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A Treatise ou Hindu Dramaturgy and Histrionics 
Ascribed to 


Vol. II (Chapters XXVIII-XXXVI) 

Completely translated for the first time from the original 
Sanskrit with an Introduction and Various Notes 



Work Number 



Issue Number 



196 1 




-JJTT.* - 
Price Rs. 1500 

3 ^ ^ S S 

Printed by Sri Kalidas Munshi, Pooran Press, 
21, Balaram Ghose Street, Calrmta-4. 

P R Ii F A C K 

More than ten years have passed since Volume 1 of 
the translation of the Natyasastra appeared. During this 
period anxious enquiries have repeatedly been made by several 
readers about the coming out of Volume II. Hence I owe 
au explanation to them all for this inordinate delay in 
completing this work. Apart from other minor reasons, 
extremely corrupt nature of an important part of the original, 
compelled in..' to proceed slowly with the translation, and this 
volume II, unlike its predecessor, being preceded by the publi- 
cation of the b.isic text, made the progress of the work 
slower still. Hut L am sure that scholarly readers will be happy 
to see tile text and the translation together. For this will 
Sjive them a facility in studying the Volume II closely and 
critically. It goes without saying that in the present* volume, 
too, 1 hid to offer conclusions and interpretations here and 
there which for lack of better materials could not be made 
definitive. Hut whatever tentative assertions I have offered, 
have been made after the most careful consideration, witli the 
expectation that they may be helpful to others working in 
this field. It is just possible that their number will appear to 
be too many in two chapters of the present volume. But 
tliis has been unavoidable. For, the very complex dramatic- 
fttM-iuu.siCiil art described in the present work appears to have 
become obsolete more than one thousand 'years ago. The text 
of the Natyasastra was handed down not because professional 
actors needed it, but because it was considered a Veda, i.e., 
the Nalyaveda, and as such worthy of being saved from 
extinction. Hence the work has somehow been preserved. 
Hut in the absence of a living tradition, it does not yield a 
full view of the complex art. Though future researches 
may extend our knowledge of this, it does not seem to be 
very much likely that this complex art will ever be fu 1 ly 
explored. Still we need not be unduly pessimistic in this matter. 
Kven if some minor details of this great art still elude our 
view, it may be confidently said that the avaikble text of 

( vi ; 

the Najyasfistra gives us a more or less good general picture 
of the Hindu dramatic art as it existed in theory and practice 
nearly two milleniums ago. It may be hoped that any careful 
reader of this translation (however imperfect it may be) will 
agree with me in this regard. 

10th March, 1961. The Translator 

( vii ) 


I. The Present Work, p. 1 ; I. A Short History of the Study of 

Indian Music, p. 1 ; 2. The Basic Text, p. 4 ; 3. Transla- 
tion and Notes, p. 4. 

II. The Ancient Indian Theory and Practice of Music, p. 5 ; 1. 

The Indian Conception of Music, p. 5 ; 2. The Vocal 
Music, : (a) Srutis ; (b) Mutual Relation of Notes, p 6 ; 
(c) Different Gramas ; (d) Murchanas, p. 7 ; (e) The 
Voice-registers, p. 8 ; (f) The Overlapping note, p. 9 ; 
(g) The Jatis, p. 9 ; (h) The Jatis in connection with the 
Sentiments, p. 10 ; (i) The Dhruvas, p. 10 ; (j) The con- 
tents of Dhruvas, p. 11 ; (k) Metres of Dhruvas, p. 13 ; 
(1) Language of Dhruvas, p. 13 ; (m) The Tala and Graha 
of Dhruvas, p. 14 ; (n) Special suggestibility of Dhruvas, 
p. 14 ; 3. The Instrumental Music, p. 14 ; (a) The Stringed 
Instruments, Varuas, Alamkaras, Gltis, Dhatus, p. 15 ; 
The Vrttis, The Jatis of the Instrumental Music. The special 
manner of playing the Vina, p. 16 ; The special manner of 
playing the Vipaficl, playing of stiinged instruments before 
the Preliminaries, p. 17 ; ( b ) Hollow Instruments, p. 17 ; 
(c) Covered Instruments ( Instruments of Percussions ), 
The Vaskarana, p. 18 ; Music of Drums, Making of 
Drums, p. 19. 

III. Literature on Ancient Indian Music. 

1. Early writers ( c. 600 B. C.-r200 A. C. ), p. 20 ; 
(a) Narada, p. 20; (b) Svati, (c) Kohala, (d) Sandilya 
p. 21 ; (e) Visakhila, (f) Dattila, p. 22 : 2. The Date of 
the Natyasastra ; 3. Early Medieval Writers on Music 
( 200 A.C.-600 A.C. ) : (a) Visvavasu, (b) Tumburu, p. 23 ; 
(c) The Markandeyapurana, p. 24 ; (d) The Vayupurana, 
(e) Naudikesvara, p. 25 ; 4. