, ^X^kdshi, 
Fear, n, ^jj tors. \_3j r^ 

Jchauf; w him ; (s)L> hdk ; 

r. (:;Ju*w;J> tarHdan ; ^JX^]/^ 


Fearful, j^ tarsu. 

Fearing, ^^Lj^ iird^dn. 

Fearless, tt)U #3 hi-hdk. 

Feast, i^L* ziydfat, . — at 
the end of the fast of B»- 
inazan,Jla# .uc 'id ifatr, — 
of the nativity (of Moham- 
med), i^jM jufi 'id i maulud, 

— of Sacrifices, ^J^ o-ft *id 
i ktMrhdn. 

Feather,^; * par; (longest 

feather in the wing), j^ 

Feehle, Ul^ zdif. 

Feed, v, v:;JJ];»>» JsMrdnidan ; 

(cattle) cJi^i;*' ehe^rd h. 
Feeling, ^^.^ hiss (Jc,), The 

sense of — , a^^V Idmisah, 
Feign, i^^^AJli^ haJidneh k. 
Felicity, ^z>:^»^ sa'ddaL 
Fellow (to), — jj zauj\ Con* 

temptihle — , d^ mardak, 

— servants, ^LJ ju».l^ 
kKdjah - ^a«A. — ^ villager, 

Felt, n. j^ nomad; a. (per- 
. ceived), (j**^^.^ mdhsus. 
Female, t^U mddah. 
Feminine, eJ^ mti*anna«. 
Fence, ajWI ihdtak. 
Fennel, u:«J^ shehit. 



FermentatioD, ^^jush {k,). 

Fermented,^;^ muhhammar. 

Fern, aJU! samdmeh. 

Ferocious, ^Ji^j vahsM. 

Ferret, j-.j^ rdsu. 

Ferry, J)^ guzdr. — boat, 

1^1 j> ^friT keshti i guzdrah. 

Fertile, ^^^^m^ khfuihi j^}^, 

Festival, xa *id. 

J^estiyiiy, ^j^\^ shddt. 

Fetch, ij^jj\ dvardan. 

J?etid, ixS gandah. 

Fetter, Je ghull; jjj fj\i^pdU 

Fever, kJ» tap or iah. High 
— , ^jt^ K^ tap i muhrik. 
Hectic — , j3 c-aJ tap i 
dikk. Intermittent — , e^ 
KSAiy tapi nauhaU Tertian 
— , c-A^ c-rfJ tap i ghibh. 
Quartain — , «-i^ e^ tap i 
rub\ ^* 

Few, f»i^ ham ; JJii kalih 
A — , {jX^ ehandt ; ^sa 
hazu A — people, x*. ^ 
tani chand. 

Fibre, jJb^ m^a^. 

Fickleness, ^JH tdlawun. 

Fictitious, ^£ fMfcU. 

Fidelitf^ cl^^J'^ vafd-ddru 

Fie ! kJ^\ uff. 
Fief, J\ft .J5-. suyur-ghdl, 
Field (for sowing), p^^y— • 
mazra; (sown), Ks^jS^kishi. 

— of battle, aTLm ma*rikah: 

s)^ ^ ndburd-gdh. 
Fierce, r^ sharzah ; %Xjj^ 

Fiery, J^dtuU. 
Fife, ,3 n^y. 
Fifteen, s^l^ pdnzdah. 
Fifth, j^panjum. 
Fiftieth, ^\j&i panjdhum. 
Fifty, %\^^panjdh. 

Fig, >«ii an/»n 
Fight, isic^jang (i.). 

Figure, Jxl «Aa^Z. 
Filbert-nut, jxifanduk. 
File, ^U^ «tiAan. 
Filings, s^];) 5ura(^^. 
Fill, jj^^ Jt>w k. 
Filling up, ^^ »m/a («.), 

Fillet, ,;.!iiri;a/aM. 

Filly, »p kurreh. 

Film on the eye, jui^U wa- 

Filter, t^. ^)^;Jtijl afihardan; 

^j^jiS^ v^U fdfk.; n. ^U 

Filth, «^ oXirlc. . ^ 



Filthy, \jfj^ chirgin. 
Fin, JU hdl. 

Finall7,^Vl^T aHir ul amr. 
Finance, oUU mdliydt. 
Find, V, vj^i J-j paidd k. 
Fine, n, a«^ jarmah; ^I^U 

musddarah h — >. a. (sLj.L) 

Finger, o^l^l angusht King- 

— , ^;-ab hinair. Little — , 

^^io:^ khinsar. Middle — , 

Ja^j vasti» — tips, ^j\ • t 

Finis, ^ tamma. 

Finished, ^Ij tammdm {sh. h)\ 
^c-6^LU muntahd {sh,). To 
be — ^, ^jj-Ji y— H ^«*<»*' 

Fir,^^)^ sanauber ; -^T ^a;. 

Fire, ^Ta^wA. To set — to, 
^ ^jUl a(iiA z. To make 
a — , ^J:i^^\ dtish Je. To 

light a — , ij^^ro; u^^ 
dtiah raushan k.; v. (a gun), 
yj^^Jli* ^•Aa/* ^. Setting 
on — , jij^l »Ara^. — fly, 
t-»\ ; ■> lit shaibtdh, — lock, 
^Ui^ chakmdki. — place, 
4^liS buihdri. — ^wood, pA 

heyzum, — worshipper, ^J^ 
. cui^ dteshparast, — works, 

ijj\i ,j^T dtesh bdzu 
Firm, j^JoL* pdi-ddr ; ir-*]i 

rdsikh. — Ij fixed, ^ 

makin, — ^ness, aL^ols^I 

First, J^l avval; ^jl awaUn, 
— born,^;^ ft/X:r. • 

Fish, ^U TTKiK. The sign 
Pisces, o^-» Aii^. Fisher- 
man, /^jjfcU mdh%-gtr. — 
hook, A)^ kulldbeh. Fish- 
net, Ja ddm ; j^ turr. 

Fissure, ^^ shikdf. 

Fist, ciJU musht. 

Fit, ». ^jie ^Aa<A ; a. (proper) 
^V Zay}^ ; jj\yt aezdvar. 

Five, -j^ panj. — hundred, 
juoil) pdnsad. 

Fix, to be in a, ^pliJl^;Xy/r 
uftddan; v. ^^^^^a cu. , ■> 
«a5/ ^. ; ^puiLJLJ nishdn- 
dan ; pa, p., \j^ muaiyan ; 

Flaccid, ^^— a^^ arkhd; ^^ 

Flag, j];^ hairdk ; Jic 'oZom. 

Flagellation, j^ thaldk. 



Flame, 4I «.^ thu'lah; JuJLi^ 

Flaming, JUill isht^dl (k,). 
Flashing, isja bdrikah. 
Flask, ^^ haghalt ; 
Flat, ^]^ hardbar; ^^jL^w* 

Flatterer, (j«jliU> ehdplus. 
Flattery, j^ tamallak (k,); 

^jLU. chdplust {k.). 
Flatulent, ^^ib hddi; Akj naf- 

Flavour, »)« mazah. 
Flaw, c:«]M\rA;a«^ ; ^a 1 ;iaAv. 
Flax, J^katdn, 
^^Ji oJ^ow«»ji 27u«^ handan. 
Flea, K^S'keh, 
Flee, ^j:sA^ gurikhtan.' 
Fleeting, ^Uyawj. 
Flesh, KzJi^fgxuiht. 

Flexible, ^^^i?? pichkhur. 

night, y^ gwrtz ; j]^ ferdr 
(gr.) ; (bird's), jljj* parvdz. 
Put to — , ^}(-i-« munhazim 
iff) ^9 »•! i:)^})iX gurtzdnU 
dan. Taking — , ^j])-j^-^» 

Fling, ^;:;.^\jil aniiM^ait. 

Flint (for striking fire), Gfc)u» 

Flippantly, >^ l> bd shukht. 

Flock, Ai^9 gelleh. 

Flood, u*^ *at/(i5 / (Noah's), 
J^Jo tufdn. Flood and ebb 
tides, jjjt. J Jl* hmu^ ujazr. 

Floor, (yjj*j zamin. 

Florid, ^li ndzir. 

Flour, ^^ ard. 

Flourish, ^jLJ^t akikufian; 
pr, p., ^)bU dbdddn. 

Flow, ^2)XJ^ t5;W i'*''* **•/ 
jpr. ^., ^J\J^ jarigdn ; Jijj 
ravdn; J-jL- *a»/; (as a 
river, with noise), ^JSJJ^ 

Flower, ^ gul. — of youth, 
^^UJ|. raidn; ^^Ij-o ;g '1*^ 

Fluent, jj\ ^^ zabdn-dvar. 
Flute, ^5\i nay. 
Flutter, (jJ^:^ tapidan. 
Fluxed, to be, ^JX^ vs^a ife«^ 

Fly, n., ^jSl magas; v., ^^J^^ 

paridan ; pr, p., ^Jy^pardn ; 

sjj^ parendah. 
Fly-flap, ^j\j ^jS^ magda-rdn. 
Foal, t^kurreh. 
Foam, t^^-^ kaf(z.\ 
Focus, ,y^ maurld, « 


Podder, cJle *alaf. 

E(Btu8, ^j^janin. 

Fog, ^^ dud; a* meh. 

Fold, jJ ^aA (X:.) ; J tav. In 
folds, y»y til ha tu. Cattle 
•— , J{1 dgel. To fold to- 
gether, cpJ^^^A ^»' navar- 

Follow, ^JLiJ ^j^ dar pat r, ; 
^jL.hj ^JUt ^akah r, ; pr. jp., 

Follower, jj^^---j pai-ro i joli» 

Folly, cu-iU* Umdkat; dj-3 

Fomentation, J^tiCj takmid. 

Fondle, c)iP J*J ^^l k. 
Food, jJfl^j^ khurdM ; JJ^ 

Fool, Alfl ahlah; j«^^ dhmak. 

Foolish, ^. T % J. » hi-manL 
-^ ly, «^j4s-; hihudeh. 

Foot, b J9a, or ^ pai, — sol- 
dier, on — , »aLj piyddah 
^r,). — of a mountain, ^^b 
daman or ^ub ddmaneh. 

Footstep, aJj Jeadam. 

For, 4^);» hardf/i ; (^l^i j^ ai? 


Forage, cJle 'o/o/I 
Forbearance, o^Ua-* mtMo- 

Forbearing, j\i^ burd-hdr. 
Forbid, ^^^ mi^ man k. 

Forbidden, ^c*^ manht; j^a^ 
mahzur. — =- things, ^J^]y 

Force, jjj^ zur ; i|—«3j{J zahar- 
daatt. By — , j,^ hazur. 

Forceps, u^^Lf^ kalMh, 

Ford, »l^9 j"^^ guzar-gdh ; 

Fore-arm, jcL* «a t<^. 
Forecast, ^JjI JU ma^dl-an- 

Forefather, x^jidd; pi, :\^\ 

ajddd; ^jji^^ piskin. 
Forefinger, iX^ sahhdbah, 
Yorehe&d, A^ jtibhah ; .c^^^ 

ptshdm ; a^U nasty eh. 
Foreign, ^:,>l ajnaht. 

Foreigner, jlJIxI^ higaneh; 

\^Ji gharib, 
Foreignness, ^^xilXT,,i ^^o- 

Fore-leg, cum*^ Ja«^.* 
Foremost, ^jsU mukaddam. 
. Forenoon, ^^ zuhd ; jl ^j^-j 



Foresighted, (»>L:Lo pUh-ydb, 
Eoreskin, oil^ ghulfat. 
Forest, ^fj^jangcH. 
Foretell, y^f^ ^ji--j jt>*»A gf* 
Forge, »\jCft^ dam-gah. 
Forged, *si\^ sdkhteh. 
Forgery, y^Ms^jal 

Forget, ^j^j^» U^]/ fobrdr 

mush k. 
Forgetfulness, ^ j .J nisydn 

{Jc,) ; ^y^ji fardmuBhu 
Forgive, ^jjj .tig hakhshidan; 

\^\^ dmurzidan. — ness, 

^lUg hakhshatfUh ; i^U* 

Forgiving,^2y*^ ghafur* 
Fork, J\C:^ changdl. 

Form, J-Oi «AaW; i^U 

/baZi5 ; ^^^ paikar. 
Formal, aSU^ ra«m4n«^. 
Former, ^js^^ pishin; j>L. 

idbif:; ^Jj kadtm. 
Formerly, aIJUj |)f«AmaA. 
Formidable, jjJj nizhand. 
Formtda, J«jJ\ jy^^ daatur ul 

FomicaiioD, \i^ zind (L), 
Fornicator, ^\3fd8ik» 
Forsake, ^j^eJ^J tark k. 
"Fonaken, jjifi^ maA/ur, 

Fort, A«U jrafaA ; J<m:^ hisdr ; 

Fortieth, JL*. ehihlum. 

Fortifications, j^b ftartf. 

Fortified, ^y^^ mahsun (k,). 

Fortitude, oj^' najdat 

Fortnight, aI-a* j^ do hafteh. 

Fortunate, jju o^laui* sa^ddai- 
mand; ju^xJUc tdlt-mand ; 
ks^ dL> mk'bakht; sui \j^ 
daulat'mand ; x:^3^^ berth 
mand; J -j^ *g bakht^ydr^ 
May it be — ! ^Ij d;W* ^"- 

Fortune, o^ bakht; kz^j^ 
daulat ; i^»^} nagib, Grood 
— , ijy t '^, bakhtmandt* 
— teller,^^lj yK^yir. 

^ovty, Ji^i cheheh 

Forward, ^^j^^pxsh. 

Fobs, jJu»> khandak. 

Fossil, 2\^jamdd. 

Foster-brother, ^^-frL^ j^Ih 
birddar-i-rtzai, — mother, 
jujb ddyeh, — son, ^^«^ 
^X^jpeaari rezai. 

Foul, (&}U U ndpdk {k,). 

Foul-mouthed, ^J^^ X-j had 

Found) t)., ^i^ ^3 ^^i ^* 



Foundation, ^L*l asds; ^L:j 

Pounded, ^^ mabnt (5.). 
Founding, jj----'^o ta^sis (A:.). 
Founder, ^jm^*^ mu'asng. 
Foundling, Wjol lakit. 
Fountain, / » *^ chaslimah. or 

*ain ; (jet), t^^favvdrah. 
Four, .L»i chehdr. 
Fourteen, »^U. ckdrdeh. 
Fourteenth, ^^-j^^U^ ehehar- 

Fourth (the), ^^U*. chehdmm ; 
■' one — , jL^j ri^\ 
Fowl, *a^y^jujah. 
Fox, »^^ rubdh. — cub, 

dLjj. ruhaheJc. 

Fraction, i^kasreh, 

"FvKcivLre^j^ kasr. 

Fragment^ A».^\i pdrchah ; »j)^ 
r^zaA ; ^Z., U^ khurdahd. 

Fragrance, jj ^Jt^ khush-hu ; 

Fragrant, L^. ^^a; ^^Jax-^ 

Frame, ^^^ .U. cAar ehuhah ; 

Franks f^ sz^j rdst gu, 
Fraifkiacense, ^U luldn. 

Frantic, a^|^^ dtvdneh. 
Fraternity, oU>l^ muwdkhdi. 
Fraud, acj». khud'ah ; ojqJ> 
khadtat ; y^ makr ; eSi^^-* 
doffhdrbdzi; ^jm^JLJ talbts; 

Free, ^|^\ aza<? ; j^ wwftarra ; 
^)1L». khalda (k,) ; 'vi[H 
Jort* ; (leisure), c^li fdrigh 

Freedom, ^^ khaldsi ; fj^\J 

Freewill,^Lii.l ikhtiydr. 

Freeze, ^J:^^ ^ yakh-hoHan. 

Freight, J*^ haml. 
Frenzy, J^jm sar-sdm. 

Frequent, a., j\ j „. ; hisydr; 

— ly, \jbj\» bdrhd; v., ^j J^l 

jj^^ imoJ thud k. 
Fresh, jj^U ^aztfA ; (air), 

khunuk ; (water), ^j. 

Freshness, ^\S tdzagi ; iJjJ 

tart ; o^LLj nazdrat* 
Fretful, 1^1 afmrdeh. 
Fricassee, aJLJ hdllyak; (of 

butter, onions, &c), ijLj j^ 

Friction, ctU^ </aZA;. 
Friday, *«•*. J^ ruz-ijumak 



Friend, ksa^j^ dust; Ji ydr ; 

^y^j^j t*a/t/b; \^JL\ dshnd. 

Sincere — , j^J^ sadtk; 

^j<*^Ia ma nus. 
Friendless, ^jJCj hikas, 
Priendlj, AJb^^ dustdnah ; 

^|^l> ydrdnah 
Friendship, ^Ju ydri; j-,^ 

dusti; ^^y tavaddud; ^\^j 

viddd. Sincere — , ij^J^U^ 

musddaJcaU . 
Fright, J|yk haul; dUj* hauU 

ndk ; ^J tars. 
Frighten, ^^JloL^ tarsdnidan. 
Frigidity, ij^j^ sardi. 
Fringe, a^ rishah^ 
Frivolous, ^y pueh; Jju-j 

Frog, d^ gMh ; ^j vazak. 

From,j^ az» 

Front, ^ji-j pish; (jj^j ruy. 

— tooth, IjJ santyet. 
Frontiers, J>^ sar hadd 
Frost, ji,^ ariz ; U,-* sarmd. 
Froth, o>i^j rayhwat ; \^a^s9 

leaf (^.) ; Jjj zahad. 
Prown, n. j^^t akhru (^.) ; 

ham Jcsh. 
Frozen, jyJi ydkhvar ; 

Frugal, .1^ 4j\>> khdneh ddr. 
Fruit, ij^-j-. mivah; (berry), 
it ^TiU fdkihah ; ji satnar ; 
j> bar. Early — , j,l)jj watt- 

Fruitful,^b^b 5ar ddr ; jj J^ 
bdr-var ; ^b i^ mira^-diir ; 
j^Ia musmir. 

Fruition, ^LJ^kdm^dhi. 

Fruitless,^ ^^ hi bar. 

Frumenty, s^i^ shahtarah. 

Frustrate, ^j^^^^ ^j^ mah- 
rum h. 

Fry, vj-i/ cj^ biriydn k. 

Frying-pan, aAj tdbah. 

Fuel, ^%j^ heimeh. 

Fugitive, jl:lj^^^j^> gurtkhtah; 
(slave), ^\ dbik. 

Fulfilment, J-*^ takmil (k.). 
Full, ^ par ; ^JU-a mamlu ; 

JUVU mdlrdrmdl ; (of food), 

^^«Mf sir. 
Fuller, JJi ydzur. 
Fulness, j^ 'puru 
Fumigation, ^ • ^^ JuA;^neA 

(^•)3^«*^ if^bkhir. 
Function, J^ kdr. 
Functionary, ^U maamur. 
Fundamental, ^1 a^lu 
Funeral, «\\ia^ jendzdh.. 

Funny, ^jl thukh. 

Pur, is^ji pvtt; t^jf hurk. 

— coat, jj-— y; pHtttn. 
Furioua, Jlij zhiydn; jj^^^ 

mulahavvir ; j^i-^ muta'ai- 

Furlough, ij^t^j rukh»at{ 
Furnace, ^1 atun ; m— > t"^- 

nir. Bath — , ijUi'ia/iAiin. 
Fumisbingij^ fajhie (k.). 
Furniture, e^^ rakkt; i_jL.1 

Furrier, I;-— y; pHtt^rd. 

Furj, L^ ghaiz. 

Fusilier, ^5^-" tufangchi 

Fusion, ijjj iiiui (i.). 

Fuas, ijU ijU Adi Ant. 

Fustian, ^\S kitmdgh. 

Futile, i£lii>. jqfnak. 

Future, tx^} dyandah; Jji_ 
muttakbil. — state, cj^l 
dkhirat. In — , jj^_l jl jm 
iaW az in. . 

Futurity, ^-ic 'ukhd. 

Fye ! jj icoiA ; (^Ij tco^ 

Cabbie, Jtj Jj K/ o Aai. 
Gabriel, JJ}^ Jalrail. 

Gadfly, tJj ^ khar^atiak ; 
^ ghtmimat ; iJL^ 
; t-.— JCj maktab ; 
katb; aijna/'. 
Gaining, i.^<j_X> t^:tib (k.). 
Gait, i\j rah. 
Gaiters, ,j-~^ labchin ; Jliljj 

Galaxy, ^^[^S^kah-katMn. 
Gale, i\, bad. 
Gall, V' -It; 'ard-db. 
Gall-apple, j^U mazu. 
Gall-bladder, tj\^ mar&rak. 
Gall-nut, j>.U mdj&. 
Galled, ^LS=ii^<ir. 
Gallery, ^^\jj riedk. 
Gallingale, yl^ji. khUii^in. 
Gallop, n., ji da ; v., ^JJ^JJ 

Gallows, ^U uy* chub ddr. 
Gamble, ,^^ljjU>Ai»nar&£ti- 

tan; yiy (^\j Mzt k. 
Gambler,^laa mu^dmir. 
Gambling, c^U. mulfdmarat. 
Game (wUd), jCi lAiWr; 

J_-_ taid; (play), jujs;!.; 

hdzicheh. — cock, u*j>-» 

t^ii. kItUTJA i Jong. 


^hmdery jli kdz. 
Gang, AftilL tdifeK 

Gangrene, ^2^*^ ^'^^'^^^ 
Gaol, ^Ijj^ zinddn. 

Gaoler, ^^iJljj) zinddnhdn. 

Gaping, »^\ j » ^ hhamydzah 

Garbled, v-ij^ to*r^(A:.). 
Garden, cU hdgh; ^^\imj hustdn ; 

J\j ^J^ chaman-zdr. 

Gardener, ^jL^Ij ^^A5<ln. 

Gargle, }^j^ gha/r-gharah (A:.). 

Garland, JJT^ tA:Z*7; Jl r * 

Garlic, jNUi tir. 

Garment, aaU. jamah; ^UJ 
Zt5a« ; j9/., oL*^ malbusdt 
XJnder — , ^ji^ ^ ;2?ir- 

Garrison, J»L^ sdkhlu. In 
^^ mutaluusin,. 

Garrulous, ^j^ljj ziyddeh gu» 

Garter, jji jiU zdnu hand. 

Grasp, ^j^ ^jmaj nafas z, 
Gate,y dar; (large), »;V,^^ 

darvdzeh, — keeper, jjlj^^ 

Gather (pluck), ^^s» v ehidan. 

— :iil, ^;)J^%T d^r 




Gathering, luLd* multdfcit{n,) ; 
'Usft^l iftind\ 

Ghiuntlet, ^31^^ dast-vdnah. 

Gauze, dl^ hirinjah 

Gaze at, ^^^»l^eO n^aA ^. 

Gazelle, jftT a Att. 

Gazette, a*^ Jj>j rwr ndmeh. 

Gelding, is>A dkhtek. 

Gem, ^^fc^,i^ jauhar; (red), 
^^«>.l Ojib gdkut i ahmar ; 
(blue), ^jfS ojil> gdkut i 

Gemini, t\^jauzd\ 

Gender, ^j*^ jins. 

Genealogy, i^wJj x^^^ hasah 
nasab ; pi,, u^LJi ansdb* 

General (of division), ^.a^J^-^ 
J^l sartip i avval; (of bri- 
gade), ^^ ^^j^ sartip i 

Generally, Uj*c 'umuman. 

Generated, :>^^ maulud (sh.). 

Generation, jJi^J tavdlud. A 
single — , J-J nosh From 

— to — , »x». ^^ W aban 'an 
Generosity, ^^^ ^y^ javdn' 
mardd; \z»jLJfutuvatm 

Generous, ^-* ul^-^ javdn- 



Genitale Sperma, aaLj nuffah ; 

KsJ])} nuzdlat. 
Genius, ^^'^ zihn ; oj\^ zaledr 

vat; (demon), ^jinn. 
Gentian, AJLkj>. jintiydnah. 
Gentle, Si^ muldyim ; ^^ 

Gently, si^^ dhUteh. 
Genuine, ^--^ sahth; J-.*) 

Genuineness, ij>^ aihhat. 
Geography, \j\jts^ jughrdfiyd, 
Geomancy, J^ ramaL 
Geometrical, ^J^ handcutt. 
Geometrician, ^Ju^ muhan- 

Geometry, i^XA handasah. 
Germany, du^ namsah. 
Gesture, ^,vaz'. 

Get, to, ^:>^ 1 jy^ paidd h ; 
^^ giriftcm, — in one's 
grasp, ^^j^\ (sLa. \jj fard 
chang a. ; — up, ^^l>^ 
har Jchdstan, 

Ghost, o^^ * afrit* Holy — , 

Gibbet, ^b ddr* 
Giddiness, jljA dtwdr. 
Giddy, ^S^jS-j^ tar garddn ; 

ijXJl ^^j ruh ul kuds. 

Gift, \Jk^ 'atd' (d.); 

*atiyeh{h); ^jUiis hahhshesh; 

\zMya saughdt ; (toinf^ior), 

aUI in dm; (to Bupericr), 

ij^XL^ ptshke^h. 
Gild, o<>jJil^ zar andudan. 
Gilded, ^JLla* mutalld; J^ j) 

Gilding, {jjCHo iildrkdri. 
Gimlet, i\j^ barmdh. 
Ginger, Jt^-t?^ zanjabtL 

Giraffe, dUb J^jJa gkutur-yau 

Gird, ^^ hastan* 
Girder, jj tir. 

Girdle, a^si* mantifcah ; XijS 

hamar band, 
Girl,^^ dukhtar. Slave — , 

Girth, (»LJ tang. 
Give, ^jib dddan ; ^jJ^j *-» 

hibah k, ; ^^ju-JL-ict hakh 

shidan, -— and take, jj^* ^\i 

Giver, »jjjb^ dthendah; ijgj^. 


Qladfjjj,^^ masrur; ^IS^ «%aJ; 
k» Ac^-e: (^.). — tidings, 
o^lj^ bishdrat. 



Gladness, ^U^ll shdd-mdm; 

^j^ khurrami; — ^ fa/rah; 

^^ khusht 
Glance, Jkj ndzar (k,) ; »\X-j 

nigdh {k.). 
Gland, i jp ghuddat 
Glanders, j\ <^-.,m sakkdu; 

<*»*■» miahmisheh. 
Glass, ^ ^ -' shishah; ^L>.; 

^H/4/ ' (^'^'^ drinking), ^j\xi-\ 

istakdn. Mirror, ju^l dineh; 

— blower, ^La^ ^flK/a/; 
y^^ * .tj .M ahishah^gar, — 

beads, jj^ kharaz, — shade 

for caudle, JV IdUh, 
Glazier,^ iJi^ shishah bar. 
Glean, y^s^ aJL^ khusheh chi- 

Gleaner, ^j^ »jj^ rtzah-khur. 
Glen, Hj^ darreh. 
Glib-tongued, Jo^ ^j^ chard- 

Glibness (of tongue), ijiJ^ 


Glimmer, ^J^ju rushndi. 
Glitter, i?., ^j,,.!^^ darakh- 
shidan ; n., c^U tab. 

Glittering, ^ ^j zark-hark. 
Globe, >^ kv/rrah ; (jygug. 
Gloomy, jf^jJ" /^/v?/?. 


Glorifying God, x^ tamjid 

Glorious, J^ tnufakhkhar ; 

AJ^jaHl ; ^L« mubdhu 
Glory, ^ fakhr ; o)ft *iz2:fli^ ; 

Glorying, ^ls?*i iftikhdr («.). 
Glossary, cuxj lughat 
Glossed over, t— i;^ muzkha- 

Glove, jj2> d*-*^ dast-kesh. 
Glowing, ^J|^J^ suzdn. 
Glue, ^jSi^ sirtsh. 
Glutton, j^ j\i^, hisydr-kkur ; 

•Juf JCi shikam-handah. 

Gluttony, ^^ Sj^ shikam 

Gnat, iJjpashshah, 

Go, ^J~^!^J raftan; (polite 

form), jj^ <— A»yL> tashrif 

burdan. — down, ^^^:lj, j^ 

faru r, — out, ^j-^j jXj^ 

badar r. 

Goal, j> A B..# maksud; j\s^ 

Goat, J? buz ; — herd, yjo J-j 
buz bdn. 

Goblet, -»U jam, 

God, 4iall Allah; \^ khudd. 

— tlie Creator, vj'-j-*^ ^^^^ 



khudd-dfrtn. — Most High, 
^l«J ^J>. hahk-tadld. By — , 

4D|^ wdlldh ; 4llb hilldh; Ijie 
ha Khudd, For God's sake, 
l^ljii. khudderd, — forbid, 
bL» mabddd ; ^\i UUc Vya- 
2?an hillah ; jiii\yauM\ astagh- 
Jiru *Uak, — knows best, 
^JLc\ ij&ij walldhu aalam, 
— be praised, xJ^ il) lilldhi 
7 hamd, — preserve you ; 
adieu, ^U. ij^ Tckudd Jidfiz, 
O — ! 4^1 li ya 7/aA ; UJ ji. 
hhuddyd* Please — , »\^\ 
M inahdllah, 

Godliness, jj^^ zuhd, 

Gog and Magog, ^\*j ^\i 
ydjuj u mdjuj. 

Gold, 5)lL aid. Red — , r:^jj 
zar i surkh. Cloth of — , 
KzJujj zar-haft. — dust, (s)jj 
zarak» — embroidery, jj 
fcu^ zar-duzu Inlaid with 
— , JCj jj zar-nigdr, — 
leaf, j\ J^^ kdgkaz i zar. 
Plated with — , izj/j)zar- 
kufi. — wire-drawer, ^J^jj 

Oolden, ^j^^j zarin ; ,^»UJo 

Goldfinch, ^j^^ aakkdcht. 

Goldsmith, jT^j zar-gar. 

Goloshes, y!«^ a«^ chekmeh 

Gong, (j«^U ndkus. 

Gonorrhoea, el ,t 'A dtUhak ; 
e)]^ sUzak, 

Good, i->j-»> khuh; dLJ nik; 
J^^ kkair : c^acj nfku. — 
bye, ksU. Ij^ khudd hq/iz 
(gf,). — nature, jU. ^^J^ 
hagn i khulk : ly^ khairat, 
— works, c^Un.^ hoBandt 
— ness, (3 ji. khuht; \s^^^ 

nikui; , ^^a«J ^«2;^ 
Goods, i^L.^1 €utbdh; jLc 

ma// e)^1 arnldk ; ^b^i 

Goo8e,jli /b(W?. 
Gorgeous, ju^ majid. 
Goshawk, jb bdz. 
Gospel, ^\ Injtl. 
Gossamer, ip:S Jcantareh* 
Gourd, J J3 haddu. 
Gout, (j-;ft-i nikris. 
Governed (the nontf), i^Ua 

aJI mvzdfilaih. 
Government, o.^^^ hukumai, 
. (k.); oJLjI iydlat; cJy 



Governor, ^J\j wait; JSu^ ^\^ 
Mim makdm ; ^L^ s^^^ far- 
man farmai ; ^^^^U. hakim* 

Grace, ^^^^^ hu9n; iz^j e^ 
zih u zinat — (of God), 
jjy taufCk. 

Graceful, ^^> ehdlish ; J^^ 

Gracious Gk>d ! 41)1 v:)l^ 9uh- 
hdn JJldh. 

Gradation, ^jJj tadrtj. 

Grade, aJ^ mariabeh. 

Gradually, as^jXj ^j^ darajeh 
hedarajeh ; ^ •« mu he mH, 

Graft, jjii kalamek (h). 

Grain (com), aU ghallah, A 
single — , aJI^ <^;t«A ; v^^^^ 
hahh ; «^ kabhah. 

Grammar, j^ nahv. 

Grammarian, ^y^ noJ^ai;/. 

Granary, ^^ makkzan ; ^LJi 

Grand, xJaa 'a^tim. — child, 
%:\^ jf^^pegar zddeh. 

Grandees, 'Uk^ 'uzama. 

Grandeur, i^ kibrat; jS kibr. 

Grand-daughter, ^\^ navdsi. 
Grand-father^^ jadd. Mater- 
nal — , U'j ndnd Paternal 
j^ jadd i sahik. 

Grandmother, «^ "^ jaddeh; 
Paternal — a_j^-^ ttx^ 
jaddah i sahthah. Maternal 
— > P^ j^^ fnddar i mddar. 

Grand-son, ty navah. 

Granite, ^U^ sammdJe. 

Grant, x^ sanad; \kfi *atd 
{k.) ; »jl».l ijdzeh (ik.). 

Grape, jr^^saoi angur. 

Grasp, ^ji-i A:/i6-2: (A:.). 

Grass, %\S giydh ; tJk 'a/a/! 
— ^hopper, dft malakh. 

Grate, ,jj\afi>^oukhdrL 

Grateful, JiL*. (sL*«i namak- 
haldl; \s^& ^J^ shukr- 
guzdr ; j^-^^^ -^ ahakur ; 
^-^ • ^ ^j-» ^a^A: shinds ; 
S«»^^Vma^ ihsdnmand. 

Gratified, jir^;^^ mustasad. 

Grating, jlxJ^ shabakeh. 

Gratis, tjuft* muft. 

Gratitude, j^JLj tashakkur ; 
KZj^^^fj^ shukr i ntmat. 

Grave, a., (majestic), j^j 
vukur; (tomb), w., «j:aj^-j 
turbat ; j^ kabr ; jfgur. 

Gravel, ^^ hesd ; tyij eL^ 

Gravitation, vsJIaJ sakdlat. 

Gravity, X^m^x*^ ^an^ido^. 



Gravy, cu-l^i^l ab i giUht 

Gray, ^^iu^mM^ khdkisteri; ^jj 
kabt^; *} ^ sinjdbt; 
(horse), j^^ nildh; ^y^ 

Graze, e;*H^ charidan. 

Grease, g>j>. charbt. 

Greasy, ^^.^^ dasim; C;^)-»> 

Great, ctJ^ buzurg ; ^^ hdbir ; 
j^Jac *azim; JJk ^a/t/. — 
ness, tT^ buzurgi ; y^^t^r 
^azamat ; {jj^ miklari, 

Greece, ^^U^ yundn. 

Greedy, jj^l dzmand; ^J^ 

Greek, ^^\jji i^undni. 

Green, jf.^ aahz, — grocer, 

JIa) hakkdl, — ^ness, ^^^ 


Greeting, J!Lt 9aldm (k.). 

Greyhound, ^^Lj dU sag i 

Grief, Jtj ranj ; ^ gham ; 
i^jjl anduh; ^^JlJS ta^a%mf 
(M.); ^^ huzn; ^^j-^ 

Grievance, ks^}C^ skiJcdyaU 

Grieve, o^jjS^ ^ glum, Uli. 

Grieved, ^jj^ mdhziin ; t^y^ 

Grill, ^jb^ btriydn (k.). 

Grim, e)U^ tars ndk. 

Grimace, \J»J xf tu tursh (k,). 

Grind, ^;^xJU• sdidan ; (corn), 
^J^J^9 vW^^ dsiydh h,\ 
(knives), ^j^^JJ tiz k. — 
stone (mill), Lm\ (&L«», saftg i 
dsiyd; (for knives), f»t - r- 
^Li «any ijlsdn. 

Gristle, «-ij^ ghuzruf. 

Groan, JU na/^A (Ar.); tT oA 

Grocer, Jl& bakiuil 
Groin, ^jl^ ^Jlfkash i ran. 

Groom, n.,^^ mehtar. Head- 
— , jb jL». ^fl/o <lar; ^ 
j^\ mir dkhor. 
Groove, c^li ndb. 

Gross, v:u^^^ durusht ; kJic 

Grotto, u^l^^.^ sarddh; .Li 

Ground, (;;c^ xamin ; e)L^ 

khdk ; u->y turdb. — ^less, 

JLU &a/»7. — rent, juiL^a 

Grove, ^Iimms^^ dirakhtistdn. 



rfftdan, — pale, ^jJj^j dii^ 
rang-partddn, — up, cjjJ^ 
haUdan ; ^X^i dctmidan, 
— ing, »j,.;-ij^ rvLyandah ; 
*X§ijj ruidah ; »llj ndthd^ ; 
j^ namu, — ing ap, \^jlj 

Growth, iJxJb hdUdagi; a^\j 

Growling, A-ij-* darig\ {kh). 

Gruel, lijl shaubd. 

Grumble, ^^;.^» jj jJ /unJ 

Grunt, ^^^J <m ^ ^ mikh 
mikh k^ 

Guarantee, ^\sfkqfdlat (k,) ; 
ft. 1^1^ zdmin. 

Guard, juJ^Jcj hadrakah; J^V^ 
kerdul ; ^j^Lj |Ja# (dsh,). 
Imperial — ii^{S^ nasakchu 
JL-j-ftK-i «tyaA-ia«. — ed, 
]e>ys^ mahfuz (#.). — house, 
Ai\>. Jj]^ kerd&l khdneh. 

Guardian, ^^ murabbt. 

Guardianship, i^J^l^ muhd- 

Guarding, ^Jrf|^l ihtirds («.). 
Guess, ^JrflJ ^lyoi (n.). 
Guest, (jU^^ m/Ama;t. 
Guidance, jj^ »]^ raA na- 
muni/ t^^IsM kiddy at. 

Guide, jJl> ft0/a(^ (A.); US i|p 
rdh-numd (k.) ; ^^-A; ♦'^A- 
^ar; (spiritual), «xl^ mi^r- 

Guilt, n>\S^undk. — less, iIiCj 

Guilty, «^U ma'tdm ; ^^ mal- 

Guinea-worm, izIjj rishteh. 

Guitar, ^^c %d ; J3 lui tih-tdr 
or sih'tdrah; ^jy^j zam- 

Gulf, ^Jiii khalij. 

QmW, j^:u shdJu. 

Gullet, a^a1> ^uZ^um. 

Gulley, eLJ tang. 

Gulp, sjcj^jurah {k,). 

Gum, &4^ tamagh — am- 
moniac, iH^j washah. — ^lac, 
e)V Idk; (of tooth), o-i^ 
4jljj^ gusJiH danddn. 

Gun, dUJU tufang; (double 
barrelled), Jj} j^^ (StLu tufang 
i do luleh. Long rifled — , 
JU^ shamkhdl. Swivel — , 
Jlj ^^ shutur-ndl ; ^j^\ 

Gunner, jejjjj' ^4P <?A*. 

Gunpowder, ojjb bdrut. 

Gunsmith, \LXiuu (t^/ang «£«. 

Guat, aJ* nofheli. 



Gut, Ua mid ; %i^j riUdah, 
Gutter,^! dbrtz ; ^jbjli ndv' 

Guttural, ^JL. halMy. 
Gymnasium, A-iLi. j»\ zur- 

Gypsum, ctUT dhek, 

Gypsy, ^J>'*^ karrehcht ; iSjj 
zanganeh ; ^^^^ suamdm. 


Habit, ^ hhu {gr.) ; o^W 
*ddat {k,), Eeligious — , 
ii^ khirkah. 

Habitant, ,^^U sdkin. 

Habitation, ^j^ ..,. > maskan ; 

^jix* makdn. 
Habitual, J»wl»^> must a met, 

Haggard,^V Idghir, 

Hail, v,y ^:)SiJo d^Cj tagarg 
hdrtdan; w., ^Jjj- zhdlah, — 
stone, i:^ yakhcheh. Hail ! 
La^ marhahd. 

HBxVy^mu; or (jy^ mug. — 

by — ,^ j^ mu'ba-mu. — 

cutter, ^\J j^ mu-tardsh, 

— dye, cjLi^ khizdb. — 

peaeil, ^jj^ Ji kalam i mm. 

Half, JBJ mm; lJum nUf. — 

caste, is)jj^ do rag. — way, 

sK jbj tiim raJi, 
Hal], ^1^1 aivdn; ^VU ddldn; 

JiM tdldr. 
Halo, JU hdlah. 
Halt, (stay), cj^^ji tavaJeku 

k. — (limp), ^jjjXlj Ian- 

Halter, (horse), dLJl jdoJ- 

Jiang ; {jjyA\ dbkhurC ; .Uil 

afsdr; — (gallows), J^^^j 

Halting-place, ilT ^jjt farud 

ffdh ; J^ manzil. 
Halving, v«i-«ij tami/(k.). 

Hammer, J!^ chukush, — 
(smith's), dLjU. khdgisk; 

Hamstring, ^jp/ ^ pay k. 

Hand, yz^ m^ dost. — (of 
watch), ^J^ *akrab. From 
— to — , «ca*«»Jj cum*^ dost 
ba dost — ^ful, A^ kabzah; 
oJU musht. 

Handicraft, ^j^Cs^^ dast-hdn. 

Handkerchief, c>.«»^ dast-mdl. 
Handle, a1i^ dastah. 



Handsome, t&Lli kashang. 
Hand writing, ksf^^ dost khatt. 

Hang, ^^^jLiSjt dvtkhtan ; j^<^ 
j)^* ^1 bar ddr ksh, — 
(down), ^J:lA j^ faru hish- 

Hangings, s^ pardeh. 

Hankering, kzaJj righbat {n,). 

Happen, ^jJ!» tS\j vdkf th. ; 
^J^\ jUJl ittifdk uftddan ; 

ru-d,; ^^jj-» 9ar-z. 
Happiness, ^^-BjSy farkkun- 

khushnud ; y^jX kdm-rdn ; 
JU (j^ khush-hdl. 

Harangue, c^lk^ khitdb (n.). 

Harass, c)3^^^1 ti-e^a/' ^. ; ojii 

^^^aztgat k. 
Harbour, yuj bandar. 

Hard, jJU «aZ{^; c=JL» «(^i^,* 

c>a^ sakkt (k.). — hearted, 

Jj> x ; m0 sang-diL — ness, 

kasdvat, — ship, 

sakhtt; c:o„ »m» musi- 


Hare, \J»^ ^ khar gush. 

Harem, ^^jt^Ji^ andarun ; aJUj 


Harlequin, ^J^ bambuU. 
Harlot, ijuj^ jindeh; 

Harm, jj^ zarar {k,)\ 

'aib (A.). 
Harming, \si\ tzd {d,). 
Harmony, j\i^ rt/a/fc. 
Harness, j|^ yardk ; jL» *a7. 
Harp, Iw^ barbat. 
Harper, {j\jm \vj> barbat sardg* 
Harrier, ^j^ tdzi, 
Harrow, ^J^ (&)l^ khak-kesh ; 

jju mdzu, I'o — the soul, 

^ja^9 ^j\s^ jdn-kandan. 

Harsh, oJ^^ durusht ; cu^ 

Harvest, j^3 dirau ; J— •Lj^ 

hdsil ; :\m^ hesdd. 
Hasp, (jufi>> chift. 

Haste, J-j-a?* ^«|;VZ (A:.) ; (^>j^ 
2?wfl?i ; oJLsP *ajlat. To 
make — , ^jiJ\i!l» shitdftan. 

Hastening, J^^^^ istijdL 

Hastily, aJ^Lc *djildnah ; 
^IjIlI shitdbdn, 

HMtjy j>>xJ tund-khu ; i^\^^ 
dast pd-cheh (sh.). 

Hat, »5^J ktddk 

Hatchet, ^ tabar. 

Hate, ^j^\^ Jt-j ragKm ^aK. 



— ful, ^aJai natih ; *jjS^^ 
mahruh (dsh.), — ed, ^joi) 
hugh2 ; vyL-^p hxn {dsk,) ; 
*Lsr* shahnd\ 

Haughtiness,^^ kibr. 

Haughty, jS^u mutakahher. 

Haul, ,jJ>JLS keshidan. 

Haunch, i^^ gurdah. 

Have, ^^^b ddshtan. 

Haven, jXj bandar. 

Hawk, jl> hdz ; ^^ kush. 

Hay, >^lg *alaf. 

Hazard, s^ki. khaireh ; c^asl 

He, j^ w. 

Head, jm sar ; A^sa kallah. 
From — to foot, b \jm sar* 
d'pd. — ache, ^;-* ^^ dard 
i sar, — land, ^j^L rds. 
— i"g> u!y^ a/it;aw. — long, 
^jj>. A;^!^^ «ar ; ^^ j»u sar 
kesh, — stall, ^Lil «/»ar. 

Healing, J%, *Udj {k.). 

Health, o-sr^ sihhat ; j j-^ 
»W khair u *dfiyat. Good 

Heap, »^ tudah (k,). 

Hear, ^JX^ shamdan. 

Heard, ^j^^>*^ masmu*. 

Healthy, c: 

Hearer, sjj^j^ shinavendah. 

Hearing, vs^U^ samaat ; tu^ 
sam {k,). Sense of — r i --• 

Hearken, ^j^'^ yj»f gush d. 

Heart, J^ dil ; Jo^ khdtir. 
To get by — , ^^^ :^,ydd' 
kerdan. To cut to the — , 

ij-^j uV: ^'l/^^ ranjidan. 

— broken, a :; ...v,». J^ diU 

shikestah. — less, Jo ^ hi- 

Hearth, (jjj^, hukhdrt. 
Heartily, ^^\fi bajdn. 
Hearty, ^ kalbi. 

Heat, ^^^ garmi ; \^\~S tab ; 

0;j^ hardrat. 
Heathen, ^o^a/?ry v:><^ o? 

but parast 
Heaven, d-JL^ bihisht, — ly, 

^^U-il dsmdm; ^^:^ jannati, 
Heaveus, ol^L*.^ samdicdt; 

e)^l o/^A; ; ^Um*1 dsmdn. 
Heaviness, liiJUj sakdlat; ^1^ 

Heavy, ^^ girdn ; JX5 «a/f»7. 
Hebrew, (j£^ 'iftriy ; Oj^ ya- 

Hedge, jjj jU. itAar ^anJ. — 



Heel, AJ*b pdshneL At the 

— 8 of, ^ j^ dar-pai. 
Heifer, s^U JU^^a gosdleh 

mddeh ; tj^kahreh. 
Height, (^JuL balandt ; s^sLJJ\ 

irtifa ; 'iHc 'ald\ 
Heir, ci^lj wdris. — apparent, 

J4C ^j vali *ahd. 
Heliotrope, vza.^ l^UjI qftdb 

Hell, -;,j)jA duzakh ; ^^^ je- 

Hellebore, ^j^ kharhuk. 
Hellish, ^jj^ duzakhi. 
Helm, (ship), jC»» sukkdn. 
Helmet, jJlJu^ mighfar, — 

crest, ^^ %% kiddh khud. 
Help, (sJuT kumek (d,) ; ^ju* 

madad (k, ) ; ^j\j\i ydrdi. 
Helpless, J^ li nd-chdr ; IjImJ 

hinawd ; \^^ hi^chdreh, — 

ness, ^ aJL* j^ faru- 

Hem, ju^U. hdthiyeh (5«.). 
Hemistich, c1^.a« tnisra. 
Hemlock, ^^^ yl» shavkerdn. 
Hemorrhage, ujW, rw'o/! 
Hemorrhoids, ^^5-.!^ bavdstr. 
Hemp, n, ^.^iJ kinab. 
Hen, >^ mur^h. 

Henbane, ^ banj. 

Hence, (from), WijI azinjd ; 
(reason), c-*-- ^^^ ^ az in 
sabab. — forth, ^^1 jl jx> 
6aW az in. 

Henna, L^ hinnd. 

Heptagon, aj^i^ musabba\ 

Her, j1 u; (possessive), ^ji 

-e«^ ; j\ JU wiaZ t u. 
Herald, ^^lu munddi. 
Herb, oU nabdt, pot — , ^i 

bakldh. Dry — , ^r. , .t "fc* 

hashish, — age, %\f giydh ; 

%y^ sabzeh, 
Uerd^ ^y^lm galah ; ^jramah. 
Herdsman, ^^b ^ galah bdn. 
Here, U*i' injd, — and there, 

I:*: U jd bajd. 
Hereafter, xA dyandeh. 
Hereditary, ^^jy maurusu 
Heresy, ^jioj rafz. 
Heretic, ^Ja^j rdfizi ; ^^J^ 


Heritage, k±Aj^ mirds ; vi>^l 

Hermaphrodite, jet-ii" khunsd. 

Hermit, jjbl^ zdhid; <yytj *L^ 

gusheh mshtn. 
Hermitage, aXj takiyeh. 

Hernia, ^ /atk. 



Hero, ^j gurd; ^j^ ghdzi; 

^l^L.j pahlavan. 
Heroism, clacI^ shujaat. ' 
Heron, ^1j». ^U mdhi-khdr. 
Herring, ^U ilil shah mdhi. 
Hesitate^ ^;y^J\i pd-tdan. 
Hesitating, i^stx^ muzahzah. 
Hesitation, ^^ taraddud (A;.). 
Hexagon, iJl»^^» ^JiJ^ shash- 

gushah ; ^Xm« tnuaaddas. 
Hexagonal, ^x^ ^J^ shash- 

Hiccough, X..* X .« saksakeh 

Hidden, jjLj nihdn; i«-ii^ 
mahhfi (*.); jyi::ac' «m«H. 
^a/V'; iJU. khc^yah ; jl:,^ 
mustatar ; iJJ^ pushidah 
{k.)\ ^^\^ panhdn (k,). 

Hide, c)*^ji pushtdan ; (one 
self), ^jJlf i^li A:a»m «^ 

Hide, w., jj;*. chamu 
Hiding-place, ^JS^ makmcm. 
Hideous, s^ mukrih; v::a^ 

High, jjb huland ; ju-i, ra^ ; 

JU '(iZt^ ; VLf bald. In — 

estimation, i^ haizzat — 

station, |,\ft« ^W *dU mulcdm, 

— and low, A^j J «^^ 

shar\f u vaz%. The Most 
— , JU Tddla. 

Highness (your), o^ ^i 
a^ld hazrat. 

High-road, ii\af>jddah. 

High treason, A\i ydghu 

Highwayman, ^ il^ rdh-aan. 

Hill, s^^^ i&t^A ; aJ tappeh. 

Hilly, ^^kuhu — country, 

^Ixmi^ kuhistdn. 

Hilt, juaJ kabzeh. 
Hinderance, sju man* (A;.). 
Hindering, ^T}« mvadhim (n.); 

luU mam" (At.). 
Hindoo, t^XJt hindi. 
Hinge, Jjl luleh. 
Hint, S;\J^1 ishdrah {k. d,). 
Hippodrome, ^^Ij^s^ mau^n. 
Hippopotamus, l^^ i^a^\ o^jti- 

Hips, ^j^>^ «t»rtn / Jo ^o/W. 
Hire, 4j^jS kerdyeh {k, d,)\ 

%Jo>\ ijdreh (d.). 
Hired labourer, ^^Y ajtr. 
His, yi -ofiA ; jl u ; j\ JU 

fna/ i u. 

Hiss, diJ^ Af^to^ {z,). 

Historian, m^j'j* muvarrikh; 
\ \ ♦ » 



History, ^Lj tdrikh; pi., 

^-j^ljj tawdrihh ; ^U fna^9ur^ 

Hit, II. , v-^ zarJ {k.) ; r,, ^^^ 

Hitherto, JU l* /a Aai ; j^ I? 

Hive, ^Ju nuuh. 
Hoard, ^ ganj. 

Hoar frost, ji^l ariz; »J> ^i*- 

Hoariness, i.^ Bhaih, 

Hoarse, alj^ 1 Ju« ««^ girifteh. 

Hock, (horse's), ^^b^a*. 
Hoe, J--J 6i7 (A.). 

Hog, tt)^ i(;^t^A; ; ^^ gurdx. 

Hold, (contain), t?. ^^x^ gan- 

jidan; (keep), ^J girif- 

Hole, ^-Ifj-^ surdkh; ^Jjj 

Holiday, j^ 'id; JJajJ tatil. 

Holiness, viL«;li pdrtdi ; ^ji 

Hollow, a., uJ^I ajvaf; Jli 

khdli; n., ^ ^au£^ ,* dlj^T 

Holsters, JJ kobol, 
Holy, ^JA* niakctddas; ^j^jji 
fsadus, — Ghost, fjajji\ ^jj 

ruh ul kuds, — place, tl^^Jj 
kctdam gah. 

Homage, cu»^. baiat (k,). 

Home, ^j vatan ; ij\^ khd- 
neh. To make a — , Jioj 
^j^^ vatan k. Is so 'and so 
at — ? d*-.! jjli^ vj^ or 
^b «^i^^ fuldn khdneh 
ast ? or taihrif ddrad ? 

Homicide (man), ^j>> hhwai ; 

(action), JiJ A:a^/. 
Homogeneous, ^l^ mujdnis. 
Hone, s^^ mishkaz. 
Honest, jb^U^I imdnddr. 

Honesty, ^j^j^ j fj^\f ^^ti u 

durustt; oiU^ digdnat» 
Honey, J--ft 'asal, — bee, 

Jm^ lySL^ magas % 'as^, 

— comb, 4jll» shdn. 
Honour, j^l dbru ; l^j^ hur- 

mat ; c>-«;.iC« makruinat ; 

ojft Hzzat ; ^y^ ndmus. 

Dress of — , cuiJi^ khiCat ; 

takrwi k. 
Honourable, j^ majtd ; JkxA 

muazzam ; ^ji^ muhtaram 

Honouring, Jj^»\ ikrdm (jn.); 

J^ tabjU. 



Hood, (jl^l^ bdshlik, 

Hoofy ^ sum. 

Hook, t^^ kulldb. 

Hoop, A^ halkeh. 

Hooping-cough, JL. *j^ ««r- 
fahi salt. 

Hoopoe, JMJA hudhud. 

Hope, j^t ummid (dsh.) ; J^l 
amal ; a-4^ buy ah; x^^jJ 
tarassud (n.) ; «5jj tavakku 

Hopeful, .Ijj^l ummtdvdr. 

Hopeless, j^^l \J nd-ummtd; 

J^y naumtd. 
Horizon, jil afak. 
Horizontal, Ai^^ musattah, 

Horn, ^ll* fi^a^^ (z.). 
Homed, .^«V»>U» shdkhddr. 
Hornet, ^jm jyfj>j zambur i 

Horoscope, as: V) zdicheh. 

Horrible, ^j^ %o»m sahm-gtn ; 
e)Ujft haulndJc, 

Horror, ij«j, . » haibat; J^ 

Horse, i^a—I asp; ^^j^ 

markab ; (thorough bred), 

J--w«\ astl; (pony op half 

bred), ji\» ydbu. Ambling 

— / ^ yurghek Led — , 


cs)Jl» y^^^A:. — cloth, J*. 
^i^/Z. — doctor, ^Ikfj 5fli- 
^ar. <— man, ij\y» suvdrah. 

— manship, {jj\j-^ suvdrt ; 

— shoe, J«i na*l. — radish, 
L^ turb. 

Hospitable, kzj^j^ uW* ^<^~ 
man dust. 

Hospital, Utll^b ddrus shefd, 

Hospitalitj, ^^"^^ mihmdni ; 

^IjjUf* mihmdn ddri. 
Host (landlord), ^Ij^ mtz- 

ban ; (of men), 

jama at. 
Hostage, ^^ garu ; 

Hostile, ^;*/J OjW 'addvat 

guzin; i^la^ mukhdlif. 
Hostility, c^jlj^ *addvat. 
Hot, Af^0 yarifi. 
Hound, dLi JjL ttUehsag, 
Hour, o^L* ^aW. 
Houris, j^ hur. 
Hourly, cucLj eucL* tfaa^ ba 

House, jjl^ hhdnah ; ^b (far; 

(j\x-iA makdn. 

Household, s^ljjl^. ArAan^t;^^^^. 

Householder, ^b ajI». khdnah' 



Housekeeping, (j^b *j\^ hhd- 

How ? jjio A». ehih taur ; aSj^ 
chigunah, — are you ? J 1^1 
\^j^\j^ *s^\Jl» ahvdl i shumd 
chih taur ast ; i..aj^ ^]^ 
kza^\ jjb Ai^ mizdj i aharif 
cheh taur ast, — far? 
*\j jXJ A>> cheh kadr rdh, 
— ever much, x^ j^ har^ 
ehand, — many ? j> ,; -fw 
chund. — much, ji a>> 
cheh kadr. 

Howl, jKC ghartv (Jc,), 

Human, ^^1 ddmt, — being, 
i^U jc-***! ddmi'Zddah, — 
nature, eu^sLJl tnsdmget ; 
cui^ hashartyet, — race, 

^^1 ^ heni ddam; j!l^\ cy 
nau 'ul bashar. 




sdhib muruvvat. 

Humanity, ksj^^\ ddamtyet ; 
d^j^ hashariyet ; cuJLjI 
insdntyet; ^^ mardumi ; 



Humble, ^JJ j^ faru-tan ; 

X.^„^^\^ khdk'Sdr ; ji^IaJL 

Humid, L^lf rdiib. 

Humidity, ^ nami, 
Humiliation,^^^ tahkir {h,). 

Humility, ^ i\2Ji\ uftddayi; 
a^\y tavdzu ; ^Lx-Jl inkir- 
sdr ; ocL>j vazd'at ; p^^^ 

Humour (of body), \a\>, khilt. 

Hump, ^U^^9 kuhdn, — 

backed, uuJL-) jy-^^ ku;s- 


Hundred, Xa sad. Two -^ , 

>ji duvist. Three — , 


Hunger, ^^sc^^s» gursnagi; 

Hungry, 6:^j^9 gursnah. 

Hunt, ^^^^J^Jlt shikdr k. 

Hunter, \jJCl shikari. 

Hunting, j\^sC> shikdr. — 
ground, dO j-^ said-gah. 

Huntsman, ^\C^^^ mir shikdr. 

Hurl, ^^Ijjt j^ dar anddkh- 

Hurricane, ^J\3Jo tufdn. 
Hurry, {j^^jj zudt. 

Hurt, v., vj^hl dzdrdan ; w., 
ij^ dard. 

Hurtful,^^ muzirr. 



Husbandman, il>.L» harts; 

9'j])^ fnuzdri^ ; JjC la * Cv^ 

Husbandry, ^ILa^ dihkdnu 
Hush ! ^y^ khdmusK 
Husk, \ZA*^y^pust. 
Hut, iS kumah. 
Hyacinth, J^ aumbtd^ 
Hydrophobia, \^%kaldb» 
Hymn, ^ ■■■■? tasbih, 
Hyocyamus, ^f^^t^ saikerdn. 
Hyperbole, ax)L« muhdlaghah. 
Hypochondria, *^ ^ tihi-gdK 
Hypocrisy, ji^}-^ tazvir ; ^jlaj 

nifdk ; ^JkJjj^ du-rang{. 
Hypocrite, j^jLi-* munqfik; 

j^\j riyd-hdr. 
Hypocritical, ^jJL*» 9dlu% ; 

(S^jjj^ du-rang. 
Hypothesis, yjo^farz. 
Hypothetical, {jj^ mujdzu 

— lyj \aj farzan. 
Hyssop, \a^j zufd. 


I, ^ man, I am, j^ manatn, 
I who am, *yLt man kih. 
Ibex, J]^ mardl ; ji huz. 

Ice, ^ yaM. — chest, ^^jljij 
yakhddn. Iced- water, uJ;) 
cjt barf-db. 

Idea, JL^ hhiydl ; jj^ tasath 
vur; ^fikr. 

Ideal, jJ^dM manaviyeh. 
Identical, c>4-f^ hamtn ; 

t • / 

Idiom, ^)lik«l istildk. 
Idiot, ^ gul ; 4^1 a5/a^. 
Idiotcy, ^J1^^ divd/nagt. 
Idiotic, Ailj)^ dwdneh. 

Idle, l!#^ MtfM ; vs.>^.i» «tM^ ; 
jLjt* tnu'attal, — talk, 
^jh Ajb ydfah-ddri, — ness, 
{jjJCiJ bi'kdri; ^^^tumbtdi. 

Idol, cu^ but. 

Idolator, e:«^ i^ hut^arast 

Idolatry, ^^^ ca** but-parasti 

Idol-temple, sj3 c>f but-hedah; 

Ai\> ci«j but-khdnah. 
If, ^1 o^ar. — not, jj^ 

Ignite, V, t,, ^;yX^\JyM suzdni- 
dan; v. t., ^jjuJL^a 4-*-^ 
shdleh ksh. 

Ignoble, ,j^ ti nd'jtns; eij Jj 
bad rag. 



Ignorance, Jb \j nd-ddnt ; 

J^ jahl ; isJL^ jahdlat 

Feigning — , Ja^** muta- 

jdhiL The times of — 

(before Mohammed), cuJiftU 

Ignorant, ^lJ» \J nd-shinds ; 
JaU jdhil ; jCi nakir. Very 
— » J^e^ yaA«/. — ly, jjl^ \5 

Ill, to be, ^;.JUA y!^ iJ fui 
khush h, — disposed, X-> 
^L^-* had^ihdd. — doing, 
jO Ju-_j bad'kdr, — fated, 
ijuis Jj bctd bakht, — ness, 
J»j-^\^ nd khushl — 
tempered, ^jj^ jj had-khuy ; 
^3;^ Ks^J^j zuht'khuy, — 
timed, ^Kl* ^ ht-hangdm. 
— treatment, (i?;lii; Sj bad 
raftdri (A?.); Jb zuJm {h), 
— ^favoured, o-ij zisht. — 
starred, j>.1 jj bad-akhtar. 


Illegitimate-child, j^l^ (•b— ^ 

hardm zddeh. 
Illiberal, J^. bakhih 

Illuminate, ^J^^j\ afrukhtan; 
pa.p,,jy» munavvar (A?.). 

Illumination, ^Icl^ cherdghdn 

Illusion, JL». J L^1j». M*a6 u 

Illustration, (drawing), y^y^ 

tasvtr ; (in argument, ^jL-j 

Illustrious, j\j ^jj~> buzurg- 

vdr ; j^\ Ji ndm-dvar. Most 

— , uJ^i ctshraf, — race, 

^Ud^^ dudmdn. 
Image, ^^i^ sanam ; iZ^j^surat. 
Imagination, ^y tavahhum ; 
jjdi tasavvur ; a^\j vdhi- 

mah ; JL^ khaydl {k,). 

Vain — , J^ JUi khaydl i 

Imaginations, oVL»> khaydldt. 
Imagined, jj.aJL« mutasawar ; 

^yty^ mauhum. 
Imagining, J-js^ mukhaiyil ; 

J^s?* mutakhaiyil. 
Imam, A^ imdm ; ph, a.^\ 

Imbecile, JiJi s^m zdif ul 

Imitated, jU« mukallad. 
Imitation, {^:)^J^ j^) S ^l p . V 

takUd (dar a, or A:.), m^ 

tattabu ; Kz*ao\jjt mutdba'at. 
Imitator, (jxS* muktadi. 
Immature, ^\ li «<£-6<£%ft , 


linmeasurablp, J»^^ ttakthu- 

mar; i^. Hhadd. ■ 
Immediately, J'JJ J fi'l Ul ; 

Immemorial, .^Xl^^miutaddm. 
Immense, J]^, Wjinfoi. 
Immersed, Jj^-i^ uwyAniJ; 

Immersion, |ji!_,ij taghrii {k.); 

j_jl_,ii-l ulu/hrdk. 
Immiaent, ebj/-> natdtk. 
Immobile, jfli ifcdim. 
Immodest, *,! (A bt tharm; 

Immolate, ^j£^ d^ ^uf- 

Immoral, i-li ./^iW. — ity, 

Immortal, Oj*j V M yamut. 
Immortality, ijii\ abadt. 
Immovable, o^ i_J bi harra- 

Immunity, ^gi\^dxdd{. 
Immutable, ^jlJ ^ i* taghai/' 

Impale, ». ^jij Jj^l* iJ&iJA e. 
Impartial, (yt; iz^, rdsl-bin. 
Impartiality, Jic 'ai//. 
Impatience, ij^L— iLi li mi 


ImpatieDt, _d 

mat ; t\j (kILu iatr<f i 

ilj jli- kkdr i rdh. 
Imperative^! amr. 
Imperfect, yj\i naitt>. — ioi 

Imperial, *■' ' ' , ' *^^<''>- 
thdhi; ^1>I> khdjt&ni. 

Impersonation, f , * ' tathab- 
huh {k.). 

Impertinence, ^^^L-SyusMWi; 
ij->jfc-; ii-hudagi. 

Impetuoue.ji^ ^l:_j tund ro. 

Impetus, ^jj^ kujum. 

Impiety ^^ kafr. 

IrapiouB,__^ir kdfir ; ^_jj__j 

Implement, t^ dial. 
Implicate, i^pi-j .^^tuhmiU bt. 
Implied,^,*^ tttuzmar. 
Imploring, «•' - , miutad'i 


Import, ^^M dmadani I Jkj* 

Important, ^ ntuhimm. — 

affairs, lj,L ma'drib. 
Importune, ^J Jj pillah k. 
Importuning, j_j.jULi_. nmla- 

Importunity, — Ul ilhdk ; .1^1 

Impose on, ^jjU ^ gvl d. 
IrapositioD, 1^ Mlak. 
ImpoBBibilitieB, oVlx* maha- 

Imposaible, JW* makal ; j^ 

^^jC«rf ghair mwakin; ^iL li 

Impostor, jLl tiaiydd ; ^\i 

Impoflture, \i-i daghd. Ac- 
cusing of — ^1 i_ojXJi takzib 


Impotent, J-^l-c '<y«; lyi^e 

Impoveriahed, ^_i^i_. mufkar 

{tk.) ; Jj*" mwA/a; («.). 
Impregnable, a^ mom". 
Impregnation, j" . •' abittan 


ImpreBaed, ^.i* muta'aatar; 

cjAl> matbu {k.). 
Impression, ^ I (uarj^p^LJ 

Uitir. Making an — on, 

}j, m&tir. 
Imprison, ^^^ ^j,^ hah* k. 
Impriaonmeo^ j^ ^aiW (i.). 

^ ta'jtt. 

Improbable, ^jj Mr; Jji«*_^ 

ghair ma'iiil. 
Impromptu, uu^Jj badihal ; 

i:i^U haddhal. 
Improper, \^. bX'jd ; '■^- ;l; U 

nd'hdgitiah; o>vL* U na- 

mwniistS ; |j)V li w4-/ai'*. 
Improrement, ,^lj (^ tarafi- 


Improvidence, ^^^c ghdJlH. 
Improvisator, tXf» mihdah. 
Imprudenue, liJac ghtflai. 
Imprudent,^^,:^!,!^ ^ hi tadbir. 
Imprudently, Uie ghijlatan. 



, ' , ~. j,jZi skvkh-chaikmt ; 

\^t^^j va^dkat. 
Impudent, ijj\i l_j nd-ddri ; 

iiii i-jJli thukh-didak ; —ij 

vakih; ^^ fuzul. 
Impulee, <siijfi tahrik (d.). 
Impunity, with, |;— o bltezd. 
Impure, dlj Li nd-pdk ; j-i-j 

pdlid ; |_jJ na;M. 
Impurity, om-L^ najdaat. 
Imputation, u>^; tukmat (ba.). 
Impute, gjjij >^-^ niibiA d. 
In, i_) J« ; jj i/ar ,- jj_il 

luabilitj, ^^mji'Uji dar man- 

Inacceaaibility, i:<«L* mano'a^ 
In-tocesalble, ^-i* vitmt. 
loBCcarate, ui.«|, Ij nd rdit. 

Inactive, ^Uc \ tutt-'indn. 

Inadmissible, \jj U nd-ravd. 
Tuadvertence, cJie ghiflat. 
Inadvertent, Jilt ghafil. 
ItiaBmuch as, iJwjl a; batldh. 
Inattention, Jilu taghdjvi. 
Isatteative, Jils ghdjil. 
InauapiciouB, 'j - ■■„ •,_ Lj nor 

Incalculable, ^Lu bi-kiyds. 
Incantation, ^i^'' "f^"! *-^j 

Incapable, JjliU na iaii7. 
Incapacity, ij'\^j \j nd-rasdi. 
IncamatioD, ■■■ -' taJoMum. 
InCBUtioiis,__„:c^ bi khabar. 
Incendiary, j— -S-il ^i. tharr- 

Incense, __jj*i hakh&r. 
Inceeaant, Jit ddim, 
Inceseantly, ^x^i dam ba dam; 

Kmy~j paivatteh. 
Inceet, *-i]jJii\ jjJ Jujur al 

Inch, t^garah. 


Incident, t^S^J vdkldk ; jLljI 

Incidental, ^Uil itHfa^i. 
Incipient beard, J^ \>m khatt 

Incision, *lu hat'- 
Incitement, <_.-c,J^ targhib 

Incivility, Jijl ^ bi adabi. 

Inclement, s--f^ takht. 

Inclination, o^^l irddtU ; 
(mental), Jj» megl; (lean- 
ing), i^J takiyeh ; (in 
prayer) u^ ruk'ak. 

Inclined, J_>L. mifil; Ji^ 
mildn; i.i>yj. chiutpldah. 

Inclining, JjU^ mutamdyU, 

Including, ^^^^.^la muta^arntnifi,' 
JU J*ll shdmU I A(ii; — ;*- 

Incoherent, Ji-*1j< ^ i£ mu- 

Income, J^lb hdtil; J>.Lx4 

Incomparable, i^j^s^i ftf>cAti« ,- 

Aamja ; XjU-^ bt mdnand. 
Incompetent, ^ j.. r gkaff 


Incomplete, JJ l> nd-famdm ; 

Js~/ \i nd-fofjdm. 
IncompreheDsible, ^^IJ ^ b% 

InconoeWeable, ^j,*i* Li ndr 

Incongruous, jL U nd toe. 
IncoDsiderate, t^j^ ^^ tar- 

tan; tx^^ U nd-eakdlidah. 
IncoasiBtent, ^L* mundfaz ; 

^L> mtMo/t. 
loconatant, ^L^^ tau/ash; 

^IL> iMsh; j\^;l^\ \j nd 

uituvdr ; jl JjU li nd pdiddr. 
Incontinence, |_g; _ ^; ji ioif 

lDContiDODt,jV^jj ladkdr. 
IncoDTenience, o^ maear- 

rat; Putting to — i_aK.. 

InconTenient, Jj-i^ duthvdr ; 

Incorporate, _»*• mujattam. 
Incorporation, j*^ xamimah 

Incorrect, u^ui^j \i nd duntst ; 

i_jlj« l> nd tavdb. 
Incorrectneas, Uc ghalat. 
Incorruptible (man), ^Uj elli 

gharaz ; (matter) b_» __«« 
Increase, j_JjJ taufir; ^j-i 
fiizun ; |_p_jl^l afzdyUh ; 
t^j^\ afzHni ; ii1i\ izdfeh; 
^jj tarakki ; t. la^jj*' ij^ii- 

Increasing, Jjj^it mutazdyid ; 

Incredible, jt-iel <-^|} ^ "» 

vdjibi itibdr. 
Incrustate, ^a^jjI andddan. 
Incumbent, ^V Idxtm ; i_d.1j 

Incurable, \ji V Id davd ; V 
^ Id 'ildj. 

Incursion, jU*- hamleh; ^-->- 
ehapau {k.). 

Indebted, ,jj-ij__i mmJ^un y 
,j0j^ mafsrui. 

Indecency, ^j^ liarzagi. 

Indecent, ^j-r^-j V Id yam- 
baghi; ]^U nd-nazd. Speak- 
ing _ly, Ayk km 

, j_J-i;J 

ba-durusti ; 

Indefinite, ^. 
Indelible, ^io\_j sabit. 

-^ ghoi 

Indemnificfttion, y-**' taxmin; 

Indignation.jji-LJ ttmafar. 

ot;V mujdzdl. 

Indignity, cwLi khiffat. 

lodependeoce, Jilii-I iri.^^i?; 

Indigo, J^ «.7 • *^j oomwA. 

•Ui-1 uiighnd'. 

Indirect, .i^yicAaoA. 

Indiscernable, Ij^lj ltd paidd. 

tighni;j\::if' mukhUr; (well 

Indiscreet, _)U.I (jJ ii ifaliydi. 

off), ySl; J.^ khi,sh-hd»h. 

Indisputable, t^ j isU> j_j it 

ladex, \z,^j^Jikri$t. 

<A^i£ sA»&&;A. 


Individnal,^ n<i£f^; ^iat; 

ladian, jj-i_a iiWii ; ^jXa 

^ thakht. 


Indolence, J-lC takdsUl («.); 

Indicate, ys^^lil i»JaraS i, ; 

J— ««(.'(*.). 

pa. p. *JI _,lU mi««or ilmh. 

Indolent, i^-.., «im«. 

Indication, JjVj dalMai. 

Inducement, ^-_c,_; /«ry*ii 

Indictment, Ui ,X* A«*m 



Indulgeoee, oU_lJ1 iVii^i. 

Indifference, o>Uc ^Si^^. 

Indulgent, ylj^ miftr«Ja». 

Indifferent, ^Ij-j fti'.^ir. 

Indulging one's pasaione, ^^ 

Indigence, ^^—j <aL.:LJ (anj?- 

Jj liavvat-bdi. 

dasti ; i^jLiU—; bi-mdyag{. 

Industrious, OAUytiAMf; ^L 

Indigent, J.;*:' mui^"; eLJ 


i^i^i tang dasi, or cj-^j 

Industry, ^*^iw6; *l#;*l 

(aL;_I dast-lang ; x.:_. _jLj 

yViAiirf; i^j i>.jidd ojaU. 

niydsc-mand ; x^ i.u-W ^if- 


Ineffable, j.;)LrV \-. md U 

Indigestible, jlj£-li nayawir. 

kaldm, or -ST V U ia- 

Idm. ^ 

i..-j£ tu^AmoA. 

Inefficatious, ^,.1*^ W samar. 

Indignant, (all*li ifefciskmndk. 




Inept, oiU _j hi liydkat. 
Inequality, ^fark. 
Inestimable, \^ _j h% hahd. 
Inevitable, jj^ Li nd-gurtz ; 
j\^ LS j\^ ehdr nd chdr. 

Inexpedient, ^^- -^ - t Lj nd 

Inexperienced, ^U. khdm. 
Inexpert, JUL _^ bt-saltkah. 
In extenso, {kU-^^ hittamdm, 
InfaUibility, ^1 V, .w ^ 5i 

Infallible, Ua>. ^ ^tZa khaiid. 
Infamous, ^U Jj had^ndm ; \^j 

rusvd ; ^^U mdbun. 
Infamy, ^'|^ rusvd^i. 
Infancy, isJjaL tuf&ltyat. 
Infant, a^ 5acAail ; (suckling), 

fu^j rati. 
Infantry, jl> j^ sarbdz ; • jLj 

Infatuate, ^t-A-iI! d«At(/%an ; 

Infection, \z^\j^ sardyat (Jc.), 
Infectious, (^Jjm mtidi. 
Inferior, J/U^ asfal; {j-ij^.j 
tirin; kz^^^^jjJ farvrdast ; 
c^ hihtar. 
Inferiority, ^j-*j pasti; jj^ 

Infernal, ^j^^ duzakhu 
Infidel,^\r^a/?r; phJjS^kuffdr. 
Infinite, ^;J^X--^ bigirdn ; li 

^U-L* nd-mutandhi. 
Infinitive (verb), jXa^ masdar. 
Infirm, vJL&« zatf; ^IjJ U na- 

^avan. — ity, fj\y \J nd- 

tavdnt; (pi), JJLt\ askdrn. 
Inflamed (with love), v_f p, ^a^ t 

mashghuf; (wound), *-a|JL» 

Inflaming, Jj-JU jdri'Suz, 
Inflammation, ^>^ suzish ; 

(wound), LjliJl iltihdh. 
Inflated, ^^ (iam («.). 
Inflexible, oaf sakht. 
Inflexion, (grammar), u.ij»^;^ 

tasrif{k,); ^^J^ 8arf(k\). 
Influencing, ^U taaatr {k,). 
Influenza, ^ zukdm. 

Inform, ^J^ cilLi ittUa k ; 

^juil^yaA mdntdan ; ^^U ^^ 

khabar d. 
Information, . . .if? takhbir ; 

wi^ vukuf. To obtain — , 

^ju^ Ij wd-rasidan. 
Informed, «^JI|^ vdkif; &lk» 

muttalt. To be — , eXJ^l 

^^\^ ittila daiHtaYw. 



Informer, j«l_w nammdm ; 

InfriDgement, ^^faMi (^.). 
Infuse, ^jX^ji. khisidan. 
Infusion, s^jL,.*. khasdndah, 

or sjjL^ khtsdndah. 
Ingenious, ^JjJ zakttfy or ^S 

zahiy ; ^^^ zahtn ; ujb^ 

Ingenuity, \z>^y^.judat; c=-ilj^ 
hizdkat and ciJIlj^ hoddkat ; 
ui*^\S^ kiydsat ; u^^UjI* «Aa* 
hdmat; (puritj), c^\^ 2^>t(i- 

Ingenuous, *L!fjl azkiyd ; j^U 

Ingot, A--i^ shushah; a^ 
khafchah; (of gold), ^j ,r >A-^ 
khisht i zar. 

Ingratitude, v^Uj-j ht-vafd-t ; 
^^jS hufrdn. 

Ingredient, j^ ^1^2:. 

Ingress and egress, jJf^ J*T,^ 
dar dmad bar dmad. 

Inhabitant, ^^^»L. sdkin (h.) ; 
(/)/.), A\^sk .>! sukandf or 
^j\$L» stiA:A:a»; sjuJ^l) bdshan- 
dah ; (pi), ^Ul «7<a/i. 

Inhabited, ^UT ddd(/. 
Inbabitingy Jioy:^ mutavaitm. \ 

fj;-a> harden' 

nhale, ^)j^ ^d ^a^/i z, 
nherent, ^1 mIu 
nheritance, e*^i irs (yr.); 

ii>]^ mira« (y.). 
nherited, i^^^ mat^rt^. 
nheriting, oj];j t^aro^a^ 
nheritor, v*,^ij vdri^. 

nbibition, ^^ nahi (A:.), 
nhospitable, ^Al latm, 
nbuman, kf J^zz ; iZ>jy^ hi- 

nimica], jj\9^ tnudnid. — ^Ij, 

jjIm*^ kh($9mdnah, 
niquitous, ^^ 

khur, — things, 

niquity, ^Ljfasdd; ^j^Jlsk. 
initial, lju>l u-^p^ harfi ihtidd, 
nitiation, j-^^ dakhl (J.); 

j^\sm muddkkalah (n.). 
njection, iJuJ tankiyeh. 
njudiciouB, -j> puch ; ^j^X^ 

njunction, j..^-alJ ta^kui. 
njure, ^^x,jj dzardan; jj^ 

^\^j zarar raa. - 
njured, ^^jLju muta^azzt. 
njurious,^^ muzirr. 
njury, cu>i\ aztyet ; V^\ ud; 

^^ gazaud. 



Injustice, Jk zuhn ; jlj^ ht- 

Ink, ua^ murakkah. In- 
dian — , ^yJt|^ v.r4/* *'*"* ^^*''** 
Inkstand, o|^j (i^ra^ / (pen 

and ink case), ^jljjii katam" 

Inlaid, jc»^ murassa ; (with 

gold), u^^g ^ ^«/a Art^d ; 

(with mosaic work), ^J^li- 

khdtimi ; (with tiles), jJ^\r 

(<.K kdsht kdri. 
Inn, i5l,_- ^l,X Mrav&n 

sardi ; ]^-*» ^jU^ wiAwan 

Innate, ^h ^^U mddar-zdd; 

^y^ ghartziy ; ^jtJo tabtu 
Innocence, ^^1^(3 hi-gunaht. 
Innocent, »\ ;^-» ^ hi-gundh ; 

Mtftj^ mas^m; ,9-^^ 'dstm; 

A«JJ1 '^j^ 5arf tfxr zimmah. 
Innovating, cij^l i5«^* (A;.). 
Innumerable, j^ .n <* Li ;ia- 

maA«t/r ; ^jjt* IS nd-madud : 

Inoculation, ^^^^a aLjI dhilah 

Inodorus, y ^ ^&i^. 

Inorganic, (jA^ jamddii/. 

Inopportune, izJ^^ bt vafct 

Inquest, ^ji^ tafahhiM (A.). 

Inquietude, \J[^\ izterdb. 

Inquire, ^jJl.^^..**^ pursidan ; 

^^iLm.^ 1^ wdrjustan. 
Inquiring, ^jliai* mutqfaitish. 

Inquiry, ,jl*^ pursish (k.) ; 
^Lm-a-jl—1 istifsdr ; ^jljb^j^j 
pizhuhish; j.j.ij tafakkud 
(n.) ; jjlj-iiJ taftuh ; cl^ 
stirdgh (thus jjj^cL*i l^j^^ 
duzd-rd surdgh kerdand. 
They found the thief). 
Strict — , yjo-j^ tafahhus. 
Subject of — , ^jjw;--^ 

Inquisitor, ^j1:lL« mufattish. 
Insane, ^\yij divdnah ; ^y^ 

junum; e^^i:^ majnun; (with 

love), ^Jl« mudallah. 
Insanity, ^^y^junun ; ^^]ji^ 

Inscribe, c^irrJi/^ markum L 
Inscription, kzjj}:!^ kitdhat ; pi. 

oLs?^^ navishiajdt ; L^ 

Inscrutable, ^)Lij ^3 5i-m«A<f72. 

Insect, o^ hashrat; CfJ^V 

Insecurity, jia». kkatar, 
InBensibility, ^^^ V\ "KuihA* 



Insensibly, ^jJ^ he-tadrij. 
Insert, ^J^^ Ji.b ddkhil h 
Insertion, i^ tdhiyeh. 

Inside, ^^^xJl andarun ; ^jj^ 

Insignia, U»Ji at-tamghd. 
Insignificance,^^ hakr. 
Insignificant, j^ U nd chtz. 
Insincere, \$j^ hi-vafd. 
Insincerity, cuuL* mundjikat. 
Insinuation, A^\ thdm (w.); 

iJJit\ ishdrah (k,). 
Insipid, uti % > ^ hUnamak ; 

1)^ hi-mazah. 
Insistence, j\j~^\ isrdr (k,) ; 
Insolence, ^JX-Ib[^ shdhidi ; 

^j^ shukhu 
Insolent, ^yl* shukh. 

Insoluble, J^V Id hall 

Insolvent, J b li nd-ddr. 

Insomuch as, a^lx^. chan- 

Inspection, »\jlj nigdh (Jc,) ; 

a:jiIx« mu'dyanah (A:.); o^UaJ 

nazdrat (w.) ; Ala^.^ muld- 

hezeh (k.). 
Inspector, jJo\ » ndzir. — 

general of tents, ^L ^^Li. 

khiydm hdshU 

laspiratioD, AA\ ilhdm (n.y 

Inspired, ^^JU mulham. 
Inspiring, cJ)^ takhvif(k.). 
Inspissated juice, c->^ rubh 
Instability, ^JJi^ ^i bt-kardri. 
Installation, c^.*^ ncish (k,). 
Instalment, k«J kast. 
Instance, n., Jli* misdL For 

— 5bu masaJan ; U^i far^ 

Instant, ^!.,. a i nafaat ; aJ 

lamheh. — ly, vtacL* ^ dar 

saat ; .j^-*^ hamujarrad ; 

^J j^ dar dam ; JU. j^ dar 

Instead of, j^Ua hajdi ; ^^e. 

Instigating, ^JaiJ^ tahris {h). 
Instigation, \^\ ighvd. 
Instigator, cd^ muharrik. 
Instinct, J-a-^ 'a^^; o—j>> 

Institutes, one who, ^JLi^ mtf- 

Institution, 9^J^ ihhtira {k). 

— 8, \jS(dHn ; ^)ji\i kdnun. 
Instruct, ^J^\i :\ — i ydd d. 

— ion, j,JUJ ta'lim (k.) ; o-j/ 

tarhiyat (n.) ; }:;fJL\S talkin 



Instrument, kzA\ dlat ; ob\ 
addt, pi, olj^i adawdt — 
for boring, ^^aju musakkib. 
Musical — , c)W»^ ^ ^ 
amhdn ; jL» sdz. Wind — , 
jJl^ nafir, 

I nsubordination, .^ ^amarri/<^. 

Insufferable, J«^V tdhammul. 
Insufficient, ^ j^^ ham ; y^Li 

Insulation (of a wire), •P'yl-»> 

khdrij (A:.). 
Insulator, ijj^ gargari. 

Insult, ^ shatm {d,) ; ^Ll^ 
dushndm (d.) ; vzao^ khiffut 
Insurance, a«^ himah (k.). 

Insurrection, ^^u\» khdstagi ; 

^jy* shurish ; K^ fitnah. 
Integrity, ci^JL^^ diydtKit ; 

^^\f rdsti ; ^^ aaldh. 
Intellect, JJc *akl ; ^^ zihn. 

Acuteness of — , *\Jj zakd. 
Intellectual, ^]fau maktU. 
Intelligence, (news), ^ kha- 

bar ; (wit), Oj\^ zahdvat 
Intelligent, ^^ fdhvm ; ^Ll 

shinds ; y^j ramiz ; J-sW 

hushydr ; » Jl«ljLj^^ ^r- 
yabandah ;- ^^ U ^Mabr ; 

^, fca khird; j-^-^ O^JU 
raushan ' guhar, Verj — , 
^Li fahhdm. 
Intelligible, ej^ muc^aA;. 

Intemperance, j^ mo^^t. 

Intemperate, Jj>„;w Lj fta« 

Intend, ^j^\ dhikhtan; xat 
Ul^^& kasdk; pa. p., ^jjU 
manviy ; pr, p,^ ^^W 'dzim. 
Intensity, ojJ:* shiddat. 
Intention, Xal kasd {k, n.) ; 
%sj>ij» taviyet; ^\ zamam ; 
i^j^ *arzah ; s^ 'amd; ^jI^j 
^Lj piah-nihad ; cu** him- 
mat ; pL, ^ma himam ; cuJ 
niyat ; fS^Jj^ dhang. 
Intentional, j_aJLi hilkaad. 

— ly, 1 j^ ^amdan. 
Inter, ^J.3^^^i <^<5^ k. 
Intercalary, i,^. S^kabUah. 
Intercept, ^^giriftan. 
Intercession, cucLii shifaat 

(A;.) ; oiUj vasdtat {k). 
Intercessor, lu-al shaft ; AiU. 

Intercourse, o^l«« mu'dsho' 
rat; kz^j j j^J a^Tiat^ o ra/lf ; 
L^-i-».l ikhtUdt; (carnal), 

Interdictiog, fij£iahrlm (k.); 

»Lt matt' (jt.). 
Interest (010116;), ij^ s&d; 

i^,\^mwrdbaha/i ; (concern), 

Vlicl itima; m>c 'aldJeah. 
Interested, yo^c gharaz. Self- 

— , J.iw^ gharz-mand. 
Interference in, h=J»la4 mudd- 

khaUtin.). — with.^^U. 

mit'drii (J.); «»]). mued' 

him {gh.). 
Interim, LJ1 ama. 
Interior, ^,3 dar&n ; ^|^ 

Interjectioti, Oj« laul. 
Interlaced, eliJu mushaMiak. 
Interloiiutor, —l^ia/fm; J£l> 


Intermediary, l»_j^4 fnwin- 

Interment, ^j i^/n. 
Intermingled, ^^.af makhlUt 


IntermisBioD, xla£J takattu'. 
Intermittent fever, is^ i_J 

Internal, ,j-tL( hdtini; J^jj 


_^j vatlat 

Interpolation, «UL>:* mukhd- 

Uteh (*.). 
Interpose, iji_»T (jLrf,j ifar 

fliiyan affMfJan. 
Interposition, J^^ t&ijtft/ (i;.). 
Interpretation, J_jjUj (anil 

(*i.); *•*/ tarfumah (k.); 

(of dream8),__,-jc Uihir{]e.). 
Interpreter, ^U»^ iatyvman; 

jfjU mutarjim ; (of dreams 

and omens), ^_,JUU/a/yfr. 
Interregnnm, \ijjitrat. 
Interrogation, J, ■ ^ ., 1 UHf- 

Interrogate, ^ji^^^ purtldan. 
InterrogatiTelf, J * - -i- &«- 

Interrogator, *^i^-^^ purten- 

Intemiption, intersection, jilai 

^af (».). 
Interval, ^/j^^ bain; i^iyJ^ 

tqfiik; Ul atnd. At — s, 

Lc ghihban. 
Intervening, ji^lt ftir(; .^U 

Itdyil; ^idakhl. 
Interview, ^Ijjij diddr; isJ^lj* 

muvdtalat; %^'S'X» wtulaidl. 



Intestine, »j>jj^ rudah (w.) ; in 
pLy jjj ^^ jigar-hand. 

Intimacy, cu^lj« muvdnasat ; 
^j'\.jL^\ ^ sar-dshndi ; ^^ 
ijjL* dam-sdzt. 

Intimate friend, ^»j> » » hani' 
dam; ^^jJLi^ft ham^nishin; 
mj^ muhrim. 

Intimation, s^U*! ishdreh (L). 

Intimidation, wi)j-i0 takhvif 

Into, .^ dar ; .jjl andar ; ^Jy 

Intolerable, J-%<?* ^ ghair 

Intoning, J^ tctrannum; JJ^ 

Intoxicated, \z*m^M mast; jm 
cu«»« sar-mast; ^j\f^ suk' 
ran ; J\j^ nashvdn ; JJi*^ 
sar-shdr. Like one — , ajU^** 

Intoxicating, ^^L« musktr. 

Intoxication, j^^^m sukr ; a^ 
nash-h ; oj-JLJ nashvat ; 
^^LiMiA mastu 

Intractable, \^^ ^ar kesh. 
Intreatj, ^j*Ul Utimds {k,)\ 
III iJJd (^0- 

Intrenchment, ^^Li sangur ; 

(sLJi alang. 
Intrepid, a^fdtik ; dL-j-j hi 

Intrepidity, 5Lcla^ shajaat ; 

ijjJl* shirt; {jjyl^ dildvari; 

fjj^^ diUri; c?;W-»V J^^' 

Intricate, »jJjJ zhulidah ; mAj^ 

dar-ham ; ^JLju^ muakkad. 

An — business, J^i^ ; a .11 

dshuftah kdr. 
Intrigue, y^U sdzish; (j^lllc 

Intrinsic, JU^ hakiki ; ^y*^ 

ma*navi ; ^Jb zdti. 
Introducing, Jl »^^1 idkhdl ; 

^^^ muarraft (A?.). 
Introduction (of book), a>>Lji^ 

Intrust, ^)^^,, M# sipurdan ; 

^^ ^jl.-) taslim k. 
Intrusted, JLa musallam, 
Intwine, ». i., ^J^us1i pichidanj 

V, t,, ^2)S^\xd pichdnidan. 
Inundation, c^X^^ saildh; J«w 

Invalid, ^J^^\j ndkhush. 
Invalidate, vj^^jtl* fta^tZ k. 
Invaluable, ji^ aziz. 
Invariable, x\^ dalm. 


Invagion, ^J^lo la'addi ; ^J>Jy_ 
yurith (i.) ; ->-«^ hujvm 

Inrective, ^^l^i ^^Ljj taidn 

dir&zi ; iz^ Janaf. 
Inveigle, ^^^j Jiriflan. 
larention, plj^l ibtid^ (Jt.) ; 

j^jTjj nau-dvard. 
Inventor, i^j^ muhdit ,- ^Ij 

utaj'tf' ; ^^ mujid. 
Inventory, t^^M^ fihriit. 
Inveraely, ^j^j. ii"" 'oi». 
Inversion, i_<Jii tafilib (k.) ; 

^,. t e 'fli»; (of lettew). 

Invert, ^jjJLibar gathtan ; jj 
^jiy)^ bar gardidan; p(*- p-, 
ija^^uu ma'ibuf ; ^jS*u mvin- 
'akit; (..J—L^ mukdUah ; 
i_>jlu malfl^h I ijf^ nigun ; 
pr. p., Jj-2^ mutabaddal. 
Inveatigation, j- ■ ' ^onfciA 
. Ci.)i>W''<'>« (*■); 
li— .1^ jLi hdz-kh'dtt (i.) ; 

Investigator, a minute — ' 

yb »^ji. 


Inveetment (of a town), «^\rf 


noura), r ' - - T mtttakailid 

InvidiooB, JmW Aimf. 
Invigortition, (a.^^ 6i$v^o< 

Inviolable, jjii j^ U/aiAr; 

<s^_ butt. 
InviBibilitf , i_^ ghaib. 
Invisible, -iiii l> nd-padid ; 'i 
■' ;* flii didani. — 

things, ■ -J _ ^ ghug'tti ; 

\i\3i. ^hi'ihdnd. 
Invitstion, ojca da'vcU (£.). 
Invited, jc^ fflmTti (A^.). 
Invocation, '^ (At'fi (^■)> 
Invoice, iz^j^^Jlhruf. 
Involuntary, ^l^j&l ^ bi ikhti- 

Involved, J.1^ maiktamel (&). 
iDTulnerable, miu ma turn. 
Inivard, j^Lj bdtm; ^^JJi 

Irascibility, liJa taghitfj/iu. 
Insoible, jJj^ tar-Ox. 
Iris (flower), j^^ zamhak. 
Iron, ^TiiAfm,' jjJ^- kadid; 
(cast), jt - cicu^im ; (for 



Made of — , ^j-aI dhant; 
c;ij.-i^l ahanln. — mace, 

Ironclad (ship), ^j^ tj^ zireh 

Irony, ja^ hqfv. 

Irrefatable, v!^ <3 hCjaodb, 
Irregular, iui\^jJ ^ hi-tuza-' 

gdnah ; »J^U^ hi kd'tdeh. 
Irregularity, ^j^^j ^jl hp-rc^snu. 

Irreligious, ^jIlX jj had-Mah ; 

^^i ^3 bC'dln. 
Irremediable, <;L^ ^^ hi 

Irresolute, J^ j^ (fo dU. 

Irresolution, ^^J taraddud. 

Irresponsible authority, jyfli.«*\ 

Irreverence, ^j^\^^2^ ^ hi 

Irreverent, A/^^ {Jt ^ ihtirdm. 
Irrigate, ^^1^ i^\ db d. 
Irrigation, {jJ-sj\ dhydri. 
Irritable, jli. S^hoj khulk. 
Irritate, ^^l-J iJl^^ ranji- 

dah 8, 
Irritation, ^^^:^\ ashuftagi. 
Isinglass, ^^U ^j^ sirish i 

Isbim, ^^l Uldm. 

Island, if^jazirah. 

Isolated, db^ tektek; jj 

Isolation, jj^ tqfrid. 
Issue, tL, S)lj\ auldd. 
Issuing, ^L* iddir {sh, k,) ; 

^Xo\ isddr. 
Isthmus, 4X1J iangah. 
Tt,jl u; ^ an ; ^J^ in. 

Itch, vsJ*^U. khdrisht; ^ji^U. 
khdrish; 2^ hikkat ; %^j^ 

Itching, ^j^ khardsh^ 

Item, ^jfard. 

Itinerary, »1^ ra^ 

Itself, of — , ^^,jui he-nafoah. 

Ivory, — W '4; > J:^ J<^^ dan- 

Ivy, ui^ lahldh; a^Iij u^s^^A. 

Jabber, ^^^ iLlsM maghlitah 
k^; o^^^=» Jli J JJ AiZ 
AraZ A;. 

Jackal, JUl shaghdl 

Jackdaw, clj zdgh. 

Jacket, ^ • • t ,'* nimtaneh ; 



kaj'dgand. Sheepskin — , 

^j^p^y^ pustm. 
Jacob, James, vja» Yakub. 
Jade (stone), ^^ tfoshm. 
Jail, ^^\^J^J zinddn. 
Jailor, ^\Jljj^ zinddnbdn. 
Jam 9 \iy^ murahhd, 
^2cr (large), ^ khum; s^ 

khumrah ; (small), j^ sahu ; 

Jargon, ^J^a ^^^ zabdn. 
Jasmine, ^««^l^ya«mm. 

Jasper, c^^^ yashh; (another 

kind), ^JAiydsh. 
Jaundice, »^ ^jp^ marzi zah- 

Javelin, c^ ntzak. 
J&w (bone), ajU chdnah (z,). 

Upper — , ^^1 {^Jhkk i aid. 

Lower — , Ji-1 (&I» fakk i 

Jealous, jy^ ghaiyur ; x 

Jealousy, csX-^ rashk ; 

Jeering, ^J\j\ AjjtU tanah-zandn 

{k,)\ jj^ J^^j risk khand (k.), 
Jehovah, jto hu; ilybli Ydhvdh, 

Jerboa, c^^ yarhu. 
Jerk, ^JC^ takdn (d. kh,'). 

Jerusalem, ^jijl v::*,; » Bait 

al Mukaddas. 
Jest, cV Idgh; J^ bazlah; 

iJltj vashyah ; aaJs) latifah 

— ing, Jjft hazl (k.). 
Jester, li^er^ maskharah, 
Jesus, ^^^ o^ Hazrat'U 

Jet (stone), tyl» shavah; (of 

water), %\^ fawdreh, 
Jew, Jewish, ,^^y^^ yahudi; 

^j^ *ibrdni. 
Jewel, ^j:^ joJiar ; jy\ zivar ; 

(worn in the turban), ^--j^ 

Jeweller, ^^y^jauhart. 

Jocke^r^ ^lj,^<^-jL». chdhuk 

Jocose, ^^j^ shdkhL 
Join, ^J^jt:^, paivastan ; J^^ 

^^;^ paivand k. 

Joined, ^,aU munzamm (k.); 

^\j vdsil (sh,) ; ^^jj^ mak- 

Joining in a drinking bout, 

Owa^Ua munddamat 
Joint, jjj band; JLl skalvy 

J-oA* mufsal. — 1 V, wL^yi 



Joists, ij)t» iamin ; j^ t!u 

Johes, ioU)> kazalit/dl. 
Joking, -^^ mazdh {k.) ;\=*»l>> 

miadhat (n.). 
Jollity, ^^ji ih&khi. 
Jolt, ^l^*J takdn {kh. d.). 
Jonaa, ^ji Yvnas. 
Josepb, 1-^^ Yutuf. 
Jot, 1.^ xarrek ; t^Li nukteh. 
JoiiTDa], **^jjj riz ndmeh. 
Jouraej, ji^ sqfar. A day's 

Jovial, jjljjSlji khuth guxa- 


Joy, )ir 

— / fardk ; 

LVIJ na$hdt ; ij-^ masarrat. 

— ful, ttH-syj farah^dk ; 

fj^ khurram. 
Judaism, k'^j^ yahudiyek. 
Judge, «., ^j-iU Som; pi., 

t>., cJ^uU^ '^''^ *■ 

Judgment, ij^fitvd. — hall, 
A^^ makkamah. The last 
— ,jl^ mahghar ; ij:*.ljjj_, 

Judicature i::.^^ »hari'ai. 

Judicious, \=ti}ji \ bd dtrdyet; 

^^AC 'akliy. 
Jug, Vj^kuzak. 
Juggler, jli ua. hukkah-hdz ; 
jV >.La^ shu'bJaA-bda; ^^Jj 

Juggling, art of, |j_;Lj tx^ 

thu'bdah-bdni (k.). 
Jugular vein, jjjj varid. 
Juice, fjslt sktroA ; ^^ 'arak. 

Expressed — , i^Uc 'ludrah ; 

(of dates, &c.), tjliji duih- 

Jujube fruit, ijUc 'unndi. — 

tree, J^kundr. 
Jump, n., j^ khie {k.) ; \-- r- 

7'(m( (i.) ; p., ij:.jf^jattaB. 
JuDction, Jldjl ittiidl. 
Jungle, ^^^jangal. 
Junior, ju I aighar. 
Juniper, _jjl ari^'. 
Jupiter, uj^il* Mushtart. 
Jurisdiction,^^^ katanM-as. 
Jurisprudence, tajjikk. 
Jurisprudist, tSi falph; pi., 

JuBt, Jj\c 'a</t7,- ^ bj-,, muntif; 

j_j_» Aa^^, — men, jlj_i_l 
fltrdr. ULoBt — , ^M^ ddoX. 



Justice, eJljc *addlat ; Jj.^ 
'adl ; doflirt) nisfat ; :\^ dad. 

Justification, j\jj\ ihrdr (ft.) ; 
%z*^ tazkiyat (Je,), 

Justly, IsUjl inadfan. 

Juvenile, y^y». jaiadn. 

Juvenility, ^y»^javdn%. 

Kaliyan (Persian water pipe), 
(jUi kaliyd/n. 

Keen, j^ ttz. 

Keep, ^^b ddshfan ; ^^1 jjbl^ 

Keeper, ^j\ , ^ Ci nigdh-hdn, 

— of the records, ^^^ j-» 

%ar-dafter, — of the seal, 

^b juA muhr-ddr, — of a 

vineyard, ^^\i j^ raz-hdn. 

KeepsakCj^^r ^b ydd-gdr. 

Kennel, ajIs?^ saghhdneh. 

Kernel, ji* maghz. 

Kestrel, »je yuh. 

Kettle, ijjS hetrt ; jSi kidr ; 

dL}^ dig ; (small), a-s^ 
digcheh, — drum, <j-^^=» 

kuB ; iJsLj nakkdraJi. 

player, ^^JJLj nakkdrachi. 

Key, jJT hUid ; jJil iklid, 
Khosroes, ^j^jfkasrd. 
Kick, s^^ lakd {z.). 
Kid, iHMiy huz-ghdlah ; d^ 

hirak ; $^^ harah. White 

kid or cotton shoes, ty^ 

Kidney, lop gurddh ; a ^ ft 

Kill, ^JLi^ htshtan. 
Killed, J«iJ ^a^t/. 
Killing (in comp.), ^J^ku8hdn, 
Kiln, %jf kurah. 
Kind (genus), ^j,»:sf>jin8 ; ij^ 

gunah ; ^y nau ; pL, s\jj\ 

anva ; ^ kism ; (friendlj), 

^b^,^ mihrihdn ; ^jJ^Im sha- 
fik ; v-LW latif. 
Kindle, ^^ : ^^^ ^>-> iar ^a- 

rukhtan ; ^j^^li?^ iuzdm- 

Kindling, sJj)jm* suzendah. 
Kindness, ^\j^ mihrihdm; 

e>fly>lc *atifaf ; ^j\y navd- 

zish ; ^)L^I ihsdn. 
Kindred, %j\ ahribd ; ^^ 

khish ; <ijj^^ paivand. 
King, iU» shdh; »U*j\i /7a</- 

sAai^; ^IkL.* mltdn ; elU 

malik. O — ! l^ ahahd* 



. — of kings, sUj^ shahati' 
shah, — of the bees, Ljytso 

Kingdom, cuCU* mamlahat; 
K2j>Clj vilayet, — of heaven, 

. OjCJU malkut. 

Kingfisher, ^jU eJiillik. 

Kinsman, ^J^]^'^ zuH kurbd ; 
JlJjII)^^ khishdvand; pL, 
. ^Js\ akdrib, 

Kis9, n.y (j^ huB {d,)\ t^y 
husah (d.); t^., ^^X^jt bust- 
dan, -^ ing and hugging, 
J^ J {j^y, bus o kendr, — 
ing and licking (as a cat her 
kittens), ^^ j ^U mdch u 

Kitchen, aJL*.' j-^^ dsh-paz 
khdnah; Ja^ maibakh, — 
garden, j-Jb pdliz. 

Kite (bird), m^\jj^ ghalxwdj ; 
or jl^j-1^ ghaliwdz; ^j-^j 
zaffhan ; ^ \j.j^ mish- 
khur; (paper), t^jui^ kd- 

Knapsack, ^b ^\»,jdmalirddn ; 

As^ bukchah, 
Knave,^;^a »jW ckdrah-gar, 
Knead^ ^;/:J*^ sirishian ; j^ 

^:i^khamtr k, ; pa, p,, ^ys?^ 
Knee, y\j zdnu (z,), — to — j 
y]}*t^ ham-zdnu. 

Knife, ^J^ kdrd. Batcher's 
— ,yJt»Lt sdiur. Pen — , 
^j^ijis kalamtardsh. Pocket 
or clasp — , ^L». ehdku. 
Shoemaker's — , s^-^!jLJ 

Knit, ^JlJ\> bdftan. 

Knob, aJ kuhbah. 

Knock, n., u^ zarb ; (at the 
door), tt)i ,7 .«»^ dastak ; v., 
^jju-jy kubtdan, — down, 
^j^f ^jjfarxirkuftan. 

Knot, tj^ girah (z.) ; jic 
'akd ; sjie 'ukdah. 

Knotted, :iyat^ mdkud. 

Know, j" -i-^' ^ shindkhtan ; 

^^^iLmJU ddnistan ; ^j> j » ^ 

Knowing, sjJujb ddnendah ; 

J^ ^irfdn, — for certain, 

^^ftji* mutayakkin. 

Knowledge, oi^jw mdrifat ; 
As, 'tlm ; ^Ci-Jb ddnistagi ; 
^jj^ juz-rasi ; ^l^»^ 
agahi, — of God, 



Enown, {•>!-&• malum (A.) ; 

ciyju maruf, 
Elnuckle, o,it aJI Ju; 5an(^ « 

Koran, J^j^ kur'dn ; c)^/-» 

Kran (one franc), Ji^ krdn. 

Label, a«1) ^^ sar ndmeh. 
Laborious, ^yi,;-^ mihnati; 

^ y^ kdr kun. 
Labour, .\>Hr (^.); J^'awaZ 

(^.) ; o>;s^ mihnat ; vjg;j^ 

Labourer, J-.lfi aweZ; ^Z., 4^ 
*afnaleh ; (hired), jj^ maz- 
dur. Agricultural — ^^ jjt 

Labouring hard, jaW tajdhud. 

Lac (gum), dll ZaA;. 

Lace, »^ turah; (cord), ^jUaJ 
kaitdn ; }j^j zanjirah. 

Ladder, ^J^^^j narduhdn ; JL» 
sullam ; a:j\ ztnah. 

Ladies' man, Jj jj^ 'ishk-hdz. 

Ladle, ^l^ kafcheh; diL». 

Lad/, f^^ khdnum; ^^W 

khdtun ; ^^Lj haig<tm ; 

jiU kad-hdnu. 
Lag behind, ^jjU jIj M^ man- 

Lake, A>>li;^ darydcheh. 
Lamb, t^) harah. Fattened — , 

Ks^^»jJ^ shtr-mast 
Lame, du) Zan^ (k.). 

Lament, v^^J^h zdrtdan; ^^y 
navidan ; ^)JuJLJ ndlidan ; 
pa, p,f vjJU mandub ; |?r. 

i''9 r;^^ ndldn. 
Lamentation, ^^^ zdri (ifc.) ; 
^^^^ shwan (k.) ; Aa^S natf- 
hah (k,); iz^s^ nudhat; 
^J^tJfighdn; ^IS ndZah (k>)] 
•>^y fo>f^dd (^.). Great — ^, 

jlj J<j zdr-zdr. 

Lamp, ' p];-fr* chirdgh ; ^^j^ 
9irdj ; ^La* misbdh; (Chi- 
nese), fjay\ifdnus. 

Lampblack, cl^ m^^^^ dudah i 
chirdgh ; J|^ khuvdL 

Lampoon, v^a-m^ jarshaft; 

Lance, jj^ ^*ar^ ; s^ naizeh 

jjancei/, ,? mm> 

J ntshtar ; 

Land, ^j^s-*) zamin, Culti- 



— and money, JU j eLL 
mulk u mdl, — not need- 
ing artificial irrigation, ^^ 
dtmi, -^ 

Landed property, aaUJ ta^^, 
hah ^- 

Landholder,^!^ ^^^^ zamin-ddr. 
Landscape, jljJi ^..1^ chethm 

Land-tax, o|>-i^ J^ *^^ * 

Lane, i^^kuchah; {j^ huy. 
Language, iiJ lughat; ^)\^ 

zabdn. Belonging to ^, 

[jyi laghavi. 
Languid, »jjU mdndah. 
Languor, jLi fatar; ^^-i— • 

susti; j^Jfufur. 
Lantern, fji>y\i fdnus; (of a 

building), o^.l« mishhut; 

Jcj^ mtndr. 
Lap, n., j\iS^kindr; v., ^jJ-f-t^ 

Lapidary, jls^ hajjdr. 
Lapis lazuli, ^^j^V Idjvard. 
Lapse of time,^^ ^^ wwnir 

Lapwing, Jjtjjb hudhud. 

Lard, (sJ^ erir^ charht-yi- 

Largo, c^^ huzurg ; ^. 
kaldn ; a^^ju muttast 

Largesse, J^\ indm. 

Lark, ^V)^ ghazldgh ; (S3^\$^ 

Lascivious, ^^>4-^ shdhvati ; 

^jj3 Si had-nafas, — ness, 

^1.^ masti. 
Lash, j-a^ hamchi. 
Lasso, x^kamand. 
Last, a., jJ^ dkhar; ^;--— j 

pastn ; i?., ^)JjU mandan. 
Lasting, b ^^ dir-pd ; ^b 

i^»m (5) ; Ia-j 5aA:a (e?*/i.) ; 

Jji davdm (A:.). 
Lastly, ^^Vi i--JU aA:i6a^ 

Latch, vsAto^ c^j/?. 

Late, ^3 dir {amadan) ; (de- 
ceased), ^y^jm marhum. 

Lateness, (j^^ c^/ri. 

Lath, Lj'j^' chub. 

Lathe, ^L». khardd. 

Lather, uJokaf (k.). 

Latitude, ^jojc^ 'arz. 

Latfcer, ^^^---j \j vd-pasin; J^ 

Lattice window, ajIxJU bdlkd' 
nah; tj^^ panjareh. 

Latticed, <»^,m» muaKa\i\)ak, 



Laudable, ^j raziyeh; ^ 
mustahsin ; s ..^^ hamid, 
— actions, jijU»> harndid. 

Laugh, V,, (;^)JtX»> kkandidan ; 
pr, p,, ^j^x^ khanddn. 

Laughter, ^x^^ khandagi; 
»jj.». khandah (k.). Loud — , 
A^JLj kahkahah (Jc.). 

Laundresp, jL c:^ rakht shu. 

Laundry, jjU y^^ rakhishu 

Laurel, ,j«>.^ sar khas. 

Lavishing, v-J)^i isrdf k.). 

Lavishly, \ijj„^ masrufan. 

Law (of the Koran), ^jumjJ^ 
shart'at ; c^ shar. Com- 
mon — , v.-»;C 'urf. — of re- 
taliation for homicide, ^L^ 

Lawful, J^ haldl; -,L« mu- 
hdh; j\jBf. jawdz. Making 
— , JJLsi taJdil (k.). — 
ness, ojU hilUyet. 

Lawless, ^Yj^ hi-ddd; j^Lj 

Lawsuit, Ijc^ davd» 

Lawn, ^j^ chaman. 

Laxative, J^.^^^ mua-hil. 

Laxity, ^^^j rikhwat. 

Lay, v., ^^U^9 guzashian\ 

fj:L4^ nihddan. — eggs, 
^)^^^ tukhm k. 
Laziness, ^j^^ sustu 

Lazy, J«lJ tambal ; J j .^s^-^ 
kur-dil; ^\j li nd^di; jjLi 

Lead (metal), c^^ »tfr5 ; ^Uj 
ra«a5. Red — , ^-i;-* «tWn;. 
White — , bj B .» 9afidd; 
(plummet), uJb 5t«Z/, 

Lead, v., ^)^ burdan; oJV^ 

^-^^daldlat k. 
Leader, ^^ ^ sar-ddr; jjli 

Araic? ; l>i-J ptshwd. — * of 

an army, dLiid. ^^ sar-jang. 

of the Hajj, ^-^^ ^^ mir i 

^W' — *^ prayer, j»L*1 

Leading into error, i^WJU^ 

Leaf (tree), cd^ 5ar^ ; (paper), 

j^ varak. The fall, of the 

League, ojuiU.* mudkadat; 

j^fi 'ahd. 
Leak, n,, ai^ rikhnah ; jS^j^ 

chikkeh ; v., ^JX^^^ tard- 

Lean, a., jS^ Idghar ; j\yj 
\ nizdr ; v^ua^ nahtf — ness, 



(jj;c7 Idghiri; ©., ^pj jJCj 
takyeh z. 
Leap, n.j ^ khiz (h) ; r., 
^^^i-^ jastan; ^jl^ jt bar 
ja$tan ; ^Xfj^ yuzidan ; 
pr. p.^ ^J{p, jihoH. — year, 

*-j ;' J^ ^^'^ kabUak. 
Learn, ^j? j^^* jb ydd-gr.; 

^j'r^j»\ dmvkhtan ; ^j^^ 
■ ^jJi^ dan gr. 

Learned, lib ddnd; Jle *dlim. 

Profoundly — , J^ mutor 

hahhir. — man, X* mulld. 

— men, •Ulc *ulamd ; J^ly 


Learner, j^Tji nathdmuz. 

Learning, ^>tl dmuzish ; Jlc 

Ulm; cu«5^ hikmat. 
Lease, s^Wl ijdrdk (k, yr.) ; 

4»\^ kerdyek (A?.). 

Least, ^s\ adnd. At — , J5i 

Leather, ^ charm ; jl» jild, 
Eaw white — , i^t\ yashmak. 
Soft — , ^jUl ambdn, — of 

horse's or ass's hide, \zJi^ 

Leathern, i:^j^ ehartninah. 
Leave, n., ojWl ijdzat ; ^pl 

/>« ^i/ yr,^ / iju^ rukhsat 

(y^')> kSjJ^^ dasturi ; p., 
(to quit) ^;ii.i^ parddhhlan; 

yj^j ^} ta/rk k. To take 

— of, j;^ u<»v* ^**^<'^^ 

ifc^O* «A. — off, ^jjls«ij\ Ij 

ra utddan. 
Leaven, n., juiU mdyeh; v., 


Leavings, Aj\i bdkiyeh. — of 

a mea],jj». ^^ pas-khur, 
Lebanon, Mount, ^IJ libndn. 
Lecherous, vi>^4^ shahvat 
Lecture, fj^j^ dars (d,). 
Lecturer, (j^J^ mudarrii. 
Led horse, eljj yadah. 
Ledger,^^i dafiar. 

Leech, jjl^ zdlu {an.) ; j-h 

Leek, \isiS^ gandand ; slAj^ 

Left (side), i,A». (?A«/? ; ^l^-j 

yasdr, — handed, c::*>«» j> > > 


Leg, li ^a ; jU» «aA? ; (SiLJl£i»1 

Legacy, il^]^ mirds ; a^b»^ 
tarikah; pL^ cJ^^ju matru- 



Legal, ^J^ shariy; cj^^.JL« 

Legate, ^^ ilcM. 
Legatee, ^1 ^^ muvctssd 

Legation, o^li- sefdrat. 
Legend, jjLil afadnah ; o^lX*. 

Legerdemain, ^^l> aa*. hukkeh 

Legible, j^ U ma yukrd. 
Legislature, ^j < v ■>> Af^A;^- 

raTi/ ; cu^^^ huhumat. 
Legitimacy, ^-J^])JiL». A«ZaZ- 

Legitimate, j^l^ J^^ ^aZaZ 

Leisure, kz^\j fardgliaU — ly, 

t"- ,^ dhisteh. 
Lemon, j«J Umu, — ade, cjT 

Lend (money), ^pb ^j^;— » 

Arar^ d. 
Length, Jjt ^wZ; ^j^l^^ dirdzt. 

At — , ^V^ j^\ dkhar ul 

Lengthen, i^^^j^^ dirdz h. 
Lenient, J^ muldyim. 

Lenity, o«ji^ muldyimat. 
Lentil, ^^^ buhun ; k^^ ma- 


chah ; yji^ manju ; ^J>ss 

Leopard, eLL palang ; j^ 

Leper, ^j^ mahrus. 
Leprosy, ^^j^^ haras. 
Leprous, ^j»\ ahras* 
Less, (fewer) ^ ham {kJ)) 
^ ; » > kamtar ; (smaller), 
J--^ kih-tar ; ^^z>^^ ku- 

chiktar {k.). 
Lesson, ^j^ dars (J.) ; j^ 

aabk. Giving — s, o^1i« 

muddrasat {n,). 
Lest, bL* mabddd. 

Let (permit), ^j^b ^J^\ izn d,; 
(on hire), ^j^b »^l».| ijdrah 

^' — go, c;i^ Jo ^^ *• 
— alone, ^^VSf guzdahtan. 
Lethargy, ^^^Xlij-j p4naku 
Letter (of the alphabet), v-J^ 

by — , v-J;*. ^^ 6,^ harfan 
'an harf. — with diacritical 
point, A.^^i^ mu jamah; 
(epistle), js^kdghaz; t^jSs^ 
maktub. Short — (between 
equals, or from superior 
to inferior — a note), a,aJ^ 



^j rakm; ^U^ farmdn; 
(a royal order), jili Mkkah, 
— from a servant, Jr^ 
*arz; a^^ 'artzeh. — of 
recommendation aJj ^JijA^a 
sefdriah ndmeh, — of apo- 
logy, iJi j\x>c\ Ctizdrndmeh, 
eta, etc. 

Lettuce, jft^r^raAfi; ^j^ khus. 

Levee, J^ ^j*^ tnajlis i *dm. 

Level, ^ W.>.^ musattah («.) ; 

j\j^ kamvdr {«.) ; pa. p,f 
»U9^ muvattd. 

Lever, Atp dilum, 

Levite, Levitical, ^V Idviy. 

Levity, (X?^ edbuki; ^JL^^ 
iaieh ; (of speech), J la >. 
khatal ; (of conduct), ojL > > 

Levy (of taxes), -b 5a; ; -J^ 

Lewd, ^Jji^ ihahvati. — ness, 

c>^ shalivat. 
Lexicography, Kz^ai Jfi ^Um-i" 

Lexicon, ^mJ c^LiT kitdb-'p- 


Liar, u^ilT kdzib ; yS ^j^ 
duHtgh-gu, A great — , 
4^)jf Jtazzdb. 

Libel, c>«jb^ muzammat; y^ 

Liberal, Jt^ eakUy ; jj^L-J 

faUfdz; ^L» edmih; jlja. 

jawwdd. — ity, ^ jud; 

#Li^ sakhd* ; o^La^ «o- 

khdvat; (JJj nadd; xs^yS^ 

Liberated, ^5U HiZa* (A;.).; 

jS^ji^j rastakdr (k,) ; La, 

Liberating, jJL* munkiz («.). 

Liberation, ^^'^; ra^at ; ol^ 

Libertine, xJj rind; ^iiLJ 

Liberty, jic %* ; ^^|)T a«?(i- 

c%t. Setting — , j5Lti 

»VZ(i/k (A?.). 
Libidinous, ,j-1>Jb havvds ; 

elLj naiydh,. 
Libra, ^jj])-* «ni«a«. 
Library, jili. L-^i-TArw^wft-Ha- 

License, »jUl ijdzak{d,). 

Lick, ^)J^*-J Imdan, 

Lid, Jy> p^^^ / ^ ««^« 

Lie, n., c-> JJ A:i*«ft ; p^^^ <?w- 

rugh {gf.) ; v,, — down jl;^ 

^^ dirds «%. 





Life, is*--jj zist; ^Sr^ ^Ut- 
dagi ; ^^xj) zindagdni ; 
J^ jdn ; Lui^-^ (or oL».) 
haiydt. Eternal — , IsJI .b 
ddr ul hakd. The next — , 
^j^ ^^-jlij_Jj zindagdni % 
duvam. The present and 
future — , vjU». J J du-jehdn. 
Solitary — , Jlj^-;i inzivdl. 
— ^less, ^jL*. ^3 hi'jdn — 
time, ^^ '«W7\ 

Lift, ^J^ iLj 5a/a A;, — up, 

Ligature, ^^i-j hastagi ; j\jj 

Light (iip), ^^^jji har fa- 
rukktan. —:fn.,^jjrau8han 
(A;.) ; jP wwr; ^^\:Ju^j rush- 
ndi ; ^&-^jj raushani ; cUi 
shud\ — , a., (not heavy), 
(»)Ltf sdbuk ; i—v-i. khafif; 
(digestible), '^ hani, — 
headed, jLi du«j sahuk-sdr. 
— of conduct, (—Aft. A:^*jf ; 
<^ 9j -fl - > khafif, — souled, 

Lieutenant, J^i l^^JU Ma»5 i J Like, ^ chu; ^^J>> ohun; 

jujjiamcku; J-^^ misl; a^II* 
mushdhih ; Jxii« mutashak- 
kit; ^jLj hasdn ; (in com- 
position), L*l a^a ; Li «(f ; (^U 
tdy ; t?., ^^,-i-iii J-2-* '"^^ 
dsh; ^js>s:^ pasandidan. 
Likelihood, JU2>.^ ihfimdL 

Likely, \y^guy& ; J.*5^ mok- 

Likeness, a^^ tashhih (k,)', 
j}j^ taevir; Jxi shekl. 

Likewise, Lajil aizan. 

Lilac, ^b y^, 

Lily, ^^j-» «M«a». Water — , 

^jLj naUufar. 
Limb, ^^ 'tj^o; p/.. Lie) azd» 


dLM» sahuk-ruh. 

Lightning, j^ &«rA:; a.5-pU 

Lime, t&li^l dhak; ^g» gaeh; 
(fruit), j«J limu. 

Limit, ju.a» hadd; pL, ^^ 
hudud;jj ; .»» sinur; 
sinir ; pa, p., ^jS^ mahdud, 

Limp,(jXj X langidan ; pr» p.^ 
\:^ji^ ^jUii u/*^a7i A;Atea9». 

Limpid, ^.jU sdf 

Line, w., ^^Ja*i* «a^r ; pi,, j^ 

Butur ; W». khatt ; pi, , k^ 

khutut. Circular — , k^ 

^^juM»« Ma^^ t mustadir. 



munhani, — of demarcation, 

• J^\s ^ kh, ifdsil. Ecliptic 
— , jj^ k». kh, i mihwar, 

. Meridional — , ^Lj ciaS k». 
kh, i nisfi nahdr. Parallel 
— , \Jj^y^ ^ kh» i mil- 
iawdzi. Perpendicular — , 
j^ )aft» kh, i *amud, ^ight 
— , ^jp;..>» k». kh. I musia- 

Lineage, J^»^ nasi; y^ .^ > 

Linen, j> hazz ; ^Jjfkattdn, 

Linendraper,jj^ hazzdz. 

Linguist, ^jb \jbj zahdn-ddn. 

Lining (of a garment), jl^ 

dstar {k,) ; c>3\lu hitdnat. 
Link, jiiU halkeh. 

Linseed, ^jLs_d* ^^ hizr ul 
kettdn; ^^ kettdn. 

Lintel, ajIimI dstdnah. 

Lion,^^ shir; (obsolete or 
poetic), vl-^ lais ; ^^-j>-» 
hizahr ; ^k^^ ghazanfar; 
^ w J rf> zaighafn ; ^^ jL-^^^ 
arsldn ; JumI ctsad; j^ hahr; 
jX^ haidar. 

Lip, c^A-J 2a 5; i^^jiJlt'shifat, 
cracked or ulcerated — , JL» 

Liquefaction, ^^\S^ guddzish. 
Liquid, a-jU mat ; ujI dl; a., 

uj1Jl« muzdb ; ^\h zdih. 
Liquor (spirituous), \J^JL aha- 

rob ; j^ *arak. 

Liquorice, ^JL malhati; ^^^ 

Lisp, cu:^ luknat (&.). 

List, v:>«^«^_^ Jihrist ; aaLm* 

Listen, ^j^b^ ^^gmh d, ; pr, 
p., &U.j:m«1 istima (k.) ; 'Wl 

Listener, •t^ri mustami. 

Listless, J*l^ ghdfil. 

Literal, ^_^ Zo/aaff. — ly, U&aJ 

Literary composition, <^j;^> 

Literature, u^jI a^&. 

Litigation, ^LJ tandzu (k.) ; 
uu«^.a^ khusumat (n.). 

Litter (carried by two mules), 
^)li. os^ takht-ravdn ; (two 
on one mule), »jW kajdveh. 
Camel or elephant — > «r'^ 
haudaj ; Ai\^ mahdjuh, • 

Little (few), JJiJ AraZ/Z ; d^l 



chah A — , fjjX-^ kadri; 
^y> harkhu 

Live, ^2^-1— ^ zistafif or ^;-:^J 
zistan ; ^j^ j^ j3j ^^^'9<^^ 
hurdan ; (dwell), ^jj*^ jfU 
sdkin b, ; ^^b ,j^ manzil 

Livelihood, ^.f— isT (iftHwrc?; 

c^ t« ddnah. 
Liver, ^^ jigar ; xf Jeibd, 

Living, jjjj zindah. A — 
creature, ^^jj\». jdn-ddr. 

Lizard, i^y^ buzmajah ; J^^j^ 
susmdr ; \ .<>! . \y oihalpdsd ; 
d)-J nizk ; jyi:JL» sakunkur. 

Load, j\3 bdr (k,) ; J*». haml 
{k.) ; (carried on the head), 
,Lj >—*# saV'bdr, Ass — , 

.Ij^^ karmr ; «?., (a gun). 

Loadstone, b^Ta^an-rti5a. 
Loaf, ^^ ^j kurS't-ndn. 

Loan (money), jj^/— » ^«^^ 
(rf. ^r.) ; (article), «^lft *dri- 
yet {k.)\ %J<Mi^\ istCarah (k). 

Loathing, o^ nifrat (k.) ; 
As^\^ kerdhiyat (n.). 

Lobby, ^)Vb ddldn ; jT ^^JjS^ 
Arq/iA kun. 

Lobster, dl:.a>y». klutr chang. 

Lock (of door), JJLi k:^fi (i.) ; 
(of hair), ail*, halkeh ; wJUj 
^w/f ; (of gun), jU5». c*«/f- 

Lockjaw, syd lakvah. 

Locksmith, jU JLJ A:t^ «az. 

Locum-tenens, ^^.,,^J W jo* 

Locust, J« malakh. 

Lodging, J^ manzil. 

Logic, jWift mantik. 

Logwood, 1^ bakm. 

Loins, jS'kamar, 

Loiter, ^j L-*5ft *akab r. 
Lonely, I41J tankd» 

Long, jj^i dirdz; JjjL fa&t7; 
JjiJl« madid, — ago, J^ y-i^ 
dir-bdz. How — ? j<^»^ 

Longing, jL-^i-i^ wAifiyoA; 
^jjljblp. khdhish (n.) ; J-,g • 
wi6fy/ (it.). — of a pregnant 
woman, ^j te;aAm. 

Longitude, J^ ^t^Z. 
Long-suffering, ^J, ^^^ dir- 

Look, jSZj ntyahy or s\Cj ntyaA 
V (Jc?)*, j^ uaiaT VJt.y^ ^jCi 



nigar (^.)j pr. p., ^)J^^-xJ 
Loom, ^.JL* minsaj ; i^ Jj^ hdr 

Loose, aimj LJ 7ia hasteh ; jLj 
hdz; (flaccid),jft A/2?; u^^mm 
«tt#^. To let — , ^^\^jM gar 
dddan; ^^^^ sar^k. 

Looseness, ojU^ rakhdvai. 

Loquacious, yy^ pur gu. 

Lord, jj^lj». khuddvand; ^L^ 
khan; pi. ^\^ khavdnm; 
CsLj %, OP csL-j heig ; J^j* 
mauld; j ^ .»! amr, ^Z., 
(noblemen), j^^.^1 umard ; 

The — , uj; r«i5. our 
— ! Kit J rehband. 

Lordship, ^jxJj^x^ hhudd- 

Lose, ^^ j^^9 gum k.; (at 

plaj), (^U hdkhtan. 

Loss, c)l-ij ^lyan (^urt^aTt) ; 
o^L.». khasdraf (^ksh.). To 
be at a — , ^pJli duJ r^Jli 
Jedfiyeh i tang shudan* 

Lost, S gum (At. «A.) ; s]^«.&i 
gum-rdh ; ^U ara 1 (A:.) 5 
.>^Mu mafkud. 

JjotB^ jj^ i^rah (an,). 

Lotus,^;JLj nilupar. 

Loud, jjb Inland, — sound- 
ing, dixb jub buland hdng, 
— toned, jljl jJb buland'* 

Louse, J-«Ji l^amal;, 

Love, j^ M^^ (d>A.) ; <j>«: 
mahabbat (dsh) ; o_i\ ; i» 
sabdbat ; (for a mistress, 
&c.), J-j-S^ J^ 'w^ifc i 
^aArlArty. Falling in — , 
^jJLaJ taaahshuk {k,). 

Love-sick, »Jj jj^ s^t^rte/eA. 

Lover, jj^LW *a«AiA: ; 2?/., jU^fi 

dah; Js^^ dil-ddr; e.^^ 

Low, ow-xj j>fl*^ / jj^ Jaru 
(^•) ; (J-^i «^wa. — person. 

Lowest, Ji.i«l a^7. 

Lowing (of cattle), j\j^ khu- 

vdr ; dliU bdng (z,). 
Lowliness, pjJL^ khushu. 

Lowly, c^K*^ wwArm. 
Lowspirited, dLJ J^ diltang. 
Loyal, juko TTZM/i*. 
Lucerne, a^Sji yunjeh. 
Lucid, v^\«A %hS^ 



Lucifer-match, ^s^^^S^ kehrit 

Luck (good), ^ (i^W-' ^^^ 
bakhii; (bad), ^j^ j^ 5ai 

Lucrative, sJu mufid; &^*LJ 

Ludicrous, (SJlai^ muz-hih. 
Luggage, c-^L-i asbdh ; A_i-j 
. honah. 
Lukewarm, ff ^ nm-garm ; 

JjL mcduh 
Lumbar, ^JL sulhiy. 
Luminous, sAJLJL-a^^ dirakJi- 

Lump, txjkundah. 

Lunacy, t^J>i^ divdnagu 
Lunar, ^jj^ kamariy. 
Lunatic, Ai|^^ dtvdnah. 
Lungs, J^ 8ull ; ^^^ shush. 
Lurk, ^^^ ^j^ kamin k. 
Luscious, jjijj laztz. 
Lust, ^jJi* shahak ; ^yt j lyb 

havd u hawas ; ^Lx) {j\y^ 

havd i nafsdni ; r^j / *• 

shah vat. 
Lustful, u:Mtf;i Oj4^ shahvat 

Lustre, ^f^jj ratishndt. 
Lute, la-»>^ harbat ; s^j^scJIj 
^ashkardah; e)j>,>> chang. 

1j iW- 

A small Turkish lute with 
three strings, j\Jujj^ yun- 
Luxuriance, c>pkesrat 

Luxuriant, ^j\j\^ fardvdn. 

Luxurious, ^jl^Le 'ayydsK 

Luxury, i^JLx ishrat ; j^l-c 

Lying, jj^cj^^ Jwrw^A y^ 

Lying-in (woman), a. 

Lying in ambush, ^^kdmin. 
Lynx, yt^»Li» siydh^ush. 


Mace (spice), J^^ hazhdz ; 

A^L-j hashdsah ; (club), j^ 

yter^r; jU>. chumdk. 
Mace-bearer, j^J^^ chulhddr. 
Macerate, ^j jj^lcT a^^iri<fe«. 
Machination, ^^ makr. 
Machine, j j : ^^ manjanth ; 

cy VT a/a^. 
Mud, 1 jj;» shaidd ; ^y^ fnaj- 

nun {s,) ; Aii^ij divdneh (s,); 

AjLflJli sheiftah. 
Madam, Jl». khdnum. 

Made (artificial), ^> - ^^ -» 



Madness, Sa^ khabt ; ^\sJi» 

shaiddi ; ^ J^^^ shuridagi. 

Magazine, \:;(f^-J^ maJehzan ; 
4-)i)-»> khezdnah ; in comp., 
A}1», as, powder — , ^U» o^b 
hdriit khdneh, 

Magian, ^j^j^ majus ; ^g^j^ 
majusi; j » ^9 gabr, — 
(religion), <Luj^ majusiyet. 

Magic, ^ sihr ; isJlij na- 
fdsai ; j:\a^ jddu 'j (natural), 


Magician, j^9 ^:^jddvrgar ; 
.1^ sahhdr. 

Magistrate, > ^^^ ^ MMm ; 
(one who gives a {jj " * 
fatvd)y ^2A« mufti. 

Magnanimoas, e:« , » ■ » <s)j— > 

Magnet, Lj^ ^^I dhan-ruhd ; 
^jlx:jb\ dhan-kesh / ,j«JoLjL* 

Magnificence, KS^yjy huzurg- 
wdrC; J5L-».l y/a^; dLJ^j 

Magnificent, Jbt* muazzam. 

Magnified, ^„gfr* mufakhkham 
(5.); v-i^ wii*«Afl?rTq/*(«.). 

Magnitude, ^^^2v ^uzurgi. 

Magpie, jXl->. c^Hi^ kildgh i 

Maidservant, ySkaniz, 

Mail (coat of — ), ^^^-^^j-s^ 

Maimed jV^-»> ehuldk {k.) ; 

Maintenance, oJLjx* maishat 

Maize, o^j zurrat 

Majesty, i^ .a f^i hazrat, pt 
\zj\ ..o^ hazardt; J^ jaldl; 

oJ5L^ jaldlat Your — ! 
o^ J\c 'aZa hazrat; A^i 
Jlc kiblah i 'dlam. 

Major, j^\i gdver. 
Make, ^^L* sdkhtan ; ^J^ 
kerdan ; ^JjjLi sdztdan. 
Maker, sji^U sdzendaL 

Malady, ^jp^ maraz; 

Male, y nar (as J ^,Ji» sA/r i 

nary — lion) ;^^»'^ zakar ; 

.^j^s^j zukurat — and 
female, t^L^ nar-madah,. 

Malediction, ^z^-^ laanat. 

Malefactor, ^j^ mujrtm. 

Malevolence, ,.j»Y«->. xj had 

Malice, *-i-^ HndU *, ^ iKarr , 



Malicious, ^j,* k\ .31 Jlj bad- 
andish ; ^Ju^v j:^ sJiutur- 

Malignancy, t^^j^ Jchiragu 

Malignant, »^ khirdh. 

Malleable, ^ narm. 

Mallet, K~i^^ ^^ mtkk'kub; 
(for clods), K^f^j^kuLukh- 

Man, ^j^ tnard, ph ^^b 
mar dan ; ^^\ ddam ; 
nafar; ^jL^^ mardumdn ; 
in pi, (people), ^^ mardum. 
Village head — , ij^ i^ dih- 
khudd. Wealthy —,^U iJi 
dungd'ddr. "Worthless — , 
^^ daniy. 
Manacles, jjj cu^^ dast hand. 
Management, j^s->sJ iadhlr ; 

0;lkj nazdrat. 
Manager, J^ ^ j iptsh-kdr; 

jb^ .1^ kdr-parddz. 
Mandate, y^^farmdn, 
Mandragora, r^j^, ydbrujy or 

Mane (horse's), Jb yaZ. 
Manful, ^j dalir. 
Mange, ^^ar. 

Manger, ^^1 aAr^or ; ciL»w» 


Mango, aJ! ambah. 
Manhood (/<>;-^ mard%; d^jl 

Manifest, 0., c;i«« muUn; j/b^ 
zdhir ; j^jik^^ hdhir; pa. p,^ 
i^j irt *. • mansus y pr, p,, 
^j M * musarrih ; .L4J9I 
^jS^ar (A;.). 

Manifestation, j\^l »5rcl?. 

Manikin, dU^ mardumak. 

Mankind, j>Sj bashar ; ^Lil 

insdn ; ^\ in^ ; (men and 

devils), ^L». j ^jmJI stm va 

jdnn; ^jXj fids. All — , 

Ji\ 9^^ kdfah i andm. 

Manly, ^\^j.^ marddnah. 
Manliness, ^^ mardU 
Manna, sz^Ji^^jJlt shir^khisht ; 
^^^^ taranjubtn ; (sweet- 
meat), ^pyaxf. 

Manner, j^jL taur or tur; «-^j]ul 
uslub ; ^CsyC^ chigunagt ; 
UiuijJo tartfcah ; kw nitat. 
In such a — , ^jj bor-naui; 
fc~^jjl ^^^^ vajM, Every 
— , vi^j-» J* harsurat. In 
this — , ,.>-i^* ham-ehuntn, 
or ^;;--^* ham^chtp. In tbat 
— , imU^* ^m-c^w«aif. In 



In the same — , ^j)L««^ 

Maimers, t^bl dddb. 

Mansion, ^^ sardy ; ^U dar. 
Thus: the — of peace, (Bag- 
dad,) JXJ\ j\^ dor us saldm ; 
the — of perdition, (hell), ^ ^ 
\jl\ ddr ul havdr; the — of 
safety (the towns of Elum 
or Kirman, etc.), ^L*V1 jb 
ddr iU amdn. 

Mantle, \^ ridd. 

Manual, j— ^^o dusti; (book), 
J\^j risdleh, 

Manufactorj, a^L*. J^^ ^dr 

Manumission, jlicl ttdk (h,). 

Manure, Jjjzii/. 

Manuscript, Wii^*'^ dost khatt ; 
Ak^ nuskheh. 

Many, j\ » ,m i hisydr; j^-^ 
khaiU ; j/<^i kastr ; ^ 
bast; Lj basd ; jjjbU muta- 
*addid. How — ? j> ; ■>. 
chand ; j^ a*. c^^A /ba^ir f 

'Map, ibliJ nakshah. 

Maple-wood, a^L* sdrmah. 

Marble, ^y-A;^ marmar ; J^ 


March (of an army), — j 
kuch (k,) ; eJia^ nAZa^ (k,) ; 
J-»y ra^t? ; ^^^j pasicK 

Marches, ja^;^ «ar ^addL 

^^^^^9 c;^")^ fnddti/dn ; (one 
haviog a yearling colt), ^^ 

Margin, iuJSiU Tidshiyeh ; ^^ 

kardn; 4j\f kardnah. 
Marginal lines, ^j^ jadvah 

Marine, fj^j^^. bahri; j^U^ 

Mariner, Ji^ maJldh. 

Marjoram, ^z.x^ satar. 

Mark, ^)Lj nishdn {k. d,\ or 

4jUj fiishdnah; (stain), cb 

ddgh; J^ 'iydr; ^j vasm; 

y\ asar; inpljyit ma'dnr; 

JJi\ dsdr. 

Marked, aj^j* marsum; f^y»y 
mausum ; JU« mulam. 

Market, j\J^ bazar (k,) ; j^^ 
8uk ; yjj yampalu. Belong- 
ing to a — , {jj^j^, bdzdri. 

Marriage, ^^^ 'arusi (k,) ; 
^AxJ^ kat-khuddi ; ^(Ci 
nikdh (k,)\ ^\f^\ izdivdj (n.); 
ia^L* mundkahat* — feast, 
Utf^ W«; A.,»jJ^ vdUmah, 
— potWoiCi, ^ muW, — 



settlement, ... ^.y^ kdbin; 

j!jy« saddk. 
Married (man), ^^^mu man- 

huh; — jj ^^h// (woman), 

A ftj^qJL* mankuhah ; ^j\ 

Marrow, ^J /i^55 ; ^ magJiz, 

Spinal — , cUi nukha; J^ 
>• KarAm-maghz. 

Marrowless, Jim ^ hi-maghz. 

Marry, ^^^^^^ ^^^ afa» A. ; ^j^ 

^an Z;^. ; pr, p, JaIi iaahhul 

(«.); (betrothing), u,^ Vi > 

Ha/& (w.). 
Mars (planet), >j^ Mirrtkh ; 

Jj^ Bahrdm, 
Marsh, v* i^* ^tt^ref a5 ; aL^ 

Marshmallows, f>»^ hhatmiy. 
Marshal, ^Uoj^;^! amir t nizdm, 
Marten,^;.^^ susar, 
Martin ia)^^^^ parastuk. 

Martingale, Xj a\ zir-hand ; 

, jt^Jao talimi. 
Martyr, y ^ t -^ shahid, pi, 

*\xJ^ shuhadd. 
Martyrdom, o^L^ shahddat 

(y.). Place of — , a ftm# 


Marvel, u,^ 'o/ad. 
Marvellous, ^usf 'o/ii. 
Masculine, j^Sj^ muzakkar; 

j^'Si tazkir. 
Mason, Lj^ hannd ; A t « t 

Masonry, (/^Usu mimdri. 
Mass, ^. ^gi 1 >->. jundagt ; 

Massacre, n., jLi Aro^/ (k,) ; 
4lil-ft-<* mukdteleh (k,) ; r., 

Massive, ^Je^zakhim, — ness, 
uu^y^ zakhdmat. 

Mast (of a ship), ^\i^j^ tir i 

Master, c^^^U «a^i5 ; lit dkd ; 
^J^ mauld; jjiU ^o^A; (of 
a family), IjiP kat-khudd. 
Generous — , cia^jo jJ^1j> 
khuddvand i ntmat. 

Masticate, ^^yi\>,jdidan ; ^ JjI> 

Mat, ^;s«A>. ^a«tr ; b^^ ^uryd. 

Match (lucifer), «i*j^ kebrit; 
(for a lamp, a linstock), j^ 
patil; (equal), ^];-* hardbar 

Matchlock, JLs^ shamkhdL 
— ^icvvck, vs^^ tufaugcit.. 



Materia], (essential), ^^l— « 
mdddiy; ^iV^^ haiyuldm; 
(stuff, etc.), ^U« inimdsh. 

Materiality, owjU«»*> jiimdnu 

Materials, ljLJ ashdb. 

Maternal, ^^L« madari. — 
aunt, a11». khdlah, — uncle, 
jlU kkdlu. 

Mathematician, y-> ^y 4 t i»t^- 

Mathematics, ^^j riydxu 

Matrimony, JCj nikdh. 

Matrix, ^Uo*^ yuydn ; . >- 

Matron, »^ji^ mukhaddarah 
Matter, what is the — ^, v^ a». 
\za0»\ cheh chiz ast. No — , 
o>mJ L;^»^ at^ nttf^ / (pus), 
^ kaih ; (adhering to the 
corners of the eyes), jL^^9 
ktyh. — , (the first principle 
of everything), Yjj^ haiyuld 

(>5 t^A^). 

Mattock, x^ktdand. 

Mattress, (sl!#^ dusheh ; 

Mature, itJU hdligh; 

Maturitj; ^JJ^ rasidagi. 

Matutinal, y^j^ 9ahari. 

Maxim, x^pand. 

May be that, aA» jjH ehdyad- 
keh, — it not be, ^jiL* 
ma - bdsh. — it do you 
good, (said when anyone 
eats, etc.), julU U^ o^tlc 
^dfiyat-irshumd bdshad. 

Me, to me, \^ mard ; (affixed), 

«• -am. 
Meadow, ^^^ chaman ; ^ji,jj^ 

murgh-zdr; c'^ rdgh. 

Meal (flour), ^^wrd; (repast), 
tadm : tfVl 



Mean, a,, J-«JS zalil; 

kamin ; ii^ kamtnah; aU^* 
«i/%zA / JiS^ ra-2t7 / s.3^ Li 
nd'Situdah ; 4jU ^j^ ^rl«- 
mdyah; ^^^ dun; ^ ^ ^ 
khasts ; j.,fJi^ haklr. Most 
— ^/oAahkar. Of — intelli- 
gence, fj\j ij^ khtrak-rdi. 
— persons, ^jUa. khasdn. 

Meaning, ^kn^ mam. — less, 
^jM V U md Id yani. 

Meanness, ^^Jt« suyhr ; j<-S^Li 
nd-kast; Ja-# eafl: i«- ^r -g- 



vasdit ; Ay^^ vasilah ; J.^^ 
tavassul. — of living, yiU» 
ma ash. Bj all — , JU^^^ 
ha har hdl, Bj no — , 
^j ^j4 > he hich vajh. 

Meanwhile, Ul ^^1 .^ dar %n 

Measles, dU^ surkhak ; ^j^ 
Murkhichah ; I^m^ hasbat. 

Measure, w., ^^\j vazn (k,);pl.y 
J\jj\ auzdn; ^U-j paimd- 
yish {k.) ; jjl^ paimdnah ; 
Jr-i-^ Arff/w:/ (of grain), j/ 
kail ; v., O')^^^ paimudan ; 
pa, p., ^yS^ makyul; pr. p., 
Jji\C mukdil. 

Measurement, \z» '1^ m»» masd- 

Measurer, Uj i paimd. Land 

Meat, yzJ^^ gusht ; (roasted), 
f^jS kehdh. 

Mechanics, ^p*^ manjamk. 

Medal, i^ tughmeh. 

Meddle, i?., vj^;^» ,ji-J j s^^ 
pas pish k. 

Meddler, ^yi^fuzul. 

Mediation, k«iy tavassut (k,) ; 
oi>L; vasdtat {n.\ 

Mediator, \i^^ vasit ; 

Medical, ^^Jt tahhiy. The — 

arty v^ ^t&&. 
Medicine, 1^^ davd^ pi., A-^yl 

adviyah; j^b dariL — 

snuffed up, r-j-i^^ nufukh; 

Gjlj nushu\ 
Mediocritj, lo^l ausat. 
Meditation, ^fikr (^.) 'y y^ 

tafakkur (Jc.) ; jJL>jjl aWt- 

sheh {k,) ; J.«»l-J taammul 

Medlar, JSjl a^yo/ / jjj^j ^^' 

Meek, ^JL halim ; ^5L fww/a- 
y»w». — ness, Jk Ai7m. 

Meeting (with), oLJ^L* muld- 
kdt (k.) ; JL-*j »i«a^ (w.) ; 
(interview), ^As^ j\>. chir- 
chashm {sh.) ; J^j^ du-ehdr 
{sit.) ] ^% taldki ; ^^S 7 1 • 
multaM ; 4 u« \ «w jalsah 
(seance) ; ,jJk* majlis. 

Melancholic, ^^^l^ sauddu 

Melancholy, JUl^ *<^j^ shuri- 
dah'khdtir ; \^j^^ saudd; 
^^ kdhit ; U^U mMikU' 

Mellifluous, ^^.j^ shtrim. 



Melodious, bl ^^ ». khush- 

Melod J, AJj;Ji tardnah ; ^t * « 

naghmat ; ^jj^ surud ; ^^ 

Melon, »j|^..K.^ Jcharhuzah ; 

\yt^ JeJiarbuzah, Water — , 

AJJ^jcjb hinduvdneh. 
Melt, ^j:>\Sfguddkht€m; pr. p, , 

dL_^ tasbtk (n.). 

Melter, (s)L« sabbdk. 

Member (partner), t»i ^ ^ 
sharik; ^jrajik; (limb), 
jiAC *iAZO^ pi., 'LacI a's^. 

Mem brum virile, jf Mr ; »jj 1 
i^L* dlat i mubdsharat ; tji 

Memoir, *fj3 tazkerah. 

Memorandum, tj:J^\^ i>b ydd- 

Memory, ^L* ydd (dsk) ; )aa», 
hifz (k,). Retentive — 
(tbe word o^ kuvvat being 
understood), Akil>. hdfizah. 

Mend, ^j^^^o j\^ tamir k. ; 
(clothes), v:;^ j»; rafv k. 

Mendicant, \j^» gedd ; jiii 

Menial, jy naukar. 

Menses, . J^^ Jiaiz, 

Menstruous woman, i ^ >L-». 

Mensuration, cu»>\,m._# musd- 


Mention, ^ zikr {k,) ; pa, p.^ 

jf^ fhazkur ; jyty% mazbur. 

— above, i-^Jl jj»^ mw'wia 

Mentor, aU /a/aA. 

Mercenary, j^^y^ imCtajar ; 
(hired-labourer),^^! a;Vr. 

Merchandise, ^j^s\^y^ saudd- 
gart ; o^lsf tijdrat 

Merchant, jXi tdjir, pi., ^W 
tujjdr ; ^^»bj_-i saiiddgar ; 
^Ai bdzargar. 

Merciful, a>j rdhim ; ^jl » »; 
rahmdn ; ^<J^\U^^ bakhshd- 
yishgar. Most — , ^_..»..l 

Merciless, jq^j>g-> bt-dirtgh. 

Mercury (metal), l,>\ ♦ j .«» 
atnidb; ,j^\ zibek; (planet), 

^^Uafi 'titdrid. 

Mercy, c:>_«-»^ rahmat ; ^.j>j 

Merely, ^Ja** ma^;?. 


hajir ; J~i^o 

Merit, uiJLJ liyA^at ; isjij])^ 

Meriting, jUjS-' ittAffdh (i.). 
MeritoriouB, .'j|j tmdvdr 

{&.): JiV /ay.* (*». J.)- 
Merry, ylyi^J dUkhiuh; jUla 

JiUhdd; . 

'•■ khurrata. 

Mesb, iJw tkabaheh. 
Mesopotamin, i^^ Aljazirek; 

jXj ,lji I)itfdr Bekr. 
MeBsage, .U^ paighdvt ; ^^uj 

paigham ; .Lj paiifdm ; w 

Messenger, (jb»j* feriitddeh. 

Foot — , A_*l ; Aanif. 

Mounted — , ^LjI* chdpdr. 

— from heaven, J^_, ratul; 

yf^Lj paiydntbar, etc. 
MeBUfth, jf.1 maaih. 
MeBsmate, ^j rafi^. 
Metal, _)li/?i«. 
Metallic, ,j^Jilizzty. 
Metamorphosis, ^— * miuM. 
Metaphor, jV^ mujdz ; i^UlmI 


-ical yt^L«* 

Metaphysics, ijU:^!! ildhiyal. 
Metempsychosis, >.LJ fand- 

Meteor, uL^ «&iA(U. 
Metbeglia, iJ(,t^ thahi-ab. 

Metbinks, \tfyityd. 
Method, !.• _ 1 - adli^dk, in jif . 

V-^U.1 aiAUb. Without 

— I Ijj^ iJ bi-»ar upd, 
Metre (meaaure), ^lx£> a»^- 

y<*» ■' <ay w™ ; ('eree), 

^ bahr. 
Metropolis, lo^ ^Ij piiiahht ; 

t:^-3iijU ddr til'kitld/at. 
Mew (cat's), ..^ j_t no* 

Midday, Ji enAr/j)^ n^ 

Middle, *jL> mtyif>Mul ,- J^t-~t 

Middling, <.^U* nm^drib. 
Mid-night, <_^ ~i n{tl^-^kab; 

b^ Jj dU i iha'b. 
Midst, 'LJI omii; i-Jb i:aS>. 
Midsummer, kJ ^aic; m\:_]li 

Midway, t\j **i> nimah^h 
Midwife, 4;l> kdbaah. 
Mien, o^^ tirat. 
Might, |j**li bd'g. . — J, ji\j 

kddir ; _ke 'aiiim. 
Migration, Jij nafil (i.) ; Jliiil 

intilsal Qt.V 



Mild, j«JL halim ; Siu muld' 
yim, — ness, jlLJ Unat; 

Mildew, eU;! purtnik (z,). 

Military, i^^La ^askaru 

Milk, It., j^J^ shir; (sour), 
c^d dugh ; cj^ j * ^ shir" 
dugh. Sour skimmed — , 
c:a.mU mdst — and water, 
iaij\i yaldak ; v., ^jXJ^j^ du' 

Milker, ijjJ*^^ diahendah. 

Milk-pail, aJ^a duskanah. 

Milkj way, ^Jlt^ kahkashdn. 

Mill, Lttl dsffd. Hand — , 



Miller, ^U L^dsgd-hdn. 

Millet, ^^J\ arzan. 

Millstone, ek^ L.*! dsgd-sang. 

Mimicing, jJLJ taklid. To be 
— some one, ^J^Jy j^ jJaj 
taklid dar a. 

Mimosa, !>:<«» sant. 

Minaret, ji\u mindrah. 

Minced meat, a*J i:iinah (L). 

Mind, n., J^\>> khdtir ; Joje 
akl ; js^ zamtr ; J^ dil. 
Of two — s, Ja jA du-dil. 
Soothing the — , j1j5 J^ c?»7- 
naiuUf. Worldly ^-ed, 1^^ 

cUiM;> dunyd'parast. Afflicted 

in — , ju«»». J> dil-khastah. 

Ease of — , ji^ ^U ifcA^f- 

tir^amCi; r., ^^i^j^ c:^i-i.U 

muLtafet A. («A.). 
Mindful, ^^^;^ kkahar ddr. 
Mine, n., ^;Jj(« nut dan ; J^ 

kdn ; (military), Cr'JLJ nakb 

(z.) ; v., ^jJjT kandan. 
Miner, ^c^J«« madanchL 
Mineral, ^ kdni; ^Jjju »i«*- 

</aitt, J?/., ^ji)\*^ maddin ; 

obl«j^ jamdddt 
Minister (of State), ^j r«^/r, 

pL \jjj vuzard ; Up» Ji kdr- 

farmdf iiuJji) ^j\(;^ arkdn i 
daulat; Jj^jJl 'Ujl auligd ed 
daulat. Prime — , Jacl^j^ 
sadr i dzam, — resident*, 
^J^y ilcht; Jza^ jq^ vazir 

Ministry, c:*j])j vizdraL 
Minor, n., ^^1 j^iu» saghtr 
ussinn ; a)\j li nd hdligh. 

Minstrel,^^9 Ls. khunyd-gar. 

Mint (house), ^jji\^^ ddr ttz 

zarb; ajL^ v]^ zarrdl' 

khdnah; (herb), tCM nana ; 

4-O-j pudunah; i^jy^ pti- 


MiDute, n., iJt-Jj dajcikak 
A few — s, i:^ ^,i Jami 
ehand ; a., (eroall), j,_i. 
khurd. — ly, ijjj bedikkat. 

Miracle (performed by a pro- 
lihtft), tyf mu'jizah, pi., 
ojj-j?* tau'jizat; (nhich 
happens), ^z^\^ kerdmal ; 
o»W (^Iw kharik i 'ddat ; 
oiW ^yi i/iiV^ 1 'ddat. A 
— of beauty, |JLe ACj 
wijrdr i 'dlam. 

Miwge, \J[j^ tatdb. 

Mire, ^_,5U. kham. 

Mirror, *»jil d-inah ; ^iJCjT 
dbginah ; cjI^_« mirdt; — 
lioldiT, (a court officer), 
Ji *iJl drinah-ddr. 

Mirth, ^LajLJii shddmdni; 
LL-jl imbisit. — fa), jl_i 
gkdd ; ijCji. iAii«4. 

JVlUadveiJtur.', X Wi. 

Misanthropy, i-lj* huMi/et. 

Misappreheiifiiuii, Uc ghalat. 

Misbehaviour, ^J.^jXj. bad 

MlBcnrriage, l.U-1 I>*a( (i.). 

MiBchief, i,1^ tliardrat. 

Mischievous jjl tharir. 

M'sdeedp, i,.jj zamimeh, pi., 
l^itS zamaim. 

Miaer, Jjs 60 WW; j^xakur; 

Miserable, jSLj nakid; v)C 

Misery, _,y>^l iairdr; cyUi 

MisfortuDe, 1.. (Tm i fioJ;},- 

watdibi i-\j baliyet, pi, 
oLIj baHyat; ,=^1 4/af, 
/»/., oLtT (|/S( ; JL>,t*a6aI; 

Miss, «., ^oX^Uii (tA«id i.; 

Miasioa (embaaay), ijU_ m- 

MiiBionary, ,jljiS £e»iii«ft. 
Missive, tUI^ murdaaleh. 
Mist, j,j (^Mtf ; jW. bukhdr. 
MisUke, Uc. ^Aofaf (;t,); lU. 

Ma(,i (i.)- 
Misletoe, ^ijCkdpali. 
Mistress (sweetheart), -l^T Ji 

dil-drdm ; .i.n\J. ghdkid ; 

»^L> <_* aah-pdrak; (of 

bouse), jU. kkdnum. 
Mistrusttul, gjUTjii hadgitmdn 


Misty, t^^pur mih. 



(k,) ; (quarrel), a!^1^ mujd^ 
deleh (k,). 

Mix, ^^\jjj5 dar-guzashtan ; 
^J:.^J -» sirUhtan ; ^^^jLi**! 
dmikhtan ; Oi>j^wll a«Af^r- 
<^». — up, fj^\ yt ^ar 
dmikhtan; pa, p,, ^.j 7 »• 
mumtazaj ; f^)*^-^ mamzvj ; 
(blended), k^Ls^ makhlut ; 
pr. p., ^ mazaj; yJ\ 
dmiz, — together in society, 
lUU:* mukhdlatat. 

Mixture, kJLft. khalt; d*, 

mtzak ; 


\ dmizish. 

Moan, Jlj na/«^ (k,). 

Moat, ^^^ gauddl. 

Mob, 4^\C:a hangdmeh ; ^U^^l 

Mocker, ^L» sdkhir. 

Mockery, jjJr^ rt«A khand. 

Mocking, dk^ tazahhuk («.)• 

Mode, ^j^j ravish; k«3 namat; 
oitlj.** sigdkat; c^jLit uslub, 
pi. <^L*1 asalih; x^ 9<7i?*, 
m ;>/. (feshions), jl^l a^var. 

Model, A»j*i raomt^na^ (A;.). 

Moderate, cj^j varra ; JjuJJm 

Moderation, ^^j jjL* miydnah' 
rapt; J/j-a:/ fiiddl. 

Modern, ^L». ^aZt; X^J-^ 
jadtd^ pi, (people), ^ji^\^ 

Modesty jL_*,Jt» sharmrsdr ; 

^^j..t..i ij^ pardah'tiishin, 

— ly,JsA\ a^tr. 
Modesty, ^jH* sharm ; ^^^L.-^ 

sharm-sdrl : \^ hayd ; L->la^ 

hijdb; ^j\ dzarm; JU-JLJ^ 

Modification^ JiJjJ tddil(k,). 

Modulation, \^ navd, 

Mogul, or Mongolian, JJL« 

Mohammedan, ^jS^a^ tnuham- 
madt; ^^^UL^ musahndn, — 
religion, iUL^ mussalmdm; 

JXm\ isldm. 


Moist, J nam (Jc,) ; (s)lij nam- 
ndk; ^jSL^ nam gin; jUi 
namlu ; l->T^«-» sir-db / cJ^ 
ratb ;yJ tar {k.). 

Moisten, ^jXi^LcT dghdridan ; 
^j>^nv> khisidan ; 

Moisture, cu-»jJ^ rutubat ; 

\zij\Si naddvat ; \^\ ab. 
Mole (animal), j^jjijA mush 

i kur ; (on face), J^ ArAflZ. 

Molest, ^5.J^^ ttzardau. 



Molester, ^^j^ sar-kub. 

Moment, iJ»J lahzat ; s^ 
lamhah. At that — , aJjUa 
hamdn'dam. One — , ajX-j 

Momentary, v::^LXj |rai(;-«a a/. 

Monarch, »U»^L pddishdh. 

Monarchy, j\it^[^pddi8hdhi. 

Monastery, »lLJl»> khdnkdh ; 

jl^ dair ; sjuya sumCah, 
Monasticism, v^A^Lft^ ruhhd- 

Monday, a«i1 jj du-shambah. 

Money, J^ pul ; (cash), J^ 
jjj pulri-nakd, — paid in 
advance, JL* film ; ijj^j 
ramun ; {jj»^ *arbun» — 
and goods, ^j^:^ j Jij nakd 
Mjins. Eeady — purchase, 
j-i^ LTt^-^ khush'kharid. 
Small — , change, »^ ArAf^r- 
(/aA. False — , lJS AraZi. 
A sum of — , sL* mahlayh, 

— changer, i-jj^ sarrdf. 
Mongrel, a&b^j^ du-ragah. 

Monitor, ^^\j ndsih ; x^\j 

vaiz, -r of a school, ^Ai-ii. 
Cy>i"irri« khalifah i kuttdb, 
Monky s^f^j rdhihy pi. ^\jbj 

Monkey, aj;^ btizinah; ^ 

kird ; ^JJ9^ maimun. 
Monopolist, ^^^^ muhtakir. 
Monopoly, ^Lotfil inhUdr. 
Monotheist, s^jm muvahhid. 
Monsoon, «a^ mausum. 

Monster, v£^^ *irfrU. 
Monstrous (size), ^«J^ 'azim. 
Month, ftU mih ; juJ^ shahff 
pl;jj^ shuhilir. The Mos- 
lem (lunar) months are 1st, 
A;af* muharram ; 2nd, JL« 
safar ; 3rd, J^Vl m^j rdh% ul 
avval ; 4th,y»yi acjj rabt ul 

dkhir : 6th, ^j^yl\ v^**^*-* 
jumddi ul awal; 6th, (5^U» 

^LjJl ytimoi^t U9sdni; 7tb, 
k-^^ ri?;>5 ; 8th, ^j\^ sha- 
ban; 9tb, ^^Lm; ramazdn ; 
10th, Jlyi shawdl; 11th, 
ijjdjljj 4ru7 ^a<^A; 12tb, 
i^ > «*7 Aij(;aA. The 
ancient Persian (solar) year 
is used for the crops. It 
begins at No rus, the Yemal 
Equinox (21st March). 1st, 
cH-U^-^ f^^^ordin (April) ; 
2nd, m^i^iy )^l ardi bihUht 
(May) ; 3rd, ^1^ ArAiir- 
ddd (5xrafc*^\ 4tV\^ jjf /iV 



(July); 5th, ^1^ marddd 

(August) ; 6th, jf^^ shah* 

rir (Sept.) ; 7th, tU^ mihr- 

tndh (Oct.) ; 8th, ^UT Mdn 

(Nov.); 9th, jS^dzur (Dec.) ; 

10th, ^^ dai (Jan.); 11th, 

^U4> hahmdn (Feb.) ; 12th, 

yt^JxJutS asfanddrmuz (end- 

(ing 2l8t of March). 

Monthlji ajL»U mdhiydnah; 

^!j»U mdhwdr ; tUf lU mdh 

ha mdh, — allowance, iykll« 

mushdharah, — wages, a>UU 

mdhdnah ; ^jj^j <>\.,.» mdh' 

m A 



Monument, ^\r^b ydd-gdr. 

Mood (tense), <ir.,j .» sighah, 
pi, iu^ siyagh. 

Moon, »U mdh; aa mah;j^ 
kamar. New — , ji lU waA 
i nau. Crescent — , J5La 
hUcU, Full — , jjj hadr. 
Little — , *ari^» mahcheh. — 
faced, j[^U iTviA-r^. Beau- 
tiful as the — , (J*^ mah- 
vash, — light, v^-• ^'*^^" 
tdh ; u^bftU mdh-tdb. 

Moral, a., JU sdlih. 

Morality, ^km saldh. 
Morals, ji^) akhldk„ 

More, yj^^ hish; 
tar; nj\i\ ziyddeh; 

Moreover, ^jj^ »j^ 'aldveh 

Morning, j^ suhh; . 

sahdh ; :^x^\» hdmddd ; t\> |*l> 
hdm-gdh / (dawn),^;-j? fajr* 
Next — , ^)bljL«b hdmddddv. 

Morocco leather, j^ji\ adim. 

Morose, kzJ^ sakht. — nesp, 

te^^ durushtu 
Morrow, to-, \^ fardd. The 

day after to-morrow, 1^ ^^ 

pas-fardd; \^ ^js^j pastn- 

Morsel, Jl^ nivdlah. 

Mortal, ft., ^\ifdnt; a., dd4« 
muhlik, — ^ity, Aijfand* 

Mortar (plaster), ^jT yach ; 

(for pounding), ^J^^ havdn ; 
^^U hdvan. Pestle and — , 
4Zt»^ ^J^yk havdn dastah. 
Mortgage, ^^ rahn (yz.). 
Mortgaged, ^^^ rah{n. 
Mortgagee, ^J^ murtahin. 
Mortgager, ^^^ rdhin. 
Mortification (of passions). 



oi^ *ufunat ; (of mind), 

cu«a^ zahmat {ksh»). 
Mortify (a wound), ^jjJI. »^JJ3 

gandideh sh. ; (passions), 

yji>^\x^zahtk.; (a person), 

^jib ^hl dzdr d. 
Mortmain, \^Jljj vdkf. 
Mosaic (wood), ^c*j^ khdtvnit, 
Moslem, ^LJl 


musdlmdn ; 
JL^ muslim. 

Mosque, j^.^^ masjid, pi., 
j».Lm» masdjid. The great 
— of a city, «^U jdmt. 

Mosquito, iJLipashah. 

Moss, •J'jj puzhah. 

Most, ^;;i/^ hishtarin, — ly, 
L,^lg| aghlah 

Mote, i^i zarreh, 

Motb, aSIj^ parvdnah; ^J»\^ 
fa/rdsh. — eaten, i^^ •X-j 
hid khurdah. 

Mother, ^^L* mddar; L*L-« 
mdmd; J umm ; »jJ|^ vdli- 
dah, — in law, ^IjJ*^ 
khush-ddman ; jjjjU maran-- 
dar ; J X* ^ khushu; ,jl-i. 
khash, or khush. — of pearl, 
<^j^ sadqf. 
Motion, c:Xp. harakat ; yj»^ 
jumhish ; eJ^ taharruk, 

— 7e5P, ^L sdkin. 

Motive, ji^r o»-#i dast dviz; 

^y^ maksud; ^^JLS iak» 

rib ; ^^ gharaz. 
MottOy cu»^ 'aldmat 
Mould (form), ^JLj kdlih; 

(soil), (&)l». khdk. 
Mouldy, 1^ di3^ zang zadek, 

— ness, (ftli^ zang. 
Moulting, J^ nuM (k.). 
Mound, jJ tappeh. 

Mount (rise), ^jjJt. ^ bar shu- 
dan; (a horse), ^J^J^ .ij-» 
sovvdr sh. — on, ^JZm^ j) 
bar ni 8 haft an. 

Mountain, »^ kuh ; J-;^ jebel. 

— ous, ^Laj^s kuh-tdr; 
^j\'f^ kuhistdn. 

Mourn, c)^^^ jj-j--il afstU kh.; 

Mourner (hired,) y i^^y nath 


Mournful, dLuJ^ dil-tang ; 

(&)ll^ gTiamndk, 
Mourning, iiyii tdadyeh {h). 

Belonging to — , ^^U fna- 


Mouse, ^^ mush. Field — ^ 

mush i dashtU 

Mouth, ^J^^ dahan; ^^^^ 



n\y\ afvah. — of a firearm, 
Jj! lulah. Inside of the — , 
^ naj or nuj. Parts round 

the — , jj^ puz. — fnl l^ 

Movables, i^L«*l ashdb. 
Move, V. »., ^jXi^^ jwmhiAan ; 

t?. i"» (;;JJL:.»> jumbdnidan ; 

^)JuJLxj taJcdnidan ; pa, p,^ 

(sJ^ mutaharrih ; pr, p,, 

MoTement, wi^jT^ htrahat 

(d. kh) ; ^JCJ takdn {d,). 
Mover, (s)^ muharrik. 
Mow, ^)Jijjd diravtdan. 
Mower, >^j^d diravandeh. 
Much, L^ 6a«a; ^^^ khaili ; 
^L-j hisydr ; ^Jj\^ fardvan ; 
^j*^ jl a^ ^. As — , so — 
^y • ^ ehanddn ; ^^y^ 
chandin. Too — , ^Ij^ ziydd, 
^ Mucus (of the nose), LLi^ 

Mud, Jf yt7; iSU. khaUb. 

Muddv, (X J J^ *Aw^ gU; 
j\J tdr. 

Mulberry, Ojj tut. 

Mulct, ^ijU tdimn; cu-*]^ 
ghardmat, — for man- 
s\&aghter, o^j ^i^^/. 

Mule, ^Li Ara/*r;^l astar; 

Muleteer, ^-^yJ^lJ katirchi ; 
}^ ij^W eharvd'ddr. 

Multiplication (in arithmetic), 
ij^ 2farJ (A:.). 

Multiply, i:)SJ\}i\ afzdtdan. 

Multitude (crowd), i^l am- 
buh; (number), ^Jju ta ad- 

Mummy, {j\t»y^ mumiydi. 

Mundane, c^L>^ dunydvi. 

Munificence, ^JTa \,t < bakh- 
shandagt) Jj> bazL 

Munificent, ^Jcr* sakhi; ^|^ 

Murder, Jlj ^a/Z. Charged 
with — , 4iJ/ ^j^ khun' 
giriftah. Fine for — , ^^ 

Murderer, ^i^i. khunt ; JJ\i 

Murmur, jl^ zemzenieh. 
Murmuring (complaint), a1^9 

gilah (k,) ; IjCl shakvd (k,). 
Muscle, 2Ufi *azalat; (fish), 

<^ju0 sadafl 
Mushroom, -,^lJ Ararc^ ; J^J^ 

ehatar % mdr ; PtiU^* tamd^ 



Music, , , S .,.>»»> musiki, — 
gallery, jjl^ icai^ nauhat- 

Musical scale or gamut, \^^ 
^lil pardah i ilhdn. — in- 
strument, jL* sdz. 

Musician, i^J^ mutrih. 

Musk, dLL* mushk. A pod of 
— , 4-JLJ ndfah. — rat, 
^ykS^kar-mush, — scent- 
ed, y (sHa mushk'bu ; ^;XL* 

Musket, tsL^Ju tufang ; j^J^ 
handuk ; ebjj topak. — eer, 
-^jXj handukchi. 

Muslin, JJU nialmal ; j>IjU\ 

MustachioP, c^^ burnt. 
Mustard, J^ khardU. — 

seed, y^JultjM sarshaf. 

Mutability ,^^JiJI taghayyur. 

Mutable, or Mutation, JjjJ 
tabdil{k,)\j^ taghytr (Jc,), 

Mute, JV Idl 

Mutilated, jJu\ ahtar ; jVj». 

Mutineer, ^Ij ydghi (sh.) ; 

^Ic ^dst («A.). 

Mutiny, ^J^ ^b ya^A* ym 

Mutter, ^JXi^9J rakidan. — 
in a rage, ^^^xS) zaktdan. 

Mutton, xjutf \z^^ gmht-ir 

Mutual, ^jf^\a^ jdnibain. — ly 
known, uJ,U:* mutadrif. 

Muzzle (dog), JJJ ^ib^ dahan 
hand; (of gun), ^^^ dahan. 

Myrobalan, jJUU halilah. 
Myrrh,y* murr. 
Myrtle, ^\ da; >jy* m^rd. 
Mysterious, ^k.i^ makhfl, 

— ly, \jM sirran. 
Mystery, j\j rdz. Divine — , 
^1 aJ^ hikmai % lldM, 

Skilled in — , c)^^jj^ rutnuz- 

Mystic, w., ^y0 suft. — al, 
^l) hdtin. — ism, cJ^ 

Mythological, ^y^ mauhum. 

Mythology, oUjA^-* mauku- 

Nail (finger), ^U ndkliun; 

(P^g)> J^**^ mismdr ; 
V mxlcK, 



Naked, aj^^ harahnah; ci^j) 
lukht; ^^ *urydn; ^Ja 
'art. — ness, ^S^^^^, harah- 

Name, »., *U ndm {d, gz.); 
^^ ism (nh.), pLy ^^^ 
asdmt and ^U^l asmd*. The 
name showing descent is 
called ^Jfhunyeh ; the title 
is e^J lakab: the " nom de 
plume " is ifiij^ takhallus. 
In the — of God, 4JII — > 
hismilldh; v,, ^pu^li ndmi- 
dan; pa. p,, ^^^^ musam- 
md (n.). — Ij, ^. yanl 
— sake, ^^ samty. 

Nap (sleep), o^ cAwr^ (z,) ; 

(of cloth), dULTArM/KA;. 
Nape (of the neck), UJI kifd» 

Naptha, 1sa-j »(/i^. 
Napkin, JUl«»^ dast-mdl. 

Narcissas, yjSj nargis ; ^j^i-J 
nastaran; j^ 'ahhar. 

Narcotic, .> *^ mukhaddir ; 
^sLm muskir. 

Narration, u-i»j vasf{k,), 

Narrative,^yLJ takrir (nJ). 

Narrator, (jj\j rdvu 

Narrow, csLJ tang. — place, 
muifk, pi, (Ji^ ^u- 

zdi/c. — minded, J^ 
tang-dih — ^ness, ^-JClJ 

Nastj, is)\i l^ na/pdk; Uu^^> 
^a«i/! — ness, \sJ^y^ kisd- 

Nation, ^ji kaum; ol* miUat. 

— al, jxl* millati. 

Native (of), ^jt^ mutavattin. 

— place, jJ^ maulid ; ^Jb>j 

Nativity, ^^-.-^ mildd; ^Vj 

vildd; o^y^ vUddat. 
Natural, ^i zdti ; ^»-t tab*ig ; 

fju^ tahiiy ; ^U^ sha- 

mdilt; ^5l». khalkly. 

Naturalized, cj>j-«m^ mahsub 

Nature, iu!l» fa5',* cs^&J? ^(^ 

6ra^; cui^ tinat ; \z>JaJ 

Jitrat ; aL^ nihdd ; jLs? 

nujdr ; «JuLah. jibtlat; l^^ 

sajhat ; ^z^t»^ sirtsht. Dame 

^ar. Good — , >* eU WiAr- 

Naughty, j-> had. — ness, 

kzjS^ sagtyet. 
Nausea, e^ tahavvu. 
Nautical^ ^ wA, v^/i \>aVx. 


Navel, ^li ndf; ^l5 ncM, 
Navigator, jiU jdshu, 
N*^i *t^ hahriyah. 
Near, ttL^^)J nazdiJc ; ^-3 
nazd ; vJ;J karih, — ^Ij, 

uyu takrtban ; e^ij^ '/zn- 

Neat, ; . »t few/^. — ness, 
vs^lkS nizdfat. 

Necessaries, ,^1^ lavdzim ; 
objj^ zaruriydt ; ^^y-^ 

Necessarily, Jl-> V /a iwc?^?; 
lj^j^\i hizzururat ; ^^ V 

Necessary, ;»., e£^^ zaruri ; 
^Ji Idzimi ; Aft-ftJ nafakat ; 
^^j-->.l^ vdjibi ; jCj^ dar kdr. 
That which is — , <^V U 
TTia lazam. It is — , j^li 5a- 
yad; o»-#l j^V Idzem ast ; 
^:l^ j^j^ zurur ast ; *->:>■ Ij 
kza»*»\ vdjib ast. To be — , 
^^^1-mjU hdyistan. 

Necessitous, jju v2a».1». Iidjat- 
tnand; m^:isl^ muhtdj. 

Necessity, o^jj^ zarurat {n,) ; 

^j^ luzum ; J):J1 iltizdm. 

Neck, ^J^yardan ; ,j;ft*ank ; 


aJ, rakbat, — cloth, or tie, 
juj ^^ gardan hand. 

Necklace, xjJS yulu-hdnd. 

Nectarine, JJl shalil. 

Need, -.l-s>.l ihtiydj (dsh.). 

Needle, ^^J^ suzan. — case, 
j^ljj^j-. euzanddn, — work, 
^^^ chakin ; yjjjSi% kulldh 

Needless, vza^^ hijihat. 

Needy, —l::^ muhtdj. 

Nefarious, j^fazlh, 

NegatioQ (in logic), ^JL» salb. 

Negative, j-J nafty, — ly, 
Cftj najiyan. 

Neglect, JUftY ihmdl {n.) ; cJUc 
ghiflat (^ ), 

Negligence, uu Lag ghaflat; 
^Jju-jlji. kh'dbidagt ; JaIC 
takdhul. Wilful — , JiUJ 

Negligent, JiU yA4/?/ (M.); 
J^^ muhmU; ^j^Uju mv/a- 

Negotiation,^!) J ^\rA:ar o bar; 

^^Ix* mudmeleh (Jc,), 
Negro, ^Jl^ habaahi; jLjj 

Neighing, a^^ shihah (k.); 
^^ 8a>vCl ^."^^ 



Neighbour, aiL.«a hamsdyeh; 

jj^ mujdvir ; .L^ jar, ph 
4j1,-,j^ jirdn; j|>-*** ^am- 

javdr, — B and dependants, 
\J\i J .U jar hi^ljdr. A 
next door — , j\ji*U» ham- 
divdr. — hood, ^c-X— >\.i,», a > 
ham-sdyagi ; Sf^jivdr ; ^\y 


navdhi; cjjj\3^ mujdvarat. 

Neither, nor, jj aj na^ wa^. 

Nephew, »^J^ ^-^Lh ^^^f^^ 
zddeh ; j^\ji j^^ pesari btrd- 
dar ; (sister's son), »^1^ j^\y>^ 
khdher zddeh, etc., pi. ^^^> 
bent *amm. 

Nerve, ^-^"^ 'asabeh; va.»». l . <i c 

Nervous, ^^L*J farsdn. 

Nest, ^JJ^ dshydn; AiL^l dsh- 
ydnah ; sAJl,^ kdshdnah. 

Net, jSCji* shabakeh ; A^ ddm ; 
j^ iur. 

Nettle, ij}J^» gaznah. 

Neutral, uJA»-j bitaraf. 

Never, j^^J^ hirgiz; UJa-» 
kafan. — theless, Ul amma, 

New,ji nau^ovno; (fresh), tj3 
tdzah; (modern), Jjja. ja- 
did ; 1 Ju-j y nathpaiJd, — 
comer, iJuJ J> nau-dyertdah. 

New year's day, j^y (j> j c **</ 
t) nau-ru^. 

News, ^^ khabar; J^\ akh- 
bdr, G-ood — , jj|jj navtd ; 
iSy^ muzhdah. Announcing 
— , j^ ,f 7.>,..> tnustdbihir* 
— paper, *-^^j^j ruzndmeh. 

Next (to), J-Mtt-s— • muttasil; 

*7 .r^ J ) paivdsteh; (after), 

jjt) baad ; ^^ pas, — day, 

^^j j^jruz-i-digar. — year, 

»Xj1 JLr sa? f dyandeh. 

Nib of a pen, JiJ d^ wawAr » 

Nice, dLJLi kashang ; el J m'A-, 

Niche, A^IL» tdkcheh. 


Niece, J j^^ J dukhtar ibird- 
dar ; %:\j j:\jf birddar zddeh; 
(sister's daughter), > -> > 
^1^ dukhtar i khdhar, etc. 

Niggard, J-is iaM*7; ^^^JLI 
fey WW, — linese, Jic ii^M/, 
— ly, ^juij.M'** khasts. 

Nigh, u^ A:«WA. 

Night, CjJi «^aA; J^ Zai7. 
To — f L-^JL«i imshab. Last 
- — , L--Ml)i dtshab. The — 
before last, v-^JLj^ pari- 
ahdb. — and day (inces- 



— Ijf c^ jt^ har shab, — 
after — , o-ll .* i» shabd- 
shab, — time, or at — , 
ft\CiLl shabdngah; i^l^^J^ 
ahabgdh ; Jjmn'.A t^ shab- 

hangdm. Dark — , j^^ t^ 
shab i daijur. Travelling 

^7 — J J 

shab-ro, — 

attack, ^^ k^ shab-hhun ; 
js^C^ shab-gir. Vigilant 
during the — , ^b ijij v-i 
shab - zindah - ddr. The — 
watch, ,j;J^v-^.-l shab-gard. 
— gown, CjJ;# ^^]^ pirdhan i 

Nightingale, J--—! ? 6tt/6w/ ; 

t_rJ>p 'andaltb ; Jys^ hazdr. 

Nightmare, ^^Icdbus; JjJ 
fttWi^Z ; ^^Ji barhhafch. 

Nightshade, ^^.^^Icakenj, 

Nimble, (sbU ehdbuk; dVU 

Nimrod, j|jj^ nimrud. 

Nine, aS wmA. — teen, »^y 
nuzdah, — teenth, ^^-^^^ 
nvzdahum. — ty, ^y navad. 

Ninth, ^ nuhum. 
Nippers,^! ambur. 
Nipple, ^)li-j pistdn; (gun), 
eJU^ khurusak. 


Nitre, ^^^Ja^ natrun. 

No, not, it na ; ^^ khair^ or 

H^r ; jjt. M nah kheyr, — 

(with the imperative), i-« 

mah. It is — , i^u-J nist. 

No ! no ! not at all, ^ ^ nau 

Noah, -jS iTi*^. 

Nobility, u:^\a^ najdhat; sz^J^ 
sharfiyet ; <.J^ sharqf. 

Noble, c^^ sharif; \^-^ ^ 

najtb; Ja.U mdjid ; ly-^^ 

intfA;<irr<M7i. Of — race, ejj^ 

»^|^ buzurg-zddah. — and 

plebian, ^Ic j ^W khdss u- 

*dmm. — ne8s,uu»\J nabdhat, 

— man, j^\ amir ; »^h^l 

Nobles, t)\C^ buzurgdn ; ^^\l^ 
ashrdf; »Li^ shurafoH ; 
^jLcl agdn ; »\^\ umard ; 
A^ nujaba ; ^JC\ akdrim. 
Great — , J>.U1 amdjid. 

Nobly, *^^j}-> buzurgdnah. 

Nobody, ijS^ hichkas. 

Nod, jj^lLi ishdrah (jfc.). 

Noise, jljl avdz {k,) ; Ix* seda 
(k.) ; ttJlilj 5any; (uproar), 
Ujft ghaughd ; j\sy-^ nazh- 
ghdr; i]jjj vdlvalah. To 



gdmah k. — less, fj»j^^\^ 
Nolens volens, %\jk^\^ kh*dh 

na hVdh ; Up j \ej^ tau an 

o kdrhan. 
Nomad, Jjil t/, pL oL-JLjI 

Nom-de-plume, ^AJ^ takh- 

Nominal, ^^^ ismi, — ly, 

U^l isman* 
Nomination, 3u > .^. > tasmtyet 

None, ^-jb JUch, 

Nonsense, ^.^.j puch (y/.) ; 

ciJu v.Jp> harfi muft. 
Noon,^4b -rwAr. 
Noose, x^ ^ kham-kamand ; 

xSkamand {an,). 
Nor, ij nah. 
North, JUJ:* sJiimdl. 
Nose, ^j-o Z»twt. — bag, i^^ 

tubrah, — gay, ai^S^ gul- 

dastah; J> »4uU^ dastah i 

Nostril ,^,s?* minkhar ; ^^ *jj^ 

parrah i binL 

Not, di fwA ; ^;jC ghair, — at 

all^ %J< aslan ; ^ hich. 
Notch, ^J^fi^; (of an arrow), 

J<^y» Bufar; (in a blade), 
»^^^ damrtzah. 

Note (letter), Sc.^ kdghaz ; 
igSj rule ah ; (in book), fJ;.U 
hdshiyeh; (of music), |»U» 
makdm. Modulated — , ^jlil 

alhdn. — book, <^\ t <^ 
Nothing, - » A/(?A. This 

generally requires ' another 
negative, as -^b ^IJ ^ 
AicA fia mi ddram^ I have 

Notice (of), ^5U.l *«i7a" ((?.) ; 
^ khahar (d.). To take — 
of, ^)^ »\i-J nw/aA i. 

Notification, ^^*^\ tldn (k,). 

Notion, JLi» khiydl ; Jio zann. 

Notoriety, Kz^j^shuhrat 

Notorious, jj.^^ n\(k9hhur ; 

y^j^jM* mdruf, — ly, \jy^ 

Notwithstanding, ^j->»jIj ^^- 
t72(;t^</ ; U.L- tfjL-> hd-vaaf; 
aSCiTl) bd'dnkih. 

Noun, ^1 t«m. « 

Nourish, oi>3/H po^vardan. 
— er, ^y^ por\)cvr. — '\s!«vv\»^ 



^UW ta^dm ; o^ hut ; dUj^ 
Novel, o., y nau, op no. — ty, 
C/jJ» hudu$ ; Aj^L hddUah; 

'» ' 

^^^ji nau-d'in. 
Novice, JijaI ji nati amt^z. 
Now, VU W/(i / Jlil al hdl ; 

J)l\ dl'dn ; ^jjik^al aknun; 


Nowhere, U. --a hichjd. 

Noxioas, v^^^--* mu'zt; .L-» 

Nubile, «Jli hdligh. 

Nude, ^jj^ 'art, yj^j^ 'urydn. 
Nugatory, JLU bdtil. 
Nuisance, eujjl aziyat ; JL)« 

Null and void, Jlk^^ *ft^(£Z (A;.). 
Nullity, ^^-J n*«^/. 

Numb, jj-^ fti hiss («.) ; i-^^n rr rr 

«u«^ (sh,). 
Number, ^jc W^ (^.), ph, 

^^ss\ dddd, — ed, ^^,^ ♦ 

ma dud; %^^ shmnurdah; 

juit* mutadd. 
Numeral, AMijuft hindiseh. 
Numeration, j^ 'a<^. 
Numerous, '^Lw bisydr ; ^^J^. 

khaili ; ^|^ 4»»^ai;4/?r. 
jATuo^ 4^\j rdhibek 

Nurse, ajU ddyah. Wet — , 

Nurture, (ji,jj^ parvarish (Jc.), 
Nut, J f^ jauz ; (filbert), ^jxJ 

fanduk. Wall — ,j^ffirdu, 

— sbeU, csa-#^ ptitf^. — meg, 

\f,jf^j^uz ihuyd. 
Nutricioua, ^ jJU muffhazzu 
Nux vomica, ^il\ j^ jauz ul 



! ij\ ai ! Ij yd ! 

Oak, t^ halML — apple, jjU 

Oakum, --3 «a^*. 

Oar, »oU. khddah ; jjXj pdru. 

Oath, xS^ sauyand (kh,); 
^ kasm {kh.\ pL, A^\ 
afisdm ; vy^.^ yamin (A:.), 
jp7., ^)Uil aimdn; caU^ ^a^ 

Oats, ^^ ^a»». 

Obdurate, Jj> ■'Cl;,y# sanydil 
— ness, ^ii^ sakhtt. 

Obedience, uuclW ^o^a^ ; v::«clLI 


tVaW (^.); c^ ^att ; cuc\kL««i 
istitaat (n,) ; ^\c'^\ izan; 
sz^M ted) {yet ; Xc^lk* muta' 



Obedient, m \»» mutt* (sh,) ; 

Juu* munUasil; j\jj\ S^ 

hukm-anddz ; ^^j^ ^jU/ far^ 

mdn-barddr (sh.). 
Obeisance, ,jti;,y^ kurnish ; 

%z>\^UjjS kumishdt ; f»J^ 

tazim (k,). 
Obey, ^)^Uj^ sarnihadan^ I 

— , J o^ jt ^(^r an am ; 

pa, p., cj-i* matH {sh.) ; 

cUiA muta ; ajSJ^ mdkhr 

Object (seen), j^ muzhar ; 
Jau tnanzar; (mental), XoSU 
maksad; ^ «« i • maksud; 
^L» murdd; ca*^ niyyat. 
— to, v., ^J^ l-bJUi* mt^ 

Objection, ,jtf|/^l i^tiraz {k,). 
Obligation, %z^i>M minnat{dsh,); 

ita». Imposing an — , ^^ 

mann (Je.). — in writing, 

i5Ll^ muchalkah. 
Obligatory, -^V Za^tw. 
Obliged (to do so and so), f^ 

malzum ; (to a person), \jy.^ 

mamnun (A. «.). 
Obliging, jftJL* mushjik. 
Obligue, ^ Jcqf. 

Obliterate, ^)juJL> ^^ Ji ^a/am 

da/r kashtdan ; pa, p,, ^j 
mundarii; pr, p., ^U mdhi 
(k,) ; ^ ftfl*A:A (A:.). 
Oblivion, Jy^i zuhul; ^J\m^ 

Oblivious, J»b zaA?/. 
Oblong, JA>:.„^ mustatiL 
Obloquy, ^jli^j buktdn. 
Obscene, ^JUU fdhish ; 

kkabts ; ^Ik^ shattdh. 
Obscenity, ^jjt fuhsh (^j/l); 

j:^ ibAant; ; J]j^ harzagt. 
Obscure (dark), eb^U MrtA' ; 

ttlLi. v^ -^ shah-rang; (in 

language), ^-^Lp ghdmis. 
Obscurity, ^j3 tiragu 
Obsequies, jyjijJ ta^fin. 
Obsequious,^ »^ rmitanxar; 

cjj.i darub, — ness, ^ jj^ 
yjirw tanL 
Observance, o^];-* wwrdA«- 

6af. — of justice, ^j^^-i j*. 

Observation (of the stars), ^ 

tanajjum (Je,). 
Observatory, »\r J-^ rasad-gdJL 
Observe (stars), ^^jS x^j 

rasad k. ; (look at), .aW^ 

yj^a^ muloheaek It'* 


Observer, v^l^ rdkib ; x^\j 
rdsid; ^\^j rassdd. Super- 
ficial — , ^^^"^ >^^ zdhir- 

Obsolete, 'j • t mansukh. 

Obstacle, iuU mdni! ; j^ sadd. 
Obstinacy, ojjliu mudnadat; 

Jj^\ isrdr. 

Obstinate, uun^ khar-mast ; 

jM ^ khudsar ; jile *dnid. 

Obstructed, ^jSm^ masdvd (s,). 

Obstruction, Jl.^ sadd ; %s-^ 

Obtain, ^JL$\i ydftdn ; ^^j^^J-i 

paidd h. 
Obtuse, y^^ Jcaudan, — ness, 

v£jl*» himakat, 
Obnous, b g » paidd; Ju^A-j 
padtd ; jC^ dshkdr, — ly, 

Occasion, eA-cL> hdUs ; J«a:* 
mahaU; (leisure), cu-..^^— i 
fursat; (cause), u.*^i^ «a6a6. 

Occasionally, jWii ittifdk. 

Occult, ^.M mubham. 

Occupant, s^j^Cm mutesarrif. 

Occupation, Vy»..,^^ kasb; ^ 
kdr (k,) ; hj^ hurfat; Jii 
#WyA/ (rf«A.), pL, JLi-il 
ashjhdl ; JUiill ttktijfhdl. 


Occur, ^jj«l jiJ'j t>i/bt* ik. ; j^ 

y^ «ar z. ; ^,3^ (^^ r»y n. 
Occuri*ence, «jul J-T ^^^— • «ar 

guzaskt ; i-iuil^ vdkiak ; in 

pL, Ms\jjt mavdkC. 
Occurring (to the mind), j^^ 

Ocean, W.j .-^ \J^^^ darya % 

Ocbre, ^ JT gil i zard. 
O'clock, cucL* sd'at. 
Octagonal, ^^^u musammafL 
Ocular, , ^JL>> chashnU, 

Oculist, Jl^ kukhdl. 

Odd (not even), J^— t tdk ; 

(queer), f^^ gkartb. 
Ode, tJ^Moi kasidaky pi., jJlJ 

Odious, n s ? ... ^ mustakbih ; 

%^/^ makruh. 
Odium, ^a.:-! tanaffar. 
Odoriferous, ^^JIbju* mu attar; 
j\i J ; '^^ *amberbdr; ^jJ^ 

mashmum, — herbs, c^^li^ 

Odour, ^ 6wy; ajsJ^ rdihah, 
pL ^\y, ravdih ; j|JL> nathk ; 
o^ naskvat. 

Of, ji fl^r. 



•• » 

Offal, ^^ji^ murddr. 

Offence, ^ j ^ g^ tafistr ; ^^ 

jurm. To take — »j-»/ i*"^ 

khishm gr. 
Offend, ^^)^J^& j^lJL shatm k. ; 

i2)S^^j ranjdntdan ; pa,p,^ 

(at); j}^ kajkhulk {b,). 
Offender, 'J,U. khdtt. 
Offensive, ^^ karih. 

Offer, ^j i ) takdtm (k,) ; 

(a sacrifice), ^S zibh (».). 
Offering, n., (sacrifice) ^jLj 

kurhdn; (present), 

pishkesh {k,\ 
Office, lA ^. c *uhdah ; 

mansab, — of Itnam, «ju*Ul 

tmdmat. — of a Vizier, 

o,l^j vizdrat ; (room),^^ 

4jl». daftar khdnah. 
Office-holder, ^b '^-Vit man- 

Office-keeper, (CwLi^ daftari. 
Officer, \^ 8Jl^ 'uhdah-ddr; 

— of cavalry, ^Ijjb^ <ffl/'- 
ii^ar. Superior — , ^j\ JJ^^ 
vaktl % avval. First non- 
commissioned — , Jl^ 

vaktl ; t^h dL-> beg-zddah ; 
^)jJ)j^ Aapdlddr, Second 

non-commissioned, ^^ Je^ 
vaA:»7 » duvum. Police — 
who examines weights, etc., 
i.^ muktasib. — of 


state, ^1j ^)1^^ ^tW» d^ryi ,* 
(controller), ^i^iiM.* mustaufi. 



Officious, jXjlJT gustdkh. ^- 

nesp, ^S)l^ ehdldkt. 
Offspring, jJij-^ mavdUd, A 

beloved — , %j^y naudarah. 
Often, Lft^Lj bdrhd ; jjL,.^a\ 



Ogling, i^ ghamzah (A;.). 

Oh, \ a ; fj\ at ! L-j yi. — 

God, ^1 AUahumma ! 
Oil, ^^ . raughan. 

Oiled paper, Ai^,a» c^ar&a^. 

Oilman, (j^*;;^ ^^^jj raughan 

Oilpresser, ^Iac *a$$dr. 
Oily, J— 4;; raugant; s^/— »^ 

Ointment, «*^ marAam. 

Old (ancient), 4^ kuhnah ; 

£jj kadwi ; d^^L» pdrinah ; 

Aij^^ ddrinah ; ^yss> *aUk ; 

(worn), fjL^m kuhn; ixJj 



Very — , id^^.-»> Jl— -• «a^- 
khurdah ; JL* e}^ huzvrg- 
ml — age, ,jg^ ptri, — 
man,^^^ pir. Like an — 
man, ai^^^-j ptrdnah. A 
decrepit — man, ^jL-i^j 
zittfdn ; u-i*^ kharif. 

Oleander, s^ ^ Arar zahrah. 

Olive, ^Jy:K zeitun, 

Olive-oil, d^ zeit ; ^fhuku. 

Omelet, ^j^ ntmru. 

Omen, J^Li /a7 or fdl (jr,). 

Of happy — , jLi dLJ mA;- 

fdL Taking a good — , 

JjLflJ tafdvul (k.) ; ^j > j i f 

tayammun (n.). 

Omission, ^4^ 8aAv (^.). 

Omit, ^jilrjT^ <far yuzashtan. 

Omnipotence, 0|^y«6rw^. 

Omnipotent, J^jabbdr ; ^jj 

Omniscience, ^^ a-«-» hamah 

Omniscient, ^jt^ l^^ ghmh^ 

On, ^;_-> 6or; ^Li iiZa; <j?jj^ 

rwyi. — foot, »L-j piyddeh 

(sh,), — horse back, tjya 

sovvdreh («A.). 


Jori. At — y ^^L-X-j y«i*- 

hdr<»g%. All at — , ^^^;^ ^ 

One, (sl > y«^; (somebody), 

^_^X1> ya^»; (sole), jujK-e 
yagdndh ; a,, x > yakkah ; 
(single), ^j\Ci yagdn; (an 

unit), J ».! ahad; j »t^ 

vdhid. — by — , aJLJ5L* 

One another, ^jX* yek d{gai\ 

Oneself, ^ HtM^. 
Onion, jL* /wya^ ; J^ hiual. 
Only, ^^ J > » Jiamtn ; ^^\ » » 
hamdn ; (merely), Vi — a — • 

Onset, ^ja^ hujum. 

Onwards, y*^ « puhtar. 

Onyx, j-oft aKAr. 

Ooze, Jf ^t7. 

Opal, i;^^ ^^ W» «/ hirreh. 

Open, \\j vdz (k. *A.) ; jU 6az 

(A;. «A.); ij vd (Ar. «A. «•); 

r., ij^\^{ji ^^^) kushddan; 
.>^*<^^ ( J ^^r) kashudan ; 

cJ^ ]//«ra ar. — a vein, c^ 

^^>j ra(7 -er. ; pa. ^., ^ " i • 

* maftuh {ah, k.) ; r^** ''*''''* 
Opening, »., ^ t 6 > /a/H'A ; 
vjLlT ka9hf ;jA:f ktukd- 



Openly, \jCji*\ dshkdrd. 

Opera, U»Uj tamdshd. 

Operation (surgical), .-^.1 
jarrahi (Jc.\ 

Operative, y^^^ Icdrigar. 

Operator, ^\^ jarrah. 

Ophthalmia, ^A » *.>>> ehashm- 

dard ; j^ ramad. 
Opiate, ^j^ mdjun. 
Opinion, ^jJio zann ; a — lJo — • 

mazannah; fj\j rdt ; j.-S^ i 

fikr; ^"j %dm^ or zum. In 

ray — , j^ ^^j ' nazdtman. 

To give an — , ^j^b ij\j 

Opinionated, ^jAj ^^^ khud- 

Opium, o>-^-i^ afyun; e)lj^ 

Opponent, ^^JJLis* mukhdltf; 
^lo* muzddd ; AxA azddd. 
Opportune, U a> he-jd. 
Opportunity, c:« .<>; ifuraat; 

Oppose, ^2)^J^^J o^ cUlUi' 
mukhdltf (U n., ib. ; ^j^^Ln.^ 
mu*driz k,; ^jo/x^ muiariz ; 

Opposite, J;U* mukdhil ; jj>jj 
rtb he ru ; v^^L». ^^— * ^ar 
Mildf; 4/Jtc* muhdzin 

OppositioQ, v^)L». khildf : 

o^Ia* mazdddat ; iSA^Lju^ 

mudrazat ; ^j\juj tddruz ; 

l-aJLs? takhdluf; yytj^jiJi 

tdarruz ; ^jo]y:^\ ttirdz. 
Oppress, ^j^^jT^^JLb rwZm Ar. ; 

pa, p,, sjj^ ^ sitam-dtdah ; 

i,jlk« mazlum ; pr. p., ^Ihi 

Oppression, ^ 7 ..t ^i^^rm ; j\j4 

^^ t^tra^; Ja«^»; Jlo zuhn; 

KZ^V^* mazlamat ; Jil&J /ais^ai- 

lum ; c>cjk> hid'at. 
Oppressor, ^KLa-» jafd-kdr ; 

^\io^ jaforgar ; Jlk 5fa/m. 
Opprobrious, ^>— ^ shukh ; 

^Jj\ s» had zabdn. 
Opprobrium, i:L»^^ fasxhaU 

Optical, (jj;^ ^ofori. 

OpticSi jMi Jc '»7w f hasar. 
Option, LdJ ikhtiydr, — al, 

^<.Ls.\ ikhtiydri. 
Opulence, (j^ijJU mdlddri; La 

ghand; ^^\y3 tavdngari ; 

p]y /tara ; J^ tamawul. 
Or, b ya. 
Oracle, ^^ i?«A». 

Oral, ^Ui shifdhi. 
Orange, ^^V-i ndranj ; eU^Lj 
I ndrang\ ^^^,'8Wf^>»'^^ 




Mandarine — , 

Oration, i->U»- hhitdh ; ^^ 

Orator, \^ ^J^ sukhunsard ; 

f ^ sukhun-gu. 
Oratory, »\f jU namdz gdh. 

Orb, ^ jirm> 
Orbit, ^)|^d daurdn. 
Orchard, i-»ji dauJiat ; cl— ; 

Order (arrangement), j,llaiJ^ 

intizdm (n.) ; v^siH* ^^^^*^ j 

(A:.) ; j-j «««»* ; J--* j (J^ 

wa^rm na«aA:. To be put 

in — , jlJ^ drdstan; pa. p., 

> - - - muntazam; jy^^ 

ma'mur, — , (command), 

^\^j^ famiayish (rf.)> P^- 

cj\^\^ farmdyiahdt ^ ^J^X3 

kadaghan {k.) ; #»-^-* ^^^^ 

(«.); ja\ amr (n.); t;., o^j*> 

Ordinal, ^jfo^*'^* 
Ordinance (of God), a-o-J;— s 

farizah; ^ skar. 
Ordinary (usual), ^j rdij ; 

(common), ^W *dmm. — ^ly, 

L-j.^^ 'adatan.. 
OrdinatioDf K^nasb (fc-V 

Ordnance, ^^>> tupkhdneh. 
Ordure, i^guh, or S guh. 
Ore, ^filizz. 
Organ, ^sJ^ dlat. 
Organization, j»\bj nizdm (d.)- 
Organism, v^ tarkih. 
Oriental, ^^S^ s7<arK. 
Orifice, ^^jy^ aurdkh. — of 

the ear, i.U<«» simdkh. 
Origin, J^\ a*Z; ^Lu. hunydd; 
.-^s htkh; ^^ nizhdd; »^^ 

Of good — , o\d el---i 

n/ib zdt. 

Original, a., ^^\ asU. The 
— of anything, w., J "^ ^ ^ 
ma'kUz. —\j,hj\ avvalan. 

Orion, J^jahhar. 

Ornament, «., o-^ ^««a^ (<?.) ; 
J^}} drdyish ; j\^ tardz ; 
Aii;s-i p(^irdyah ; jijS tdzay- 
yunn. — al, ^j^j ztvart;^ 
V,, ^jX^\^ drdidan ; ^j^^ 

Ornamented with a wreath, 
VJC-* mukallal — with 
jewels, «-^« murassa. 
with a scarf, ^-^ 




Orphan, f^-^ yettm^ pi. Jj^A 

aitdm ; ^b yatdmd. 
Orpiment, ^->ij zamikh. 

Orthodox, a , ^ rashid ; s!^\j 
rdshid; ^Juu mutadaiyin, 
— teaching, s^ojL^^ mustar- 

Orthodoxy, jj^ sidk. 

Orthography, '^1 imld. 
Ortolan, (jg^-f)j pargirt. 
Oscillation, J^ takdn (n.). 
Osprej, j»^ nisr. 
Ostensible, ^Ik zdhir. 
Ostentation, \i^kibriyd. 

Ostentatious, ^j^ ^ khud- 

Ostrich, iy*ji^ shutur-murgh ; 

aU> na'dm. 
Other, ^i digar ; j^ ghair. 

Otherwise, aj^ vamah ; jj ^^ 
va agar nah ; ^\jva Hid. 

Otter, ^\ dL* 8<ig i dhi ; 'Ajp 
^\ gurhah i dbu 

Ottoman, ^Ulc 'osTndnt. 

Ought, JljU hdyad; J— jIJ^ 
shdyad, euHll; bdyist As 
it — to be, ^i : ) wkamd 
yamhaghi; (anything), ^y^ 
cHzt; (c/pber), jLa sifr. 


Ounce, A_j-i^ vuktyat ; 

ukiyah ; (animal), j,j) yuz. 
Our, jjU i-mdn, 

Ouri», U JU miZ i md. 



6trun. — of 

doors, ^jj hadar. 
Outer side (of a garment), i^l 

Outcast, ^^^ mardud. 

Outlet, ^ mafarr. 

Outline, j^b ddireh 

Outpost, J^tyJ kardvul. 

Outrage, v., ^^^ .^^ ^jS-mJ 

taaddi k. 
Outside, m^j^ khdrij, — the 

door, j^ ^j dam i dar. 
Outwardly, l^lb zdhiran. 
Oval, ijj ^ » t baizavt; ^J^^^ 

Oven, jjuJ tannur; ^^y\ atun; 
Over, J i bar ; . »•■ zabar ; 

(across), ^^ ^uhur ; (more) 

8^1^ ziyddeh ; (remaining), 

^\) bdki (wi.). 
Overcast, ^:ijf girifteh. 
Overcoat, yi^ VU bald push ; 

iKb bdrdni. 
Overcome, ^^^b yz^JiJU shikast 

d, ; vj^^ jJL^ ghalabah k. ; 



Overflowing, ^J!k-., .^ saildn 

Overhead, y»^jt har sar. 
Overhearing, • V tasammu' 

Overlooking (a fault, Ac), 
Asi ski kaf i nazr (n.) ; |«JL^ 
Ity^ cheslim pusJii {k.). 
Overnight, ij\Jl» shabdneh. 

Overplus, ^Jb U md hakd. 

Overreach, ^j^ ^f gul z,. 

Overseer, ^'vJ ndzir ; *^jj^^ 
ddrughah, — of the kitch- 
ens, ^Iaj bakdval. 

Oversight, j^ sahv. 

Overtaking, j»\3/diz (n,). 

Overthrow, c: <^.t» shikast 

(y-) ; viA^^ haztmat ; ^J^j^ 
Overturn, ^^^ iij^^ vdrunah 

Overwhelm, vj^J^ ghark k. 
Owe, j^i^ jj^ karz dsh ; >Jj 
^^i^b hidih dsh. 

Owl, ^jj hum; jJL>. chughd. 
Own, ,ji-jj-^ Ht*A ; ij — ». 

Owner, eU\— • mdlik (h.) ; 
fc^U sdhib {k.). Rightful 
— ^'^''* (J^ hakk-ddr. 

Ox, j^gdv, . 

Ox-goad, eLJti jl^ gdu-shang. 

Oxus (river), ^^^ jaihun. 

Oxymel, ^^^;f-^^ sikenjabtn, 
Ojster, v^jytf zadaf. 



Pace, ^ gdm (r.) ; ^jj kadam 
(r. 2r.) ; (gait), jUlJ, rq/feir. 
Quick — , Uj zalt. Quick- 
paced, f^ yj^^ khttsh-gdm. 

Pacific, j»JU saltm. 

Pacification, (j^^Li^* masdMat* 

Pacifying, ^^^X-J tMktn (ib.); 
Al aram ((/.). 

Pack (mule), ^l* bar ; r., — 
up, ^j^ji, bar ha, 

Packi ng-needle, j^^ Jlj*. ^ w»a^ 

Pack-saddle, ^^Vli pdldn. 
Packthread, ^^jjj hundur. 
Packet, asmj bastaK 
Pad,^;^^ kku-gtr; v,y jl» 

[^2tS hashv k. 
Paddock, >^|;»> chardgdh. 
Padlock, Jfti kujl. 
Paederast, ^j,^ kunu 
Ptigan, o.*^ i^u-; &u^ paroit. 



Page (leaf), ju^ ttafhah, pi, 
ol_s?^ sqfahdt ; (boy), 
\2jj*^ar^ pish'khidmat ; ^^ 

Pageant, llUS tamdshd. 

Pagoda, ij^s* i^j but-kedeh; 
a3U> c» but-khdnah. 

Pail, jIa ^Zp ; Jji </w/. 

Pain, i^^ <]&ir J ; 1 jjl iifa ; «jfcj 

zdhmat (ksh,). In — , m>.j^ 
Painful, ^j )T ^j^ dard dlud ; 

Paint, «., eli^ r<wiy ; t?., ^^Ij3 
nigdshtan ; (a picture), 
^j I, * ^n kasJitdan ; . m ^ " 
(;)JuJL^9 /o^t^r ifc»A ; (lay on 
colour), ^j^^ftli^ mn^ A;. ; 
l^a. p. 1^ S ;,4 munakkaah ; 
pr. p.f {JDs^^j rang-dmizu 

Painting and ornaments, ^jiii 
^KJ J naksh o nigdr. 

Painter, jy^ tnusavvir ; ^JLi 
J^kalam-kdr ; jL^y^j rang- 
sdz / ^o^j^ surat-gaK 

Painting, JLJLj naksh (k.) ; 
jlj^ taavir {kj), 

^^^'^Z izJaf^ju/t (Jt. gr.). 

Pairing (of birds), ^xi>,juft%. 
Palace, jua kasr ; (&L.m^ <■» 

kushk ; J\j~i\ aivdn ; uuJj^ 

^l». daulat-khdnah. 
Palanquin, ^jj^^ cu. tf ^a^^^ 

Palatable, ^fguvdr. 

Palate, tt\ ; >. Aana^ ; jlx-^ 

Pale, (sJj^ nim-rang ; dlJ, ^^ 
kam-rang ; jJl^\ asfar, — 
faced, J J ^j^ zard-ru ; ^j^j 
Ajj rug zard. To turn — , 
^,Xj;-j ^j ctli^ rang' » ru 

Palliation, v-iU. ww'a/ {k.) ; 
^_^,^43 takhf{f{n.). 

Palm (hand), x^aS kaff; wJu 
iju-»^ ^«^ » <^^; (tree), 

Palpably, ]^lk zdhiran. 
Palpitate, (jJ^-*-^ tapidan. 
Palpitation (of the heart), 

^laA>. khafakdn. 
Palsied, ^JLjI qflaj (h.) ; jJLc, 

rashah (dsh.). 
Palsy, %fdlij (dah,). 

Paltry, ^jj^ dun. 
Pampered, t^jyj^ parvardeh^ 



Par, ^js.mi^' haatn ; ^^yj dtzi ; 
Frying — , ^^IL tdjin. The 
knee — , y\j ^ sar i zdnu. 

Pane (of glass), ^jdm* 

Panegyric, ^x^ madh. 
Panegyrist, ..Ij^ madddh. 
Panel, jui? takhtah. 
Pang, ^j^ dard. 
Panic, cu»2^ hazimat. 

Panniers (for fruit), %^j^ lath 
dah; (for persons), ijL-a^ 

Pant, ^y^ ^jjij nafas z. 

Panther, (sLJLj palang ; ^^ 

yuz. Young — , dj 

Paper, sJs^'kdghaz; ^LW 

Jcirtds. A — kite, ^L> xs^^ 

kdghaz i had. 
Papyrus, \i>, hafd. 
Parable, Jli« miadl. 
Parade-ground, ^s^ maidan. 
Paradise, uu:^ jannat; \^r^ r.) 

hihishU The sublime — , 

^y. jl^ kJiuld i harm. 
Paradisiacal, ^xi^ hihishtt. 
Paradox, jiJ laghz. 
Paragraph, ^fasL 
Par/iJJax, Jau uJ^L:3.\ ikhtiUf 

i manzar. 

Parallel ^l^-i^l Utivd ; \S}y^ 

mutavdzt; (^Lw« masdvi. 
Paralysed, Jo* mufallaj {sh) 

Paralysis, ^ifalj. 

Paralytic, J-ii shal; J^JLt-* 
mashlul ; 9^JJu nui/luj. 

Paramour, ^ji^lfi 'dshik. 

Parapet, }i^S kangurah. 

Paraphernalia, i^L^^^I aibdb; 

}s^ jahiz. 
Paraphrase, Jj^^aaj tqfitil (n.). 
Parasang (a league), ^Jfar- 

sakh; h^^Lm^ /arsany. 
Parasite (man), ^^Ji9 tufaUi, 

Parasol, Aa». chatr; ...^suULii 

Parboiled, aij^ xJ nim-pukhtah 
Parcel, a:^jj hughcheh. 
Parch, ^^j^ hirishtan. To be 
— ed, ^JSJi»^ khushtdan. 

Parchment, o.«^ pi^t. 
Pardon, o^ maghjlrat (fi.) ; 
yc *afv {k,)\ ^,1/ft ghufrdn; 
hakhsMdan, To 


f V;)**S 

, jft «^r 


beg — , 
khdstan. I beg your — , 
jJUij ujl&« mudf hifttr- 
mdytd. I ask — of God 



pa, p., v-Jl-«— • mudf {L) 

^y^ maghfdr. 
Pardoner, ^Uc ghaffdr. 
Pare (nails), ^jlJ^ ^^U nd- 

khungr,; (hoofs), ^JJ^y ^ 

sum tardshtdan {gr,). 
Parentage, «,,« „. \ nasah ; J.«l 

Parenthetical, y^jix^ inotariz. 

Parents (both), ^^^j^Jlj vdli- 

Paring, iit\J tardsheh. 
Parley, aJ^ mukdlemeh (w.). 

Parliament, \jjiS\ ^b ddr ush 

Parody, juU-J takUd, 

Parole, Jy kauL 
Paroxysm, (jLxL titghydn. 
Parrot, jy or ^jl» tutt. 
Parry, ^j^ 4»^ </«/* k. 

Parse, jj^ »-*2v* ^^^^^ ^• 
Parsee, ^ ^aftr. 

Parsimonious, ^ : i » muktir; 
^ layim ; ^j^^.^'v khasts. 

Parsimony, Jic hukhl; cs)l--*i 
imsdk ; ^^jfi hakhtU. 

Parsley, ^jjf karafs. 

Parsnip, J^a^^ar. 

ParsozT, fjlLjS keshtah. 

Part, ^»,.«. i j:(»;7i ; t^U pdreh ; 

Sj tikkah ; *yj>, juz* ; »^^ 

hahraJi ; ,jl5i bakhsh ; ^j*^ 

juzvi. For the most — , 

J btshtar, Od his — , 

4- J ^^ '«» kihalih ; l-*jU. jt 
j1 az jdnih-i-u ; r., ^j^lj^ 

Partake, ^^b oi^ji shirdkat 

Parterre, ^^U-i. khiydhdn. 
Partial, ^1 j i^— t taraf-ddr ; 

i— •lani* mutaassib, 


Partiality, fjj\s^\». jdnib^ri ; 

\jj\xJo pds-ddri. 
Partially, ^j^jj A:a{/n. 
Participating, jju t^ hahrah- 

mand ; aI^Ij^ muddkheleh. 
Participle (active), J-cLi ^,^1 

ism-i-fail ; (passive), ^«^l 

Jjxa* ism-i-maful. 
Particle, »^ khurdah ; ^ ^ *■ 

shammak ; (in grammar), 

Particular, ^U. khdss; ^j-aa^ 
makhsus, — ly, ^j^*^ ^ 

Particularity, ,j^?^-fl^ khuaus, 

pLy cjL«o^.a»> khususiydt. 
Parting (leaving), ci^ ««<]?' 



Partitioning (division), ^L^iil 

ikiiadm (n.). 
Partly, ijo pdreh. 

Partner, (sJi ijJis shank, pL, 

iCj^ shurako^; ^L^ musd- 
him ; yj^" * - mushtarik ; jLil 

Partnersbip, kzSJJL^ mushdra- 
hat; {SJ^^ ambdzt ; (ftJJ/it»l 

Partridge, ^^Xkahk, Fran- 
colin — , «. \j^ durrdj. Small 

— or quail, j^ tihu. 

Parturition, — l^J nitdj. 

Party, tS guruh; lau^ jamtat. 

Dinner — , ^JW* fnihmdni. 
Pass (in -mountaius), w., dLjuJ 

i\j tang i rdh; Ji^» kotul ; 

^^y^^gardan; v., ^^^x^9 


Passage (of a river, etc.), jy^ 
*uhur (L) ; jxS guzar (Jc.) ; 

^xS guzdr (A:.);^^Jv <=^ »1^ 
rdh-guzdr ; (an escape), 
jii* manfaz ; (of time), ^j^ 
mwrwr; (in a book), o^Lc 

Passenger, ^h^ *^^^^* > ^L-* 

Passion (to get in a), ^^j^t ^^bb 
hdham dmadan. 

Passionate, (&)Li-«.l». khashm- 

ndk ; ^\y s ; T ^u9i<^ mtso;. 

— ly, Lde ghazaban. 

Passive, J ».^ mutahammil; 
(verb), Jjju* mqfuL 

Passport, a-aLJ jSi^ guzar^ 
ndmah ^b jl^ rdh-ddrt; 
aaJLJ tdltkah. 

Past, a:;J^j^ guzashtah ; -^S:^ 
munkazt : jui->L^ sdbikah. 
The — , i^.fiLf U f»a «a/af ; 
a«X-aJi U «»a takaddam, — 
tense, ^U ma^l 

Paste, ^ji-i^^— «trM^ / ^ ^ > ^ 

Pasteboard, c^-^ dajffutain; 

^^j jLc\f kdghaz % vasU, 

Pastern, t—iJ^j v^^^^f. 

Pastimes, ^^ maldh%. 

Pastor, jjb ii^ galah-bdn. 

Pastoral care,^U i^ galah- 

Pasturage, or Pasture, ^j» 
mard ; »o |^-». chard-gdh ; 
^j^ chaman ; Ji^ «_ik *a/fl/- 
«ar; »., ijJj^ chartdan. 



Patch (of cloth, etc.), 

pvnah; Jj I laddm. — 

upon — , iuJ, j> fL^j ruk'ah 
bar ruk'ah, 

Fatcher, jj^lj^^ pdrah diiz. 

Patched, aS^ murakkd. 

Paternal, ^jS>^ pidrt, — love, 
{jj\^ j3^ *t9hk i mujdziy, 

Path,^^.;jM mtbar, ply ^^Lae-* 
mddhir. A mountain — , 

Pathetic, ^y^^ dUsus. 

Patience, j^-;->0 sahr ; jijj * ^ 
eaburi ; ^» » <^.ti shaktb ; 

^'L^Xi shakibdt. 
Patient, .Lf ^ burdbdr, -^L-o 
sdbir; .y^ sabur. To be 
— , ^\ ; ^ ^ *■ shakibidan ; 
(sick roan), ^ji-j^--^ maHz, 
— ly, \j^ sahran. 

Patriot (word not used in 
Perdian), ^JojJi\ c,oj*»> habib 
al vat an, — ism, ^jJl s>»> 
hibb id vatan. 

Patrol, jh t\j rdh'ddr ; jjL-Ij 

Patron, ib omIj pusht-pandh ; 
i^ le-lf vail m mat. 

Patronage, ^jj^s^^ dast-giri, 

Patron/inie, csyi*.? nisbat. 

Pattern, aS^ nimunah. 

Paucity, ^kamt. 

Paunch, ^^ bain. 

Pauper, ^;Xm^ misktn. 

Pause, \^JJj vakf{k,). 

Pavement, (ji^a^L* sangfarsh. 
Pavilion, »j>^ \ja eard-pardah. 
Paw, A->.1 > pdchah ; a— s^i 

Pawn (at chess), jj^j baidak^ 

or jjuj baizak ; (pledge). 

Pay (wages), v^!>* ^^vdjib^ 

y^ muzd ; (— ak^ muvazzaf. 
Paymaster, ^JLic bakhsht. — 

general, ^lift j^ mtr-bakh- 

Payment, 1^1 add (ib.) ; *i\j^» 

kirdyah (d,) ; 0;-»'\ tf/ra^ 

Pea, ^jai nukhud ; ^U mdsh. 
Peace, cia-^^L.^ saldmat ; J^ 
8aldm ; ^j-J^T dshtt; ^ -^ 

«tiZA (A;. (/.) ; oijjb hudnat. 
Peaceable, j^ J^.- sahl-Ju, 
Peach, jJVjlaJ^ shaftdlu ; jU 

Peacock, ^j'l^ ^a u«. Like a 

— > t«^ tttU«l. 



Peak, j^ 9ar ; (s)y nauk. 

Pear, ^j.%gulldbu 

Pearl, Si^jjm marvdrtd ; »j^*J> 
hVlu*; j^ dv/rr ; jj^ durar. 
Unique — , xwj ^o durr % 

Feasant, »-^^ rdiyat ; j^lijfc^ 

Pebbles, »^j csL- sang-rizah. 

Peculation, v.J^ tasarruf. 

Peculiar, ^y^ tnakhsus. 

Peculiarity^ ,jtfLai^l ikhtisds ; 

^^l> khdssagt. 

Pedant, {J»jj-i cJLoi fcmlat 
feruah. — rj, iAv-» tji^Linf 
fcmlat fervshi. 

Pedestrian, J».i^ ra/t/. 

Pedigree, J ■>. ; J tanassul ; 

c-^mJ J L^i.^^. hasab o nasah. 
Pedlar, ijl--i pilavar. 

Peel, v:u^^ J?w«^ ; l^^. i?. , ji^^lit 
makshur ; jtsuM munkanhir. 

Peep, ^ wa»ar (^.). 

Peevisb, jU. i^A;«/ MwZA:. 

Peg, >-j* wit^X;. 

Pelican, a5^^ sarikhah. 

Pelisse, ^^kurk. 

PeUacid, uJlai «Ai/ii/. 


Pen, ^JLi Ara/am ; csILT Ari/ifc ; 
aaI> A:^amiiA. The piece of 
wood for nibbing pens on, 
0^ A^l> khdmah-zan. — case, 
^;i^ ^»_I-j kalam-dan, — 
knife, ^jiy Ji kalam-tarash^ 

Penalty, s^^ jarimdk. 

Pencil, ^ij^ middd. 

Pendulous, sjjiji dvtzah. 

Pendulum, ^^ langar. 

Penetrate, ^^^-3 csajL- sirdyat 
k. ; pr. p., juJL-J wfl/ar (k.) ] 

Penetration, ^j1;-j hinhh; ^\^ 

Penint»ular, iji^ jazireh. 

Penis, ^^ Hr. Penem mag- 
num habens, / - « « ^«>. 

Penitence, o,lflSA:q/aV«^; aj^' 

Penitent, ^6 jr s.>.^ mustaghfir ; 
^;L*2^ pashimdn ; ^Li no- 

Pension, Ai.kj vaztfeh ; ^Ll-]^ 
rdstdd ; (in lands), jnl^L>. 
ya^r/r. — er, ^|^ jiJp^ wa- 



Pentagon, aJ^>^9 ^ ; ■» |7ait/- 
gushah. — al, ^ji»«j^ fnukh- 

Pentateuch, o>j(> t^urit. 
Penurious, j\CB*k /ama' hdr; 
>/ < layim, — ness, ^j^;-^ 

Penury, ^I>-j ht-navd-u 

People, ^U^ mardumdn ; ^1 

umam; j L^-». khalk, in 

pLf i^J3\j^ tavdif. Common 

— , Jjc *aw)dm. G-reat — , 
j^\ akabiTi Intelligent — , 

*> B A *ukald. — of the 

world, jj\— j-iU) zamdniydn ; 

^Jj\^ jahdniydn ; ^L^Lc 

*dlamiydn, — of former 

times, ^Kll shudagdn; v,, 

^J^ ^\A dhdd h. 
Pepper, JiJLi (z). Long — , 

J«U ji^ ddr-jiljil 
Peppermint, tCaa nana. 
Per cent, X^ Jfi 9ad. 
Per pound, ^ ^jfi ^»w«. 
Perambulation, uJlj — W tova^ 

Perceive, ^j-i^Uy dar-ydftan ; 
pii.p.9 Lyj-'^ mahsus (k»), ^ y^^iA-* suflan 

Perception, e)J^^1 iJraA; (w.) ; 

cutb^^ dar-ydfl (n.). 

Perch (roost), ^ <7^i chakas ; 
%^y^ cMb. 

Perchance, JuiLi shdyad; Lj jT 

Percolation, i^jij vuA:^^ (;t.). 

Percussion (gun, etc.); a^s^JL 

Perdition, (s)^ Jialdk ; kzS'^U 
haldkat ; Ja^ takattur. 

Peremptory, mio\i kdtx; ^J^y^ 

Perfect, J*o kdmil ; A^ ta- 
mam ; Jt ^m^ mukammal ; 
(tense), ^^-it. mdzi. More 
or most — , J«M akmal ; J\ 
atamm, — ly, ^j^J^*^ A*cA- 
maddn ; Jfllj hil-kulh 

Perfecting, J-*X-J takmtl {k.); 

Perfection, JUTArama/; *L^1 


Perfidious, jljc ghadddr. 
Perfidy, ^ jc ^Aa^fr ; iiA-jL*-i. 

khiydnat ; J^ yhilL 
Perforate, ^jAj .; .«* sumhtdan ; 



Perforation, i^JLl sakb (k.), ; 

-^ O- 


surdkh (X:.). 

Perforce, j^yaftraw. 

Perform, ^j^jj\ L-^. ^a a ; 
^j^l ji^si guzdrdan ; vjf/^* 
kardan. Bound to — , 
i»l..,^"..^ mustamsik (h,). 

Performance (act), J^ kdr 

(k,) ; J »--c *amal {k,) ; 

(finishing) ^\ > >^ itmdm 

(r*a.); (of a promise), '^^l 

t^^i/a* (n.); ]^-».1 (/m {k,) ; 

^ nfl/5f (».) ; (play), LiU-J 

Performer, J-»lx 'ami7 ; Ax Li 
/at/. Musical — , jT ^jl*|^ 

Perfume, ^^ *iVr, |?Z., ol*^ 
*itriydt ; jy^ hukhur ; ^j»- 
khush hi ; (j>^XJ nak-hat ; 
/i j; v^-. A dastamhuyah. 

Perfuming, ^J** talkUr (A;.). 
— one's self, ^;-*f tdbakh- 
khur (n.). 

Perfumed, ^;lMt» mu* attar, — 
pastille, A.^L4w« shamdmah, 
pi., jcUi *Aamaim. — with 
ambergris. ^^^^^Im ma amber. 

Perfumer, JioA *attir. 

Perfunctory, JsL^ ghdfil; JaIT 

Perhaps, ^^\Ji» shdyad ; j^^^ 

magar ; ^jJ^U hdshad keh. 

VetiX, j}o^ khatar ; dLj hdk; 
Ai htm. 

Perilous, dLi ^.W .» khatar- 
iidk ; dd^A muhlik. 

Period, ox* muddat ; a>^ natf- 

Perish, ^;j^ cu^ ntst-sh.; 
^;^ (s)^ AoZa^ «A. ; pr, p., 
4xA^ tahlikah (n.); jJLi 

**«/«i (^.)- — vible, J_)l) 

Perjury, ^j ^ (lasam-i-zur 
(kh,) ; c.jj^ xSy^ saugand i 
durugh {kh,). 

Permanence, AJ^ kagam; *\L» 

Permanency, i:>.^1j::.^1 isti- 


Permanent, jW^ pdiddr ; ^}s 

kaim ; ^\i hdku 
Permeating, KzJjij^^ sirdgat ije,). 

Permission, ^J:^ izn (J. khdi- 
tan); kz» ^ ^ rukhsat (d. 
khdstan); c^UI ijdzat(khds- 
\ tcwC^\ ^^Z::^^ji^i^arvdnagi, 



Permitted (allowed), ^^L^ 

md'zun; J5U kaldl ; yJU 

jd*iz; \jj ravd. — to go, 

^Ji»^ murakhkhas, 

PermittiDgj^ij \jj ravd-ddr. 

Permutation, Jjui tiibaddul. 

Pernicious (anything), o«x«JU 

Perpendicular, ^^i ;^> musta^ 

Perpetration, k^^C^^ irtikdh 
(«.) ; \^\ ijrd {k.). 

Perpetrator, i.-Xj^ murtakik. 

Perpetual, Jb ddim ; tjj<j^;s^\ 
iatimrdri fje.) ; Ja;...« mus- 
tadd/n {u.) ; ^\j wdtm. Maj 
it be — i Jj ddma ; thus: 
4~i\Ji\ J^ ddma zkbdluhu. 


May his prosperity con- 
tinue — ly 1 ij]f^ hamvdraK 

Perpetuate (may he), J^\ add- 
ma ; thus : may God prolong 
his days, aAj\ 41)1 Jd\ addma 
*lldhu aiydmahu. 

Perpetuation, tj«> . »\:\ iddmat 

{h) ; ''\sLj\ tbkd (n,) ; jJu 

ta'bzd {k,y 
Perpetuity, Jj^ davdm; ^b 

ddimi; o^lj^ muddvMtiat 
Perplexed, t;;];-* hairdn (k.)\ 

muiahayyir (h.); ^^^ 
mtUar€tddid (k,) ; ^LJL^ 
parUhdn («.). To be — ^ 
U^^y^ shurtdatL 
Perplexity, J\,f;=^..M i^Aiba/ 
(^A.) ; u^l; Vt n;! iztirdb ; 
^J,^s\jS^ kashdkash. 

Perquisite, J^lju* muddkhil ; 

^ muzd. 
Persecution, ^ ttYoni (Ar«); 

Jk 2;t^»i (At.) ; (^Ui /aa- 

Artfi (ft.)« 
Persecutor, Jib ^ra^^m^ 
Persepoli8,^^;i**l Istakhar. 
Perseverance, ^j^\ Urdr (n.) ; 

c:«^^ULa mukdvamat (fi.) ; 

cu^l^ muvdzabat 
Persevering, ^^,0* musirr (A.); 

Persia, ^^J^l /rd» ; ^ *Ajanu 

Persian, (3\^i trdni; ^c-^-j^ 
"Ajamiy; (language), ^^ 
Fdrst, Ancient — , i5jLi 
Pahlavi; ^jj^ Dari. 

Persistence, ^Ijui^l istibddd, 

Person, ^jS kas; Jlj nafar ; 
^jo^j^ shakhsy pL fjo\Ji*\ 
ashkhds ; ^^ tan. Every 
— J (jll-X^«-ft ham-kundfL 


- Koble — , t_M^ otJ Bat i 
ther^f. — B of dietinction, 
^Ul» khdtfan, IntelligeDt 
— , 'U^ 'urafS. 

VenaatAxtj, ol J tat. 

FerBonallj, t^mLJ ^ fi nafsihi. 

PersODiflcatioD, i^„,yf^ iashbih 

Perspective, j^i. manaiareh. 
PerBpicBciouB, jj tM_i didak- 

Perspicacitj^, jy»J tihn. 
PerapicuouB, ,^j~it muhtn. 
Perspiration, ^je 'ara(i (i.). 
Perspire, ,j^j^ ih'ai/dan. 
Persuasion, \j-a\ ighvd (i.) ; 

Pert, j.b— rfia guatdkh. 
Fertinacioua, j j_j mutirr; 

'^Ij^ muddvim. 
Pertinacity, _,l>-i-l Utikrdr. 
Pertinent, ^Ij. wiue^^i. 
F^rtoesB, ^jl «AuiA^ 
Perturbation, ^.i.i.iA dthttf- 

tagi ; t_jl^l izUrdh ; ^j^ 

Perusal, *1^^ muUAezeA (A.)j 
A>IUi. mut&le'eh {k.). 
Pervading, ujL, tdri {h.). 


Perverse, aJs -;^ kof-tab' ; 

jyj /o;iy. — nesH, ^jj^ j,jp. 

khud tan. 
Perversion, i^\^\inhiriif{k.); 

1»UI ihbdt (it.). 
Perverted, -ju mu 
Pest, Jl>j t>aii7; ^4^ 
Pestilence, bj voftit,- ij^UL 

Pestle, iCM>.» dattah. 

Petj^jc '(Wiz (*.). 

Petal, eij) barg. 

Petition, yi,c Wa (i.) ; ^^ 
'arzi (dth.) ; ^^cb <J<f«yeA ; 
y-UJI •Jfiswi* (i. n.) ; {in 
writing), *,^ 'artzah, pi, 
,jiS[fi 'ardiz; ii^_llj_j^ 
'art-ddskt. — er, y«_,lc arw- 

Putrefsction,^^ takajjur (i.). 

Petroleum, L.— »)-« mUmiyd ; 
Ui no/j!. 

Petticoat, ^U-i^^n. 

Petty cbargeH, _yi. j^iiu 6bW 

Petulance, ^ batar; ^J^rjl 

Petulant, ^^ ^a kaj khvlk. 



Phantom, i_Lt tmf; JU. k\i- 

Pb&rmacj, uji] adoi^oA. 
Pheasant, J^ti^ ftari^dul. 
Philosopher, wJy-Li feUa*^, 

pi, iiJij fUdtifek ; _^ 

hakim, pi., 'UJ^ ItakoMd, 
Fhiloaopby, u_J.i falsafah; 

k=M^ hikmat ; Jc 'tlm. 
Phlebotomy, x^fatd (Jt.). 
PhlebotomUt, jLa_* Jatedd; 

Uj '^j rag-zan. 
PhiegiD,j^balgham; (macua) 

Phtsnii, iv*'— • Mtwghi ^, 

ritiA ; U* AKma. 
Photograph, ,j^ 'oJU (it.). 

— er, ^J^Ce■ 'aield». -^—j, 

Phrase, ,3U>«1 i(«i&i&. 

Phraseology, ij)^ muhdoarak. 

Physic, J.U (Uru; Ijj ^ci. 
Art of — , ih^ji pizUhki. 

Physical, jt-J, tabCi. 

PhyBicLUi, |>--^ haktM ; v^k^ 
foM6, /<i., 'l__tl <ihfi4-i,- 
ell^ pauik ; laL^ 6ut«U. 

Physiognomy, wU> ifagdfak. 

Physiology, k:>ljp-^ matyuddt. 

Pick out, i:;^ |j vi-ckiiam. 

Pjeinxe, jJj iuiund. 

Fickle, ^J twnhi {««.); jLT 

PicqnetB, J^l^ ^atdwli ^U 

Picture, ^,,>^ taivir; ^' *'■ 
nalith; Jl^tkJ tUgdr. — 
gallery, j_iLk ^ICj ni^^ 

Piebald, ^ 1 t^laf: ; ^ abrak. 

Piece, Axki hafak ; *^h pdr- 
ckek ; ipl^ pdrak ; ^.JLj 
iikkek, — goods, y'l , = 

Pierce, ^ -^j , -- tabikiUa» ; 
,^^ taftan; pr. p., jj^ 
kami (k.) ; pa. p., i-i^Li* 

Piety, yyu tafxd ; o,W ta^ 
vat; eLj nuak. Man of 
— , Jj »Aij iinddk-dil; J.l;»U 

Fig, djk J:Am£ ; jiy^ kkinsir. 

Wild— ,jl;^.yi»r<£r. 
Pigr rr 11, ^^j/Ti tabular ; ^'ftiV 

Pile (of velret, Ac.), jW ii<» ; 

(heap), iJji tudah. 
Piles (heoiottVuftAtf), j-=-^>*. 



Pilfering, op Pilferer, ^jjj 
duzdt (L). 

Pilgrim (to Mecca^ •P>W hdjj ; 
^Ld. hajjt, pi, gL^ 
hw4f> (*^ other shrines), 
J\j^ zawdr. — age (to Mec- 
ca), ^ hajj (Je.) ; (to other 

places), o^ljij ziydrat (Ar.). 
Pill, i.;^ habh,pl,,i^j^habub. 

— box, jjji kuti. 
Pillage, o^U ^hdrat (k,) ; ^U 

cMpdu (^.). 
Pillar, (^^ sutun, pty ^^Ui 

arkdn; ^U^ 'imdd; ij^ 
'umdat; ^]jj kavdm, pL, 
^Yj9 kawdtm. 

Pillory, Ai.1::, j3 <fw-*AaMaA. 
Pillow, iXju muttakd; ^.SsJi 


takyeh; ^J^ hdtish; ^\i 
hdlin; »^L»j vasddah, vied' 
ddh, vusddah ; A^j vasdd, 
visdd, vtisdd. A soft — , 
^l>jl5 ndz-bdlish. 

Pilot, 1 ndkhudd ; ^;b j^ 

Pimp, ^J!L;Ji5 kdltahdn ; jL^ 

Pimple, s^jlj basrah; dj^^^ 

Pin, jU?^ sanjdk. 

Pincers, ^< or j,^^t oiwWr 
(^^0^ u^^B-^ minkash. 

Pinch, ^jXjl> nishkunj. 

Pine (tree), ^^ sinauhar ; 

(cedar), ^^ kdj ; (juniper^ 

jjrLi na^Au. v., — awaj, 

^jJlaK' kdhtdan. — cone, 

sjjrJk chilghuzah. 

Pink (flower), (sUr:* mikhek; 
(colour), (s}jJS yulrany. 

Pinnacle, j^ fctdlah. 

Pioneer, j^ ^^JUj^ptsh rcm^ 

Pious, L^b pdr^ ; JU «a/i^ ; 
gii i^fl/b*! — men, \ju\ 

Pipe (smoking), ^^y^ ehibuk, 
— stem, ^y^ ^y^ chub i 
ehibuk. Water — , ^^^Li 
kaliyun ; (tube), ^ nay ; JiyS 
lulah ; ^jiij ztsh. 

Piper, ^^ ^ nay zan^ 

Pisces, oj>i kut. 

Piss, A^\Ji» shdshah (kJ); J^ 
baul (k,). 

Pistachio, jui-4 pUtah; jL«i 

Pit, JU. <?^aZ; ^\^^ gauddl; 
\ vsSv-it-* ma^^dkk. — qC the 


chin, >J^ sU. chah i zanukh; 

^ijd^ zanukh'ddn. 
Pitch,^ kir. 
Pitcher, *)j^9 kuzah. 

Piteous, j^^^ytyar 8uz, 
Pith, cJ Zttift. 
Pitiful, ^J^^ rdhmdn. 
Pitiless, j»e^;--j birahm. 
Pitted with small pox, t^^ JjT 

dhileh khurdeh, 
Pitj, <ju*ay« marhamat (n.) ; 

^^ tarahhum (n ). To have 

— CD, ^j,3yLai^ bakhshudan. 
It is a — ^, c:*^! t-i-a. ^^if 
«*^. — ing, ^\j rdhim. 

Pivot, ^lx» maddr. 

Place, Jju makdm; JC^ ma' 
kdtiy pL, ^J^a\M\ amdkin ; 

hall ; m^j ■> mauzi ; m^j^ 
maukU ; ^b U jd-ddd ; j^ 
i{ dar-gah, A desolate — , 
s:^^hliarahah, — of wor- 
ship, »\r iju-sf^ aijdak-gdh 

— where four roads meet, 
jj^lj-i J^.-»• chehdr-suvdrah, 

— for rubbish, ^^b (slLi. 
khdk'ddn. Market — > lU*- 
jmf chehdr'Su, In — . L^ 


nihddan ; ^^u^ \ nahidan ; 
pa, p.y 9yojA mauzu\ 

Placid, ^Jk halim ; xJL saltm. 

Placenta, u^ mashimah. 

Plagiarism, ii^ sarkai. 

Plague, \ij vabd ; ^yslt ta^n. 

Plain (ground), J^s^* maiddn; 
f\j^faz&; •\jg9 9ahrd\ aikU 
julghah, — for exercising 
horses, »o ^^V^ jauldn-gdh^ 
Extensive uncultivated — , 
j! J ji dak lak ; (level), 
^lj%* hamvdr ; (clear), ^^ 
baiyin; (artless), »^U *a- 
dah, — ^Ij, ]^\dT dshkdrd. 

Plaint, {jj^^ da*vd; fjLiVj 
ndlish; ks^^ shikdyat. 

Plaintiff, ^x* mudddiy ; .>b 
%\j^ ddd'kh'dh.' — and 
defendant, ^^/^^^^{JS^ muta' 

Plait, ^J2^\» bdftan. 

Plaits, ^^^ chin. 

Plan (map), a.JL,pj nakaheh; 
(mental) y^^a^^jj tadbir. 

Plane (superficies), k^^^ 5cm^. 
Joiner's — , »jj^ rt«n<^a& (z.). 
•^- tree,^L>. chendr* 

Planed) j^ manjiur^ 



Planet, %J^ saiydrah^ 

Plank, Aij$ takhteh. 

Plant, n., c^LS nahdi ; ^jUf 
sahzl. Young — ^ J^— » 
nihcU ; v., (flowers) ^^ etUy 
iulak k. 

Plantain, ^ tnaus. 
Plantation, .]j2i.^ J dirakhtzdr. 
Plaster (dressing)," ^j» mar' 
hanif jpl.f (•^]/-<* tnardhifn, 

gach ; 

— of Paris, -.. 

(lime), (»U1 dhak; v., ^;)X^J^ 


Plate, vIa^ pushkdb. 

Plated, ftJU mulamma*. 

Platform (mud), jC* 8aku; 
(wooden), juif takhtah, 

Plato, e;jLilUl Afldtun. 

Platter, ^jJ^ tahak. 

Play, (j^\j Wari (A:.) ; l^ /a'ft 
(A?.) ; jJ ZflfAv ; (gambling), 
J^ kimdr. Stage — , Jjtj 
tmrntl ; v., (^U hdkhtan; 
y^jjjlj hdzidan. — on an 
instrument, ^^j^ m7i;aA:A- 

'o^a^ (fi.) ; (on an instru- 
ment), (^Ji;|y navdzandagi. 

Player (gamester), w^'i laib ; 

sjJ^Lj hdzandcth ; (instru- 
mental), sjj^l^ navdzendak. 

Playfellow, ^s^ hamdam. 

Playful, ij»^^ dilkhush. 

Plaything, Ajsjb bdzickeh. 

Plead, ^;^j?^^ da'vd k. 

Pleasant, iji^]^ ferdkh'^% ; 
cLft^ U^b-*' khush<linidgh ; 
sjjjl ^^ khush-dyendah. 

Pleasantry, Jjj hazldh; i^ 
hazlah ; AaJa) Za^t/aA 

Please, ^x«\ utp* Xr^t^^ dma- 
dan ; ^SiX,^ pasandidan. 
Striving to — , ^^ U, rizd- 
jut; pa. p., ^\j rdzi ; 
s^yLl^mash*uf;jjty»», surkh- 
ru. If yon — ^ SjXjjSkza^^ 
zahmat kashtdid. If it — 
Gk)d, Jii\ Ajl^I imhd 'alldh. 

Pleasure, ^^ khushi; cyLfi 
'ishrat; ^J^ *aish; ojJ 
lizzat ; )b>> hazz. To take 
— in, ^;,>^k>. hazz k. 

Pledge, jj^ girau (jz.) ; ^^j 
rahn {gz,)\ pa, p.^ c2^V^ 
marhin; ^jj^j rahin. 

Pleiades, b^ Suraiyd; ^^jj*, 

Plenipotentiary^ jl:ri^^j|j vazir 



Plenteous, Plentiful, j»ij vqfir ; 

J\j\^ ferdvdn, - 
Plenty, jy^*j^ maufur; jj\j 

vafir; \>^fart. 

Plethoric, fjym^ damavty. 

Pleurisy, #^^/^ jirsdm; ^jt 

Pliant, jj^ ^-j-j|wcA-Hiir. 
PHera^l ambur. 

Plot (against), sjjkU* mudke- 
deh ; ^Lm* sdzish. 

Plough, A-^li kidhah; JL^ 
khtsh (k). — man, ^\j iJi 
kulhah-rdn, — share, ijf^j^ 
gdu i dhan — tail, ^JJ^ 
huh; t>., ^jX-ij\Ji» shiydri- 
dan ; ^^^J^Lm sctbdridan. 

Pluck, r., 4;)Ju»» (jj har) chU 

Plug, J^i dtsdm; j^ 8ar. 

Plum^yfa/tf; A^J{ diucheh. 

Plumbago, a^^ surmah. 

Plumb-line, Jj-i»L^ shdhul ; 
jJi haladm 

Plume, %j^ tarrah. 
Plump, jU ehdlf. 

Plunder, n., U^ yaghmd {h) ; 
i-^ na/ift (^.) ; ^^^ na^ 
hibi/ , V,, ^^yXQ^ tuzidan ; 

|?r. ^., jjj /{>«: / L,^ nahib; 

pa, py, u,»»l...,; t munsalibf 
Plunderer, lJL* «a/i5; v^^U&e 

Plunge, Jkfjfi. ghautah (H.). 
Plural, 9L^jam\ 
Plush, J«i^ makhmal. 
Pneumatic, ^\yt haodi. 
Poach (game), v,, ^j^^^\Ci» 

shikar duzdidan. 
Poached (egg), jj^ nimru 

Pock-marked, ^U Jbl (i^iZ^A 

Pocket, \^,.».9fjib. — hand- 
kerchief, jUi.M^ dastmdl. 

Pod, iL^^pilah, 
Podez, ^JJ^9 kun. 

Poem, Jai nazm, — consist- 
ing of rhyming couplets, 

{jyju masnavi. 

Poet, ^\1 shaivy pi., AjuU 

Poetry, ^^ shtr ;j\m1\ asKdr. 
The art of — , ^JiJ^ ahcLiri, 

Point (dot), ft., aLaJ nuktah ; 
(end),^ sar. The four car- 
dinal points, (J*|^ khavdfik. 

To — out, ^2)if »;^' wW- 



Poison,^ zahr (J.); pa, p., 
A^«M^ fnasmum» 

Pole (star, etc.), uJii kutb. 

Telegraph — ^ etc.,jJ tir, 
Pole (Polish), a) lah. 
Police, ^S^ ahahnagi ; (sXjS 

kashik, — man, ^^-^^ 

Polish, t>., ^j^jj zudan ; w., 

(lustre), JiL.0 saikal; ^ 

y/Za ((?.) ; pa, p,, J^5a4 wa*- 

Polisher, j^-9 lUi jaldrgar ; 

Polite, i_>)^l a(^i&; uj^ja mi'-* 
addah ; ^:is^j-^ farhikhtah, 
— ness, cj^l a<fa&. 

Politic, jjft4 mufid. 

Politics, Polity, o.ML«f siydsat. 

Pollute, y^^^ dludan; ^r f^ 
^j^ najis k, ; ^^:JLcl dghctsh- 
tan ; pa. p,, ^j**^ munajjas 
(Jc,) ; vi/jU mulavvas (k.). 

Pollution, j^^ojjjT dludagi; 

Poltroon, Jjuj K(£f»7. 

Polytheism, i&)^ «^tV^. 

Polytheist, «!^^ muahrih 

Pomade^ ^^jj roghm, 
Pomegranate, JU ndr 5 j\-j\ 


araar. — blossoms, .U 
gulndr, '— tree, ^^^U nar- 

Pommel (saddle), ij^y^ karhut; 

(sword), A^ kabzah. 
Pomp, ij:S^ shaukat ; • 


shikuh ; J » t^ tajc 
J «t, :.»! ihtishdm ; w^..-^ 
hashmat ; »U. ^aii/ (jl;^^ 
tamturdk ; ji;W;L» fantanah; 
jDjjo dabdahah. 
Pond, ^;^*^1 isfakhr ; 

Ponder, ^^^^^Jikr k. 
Ponderous, J-*JlJ sakCly — 

ness, v:Jiftj saklat. 
Pony, jjli ya^t^. 

Pool, j^;^ hauz ; jS^\ dbgtr. 

Poor, ^^ I fl « muflia ; ^c-i-i 
shakiy ; ,jiij^^ darvish ; JS* 
mukill; c-»i^^ ghartb, pl.^ 
^jjp. ghiwabd* ; ^jf^^^^miskin; 
pl,f ^^sLm* masdkin; 
fakir; *\Jjfukard, 

Poorly, A5]^-£i ^A;im7iaA. 

Poplar (white), jIjla*» sqftddr; 

(oriental), .U^ chindr. 
Poppy, yiLjtf^ khaskhdsh ; 




Population, ijjj*** mamuri. 
Populous, J^dhdd Qc^\ j^bbl 

PoFcelaine, ^^ chinL 
Porcupine, e:> ,:, j^L». khdr- 

Pores (skin), ^L^ masdm. 
Pork, d^ iZA^j^ gusht'i'khuk, 

or eupbemisticallj, oJ^^ 

JfL gushui-hulbuh 
Port, ^j^ij bandar ; iX-J^ Lj^j 

Portal, c^U hdb. 
Portent, ^IL ^o/t*. 

Porter (carrier), Jl,»». ^«m- 

(doorkeeper), ^j\ * j^ dar- 

ban, — at a caravanserai, 
*b jjVb ddldn-ddr. 

Portfolio, ^^)\^y^ juz-ddn. 

Portico, J j.,U^ i^iA/t;:; ; s\CjL}-j 
ptsh-gdh ; ^\jj rivdk. 

Portion, */-f^ bahrah; »^Lj 
pdrah ; j^ juz, pL, 'j^i 
q;zd*; ix^ nubzat; ^x^ 
nubzi, — of a farm re-let, 
A;Xir kat-kenah. 

Portrait, ^j-oj tasvir. 

Position, ^j vaz\ 

Paaitire, ^fiij ya/tm (b), — 

injunction, x^^J^y taukid. 
— 17, Lij yahirum. 

Possess, v.y ^jZ^\^ dathtan ; 
jlJ\i ydftan ; pr. p., *^jdkU 
mutasarrif. Termination 
signifying ^'possessed of," 
ju* 'inand ; Jj vdr ; j^ var ; 
j\^ ddr. 

Possession^ uJ^-^oJi tasarruf 
(k.); ^sSX^ maldkat, in pL, 
.-.^ i^ ^ 7 tasarrufdt : (sl^lL^I 
amidk. To gain — of, 
fj^y ijia^jj badast a. 

Possessive case, cusUI izdfat. 

Possessor, v-«>L» sdhib. 

Possibility, J\^,7 >\ ihtimdl ; 
^Ji^\ tfnkan. 

Possible, Jx»* mumkin ; ^3^ 

Possibly, jjUi sMyad, 

Post (on horse), ^liU^ chdpdr; 
(on foot), j^lS Icdsid. — 
(office), U.0 rfi ; • mansob ; 
(stake), v-#j>. chub. 

Posterior, ^'>« muakhkhar. 

Posteriors, j)^ dubr. 

Posterity, L->L_ft-fi1 a'kdb ; ^V^i 

Postponement, lJls^ tavak- 

fcu/ ^lc,\ 



Fostscripty Jj3 zaiL 

Pot (metal), el i^ dig; 

(earthen), *^jS^ kuzaL — 
companion ^ -^ i »- ham- 
kdsah; ^ji** ham-fcadah. 

PotagQ, ^dsh. 
Potash, Ui kilyd^ 
Potation, ciu^ly nushL 
Potato, ^^^ U.AS.M M'i-zamm. 
Potent, j^li kddir. 
Potsherd, i)-^ uJj— i» itAai?^ 

Potter, ^^U*. iufdlgar ; ^^f 
kuzagar ; uJ])»> khazzdf ; 
^Jji. khazafx. 

Pouch, i^ kUah ; i^jS^kif, 

Poultice, A:jst pukhtdh. 

Pound (sterling), *j ^ \ Urah ; 

v., y:}^jy^\ dshurdan; c)*)^^ 

Pour, ^J^!iJ'iJ rikhtan ; pr. /?., 

^joJu mufiz (w.). 
Poverty, , .;■ ^-ai,.^ mMini; 

i-;^aai^,» maskinah ; (jj »S.9 

fakiri ; ^^,1 6— • miiflisi ; 

^Aijj^ darvisht; ^i^\^ U wa- 

Powder, uJjJL-. «w/w/I Gun 
— > o^^V ^art«^. — flask, 
4;;^jlJ)^L-; bdrut dan. — 


magazine, a>U o^^b dorti^- 

Power, cjjS i kudrat; o^ 

kuvvat; i~jlk takat ; j^\ 
zur ; c)|^— a ^a»a« ; ^^'LiijJ 
tavdndi ; ^j Kz^^tt*^ dost* 
rat; >\xL^a daat^dh ; JU* 
UMi/a/ ; cs^^.fet-^ maknat ; 
(authoritj), ^1 jiil iktiddr. 

Powerful, Lil^ Havana ; ^Jui 
fiodir ; jX 7_i-» muktadir; 
^» .t. 7 *<* muhtashim; ^fTm'i 
tnutamakkin; jjT .jj flrur- 
avar / o>.»».> p) zahar-diut 

Powerless, ,1 >.\ i ndehdr; 

rendering — , jUP* ijiz. 

Pox (the small-), aJ/T ^7aA ; 
(syphilis), ij^^iykuft 

Practicable, ^ jJ;» shudani; ^i>f 

Practical, j^«e *amaKy. 
Practice, JUnii**! istimdl (k,); 

mumdrisat; o^U 'a<^. 

Practise, »., ^^JliXj^ -.^ /or* 
afgandan; pa. p., (s)^JL»« 
masluk ; J »«;.„• miM^a'moZ. 

Praise (to a man), ^j^ moiM; 
ciAsu ita^; (j^^ nigdgiih; 




sitdyish; (to G-od), 
hamd ; ^ > mtj tasbih ; 

S-^^jd tahmid; JJLJ tahltl, 
— be to God, ill juJI al- 
hamdu lilldh ; v., ^)J> -, A-a^ 
ntdidan / ^3^ aitudan. 
Praises (one who), u^U^ vas- 
8af; ^^JJij vdsif. 

Prating, ^j^ %\jb harzah gui. 
Prayer, jU* namdz {gf.)', o^ 
or OjJL» saldt {gf*), pl^y 
oljU salavdi. The call to 
— , ^)bl izdn. The crier to 
— 9 U*^^ wi«^2r2n«. — niche, 
«»>]/^ mt^rad. A place of 
— , ^^\ ,n • musalld, — 
carpet, s^ls:^ sajjddeh. One 
whose — is heard t-iL^*^ 
oj^jJl mustajdh ud da^vdU 
One who prajs, ou-j^> Lc^ 
Preacher, b .cl^ vaVz ; c,*.jV»^ 

Preaching, kc^ vaz {h)\ 2kcl^ 
fnuvaVjreA (At.); cuLct^ matf- 
*iz(U («.). 

Preamble, J^];— sar-dghdz ; 
aaJa* mukaddamek. 

Precaution, d;\j^ taddruk ; 

Precede, ^jJ^j ^jljj ]^Uh r. 

Precedence, c:> S .■>,..» sabkat ; 
\Zjj\s rf> saddrat; o^^L*. 

Preceding, j^L* «a£t^ ; 

5c7/a/*; j^L» muhddir. That 

which precedes, ^j^m* U md 

Precept, ^jjj\ andaraz ; iaa^^ 

vasty et J pLy \A^j vasdyd. 

Preceptor, ^ I » > muallim ; 

w^^ muaddih. 
Precinct, j» hadd. 

Precious, x>^j\ arjmand; y^je. 

*aziz ; ^^^--^j tamin ; ^m ^ ■ ; 

nafCs, — stone, ^ '^ -^ 

Precipice »liJ;> partgdh. 

Precipitation, ^^^ tahawur; 
^^lil shitdh'Zadagu 

Precipitous, iz^y^part; l,^!]^ 

Precise, ^6-** *aAtA. 

Preclude, ^j^ «jU want* A:. 

Preconception, ^JLjjJI (ji---j 
]9i«A andisht (k,). 

Predecessors, (2;^L» sdbtkin. 

Predestination, Ui kazd ; yjSJ 




Prediction, cujl4.^s» kahdnat 

Predilection, J^* mei/L 

Predominance, %^\ isttld. 

Predominant, ^" t mustauli. 

Pre-eminence, ^jj— •j^ har^ 

Pre-eminent, j\i»^ tnumtdz. 

Preface, a>>Lj^ dihdcheh; ^J^ 
'unvdn ; juJaa mukaddamah. 
Preferable, ^\j rdjih (A.). 

Preference, f^j-^ tarjih (d, 
dsh,) ; v::«sf^l^ murdjahat n. 

Preferred, ^i-Lo* muktafd. 

Pregnancy, J^*. Aam?. 

Pregnant, ai^I dbistah; o^l 
a&i«^ ; 4UU hdmilah (6.). 

Prejudice, v., ^^^.l^Lm i,#.ia«;,^ 

mutaassib s, 
Prejudical, ^^ rmizirr. 
Premature, c>i^ hi-vakt 
Premeditation, ^^xJ taddbhur 

Premises (logical), oL«xi-* 

Preparation, v^j\s » taddruh 

{k.) ; v-rfwJ^ tartib (s. d,). 
Prepare, ^j^Ul dmddan ; o^ 

^j;;^ durust k. ; ^ji j . g ^^ 

^ichidan; pa, p., Jju««a mu«- 

tdidd {sh.) ; ^ ^ ^ - mu^iya 
{^)\ J -^ «- Mx:tr (A. ifc.). 
One who — s, ^^-^ wt^Ayi. 
Preponderance, ^ ^ ; ^1 i^^i/i 

Preposition, ^^ uJ;». Aai/ i 

Prepossession, vsaJSj rigkhat. 

Preposterous, i^j^^ bthudah. 

Prepuce, t^J^ ghalaf. 

Prerogative, ^ hakfu 

Presage, ^\jfaaL 

Prescription (doctor's), t^Je^ 

nuskheh {d.). 
Presence, jya>, huzur (dsh.) ; 

JJ kibal. In the — of, 

JUi JJ ^w-^**"^ / ^4^^ bahu- 

Present (not absent), j^\^ 
hdzir. At— , Jlil al hdl; 

VI -a. hdU; yj'iX aUn. 

(gift), (jj^ .M- ii bakhshish ; 

^jljfe^ dihish ; Uud tuhfat ; 
oL^j-Mi saaghdt ; (to in- 
ferior), aLx-S! in dm; (to 
superior), ^j^^Xl^ pish-kesh. 
A wedding — (from the 
bridegroom), US j^^ ru-niMiia. 
Asking for a — , u- 



Presenting, Ajs\ ikddm (w.). 
Preservation, jJafl^ muhdfezeh 

Preserved, ^2|^l• ma^mun. 

Preserves (fruit, &c.), ^L_»T 
dchdr ; b^ murahbd («.). 

Preserving, j^j vakd\ — one's 
self from sin, aIaic\ ttisdm. 

President, ^ ■ t. \ .Ju^ sa£?r 

nUMn, — of the republic. 


.«.> iSJ«^ 

ij** u^ 

rats t 

daulat ijamhur. 

Press (wine or oil), dL«»;-f 
harshak ; ^ ^ - masar ; v., 

^jj-5fi^ shikanjidan ; ^^^^1 

Presumed (it is to be), JUi«ft>i 
.yi^>_^ ^ ^n ihtimal-i'kuUt 

Presumption, j^\^ tajdsur ; 
^juJ tasaddi. 

Presumptuous, J5U sdil; j^^ 

Pretence, a3Uj 5aAa;ia%. 

Pretender, ^b efaf. 

Pretending, 'lol ie?(fra (A:.). 

J^retension, [jy-^^ davdy pi, 

^^\j^ davd'u 
Pretext^ ij\fj haMnah. 

Pretty, JJLJ:»^«->. khmh-gil; 

o.j<A»j»> khuhsurat. 
Prevalent, cJlcl aghlah {h) ; 

Prevarication, ,j^l:J» tandkuz 
Prevention, ^tJL-* «»a«' (ife.) ; 
Preventive, ^\y muzdhim. 

Previous, j,xJL^ mukaddam ; 

^^1 asbal^ ; ^L* adhik, . 
Prey (plunder), jl^Lj ya^A- 

9naA ; (game), Ju^ 8aid{k.). 
Price, c>»i kaimat ; Lj hahd ; 

man; (hire), »^UI ijdrcih, 
— current, -;,^ nirkh. 
Prick, ^^ju-jJLi. khaltdan ; 
^JS^%^ khaldmdan ; ^^\ 

Pride, jjj^ ghurur ; m.\^\ 

ibrdh; fjjjjJu^ maghr^H ; 

jLS^iJ istikbdr ; csJ^ rw- 

*unat; iZxyji nakhvat; Ja>J 

tdazzum, — and egotism, 

Priest, jUi ^ji--j ^'wA-wfljnazj 
Chief — of the Magi^^ ^ » 
^J^pirimughwn, Christian 
— > \J*r^ lccwiK\%V 



Prime, ^^s^A mehtar. 
Priming, ^J-i*^ chashni («.). 
Primitive, c;KJL^i pishtn. 
Prince, i^l^lJ^ shdhzddah ; 

(title after the name), \jj^ 


Princess, <»j^ iJ|l;jk\J^ shah' 
zddeh khdnum. 

Principal, ^^\ asli ; J^l awal; 

(money), jjU^ sar mdyeh, 

— ly, CJIc ghdliban. 
Principle, J^l asl ; »^U mdd- 

dah ; AjLum manshd\ 
Print, r., ^^j^ c-jW. chdp k. ; 

s:^} ^ tab* k.; pa.p.y p^ 

Printer, cLL tahha. 
Printing, ci^cUo iihaat 
Prior, ^jJL* mukaddam ; ^jjl 


Priority, j^jJu takdim ; j^sJu 
takaddum; uu«ij3 kaddmat. 

Prison, ^)ljJj zinddn; ^J^ 
njn ; jljL». ^^.^^ mahhus 

Prisoner, ^J^J^ mahhus; ^jsS 
kaidtf pi., ^^\j\Jj\ zinddni- 
ydn, — ' of war, ^^ asir. 

Privacy, o^ khalvat. \ 

Private (soldier), jLj ^^— . aar- 
bdz. — apartment, ojl> 
AJl». khalvat khdnah. 
Privately, ^^\^ nihdnt. 
Privation, Jlac ^utaL 
Privative, ^sc^ 'adamiy, 
PrivUege, j\S^\ istikkdk. 

Privy, jj^ mahraz ; a1j>« maz- 

balah ; %. khaU. 
Prize, ^\jo\ ifCdm. 

Probability, JUa.1 ihHmdl 

Probable, J*^' muhtamil. 

Probably, \ifguyd. 

Probation, ^JW•^ tmtihdn. 

Probe, J^ m^l. 

Probity, jx» sidk. 

Problem, j^L^ mas-aleh. 

Proboscis, ^jk>^ khartum. 

Proceed, ^^y^^ j^lj^ ravd-rdv 

^' ; uifj^j rqftdr k. 
Proceedings, oLiJC-j oK\fc 

harakdt o sakandt ; (of a 

lawsuit), j5^K * j^^ rw-ia 

Process, jui^ i?««*. 

Procession, ^Jt\j^ tawdf. 

Proclaimed, j^ ;..t« mushtahar 



Proclamation, 'lj3 nidd (k,) ; 

%a told (k.) ; j\^\ ishti- 

hdr (cL), 
Procrastination, J«) j cuJ lait 

o laal (Jc.) \ JJLiJ tdallul 

Procurable, ^^Ui^i^ ddH-yah, 

Procure, ^;^xjL-, ^ JaA^ww ro- 
sdntdan ; pa. jp., Ij^^ paic^ei 

Procuress, jJV^ dalldlah. 

Prodigal, a,, ^> mubazzir ; 
^j„^ or v-J;-x« musfif; n., 
.Iiil> talaf-kdr. 

Prodigality, v-ji;-»l i5ra/*; jx3 

Prodigious, ^gWc W/m. 

Prodigy, *(^-^' ujubah — 
(fem.) of beauty, Ls^ *ajhd. 

Produce, n,, J<Aft. U ma ^a«aZ ; 
J^l» Aa«i7 ; J^ .n ». husul ; 
^jTr *Vf J ; paiddyish ; t?., .^ 
^j^^j 1 fZar a. ; pr, p., ^\x^\ 
ibdd' (n.) ;^Li*i t^j»ir (A.). 

Products, o^U hdsildt. 

Production, Xs^jpaidd (k,). 

Profanation, ^j>>.j \s > f({e^;»i« 

Profane, ^3--L» yasiA. — Iv, 

Profanity, jUi nz/aA. 
Profess, ^j^ Jiio\ izhdr k. 

Profession (trade), 

sanat; 4jLy}pt8hah. — of 
faith, J4JLJ ta4ihakhud. 

Professor, jUl-*! ustdd ; ^J-,»x-• 

Proffer, ^cJiJ takdtm (k.). 

Proficiency, osJbli kabiliyat. 

Proficient, Jj\i /taJiZ. 

Profit, va*jtftU manfaat ; ijJU 
fdidah; »^ hahrah ; »^Ui-»l 
tstifddah ; ^^ rzM; :>j-4*< 
«ti<? (y.) ; J^U ^a527 (y^.)- 

Profitable, JlU j^j^^* sud-mand; 
XJu mufid ; »xu » jjIs fdidah- 

Profligacy, ^y^ fisk ; jy^ 

Profligate, w., jj. rind. 

Profound learning, j^} tabah- 

Profuse, J>j^ muva-ff^ar ; ojU 

Progenitor, Ss^ jadd. 
Progeny, J-J nasi ; hji zar- 

riyet ; iW^ suldlaf. 
Progress, ,jj^ \jifard ravi. To 

make — , ^^j^s» ^Ji ta- 

rakki Ic. 



Prohibit, v,, ^J:;J^h \j vd dash' 
tan ; pa. p. 6jU« mamnu ; 

jj^ mahjur ; m\ ;»« mum- 
tana\ Things — ed, oU^ 
muhramdt ; ^j^ mandhi ; 
pr, p., jfclj ndU; ^jjd 
tahrim (n.). 

Prohibition, lU-* man (*.) ; 

jiiU mdni (Jc.) ; ^^ nahi 

{k.) ; ciusuU* mumdnaat 
Projecting, *\a-« mxfa^; f^^^ 

ikhtira (k,). 
Prolix, Jmaaa mufassah 
Prolixity, u->Ul?i itndh. 
Prolongation, ^1ji-«l imtiddd 

(Jc, y.). 
Prolonging, (^^Ui^ mutamddi. 
Promenade,^;--* sair (k,). 

Promise, r., ^J^\^ eu-i^ dost d. ; 
^J^\^ ^;)bj zabdn-d, ; pa. p., 
j»yt^ mauud; pr. pa., jcl. 
vaid ; n., s.c c 'aA<^ (*•) > 
»j-Cj vadah (Ic.) ; o^ • » I 
paimdn; ^ja mauid. 

Promontory, A.SJL shindkh; 
^ja\j rds. 

Promotion, AiJji irtikd (d.) . 

^ tarakki {d.). 
Promptitude, i^L^JS* shitdh ; 
(j^jj zudt 

Promptly, j^ zud. 
Promulgated, mi\L thayC {Jc.). 
Prong, etbk. chanig. 
Pronoun, ^;««^ zamir. 

Pronunciation, h,,6lJ talqiffuz 

Proof, c)L*;-j hurhdn; JJj 
(foZi?; is?* hujjat; o^-jJ 
tubui; A^aSt nakhshah, A 
decisive — , ^li JJj (^^7 
I kdtC. 

Prop, ^}L^xjtJ pushitbdn ; j^ 

Propagation, ^ll_ij! intishdr 

Propensity, ^ mail; l:^]^ 

VTo^TfK,^^\umund8ib; Cj^lj 
vdjih ; j^y^ sezdvar. Not 
— , JjLj na-hdyad. 

Property, JU »iaZ; eJ5Ll «i»- 
ZaA;; a.^9^JU^ mamWcat; 
isU^ mr/Ar. A man of — , 
jb ajU mdyah-ddr. — and 
effects, cIl^ j JL« ino^ « 
mita ; (quality), cu-j-^l-^ 
khdssiyety pi, ^j«jla>. ilAa- 

Prophecy, o^ nuhuvvai (».) ; 



Prophet, ^ ndbiy^ pi,, A^\ 
amhiyd ; ^j rasul ; ^^-^ 

Propinquitj, i^ kurh 

Propitiatioii,^,;ilCj takfir (Je), 

Propitious, ji-7....<^ hhujisteh, 
— ^ness, oJfiL»« musaadat. 

Proportion, JxJL^ mikddr ; 
o««J Tusbat, 

Propose, ^JlJf^Ji^ pUh-gr, 

Proposition, a11«^ mas-aleh. 

Proprietaryship, o-^U md- 

Proprietor, etUU mdlik. 
Proprietry, ^J^lJJu* sMyiatagi; 

^j^ durusti; c^^Xo saldr 

Prose,^ nasr. 
Prosecution, n., ^jj^^--^ pai' 

ravi; \jL^sa\^ mturafdat (^.). 
Proselyte, sis^^jadid. 
Prosody, ^jjfi- *ainiz. 
Prospect,^;ku mcmzar. 
Prosper (him, may Qt)d), {jjjj 

-jV^w ruzi kundd. 
Prospering, ^j ij ^ muvaffik 

Prosperity, JL-Jl ikhdl («.). 
May his — be lasting, ^b 

aII^I i^^»^ ikhdluJiu; o^!^ 

harakat; c^^ farrukhi^ 
ca,o;».,» maimanat ; o.Lm^ 

yasdrat; ^%\ ifldh. 
Prosperous, jjjlsl ikhdlmand ; 

i ^a4» ; i^\iJ^ kdm-ydb. 

Prostitute, a-s? kahbah ; ^^^jj 
ruspi; jJ^ lavand; ^kJL 
aaHteh; ^^fjTkasbi; a_*?j 
zanicheh ; « ju*. jindeh. 

Prostitution, ^x^jindegt. 

Prostrate, j».L» sdjid; L»y-* 
&ar/a ; f>., ^^^Isi^ uftddan. 

Prostration, aXumI istildm, in 
plf tz>\j^ sijddt. 

Protected, ij^jj^ mahrus (k,). 

Protection, ulajL^.^ himdyet 
(d,) ; jUi^ zinhdr (A?,). ; *)U# 
sdyah (w.) ; »Uj pandh (d.) ; 
^3L1 amdni (d.) ; jji^ ij i?«r- 

Protector, »J^j^ parvarendah. 
Protege, j^^^ parvardeh. 
Protest, jl^l ishtihdd {k.}. 
Protestation, ^Uj\ f^^aA. 
Protracting, 'Uwl ibtd (k,) 
Protracted, jl^A dirdz. 
Protraction, ^^U^-J tamddi 



Proud, jxf^ maghrur ; 

mutakabhir ; « v t ^ mus- 

takhir ; j^ ^^^^ gardan- 

Prove, r., ^^pJI* or c)ir «^^ 

ia^tV At. or «A. ; ^.>^ (J>*3uJ 

tasdik n. 
Provender, ^jU *ulufah. 
Proverb, Ji* masalj ph, Jll-«1 

Proverbial, Jjtjl c-»^ jr«r& mZ 

Provide, ,^^L» «ju^h> durust s. 
Providence, ^\jj Eazzdk ; 

J^i^3A ^arvardagdr; jjl^ 

Provident, ^jiJ^\ dkhir-hin ; 

jjijjjijj^^ dur-andtsh. 
Province (small), jjT kureh ; 

(large), oXJL»^ mamlakat 
Provision (for a journey), ^y 

tushah ; (»!.) ^h zdd (i rdh) ; 

Xt^j rasad, pi, (3^^ Mwr- 

dam; J^jj^ arzdk; j~^^ 

Provocation, d^ tahrik (k.). 
Provoke, ^^s^))^ khizdmdan. 
Prow, ^ja\j rds. 
Prowess, ijjyl^ dildvart. 
Proximity, ^c^j^) wazdtfct. 

Proxj, JJ^ vakil. 

Prudence, ^lJL» hushydri ; 
ijJJ^j^ hushgdri; ^jx^y^ 
hush-mandi ; 

Prudent^ ,a;».%^ » Mtsh-mand; 

— Ij, IWLs.! ikhtigdtan. 

Prune (plum), l^lic jl\ a/fi 5ii- 
khdrd; r., ^j^ * 'j- Ar^- 
shudan ; ^^^ ^^ t,^LW > 

Prurience, ^^ havas. 

Prurient, ju«^jft havaamand. 

Prjing, ,ji-::oJ ^o/Jfi'a^ (^.). 

Psalms (of David), j,j»j zahur. 

Puberty, cjL bulugh. 

Public, the, '51. ma^' ; ^.^ 
mardum. — audience, ^Lj 
Js> bar i *dm; (notorious), 

iijc 'urft ; \j^,j>. jahran, 
— life, Jui^ 'aldniyet. To 
be made — , ^j^liJl '3L j 
bar maW uftddan* — ly, 
I^Lsf* sihdran ; \J^JL\ ash- 

Publication, jl^l ibrdz ; .L.:J^1 
\ldm ; v;^'iftl xldn. 

Publishing, o-iU ihdnat (i.) ; 

^=^1)1 iialtal (k.) ; fj J '■ 

ghHyu {dth.). 
Pudendum virile ^ _"" kir; 

isJT dlat; j^m'i aiakar. — 

muliebre, ,j— ^ iw*; — ^ 

/":;; Jj-fc «*<*«. 
Puerility, ^^ tifiL 
Puff, j:^i_ijjjni/i. 
Pugnadous, _^ lajij. 
Pull, i^jijiT fewA**!*. — out 

hsirs, etc, y*fi *_iiJ fwj^ 

i. J 0j> (_,!:_; nafth k. 
Pullet, Ufj^j4Jeh. 
Pulley, 1^ ghargkareK 
Pulp,j» ntaghz. 
Pulpit,^ fttinhar. 
Pulsation, ya-~J nahs (yr.). 

Ono — , 1=^ nabsaL 
Pulse (pea), ju-j_^ jtar jomL 
Pump, «^ ^wIumiaA. 
Pumpkin, jjS kaddu. 
Pun, ^j.^:^ tajnit; ti^ lafU 

Punctual, uijjilt it^vo^ 
Puncture, ^.^!L kkaHdagi; 

j>\ abr. 
Pungent, j^ tu. 
Fangenc^, i^tUL 

Punieh, p., ^yj^o—L. siyA- 
tat k. — by mutikting the 
criminal, ^if ^ ntuak k. 

FuaiBher, i_>1ju niidkib. 

Puaisfament, - ^ ■ ^ 'ukihat 

Puny, j_^^Cj y«t vajabi. 
Pupil, ^}Uu yo^maM; J,^l^ 
tkagirJ. — of the eye, 

Puppet, i^ la'bat — ehow. 


■I la'bal bd^ 

Puppy, Jj> tuleh ; Af. haekek. 
Purblind, ^jJ ^jf^ rut-kur ; 

Purchase, v., ^i^ itAorii&M ,- 
,;}i^'l^l ishtird k. 

Purchaser, ,^^^.1^ muthtari; 
jtjj^ kiariddr. 

Pure, s)1j ^i:; ^t^ khdlia; 
uli niU ,■ ^Ik tdhir ; ■, i\i'r 
nasi/; jJ »oA(y; ^^j-. 
<q/iy; 1^ tdrd; _;»* sa- 
m(m; (holy), >}.l> tnuxa^- 
zoA; (in colour), b^U ftott'. 

Purgation, 4tL:J ton^fA (n.). 

Purgative, Jj_* mw-AiI (yr.)j 



Purgatory, v-Jj^l i'rdf. 
Purged, Jj.-** mm-hal (sL), 
Purging, Jl^i iS'hdl (yr.). 

Purification, ^^ ■ ^ « tasftyeh 
(w.) ; (before prayer), j^ 
vuzu (Jc.) ; (with sand or 
dust, when water cannot be 
had), ^ tayammum (Ar.). 
Ceremonial — , 0;U-t tdhd- 
rat {k,) ; ^^-^ tathlr (k,). 

Purified, jj^j^ mahrur; jyj^ 

Purifier.^^Ja* mutdhhir. 

Purity, ^jL-* sdfi ; 
jpdki; '\iu0 safd^ ; 
sajvat ; fjcj^ khulus ; o^\i> 
nakdvat ; i^sSyJ tazkiyat ; 

Purple, ij^jej arghavdn ; ^•^ 

Purport, w-Jk^ matlah. 

Purpose, x^ 'amd (k.) ; x^ 
kasd (k.)\ ^yJu^ maksud; 
kza^.^^\^ ^azimat. On — , 
\x^ 'amdan ; IxoS kasdan. 

Purring, ^;^;i. khar-khar (k»). 

Purse, i^ kiMh; l^ surrat; 

fjL^ himydn. Cut — , j\JU 


Purslain, »^ khurfdh. 

Pursue, ^JiJJ c-*Sfr *aiah r, ; 
JL3j ^^j:^ dor pat r. 

Pursuit, ^^i«) tdakkuh (^.). 

Pus, j^ Hm ; jA hapar. 

Push, Jyb hul {d,)'y ^JCj ia* 
kdn (d.). 

Pusillanimous, Jjuj ht-diL 
Pustule, f^^hwrk. 

Put, «>., ^jzJu\sS gwzadhttm; 
^l^i nihddan; ^^Sm^ nihiS' 
tan, — anything on the 
back of a beast of burden, 
^j!L^ n^J tark hastan, — 
out the light, ^^il^cj^^ 
ehvrdgh-kmhtan. — in mo- 
tion, ^JujLi» jumhdnidan, 
— on garments, ^^^ {Jt^ 
malhus k. 

Putrified; U^j-^ pushideh; 
tSyxS yandideh. 

Putrify, ^^j:^ gandidam. 

Putrid, ^j ramim. Becoming 
— , jj&J ta*affun («.)• 

Puzzle, n.j y^j ramz; jJLl 
lugliz; v., ^'x^s^j^^jr^ 
sar-hasar guzathtan. 




Quack, ^Lc 'ayydr. 
Quadrangular, a^j^ murohha*. 
Quadruped, Aj>\i J^ chehdr, 

pdyah; Aj>b^U char-pdyah; 

]^J^ cJidrvdy pi. foJi\ ol^^ 

zavdt .id arhd ; i^l^^ dor 

Quaff, ^JXJ^y nushidan. 
Quail, n,f i^\ > »»» sumdnah; 

^Jd>J^, aidarchm, 
Quakiug, ^jUlyb hardsdn {%%,), 
Qualified, \^Judu muttasif, 
Qualifyiog, wA*4#j} tausif (A;.). 

Quality, uuA.0 sifat, pi, ^z^Lo 
sifdt; aI ,ft >. khaslat, pi, 
Jla^ khisdl; all*, hdlat, pi 
oVU hdldt ; \.jLe>j vasfy pi, 
v^Lojl ausdf. Innate — , 
J-)U-2» shamdil. Best — 
(goods), ^^1 ^ fard i did. 

Quantity, o^-^ hamiyet ; jXi 
kadr ; jljJ) anddz; (jj\^ 

Quarrel, (sL> jang (Jc,) ; cl)«i 
nizd (Jc,) ; Jb^ shutulum. 

Quarrelsome, js"^ jcmg-ju; 
ij^L^i faaddi ; tSijff» sitt- 

Quarry (stone), yj^ lean. 
Quarter (fourth), ji-^ ruV ; 
dijt )^ cheJidr yek ; (side)^ 
«^l>. jdnih; (granted to an 
enemy), ^^jUI imtdn. Town 
— , i^ mahallah, pi. oiU^ 
mahalldt. Four — s of the 
world, dub j\ L » cJiehdr" 

Quatrain, ^\ij rubaiy. 

Quay, i^ jXj bandar yah. 

Queen, ixJU malikah. — at 
cheB3, ^^^jfdrzin. 

Queer, ^^^ gliarih. 

Quell, 4j^ (^U tasalli k. 

Quench (thirst), ^j^b iy»X-yJ» 

taskind,; (fire), ^j^jjij*l>. 

khdmmk k, ; yj^jS -j a W 

tufu^ k. 
Question, n., Jl j- sddl ijc,) ; 

i^y^jl pursish ; a)1.«w* maS' 

alahy pl.f J5L** masdil ; i?.> 

jjj---^ pursidan. 
Quibble, A^\ ihdm. 
Quick, j>jj *?M(?; jJU i^?*?; 

(hasty), J*lii '4/*^- ~^y» 
{S^})t ^*^^<^*' — lime, jj*l> 



Quickness, ^^^j zudL — of 
apprehension, i4--j-j ^J^, 

Quicksand, db[j^^ duzd-rig. 

Quicksilver, c-»l ^^^^ sim-ab; 

Quiescence (of a letter), j^^C 

Quiescent (ditto), jJU sdkin. 

Quiet, n. »►, ij^ murqffah ; 

cu».i; rdhat ; ^^\^ dsdyish ; 

v., ^J:^^ ^\j\ drdm d. ; AJtJ 

4j^ tarfiyeh k. — 17, ^\j^ 


Quilt, fS^J^jJ tushak ; t^W 

Quilting, J^^^ «we«it ,\ A-jjfi 


Quince, ^ hih ; J*^ safarjaL 
Quinine, a;^^ ai^9 Hn^A- 

Quinsy, jjUi. khundk. 
Quintessence, oii^ra^. 
Quire, A:;i^^ dastah. 

Quit, ^j^^Vjf guzdshtan ; j^ 
^^1 jS faru-guzashtan. 

Quite, Ji^aOU hilkulL 

Quittance, 0];) bardt. 

Quiver, ^^b ^ ^tr {{dn ; 4^ 

jabah ; JLS jJ tarkash; 

f^ytM mikvas. 
Quotation, s\ji\ trad (k.). 
Quoted (from the Kor&n), 

,j»^fLJU muktabas. 
Quoting (from the Koran), 

^Liil ihtibds {k.). 
Quotient, J^aU hdsih 


Eabbit, ^^^ khar^gush. 
£ace, J ^\ asl ; J ^J\ nad; 

e>^ nasab. 
Hace-course, ^jlj.,.^ nudddn ; 

ioJlt shart, 
Eacing, oojLim* mttsdbakaU 

Eack, A*s^ ahikanjah (Jc,). 

Eadiance, &W^ «»/*. 

Eadiant, j«u munovran 

' , * 

Eadical, ^\ a»/i. — ly, ^1 

Eadisb, Uj^ turb ; ^fujvl. 

Eadius, ^ ^ nim ktUr. 

Eaft, is^S kalak. 

Eafter, ^ tir, 
Eag, %Jo pdreh. 
Eage, ^^^ fcahr ; k^ ghaiz ; 

A • 



Eai (the ancient Bhagis), ^ 

Bailer, Jij^e 'azzdl. 

Bailroad, ^^1 il^ rdh-i-dhan, 

Baimenty ^U lihds. 

Bain, n,, ^;)!;Lj hdrdn; ^^ 

hdrish ; v,y c)«H;^ hdrtdan. 
Bainbow, ^j-i ^jJ kaus i 

Bainy, jloj^ tnutir, 
Baise, ^)^j\ yj> bar dvardan ; 

^^j <g^ VLj hold k; pr. p., 

rdfi (Je.), 
Baiser, %^jij fardzmdah. 

Baisins, ^J^ hishtnish ; j-j^ 

Bake, ^ji> e)li» A:WA: ArejA. 
Bam, ^j^ gliuch ; ^yJ kuch ; 

(sign of the Zodiac), J » » 

hamal; v,^ ^pu^sT dkandan.' 
Bambling (in speech), ^^ 

^ftj dar ham har ham, 
Bampart, jJj bdru, 
Bamrod, J^ mil. 
Bancid, ^J»/ tursk, 
Bancour, ^jS kin. 
Bandom (at), j j ^> ; hi mafc- 


Bank (degree), aJ^ marten 
hah ; jii kadr ; iIXjIj pi*- 
gdh ; SJj rutbat. Of ele- 
vated — , iW. V|^ vdld^dh; 
(file), Uu^ saff, pi. x^jlum 
sufuf; in pi. (soldiers), 
v_fl-^ ^ masdff. Breaking 
the — , j^ ^^Juo sqff'-dar. 

Bansom, n., a> Ji Jldgah l^ ^ 
sar-hahd {d.). 

Bapacious, >j3^^ darandeh. 

Bapacity, JuL f«ma'. 
Bape, Ij^ zind (k.). 

Bapid, JjJ ^tmJ. — ^ity, ijxJ 

Bapine, o,\fi ghdrat {k.) ; c-*^ 

nahb (k.). 
Bapture, ^^^jirtH bi-khud{. 
Bare, j^\J nddir; i^L^kam- 

ydb. — things, ^|^ no- 

Barity, o^JJ nttdrat; Jl^^ 

tarfagi; »)dL-j nddirah^ pi. 

oL«f^ tuhfajdt; u-UL^ 

Bascal, ^JeVJ>J^ jauvaldghi ; 

fjX>j\ avhdah. 
Bash, UW ^ bi'tahdihd, 

Bashness, vj^^M*^ dU-bdzi. 

Eaap, J^^ «uK&a VJt>^- 



!Rat, ti*^ fnush. 

Bate, i^lj il anddteh. The 

market — , M\i ^j nirhh % 

hdzdr. At any — , JW ju 

behar hah 
Bather, ^;Ll^ htshfar, 
BatificatioD, fjiX^ tasdik («t.). 
Batified, j\^j]/ kerdr ddr. 
Batio, j\jJu mikddr, 
Bationally, aj^Ic 'dkildnah. 
Bations, Ji^jireh. 
Batsbane, ^LiJi ^^^i samm ul 

Bavage, ^I^U tdrdj (k.). 

Bavelled, «^ H^ ^^ ^^ 

BaveD, vl;^ ghurdb. 
BavenouBy tjjj^ darandah, 
Bavine, dLJ tan^. 
Baying, nsy^ shurideh, 

Bavished, ^oia* muftazah (A?.). 

Bavisher, sjjJU^ ruhdnindah, 
Bavifihing, ^LJ^ diUitdn. 
Baw, Alft> hhdm, 
Bawnesfi, ^l*. kJidmu 
BAjy yj^ ptxrtav ; eUl %h%£&^ 
pl.f A«M»1 ashiah, 

Baze,. ^^;..^9 r^H"*^ ^^"^^^ 
dim k, 

BazoT, ^jM musd. 

Beach, it., »^ljji anddzah ; v., 
^^^ vsamO <^a«^ hurdan. 

Bead, ^pjlj»> khdridan, 

Beadiness, ^^^L-J dmddagi; 
l^ tahtyeh ; ^jj^ taiydri. 

Beading, ^ Sj\^ khdndagi; 

(the ilBLoran), o'l^ kird^at; 

%z>jia tildvat (Jc,), 
Beady, ^U hdzir ; ti\j^ dmd- 

dah ; ^L-J taiydr ; L^ mu- 

haiyd ; jy^ j^ dar huzur ; 

Aimiy^ kamar-hastah. 
Beal, ^N^ *ainu 
Beality, Ii» hakktyeL In — , 

\mJj vakCan ; oaj^ ^ dar 

Bealm, kzSS^ mamlakaU 

Beap, jVfj-'^ khasurdan ; jji 
^ji^ diro k ; ^jJJ^ diravi- 
dan; j^j^j;^ durudan; pr, p», 
^V,A> ^t>d(^, or hasdd (k.), 

Beaper, >J 3^^ diravendah ; 

Am^ hassad, 

Beaping-hook, jb £^ir. 

Bear (of an army), J^^J-i-*- 
chanddvul^ v. t, (a child), 
U"i;JL^ poTvordan; r. »., (a 
horse), ^)ju.^yX!a» siktztdan ; 
pr. p, (a horse), L^ plr^ 



Eeason (wit), J a c *af:l ; 

(cause), c^_;wo» eahab, "By 
— that, A-^auil ^^\^ herdyi 

Beaaonable, Jj&m ma'kul, 

Bebeck, oL, rdbdb, 

Bebel, ^It taghi (ih^ ; tf '-i 

hdghi; ^^-aLfi *d8t (eh,), pi, 

iLaff Wa^ ; v., ^^s^j^ sar- 

ksh. ; y^ili^ ^ ^ fiar har 

dsh, ; ^;^xJi^ sj^^ gardan kah, 

BebelHoD, ^L^..^^ ^isydn {k.) ; 
^ haghy; oUIm mudsdt 

(n,)-; o^L-jK > baghdvat; 

^Llidl tgktishdsh ; ^L;;JLL> 

Bebellious, ^mi^» fnustdsu 

Bebuke, ^^ z(tjr (n.). 

Eeceipt (discharge), Jn ^ % 

Jj^^^j I) kadz ul vuml ; 

(medical, etc.)> *j^ nus- 
kheh; (getting), eu-iLjjLj 
hdzydft; ^.^jTOsid; (entry 
in an account), 4->>b dd- 
khilah . — and disburse- 

• ment, ^j^j J>~>>^ dakhl u 

Beceipts, J^^Ju* muddkhiL 

Beceiver, i^^„^^^ kdsib, — of 
good news, j-X',^ mubtMhir. 
Beceiving a bribe, ^\j rdshi. 

Becent, r^ tdzeh. 
Becess, ^J^^gusheh. 
Becitals, jij\SS takdrtr. 
Becite, \jSi\^jt bar khdndan, 
Beciter of stones, ^^ ^Ll^^ 

dastdn sardi. 
Beckon, ^.i;.^ shumurdan; 

^jj.U^ shumdridan. 
Beckoning, J^ shumdr (k.) ; 

u^Ln^I ihtisdb, 
Becliningi ^Ss takiyeh {z ). 

Becluse, XJb\^ zdhid, pi, ^U^ 
zuhdd ; ^jijS ^ tajarrud- 
guzin ; ^^^JLJ o^ khalvat- 

nishin ; ^Jj ).^ khalvatt. 

Like a — , aJIjuJ^J^ zdhi- 
danah» The life of a — , 
{jSto\j zdhidi, 

Becognition, ^ ,A:^ tashkhu 

Becollect, ^^^1 ^U ydd a, 

BecoUection, ^\i ydcL 
Becommend, ^jx^^^^^ svpdri'^ 

Becommendation, ^Jla aifd- 

risk (k.) ; a-^^^^ tau9!C%e,K 




Becom pence, ^IjLj pdddsk; 
^j^ 'ivaz (d.) ; oli^C* mu- 
kdfdi (k.) ; ^ muzd. 

Becompensed, jj^[^ ma^jur ; 
i^li« muadb. 

Becompensing, ljjJL^ musvih 

Beconciliation, 1* sulk (Jc,) ) 

aJLaJ tasfiyeh (n.). 
BeconDaisaance, .^ .^.l *^j^^ 

Becord, v., ^j^kJ «a^^ h; n., 

Becourse to, J*«^ tnutavassU; 
^j ruju (k,), 

Becover (find), ^^U jl» ftaz y. 

Becoverj (of health), is^Lil 
j/o/ta^ (y.); lii *At/K (y.). 

Becreation, ^yj tafarruj, 
Becrimination, u:^'ju mala- 

mat (it.). 
Becruit, jj«v». jadid. 
Beetifier, JLm muslih; a^jJ-^ 

Bectifying, j^x** misddk (n.). 

Bectitude^ (>-^b ''^^*» *^^*^ 

saddd; lJ^^^ savab ; ^^L^ 

taidh; x-^j rtishd ; {J^XJ 

kadva; c:« •< i t . wl Utikd- 


Bector (of a University), ^^^ 
j«jl»!1^1^ A^Xo rat^ t madrasah 
i dor id *ulum. 

Becurrence, oj(».L« murdjaat 

Bed, jv-**' ^'^'•itA (it.) ; ^^-w-^l 

ahmar ; yt>j kirmiz. 
Bedeem, ^J^J^ ^j vd-hkaridan. 
Bedeemer, >jjj»j ol^' nij&t 

Bedemption, ^JU^ rihdu 
Bed-lead, s^^lji» shingarf* 

Bedness, ^^^ surkhi; O;*^ 

Bedolent, J^k^ mu attar. 
Bedoubt, A«Li kal*ah. 
Bedoubtable, i^*:^ muhib* 

Bedress, s^W. ehdreh. Seeking 
— , j2\mL»»\ istighoMah, — of 
grievances, ^j :\i/fargdd' 

Bedresser (of grievances), :\>j 

Beduce, ^j S'kam h. 

Beduced (to poverty), ^^JLiJU 
muftakar. To be -«- to beg- 
gary, ^^sUtj^ j^ dor ha dor 

Bedundaney, ^U* fazlah^ pL 



Eedundant, jjlj zdid. 

Heed, ^ nai; e^^is kasah, A 
place where — s grow, ^^li-i-jj 

Eeedy, \jdj na'in. 

Heel, n,f ^ I j. ) |?i7*; v. 

(totter), ^)jJ^ 4i yaZ^A sh, 
Brofer, (2j^;^9 oy^/t nishat Tc. ; 

Beference, Kz*9i\jM mwrdfaat 
(n.) ; 2««J nishat, 

Befine (butter, etc.), yj^«>«iU 
«4^ ^. ; (metals), ^^jS Jli 

Befinement, o*-,y tarhiyat 
Befiner, JWl5 kdlgar. 

Beflection (thought), ^ ^^.^ 
^^r (^.) ; 4jLx*l m aw (n.) ; 
(shadow), ^j-Xc aA?«. 

Beform, t;., ^^ J%0\ isldh k. 

Beformer, ja^ uiAJ*** maalihat' 

BefractioD, ^Jt\j^^\ inhirdf 


Befractory, j> j .; p *anid; xj 
vsAMbA had-mast ; ^^ «^ sar- 
kaahi Being — ^ tamar- 
rud. — ness, ^Ji^j.^ %ar- 

Befrain, t^., ^^^li«jil l^ vd ta- 

Befreshing, L-«l ^jj ravdn- 

Befreshment, tjji yhizd. 

Befrigerator, jUft yakh-chdl 

Befuge, iLi-i pandh; kt t 

fta«^ (yr.) ; SU* mddz; ^^U 

mo'^an. Taking — , je-si^ 
multaji («.) ; ^L-a?' iZ^ya 
(A?.). A place of — , ja^ 
mafarr. We seek — in 
God, 4i)U S^ nauzu htlldhi. 
God is ray — , ^\ jU« ma a^r 

Befund, ^i^i^ ;l> ^a;:; (f. 
Befusal, ^IJLjl inkdr (^) ; 

jii no/i' (A?.). 
Befuse, m., A^fazleh, 
Befusing, ^jaj\j rdfiz. 
Befutation, ^*^ ^j radd i kaldm 

Begal, .|^ shahvdr, 

Begard (affection), A ' t-^ 
ihtirdm(k,)\ oLijdl »7^(/a^ 
(k,) ; (look),^ nazar (k.). 

With — to, L^\ j^^ (far 

5aJ. —less, ^]i\^ yhq/lk 
1 Begeiic^, vz^^^liulcumo^. 



Begent, c:^,;ViLll i^U ndih us 

Begiment, m^yfcit0» 
BegioD, ^\ iklim ; jja marz. 
Begister, w., jls^ da/tar; J^ 

fijily pi J>-?f^ 9uful ; • jj^ 
jaridahy v.; to — a letter, 
^)^yi,U*» sefdresh k. 

Begrety Js, gham (Jch^\ ^yS\ 
qfsus {kk,) ; o^^^ hatsrat ; 
tahassur; ijz* ; Ci 

Begretting, wJi>»\jL» mutc^amf 

Begular, (^^^«:l«^ mttstctmirrt, 

Begularity, J]aa nizdm {d.). 

Begulating, j^,s^ madahUr 
{k.) ; J^\ intizdm (n.). 

Begulation, jj^-^o-iw; txsS3 
kaideh ; J^l jfi>»»^ dastur 
id *amal. 
Rehearsal, ^1^ takrdr (k,), 
Beign, w., ^jbLi^Lj pdd-shdhi 

{k,)\ fi]jS^ hukmrdnt (k.), 
(time), ^j^J^julus, 

Beinforcements, ^\x^\ imddd 
Beins, ^^Lie 'indn ; j^La^ jilau 

BeiteratioD, ^\a taakid (n.)^ 
Bejection, ^ radd (A:.). 
Bejoice, ^^ ^\J» shad sh ; 
jj^^ vJrU-^ tahlil h ; pr,p,, 
mubhij (».) ; k 


mum^a^V. — at another's 
misfortunes, csJU^ shamdr 
tat (A.), — at good news, 
j\1j\ ihshdr (n,). 

Bejoiced (with good news), 
j^ mubashshar (h.)m 

Bejoin, ^jXt\j\j hdz dmadan, 

Bejoinder, vl^-»> ^ radd i 

Belapse, ^jM nuks (k,). 
Belate (a storj), ^j^jTapor- 

Belated, f^j»mU mansub; s^ 

Belation (story), oj\$^ hikd- 

yat; (reference), ^ 


nishat ; (relative), ^\^ xJLi^ 
rishtah'ddr ; Cj^ kartb, 

Relations (kindred), ^LjLjj-^ 

khtshdn; u^L^l akdrib ; 

f\j^ kurabd, 
Belationship, <J^^f— i kwhd ; 

uu->l^ J^ardbat ; 

Jehtsht ; cu>yu mukrabai, 

BelaLtoT^ vl>.x^ muhaddis. 




Release, n., j^5U khilds (d.) ; 

v.y ^^p^jLa^ rahdndan ; L*^ 

^^^Tohd k; pa, p.y 

Eelenting, ^j rahm (A:.). 

Eeliable, j>»?«* mutamad, 

Beliance, jj^j v^i^t^/c ; ^' 

ttimdd; 'd tV^JM. 
Belied (upon), ^^ mtiavval 

Belief, ^)jft '«!«». 

Believe, ^^^J^fdrigh k, 

Beligion, ^^^ din, pi. ^Lj^I 
adydn; i^x* ^nuz^ad; vzJL 
tniUatfpL, JL* milal ; ^jS 
Jcish. Of the same — , 
^jlJw^ ham-ktsh. Promoter 
of — , jjji ^ji^ dm-parvar. 
Belonging to*—, ^j dint. 

Beligious, l^^/:^ ij^ khudd 
maskrab ; ^b j^^ din-ddr. 
A — life, o^U\ zahddat. 

Belinquishing, fs2fj tarh (h.). 

Belinquishment, ijui^l^a ^jJ 

Belish, i^ — • mazah; pr, p., 

Vy \ -^ - mutalazziz; j^^ *) 

Beluctance, U ihd. 
Beluctant, ^\ ahi. 
Belying upon^ ^as« muttahi. 

Bemaio, ^JjU fndndan. To 

— fixed in the memory, ib 

U^y. y^ hudan. 
Bemainder, ^IfL* mdhdki; L« 

Jb 7nd haki ; JU hdki ; tJu 


Bemains (of victuals), ^j^' m^ 
ntm-khurd; ^^1 almh ; 
^J»J\ dlush. 

Bemand, uJl5^ muvakkaf (n,), 

Bemark, ^j^^Jaj nazar k. 

Bemarkable, vi^c gharih, 

Bemedy, i^U chd/rak; ^^^^ 
*ildj ; jjl^^ darmdn. Ap- 
plying to a — , cj\j\x^ fnu- 
ddvdt (n.); ^U« mudlij (».). 

Bemember, ^^jlJ^I^ ^Lj ydd^ 

Bemembrance, ^^T ^L«j yA? 

dvdri; ijjC iLj yddgdrC; 

y^ zikr. 
Bemind, ^^^U ^U ydd-d. 
Bemission, ^U* mudfi. 
Bemissness, uiAjblj« mt^ra^- 

na^ ; ^\J tardkhu 

Bemit (sin, etc.), ^pu-)j^^-*T 

Bemittance, JLi^l irsdl {n.). 



Bemonstrance, ij».lj« tnuvd- 
khazat n, ; a«^U« mudrezeh 

Bemorse^ ^1^1 armdn ; i^JuXJ 

Bemote, j^^ dur ; ^aft« muksd, 

— nes8, viyj** d{i,ri, 
Bemoval (from office), J)_c 

'azl {k.) ; *k khaV {h.). 

BemoviDg (to a distance), 

X>M^ taVtd; :\m>\ ih'db, 
BemuneratioD, 0;>1 ujrat, 

Bemunerative, jJu mufxd. 

Bend, ^Jj* «^ darldan. 

Bender, ^^jb ^j^ pas d, 

Bendezvous, jU-^ rntdd, — 
for troops, X ^^^ 'arz- 

Benegade, jJ;^ murtadd, 

Benewal, j^js? tajdCd (Je), 
Benewing, ^js:* mujaddid (w.). 

Bennet, j-i 'AiU mdyah i shir; 

AjiU jJ^ sh ir- mdyah ; ajU ^ 

Benoimce, y^:^^ Jij\ inJcdr h. 

Benown, ^\> diJ nik ndmi. 

Benowned (person), jy^JL^ 
mash-hur, pl.^ j^\^ mashd- 

Bent (fissure), (s)\>. chah. — 
(hire), iJjjSjcirdyah ; %j^ 
jireh; ii^UI ijdreh (d.). — 
free, — j^ V Id khardj. — 
roll, ^j> J o**j>> hast u hud. 

Benunciation of one's kin- 
dred, (j»-!»^) ^V> i kaf (i 

Bepairing, ou«^ marammat 
(L) ; js^ idmxr ijc.) ; jj^ 
ratk (w.). 

Beparation, csj^ljJ taddruk, 

Bepairs, .,^1 isldh, 

Bepartee, aLAs) lattfek, 
Bepeal, vJ naskh (k,), 
Bepeat, ^^J\i Idzgf.; pa, p., 
jS^ mukarrar (^.). 

Bepeatedlj, \j/^ mukarraran, 
Bepelling, jlJ ndft {k.); c^]^ 

rddC; ^\^ji0»\ istirddd (n.). 
Bepentance, ' AfjJ taubeh (k,)\ 

t>)Ul indbat; ^U^mI^ pashi- 

mdni (A:.) ; cu^^jj naddmat 

Bepenting, c-JU ^a'ii. 
Bepetition, i^Wl tddat. 
Beplete, ^U« mamlu. 

Repletion, »5tu! imtUd. 

Beply, vlj-*" ^ava^ (<?.) ; v-f 


Beport, *j\j\ dvdzah ; i 
shuhraty or shuhrah {d.). 

Eeporter, Jili ndfciL Govern- 
ment — , ^^y aJj jjj ruZ' 
ndmah navis ; ^^ ^7^^ 
vakai navts; J& jwU^ vakai 

Bepose, n., cu-».1^ rdhat ; ^j\ 
drdm. Enjoying — , ^^^fjU^ 
muimain ; v,, 4jJu*|^l drdmir 
dan; ^j^jJx dsudan, 

Beprehended, ^ malum (s,) ; 

i^J^ mu'dteb (kJ), 
Beprebensible, j,m i m mukas* 


Bepresent, v,, j^^^^l^b^ izhdr 
k. ; pa. p,f ^jjju^ mdruz. 

Necessary to be — , V'-^'l^ 

^^\ vdjih ul 'arz, 
Beprp«ientation, ^yxS guza» 

risk. To make a — , ^^ 

^jSkS 'afz k, 
Beprieve, cJi^^ muhlat (d.). 
Beprimand, ^JjJ ta'ztr (J.). 
Beprisal, ^\^ kisda. 
Beproacb, w., ^L-a dwhndm ; 

4^\j;c Utah (d.) ; ^^^ tan ; 

JXt maldm; iz;-«X« mald- 

9nai (k,) ; v., ^ju»^Cj nikd- 


htdan; pr, />., c^a-s — a-J 
taattub; m ^ ; .t T tashnt; 

^Jjb^ nikuhish. 
Beprobate, djd^ mardud. 
Beproof, ^jii^ y-* sar'Zanish. 

Beprover, ^V Idim, 

Beptile, ?^ * - hashrat, pi. 
kzAjJL^^ hashardt ; (%|^— i» 
Aavdmnt. Noxious — , ^\yt 
^U^jy-» Aavamm « zarar- 

Bepublic, j^^^ jamhur. 

Bepudiation, jJDaJ tatltk (k,). 

BepugnancOi c^ nifrat. 

Bepugnaut, cJli* mukhdlif, 

Bepulsed, Jii* manjt ; j,^ 
mardud ; jux^ mundaJT, 

Bepulsion, ^ radd (k,) ; x^^ 
£?a^ (k.) ; ssa .jt Ax^ mudd- 

Bepulsive, cu^ zisht. 

Beputable, ,^;i** muhtaram. 

Beputation, jj^ dhru ; esL-J 

nomtftf ; i«^ hurmat. 
Bepute (of good), ^l5 ^ ntA^M- 

Bequest, o***'}^^ dar-khdstj 

^^N^ dar-ldiittaiv. 



Kcquire, ^^b a^V Idzim dah; 
^j ,; .i>»i^-». khdstan; pa, p,y 
L^jlk* matluh ; Jl^ muk- 
tazd. Not — , o^l^ Ij ^i 
khdst; pr, p., jyb— • mustal- 
zim ; ^<aii« muktazu 

Hequisite, ^iT^^ dar-kdr; ^JiL 
talabi, in pi., ^\\^ lavdzim, 

HequisitioiiB, oLJLi^ mvhtct- 

Kequital, ^z^j^ mujdzdt {k.), 

Kescue, U; rihd (d.). 

Research (deep), J^y tavagh* 
gJiul ; ^j j^ ghaur'Tasi. 

Resemblance, tcJ^LU miishdr 
kalat ; JLuJ timsdl ; ^j.yJL» 
teshbthf pi, AflJtJ tashdbih. 

Resemble, ^^^i-JU mdnistan ; 
pr, p,, Ai;\,^i» ham^mdnand ; 
JTLL* mushdkil ; , 

Resentmeat, ^.1>. khishm (n.). 

Reserve, o^^ harudat. 

Reserved, ^^ ftorwc? (^.). 

Reservoir, ^j^ AflfMZ. 

Reside, ^^^ ^jM*- »aA;tn 5. 

Residence. ^^■^g»») taniakkun ; 
^L> ^ bud'hdsh ; c>jj^*».»» 
sukunat, A place of — , 
fjfJl/» fnarz-buM, 

Resident (political), (j«ij^Lj 

Residue, aJu hajciyyeh. 
Resignation (ofiBcial), o^.^^ 

rukhsat (qr,) ; (of mind), 

■J " toshm. 
Resistance, o^U» mukdvamat 

(k,)'j kz*Jl^\^ mukhdiafat 

Resolute, ^;«i«i*« mustamirr. 

Resolutions, i^lU takdVib, 

Resolve, »., -j)-c *azm; pr, p,, 
^j^jdzim ; ^ *% m\ tasmtm 

Resort, c^U ma^db. 

Resource, t^U chdreh. 

Respect, J^ : ».l thtirdm (k,) ; 
v^ takrim (w.) ; ^jj /uraA:- 

^fl. ^., »«:jm mutdbar. Not 
— , jLici <3 bi-itebdr. 
Respectful, >t^|yu mutavdzt. 
Respecting, j^Ij jJ <?flr ftar^^. 
Respiration, ^jmAJ tanaffus. 
Respite, JUaI ihmdl (Je,), 
Resplendent, Jc^j rakhshdn: 
Re&ipond, ^jj^ <^W^ ijdbat k. 
Responsible for, ^^U zdmin 




►1^1 drdmr 

'ReBt,v.,^;)SJL^d8d'^dan; ^JS^\J\ 
drdmidan ; «., (repose), 
^j;i£Lil dsdyiah; KZ*a^J rdhat; 
(remainder), ib hdkt. 

Eesting-place, » 
ffdh ; J^ A^ takyeh-gdh, 

Bestitution, ^j^ \j vd-pas ; 
^1j;LmI iatirddd (k.). 

Kestive, yj^j** sar kesh. 

Restless, JC-^j ht-kal ; y ■ ^* 

Kestoration, J^\ isldh (k,) ; 

(building), ^^^ tamir (^.). 
Bestore, ^^^b \^ vd d. 
Restrain, v., ^^^bjb Mz dsh ; 

pa, p., ^j» J 7 <* muhtabts ; 

pr, p,f fja\ . 7 «te 1 ihtibds. — 

one's passion, v^\^l xtikdf 


Restraint, c\ ; ; m\ imtina; jui 

Restriction, ^^.o*. Jiasr (A.)* 
Restricted (to a certain time), 
\^j* muvakkat. 

Result, ij^ natijahy pi. ^-^LiJ 
natdtj ; A^\ anjdm. 

Resume, ^^l* jIj hdz ydftan. 

Resurrection, j. 

daj of), c>-*L» {jjj ruz-i') 
Resuscitation, L».! ihyd {k,). 

Retail, s^ khurdah ; (^^ji^'x/ 

Retain, ^^ilb »\$j niydh dsh. 
Retaliation, ^U-i kigds (k.) ; 

^J^:^J^ pdddsh (d.). 
Retention, . j.^^ habs. 

Retentive, kiU hdfiz. 

Retinue, iSykaukabeh; cUi 

atbd; ~^ J ^» 

khadam o 


hhiz;jj >t i nushur ; (the 

Retire, t?., ^a^^* J^ — ». ^^-2: 

gashtan. Permission to — , 

^j-. .> 4^ rukhsat ; pa. p., 

i_r -5^ muhtajib ; pr, p., 

j)Sm mudbir. 

Retirement, cJjc 'uzlat; o^ 
khalvat ; (religious), ^^^,^9 
(^;iJLJ yushah^ishtn. 

Retraction (of words), ^^y:^ ^ 
radd'i-sukhun (^.)* 

Retreat, ^j^ kahkard (k.) ; 
«?., jjjb LiA^ pusht d. 

Retribution, \y^ tazd ; oUl^ 

Retrospection, ^j-j jb ^dz-pas. 

Return, n., vsJ^jU bdzgaaht ; 



^(;« (^')i ^j ^«*>* (^)- 

The place of — , • «^ - 
marj%; v,, ^ -^ ^.^^ A * ftaj? 
gashtan ; ^^ ; .t..^^ har-gctsh- 
tan ; pr. p., c^jjLab* mudva- 
dat ; t^Lfii tddat; pa. p.^ 
ji^^:Li«*« mustaradd. 

Reveal (a secret), y;3^_> yiLi 
/rs^ A:.; (a religion), y^^^lili 
t7Aam A;. ; pa, />., i— ii^ .1 x • 
makshuf; pr. p,, (a secret), 
jl jjl ^ 8^ pardah-bar anddz, 

Revealer, ^;JL*» mulin ; i«ili> 

Bevel, A^j valimah. 

Revelation, Ji^-:J tanzil ; ^j 

Revelry, c^^JL^ j ^JLjs *tsh o 

Revenge, j,la«iJl intikdm (k,) • 

^Ltf kisds (gr,). 

Revenue, oL-JL-» mdligdt ; 
^j^iJWU mdlguzdri. 

Reverence, j,-k*f ta'zzm (k.,) ; 

^ji \j pd bust. 
Reverie, Jl*. khaydh 

Reverse, ,j«ac *ak9. 

Review (troops), ^^ib ^^L* 

Aevfiing, C;^ «a66 (^Jc.y 

Revision, ^^^^ tas-Mh (Jc.). 

Revive, ^jlJj%Saj zindah gash- 
tan ; pr. p.y l-^^l ihyd (k.) ; 
wJLi« munshir. 

Revocation, ^ ra^^. 

Revolt, jjo 5a^^t (^.) ; {jJsMt 
ydghC gari (Jc.), 

Revolution, ^^^gardiih ; .j^ 
daur ; 1^3 Jatfra^ — of 
the heavens, ^j^ j^^- daur i 
ehvrkh; (change), u^^LXJl 
inkUdh ; J)La.l ikhtOdl. 

Revolving, jA^ ddir ; j\j^ dav- 

vdr (lu). 
Reward, j^^\ ajr ; ^y^ muzd ; 

c^l vjriU. 

Rhetoric, j W i nutk. — al, 
— ^ian, JiiaiA mantiki, 

Rheam, ^\^ zukkdm. 
Rheumatism, Ai bad. 

Rhinoceros, fjS^st/^ karkad- 

Rhubarb, jJ^^ rtvand. China 

— , ^^ jj«i^ rtvand i chini. 

Rhyme, juiU kqfigeh. 
Rhythm, ^a^ saf. 
Rhythmical, jt^^ munajjd. 
Rib, sjjj dandah. 
\ 'K^^tA^ ^^ (^aur« 



Bice, ^j^ birinj. — seller, 

^\\j razzdz. 
Kichy y i ^ |j» daulat-tnand ; 

^ ghaniy ; ^^'jJ tavdn-' 
gar ; \^ b bd-navd. — men, 
'Licl aghniyd. 

Biches, J|^l ^ JU ma/ u am- 
vol ; 'U^ ghand* ; ij^^\jS 
tavdngart; ^^ daval Be- 
longiDg to — , ^U mdltg, 

Bickety, dl) lak. 

Biddle, ^J\Zm^ ehistdn ; j^ 

Bide, 0., (jju^ j\^ suvdr sh,, 
^jL3j if\ya suvdrek r. 

Bider, Jj^ 





Eidge, jJ^ 



• * 


Bidicule, a^ 

khah ; 





m ,^ 

^ tas' 

khar (n.). 







muzhik ; 

• jsT^ maskhareh («.)• 

Biding side by side, ^Uiua 
ham-'indn. — »• coat, ^3|^Lj 

Bifle, dLLjJ tu/ang. Long — , 

Jli*^ shamkhdl. 
Bight (true), o^m,^ durust ; 

oiSLtf «4t&; Jl,o .«» sadid ; 

— or wrong, nolens volens, 

h\ja^ sl^ khdk makhdh; 

j^ Is ^ ^aA:^ na hakk ; 

(side), cu^]^ ras^; *; % »m 

maimanah ; »j > % i gamin. 

To the -.— hand, Lj^ yami- 

Bighteous, ^L-© «i/tA. — 

men, laJ^ sulahd, — ness, 

u^lj«0 «at?a&. 
Bigid, ju-»L». jdmid. — ity, 

^if* sakhH. 

Bigour, ojil shiddaL 
Bim, cJ Za5. 

Bind, cui*^ ptf«^. — ■ of a 

poppy ,^j-iLi yatghaz. 
Bing, aaU. halkah. Finger — , 

^jj^iJLxljl angushiari, — 

dove, {jj^ kumriy ; a.s »li- 

Binglet, ijj 2ft*/f; »^l> ^wr- 

rah ; y^ gisH; ^J^^a 

Bingworm, ,34-4 bahah;. 



Kioter, ^JX>^^ aubdsh. 

Eip up, ^JSiJ^ ji bar dartdan. 

Bipe, hS^j rastdah, 

liipen, ^J::aei pukhtan. 

Ripeness, ^-jj--^ rasidagi. 

Rise, ^jJ-1 j^ bar shudan; 

^j:^\^j> bar Jchdstan ; ^jlJ^ 

khdstan ; ^jSij^^ khtztdan. 
Rising (of the sun, &c.), cjlL 

Risk, n., jki. khatar ; t?., (one's 

life), ^JZi^JJ^ sar-bdkhtan; 

pr, p,, (one's life), jLiU ^an- 

Rissole, i:^y kuftah. 
Rite, KzJoJb tartkat 
Rival, «— ft-j^ harif^ inpl L^\ 

Rivalry, \zjj\aj rakdbat 
River, jj,^ rud; ^^ nahr. 

Large — , U,j daryd. Small 

— , v^ ^y^ j^y ^^ ; ^y- 

juy. Bed of a — , jL> j^ 
rud-bdr; 4j\^ ^jj rud khdneh. 

Rivet, ^J^J>^^ parchin (k.). 

Rivulet, A>\ij^ darydcheh. 

Road, i\j rah; %. rah; yLr%- 
samt; j-j^ tarik, pi, jjo 
turuk; J^.^ sahil ; (sULo 

maslik. High — , j^^ \ 


rah guzar ; »l^li» shdh-rdh; 
»J. ^^ sar I rah. Rugged 
— , ^-lJ^ iharfanj, — 

guide, ji %\j rdh'bar ; jJLj 
balad, — watch, ^^ Jx^ 
Roan (horse), ^]^ kizil. 

Roar, jjjj^ ghuridan. 
Roaring, »jj^ gharendah. 
Roast, Uy^ kabdb (k.), 
Rob, ^Jo[^^ duzdidan. 
Robber, ^^ c^2^2'^. Highway 
— J ij) »; rah^zan; (s)jJL» 

hardmiy; ^V^ kazzdk ; *Ll» 
jli^l Aa^r ut tarik, — s' 
den, AjU |«^ yatim khdnah. 
Robbery, ^^^^ duzdt; ^^-A; 

Robe, o^^A;t*ra^. 

Robust, >x:><>j> ,) tanumand; c^ 
yaluk, — ness, ^^xj^-m.;^ 

Rock, 8;s^ sakhrah. 

Rocket, Ij*^ ttr-i'havd. 
Rocky, jc-X-i-. sany/. 

Rod, (.->^ c^t2^. 

Roe (deer),jfc\ dhu; (offish). 



Kogue, ^j^^'^** Hj^ gurbah' 
i-miskin; i^)lj ^ jo t?a- 

Boll, ^UjL> tumdr ; aI^ lulah^ 
Bent — , fL^ J^^ tumdr % 

Boiling, J\^ ghaltdn (L), 
— pin, Ail^^ varddnah, 

Bomance, ajLjI afsdnah, 

Bomp, ^jjo hdzi (k,). 

Boof, Ji hdm ; (ceiling), uiLi 
9akf. High pitched — ,^ 
aiJLj khar-pushtah. Arched 
— , j^lt tdram. 

Book, c)l^9 halldgh. 

Boom, jlWl o^aA. — on roof, 
AiU Vb fcaZa hhdneh; Pil- 
lared — ,^Vll> ^a^r. 

Boot, w^ hikh; J^l a^/; 

i?/. J^l usul; ^^ 6m«. — and 
branch, ^Urj^ «ar u shdkh; 

[^,jjM 9ar u htm, 
Bope, ^jMj rasan ; tjU— j. ris- 
mdn ; L->Uk tandh, or <— i.,;-) 
<en^; J^ AaW. — for stran- 
gliiig> J^ khindk, — for 
binding the load upon a beast 
of burden, Wj^ sharit — 
with which the fore feet of a 
horse are tied, jjj L pd* 

hand. — dancer, jLj j\^ 

ddv'hdr, — maker, ^ ^j^j 

rasan-gar; JL». hahhdl, 

Bosarj, ju.^ suhhah ; 

Bose, ^ gul; ^^ vard. "Wild 
white — , ^jij^ nisrtn. — 
bud, ^ - 1 *>- havMud* -~ 
garden, ^jl;... -iX gulistdn; 
^Jll^9 gulshan. — tree, 
gulhun, — wat^r, 

J%S guldh. Conserve of 

— , JlU Ji' gul-kand; jT 

y^yJlt gulrshakar, 

Bosin, j.J^ sakiz, 

Bosy, t5^j var J/. — cheeked, 
^j J^ gul-rukh, 

Bot, ^^x>^ji pusidan, 

Botten, •jui«*j>2''^^*^^* 
Bouge, s^lc ghdzah. 

Bough, cu^^ durusht; ^^1^ 

khushn; jCj var; »J^j/ ^ 

Bound, .>;^9 y*Vd^> ^J^ ^w- 
davver; j i}' - t mustadtr, 
— about, ^j^sa\ij^^ gird d 

Bouse, V. ^., jj^i^jlju-j 5i<^ar 
A:. ; pr. p., «*Aa> 6a * («.). 

Bout, ^]y^^ inhizdm (kk) ; 



Kow (rank), n., J\6 kitdr; 
t^jLa saff; Ja^ satr ; v., (a 
boat), j^xJlj j^L) pdru ksh. 

Eoyal, A>UUi shdhdnah ; ^\UU 
sultdni ; j\yA\JL shdhvdr; 
^jCJU maliki; «j\^ mu/u- 
kdnah ; jjjym ^ khusravi, 

— edict, \mJ^ or Akjkttam^hd, 

— entertainment, ^)L^ shu 
Idn, — mandate, Ub ydsd ; 
ju-J^-e yarligh. 

Eoyalty, ^e^ shahi ; ^-aUi 

Bub, ^jJU mdlidan; y^^y^jJ 

Bubbed out, ij^^ sudah, 
Bubbing, ,jJllU mdlish {k.). 
Eubbisb, e)LlL»> hhdshdk ; 

A^^ khaldshah ; j vj**-^ 

e)Lt>l». khas u khdshdk ; j\>. 

yj^ J khdr u khas ; J^ 


Ruby, Jxi Za7; %z;t^\i t/akut, 
Budder, JLJ^ dumhdl. 
Bade, AiS ^ustdkh; d^Usu^ 

hiindyat; j^\ jC^ gdu-xur ; 
J^ li nd'-muldyim ; c^^l ^ 
hi^adah, — ^ness, ^^j* LJ 
nd-mardumi; -i-ULT ^iw- 

Bue (herb), u^tj^ suddb. 
Bueful, ^J^^fi' ghamgtn, 
Bufi&an, ^\ij\ aubdsh. 

Bugged, Kz^ji durusht. 

Buin, <4|;-»- ifc^raii; JUjIj 
pdi'tndl; JUb pdmdl; ^Ui 

Buined, c->l^-^ khardh (k,) ; 
>L> ^a5a^ ; ^^J^ makhrub. 

Buining, cueUl u^o^ (^.). 

Bule (dominion), ^l^ r^^ 
hukm-rdni (h,) ; (custom), 
»j^l« kd'idahf pi. s^^jJ ka- 





tarikah ; a^U zdbilah. By 
one ^— , »^)C yak'Zadah, 

Ruler (for lines), jk*.^ nuutar 
(k.); ^ k». khatt-kash; 
(sovereign), >^ ^jU^ farmdn- 
dih; \^j ^Jy^ farmdn-ravd, 

Bules (usages), cl^L*.^^ ra«- 

Bumination^ ^l^**^ nish-khdr 

Bumours, i,a , j y^\j\ ardjif; 
^IulS guftogu. 



Bud, (^Su^ davidan ; ^^.i-^Lj 
tdkhtan, — away (said of 
horses), ^^ ^ ram k, 

Bunawaj, n., ^^^fardru 

Hunner, bJj^^ davendah, 

Bunning, j^ dav, — away 
(as a' slave), jU ihdk, — 
over, j-i^ Ickbriz, — fast, 
^Ijd davdn, 

Eupee, iu-jj^ rvpiyah, 

Bupture, ruptured, a;^ dahah ; 
(hernia), ^j^j^JftUk. 

Bural, fe^^jj rustd-t. 

Buse, IL». hilat; txS^ mahi- 

Bush (reed), j^J-^-j ptzar ; 
(spring), ^^ hujum {h). 

^ — mat, \j^ huriyd. 

Bust, dl>j zang. 

Butitic, i^h ^xj rustd-zddah. 

Busty, Aiip ^j zany girifteh. 

Bye, i^ aJ-L.^9 gandum i 


Sabbath, cs<fM* sa/>^. 
Sable, ^^4^ sammur. 
Sabre, ^« *.».*» shamshir. 
Sack, «., J\^^ chuvdl; Jl 
Juvdl. ^-clotb, ^'hpalda 

— making, tjj;^^ Ji^yMm/- 

<?««/ ; v., (a city), ^j^c^^lc 

ghdrat k. 
Sacred, ^j.^ haram ; ^xjl-« 

mukaddcts. — ness, ^y i 

kuds, — sites, ju»U* ma- 

Sacrifice, »., ^jb^S kurbdn (k,)\ 

\^Jldd {k.) ; ^i «a5A (w.) ; 

t>., c)i^ J*--? ^w»it7 kerdan; 

pa.p,, ^i zabih; pr.p,,ji 

Sacrificer, z>j^ ;?a5;A. 
Sacrilegious, aj^ jJl) paUddnah. 

Sad, dLd^ dilrtang (*.) ; ^^J^ 
<?iZ-^ir («.) ; ^jX » c g ham- 

Saddle, ^^^ 2ftn (*.) ; ^^^ 
*or;. —bags, ^j j -w^ 
khurjin, — -clotb, 

ghdshiyeh; ^Jtj j ^^j 2:irn- 

push; i^jj) barazghah, -^ 
straps, ^\jJ fitrdk. 

Saddled, ^^-^ musarraj. 
Saddler, ^l— j^j zin-sdz ; ^^j 

^ zin-gdr. 
Sadness, J^ maldl; uu-1^ 

maldlat; ^^ gham. 
Safe, ^j^\ ami« ; ^j aiman ; 
JV^ sdUm. 



Safer, safest, JL^ aslam. 

Safety, cu-^^L^ saldmat ; yju\ 

SaffroD, vjj/-cj zdfardn ; ^^y^ 
najvdn. Wild — , »;V Id- 
zhah, — coloured, j f" ^\* 

S:igacious, ^;'j ju^ nuktdh- 
ddn ; lib ddnd. 

Sagacity, ^z^\^ Jirdsat ; ^j^ 

kais ; o> \.)aJtJitnat ; ejij 

Sagapenna (medicinal herb), 
^tS>^ sakhinaj. 

Sage (herb), a-JL sdlhiyah; 

(man), ^X*. hakim. 
Sago, Aib j;L sdbu-ddnah. 
Sail, ijIj^Lj bdd-hdn; e]^ 

shird* (ksh, z.); ^ Jail, or 

Sailor, -.iU malUk 
Saint, j^j mZiT; ^,jjj ;?»>. 
Sake of, ^_^l^ jl a^f ^(9mi. For 

the — , i^\y bevdseteh ; 

Ja.1 ^J* min ajl; J^Uf-lj ^as- 

Salamander, jsu^ samandar. 
Sal-ammoniac, ^^iJLi mushddir; 
jjLZ^ nushddir. 

Salary, v^i^ mavdjih ; ^UL* 
*aZiyawaA ; jh^l idrdr; a^U 
jdmiktyeh ; ^S^\a^ jd/magi. 

Sale, e:*ay^ farukht ; (j-j^J 

farush; « ^ > &ai*. — by 

auction, j])« muzdd. 

Salep (medicinal root), ^Jisu 
(jc^.A« «a7e^ i misrt. 

Saline, ^Jjx^ namakzdr. 

Saliva, ^-^ Miyw ; ^^^ c-»T 
ah i dahan. 

Sallying forth, ^j^ khuruj 

Salmon, ^U ^\j\ dzdd mdht. 
Salt, dui namak ; (brackish), 
jyl* shur, — cellar, ^^lj5w 
namak-ddn, — marsh, ^jli-*.^ 
shuristdn, —pan, .U v \ « 
namak'zdr, — works, ^jg^U. 
Salted, Jl-» «taZ*A ; 

Saltpetre, ijj!L shur ah. 
Salubrious, Jlis: ^^ sihhat 

Salubrity, cs*Jlc 'dfii/at 
Salutary, ^iTjL. sdz-kdr. 
Salutation, ^iL. *aW«i (A:.); 

ij^ tahiyat (Jc,\ pL oL^ 

tahiydt (Jc,), 


Salvation, «j>4^ saldmat 
Salve, jU.0 zamdd. 
Salver, ^a--» stm. 

Same, ^j,^^ hamin; J 

hamdn ; Jl« misL 
Sample, a3^ namunah. 
SaDctified, ^xL^ mukaddas 

Sanctifying, ^jSJ takdU (n.). 
Sanction, ^^\ izn (d,). 
Sanctity, ^jj kuds. 

Sanctuary (holy place), v^ 
harivu Place of — , sz^^mt 

Sand, csL, rt^ ; J*, rand, — 
grouse, Uu katd. 

Sandal, vyj« nalin. — wood, 
Jji«* sandal; Jx^ mndal ; 

• • .^ Bk ^as A^ ,M# .MB .^^ 

^^ji '■-'V chandan. 

SaDguinary, j|; ^j ^ Mt^ft- 

Sanguine, jti^ mutavahJct, 
Sap, i^ MtraA. 
Saphena vein, ^U «a/?7t. 
Sapper, ^IjJLj hilddr. 
Sapphire, ^jf^^ Ojib ^iAri^^ t 

Sarcasm, ^)iU tanz ; j^ hajv. 
Sarcastic, ^j^^f^m^ mustahzu 


Sarcophagus, OjfU tdhut, 
Satan, ^IkJIi «Aai^n. 
Satiated, j^ sir (sh ). 
Satiety, aJIi shah*; \Sj^ siru 

Satin, (jJiiol a^/a». 
Satire, ^js^ A«/t? (A:.). 
Satirist, ^U Aq;V. 
Satisfaction, ^^a ; • L^^ r»2a 
mandi. Mutual — , ,<-»|^ 

Satisfied, ^^\^ ^dzi Qc,) ; J^ 
muvajffd (n.). Soon — , eLi* 



Satisfying the heart, ^^JL> Jo 

Saturation, itJli «Aa6'. 
Saturday, a^ shambeh, 
Saturn, J\j^^9 kaivdn ; ^j 

Sauce, aJ^iU. chdshnah. 
Saucepan, dbo //fy. 
Saucer, ^XJU ndlhegi. 
Saucy, ^\iS gustdkh. 
Savage, ^^:^ jangalU 
Save, 0., y;ob oUi no/a^ <^. ; 

Saviour, »a-.; fto oL- :«: n(;a^ 


r jf 

\^ (j^^-»> Jchush' 



Saw, i1\ arrah (ksh.) ; j\ *■ ; • 
minshdr; a.«m^ yusah — 
dust) {J»<i^j randish. 

Saxifrage, cJii kalt. 

Saj, ^jJd^uftan, 
Saying, Jli kdl; J^ AavZ. 
Scab, ^ gar. 
Scabbard, v^^ ghildf. 
Scabby, ^^JT^ gargin. 
Scaffold, J^ ddr. 
Scalding, c;|^j^ siizdn. 
Scale, A-^-a^^ darajeh. Fiah- 

— ' ^^ P^^^' ^^ ascend- 
iog — , j^Lai« mutasdHd, 

Scaled (weighing), jj]^ tard* 
zu; (dross), ja?* nakhjad; 

iSi\^ khwdshah. 
Scalp, iz>\ys shavdf. 
Scalpel, W;JL» mishrat. 
Scandalize, ^J\:^^ buhtdn. 
Scandalous, ^^ zahun. 
Scanning (verse), •..WpJ takti 

Scar, cb ddgh. 

Scarce, S kam. 

Scarcely, cuS^ b ^a dikkat. 

Scarcity, ^j^i^^ gardnt ; 

Scared, ^Ui nqffar. To be — , 
^;j^ Bhamidan; ^j^^j ra- 

Scarlet, ^^*^ kirmiz. 

Scarred, ^b cb ddgh-ddr. 

Scatter, ^jJLJL^ fishdndan ; 

^)jjLl»i qfshdndan ; ^jSjS\^ 
pardgandan; pa, p., i ' it^ 

Scavenger, ^jAS kannds. 

Scene, ^jJa^ majlis. 

Scent, ji hu. 

Scented, .1^ hu-ddr. 

Sceptic, tt)1$2^ shakdk. — ism, 

A^ shubheh. 
Scheme, p]f^\ ikhtira. 
Schism, uufij^ bid'ai. 
Schismatics, m;^^ khavdrij. 
Scholar, juJLS tahmzy pi, Ju^^ 

taldmiz; ix^% taldmizah. 

School, i^^Jxj^ maktah ; c^li^a 
kuttdb. — fellow, ,j-«.«i..«ji 
ham-sabak; — master, AsJ\ 

Sciatica, LJl j^ Hrk un nUd. 

Science, (^JLc VZm, pi, m,jLc 
'ulum ; ^^ /ann, pL ^yi 
fuuun ; ^\^ ddnish. 



Scimitar, jgUi» fhamshir. 

Scissors, ^j^ kaiehi; ^\J^ 

Scoifi \jf^\ ittthzd {h.y 

Scold, ^jji^ ^jio tdan z. 

Score (mark). u>» hat 

Scorn, u^^ nikuhish, — ful 

^ji^ muhtn (k.). 
Scorpion, v^^/b 'afcrah. 
Scoundrel, ^^\ipdjt. 
Scourge, Aib jU tdziydnah {z). 
Scout, ^yJ^jdius, 

Scrap, %j^^ pwrzah; *:^j^ 

Scrape, ^;^;s.«» suturdan. 
Scratch, ^jjj^\j>, khardshtdan ; 

^2yyiJ^ khdridan. 
Scream, ^^^^^9 ^\^ j ^U ddd o 

faryad k. 
Screen, »^^— j pardah, — of 

split bamboos, ^ ehik. 
Screw, ^^pieh (ifc.). — bolt, 

ft^Uy narmddah. 
Scribe, ^^^J^kdtih; ^l^ kalam- 

Scriptures, ^j^A K^kuM % 

Scrofula, ^U». khandztr. 

Scrotum^ iit>jkjvtah. 

Scruple, ttl i» tkakk (dsk,). 

— ous ^^\yj vasvdtt. 
Scrutinizing, t\:S\ ikttndh{k,); 

^jjjj tadktk. 
Scrutiny, ]eXJ lahdz. 

Scuffle, yjSs^ keshmaketh. 

Scull, ^kallah. 

Sculptor, ^;X xS^ kdlbad-gar; 

^Qj nakkdsh. 
Scum, \^kaf. 

Scurf, ^^^ fobusah. 

Scurrility, ^p^fuhth. 

Scurrilous, Jo^ jj had zabdn. 

Scurvy, ^^jarab. 

Scythe, »^^ dahrah. 

Scythia, (j;%^ Khatdy, 

Sea, \ij^ daryd ; ys bahr. Red 
— > (^J^. ^a^r i Kulzum / 
Circumambient — , (ocean), 
k^ ^^ Bahr i Muhit. 
Mge&n — , J — ij. 

-i J- 

Bahr i Yundn. Caspian — , 

jj_i. ^;— jB Bahr % Khizr. 

Mediterranean — , juA-. ^ 

Bahr i SufCd, The salt — , 

jji» (^Li;^ darydi shur, — 

shore, ^j\iydlud; \j,^\i^9 

kindr i daryd. 

Seal, j^ muhr (k.) ; ^U. 




Sealed, ^ya^ makhtum (k,) ; 

iM.v* mcmihur (tf.). 
Seal-eDgraver, ^jjS»^^ muhr' 


Sealing-wax, (s)V Idle, 
Sc'ain, d^^ duJcht 
Seaman^ jJliU. jdsM, 
Search, »., ^% taldsh (Jc,) ; 

pu; ijit.*^ tajassus ; Ij^ 
juyd ; v., ^^Jl-jJ^ pu-tdan ; 
,^;:l«.». ju8tan. 

Searching, ,j*le^ ^wyai ; ^J^^j^ 

Season, ^^^ mausam ; J^ 
fasl, — of scarcity, (sLlJ 
JL» tang-sdh 

Seat, j^j---i^«^=» Jcursi; s,% £-• 
mah:ad; ^J ^ .1j nashtman, 
— of empire, irJaUl^b ddr 
us adltanat. 

Seceder, Jjit. mutaziL 

Secession, ^\y^\ itizdl (k.). 

Second, ^3!$ sdm ; ^^ duyuni; 
^^ duvum; (of time), aaJ^ 
dakikah. The — person, 
v^laf* mukhdtib. 

Secondly, aJ]^^ digardnah. 

Secrecy, 0;i^ sarirat. 

Secret, ^^_-i* sirr ; j\j rdz ; y^j 
ramz ; a j a ^ khufyah. In 
— , 4 jfl-v ^^ <far khufyah. 
Keeping a — , ^J>J^^ s^^^ 

Secretary, ^^li* munahl; \jj.s^ 

Sect, ^.JbJw* mazhahy pi. Cyjhijb* 
mazdhih ; aJ^ firkah ; \z^ 
ummat ; aaAIo tdifah. 

Section, J^ yjw?, ^Z. J^-a-i 

Secular, \jj^^ dimyavt. 

Secure, JU^ musallam; ^;^U 
mdmun (s,). 

Security (bail), J-^-A-T kaftl 
Taking — , J-A-Xj takqful 
(k.); (safety), ^jU\ amdn. 

Sedateness, j^ij vafcdr. 

Sedative, jC^ musakkin. 

Sediment, ^^^ tj tah-nishtn; 

"ii-* I*' i-i-r I 

kasdfat ; 



Sedition, aJLii fitnah; ^L^ 

Seditious, j-Cij^ji fhur-angiz; 
jfj\ *^ fitnah-angtz. 

Seduce, ^J^ fariftan ; pr. p., 



Seducer (of iivoraen), ^^ (s)lift 
hitak % *irz. 

Seduction, J^t izlM, 

Seductive, e-o^^ dilfirih. 

Sedulous, j^ mukayyid. 

See, ^jjj^ didan; ^J^ 
nigdh k; pr, p., 

Seed, j^ tukhm (k.) ; j)> hizr ; 
^A ; 5a;jr. Carraway — , 
Lr*J^ *»;—); xfira^ i Rumi. 
Cummin — , or aniseed, ijq 
zirah. Mallow — , {jji^ 

Seek, ^:)SJj>' jutdan ; pr, p,, 

Seeking enjoyment, j am J^ 

Seem, ^.>^ namudan. 

Seeming, ^jbLb zdhir. — ly, 

\fit% zdhiran. 
Segment, a.a». hissah. 

Seize, ^J:^9^^^ giriftan : ^^jjL.i 
9itdndan ; ^^j> i rabudan ; 
^^\ij rubdidan ; c)-^^ j *^" 
bdnidan; ^:)^jJj j^ dar ra- 

Seized, Jc^^giriftdr (Jc,), 

Seizer, ^li kdhiz. 

Seizing, ^^ gir ; g).i-i^ mun- 
tazi; 'M\ ittikhdz (n.) ; ii.\ 
akhz {k.). 

Seldom, jS kamtar. 

Select, ijSyfji bar guzidan ; 
pa. p., iX.iJ>^ cMdah ; ^i^ t A m 
mustafd; pr. p.^ ^JLii* mufir 

Selection, c->USi intikhdb {k.). 

Self, :^j >. khud. — com- 
placency, ^]j~>) ibrdh. — 
complacent, ju^ ^ khtid- 
paaand, — conceit, ^^^^Ijj^ 
pinddri ; \s^^ khudi, — , 
conceited, s^'^jj ^^^ khttd- 
parast. — interested, ^ 
^^ khud-gliarz. — praise, 
U v^ 'i- khud-drd. — re- 
straint, ^Li>>i ihtibds. . 

Selfish, t1^ j»j». khud'khdh. 

Sell, ^j:>,^j farukhtan. 

^W&t, ^jjt farush ; jd'o bd*i. 

— of horse -provender, 

ujiU ^alldf. — of wpod, 

c^Ll> khashshdb. 
Semblance, Jli« misdl. 
Semen, aakj nut/ah. 
Semi, 1^ nim. 
Send, ^j^l::^ firistddan, — 

away, vj^^^» oS> ^^^^"^ ^^^ 



\Jif*^]lf ^^'^^^^^ ^' — back, 
^^LL-;-i ^j,»i\j vd-pas firxB" 
tddan, — into confinement, 
^J^J^ Xj hand farmudan. 

Senior, j^ akbar. 

Senna, U sand. 

Sense (feeling), ^r *- Jiisa ; 
U^^j^ havdss. The five — s, 
jum^ ^^j». havdssi khamsah. 
Common — , eJ^^L^ ^j,^ 
his9 i mushtareJe, The ex- 
ternal — s, ^LL. nuuhd^ir. 
— of smell, ^LU mashdmm; 
JU ahamm. Belonging to 
the — 8, ^. iw. fffc hisn, — • 
(meaning), ^^x* mand. 

Senseless, ^^J^. bi-khud ; jSs^ 

Sensible, ^J»y^ Vj hd hush; 

Jjiu maTcul, 
Sensitive, ^j^ muhiss, 
Seusual,^^!^ ^jju nafas-parvar; 

^LiJ nafsdnu 
Sensualist, c:^^*^ ^J^ shah- 

Sensuality, o>j\>,aT nafsdntyat; 

t<r>t^!>^ b^^^havast. 
Sentence (judicial), ^yifatvd; 

■ ^^- hukm {d,). 
Sentiment, j\xj pinddr. 

Sentinel, ^^L— Ij pdthbdn ; J,]^ 

Separate, iJu^^ ^ald-hiddah ; 
\Saf>jidd (s.). 

Separated, J|^i-^ mutafarrai; 
JiOBji^ munfasil ; ^ji^a* mo;^ 
rw/b. Being — , jl^-aj^ ti^- 
Jlrdk (k.). 

Separately, I ja. 1 j^ judd^udd-; 
A-jyjjuA. juddgdnah ; \x^j 
vdhidan ; \S\j9Jnrddan, 

Separating, ^U« mufdrik (n.). 

Separation, ^Ji^r*-^ ^o/WJ (A:.) ; 
Kz^j^ furjcat ; ^^j^firdk; 
0|>L« muhdjarat ; i5^;,>l,,i>,> 
mubdyanat; Kz^Xiu mufdra^ 
kat; ^Ax^juddi ; j\jJlJ\ 

iftirdk ; Jlaiui infisdl ; tijj 
tafrikah ; ^ * ' tafarrud 
(n,) ; Siyi tajrid. 

Separator, ^J^fdsU, 

Sepulchre, ^y ^wr ; ji^ ma/r- 
kad; i^ mftkbarah. 

Sequel, 4^ tudijdh* 

Sequestration, \k^ zaht {k.). 
Seraglio, \^ ^ haram-simt. 

Sergeant, J^ vaML 



Series, di«* silh ; c^ *^ffy 
uJ^I^ iardduf; J .,. L.T 

Serious, ^^ muvakkar. 

Sermon, a , Vi "v kliuibah ; kcj 

Sf rpent, .U war. 

Servant, »j> ; > handah; j^s^y 
nauJcar, Bodj — , J^Li^j^ 

Ichidmat-gdr ; .1 jxi»Ja. A;^t^ 

mat-guza/r ; ^:\ ». Jchddim^ 

pi, ^\x^ khudddm; >»)^^ 
muldztm. Fellow — , ci^^Ji^ 
ham-khidmat Maid — , lU 
di^ : VJj^s> kcmiz, Meuial 
— , jt M, g I .>^^s»L2i shdgird 

;^IL« muldzamat 


Service, cu«J>» khidmal {k,) ; 
^jg^jf^\». ehdkart; fjj^ nath 
kart; lza^j. 
{k.y Pressed — , ij 

Servile, Kz^^past 

Servility, ^3^^ duni. 

Servitude, .^^jj^ bandagi; 

claji.)^ 'uhudiyet. 
Sesame, ^...».i» aimsim. 
Sessions, oUU* mukdmdt. 
Set^ r.^ ^^;.Ji^)X^9 ffuzdshian ; 

^Jil^ guzdrdan, — oiF on 
tbe march, ^^j-^^ c:«irt|.) 
nahzat /• 

Setting forth clearly, ^;^^^«-«JI 
taarth {h). — at liberty, 
jlifti xtdk (d,). 

Settled, ^J^tM mu'aggin. 

Settlement, ksa^^^xj band u 
bast; J ^ " *^ intizdm, A 

— by instalment, ^^> ; ,!«.,.» 

Seven, vzaoj^ ^o/if; >u.«i «aV. 

— hundred, Ju^^a* haftsad. 

Seventh, ^,;,afc haftum; >a^Iw 

Seventeen, tjift hafdah. 

Seventeenth, ^jift hafdahum. 

Seventieth, ^^liftft haftddum. 

Seventy, ^\ ; aft haftdd; \ji<,%y^ 

Sever, ^^j^ burtdan. 

Several times, s:a^ ^^^U Jar* 

Severe, %i^j^ durusht ; 

mubarrih; u-a-ic *anif. 

Severity, ^Ju^ 'unf; j-^^ 

Sew, ^^^-i->.^^ dukhian; ^jjl 




Sewer,j>^T dbriz. 

Sewing, u:JoL>i khiydtat ; jJij 

rafu (^^). — thread, aIo^ 

Sex, ^j^ jins. The fair — , 

^J^J>' khubdn. 
Sexual intercourse, ^-jt,^L^ 

Shackle, jjj hand (k,) 
Shaddock, (j^jb hatdvu 
Shade (glass), JV Idlah, 
Shadow, AjiL* sdyah ; J^ zill 

(as 4ili Jk zUl Ullah, the — 

of God ; title given to the 


Shadj,^b AiL* sdyah ddr. 
Shagreen, (j£^ saghri. 
Shake off, ^jjJ\Cj takdnidan. 
Shaken, ^jojL.^ manfuz (sh.). 
Shaking, jjUl*. jumbdn, — 

hands, a^Um mu8dfahah(k.). 
Shallow, L^\j}jpdydb, 
Sham, A3l4> bahdneh {k.) 
Shame, ^ aharm; y, Aij_',_f^ 

hanu-mand ; cJLa^ hijlat ; 

ciJlii^ li nd ddsht — ful 

things, ^J:^\^ fawdhish. 
Shameless, ^^ ^ bt-sharm, 
Shape, J.<^1 shakl; 

Share, f ^ ^ '* nasibah; 
hisaah, pi, ^jo^aj^ hissas ; 
\za^^^ kismat {k.). The 
proprietor's share of the 
produce of the soil, A^l^alU 

Shark, dLj bamhak. 

Sharp, jj tiz (A:.) ; »jj;j 5wr^n- 
JaA; ^L>. ^atf^il — ness, 
\^*Ja t%z% ; cjS^ hiddat. 

Shatter, ^J^^ »^Ij j^Xj pdreh 
pdreh k,' 

Sh&ve, V,, ^j^ji^\ usturdan ; 
^2)^j:^ saturdan. 

Shavings, o^Ui nitshdrat. 

Shawl, JU. shdl, Cashmir — , 
A^ Jll shdl i termah. Imi- 
tation Cashmir — , Ui A*jJ JU» 
shdl i t&rmah numd, — 
merchant, ^L»*^ simsdr. 

She, ji u. 

Sheaf, ^z*»^ dastah. 

Shears, jlT kdz ; ^^\/u tnik' 
rdz (A:.). 

Sheath, ^Ij niydm ; t->lj fii- 

ydb; s^'U yhildf (k.). 
Shed, e?., ^J^y rtkhtan. 
Shedding blood, ^ja hadr {k), 
— tears, .L-»-X--i»\ ashk" 



Sheep, y,,9Mj^^ gusfand. — 
fold, J^sol dgil, — skin, 
(dressed), ^jjj nart, — 's 
trotters, 4^\i A&» kaHah- 

Sheet,^^l». chddar ; jj^ mdldr 
feh ; {pi paper), ,jjj varak. 

Shelf, y^Jj rafraf; a^IL tak- 

Shell, «^ju> Bddaf; (kowrie), 

*j^^ khar-muhrah. 
Shelter, »Lj pandh (d.) ; ,jl2^ 

Shepherd, ^J^,^ ehubdn ; c)^i^ 

chupdn^ (jL^ sJiahdn^ or 


Sherbet, u:«^ sharbat, 
Shield,^^««* sipar ; c-Jb t/aldb. 
Shin, ^L* «a^. 
Shine, ^ju^JL-a^ rakhsMdan; 

O^ :. * S^ dira&hshidan ; 

y^ju_{lj tdhidan ; ^)A ^ . *. j«^ 

Shining, ^^ * ^ rakhshdn ; 
^iJLJ;^ dirqfshdn ; jjLjLJ 
^a&aTi ; (jll>;^ dirakhahdn ; 
iJuJLa^d dirakhahendah ; j^ 
muntr ; ^jUJ lamadn ; jj^U* 
shdrik ; aIoL* fa^t*. 

Ship,jl^^I«i</;^^* ^f^ keahti; 

(small), ju^ safinah, — 

wrecked, ai^..^^ ^^>sS kUhti^- 

skikastah (sh.). 
Shirt, ^^l^-jj-j |>traAan / u*-** 

Shiver, v;)J^^ larzidan ; pr. /?., 

»j^ larzah. 

Shoal, k^lilj pdydh 
Shock, ^JL:^ jumbish. 
Shocked, t^kA* muztarih. 

Shoe, (jU^s> kafsh; jjijjLj 
pd-push ; ,ji^ (jlj pdi-push. 
Horse — , J«i na Z. To — 
(a horse), ^J•^ J-»-i wa7 
bastan, — maker, jj^ ,JjS 

Shoot (of plant), JL^J nihdl. 
New — , »ju*^ ji nau-dami- 
dah ; r., ^^^ zadan. 

Shooting (archery), cu->l-*; 
rinidyet (k,), — stars, *a^ 

Shop, ^jK^i dukdn; J^^ du^ 
kdn. Small — , aJ^^ du- 
kdncheh. — keeper, ^ji 
.b dukdn-ddr, — keeping, 
^K^^ dukdm. 

Shore, ^U-i^ kindr; J».L» «aAt7, 
Short, %\i^ kutdh {k,) ; j^ 



jumlah; aUU ^JVljwrdah; 
^jjL^X algharz ; juaJLll al- 
kissah, — ened, jij^aa* mah- 
9ur (k). — • nesB, ^\y^ 

Shot (ball), aJ^ gaUlaK 
Small — , A«>>L* sdchmeh. 

Shoulder, yij^ Jti«A. — blade, 

Shout, jljl dvdz ; eUlj ^a??^ 
(a?.) ; «?., ^;)^ ii^ narah z. 

Shovel, jjj pdru; i\^^ mag- 

Show, n,y I^UJ tamdshd; v., 

wd-n. ; ^JJ^J^ \^fard n. 

Showing, Uj namd; »JlJLjL«J 
namd-yendah. — respect, or 
attention, ^j*-* - ^- multafit 
(«A.) ; i*];^! ihtirdm (k.). 

Shower (rain), ^jl^l> hdrdn. 

Shred, ijjpdreh. 

Shrewd, o^i^ cAi^^. — ness. 

Shriek, :iykfarydd {k,\ 
Shrill,^ tiz. 

Shrimp, jC* maigu ; ^^ S\j>^ 
Jarddu 7 hahr. 

Shrine, Jy^ mazdr ; »\C»jJ 

kadam gdh. 
Shrink, or Shrivel, ^jJ^ eLiJ 

Shroud, ^Jk^9 kqfan. 
Shrub, ijj> dutah. 
Shudder, ^^U/k hirdsdn (Jc.), 
Shunning, j</i^\ ihtirdz (A:.). ; 
ujli-i».i ijtindb (k,). 

Shut, yj:^^ betstan ; (j.»y ^XmJt 

masdud k. 
Shutting and opening, j ^j 

,jLj rath ufatk. 
Shutter, ^^ daricheh. 
Shuttle, ^^oU mdku, 
Shj, v., ^jS^j ramidan. 

Sick, ^U-j b%fndr («A.) ; ^J^Ja^i 
nd khush {sh,) ; ^yi^j^^ 
mariz ; JJb WtZ. Attendant 
on the — , .b jy^j ranjur- 
Sickle, ^^ dds ; J^ minjal. 
Sickness, JL» sukm, or takam ; 

Side, \^J» icerafy pi, ujt^i 
atrdf; «-*»!». jdnib ; jL^ 
pahlu ; v-j»^ «at^ ; y^ 9u; 
^yt 8uy ; jLS^ kindr ; i^ 
parr ah. Both — s, ^^^-i^ 
\ tarofaiu. — qC a mountain 



i^ kdehah. One — 9j«*Xj 
yaksu, "EYerj ^^^^ har- 
su. Back — , y.A dubr. 
Siege, t^W^ muhdsarah. 

Sieve, ^jS girhal ; Jlj^ yAir- 
6a^; c^jj^ parvtzan; Js?-* 
mtnibAaZ. Large — for sift- 
ing gravel, &c., j---; d^^ 

Siffc, ^^. htkhtan. 

Sigh, ftji^d dartgh; J^ d^d i^2^(Z 

Sight, jj^li hdsirah; Jlai na- 
zar; o^U> basdrat ; cjj^^ 
hastrat; cwjj^ raya^. Clear 
-— ed, ^ \^^\^ adhih-nazar. 

Sign, n., ^jUi nisMn ; a^L^^ 

kiTidyah ; I«^ *aldmaty pi. 

ii>U^ 'aldmdt; t;., (a name), 

, •: *. ^ > »La-«\ imzd ddshtan ; 

pa. p.f s^ Jj rakam zadah. 

SignaXyj^ ghamz ; iJJ^\ iskd- 
rah {k,y 

Signature, Wj?^^ dast-khatt ; 
\tkf*^ daS'kkatt; ^aaI imzd 
(A?.). Boyal — , ^^U 
daskhatt i khdss; \ 

Signet, J\». khdiim. 

BigD2Seation,jfjJyaAvd; ^jx^ 

mani (dsh,) ; ^^^«^a^ maz- 

Signified, .ll* mtuhdr. 
Signifying, ^^9bl« musTiir, 
Silence, o^d«i aukut ; o^^o 


Silent, fjtj*\»' khdmush (k.) ; 
ciA^^L* sdkit (k.)\ caaU 
sdmit. To be — , ^jjuJtS^b ^^ 
dam ddr ksh, ; ^JxJi»J*\^ khd- 
mushidan. Very — , c>J 
stkkti. — man, Oj 

Silk, ^^1 abrtsham; ^j>} 
dbrUhum ; jij^ harir, Baw 
— ^, ji. ifcAar. — stuff, al^j^ 
urniek. Painted Chinese — , 
Q)\j/j parnigdn, — worm, 
jl^ ^^ dud ul harir ; i^^ 

Silliness, ^^^\ ahlahi. 

Silly, j«>^ ; &i ma^ni. 

Silver, »;5J »v^raA. Bad — , 

A^ i*«a» «m t tiyah. Made 

of — , ^J^ nukraU 
Silvery, ^jt*i^ simin. 
Similar, Ji« miil ; jjVk* mu- 

Similitude, o^^lJL* mwhd- 

lafcai; >^mu^» 

SimmeriDg, y!^ ^ nim jush 

Simple, kM.j hasit 
Simpleton, J^ »^L» sddah-^iL 
Simplicity, ^S^^ sdda^i. 
Simulation, JaW ^^jdhul. 
Simultaneity, k2^\jL^ muhd- 

Simultaneous, ^Uu mukdrin. 

Sin, iL-T ^ndh {k.) ; ^^-ioiJ 
iakszr (k.) ; ^\ ism, pi. 
Ji\ dsdm; «lk> khafd\ pi, 
bUs^ khaidjfd. 

Since, aCjU -?in^*^» 
Sincere, ,ja— L—i* nmkhlis ; 
ji»^^\ ikhldsmand ; ^^ 

naaih. — friend, jjji*. A;A»7«. 
. — friendship, isJ^ Mi- 

Idlat — ly, ailflli^ ww^A- 

Sincerity j lsaJIjl,^ saddkat ; 

^^I ikhlds; ^J^ khulus; 

v::a».L« mabdhat. 
^ine, v^^Vi. 
Sinew, ^^ i?fly ; t-*-ic 'flr^a^. - 

Sinful, v!^-* ^— * nd'savdh. 

— ness, ^J{ jL-i-T gundh 

Sing, r., c)*H/^ sartdan; [j^jj»»» 


■-^ ^ 

Singe, V.J ^j^^ 9ukhtan. 
Singer, ^ wughanni (fem. 
Aj;i!-» mughanmgak); JV^ 

Singing, L^^ khunyd ; ixj\^ 
tardyandah; ^y^j^ mutaran- 
nim, — in time with one 
another, \|^i 1^ ham-dvdz» 

Single, ^ fard; y^j farid ; 

i^^jvahdaku; UX-j yaktd * 

J ^ I yaklu. 
Singular, ^^ mufrad. 
Singularity, ^jCiKl> yagdrntgu 

Sink, i;., ^^^f^s» ^j^ ghark k. 

Sinless, sliX^ htgnndh ; ^yut^ 
ma sum. 

Sinner, jC~^ — \S gunahgdr; 
.K*li^ gundh-gdr ; ^o i)-> 
hazah-kdr; iLmj^ rthsigdh; 
^U ^ tar-ddman ; Ji f^ 
siyah'kdr; ^\a 'dsi. 

Sip, ijsJ^y nmhidan. 

Sir ! Ul (i^Aa ; ^A>>La sdhih, 

Sirius, t^^ati sJnrd. 

Sirup, 8^ shtrah. 

Sister, >fc^^ khdher; 
ham'Shirah ; ^^l* ^4/*. 



^ ^^ • • •^ 
^^.sm.,^* I nishastan. To 
cause to — on, ,^11j ^ 



* * 

Sittings jfili kaid; ^\a^jdli8, 
— at the same table, i 

Site, \a^^jd. 

Situated, aSI^ vakC {sh.). 

Situation, a^ vaz. 

Six ^JJ^ ihash; cuw 9%tt ; 

zittah, — liundred, 

Sixteen, iy^\L shdnzdah. 
Sixteenth, ^^\JL shdnzda- 

Sixth, j^JLJ* shashum; fj^:>\^ 

sddis, — part of a dram, 

&e., (j-jb ddnak ; dLii^ 

Sixtieth, ^7rf»l shastum, 
S\xtj,\zA^ shast ; {j/Cm* sitttn. 
Size, ^^jju mikddr ; s^ljil an- 

Skein, is^0 pichaJc. 
Skeleton, ^*^ tashrih. 

Sketch, >^ u. • musavvadah ; 
A^9l». Tchdkah, 

Skewer, ^^i* stkhchaL 

Skiff, jiU kdik. 

Skilful, jjjla* Aa;?iA: ; J^ j^^ 
pur-Tcdr ; JaI aA/; J{\ JC 
kdr-dgdh; JjU kabil ; J^ 


Lt hdr-shinds, . 

Skill, ^i j«i-l w^r^/at? ; cuJbLi 

Skilled in the law, cji^u mur 

tasharrt, — in genealogy, 
c^Lj nassdbat. — in war, 
*^j^\\ (2tL». jan^ dzmudah. 
Skim, ^jL»^ s^J^ kaf gr, 

SkimmeTy^^^JLS kiif-gtr. 

Skin, uu^ji pust; jJk jild, 
pi, djl ■ » julud. — for 
water or milk, dLl^ mashk ; 

Skirt, ^^•b daman ; ^jL-»b 

ddmdn ; Jj^ 2»i?. 
Skull, -*» 'A-\r kdsah i ear ; 

^_M ^t'A/*; u:^^ jumjumah. 

— cap, oi^^ 'ara^ cAtw. 
Sky, ^jUJf (wm^m ; (s}L$falak; 

*Uw ^am^i. — lig^^tj c)^Jj^ 

tdhddn ; ^^xJ^jj raushati' 


Slab, A:;is takhtah. 

Slain, J>LJu maktul. 

Slaking (thirst), ^;-Cj ^asHn 

Slander, vj5;l-*-^ gJiammdzi; 

Slanderer, ^ nawm; (j^/JU 



Slap, ^^-s— silt (z.); ^»_iJ 

Slaughter, JiJ katl (k.) ; Jlii 

/b^'^^/. Place of — , y^^J^ 

Slaughtered, ^j~i^ mazbuh. 

Half — , J*--j ^ ntm-bis' 


Slave, tjjj bandah, pi, ^J^xj 
bandagdn ; Lf .- ^ *a5(^, ^7. 
.V n*^ 'abtd; (ft)^ ghuldm. 
Purchased — , e)^U« ^»am- 
/wA. Female — , hj^jdri- 
yet, — born in the house, 
^Ij jjl^ khdnah'zdd. 

Slavery, aJj rikkiyat. 

Slay, ^j:jiS kushtan. 

Sledge-hammer, j^^^oU cAo- 
kuch; ^j^»\a^jdkuj. 

Sleep, /I., vj^-^ H(f&; Aj-i 
naum ; ^lu munam; c^ 
Aw/w. First — ^, c->!^ j^ 
sar-khab; v., ^Juj^ i(;Aa- 
hidan ; ^^^ v!^ ^Aa6 k. 
To go to sleep, ^^j ^^^ 
khdb r. 

Sleepy, (8t)Li-il^-»> khdb-ndk ; 
»j>/r<^\^ A;Aa6 dludah. 

Sleeper (great), i^^^^^L^j &>«« 


Sleeplessness, <3^>-i. ^3 &*- 

khdbi ; ^^ sahar. 
Sleeve, ^^^f;L^ dstin. 
Sleight of hand, iXm 9hu*b- 

Slender, c^lS ndzuk. 
Slice, AiA^ tirdsheh. 
Slime, ^JJ lajan, 
Sliminess, t^U) ludb. 
Sling, ^^'!h faldkhan, 
Slinger, jljil ^^^^^^ kidukh- 

anddz ; \\xj\ dLi^ sang- 

Slip, 71., Jj zall, pi. oV) -?fl^ 

/a^; v., ^j^-jj^ Uztdan; 

^^X\J^ laghztdan. 

Slipping, Ji^ laghzdn. 

Slipper, ^ji^Lj pd-p^sh, — s 

worn over the boots, ^^J^ 

Slippery place, as^ mazlakah ; 

oV^ mazalldt. 
Slit, elU cM* (*.). 
Sloe, ^j\ dlucheh. 
Slope, u^^ shib. 
Sloth, ^^TifciAi//. — ful, >l? 

Slow, ^^ </»r; dii^ dirang, 

— ly, y-l^ yavdsh, — ness, 

ui ^^ ^ kasdlat ; ^.Xjujm 
\ oKutobgi, 


Sluice gate, ««-^l dbgtrah. 
Slumber, r., ^yi, ghunudan. 
Slut, oJLL pilisht. 
Sljy^b a)^ Ai7&A bdz. 

Smack (of the fingers), jt^j 

zinjir (Je.), 
Small, (&U^^9 kuchik; ^j^ 

khurd; j^u^ saghtr ; j^^ 

Smaller, or Smallest, ^^ic^l cx- 

Smalluess, v^^ khurdt; tj^ji^ 

khurdi ; o^l«<« saghdrat. 
Small-pox, (j^^yo^^arty; dl^ 

ehickak : eU^ chichak, 
Smal], or ape-nosed, c-a)^ zvHf, 
Smash, ^^f ^j^ khurd k. 
Smear, ^^jSJ\ andudan. 
Smell, n^i y, hu ; yjy buy ; 

«a\^ shdmmah ; v., ^X^jj 

bu-tdan. — ing, A .1 ; .^1 

istishdm {k,) ; ^*; ;,^» 9»i^- 

tanshi (^.). 
Smile, ^^. ■ T tabassum (k.); 

JimzA ibtkdm (n,). 

Smith, ^IjaI dhangar. 
Smoke, d^ (ft^J (A:«A.) ; ^)l».^ 

Smooth, iuw« mtMa^^aA ; ^^ 

^i7a//i. — ^Mg", cu^ nakt (k.). 


Smother, aa*. khttffah (Jc. ah.). 
Snail, (j!«^J^ AJU ^AanaA &a- 

Snake, ^U war; jc-«J^ ^«» 

— bitten, ixi^ jL» mar- 
gazidah. — catcher, ^L^ 

^j^-a mdr^ir. 
Snap asunder, ^jJLT ^i^Zi- 
(^n ; ^^^xSXS gtbsldnidan, 

— off, ^jxLS j) bar gusr 
Udan» — the fingers, j^ 
^jjll9 bar JUhdndan. 

Snare, ^U ddm {an.). 

Snatch, ^jjJiL-T^^ bar gus- 

Sneeze, ^^ ^.mVic 'atsah z. ; 
^jLJ>. khctfidan. — ing, 
^^ ^ g 'a^«; (of animals), 
^\xS kudos. 

Snore, c)<^>;^lA ^^<^^^^har z, 

— ing, ]/^ kharkhard. 

Snout, ^^ ;>m;?. 

Suow, uJ;* 5ar/*; v., ^^jj^l* uJ^ 

Snuff, juflJl anfiyeh. Medi- 
cinal — , ivjx-^ tfa't^/. — 
the candle, ..yiJj^ i-^y^ 

Snuffers,^y:;XjL^o gul-gir. 

So, ^J,^* 



And 80 on and so forth, ^]a 
1^ hallumma jarran. So 
and so, \^- \^^.s\ zait-kait. 

Soak, ^«l^l dghushtan. 

Soap, ^y\» sdbun. 

Sob, w., ^^ geryeh (Jc,) ; r., 
^jJLa^.i«» sagltdan. 

Sober, eu.^ U nd mast Be- 
coming — , j^ sahv {k.). 

Society, c>-*^ suhbat ; \z^\^ 
sahdhat ; v;^ y/wLi^ musdha" 
hat; dJli, rifdkat ; >U»* 

Sock, Aj]^ jurdhah ; ajIj^ pa- 

Socket (of the eye), AjLi*^ 

Soda, j^^j^ nafrun. 
Sodomite, l>^ Zw^ty, 
Sodomy, ^^l; a^ hacTieh hdzi. 
Soft, «., j»^_5 narm ; j«-^L5 

^o* ^'^ ; .>^ nasud. 
Softening, ^^JL mulaiyin {k.). 
Softly, ^jj jyJ ««7^w narm; 

jlI^^I dhistah. 
Softness, i^^L-» muJdyamat ; 

^Jk narmt. 
Soil, ^., (s)li. Ar^fl^/ i;., ^^^T 

dludan. — ed, ^j^ /aTzo;- 

Sojourn, \zjj^\ ikdmat (Ar.). 

Solace, ojL salvat 

Sold, A2a^ farukhtah ; A---* 

Solder, jtls ^af ; t?., (j.>2>^ u^>^ 
yt^^ khurdan. 

Soldier, jljjL. sdrbdz ; i^V* 
sipdhi ; (jg^-XLtl laskkari. 
Fellow — , (*La^ harrirjang, 
— ship, i,g^U-» sipdhgart. 

Sole (of the feet), b ^kafi 
pd ; (alone), I § ,; > tarihd ; 
(fish), ^f^^ kaushak. 

Solemn, (•^^ muhtaranu 

Solemnity, o^^-jb haihat 

Solicitation, ^LU i/Aa^ (^0 > 
(jrfl^l iliimds (k,y 

Solicitude, \jj)^parvd. 

Solid, *J^^-i. gak'pdrah ; jJL 
8uld ; ft^ mahshuv. — ity, 

dAJL^t rasdriat. 

Solitary, ^Ju mufarrad ; ^ja^ 

Solitariness, vzaJIxji yagdmyet. 

Solitude, c^UjlJ tanhdi ; oJa^ 
vahdat ; ^jd tajarrud. 

Solstice (Summer), ^It^-Ji ^J^J 
rds tL8 saratdn. (Winter), 



Solution (of question)^ J>. hall 
(Jc.) ; (in water, etc.), ai^1j3 

Solvent, %Sy^s^^ guddzendah. 

Some, ^a«i bazi ; ^<^JJ • kadrx ; 

juft. chand. 
Somebody, ic-«-*^ shakhst; 


Something, iJja> chtzt. 

Sometime, J^x^ chandgdh. 

Sometimes, Ji J^ gdh-gdh ; 
\j\^\ ahydnan. 

Somewhat, ^jji barkh; ^^ 

: hdrkhi ; ^j^kadrt; Ju»»elb» 

Somersault, i&LuSj pushtak (z.). 

Somnolent, ^JA^6 nads, 

Son,^^ pisar ; jJj^ farzand ; 
jjj valad; ^j>\ ihn, pL ^ 
heni ;, in comp., i^\\ zddeh ; 
(as, — of a Bej, ij.]j-X-j 
heg-zddah), — in-law, ^L«b 
ddmdd, — 's^ son, >; >,.;> \ 
nahirdh ;^^--J nahir. Daugh- 
ter's — , \um saht. 

Song, \j^ navd ; 2UJtj 7iagh- 
mah ; »Uc ghind\ 

bonnet, Jy^ ghazal 

Soon, ^j zud. Aa — as, 

ii!CjUib hamdnrgdh ; i^^U* 

Soot, ftj^j.) dudak. 
Soothing, JJ«J taUL 
Soothsayer, j^ra Jli fdl-gu; 

^\r kdhin ; JU. rammdl. 

Soothsaying, oil^ kakdnat. 
Sorcerer, ^U saA^r. 
Sorcery, j^U. jddu. 

Sordid (men), |%l-jJ ligdm ; 

J^jt^ tamdkdr. 
Sore, i»^ karhat ; ^ zakhm ; 

Sorrel, jjoL-^.^. humdz ; dli^J 
turshek. Wild — , a.^^*;^ 

Sorrow, ,j*#^--Jl qfsus (kh.) ; 
^ ghamm {kh,), pi, ^j^ 
ghumum ; ^jK-X-S J^ dil- 
^ nigardm. 

Sorrowful, or Sorry, ^ycX-^ 
gham-gtn ; ^jIjjJj ^^li wd- 
Mt^n ha-danddn ; \:/S*^s~j\ 
anduhgtn ; J<yy^ sug-vdr. 

Sort, u-q;,^ «iw/; p/. i-J^-i-» 
sunuf; ,j^ y*w«, j?Z. jj-L».i 

aksdm ; cjJ Tzaz^', ^Z. plj-j^ 
anvd*. Ofvariou8-^8, ttll5^\j3^ 



Soul, -Pj^ ruh ; ^^ jdn ; ^^yJ& 

naftuty pi, ^j-^-Jui nufus ; 

^^jj ravdn. Captivating the 

— » yh>\at. jdn-rubd, 
Sound, \x^ sad4 (k,); o^ 

satit ; jy dvdz ; oxli ftwA- 

Soup, \ij^ shurbd; iz^jZJ\ 

Sour, y^ turah ; ^ja»»> hamz, 

— cherry, jJU ^l dlu 

Source, jXa* masdar ; J^i asl. 
South, K^ya^ januh. 
Southern, ^ya^ januhi, 
Souvenir,^!i'il* yddgdr. 
Sovereign, sUi^lj pddshdh ; »U» 

shdh. — swaj, ^3). dJL* 

Sovereignty, (jj^^b ddvari ; 

fy\j\^ ddrdt ; (jg^l>x,jL^». 


Sow (pig), (&)^ s^L* mddeh 

Sow, t?., ^J;^kd8htan ; ^^^J^ 

kdridan ; ^jlJ^^^ Jdshtan, 
Sower, c .1^ ^ari* 

So^*n (field or seed), 9'ju)-* 

Space, j^ hauz ; s^^ fu«- 

hat ; A^ *ar9ah ; (of time), 
hbfi burhaf. 
Spacious, \^\» bdsit ; ^ i"^j 


Spade, J^ htl ; jJT kaland, or 

Spain, fj»Jjj\ Andalus, 
Span, wl shibr ; c:»**>U bilist. 
Spare, a., ^V Idghir, 
Spark, ^K^ parkdlah; %J<^ 

shardrehy pL J\^ shardr ; 

jjlt sharar. 
Sparkling, J^^ tdbdn. 

Sparrow, eslLt^ kunjtshk. — 
hawk, fj^^\^ Jcardghush; 
^H^i hashah. 

Spasm, ^;JL) tashannuj. 

Spavin, (ji^ karfcush. 

Spawn, JJ:.l ishpvl. 

Speak, ^jL^ guftan; ^^^ uJ^ 
liarf z, ^j^Uj j^bj zaftan- 
kushddan, — obscenely, 
jjjki.Lil afadrCdan, — ele- 
gantly, c^^^^j-i^ tahbir k. 

Speaker, »jjj^^9 gugandah; 


Spear, s^ n/zaA ; jj^ harhah ; 
^^j rumh. — head, ^L^ 


442^makhsus, More 

or most — , ^j^\ akhas9. 
Specially, \^j.aa^ makhsusan. 
Specialty, ^Uz^l ikhtisds. 
Species, ^L^l ajndt; &•_} 

Specific, ^y nauu 
Specifying, ^j^ taytn k. 
Specimen, jj^ namunah. 
Specious, As^j vajth. — ness, 

ft j>ia> tasannu'. 
Speck, s^ zarreh. 
Speckled,^b ^JCI lakkeh ddr. 
Spectacle, llU tamdshd ; i^Uai 

nazdrah. Looking at a — , 

^-J^Uai nazzdragu 

Spectacles, dL^c *ainak. 

Spectator, li^ bind ; ^^UiUj 
tamdahdiy pi, .U». huzzdr ; 
^J^ nazzdragdn. 

Spectre, J\^ khiydL 

Speculation, ^^U^ nuidmaleh 

Speech, ^l^acJ takallum (k.) ; 
jji-j takrir {k,). ; »t^U^^» 
guydi; ^jSa> nufk; jjla} ^2^- 
i^uA ; (»^^» kaldm ; J\k^^ 
guftdr. Inconsiderate — , 
J.JLJ laghv. Idle — , j\^ 
zhdzh. Incoherent — , oUlU 


tdmdt, — less, vjLy^j W^ 

Speed, fj^tjj zudt ; ^S^jaldu 

Full —tjij^jalav-rtz. 
Spell, n., ^j^l qfsun. 
Spelling, 'X.\ imU {k.). 
Spend, ^^ — ^ kharj k. 
Spent, s^jyAj^ masruf. 

Spew, c)iK jr* ^^* ^* 
Sphere, ^^a. charkh ; yS. 

markaz ; ^^y^^gardun. 
Spice, A^l adviyeh. 
Spider, i 

— s web, 

dah-t-a nkabut. 
Spike, v-j« mikh. 
Spikenard (Indian), -^l— aa- 

dij ; i-JaJI J«i«* sumbul ut 

Spill, ^^;i-is^ rtkhtan. 
Spilt, ,jJLu munshakk. 
Spin, ^j^ rishtan, 

Spinage, ^AjU-l w^ano; ; ^^^y:, 

Spindle, dj^ rfwA. — case, 

ij^jSj^ duk-ddn. 
Spine, ^joxuxe. *us*u9. 
Spinner, »Ju-j|^ rtsandeh. 
Spinning-wheel, a»...^ char- 




Spirit, -.J . ruh ; J\j bdL — of 
God (Jesus Chribt),4Jl'-y^rM/t 
UlUk Faithful— (Gabriel), 
^Jii*)l\^JJrukulam^n, Vege- 
table — , J^L-J ^jj ruh t 
nabdtt. Animal — ifj^jt^ ^u 
ruh i haiwdm, — less, cu-*^ 
hi-hamtyet ; 

O >»<>■■« —«i.-> 


ghairat, — of wine, 

'arak. Extra strong — , ^s^ 
^tjT A«*» *arak i sih dtishi. 

Spiritual, ^^JlJ nafast; ^^jj 
ruhdni. — guide, c:>«^W^^ 
plr I tarikat. 

Spit, n., ^.^ sikh; v., ^-L** 

. ^jiS^ljji suluf anddkhtan. 
Spite, I \ A kinah, — ful, 

jij^ aharir. 
Spittle, ^j_i^ rtk ; ^^^ v-jI 

db'i'daham ; u-aj ^w^ (z.) ; 

jjl^ huzdk. 

Spleen, JlJ* tihdl ; j^^ *a- 
Splendid, ^ »^JL>. jilvah-gar ; 

Splendour, cjj^ fur ugh ; ju.j 

ZW ; ^3]^i ishrdk; v-)l aft; 
,jlaN^ durukhsh; i^jilvah; 
^jj raunak. 
Splice, J^j vad (4.), 

Splint (bandaging), t^.^ 

jahtreh; (of liowe), ^ji^ 

Split, I?., ^^^lC-t» shikdftan ; 

pa. p.y J7 a ,1 4t munfatik ; 

fjj-i^ munkharik ; -^.W-q.;* 

mufifatir ; pr.p., j^\3fulik; 

J.U. khdrik. 
Spoil, ^i^lJ ^ara;; j*^ chapau 

(k,) ; A>j,,;g ghammat (^.), 

pZ. j%JU-^ ghandim. 

Spoiling, ,3Lil */s«rf (A:.) ; Js^ 
mukhill ; x^Jl^ mufsid {n.). 

Spoilt, vj:;*^ mdyuh. 
Spoke (of wheel), »^,> dirah. 

Sponge, y^\ abr ; (parasite), 

J-oL iufeil. 
Sponsor, ^JfJ^ zamtnf J-itf' 

Spoon, j^lS kdshuk ; (large), 

Aa^ chamchah ; ,*^^ cAa«i- 

Sport, ^J;jo bdzi; ^jo bdzi- 

cheh; Cy^-nJ J >-i-J ^^^)^ 

Sportsman, ^^lXi» shikar- 

Spot, aCJ lakhah. 
Spotted, ^b ddghi. 



Spout, ^;!^ j\j ndv-ddn ; c-)^ 

Sprain, ti., ^J^sdpiehesh (kk.), 

spread, ^j^;.m.^p gastardan; 

pa. p.y L^M<i^ mabsut ; {^jjf^ 

niafrush (k.) ; lill-T^ sar- 


Spring (season), ^Uj bahdr ; 

M^j rabt ; (of steel), ^J<^ 

kamdn ; j^ fanar ; (water), 

f»*r^ cheshmeh. Early — 

rain, ^c— •— ^ vasmty ; v., 

^) ju^ jihidan. 

Springing upon, ^jj-^ls^ ^^ 

Sprinkle, ^jjj^\i pdshidan. 
Sprinkling, jjiLj |7a«^ (k.) ; 



Sprout, ^j^ ghusn. 

Sprung up (newly), jJ^j rua- 

Spur,jj^ mihmiz (z.). 
Spurious, cJ^ kalb. 
Spurt, ^Jlsh {k.). 

Spy, ^, . J. ^^ -;>■.». khabar-gir ; 
^j-*L*. jdsus; j^ ^jLj) 
zabdrirgir, — glass, ^^^^j^ 
</Mr ft£«. — ing, ^j^ 
khabar-giri {k,) ; 
tajassiis (n.y ; ^^j^\a^ jdmsi. 

Squabble, a^^shuluk {k.). 
Squadron, Aii^d dastah 
Squalid, <ju>t,b pilisht. 
Squalor, ciJti kashf. 

Squander, ^^ \^\f^\ isrdfk^ 

Square, ^fj^^ chdr-gu^hah ; 
jt-j^--» murabba, — root, 

Squeeze, ^j:>^LiJl afshdrdan ; 
^j^j *, ^1 afshurdan; ^J^^-li 
fashwrdan ; ^jjjlJii ^ 5ar 

Squib, u^lifft mahtdb. 

Squills, JsA^i askail. 

Squinting, J|^1 aAz;a/ (A:.) 4 
— ^ Zmc^ (A;.). 

Squirrel, ^Jl^ lP>^ wwsA 
parrdn ; »jj^ ^jij* t^^z^sA 
parandah, Grey — , »->W^ 

Stability, c^LJ sabdt ; j]j^ 

kardr (gr.). 
Stable, 4-iJ^ tavilah ; jy^ 

dkhur ; J-JL^l or J « Iq.mJ 

Stack, i^y tudah. 
Staff, Lofr 'asd; vj^ c^t^5. 
Stage, Jj-:-* manzil^ pi. ^JjU 



Stain, ^^i dludan ; pr. p., 
JftJ latkh; pa, p,^ v,.«j^ 

Stairs, aIj pillah ; ^j^ darajeh. 
Stake, k->^ chuh. Impaling 

Stale, sjJL* mdndah ; sAJl, 

Stalk, A»>U» shdkhah. 
Stall (cattle), ^>— »-T aA^Ai^r. 

Thumb — , c>«J^ shast 
Stallion, ^J\l^ nary an. 

Stammer, ^j^^f u^J zabdn- 
Tcdffan, — er, ^^^Cjl alkan, 
— ing, ^r-*-^ taassur {k,) ; 
^^^xJ Za^an ; v:>:XJ laknat. 
Stamp, r., (a document), J:^ 
jj^ syYZ h OflScial — , n., 
tamghd ; j^ ^ muhr, 
)d (a document), Jar** 

Staunch, v,, ^J:^/ ^>!>* *^^*^ 

Stand, r., ^;)^LI— 1 isfddan; 

^^\Zmi\ tstddan ; ^^L«* «tVa- 

dan, — , w., (for a lamp), 

^j^^ chirdgh-ddn. 
Standard, \z^j rdyaf^ pi, 

tZ^iU raydi; ^yl 2iu7d\ pi. 

iijll alviyeh; J^ Je 'aZam 
<Zar ; ^^Uj nishdn, — bearer, 
.1:^^ Jfi *alam harddr. 

Standing, ^\i kdim; Aj ka- 

Stanza,' uu.^ bait. 
Staple, Jijij rtzah. 
Star ijz^a sitdrah; ^ najm,pl.j 

^j^ nujum; v^yS kaukab, 
pl.y \^S\jS kavdkih ; ^,:.>l 
akktar,in pi, j^^^^jxjfunduk 
i Hm. Fixed — , jluIS sdbi- 
tah. Morning — , (sUaT ^^ 
shdlhdhang. Two stars near 
the pole, ^^^^ farkaddn. 
Starch, as^SIiUj nashdsktak. 

Stare, ^^.iL-^^-X-Jlj vd-nigris- 

Starling, tt)^L» sdrak. 

Starting (on a journey), ^]\dj\ 
irtihdl (k,) ; ^\C Jaj naArZ / 
makdn {k,). 

Startle, ^jjLi|]i tctrsdnidan. 

Starvation, di\i fdkak ; ^J^J 
gurisnagi (ksk. ). 

State (condition), JL^ AaZ; 

<^*A^^ ^ifiy^; cu-^-aLa 

mdhiyet ; Jl*. »»^|.». chihrah 
i hdl. Proper — , JUs ba- 



ruyddd ; (empire), kz.* ij^ 
daulat ; (degree), ^^U» shdn. 
Stated time, oli^ mikdt. 

Statement, t^y taujth ; ^y 

Statesman,^jA muddbhir. 
Station, i^jLJ^.^ maukify pL 

uJil^ mavdkif; »\SLjU> jdi/' 

gdh ; ^I^La makdn ; %^y^ 


Stationary, ^^^sU Balcin, 
Statuary, .^J oj hut tardsh. 
Statue, o^^ sdrat. 
Stature, xJ kadd ; v=«^Lj kd- 

Statute, BjclS kd'idah. 
Stay, ^«x^L^ mdndan. — 

behind, ^jjiUlj 7/7^.m^w£?fln. 
Steady, ^^jj cujU sdbit-kadam ; 

j\yiM\ ustuvdr. 
Steal, ^)Jj^^ duzdidan; (j^\^ 

^^ duzdi k. 
Steam, jliBs hukhdr, — ship, 

jy\j vdpur. 

Steed, k-AjgB9;« markah. 
Steely i)ly fuldd ; iHypuldd, 

Steep, ^^jj zharf; Vlj ];— * 
sardrhdld, — acclivity, iji/ 

Steer^ v., i^)j randan. 

Stem (of a hookah), A^li nat- 

Stench, y jj ^a^ hu. 

Step, |«o ^^m; ^xJ kadam 

darajahy pi, o\:»^ darajdt; 
.^jiXft maddrij ; ijo>, khat- 

vat, — daughter, *-u-j . ra- 
hibdh, — father, v-)l^ r(f^. 
— mother, a>K rdheh, — 

son, ca^i rahth, 

Stercorare, ^^jj^ rldan. 

Sterile, ^^ 'a^t/Ti ; t.y^ shu- 

Sterling, j^l^ sddik. 

Stern, ^j^, n i » mutaahhis, 

— ness, jj-^^ durushti. 
Stew, kj^jy kavurmah. 

Steward, ^li ndzir. — ship, 

o^Uaj nazdrat. 
Stick, x.M^> }yj>, chub'dastu 

Dram — , db^-*" chubak ; 

v., ^ju.^^ chasptdan. 

Sticky, dL:>;.M». chaspndk. 

Stiff, uu-i- saH^ (Ar.). — 
necked, ^U ydghi, — nesa, 
^^jas** sakhU, 

Stifle, ^jJ:» aa» khuffah shudarh 
(or Jc*y 



Stigma, u>-c 'aih. 

Still, a., k2^SL^ sdkii (k.) ; 

^Jtj ,U ■ » khdmush (k.) ; 

(already), j^ \J td hanuz ; 

(for spirits), j- ;«^ amlnk, 

— ness, (<*^lft> A;Aamu«At. 
StimulatioD, ctlb^ ^aAr^A; (k.). 
Sting, ,jiJ /iM (2;.); (of a 

scorpion, &e.), at->. 1 las ; 


\ abr. 


Stingy, J-is lakJiiL 
xjo tama. 

Stink, w., .x.;-f^ gand; v., 
^^jjjju^ia gandidan ; pr, jp., 
ixS gandah. 

Stipend, d> .S *Ufc> jdmikiyeh ; 

^XoU jdmagi ; aa^oj vazi- 
Stipulated, Lj^-l* mashrut. 
Stipulation, ^ kuyud (k,) ; 

is^ ^Aar^ (65.). 

Stir up, ^j^ j»ft^ bar ham z. 

Stirring up strife, ^j—^ 

muhrih (n.). 
Stirrup (a), c-)^ rikdb. 
Stitch, ^J^J^ dukhtan. 
•Stitching together, ^-a-1 lafk 

(n.) ; ^jJ^ talfik (k.), 
Stcck (capital), ajU mdgah ; 

dast-yndyah, — of gun, 
cljjJI kundugh. 

Stocking, i^y^jurdb. 

Stocks, iXJ kundah. 

Stolen (goods), a^ balgah. 

Stomach, ^^stt* shikam; »j«« 

Stone, ctli-*! sang ; y^ hajar, 

pi, j\ s^ Ayar. A large 

— 3 dU--^ kharsang. Ring 

— for a sling, >_:J* wo/- 

cliakh. Date — , ,_ ^- 

vakhchC Bezoar — ,^il-j 
pdd'Zahr. Fruit — , ji,^ 
khastu. Blood — , A-JiLjl» 
skddnak. Hard — , J^li. tsL^ 
*aw^ I khdrd. Mill — , (sL-» 
Ij. .*»! sang-dsyd, A small 
piece of — , »^ esL-- *a72^- 
khurdah, — in the bladder, 
iLa». Aesa^ ; A>1&« dLtf «a;2y t 

Stoning to death, ^L« elLi— • 
sang-sdr (k.) ; ♦— a^ ra/i?i 

Stony (heavy), ^^L. aangi — 
country, ^jIi^m^i*. sdngistdn. 

— place, 
\ lak\. 




Stool, ^^ kursi. 
Stoop, y^s^ ^ Tcham sh. 
Stop! Qi-.M,. )t \j vd ist; v.y 

^IjLmoI tstadan. 
Store, »;->3 zakMrah, pi, ^U-i 
zakhdir ; a-jL. indyah — 
house, i^V^ khizdnah. 
Stork, jlfl) laklak ; dJ (sU ^U 

Aa/i lah-lak» 
Storm, J^Jo tufdn. 
Storming, ^y^ hujum {a). 
Story, «Las kissah ; \zJC>' hi- 
kdyat — teller, ^^sa ^ 
ktssah'ffu ;\)\j^ du^ kissah- 
khdn. Idle — , h\^ kktird- 
feh, pi. oLi]^^ khurdfdt. 
Eelating a — , kzX\^ muhd- 
kdt (w.). — (of a house), j-L 
iahak. Lower — , ^^l >Afl-L» 
tahakah i pdin. Upper — , 

VU 'aaJ? tahakah i hold. 
• • • 

Stout, A^^jasim, 

Stove, ^^ gulkhan ; ^^IjjCji 

Straight, kza^j rdst (k.) ; 
■ « ■ ^ ^ mustakim ; ^^^^ 

Straightened, ^jU mukavvam. 
— in means, ijjjj (sLi tang- 

Strain, y^^^^ pdludan. 

Strainer, iU sdfi. 

Strait, dLJ tang. 

Strange, c,^,«fi *ajab v,,^ j «f 

Strangeness, vsa-*;js» Lj nd- 

Stranger, 4 ?l^ j > btgdnah,; 

Strangle, ^wSljji c-)Ll? ^awo/" 
(tenef) anddkhtan ; ^^^ Afii. 
khujffeh k. 

Straggler, jLi. kkanndk. 

Strangling, ^^ daghr. 

Strangulation, ▲....>. khahah ; 
^Ai. khaffagL 

Strangury, J**;? harm'tyu. 

Strap, Jlji duvdl. 

Stratagem, J-^-*' hilah; J^^=» 

Straw, »\i A:aA; ^U^ samdn, 

in p I. y>jBb^ kdh-riz. 
Strawberry, ^^ 0/ tut-i- 

Straying, JU zdll («.). 
Strayed away, »il:il jj^ ddr 

uftadah ; »J^ ^^s9 gum rah 



Stream, j». yw ; ij\ db. Dried- 

rudi, A pure limpid — , 
JLJLm salsdl. 

Street, ,j^ hay ; ^^ kuchah ; 
CyJL* mashra. 

Strength, o^ kuvat ; jtf^ zur ; 

{jsu j^j zur-mandi; ijj\y^\ 

ustuvdrt ; jj~f^ niru ; 
j^s\smii sar-panjagt ; h 

Strengthened, JlJU mushai' 

yad; ^jyu mukavvd; js^j^ 


Strengthening, jSj* musik. 

Strenuous, I j». jiddan. — Ij, 
cjj^ heshiddat. 

Stretch, ^JXJS^ keshtdan. 

Strew, ^J^^J rtkhfan. 

Stricken (in years), JL, ^^^ 

Strict search, y>, j cu^^just 


Stricture, c>*^ maldmat 

Stride, j%ji kadam {z.). 

Strife, y^ sitiz; ty^^ sitizah; 
f^Ji ydrghu. 

Strike, ^)^ iadan; ^^^a^iydkh- 
tan / 4^jp c-j^ zar\ fc. To 

— together, ^J^y ^jj har^ 
ham z, 

Sitriker, sjJLh zanendah ; i^^U 

String, ^)U^ rismdn, — of 
the drawers, s .; ->^hi izdr- 
hand. Bow — , %y zih ; jjj 

Strip, ^Jopdrchah, 

Stripe, \^ khatt. 

Striped (garment), laks^ mu- 

Stripped, i^^^JL* salih ; oi^ 

Strive, ^^fkuzhidan. 

Striving, j^ mujhid (n.); 
J ^ : <* mujtahid, — to 
please, j^ J^ dil-ju. 

Stroke, «., jli. shalk ; jb ddv. 

Stroll, ^^J gardesh (^.). 

Strong, viAJf^ sakht ; ^jj • 
kavmy; Lj^ mazhut; j\y»^\ 
ustuvdr ; ^ jju-af" sakht-' 
pai; X^jtjj zur-mand, A — 
fort, ^^^ razin; ^^^j r<utn; 

Strongly prohibiting, cL;. 
ft ^ 



Struggle, ^U chdlish (».). 

Strumpet, a^ kahbeh ; xJj 
lavand; ix^jindeh. 

Stubble, ^JuX kdh'bdn. 

Stubborn, ^^«i» mutamarrid. 

Stucco, Sgach. 

Stud (metal), J^s> gul. 

Studded with jewels, 9^j^ mu- 

Student, JU11 uJlL tdlib uVihn, 
pi, 'UU tulahd ; Jjcu muta- 
*allim ; ^\2» shdgird. 

Study, i:u— -*lj^ dtrdsat ; «?., 

^)jLil^ ^j^ dars khdndan. 
Stuff (cloth), JX^^J^ kumdsk 
— and non-sense ! ^^ ^\ 


mi\ m pashm tst; v,^ 
(jJlJL^ tapdndan ; ^j> -.^^ 
dghandan ; ^jjuj I dgandan. 

Stuffed (with feathers),^ ixy\ 

Stuffing (of a pillow, &c.), 
ji^ hashv; ^ji^Ul ambdrish. 
Stumbling, jjLil uftdn (k.). 
Stump, a:S tanah. 
Stunned, ^jij4--> bi-hush (A:.). 
Stupefied, ^j ^a > madhush 

Stupid, ^ l3 ndrfahm; uJ^>^J 
bi-vukuf; j ^ "^^ ahmak ; 
iJLa sqfih. 

Stupidity, liuj^^ baldhat ; 
^U^l dhmaki; \z*Sb\iL»» aafd- 

hat ; 



Stupor, jjic ghash. 

Sturgeon, (;;:^<^•• marsin. 

Stutter, ^Ji^ kz^ htknat k. 

Stutterer, »^ hdkrah; aITa 

Sty (eye), ^^^ jx— Hndah 

Style, o.Lft 'ibdrat. Attentive 
to — , J— Ci,\— c Hbdrat- 

Styptic, ^joiS' *ajis; etli^ ri*- 

Suavity, i^iiJ Zw^. 
Subaltern, v=*-*^^j zir-dast 
Subdue, ^J^^ a-U ghalabeh k, ; 
pa, P'tjj^ mak-hur ; ^sl^ 
munfatih; j s?**^ ni2^»/7A;A- 
hhar ; pr, p, ^^-sH taskhir 
(w.) ; ^l5 kdhir. 

Subject, ciUfi^ rdiyat^ pi, Lie. 
rudgd. — (matter), ^^^ 
zamn; %J j 5ara^. — of 



— to palpitation, ^jLa-A-i. 

Subjected, j^^Cc* mahkum. 
Subjection, ^UajI inJciydd. 
Sublime, ^U sdmi ; Jlc *aU, 

Sublimity, ^_c 'i*/wt?; cu-ar-j^ 

Submission, vi* q\ LI itaat; 

pya^ hhuzu'; ^^AU minkdd. 
Submissive, ^ye^ mahhfuz. 
Submit, ^^JJ:. aJs^ mutt ah. ; 

^J:>^S^Jf^ sipar anddhhtan; 

^^jy Jj^ j-^ *^^ farau- 

Subordinate^ i!i- ■> 4-jj zir 

Subscribe, \J^^ jjj zir navish- 


Subserviency, Jl^::;! ihtihdl. 

Subservient, j I y :„,« mutaal- 

Subsist, ^j:-^\ ztstan. 
Subsistence, j^^ r/iA:; \y j d^ 

5ar^ f« nava. Means of — , 

^jt J j»^ sar u harg. 
Substance, ai^ kunh ; jky»^ 


Sabatantial, ji^,,^ jasim^ 

^^— • mm 

Substantialness, k^^U rndddi- 

Substantially, ,jil al-hakk. 

Substantive, ^\ ism. 

Substitute, n., Jjj badal (k.) ; 

Vjj badld. 
Substitution, ^j» ^aW^r (n.); 

JjjJ tabdil (Jc.), 
Subterfuge, s^^jfarib. 
Subtile, s:it.m*s*. ck\i%t. 

Sub til ty, i^jl> hdrihi I ai^a] 
nuktahy in pi. jfjli^ rakdik; 
jjJlJi dakdik. — of genius, 
^--j »^ khurdah-btm. 

Subtraction, I4U minhd (k.). 

Suburbs, jJ^ ^^ gird i shahr ; 
jJU ^ijl^ havdU e shehr. 

Success, ^Us\ injdh (y.) ; ^l^ 
najdh; -42 nujh (y.). 

Successful, ^«i najih; vLao 

kdmydb {sh.). 
Succession, vl>]^ mirds (y,); 

cu-ii^«* murddqfat (n.) ; 

J-#L-lJ tandsul ; ^\yS to- 

Successive, v^l»u mutadkib ; 

\^^\j .; ■ • mutarddif; ^^^y^ 

Successively, J\ju mutavdHr ; 

^ v^V J" v^- '^^'^ ^"^ '^^'^ 



i^. Wi pai « p«*; ^ ^^ 

Successor, uJll^ Jchdlif; <.Jl>. 

Succour, v^L^ ghiyds ; d1jL-«l 
itnddd (k,). 

Succulent, ^IjjI dbddr. 

Such, •-a^ kamchu : rs\~Lj^ 
c^t^na/i. — as, A^'L»» c^u- 
ndnchih, — as that, jjU^l 
dnchundn, — a one, ^jiU 
Suck, ^JsS^ maTcidan, 
Suckle, v.y ^J:^^^^ shir d. 
Suckling a child, kzm^j* mu- 
rdzaat (».) ; iuojm murzi, 
A — , n., Jjl>^^ 5^»r. 
hhdragt ; e\^ rezd\ 

Sudden death, oI>>\a« c^ marg 

i mufdjdt 
Suddenly, db\{j yakdyaJe; L-i 

h^nd-gdh; jS^^ ha-yek-hdr; 

^^LT li nd-gahdn ; \z^j li 

Suddenness, oUlo^ mufdjdt. 

Suet, du^ |7/A« 

Suffer, r., ^;,JuJlS^o»>; zahmat 

Suffering, uu«a^ zahmat; ^^ 


Sufficiency, dLjli^a kifdyat ; 

>\iuL^9\ iktifd. 
Sufficient, ^ has; %x^ ha 

sendah ; ^ kdfi ; • ; 5 • 

makna • 
Suffocation, juo^ khafan (k. 

sh.) ; a-ma^ ghussah ; i^^ 


Suffocating, j:S. kJianik, 

Sugar (candied), jjlJ A:a«(f; 
(moist), ^f^ sukkar; js^ 
shakar, — cane, Jxw oLj 
naia^ » sukkar; j^ ^3 ncii 
shakkar. — plantation, 
^^\lM^ shakaristdn. 

Suggestion, j^lll ishdreh (h). 
Evil — , 4^yj vasuasahy pi, 
^jLij vasdvis. 

Suit, t>., ^^;i-*ill shdyistan ; n., 
(for judgment), 1^^ davd. 
Bringing a — before a 
judge, o.»M^ muhdkamat. 

Suitability, u^^^lu mundsabat. 

Suitable, ^|^ havdjihi ; ai^jiUi 
shdyistah ; jf^J^ dar-khur. 

Suite, («^ J (»J^ khadam hch 

Suitor, j^s>^ shdki. 

Sullen, i^j-i^ 'abus. 

Sully, ^^^ aludan% 



Sulphur, s2^j^ hihrit; i^^f 

Sultan, ^LkJL^ sultdn^ pL 

^JJ^'X*» saldttn. 
Sum (of money), «L« mahktgh, 

— total, S;«^ khalnrah; 4^ 
' jamlah. Principal — , j\ 
J^l zar i aaah 

Summarily, %\S^ ^jk^ sukhan- 

kotdh ; X«^ majmalan. 
Summary, J^ majmal. 

Summer, ^^l ; .,. >Lj tdhistdn; 

. uJ--> saif. 
Summit,^ «ar; ijjh zurvah. 

Summon, ^j^ ^ ; ^^ talctbtdan ; 

Summons, a-^L3 cJLL talab- 

Sumptuous, jiAs/dkhir, 

Sun, c^Ljlj! dftdb ; (poetic or 
obsolete), ^jrr » * fhems; 
juJ^j». khurshid ; jyb hur; 
jyb ^< ».!'»» chashmah i hur; 
j^ navyar ; ^jj uJ-^j ymufi 
ruz ; yj^jf^ hurakhah ; ^aJ 
^^^j kubbah t zarrin ; ^\J 
kubda; ^j' ^j\j ndn i zarCn, 
The Order of the Lion and 
the -"", 'Jm.***^.^ «i»MM* ^vJL) 
nUhdn i-iMr khuraWA. 

Sunday, juLtX) gak-ahambah ; 

j^)l\ ^jl gaum ul ahad. 
Sundry, ^mo bazi. 
Sunflower, l-j^_:— *i shutur-pd, 

^)^.3p c->\iii dftdb-garddn. 
Sunk, ^|^^xi«^ mustaghrafc, 
Sunnite, x^ aunni. 
Sunrise, c->LiT ^^ tulu t 

Sunset, vj^ ghurub ; ^j^ 

c^Lf I ghurub % dftdh. 
Sun-worshipper, v:u«^^ v-*Liil 

Superabundance, a^Iai«i1 iatU 

Superabundant, cJj>*^ afzun. 
Superb. ^ .«W«^ 
Supercilious, j^j^-^ maghrur, 

— ness, jS^ takabbur. 
Supererogatory (prayers), aUI* 

Superficial, ^lU zdhir. 

Superficies, LLj baadt. 

Superfluity, ]o\j\ ifrdt. 

Superfluous, ^yi\sJuztL 

Superintendence, o^L.a-j na- 

zdrat (k,). 
Superintendent, i^jj^^ ddru- 

ghah ; ^li ndzir, — of the 


Superior, Jk^\ dzam; j^pj 
zabartn; j>li fdik; WL^ 
fnusallat ; ^j^ murajjah; 

Superiority, ^ ; ^ p ghalahat ; 

^1^ pishi ; ^ vza^^ dost 

Superlative, J^asl afzal. 

Superseded, ^j .>. ; < m^n^t^^^ 
(Ar. sh,). 

Superstition, fja\j^j vasvds. 

Superstitious, ^^j^^ vasvdsi. 

Supper, jX^ sham. 

Supping, ^Jjo taiMhsht (n.). 

Supple, ^ narm. 

Supplement, a » ; > tatimmahy 
9 zamimah, pi, JU^ ^ro- 


Suppliant, ^Jc. *driz. 
Supplicate, ^j i .t.. > yashtan; 

Supplication, jL^ mya;r Jt. ; 

^jpja 'arz (it.); ^\ „gj. „7., J 

utid'd (n.) ; JV^I ibtihdl ; 

g^ tazarru; ^j,mi»iU mi^Z- 

^ami« n. ; ft^V Idvah. 
Support, «•, ^^^ ptuhti; v., 
• c)^ J^ tahammul k. 
Supported, ^bz^m mustazhar. 


Supporter, ^i--J» -z^aAtr ; J^^x* 

Supporting, J-«^ mulaham* 

mil; ^\,a:j^\ ttizdd (n,). 

Suppose, ^^^ii^ixJ pinddshtan ; 

(for example), ^Ljt • ma' 

Supposition, ^j^Li kigds (k.). 

On — yjiSJLj j> bar fakdtr. 

Suppression, \j<;^^.»»,i tasktn 

Suppuration, d^ chirk (k,). 
Supreme, ^^1 aid. 
Surcingle, csUJ^J zabar-tang. 
Sure, ^JJii yakin. 
Surety (bail), ^J^\^ zdmin. 

Becoming — , Ja^ muta- 

Suretiship, ^U zdmint. 

Surface, jl-^ aafhah : ^la,..>r 
tathy pi. ^^^ sutuh, — of 
the earth, ^j^^ a-^ *arsah i 

' Surfeit, ^^fs^a stri. 

Surge, v,f ^^^J ^ mauj-z. 
Surgeon, J\^jarrdh. 

Surgery, or Surgical, ^^1 

Surmlae, ^\^ lc\\j&* Vl^^ 



Surname, v^ lakab, 
Surnamed, i_^ mulakkah. 

Surpass, oi^—i J '^^^ 


Surplus, aJ^ sarfah; <3jy-ii 

Surprise, v-^ taajjuh («.) ; 

O;^ hair at {k.). 

Surprised, u^ s^ mutoCajjih 

{sh, 7i,), 
Surrender, xJLJ taslhn h, 

SutTound, ^^^ ^ gird-h ; pa. 
p. J Ll^ muhdt; pr. p., aWUI 
ihdtah {Jc:)\ ^ ^ *^ muhit ; 

Surveillance (under), xlj^i^ 

Survey, c>».L^ masdhat {k,). 

Suspect, ^^A4J^ shubkeh k* 

Suspected, ^^^ muttaham. 

Suspecting, ^yU mutavahhim. 

Suspend, ^J-i-ivl {j — » bar) 
dmkhtan ; ^j ■:;..agjl .^ (far 

Suspended, ^b,) barddr ; jU« 

Suspense, jfij» tavtk. 
Suspension, ^v— >jT dvizish ; 

Suspicion, ^U^^ gumdn; ^ 
zinndh ; aJU* shdibah; ^y 
tavahhum; AJ\ iihdm. 

Suspicious, ^xJff zanni; ^^Lk 
2^nn ; ^Uj vahhdfn. 

Sustain, ^^b^ 5e»/* ddshtan. 

Sustenance, Jdi^ tctdm* 

Swaddling clothes, kl_«— i 

Swallow, w., db-»;-j piristuk^ 

vulg., j-^>,.M*i ^ ; piristu. 

Mountain — , \e>\^^ vatvdt ; 

v.f (^p^^ batidan. 
Swallowing, jtb baV (Jc,) ; k^ 

Swamp, u>^ khaldb, 
Swan,ji A:w. 
Swarm, s^i am^i^A. 

Swarthy, ^^J«^^JJJS:» gandumr 

Sway, ^jl;*^ XwA;«iran»- 

Swear, ^^i;^* c;s^ yamin k.; 

^jj>^ ^ kasam kh. ; ^ym 

y^^j^ saugand kJu 
Sweat, ^j^ khug; j^ 'arafc 

Sweating, j^^ mutaarrik. 
Sweep (to), i;^— ^ ruftan; 





>Ur kannds. 

khdk-rub ; 

Sweet, ^JiJii» ihtrtn (k.) ; _ 
huluv ; ^ji^y nushm ; i)a I) 
hd-mazah ; lj jc *azh ; u^lL 
tab, — smile, 

Sweetheart, ^t^l Ji diUdzdr ; 
^2)\j\a^ jdndn. 

Sweetmeat, ^^^^^ shtrini ; 
4ulli> hatdshah ; ^\j^ halvd\ 

Sweetness, ^^^j , ,a shirtm; 

cu^jfi 'uzubat; o^^ AaZa- 

Swell, ^Xsf^\j^ dmdsidan. 

Swellings ^Ul dmas. 

Swerved, JjJ«« madul (k.). 

Swerving, Jjjc Wt^Z {k.). 

Swift, jjj,.^J tiz-rav ; s .i ..V 
tt^(/. — as the wind (a 

horse), I )i\ i hdd-pd, — 

footed, \j dL*» sabuk-pd. — 
paced, Jj^,^\ — ». chdbuk- 
khirdm. — winged, ^ aL- 

Swifter, or Swiftest, c^l cwra . 

Swiftness, ^^JuJ tundi. 

Swim, ^J^^ Li. *Ain4 k. / jJ:. 

Swimmer, ^jL- ihindvar. 
Swimming, w., fjjjL^ thind' 

Swindle, ^^ib L-o/j^rtft J. 

Swindler, .1 

gkadddr ; 

s JkJMij^i Jlribandeh. 
Swine, e)^ khug. 

Swing, n., jj^ sirind; ^*^'^ 
haldjin ; ^^^jJub halujin; 
v., yj^^^ dvtkhtan. 

Switch, ^j^ kamchi. 

Swoon, ,jl-c ghash; ^ ^ 4 j ; 
bthush {sh,). 

Sword, ^^JU^ shamshir; ^.a^ 
/jfljf ; i-jjJ %A. Small — , 
A^ nim-chah; (poetical), 
^L^ Atfim ; aV^a^^a iamsdm; 

Sword-belt, JiU^ Umdyil. 
Swordsman, ujL-» saiydf. 
Sycamore, ^l:^ chindr. 
Sycophancy, ^yj^}*' chdpluti. 
Sycophant, JjoL tofail. 
Syllable, U* hijd.^ 
Syllogism, ^\^ fcigds. 
Symbol, eu^iHc *aldniat (b.). 
Symmetry, c-^lii tandsub. 
Sympathizing, ^jJ^ ham-dard 



Sympathy, fjs :. •^i dard- 

Synonymous, ^^-Jt-* ^» ham- 

Syntax, j^ nahv. 

Syphilis, <zJ^kuft. 

Syphon, i^j^\.afnbuh, 

Syrian, ^U shdmi ; ^jI-j/- 

Syringe, jJi*. huknah. 

Syrup, i^ shtruh. 

System, JtaXa zdhiteh. 

Systematic, ^ju mutaratiih. 




Tablecloth, s^ sufrah. 

Table-decker, ^-». ji^ sufrah- 

Tablet, ^ toM^/. 

Taciturn, (j!«^.-^l..». A;^amt^5^. 

— ity, \za^^ samt. 

Tail, A^ ^i^m ; v-J^ zanah ; 

JU^ dumbdl. The fat of a 
sheep's — , jlJj dumhah. 
Haying a — ^, j\ju^d dum" 

Tailor, ^^j^ darzt; LL». khatf- 

Tainted, sJ^m*^ pusideh. 

Take, ^^^i^.^9 giriftan; ^;)Xlt$ 
sittdan ; ^jjm* Htadan, -— 
up, ^^^i^iSo ^ ftar giriftan, 
— away, ^;ii»b ^ ftar c^A- 
tan, — a siesta, ^^^ *^V 
c^ar^ z. — care ! .b ^^-^ 
khahar ddr. 

Taking, j ».! aA;^;?? {k,), — 

legal possession of, i.p*»La> 
tasdhuh {n,). 

Talc, jlL> talk. 

Tale, Lai kissah, pi. ^ja-mI 
fcisas ; tj>ji\^ hikdyat ; JJJ 
naA:/ ; ^h«i^ dastdn ; ^li^U 

Talent, ^S ^iAn. 



« - - - tilsanif pi* 
^^Uo taldsim. 

Talk, v., ^)^ uJ;-a» Aa^ -f. ; 
^^■;.B ^ guftan ; ^.,jCi-ft^9 
guftogu (^.) ; JU* makdl. 

Talker, jj^s ^^ sukhan gu. 
Idle — , JUw *a«a/ ; J^i^ 

Tall, xli buland; jl^d Jir<ir. 
— of nature, Ji J^-* rfafo^- 

Tallow, ^i^^pih. 
Talons, JlS3» ekangdl. 
Tamariod, i^jla jJ iamar i 

TamariBk-tree, "l*^ tarfS; jS 

gaz ; ^b hdn. 
Tambourine, ^j_.-L.lff iambCr ; 

ijj^ hkanjari ; i_jo daf. 
Tame, f^J rdm (k.); ^j *b 

Tank, jj». ^au2 ; u-lj^ii dar- 

Tanued, Jjia. madbul (ft.), 
TaDning, kz>cljj dthdghat. 
Tape, Aab S<|/^eA. 
Taper, »*^ aham. 
Tapestry, ^J.^farg'k. 
Tar, ^ Jtir. 
Tarantula, JJ^ rutail. 
Tardy, ._il;j oo^Aa/. 
Tares, isJ!^^ itiiiuZa^. 
Target, wi^ Aorfn/ 
Tarnish, cjV W ''♦■'*^ *• 
Tarragon, (^^jy tarkkun. 
Tatar, jtt Tdldr; laljjjj K*- 

ftey ; jUJ Tatar. 
Tartarian, ^^ Mart. 
Task, Ji^ tiught. 
Tasse), ^iC* man^ulah. 


Taste, r,, ^).>-l» chasMdan; — 
n., »j mnzaA (yr.) ; ^j 
xau^ ; ^^^ ehdthni. 

Tasting, jSli zoi^; -J, (a'n» 
(k.); j'i_- BiiK#. The 
sense of — , ^1^ zdikak. 

Tasteless, oUJ ^3 hi-namak ; 
^^; ; bl-mazah. 

Taster, JjlSJ bakdval. 

Tattered (garments), ^ 1 : I f 

Tattooing, ^ — i, rosfti 

Jli kUl {k.). 
Taunt, j^ iinU faneh t. 

who — S, ^It *(?»» ; ^, J)., 

i^ff^ mafua. — ing, s 1— i 
naigk (k). 
Tavern, t\ <b j .. mot-ieiioA ; 

khdnah ; a^U^i it AaminaraA ; 

Tax, _lj %'; 1^ khardj; 

^j vaztat. 
Taxation, ^^-j fasVr. 
Taxgather, jlji-b bdj-ddr. 
Tea, ^5■U. cAat. — pot, (Xt^J 

Teach, ^^^^T amukMan; ,j 



dars d,,gf,, or khdndan. 
Teacher, ^b^Y ustdd ; d\sJ\ 

us fad ; J^ j^l amuzga/r ; 

-JU« muallim. 
Teak-tree, -.L» adj. 
Tear, n., ctLlI a^A^; dL^ 

sirishk; **^ ^aw*, />Z. ^j*^ 

dumu, — ful, »j->ju>j\ a6- 

didah ; «^b ddmi\ 
Tear, r., ^;)j^^ daridan; ^jl^ 

gtisistan ; ^j^i^-^ gtmkhtan, 
— up, ^)xS^^ Jar kandan ; 
P^' P'9 {j\r^^ iJchtirdk (Jc.) ; 
c1^.jlJ1 intiza (w.). 

Tease, t?., vj^^^U aarar A;. 
Teat, c^ 2?/r ; ^^L^ ^^ aar-i- 

Technical, Jka* mustalih, — 

terms, c:j\ ».^ W ^\ isti- 

Tedious, J-a-i* mufassal. — 
' ness, J**aw tafsil. 
Teeth, ^_^L-i asndn; ^j^ zars, 

pi. ^\;^ azrds, — of a 

saw, aSIj)^ danddnah. 
Telegram, iA^^\f^ talgerdf- 

Telegraph, uJ]^^»dJ talgerdf, 

^^ist, ie^jj^ talgerafchL \ 


Telescope, vyi-jjj^ dur bin. 

Tell, ^^yw/Jfan; ^^1^, ^jj/^ 
khabar d,, or A*. 

Tell-tale, ^Ui nammdm. 

Temerity, \z>J^0^ jaadrat. 

Temper, ^y^ JcMy ; » . U 

Temperament, o^-— sir at ; 

J^j* mizdj. 
Temperate, Jju** mutadil. 

Temperature, ^ garmi. 

Tempest, jL) jujj? tund-bdd ; 
^jUjL tufdn. 

Temple^ J^X-j^j^ haikaL — of 
Jerusalem, ^jjt hukh. — 
of Mecca, a . y^^j» kabah; 
(brow), ^yu-ft. jabin; ^iil 

Temporal, ^jl^ zamdnt; JCa 

Tempt, ^J^ 1^1 ighvd k. 

Temptation, *%jj\ ibttld (»,). 

Tempter, ^JJL$ fdtin ; tsy-*-^ 

Ten, »^ dah ; jtA 'ashar. — 
or twenty, kz* m* > »^ (^A- 

Tenacity, ^iggj^ ^m>»» ehaspi- 



Tenant, .lo »^U1 ijdreh ddr. 

Tendency, J-* mail. 

Tender, ^^ muldyim ; ^Li 

munaim. — ness, »j>-r5L-» 

Tending (the sick), ^l. » ^ T 
ttmdr {k.). 

Tendon, ^.^^.a^ *asab. 

Tenet, %sm 'aktdah. 

Tense, olU. ^aZa^ 

Tent, ^ t -i- Jchaimah; pU». 

chddtr. Small — , a^]^— • 
iardcheh ; a^|^ sardycheh, 
A — pitched without a 
pole, bj^ hi-chuhd. Royal 
— , «K^ ^ Tchargdh. To 

pitch a — , (j^ A »— - — »• 

khaimah z, — maker, ^Li. 
khayydm. — peg^ >^- — • 

Tenth, (•—*-> dahum. A — 
part, jJlt\^c 'dshir ; imi J**, c 

Tepid, J^ TwaZwZ. 
Term, w., oa— ^ muddat ; v., 
^j:u^ > - musammd n. 

Terminate, o^j^^ C^""*^ ^^' 
Terminated, ^^Lj^ mutandhi. 

i\ atmdm 

Termination, ^1 • 

Terrace (roof), j»Ij ^/im. 
Terrestrial, ^j\ arzi. 
Terrible, tt)LiJ^.jk hauUndk ; 

c-jjft^ marhub ; JjU ^ai7. 

Terrify, ^JJ^^^ tarsdmdan ; 
^JJLjU, ramdnidan ; pa. p,y 
K^j^j^ maruh; ^^y^ inu- 
khavvaf; ^J^j:u mutavah' 

Jiish ;^pr. p,^ u^>* ^"^'*^ » 
^^ munfir. 

Territory, j51b beldd. 

Terror, jj-^ /ar« ; c-aC^ ra'b ; 

A-j ftm ; A ,.mU-j> hirdsah ; 
^Ja\Jb Jiirds, 

Test, ^l«j-c Vyar (^.); ^jLs**^ 
imtihdn (w.). 

Testament, cu^ vasiyat. Old 
— , c^2;>J iaurdt. New — , 

Testator, ^©^ muvassi. 

Testicle, i-j,.rt,->. hhusyat; in 
dual,, ^jl ;*.rt>. khusyatdni; 
AJi\> khdyah. 

Testimony, o^L^— 1 shahddat 
(d.) ; ^^j^^ gavdhi {d. ). 

Testing, vi/*^ %Vt5 (n.). 
* Text, ^ matu *, viJ5^ a-x^al. 




ThiiD, J 

Thank God, j;j1 j£ni, tiukr i 
izad ; I j_*. ^^s-l *hukr i 
khudd. — you, U^ ^Jlol 
i\3- luff-i-shunid ziydd. 

Thanked, j^-^ maihkur. 

Thanking, _,^=U, ahdkir (A.). 

ThsnkB, ^ »iukr. 

Tbanksgifing, ^l^ tipdt. 

That, Ji an (gen. pron. tin). 
From — , gjlj zdn. — very, 
^^j^ homuti. 

Thatch, ^^J^p1uh. 

Thaw, iJje yakh&h (th.). 

Theatre, t^^^^i tamdtia^dh. 



irfiat; i^j\- 

, musd- 

Them, their, ^ylljl uhdn ; ^li 

Then, <SjTonjafi; u-ip«. 
Thence, uTjl oa iin;(i. 
Theology, |j>Vl is^^ Aiima* 

Theory, Jt '»Zm ^,\J kiydi. 
There, \^dHJ&: tslUb Ituadk. 
l^erefore, I j^ lihdtd ; ^\ j1 
i,^,^ az i» tabab ; U^-U 

Thermometer, *»_,* daregek. 
These, ^Ljl I'waM; 1*^1 »»»<t. 
They, ^l,£jl Uhdn; \^&nh&. 
Thick, u^.-jJf'ituZtf/^; M_« 

ghdlit ; Ul> balmd ; \£tiSjM 

hungtift; jA^ titabr. 
Thickneaa, j_i l{ kvlufii ; 

i^n 1* ■f* zakh&mat ; [jj , ' t 

tit<Ari ; o-kJLc, ghdlzat, or 

ghulzat i f^ hajm. 
Thief, JJJ rfu?d; j_,U kJti*. 
Thigh, (j|_, ran. 
Thimble, wIii5jI anguihtdnah; 

— rig, |£}l> *•■■ Au^JtoA bdei; 

— rigger, jLj «n. Sui^Aaft- 

Thin, elijlj bdrik; edjVi ndzuk; 
jj, roAi'A ,- lalJij raAiJAr ; ^ 

Thing, ^ cAti; ^^i thai, pt. 

'\ J '-I aski/d', in pi. i->\.^f^\ 

aahab, — given in charge, 

oVI^ havdldt. 
Think, ,;p_ljjjl aridisktdan; 

f^''i^ pinddihtan ; ,jiJ^ 

tikdl'tdan, or gigdlidan ; 

,^'^\ angdihtan. 
Thinking, ^jtia. hada (it.);^* 

Mr (A.). 



Third, ^y>» tivum ; ^j^m siyum. 
The — (an arbitrator), eJ\j 
idlii. A — - part, eJii stds. 

Thirdlji (^^svs*^ ih/wnin. 

Thirst, (c^-ll> tUhnagi ; ^jUkfi 

Thirsty, aI^ tUhnah ; ^)L«lae 

*atshdn ; ^Ik zdmi, 

ThirteeB, %^j^ sizdah. 
Thirteenth, ^^.^^ stzdahum. 
Thirtieth, a»»» ityum. 
Thirty, ^^ si. 
This, ^JJ\ in. In — , ^^^^ 

Thistle, (s)^ ^Aauib. 

Thong, A««J tasmdh. 

ThOTn, ^U khdr ; d^ A^aff^. 

Hedge of — , cLw^\i. A:Aar- 

Thornj, ^b^ik khdr-dar. 
Thorough, ^U tamm. 
Thoroughbred, J^l a«i/. 
•Thoroughfare, ij^ ri^. 
Those, liST 4n^ ; ^Ul dndn. 
Thou, y tu. 

Though, i^^ agareheh. 
Thought, ^^Xib tafakkur {k.) ; 

^j.1^1^ havdjis ; jS^ fikr ; 

J\C^ Mdl^ or 8igdl, in pi. 

Thoughtful, ^^^ mutqfakhir; 

(s)lJ^ji1 andiahandk. 

Thousand, j\yk Kazdr. Ten — , 
^ tuman, or (^y /l^me^n. 

Thrash, ^^ ^U mdlish k. 

Thrashing-floor, J^ ^j.^^^^:.,.^ 
khirman gdh. 

Thread, ai1^ rishtah ; Ji tdr ; 
>j nakh; s^^L-^a kaldvah. 

Haw — , 49 

Brahminical or Guebre's — , 
^L-J) zunndr. A — ' upon 
which pearls, &c.,are strung, 
n%,t0 iitnt. 

Threat, j^j^ tahdid (k.) ; juCj 

Threaten, ^)JuiUp tarsdnidan ; 

pr. p.y jjy^ tdhzir* 

Three, ju* sih; c^% taUU. — 
hundred, x^^ aihsad. — 
sixes (a throw at dice)» a^ 

** sih'Shash. 

Threshold, ^L;ujr dstdn ; 

Throat, JS gulu; jU halk. 
To have a sore — , ^^^ 
gtdu gr. 

Throb, is^ hari^ka^ (k.). 
Throne^ j^^j-^ *aVvr\ 



Tidings, jL--i.i akhhdr. Glad 

— yj^ lA^ hhush-kliahar ; 

1^ muzhdah. 
Tie, \iij rdbt; jic *akd {k.). 

Marriage — , JCj jic *akd 

i nikah. To — down, j^ 

j^^jUaij faru hastan. 
Tied, jflti. ;.^ munakid (sh,); 

tongue — , 5Jj^ ^;;bj zdbdn". 

Tiger, dJj palang ; ^ 6air. 
Tight, (sU teny (A;*^.). 
Tightness, ^U c&LJ ttmg-jdi ; 

Tigris, aU^ Dijlah, or Dajlah, 

Tile ^(TArewAi. 

Till, \5 ^a; — v., (ground), c 

Tillage, cucl;j zird^at 
Timber, vj->- ^A«*6 ; ^,j » 

Time, a.^9 ya^ ; Xgdh ; c>ij 

hangdm; ^U) zamdn ; 4i\^j 
zamdnah ; J^ jjj ruz-gdr; 
^J.s-». hln; (turn), cu-j^ 
nattbat. Space of — , oJu* 
muddat, Everj — ^ J^jk 
har hdr. — stated for pay- 
me;ti\i> v3V '. \ v^^ *uhdah 

takht ; JlI..^ ma8nad ; jSJj 
artkah; el^l aurang. 
Throng, sz^i^jamaat 

Throttled, aa9. khtiffbh {k.). 

Through, ^L«;1 az migdn. 

Throw, ^^^JLJ^\sJ\ anddkhtan; 

^jSL^i\ afgandan ; ^^jjiXj 
Jtkafidan. — down, .a j^lij 

^^jy zi pdi dar a. 
Thrush, ^L# sdr. 
Thrust, ^j^ zadan. 

Thumb, KZ0>.^Jt ahaH ; ^^-^^ 

. ihham. 

Thunder, jc, ra*d ; jX^ tun- 

dar. It — 8^ ^y^i* 1j^ •>^ 

rdf'<f «a(2(i mt kunad; v., 

^jpj^ ghuridan, 
Thursday, / - *• ^,; r panj- 

Thus, ,.»-:.^* hamchunin ; i J3 

Thyme, j\A ipdr. 
Tick (cattle), iS kandh. 
Tickling, jXii nishkunj; ^JlJii 

Tide (ebb),^^Jazr; ^;;J*TJ^ 
Ij^^ farau dmadan i dargd ; 
(flow), X, m^idd; \ij^ ^)jJf Vlj 
^^/!i dmadan i ilari/d, 




bandi, At the same — , 
cuij*» ham-vakt This — , 
JiJ\ imhdr. Appointed — 
(death), J^l ajal; ^py» 
mu'ajjaL One — , A-«-i^ 

dafah; m i^ el i yeh 

dafah. Convenient — , j^ 
4^aJj tor i vakt. Life — , 
y«fi *umr ; c:>L» ^^j^ hin i 
haiydt, in pi, AA atydm; 
^jU^^ azmdn ; ^^y dvdn ; 

A '-—^^ azminah ; y^^j^^ 

daurdn; ol— «— ii> dafddt 
Hundred — s as much, «x« 
y^\ ; ^ sad chanddn. To 
beat — y ps^f*^ khumhidan. 
Time-server, jL»iiUj zamdnah- 

Timid, «> - y * tarsendah ; 
wi^U. hhdif; ^1 Ju» haiddn ; 
*^ - -^ ramendah; ^^\ ^ 


* • 

Timidity, IJ^dj vdhshaf. 
Tin, ^^^^1 ar^m. A — ^^ 
hdldbi. Made of — , ie«-l-» 

Tincture, j^ ra^. 

Tinder, jj *4 

Tinge, ctlj^ ratiy (Jt. z,). 

Tinged, iLui* mu9ahhagh. 
Tip, jM sar, — of the ear, 
^j^9 *aj»^ narmah t giUh. 

— of a pen, a^L^ v:;^^ 
ndhhun i khdmah. — of 
the finger, kz>>,Z<^\\j^ sar- 
angutht ; kza^^ j^ sar-dast, 

— of the tongue, ^J\>\J^ 
sar i zabdn. 

Tipsy, Kz*>m^ matt. 

Tired, ai«^ khasteh (k. th.) ; 

tyLa sutiih; J^L malul {sh.^; 

^^i«* mubtald {sh.) ; »j>U j^j* 

Tithe, ylc 'ushr; di» »^ dah 

Title, v-U laJcah, pi ^J^\ 

alhdh i o\ la ^ khitdb, — 

page, c)^>>^ 'anran. 
To 1^ 5a ; J\ ild ; (until), U 

td, — him, ^^y ha vai ; 

jX) hadu. 
Toad, acIj^ kurpdghah. 

Toadstool, ..^li Icareh. 

Tobacco, ^ }j I ^fi^tin, for 
kaliydn; j^Cm\.^ ; > ^am- 

To-day, jjj^l fmni». 
Toe, c=^C\ anguaht.. 



baham : JS^i^ ^li hdham 
digar ; (all at once), JJlXj 

Toil, cui^ zahmaU 

Toilefc, vs^ zinat 

Token, is««^ "Mmat 

Tolerant, jy^^ tahur. 

Toleration, o)U1 ijdzat {d.). 

Toll, v., ^^ zadan. 

Tomb, ^ /fcfl^r, pi, ^ Arudar ; 

^\^ mizdr; kz^^ turhat. 
To-morrow, \^jJi fardL The 

da J after — , 1^ ^j«j j?a* 

Tongs, j\r y4«; ^jUJi *oZ- 

Tongue, ^^ zahdn; ^)\— -J 
Zi«i7». — tied, J»>U^ Ar^i^ 

Too, (also) La^\ at>a;t. — 

much ^\i\ ziydd. 
Tool, cjT dlat, pi oVT <i«a/; 

jl^l KZ^**»^ dcnt-afrdz. 
Tooth, ^Sa^ danddn. Canine 

— 't o^J^<> dL«» sag-danddn, 

— pick, J^ Jehildl. 
Top, jM sar; As kullah ; VU 

hold; ^j\ auf, — of the 

head, d^\i tdrak. 
Topaz, JL^ zabarjad* 

Topsy-turvy, VI; j ji) zir u 
hold ; j>y J ji^ zir u zabar ; 

tdr u mdr ; Vb j J tah u 

Torch, JjiJU himAW. Small 

— , 4) « T - masKdldh, — 

bearer, ^y^^ fnaaKalchi, 
Torment, Cy»U ..c 'aira^ (ib.). 

— ^ing, c->ljL_ci izdb (ife.) ; 

u^jau ^aVft5 («.). 
Tormentor, Jib zdlim ; ^|;l jli. 

JbAtf/A: dzdr, 
Tom, sJl-I;^ daridah ; s^L> 

pdreh ; %^y^^,t^ farsudah, 

— out, aJLu munkala'. 

Torpid, cu^imm <ii«^. 

Torpor, ^ji. khadar. 

Torrent, J . m* aatZ; t^%^^ 

Torrid,^U hdrr. 


Torture, ji^^ shikanfeh (k,d.). 

Total, A^jwnleh, 

Totality, /f-1^ jumlagi. 
Totally, j,^ j^ iar-ba-^ar ; 

\} \jyM sar td pd ; jm Lj^ 

9ar td 9ar. 


Tottering (pace), jJ^\j ferSir- 

Touch, ,jmJ lanu; ^j«4 mass 

(k.)] pr. p., ^j.,^V Idmis; 

fj»\m»M tnisds. — hole, s^ljj 

guddrah. •— stone, (sL^ 

mahakk, — wood, cu-j^^ 

variyat ; jju-j pifah. 
Tough, \zJe^ sakht («.)• 
Toot, j^^ sair {k.). 
Tow, n,, w-ft-i-T kanaf; »., 

(drag), cjJu^ kashidan. 
Towards, ^y^ suy ; o » m» 

samt ; s^Jo taraf. 
Turned, uJjIur« matuf. 
Towel, jU:u*^ dastmdl ; j^Jij 

Tower, ^.^ ftt*r;, ;?/. gj^ 

&tfn(; ; JLi kubbeh, pi. v^ 

Town,^^ <^Ar ; a^ kasbah. 
Toy, n., Aj8^l-> bdzicheh; t?., 

^jjuj^ ghanjidan. 
Traces (vestiges), ^tfla^ar. 
Track, 4j11j nishdn; (path), 

i^W jddeh. 
Tracts, -li^ «/a* ; ^IWil a/b^ar. 

Trade, «., o^V tif<^r^^ > ^j^ 
^1^ bdzar-gini ; \^ <atM^ ;^ 
wr.^^ i(;a<5 ; LJ^ hurfat ; 
p., ijif jiJau mu'dmalah k. 


Trader, {sj^,j J^ ^^^ ** ^^*'*' 
Tradition, e> i]^ rivdgat ; 

(oral), ^U-» samaty ; (of 

the Prophet), ci^ij>» ^a^t!». 
Traditional, ^JiLJ na^t. 
Traducement, ^^l :| i ^uA^an 

Traffic, jXf^ j j^r^ 'ubur o 

murur ; 4 ■•I * • mudmeleh 

Tragedy, aJ^ marsiyah. 
Tragic, m»^ maghmum. 
Trail, cl^ surdgh. 
Train, ^»..t, ». hashm, — of 

artillery, AiU^y topkhdnah. 
Trained (by the hand), sz^^^ 

u*T dast-dmuz. 
Trained (horse), jjUj-* sava- 

ghdni (gr,). 
Training, to go into (a horse), 

^J^lJyS ^J-iJ^ raughan gr. 
Traitor, ^jU ghddir ; j^ x^ 

bad" ahd. 
Trample on, cJ^/J jL^\j pd4 

mdl k. 
Trance, ^jlc ghash. 
Tranquil, i^j-JV dsudah (*.) ; 

Ja arctm (d.). 
Tranquility, ts-^]/:-^ istirdhat; 

JLi]^ furdgh i hdl; ^»^^\ 



Transaction (business), j\>j^o 
kdr bdr; (doing), J^->i 
ijrd (A?.). 

Transcript, or Transfer, JLJ 
nakl (k,). 

Transfix, ^^^iJu* aaftan. 

Transformation, ^.^^^ mashh. 

Transformed, ^ , * - - muta- 

Transgression, jj<-si tajdvuz 

Transgressing, jj^ mt^dviz 

Transgressor, Jjla?* mutajdviz. 

Transitory, ^jj \:^ fand-paztr ; 
y^\jzdil; (^fdnL 

Translation, a.^.:^ tarjumah 

Translator, A>-a^j^ mutarjim ; 

^^Ua^ tarjumdn. 
Transmigration, ^ ».! ; i ^ana- 

Transmitting, c^ haldgh (n.); 
JlaJi tn/a;? (c/s^.). 

Transmutation, Jj^X-r-* ^^^^t^ 

Transparent, uJIa.^ shaffdf, 

Transozania, ^;^\ /l^j U Md 
vara an nahr, 


Transport, Jli »a^J (ft.). 


Transportation, sm taVid. 

Transposition, Transubstantia- 
tion, Jijjr tahdil {k,). 

Trap, j,b <^w (an.). 

Travail, ^^ ^j^ dard-i-zi. 

Travel, ^jJ^ »]^ rdh huridan ; 

^^ yua safar k, ; ^^^j^ j^ 

dar navardan. Foreign -r, 
n.f cu-»>L.-Mi» siydhat {k) ; 
\z^^ ghurhat. 

Traveller, ^Lm« musdfir ; jj %\j 
rdh-ro ; ^jl—. fc]^ rdhhdn ; 
Um* saiydh ; ^S^^j ravendah; 
et)JL» sdlik ; j^j rah-var ; 
J. I. rah-ro; jJ\^ sdfir ; 
^\j rdh{ ; (poetical), ,J^ 
^jy jahdn-navard ; ^y {J^ 
jahdn-yard; J---J1 ^J>^ ibn 
us sahiL — by sea, Lj^ 
^jjJi daryd-navard. Fellow 
— , (sb*A ham-fag ; j^^ ham- 
ro; jk^^mJ^ ham-rah ; ij^^.«-» 

Travelling, ^^.^ masir (k.); 

uia».L«» siydhat {k.) ; ^L» 

Tray, ^^.m** sini ; ^j|^ khdn; 

AJb tdblah. Small — , ^t^ 

IcTidncKaV ^^^«. ^ ^ — ^ 



{J*Ji J^^ khdn-push, — of 
a pair of scales, ^ ^ ^-^ 

Treacherous, ^^.i^ daghali ; 

^J^^ hhdin. 
Treachery, jXs. ghadr. 
Treacle, ..Ijui^ nushddru, 
TreasoD, u>SL>. khiydnat. 
Treasure, ^.i C ganj ; jy^ 

ganjvar ; j - ^^ kanz, pi. 

j^-jJT kunuz. Buried — , 

a:^^ dafinah^ pL ^^^ da- 

Treasurer, ^b ^^ khazinah 

^^9 Oj^ khdzin; ^j^])^ 
Treasury, a-:.)^-» khazinah; 
ij\^ hhizdnah ; a:.,<^ yan- 
jinah. Imperial or public 

— , ij^lfi ^jj])-*. khizdnah i 
* amir ah 4 

Treatise, JL»; risdlah. 

Treatment (medical), cj\j\s* 

muddvdt (;».). 

Treaty, aJj ^JL» sulh-ndmah ; 

aaU j^ *ahd-ndmah ; ^Ui^^-j 

^ paimdn ; A^Uy kaul-ndmah. 

Tree, cu-»i^ dirakht; j-sr* 

shajar* Young — ^, Jl^ ji 

nau-nihdl. Box — , ^U^ 

Trefoil, ^^JuU halandur. 
Tremble, ^:;Sij^ larzidan. 
Trembling, J^Vj zaldzil, 
Tremour, J^)-3j zalzdl ; »v^l 

larzah ; a^j rdshah. 
Trench, jju». khandak. 
Trencher, a^\^ khdncheh. 
Trepidation, ^«^ 6m ; tt)b ^aA:. 
Trespass, ^^joJ taaddi. 
Tresses, ^^a^s* gis. 
Trial, J^^^\ imtihdn (Jc.) ; 

'^i ibtild (n.); pl^i »*/« 

(A;.) ; yjji tajviz. 
Triangle, iJliy^^ t^sih-gushah. 
Triangular, \l^u musallas. 
Tribe, aL-S kahtlah, pi JjL-J 

kabdiL Nomade — , Jil tZ, 

pi. Cj^) ildt; ^jS kaum; 

Aiijio tdifeh. 
Tribunal, ^^yj divdn; aS>j^ 

mahkamah. — of justice? 

'UaJ\ .b dar ul kazd. 
Tributary, ^ijT J^i. khardj- 

guzdr ; ^liC&.li hdj-guzdr. 
Tribute, -I* hdj ; -J/, khardj ; 

oUl^l ikhrdjdt ; U fi. 
Trick, (jijo hdzi ; j^ mahr ; 

^yS gul (z.); jJpy tauti' 

yeh ; j^Jli shaid. 

Trickle, ,jS^^ ckakidan. 

Triflfi, ^Lto Jlj zkdzh-khajf ; 
ol»)* maaajdt; — ji picJi, 
tn ^^ '^1)'^^ khurdavdt ; v., 
,^^1 ^ dor-bdkitan. 

Trigger, aIU flH£«A«A. 

Triliteral, ^SJ ««i<£«f. 

Trimming, wJW" «iy'4^ 

Trinity, i£,j\J talus. 

Trip up, jyJj^iJ L» jxi (oyJ- 

Tripe, ijXl «ft>%amiai. 
Triple, cJa* fflt»a/Ii)S. 
Tripod, \iAmteh pd. 
Triumph, ^^ ttifar (y,). 
Triumphant, 4_>LJLe gMti- 

bdnah; jlfi* miuaffar. 
Trivet, Lu *vpd. 
Troop, -j_i /«»;■, ^t -^1 

TroopB, tjjfjunidf ^J^j^jaith. 
Trooper, j\jm loovdr; t^jt 

Tropica , j^^jSganattr. 
Trot, JL) lukkak (*.). 
Trouble, 4_>^^ ratijah ; ^j1 

a«i; w.A^ talU^i i ■ ilr[ii 

To gire 


tJHA^l. mutakallif. 
Trough, iijti tK^twA, 
TrouBBeau, jl^k jdhaz. 
Trout, Vrj>ii«»i<JU 
Trowel, *1U fltd7a& ,- jjt hurt. 
TrowMTB, ^Ijlil ahalvdr ; ^^\ 

P&^&mah. Ladies' — for 

outdoor wear, j^V ^^<^^~ 

Truce, S)^ mutdrakek. 
Tmculent, j\j^ jabbdr. 
True, iz^\j rati; ^ gahlh; 

^jlXm tiddiff; ^lft» htfckdni. 

More or most — , ^1 atahh. 
Truly, ji-^ji—i ha-dumtti; 

liMStf muhajfltikdnah. 
Trumpet, \jjAo kamd («,) ; 

^^ b&k (i.)i ^jw t&md; 

thtdpur; ijjg buri; ^Li 
nijiiir,- ^i jC gdu-dam. 
Trutik (elepfaaut's), ..jJa^-^ 
khartAm; (of a tree), <-:J 



Trust (in)y ^U:;^! ttimdd {k,) ; 
AiJLfil itikdd (A:.); (to), 
^j^ sipurd (k»)' ; a^'^ zim' 
mah, — in God, J^ to- 
' vakkul (Je.), In — , 

Trusted (fit to be), ^^ 

Trusting (in God), ^ju mu- 


Trustworthy, x^ztu muHamad, 

Trusty, ^^'>« mutaman. — 
friends, o>liJ tikdt. 

Truth, jffc hakk; JX0 sidk; 
jLmtk hastu; c;«j'>\.5'fc hakkd- 
niyet In — , jf^^ bar 
hakk ; Uai. hakkan ; iSJiii ^ 
JVl haktkat Addicted to 
the — , iZA^.^ .1.^ hakk 
parast Addiction to — , 
j-..M;-j j-^ hakk'parastt. 
Seeking — »^ J*- hajclc-jti. 

Truthful, j^U sddif:; o^^l 

rdst-sukhan; y ks^j 
rdst-^u* — ness, j , ff^ 

Try, c^^jt- *«V A:; ^^d^T 
dtmUdan; sj^^ )^ Hydr 
gr, ; pa, /»., i^^ mujarrab, 

Tub, Jk^ satL 

Tube, A^ naichah; j\J ndo. 
Tubercle, ^UT dmds. 
Tuberose, ^l^^ J$ gul i mar- 

Tuesday, aJwI ju* «tA shambah. 
Tuition, ^^JUJ talim (d,). 
Tulip, JV Zi^aA. 
Tumble, ^jJiie ghaltidan. 
Tumbler (glass), ^^ j.l .« ^ 

muallak'Zan; ^liLs^fl if^a- 

Tumour, ^j varam. 

Tumult, -^ Aar/; Jilc yAw/- 

ghul; ^yi'^ daghdaghah; 

jgSj jh ddr u gir ; JjJj-i. 

sMluk : j\ 7 i i» ihiUdk ; 

A^Lo^ kharkhitJiah* 
Tumultuous, jS^^{^bcm han- 


Tune,jljl dvdz. 

Tunic, A^Li kdbdoheh; L^^ 

Turban, ^^ dcutdr; ^\^ 


Turbid, .Ai^^t mukaddar. 

— ness, o^ju^a kudurat; 

jxS kadar ; jX <^ T la- 

Turbulence, :\m^JUdd, 
\ Tur\)\x\€«i\,, ^5^^ Xoi^i- 



Turk, c^" Turk; (Ottoman), 
jIjUjic 'OsmanlvL or 'Osmanlt, 

Turkey (bird), ^ J_i fil- 
murgh; (country), ^ -Bttwi. 

Turkish, ^^^ TurhC. 

Turmeric, t-»^ ^^ zard-chub ; 

^ hurd. 
Turn, V. »., ^jj^^^9 gardidcm ; 

V, t,y ^JXj\^JS garddntdan, 

— away, ^^jljXJ tdftan; 

(spin), ^y^ ^j^ charkh'Z, 

Turned (on a lathe), L^j^ 
munJeharit (sh,) ;]t>jja^ maJch- 
rut, — back, s^jou^ mun- 
sarif, — towards, c-daau^ 

Turning, ^^]^ garddn (L). 
Art of — , KzJp\^ khardtat ; 

\>^ khart — lathe, ^\^ 

Turner, kl^ kharrdt ; ^i\j^ 

Turnip, J»U, shalgham; ^aJ-* 


Tumscrew, ^UT dchdr ; 

Turpitude, ^s.w^;*, sham at. 
Turquoise, \j^f%ruzaK 
Turret, %^ mindrah ; »pC; 


Turtle, c:aJL> *.~J^ kdsah pusht, 
— dove, ^U* yamdm ; ^j^^ 

Tuck, ^Ijjj danddn. 

Tutor, ^j^l dkhun; jJ^t 
dkhitnd ; l^jI adth ; ^LJ) 

Tutty, IJ^ tutiyd. 

Tweezers, ai^^ mu-ckmah ,• 

A.;.ffc .U. khur-chtnah. 
Twelfth, ^^Ijj duvdzdahum. 
Twelve, tyj\j^ duvdzdah. 
Twentieth, ^i^^ hiatum. 
Twenty, c=,M,>>j.t /^^^; ^^^-J/^ 

Twice, IJ j^ du^td. ; ju^ jA 

Twig, ^\^ shdkhchah. 
Twilight, ,jlw* J ey 1^ Aava • 
ywry mish ; (morning), 
1^ j\r ^ . rf» ft^&A i kdzih. 

Twin, J jJ tav^dm, in dual, 

^J^\y tav^dmdn; ^\^ ham- 

Twine, r., ^J:J^J tdftan. 

Twinge, ^^ dard. 

Twinkling (of an eye), ij^ 

(:;utl1 tarfat ul 'ain. 
Twist, n,f ^^pich; v.y ^X^eii 



(j^\J j> bar tdftan; ^y^ ;> 
tanidan ; ^^jl^,^^ rUtan ; 
sjXs^^j ristdan ; ^^/!^ jpihh- 
ian ; ^^j> navardan. 

Twisted, auLj tdftah ; J :A.» 
tnu/tall ; J^i-i* maftuL 

Two, j^ do ; jjLjI isndni, — 

or three, a- j^ do-seh. — s, 

^J^ yi du-gdn, — faced, 

{jjj 3^ do-ruu 
Tyrannical, ^jik zalum; J\a^ 

Tyranny, JU ;jw/«i ; ^^ jl^j 

dirdz'dasti ; (j)\j^ c> .«»d 

• dast'dirdzi ; c:>j,»Lb zulmi- 

yet ; J^UaJ tatdvul ; jy^ 

jaur ; uJ^ ^ai/! 

Tyrant, Jlk zdlim; aA-j Jk 
zulm-pishah ; JC j*s-i sitam- 
kdr ; a >t j > j>^ yai*r- 


Udder, ^jli^ pistdn, 
Ugliness, ^x^ zishti. 

Ugly, o.ij^ £:wA^; ^lii wa- 
y^a^Ti ; j . s^^ sittzah-ru. 
— fellow, a:;s^ l5 nd-far^ 

. hikhtah. 

. I 

Ulcer, ^jL». cAa/^an ; -^ A:urA, 
Ultimately, ^Vl vs^Jlt aAn'ia^ 

UZ 0^7*. 

Umbrage, csJ^ Are]^^. 

Umbrella, ^^ cAa^r. 

Umpire, f^ Uham, 

Un- (in comp.), l5 «a, --j ^'. 
Unable, ^^^^j ndtavdn. 
Unacceptable, J^,^ o.^ l> na- 

Unacquainted (with the roads), 

jL U nd'halad. 

Unaided, j^L^ l> nd-musd*id ; 

Unanimity, «J-*— »• <aLji yaA? 

Unanimous, Jx-X_j yah-dil ; 

{Sy/<i yak-rui; Jj^a Aaw- 

c?i7; jL**A ham-sdz, — ly, 

U^ij^ y^k'^tibdn. 
Unappropriate, -^yo^ I* fia- 

Unattainable, j ... j <» Li ^a- 

muyassar; l^\j U nd-ydh. 

Unbecoming, a; >.. >Ll iJ na- 
shdyistah ; jjillj naslidyad. 

Unbeliever, ^\i^ ^4/^- 
Unblemished, &1juo ^' Ja^A. 



Uncertainty, ^| * j ctU* shakk 

o shubheh. 
Uncivil, c->^1 ^^ huadab. 

Uncle (paternal), ^.^ *amm ; 

j*c 'ammt^ ; (maternal), Jl^ 

MaZ ; jll^ khdlu. 
Unclean, ^J^ najis. 

Uncleanness, {jM>y rija. 
Uncommon, ^ll «Aa^2. 
Unconcerned, ^ ^ hi-ghamm. 
Unconnected, 1»^-^^^ L3 fta- 

Unconscious, ^^. hikhud. 
Uncovered, \^Jl!S^ munkashif. 
Uncultivated, ^\j hair. 
Undeniable, kijS^, M-dirigh, 
Under, ^^ zir ; ^j^J farud ; 

(ju^ taht — mined, c->«Lu 

manlcub (sh.). 
Understand, ^^.^^ fdhmtdan* 
Understanding, ^.^ i fahm; 

^Jtyk hush ; ttlii* Aa^zy ; |«pj 

iafdhhum ; J£jj taakfcul ; 

4^X» tnadrikah. Good — , 

Understood, ^Mi« mafhum ; 
Undertaking, ^;«c *asm (k,) ; 

Undeserving, ^y^/"^ \J fta- 

Undesirable, l^j Cy, 4 Li na- 

Undetermined, sj^ nukrdh. 

Undiminished, ^ - -^ Li na- 

Undo, t)^lj t>a A:. 
Undress, ^^^^0 C!£;H ^V 

jdnteh birun k. 
Undulation, ^\pb\ ihtizdz (k.). 

Uneasiness, te-S^J^ dzarda^t; 

izJ^ dikkat. 
Uneasy, ^JLj bi-kardr. To 

be — , ^j^iJiA dsht^aru 

Unemployed, J^ g-j bt-kdr. 

Being — , J la.«.J taattul 

Unencunlbered, ^VX^ sabuk* 

Unfeigned (friendship), ^ !t^ 


Unfit, asmjUi l> ndrsh&yistdh ; 
J-a1 IJ na-flfAZ; JjLi Li 
nd-kdbil. — for business, 
ixC^ hich'kdrah. 

Unfortunate, oi£ ^^ Arom- 
bakhf; u:«i0 »J^^ shuridah- 
heikkt; 1^ tl>^ij^ havddit* 



har'gakktah ; \s^ jyU ahur^ 
hakht; e);L* U nd'fnubdrak; 
•^ v--^- masibat zadah ; 
fj»^ nahus ; (j«»j^ man- 
hus ; jfj I tf.,.>» tiyah-ruz ; 

itrah'bakht ; Ji j^ j^ 
tirah ruz^dr ; J^ j%j ^bad- 

Ungathered, iju^ Ij nd-chidah. 

Ungrateful, jj-L- l5 nd-sipds ; 

na^'ak-hardm ; >z> > w )><r 
ito/^r t nimat ; jf\^ ndnr 
hwr ; ^LL U j^ hakk nd 
Unguent, ^^U^l adhdn, 

Uu happy, ojx^i gkamgin. 
Unhealthy, \^f^ nd guvdreh. 
Uniform (soldier's) ^Uai vs-i^ 

rakht-i-nizdm ; — with 

vz^\k« mutdbakat. 
Uninformed, ^;-i ^ji bC-khabar, 

Unintentionally, l^W *drizan. 

Union, jUil tV/i/a/b; oUl 

ittihdd; m^y^ imtizdj. 
Unique, ^LLa^ yaktdi ; ^ 

Units, ^Iju^ vuhddn; ^\_».T 

Unitarianism, J^y tauhtd. 
Unite, ^2/^jsJ paivastiOL 
United, jai» muttqfik {k,) ; 

j^ muttahid («^.) ; 

mvgtamd; J^l^ shdrnU. 
Unity, o^lja^ vahddntyet ; 

<jujj>.1 ahadCyat 
Universal, ^.^^ 'amtm ; ^^^^x^i^l 

Universality, wsa-s-jk^U. jdmi- 

Universally, ^^^s kulUy ; ^ 

jUVl 'ala 7 i^/4ife; UU ; 

Unjust, (3-»>lJ nd-hakk ; ^ 

i^Lail bi-insdf; jIjuj it'- 

Unkind, o^/»:^i> bt-muruvvai ; 

cs^jiLyj » bt'*indyet; j^ jj 

Uoknown, ^^^U* L nd-malum ; 

J^^^ majhuL 
Unlawful, ^1^ hctrdm. 

Unlearned, ^1 ummi. 
Unleavened, ^^j^fatiri. 
Unless, ^ \j^^ gar-nah; ^ 

mayor ; VI illck 
Unlevel, j\j^ li nd-harnvdr. 
Unlimited, (^V^::^ j^ ghair' 



Unlucky, cui^ Jj had-haklt ; 
^yit shum. Being — , %z^j^ 

Unmarried, t->j^ 'azah. 
Unmask, r., ^^b ^ v^*" 

hijdb bar dsh. 
Unmeaning, ^j*^^, hi-mani. 
Unnecessary, ^V j^ ghair 

Unpaid, cua* muff. 
Unpierced, aiom* li nd'Stiftah. 
Unpleasant, Ju-.j li ndpasand. 
Unprincipled, i]^ bt-rdh. 
Unprofitable, J— •l-»' (^ ^*- 

Unpunctuality, o-i j j .> *^t- 

Unripe, QOf li W(i-ra« ; iju-#^ l5 

nd-rastdah, — com, jj^ 

Unseen, iJj^ U nd-didah. 
Unsheathe, ^J:;il^'\ dUkhtan. 
Unsheathed (a sword), J^L-. 

Unskilful, J6 J^ khdm-Mr. 
Unsound, jU li nd-chdk 
Unsuccessful, i^W khdih ; jj 

Jsf-J had-farjdm, 
VBBuitBble, u^k.«»L* Ij fiei m«- 


' — » 

Until, j>. hattd ; iJ ^a. 

Untimely, «^ M-gdh ; 

izJ^ bi-vakt ; aIaJa ^ ^i% 

Untravelled, i^ »K raA tui- 

Untried, >^j^t li ndrdzmiidah. 
Untrue, or Untruth, c^^ </m- 

Unwary, Jilc ghdfil. 

Unwashed, / - *• LJ nd- 

Unwelcome, Ly>jJ Vi_» U na 
Unwholesome, j|^^» I* wa- 

gavdr ; ^j vakhim. 

Unwilling, i|^ IS ^a-MiA. 
Unwise, ^jiib <3 hi-ddnUh ; li 

^, nd-hakhirad. 
Unworthy, 1^ li ita-^azov 

Up, Vli ftiiZi. 

Upon,^ 5ar; jjy^ ruif, — 
the whole, ^jo^\ aUgharz ; 
J^lM al'hdsiL 

Upper, jijQ zabarm. To get 
the — hand, ^.y^i^j^o Yb 
bald-gr, — chamber, VL-j 
AiU bdld-khdnah. 

Upright (steady), ^\5 kdim; 



guzdr ; Ui »j>-#1^ rdst-numd, 
— ^ness, ^\j rdstt. 

Uproar, \tji ghaughd. 
Upset, A>A^ vdrunah (k,), 
Upside-dowD, ^jj j^ aar-ztr 


Urbanity, c->j1 adah. 

Urgency, ^\aj takdzi ; ^^j-o 
zarurat (k,) ; ttb^ tahrik 

Urine, J^ haul {h,) ; v^Lt^ 
pishdh (k,) ; a^I^ shdskak 
(k,). — ^bladder, ciU J** 

kimiz-ddn ; i)\u masdnah. 
Urinometer, tjjjs kdrurah. 
Urn (tea), j^^U— samdvdr. 
Us, I .U fndrd. 

Usage, jj z m»^ dastur ; ^1^ 
rd'^y in pi, ^^j^ mardsim. 

Use, n.f ipoili fdideh; ^^j^^ 
musraf. To be of — , JC 
^JX•T 5a^ar dmadan. To — , 
4j3^ uj^ tasarrttfk. 

Useful, ^3 jb« I .\> kdr-dmadani ; 
Xsu mufid ; ^Ij^j t^arnan. 

Useless, i.o l5 nd-kdrah ; |i 
ijjli ht-fdidah ; Jd li wa- 
hakdr ; \j .; . i LS nd-hinavd, 
Eendering — , JJlax) ^aViZ 

Usual, J^«Jt« mamuL 
Usually, U^ tf^ratiman. 

Usurer, ^ l^ rihd-khur ; ^j^ 

jj>> sud-khur. 
Usurpation, u>.a^ ghasb. 
Usurper, ^^^^\i, ghdsih. 
Usury, \ij rtbd. 
Utensil, ujjb zarf. 
Uterine, ^jS^ shikmi. 
Utility, ^U-S-il intifa; ij^U 

Utmost, cLolfi ghdyat. To the 

Utter, jjJJl^ jj^^_j /aril" 

Utterance, kiiJ talaffuz,' 
Utterly, J^b ^tVifcwZZ. 
Uvula, ^kanj, 


Vacancy, 'Xi. A:AaZa'. 
Vacant, JU.A;A4Z*'(Ar.). 
Vacation, JJajJ id til. 
Vaccination, \\%^^ ^ dbilah 

kabi (k,). 
Vacuity, ji> hhalu. 
Vagrancy, \$^j^» %jj^ har^ah- 




Variation, o^\ ■ 7 tqfavut 

Variegated, ^j * ^ ^ j> ^^' 

Variety, uj!A:S.l ikhtiUf. 

Various, ^j^^» \jyffun a gun ; 

^2^10 mutalavvin. 

Varnish, ^^jj raughan («.). 

Vast, tumj vanC. 

Vault, A.^ kuhhah; x^l^m 

Vaunting, %z>jL\iu mufdkharai 

Veal, JUj^ oujg-» gusht-u 

Vegetable, ^^j rustani ; JLi 

Vegetation, Ui noma. 

Vehemence, {js l^ tundt; 

^;^^ haigc^dn ; ijJ» thid- 


Vehement, jjJuL shadtd. 

Veil, ju-i-i ^^ rH hand ; i^^-j 

pardah ; v^ Ayaft ; «->lij 
nikdh ; jLa sitr; i— *<• sajf; 

Veiled, ^^y^ mahjuh. 

Vain, >dM.H haihudah ; 
'abs ; tj\i ydvdk ; is«i.^ 1^ 
havd-pariut ; in — , jLb 

promise, jiX^l!^ oj;» iori^ 

5ar thdkh i dhu. 
Valiant, j/i^ dildvar; yl^. 

hdhddur; ty fcamm. 
Valid, i£M»^^ dunut 

Valley, i;^ dcmreh; a«1»> ^w^ 
^AaA, tM pi. s\i» hik£. 

Valour, i^r ^^ ^ thafaat ; 
sZjj^ ghairat. 

Valuable, jt ■ t kaimatig ; 

Valuation, yij^! arzish. 
Value, o < J » /bawwat (Ar.) ; 

y^-^y^ mdhiget; jSi hadar ; 

^\ arj ; j} arz. 

Valve, Uai ghiidk 

Vanguard, Jj]/ kardul ; iJulL 

"Danish, ^^^Jul u^\t ghdih ah. 
Vanity, (jj;— jaU; zigddah- 

9ar% : u>]\Wj hatcdai. 
Vanquish, c^t;.^^ JLi^a^A A?. ; 

Vanquisher, jyai^ mansur. 
Vapour, Ub taf; j\ifi huhhar. 


Vein, d; ray; j^ V*, K 



Jl J -gi kifdl. Jugular — , 
j^^l J^ habl ul vartd. 
Vellum, J . rikk. 

Velvet, J.»i* mahhmal. 

Venerable, or Venerated, ^^ 

mukarram (dsh.). 
Veneration, (•J/^l ihtirdm (^^). 

Venereal (disease), dL-JLjT 
dtishah; ^jyt» suzaneJc, 

Vengeance, j»l£il intikdm ; A-y 

Venom, Aj zahr ; ^ samm; 
j;)\aJj zifdn, Bezoar anti- 
dote against — , j^b j^j 

Venomous, .b yb*j zahr-ddr ; 
(S)li^^ zahr-ndk. 

Ventilator (of a house), jS ^^, 

hdd gir, 
Venus (planet), j-aU ndhtd; 

iyb\ zuhraJi, 
Veracity, jXd sidk ; k=j3\xo 

Verb, ^feeh 
Verbal, ^ji kauU ; jLj zct- 

Verbatim, ^aL lad lafz he lafz. 
Verbose, J-aa^ mufassal. 
Verdant, j--*^^ sar^sabz; 


Verdict, S^ liukm (^.). 
Verdigris, J^j zinjdr. 
Verdure, j^ sahzak. 
Verified, , s.o-.*^ mutahakkak 

7 ^ • • • 

(sA.). Anything — , jj^* U 
md sudik. 
Verifying, j«i«^ mutahakkik 
(^•) ^ ;J-3A ^ ) tasdik (k.) ; 
jji^ muhakkik (n.) ; ^ 

Vermilion, uJ^ zinjarf. 
Vermin, ^aJ^jiU jCLUvarah, 
Vernal, ^^l-v— ; hahdr'i / 

Versatile, b dL-# sahuk pd. 
Verse, v^a-j Jaii, /?/. l 

abi/dt ; clajT oya^. — of the 

Kordn, pi. oLjI dj/dt. In 

— , Jai nazm. 
Versified, ^JoIa manzumah. 
Vertebrate, ^lAall^J zu*lfakdi\ 
Vertical, jcl» ^aw». 
Vertigo, l^g'tj* 
Very, ^J , >. khaili; J^t-^\ 

Vessel (ship) , vv^ markab ; 

(vase), uJ;b zarf; 'lil ina. 

Glazed — , ^U^^ martahdn. 

Earthenware — , ^yOjl lulin; 



water, ^^Ijjl dhddn, — for 
measuring, JIXa miJcydl, 

Vest, jla^l arkhaluk; Jca^ 

Vestibule, ^^Vb ddldn. 

Vestige, J\ asar, pi j^\ dsdr; 

eJ!ai kataf. 
Vex, vjJusB** hanjidan. — ^ing, 

&Xas* mutasaddi (A:.). To 

be — ed, ijS^j ranjtdan. 
Vexation, j^jl azd {d.) ; j^ 

if;iA:A:; it lA ^i > tdsdi (ft.); 
^l^ hanjdr; ij^j^ j^ tar- 

Vexatious, (^^li« mataib. 
Viands, a^I afimah; <&1j^ 

Vibration, ^^\Cj /flAran (A:.), 

Vices, <*JU>. khabdis; v^U* 
ma'dih; juJcJ* shandi; «->^ 
'uyub ; in the sing. v.;>^ 
W5; v:>A^ nakisat. Gar- 
penters — ^, i^/ girah. 

Viceroy, L^^-o-JL^ farmdn 
farmd; v-*Li-» cjfU W(it5 
mufia^. — of Egypt, (5jiJ^ 

Viceroyalty, vsJl^ vikdlat. 

Vicinity, Jj^ javdr ; jjW 

Vicious, ^^-jj ^3 5i-/)*r ; 

ma^yuh; xJ^fdsid, 
Vicissitudes, <— >j1^ savdrif; 

oU^I inkiUhdt. 
Victorious, y-ili» muzdfir ; 

jyaU mansur ; jjj^ ftruz ; 

^-B h.a muzfir. Being — ^^> 
^JUJ tagMluh (sh,). 
Victim, ijj3^df/ah. 

Victor, L-JlftyMZtft. 

Victory, ^ ^a^A (y. Ar.), />Z. 

^yifittuh; izA^yJ futuhdt ; 
jfio zafar (y.) ; jffauz. 
Victuals, jji^ JchwrWh; ^^jy^ 

Videlicet, ^^ ya'ni. 

View, j1 jjl A^ cheshm anddz. 
In — ^, Jj JJLo ptsh'did. 

Vigilance, iLil intihdh; {jjs^^ 

hiddrl; ^ hazm. 
Vigilant, »lil o^aA; j- 

Vigorous, jW chdk ; Lil 

Vigour, o^ kuwat. 

Vile, jjjjj i^a^t^n ; j»J Z^am. 

Vileness, J'jjjI ihtizdl; kz 

Village, »^ dih; li^^ rusid ; 



Of the same — , *>S^ ham* 

kiryah. The chief of a — , 

^L^j dihbdn. 
Villager, ^U.> dihdit; ^Laj^j 

ViUain, (sIaI ihafak; ol^ Si 

had zdt, 
YindicatioQ, vjujI^^^ himdyat 

Vindicative, ^jS *iS kinah 

Vine, dU tdk ; jjS^\ vs^a^ 

Vinegar, a^s»^ sirkdh; J^ 

Vineyard, ^^ cL 5(i^A t man ; 

JLjI o^^a/ ; ^j raz. 
Vintage, ujUai hatdf^ or A:iY4/! 

Vintner, yij^ y^ mai^arush. 

Violating, ^^r** ^uftart (k,) ; 

^iftj naA^ (A?.). 
Violence, ^j^jl ^j: zur-dvari ; 

dl j^l iahtiddd ; Ll>. ^o^ ; 

Violent, jjjj^ shadid; ^\x^ 

shiddd, — ly, j^y hizur. 
Violet, A.16JL) henafshah; {jj^ 


Violin, ^\S kamdncheh. 
Viper, ^) ^/. 

Virgin, jS^ bikr ; ^-;-A.j 
dukhtar ; »^Lj hdkirah ; 
s)J^^ dushtzah, 

Vi rgini tj, o^\Jj ^a karat; ^^j^ 

Virgo, aLu^i sumhulat. 

Virile, a^I^ marddneh. Semen 

Virility, oJ^ rujuUyet ; ib 

Virtue, J-oJ fazl, pi JUil 
a^aZ ; o-yo.;. ■» mankabat ; 
e* 1 .in kfazilatypL JiL-o-i 
fazdil; ^.JJb hunar, in pi. 
^^l^ mahdsin. 

Virtuous, <*■,.» ^ Zf«*«ar- 

Virulence, oJ-i» shiddat 

Virulent, JjjJI. shadid. 

Virus, fij rim. 

Visage, jj ru. 

Visible, jbj^ namuddr; JjJ-j 

padid ; I j.-^ paidd*. 
Visibly, ]^\k zdhiran. 
Vision, JLi. khiydh 
Visionary, ^jiiJjl JW* mahdU 

andish ; vju.^ Jl-i khaydl- 

Visit, OjU.) ziydrat {k.) ; 'Li-l 
lifca. To tQTCkfe ^"^ ^ — -» 



jj^l u-ii^ tashrif a. To 
go on a — , jj^ ui-i^ 
tashrif hurdan. 
Visiting, jiLu mutalakki (w.). 

Visitor, jAj zdir. 

Visual, 1;^ hastrah. 

Vitality, ^jjj zindagi. 

Vitiated, c->^«»* mayuh («.). 

Vitriol, -j; 20/; cs)]j ^flr. 
Blue — , ^j^ ^j zdj i 
kabud. Green — , ^)--- -.1) 
2;a; i sdbz, VTater of — , 
\^^\j zag-ah. 

Vituperation, ^J^ fuh%h (d,). 

Vivid, jiiU tnunir. 

Vizier, ^>-iJ^ vaziVy pL *V^ 


Vocabulary, d^i) loghat 
Vocal, J^j^ aauti. 
Vocation, ^zJ^ hirfat. 
Voice, jM dvdz. Having a 
sweet — , jljl jjiji. Jehuah' 

dvdz; \:^y-^ iJty-^ khush- 

Void, JU. ArAa7^ («.). 
Volley, eLU. ^AoZtA (A.). 
Volume, j\a^jild, in pi. uJ»Li» 

masdhif ; j\i^ dafdtir. 
Voluntarily, ^, ^j^ Muef ba 


Voluptuary, (jiLc ^ayydsh. 

Voluptuous, j^j^^ ij^ tan- 

Vomit, 1?., ^2)^\^ hardshtdan; 
n., ^Ji^/b hardsh. 

Vomiting, ^ Aai (k,). 

Voracious, J^ a^wZ. 

Voucher, ^^U zdmin. 

Vow, ^jj nai2fr (A;.) ; L^ #^ar^ 

Vowel (short), \zjS^ harakat ; 
(long), uJb uJ,*. Aar^i- 
'illat. — points, i-*]^^— ftl 

Voyage, ^^ safar (k.). 
Voyager, jiU sdfir. 
Vulgar, A«lfi '(i«»waA. The — , 
(j«iUl aJ^ 'a&vam un nds. 

Vulture, ^ nasr; ^jS/kar- 



Wadding (for gun), a; 

Wading, j^ ghaur (k,). 

Wafer, i^girdah. 



Wages, o^i ujrat; c-^lj* 
mavdjih ; ^y^ cu^^ dost- 

Waggon, ii\jB. *ardheh 

Wailing, Jl3 ndleh {k.) ; ^^ 

shaivan (k,). 
Waist, j*^^ kamar ; ^;jV— ;— • 

Wait, ^jJU mdndan; Jni ;• 

^^wLmA muntazir h. 
Waiter (at baths), dV^ dMdk. 

Waiting, .IkiSl intizdr {ksh,)) 

dA^li^ rakdhat. 
Wakefulness, t^^J^ hiddrt. 
Waking, jljj-j 5* Jar (^. «A.). 

Walk, v., 



il » rdh- 

rqftan ; (gracefully), ^S^^ 
ehamidan; ^J^]^ khard- 
Walking, j^ sair (A;.) ; ^^ 
gardesh (Jc^ ; J^j raftdr ; 
(jauntily), ^;:ij* tabakhtur. 

Wall, ^]^A dtvdr ; iaSW ^ai^ ; 
^1 j-». yic^r ; (rampart), ^j-* 
8ur, City — , ji> jui* shahr- 
band. High outer — 9j}jlS^ 
shah-dtvdr, — of a tent, 
c^LJ kandt. 

Wallet, iJi hukehah; J<.^\ 
amhdn; ,.>_j-^,^ khurchtn. 

k^^ ,l»> chdr" 

jljl dvd- 

Dervish's — , J 
Walnut, j,y^ girdu ; ^^^ 
gurdagdn ; 

magJiz ; ^^-^jj jy^-^ ^flt*« i 
Wand, loft *a8d. 

Wander, ^^lJj \j vd-raftan; 

^^j \::^Ji^gasht k. 
Wandering, ^L-* saigdr. 

Wanderer, »^ljT avdrak (g.). 
State of — 

Want (wish), r., ^^ j:...J 
khdstan ; n. (necessity), 
c>»>l>> Ao/ai^ (d8h\ pL e^UUi 
hdjdt ; mXi:^\ ihtigdj (n.) ; 
ci^li killat. 

Wanting, J-*« muil; J^^aij 
vankul ; ^^^ kam ; (peti- 
tioner), ^\$[L»||i. khdstgdr. 

Wanton, ..^ «Ai/A;A. 

War, iskaf. jang {a. k,) ; «-^ 
Aarft, 2?Z. v->^^/-^ hurub; 
^la^ purkhdsh ; ^jj razm ; 
lij\^ muhdrabat; \tj vighd; 
'U* haijd.' Holy —, A^ 
jihdd; (raid), ])— ^ ghazd. 
Making — ,j^ ghazv (/fc.). 

Warder, ^^\^ %aTa'Vi-d.(iLT. 



Wardrobe, jjl^jx-* sanduk- 

khdnah ; a3U> dLiy tushaJc' 

khdnah ; aJI^ a«U> jamah- 

Wards (of a key), Ji nazh. 

Warehouse, j\J\ amhdr. 

Warlike, ^S^^ j(^nfft > *ir^ 

Warm, ^jS^garm (5.) ; a.: k > 

taftdh. Being — , d^l aht 

To — , ^jS J.6 > tafidan. To 

grow — , ^jAj.,>,ft ) tafsxdan. 

Warmth, ci^A-J ^«^; o^l^ 

Wara, v., ^jjb ^^ khahar d. 
One who warns, ^ji wajsfr. 

Warning, o,<j3 nazdrat (A:.). 

Warp, i^ |)W£^. — and woof, 
^yijJCi tdr u pud. 

Warrant, »., jj^ijuiU-* ^a»id- 
na^ k. 

Warrior, jy*« wiwWm; l-j;W» 
muhdrih ; (for religion), 
jjbl^ mitfdhid ; (j^lft ghdzi. 

Wart, JP>J «m7mZ, ^/. JJ\J 

Wash, t?.,' ^j : ^ i!:» thustan ; 

^jjoi^i ahuidan; pa, p., Jj^^ 

maghaul; pr, p., J^ yAi^/ 

(^.); ^LlmJi ihtutagi. — 

ai2(f cleansing, jl j ij>^ 

shust u ahu (k.), A place 
for — (especially of dead 
bodies), J«Jm niaghsal. 

Wasp, jj^^ zambur. — nest, 
aJL>.^j-Jj zamhur-khdnah. 

Waste, U^ talaf (A?.); uj5)b1 
fV/o/* («.). 

Wasting, ^j.^^Ai tazyt (k.). 

Watch (time piece), va> ^ 
saW. The — is fast, uucL* 
slf^j^J^ Jui «a fl'^ ttmd-kdr 
m{ kunad. The — is too 
slow, j-13 ^^\r jjJ^vsa^U 
«(f a/ kund'kdr mi kunad. To 
wind up a — , ey J^ csacL* 
^j^^-j saixt-rd kuk k, — 
maker, jL* uucL* saatsdz. 
The first — of the night, 
Li-c 'os^a. Keeping — , 
^Lm«iIj pdi'hdni. 

Watching^ x^yu mutarassid ; 
X^.raHd; ys^.^hirdiat; 
ijj^ ^gird-dvarl 

Watchman ^U pds; (in a 
vineyard), jj^\j ndtur; ^J^ 
harkmh. Head — , ^j-b^^ 
sar-pds; ^l j^^^ dtd-hdn. 
Night — , ^jM^^Mi^x 'asas ; 

c^A-jbJj rajrtd, pZ. 'L-J, rw- 



Watchword, l^ a^I tm-i- 

Water, cjiT ai ; *U wa. The 
' — of immortality, oL*. «->! 
dbi haiydt ; iUil ^U ma i^Z 
haiydt. Shallow — ^ ^\ ctLJ 
tang-dh. Deep — , v-)L5^ 
ghark'dh. Limpid — , JVj 
s^t^ZaZ. Polluted — , <S3^ 
manjaldb. To make — , 
^)A I. 1\ .M shdshtdan. — 
carrier, ,jix-jl db-keah ; L5-» 
sakkd. — course, »l^l db' 
rah. — fall, JjlA dbshdr. 

— fowl, jjjlfr;* murgk'dbt. 

— lily, ^jij nUufar, — 
melon, jjl^jJJb hinduvdnah, 

— skin, A->^ kirbah ; dlJU 
mashk, — supply, ojLi-i 
iakdyet, — wagtail, ^^ 
saricheh. — wheel, \Sij^ 
duldb ; u^Jl^d davdlib. 

Watering-place, J^ minhall, 
pi. JaLj.-a mandhil ; ^lj« 

Watery, ,3! dbt; ^iU »iia'». 

Wave, -,j« mauj ; u->j^ ^Ai-?- 

Waving, ^jAy navvds (k.); 
J^ tahdn (d,). 

Wax, ^jA mum; %Jlt aharn. 

Sealing — , JV Idk. — 

chandler, r^ % *■ 8hammd\ 

— cloth, aJ^- {^ iwwm- 

Waxen, ^j* mumu 

Way, »!. raA; c^^ suluk ; 
i^j vatirdh ; J^j-i «a5i7, j?/. 
J«^ subul; owcw dam^, ^/. 
Oj«M «umt^^, in pL ttUL^ 
masdlik. High — , •J;-^'^ 
shah-rdh ; U^-i* «Va^ ; c^li. 

shdri; ^Ju minhaj, A long 
— y »]; t^ ^hdli rah. By 
one — , »;— ^ gak^ah. By 
— r of, (^ j\ az ru i. "To find 
the — , o^/i'^j f'^h-hurdan. 
We, U fna. 

Weak, i^JuM zdif Most — , 
Uuui\a2af;J^fdtir; j\j 
vdhi. — in understanding, 
i^Jusi^ sakhif, — in the 
loins (a horse), (jg^-«.^9 
kamarig, — with age or 
infirmity, ^U hdr. 

Weakening the animal spirits, 
So ^^W jan-kah» 

Weakness, c-a*^ zt(f; JiJ^ 



kaldl ; uzjySi rekdkat : Us? 

Wealth, Kz*^^^ daulat; JL* 
mdl, pi Jlj*l amvdl ; vs*JU 
mdliyet ; ojy aarvat. 

Wealthy, ^IjJL mdlddr ; y^y 
tavangar ; JuJ.4JlJj^ daulat- 

Weaned, ^^fattm. 

Weaning, J\^Jlid?n (k,). 
Weapon, — 5L# saldh^pl, asJ-*' 

Wear (clothes), ^jJ-1^ pusht- 

dan; (out), ^j.«* si/dan. 
Wearing, i^^ muydr, — out 

the life, L.^ ^^ jdn-farsd. 

Wearied out, v., ^jxJ[ ^jL^. 

5a;an dmadan* 
A\^earv, ^^.^ khasfeJi, 
Weasel, j--K ra*w. 
Weather, \yt j l^\ dh o havd. 

— cock, V* ^\i bdd-numa. 
Weave, ^j:J\> hdftan ; pr, p,, 

^ nay (Jc.), 

Weaver, ^x^\i hdfendah; iV^ 
juldh ; —LJ nassdj, — of 
mats, K^\^\ijj) huriydhdf, 
— 'b shop, cJa haf, 

AV^eb, A»U» tdkeh ; ^y sauh. 

Wedding, ^jjb *aru8u 

Wedge, jjli/dnah; v^)<i, uj 


chub-shiydf; i^jK-J:* « ^ ^ 

w/ArA i shikdf. 
Wednesday, a^ ^Uj*. chehdr- 

Weed, ^j»t>^ Mas, 
Week, Aiaifc haftah. 

Weep, ^^^ giriatan ; ^ji^^ 
giristan ; ^^jjliil .li ndr- 

Weeping, yj^^girydn; iij^s* 
giryah ; —Li niydh. 

Weevil, ^y,t mftdh. 

Weigh, s:)X^ sanjidan ; ^^ustf 
sakhtan ; pa, jp., ^jjjj ^ 

Weight, ^J^^ vazn (k,), pi, 
^Ijjl auzdn; ast^ sanjah. 
Make — , dli-b pdsang. Of 
the same — , (s]iiw.»A ham- 

Weighty, ^^j^ vazin ; Ji^.^s» 

girdn ; ^j^^^ sangin. 

Welcome, jL^ ^1 dhlan va 
sahlan. To be •^— , y*«j ^ 
^X»l khush dmadan. 

Weld, ^f^kuftan. 

Welfare, cuj^.;^-ft> khairiyat ; 

:wj hih'hud. 
Well (good), t-;i^ H«i5; l^ 



— , uj»^ f^^ khaili kTiub, 

— bprD, J-*fli asil, — dis- 
posed, aJo ^^ khush-tab\ 

— wisher, »J^ \y^ havd- 
hhdh ; »ij». JS^ niku-khdh. 

— (pit), »l». chah ; JSji hVr. 

— at Mecca, ^y^j zemzem. 

— digger, ^^»l»> chdh-kan. 
Wen, 5JC ghuddah, 

"West, v>>** wayArift. 
Westerly, ^^ gharbiy. 
Western, (^ >»• magJiribi, 

Wet, ^ ^flr («. sh.) ; x w«^ 
(*. 5^.). 

Wetness, ss^^j rutubaL 

Whale, ^\j vdl. 

What, A^ chih. — is it P 
i-A-ii^ chtst. — will you 
take, SiJ^ ^ dt^^ ^ chih 
cMz meyl ml darid. 

Whatever, a^\ dnchih; ^^ j^ 
har-chih. — is at hand, U 
jM^ md hazar. 
Whatsoever, *^]/^ hardnohih. 

Wheat, aJJ^^9 gandum ; ^kL*. 

Wheel, Aa^ charhhah. Water 

— ^ ^Si^^ duUdh, 
Whelp, d^ bacheh. 

When, S hat — and where- 
fore, 1^ J ^y^ chun u cherd, 
— (relative), j>, chu ; ^^y^ 
chun ; 4Xiii« vaktikeh. 

Whenever, iCj^ har gdh. 

Whence ! 1^1 az kujd. 

Where? \J^kujd. — (relat.), 
j!yA», jdikeh. 

Wherefore, \j>^ cherd. 

Whether - or, Ij - Ij ya - gd. 

Whetstbne, ^J^fasdn. 

Whey, K^\ ji;j panir ah; >U 
^^ md uljibn. 

Which? Jx-^a> kuddm. — 
(relat.), to* cA^A; S keh. 

While, ^^y vaktikeh ; ^b U 

ma dam. 
Whip, AilijU tdziganah; ^^^ 

Whirlpool, \^\^^gtrddb ; jML 

shdr; aL^ vartah. 
Whirl- wind, ^\j ^ gird-hdd. 

Whiskers, oj^ hurut; uJL* 

Whisper, ^j :. a S^yj^ najvd 

Whisperer, ^1^ vdihu 
Whistle, v., ^j^mJL* hmhtxdan. 



White, juJU safid; Ja . A 
ahyaz ; *^ ^ - « haizd ; ^J-JLji 
yalak. Anything — , cib 
yaldgh. — or.gray horae, 
eL». khing. — wine, ^j t->T 

Whiteness, ^L-> baiydz. 
Whitlow, J\j ^jiU ndkhun^dl. 
Who, A-T A:t^. — 18 it? sLS 

Whoever, aS^ harkek. 
Whosoever, S^\j^ hardnkih. 

Whole, ^Ir tamdm; ^hdl; 

A^ hammah ; pj^ majmu. 

On the — , 11^ ^ filr 

Wholesome, J(f^^ khu8%' 

guvdr ; ^l^ najT; AyJLj 

nak%; j^ namir. 
Wholly, ^\j UJrkull 

Whore, ^ kahheh ; jj^ Zo- 
vand; %x»a^jindak. 

Whoremonger, J^^ U^ zend 

Whose ? jT JU mdl-i-kih. 
Why, ]^ cherd; a^ ^5!^ 5tray» 

Wick, j^^^^fatUah / ^ ■ ^ ^ ; 

Wicked, Jj bad ; j^Ju «%arir ; 

JjCj^ munkdr; e*--i. khahis; 
fj^ radiy ; »lJ tahdh. 

Wickedness, (jjj hadd; i-JL^ 

khahdsat ; Ja sharr. 
Wide, li^ pahnd; Ajfa/rdhh ; 

^^ *ariz ; ^\jS'yushdd. 
Widow, 59^ htvah. 
Widower, J*,l armal. 
Width, ^^ pdhn; y^^ 'arz. 

Wife, ^ij -?«;»; Aj>.jj^ zaujah; 
fJUl ahliyeh. Temporary 
— , A w ? <i mufah; i, it ,^ 

s^heh. Lawful — , as^ku 
mankuhah. — 's brother, 
»^^ J ... "v khusar-purah 
Disreputable — , a-s?^ «aw-t- 


Wild, ^jLjL-j hiydbdni; ^jj-t 
harri; ^^ daahti ; yj^js^ 
sahrdi; jJcu mutd'ctbbid; 
jj j^ khud-rau. 

Wilderness, ^;)lJLJ hiydbdn. 

Wile, J^ y^Z («.); *Jr:-»* 

Wilful, J r- j^^ MtM^ sar. 

— ^ly, \s^ 'amdan. 
Will, JLaI^ A;AaAc«A; ^j^ 
. murdd ; (testament), ^sa^j 



Willing, ^jUl^ Jchdhdn. — 
or unwilling, ^ U J^ kdm- 

nd'hdm, — ly, l^ tau*an, 

"Willow, x^ hid. Musk — , 
el J*. ,♦ s . ) hid-i-muahh. 
Weeping — , ^ya^ ju-j bldi 

Wily,^iji ghadddr. 

Win (at play), ^^, hurdan. 

Wince, ^jJu^ ramidan. 

Wind, w., ^\i lad. To break 
— > s:)X^j^ guzidan. Whirl 
— , jb J) J div-bdd. Fair — , 
jJo;^ shurtah. Cold boister- 
ous — , ^^-.©^ sarsar. Hot 
pestilential — , m^ samum. 
Blustering — , ijpli ndshi- 
rah. South — , ^Ui ww- 

» '. 

awi. Long — ed, ^^^j^ 

Wind, t?., ^^^iL-sl; tdftan. 

Winding-sheet, ^JkSlcafan. 
Windlass, ,31*^ manjanik. 

Windmill, ^l> LmI dsyd-hdd. 
Window, 5^ panjareh ; aji^^ 
dartcheh; ^^j^jjrauzan. Sash 

Windpipe, »^-sr* hamjarah ; 

Wine, t->Lr* shardb; (poeti- 
cal), ^ mai; s^b hddah; 
t^ khamr ; j . , i nahiz ; 
—1^ raA. Red — , *\j & .f> 
sahhd^ ; ^Ij . o^U ydkut i 
ravdn, — boiled down to 
a third, ^-X-— siki, — 
coloured, \j^ ^ * mat-gun. 

— bottle, ^jU. chdrpar. 
Wing,^ par ; Jb hdl ; 

kanaf; ^b 5azw ; (of army), 
-.1:^ jandh, pi. a^I tyni- 
hah. — ed, Sijjfarvend. 

Wink, AjitJ^ kirishmah ; ^J^0^ 
cheshmak {z.). 

Winnow, ju» haid; 0., ^jJjJLsI 

Winter, ^)\:->.> ^ zamktdn; 

U^ sarmd. 
Wintry, (^'U;-* sarmdu 

Wipe, s:)Xi^jj rubidan; dLj 

mam^^ ; ^r. ^^.^ ^.^ max-h ; 
j5_*J tamyiz {k,). 

Wire, jLJ ^ar; ^ ««i («.)• 

— drawer, ^^ JJtdrkesh. 
Wisdom, e« t X >» hikmat; 

^jfX>^^^ khiradmandt ; ^^ 
hhirad; ^jJLJb ddnish' 
\ van; vi^^^ dA«i^%\ v^'^>j^ 



farzdn ; ^ji<J>\jj farzdnagi ; 

fj^ ha khirdt. Practising 

• — , u^/JLft ^ khirad-mash- 

rah ; < .t:.,j > ^^^ khirad- 


Wise, JJ^y^ hushydr; .jJijb 
ddnishvar ; . ^ ^ ^ 'altm ; 

\) hdkih. To 

j;»».ib ddnishmand; su^ 
hhiradmand ; <^^ hdzim, 
— l,v, AJ^ji*^ khiradmanr 

"Wish, jjlftlji. khdhesh (k.) ; 
uumiI^ A:^a«^ ; U^ tamannd ; 
i:-- • - munyat ; jjjT or-et* 
(n.) ; v., ^Ji^]^ khdstan ; 
pr, j9., ^»7 a mutamanni ; 
»ij». ^AaA ; i^K rdghib. 

Wisher, »j IJ>>1^ khdhendah. 
Well—, jij-i. ^^-j-i. Hazr- 
khdh; »1^ oJ^d daulat- 
khdh ; slj^. (&U ntk-khdh. 

Wit (joke), c>i]^ zardfat ; 
(person),^ J jj or y aJ)-j 
• hazlak-gii. 

Wits, Jac flArZ. 

Witch, S;».L» sdhirah. 

Witchcraft,^^ sihr. 

With, ijt^ ha; t-> hi ; \j hd ; 
\\ az {lit, from) ; jl* md. 


do — , to agree — , j^ 

^^^L» dar sdkhtan. 

Withdraw, ^^^ J^kendr r. 

Wither, c)i^ pazhmurdan; 
^^j.j.. »tj 1 puaidan, — ed, 
c)Mi pazhmdn ; »^/*J^ pazh- 
murdah; ti^^>,0^\ afsurdah; 
(j-Hl y<ihi8. 

Withers, ejJ^U Mrik. 

Withhold, j^b jli ftaa? dsh. 

Within, c;|^l andarun ; ^2)Ju^ 
darun; Ji^b ddkhil; j;y tut. 

Without (exijprior), vi)jj^h---J 
hirun; (less), ^)^ hidun; 
5b ftiZi ; ^^^ y^air ; ^ hi. 
— ceremony, c-iLx-J ^ hi- 
takalluf. — delay, eJ3^J--j 
hi-dirang. — deceit, Ji-j 
ii^^ hi-gJiill u ghashsh. — 
deliberation, j^^sJ ^ hi- 
tadhir. — discernment, ^ 
j^ t" ht-tamiz. — doubt, 
^^UT^j ht-gumdn. — limit, 
j>. iX U^hudd. — measure, 
•jljUJi (3 hi-anddzah. — 
provisions, a-^i ^a hi-tushah. 
— remedy, c)^/^ bt-dav' 
mdn, — trouble, ^]jT ^^ 



Witness, jjbLJI» shdhid ; Juj^—i 
shahtd, pi. ^Ljlti ash-hdd; 
XJ^\j-^t shavdkid ; ^y-^r^ 
shuhud. To bear — , o^V^ 
^)d^ shahddat hurdan. 

Witticisms, ^ r j W I latifeh ; 

olxJ nukdt. 
Witty, ^Ji)e> zurif. 
Woe, ^ gham, — ful, dU^^ 

Wolf, \^^ gurg ; c-Ji zVh, 

Woman, ^^ zan ; aa^ zaifeh, 
in pi, izjy^ nisvat ; ^U^j nis- 
van. — in childbed, A_a^ 
zajah ; Aa^ zachah. Preg- 
nant — , f^^ hahld ; Jo ^^\ 
j\^ zan i hdr-ddr. Free — , 
ij^ hurrah. Old — , \^ 
*ajuz. Wanton — , jL ^U 
ydr-hdz. Tire — , *-LlJL-« 
mashshdtah. Married — , 
. ^^b ndkih ; ^^LxJ ni- 

kdhu Modest — , ijy.^^^ 
masturah. Women's attire, 
Ai\3^ i^A^ raJcht i zandnah. 

Addicted to women, Kz^atjS^j 
Womanly, ajLJj zandnah. 

Womb, ^j rahim; ^Ij-aj 

Wonder, i-*js?* taajjuh (k.). 
Causing — , ^>s^ tajth{n,)\ 
^^sP *tf;a5 (m), pZ. u-Jls? 
*a;a^5 ; ju-j^ gharihah^ pt, 
\^\j^ ghardib ; i«i^«^^ 
shigarf ; isjio turf ah. 

Wonderful, ^^ *a;a5 ; u-^^s^ 

— thing, t-*sr' jj WVajab. 
Wood, vj-a. cAw5. Fire — , 

M^ haizum; a^^ haimeh ; 

(forest), J,<^.,L.>. jangal. 

Fragrant aloes — , ^ *t^J. 

— ed country, j-^sf*^ mush- 

Woodcock, d;i^ zirah. 

Wooden, ^ji^iyt ^^^^^* 
Woodman, jjiT j^j-jb ha'.zum' 

Wool, ^ pashm ; uJ^ «»/. 
Woollen, A:;;;*ilj ^o^Amma^. 

Word, ^^^~s^ sukhan (gf.) ; 

A-S^ kalimah ; kaJ /o^^;. -r- 

and deed, Jxi j Jy» kaid u 

fil; (gossip), Jls kdl; Jj 

-Jli J K/ 2£ kdl. 

Work, J^ kdr (A:.) ; jl^ ^\J' 
Mro 6ar; J-^-c Vwa^ (^.), 
pZ. JUcI dmdl. Collected 



kulUydt. Good — s, obyu 
masuhdt ; '"^j^ ; t niahai*- 
Workman,^^ .\r hdrigar. 

Workshop, A— jl— a. J^ kdr- 

World, c)^-^ jaJidn; LjJ^ 
dunyd ; Jlc *dla7n ; Jf ^j^j 
ruz-gdr ; ^^[lS kihdn ; ^^Ji 

gitu This — (house of 
transience), UaJI ^b ddr ul 
fand; ^^ j*-?^ sipanji 
tardy ; (land of delusion), 
^\Imj1^ sardhistdn ; (man- 
sion of darkness), tjJ cujfc 
ztUmat-kedah. Belonging to 
this — , ^^.-^j dunyatn. 
The inhabited quarter of the 

Worldly, ^_^lc 'dlamiy; ^jyt^ 

Worm, ^y-T Arerm. Glow — , 
cL^ v-A— i shah-chirdyh ; 
%^\j u^ Mi^ktrm I shahtdb. 
Ship — , jij x:m;. Silk — , 
4l-j jy-T kirm i pilah. — 
wood, ii»j^ dirmanah. 

Worn out, jj-^Ju* mundaris; 
maS'huk; J^ ^ nim' 

kdr ; (hollowed — ),^li nd- 

Worse, ^Af had'tar ; jjLi hat- 
far ; jL\ ctsharr. 

Worship, o^Lc 'ibddat (k.) ; 
^jlii^ parastish {k.) ; ^y U 
pdrhus, A place for — , 
judt« fna had ; v., ^)A ^ \ n*^ 

Worshipper, tjuJL^ parasten- 

dah ; jaU *dhid; Xjka mf»- 
. 'ahhid. — of fire, 

ya6r ; in comp., 

parast^ as, — of wealth, 

KZt^j^^ mdl-parast. 
Worst, ^Jl/^, badtarin. 
Worth, K^m-* kaimat (dsh.)^ 

To be — , ijSijj\ arzidan. 
Worthless,^!* ndkiz ; ^jS^Lj 

nd'kas ; ^^^--.^-^ U ndr^mus- 

tahsin ; \JC^ nakdrah. 

Worthy, j>V Mik ; ^^y^ aazd- 
vdr; ^;\xjilii slidigan; ^Jo\^ 
shdydn ; ^jj — % farzdm ; 
j^ Aji ferdkh'kliur* To be 
— , ^ ju^hytf sazdidan ; ^j Jj)i« 
sazidan ; ^j^ll shdytdan. 

Would that ! ^Ji{ kdsh. 

Wound, ^j zakhm {z, kh.) ; 



.L-j^ jirdhat. To _, 

^j:^0^ Jchastan. 

Wounded, ^^j-^ majruh ; 

»x,j— s.*^ zaWim-lchv/rddh ; 

j\^ jf V) zakhm-ddr ; j»J^ 

•^ zakhm-zadaJi ; ^ t ^\ 

Woven, \zJo haft; iSa\i hdf' 

tah; ^^y^*^ manauj. 
Wrangler, JjU. jddil. 
Wrangling, ^\s>'jiddl. 
Wrath, k-c ghaiz. 
Wreck, ^\J tahdht (A:.). 

Wrench off, ^^sSXS j^ bar 

Wrestler, j^ ^i^^ kushtt- 
gif'i J\J^^ pahlavdn. 

Wrestling, ^j^Skushti (yr.); 
l^jjiM mu8ara*at (h). 

Wretched, ^^^-x-*_c ghamgtn. 

■:.i,b diU 


Wrinkle, ^^-^ cJitn. 

Wrinkled, ,.»..^^j^ pur chin 


Wrist, i^^ rusgh; 


mi Mm. 

Write, ^^ji navUhtan ; j,^ 
^2)^ rakam z, — with a 

nice appreciation of the 
beauties of the language, 
^;^b ^ja^ ^\^ ddd i sukhan 

Writer, sJu^k^ navisandah ; 
jj^ muharrtr; c-J^ kdtib; 
J\j rdkim ; ^^ dahir. 

Writhing, ^ LSJ takallvh 

Writing, j^.j^ tahrtr (n.); 
^y navishtahy pi, KZ>\^y 
navishtajdt \ ei^l :<^ A:/^a- 
5a/ ; j^j rakavi (z.) ; (jS^lXj 
nigdrish; ^3 tarkim (w.) ; 
j^ rakim. Fine — , yi^ 
k^ khttsh-khatt Error in 
— , t^-j-^^ tas'hif. Pre- 
scribed form of — , yai!^ j^d-*^ 

ra«7;t t^Z Ma//. Committed 
to — , ^-ii-j (•— »; rakam 

Written, c-^^-X-» maktuh ; 
^fj^ markum. 

Wrong, cu— ]; LJ ni m*/,- 
jj^lj nd hakk; cu-»^^lJ wa- 

Wrought, cuw 5a//. 
Wry, J^kej,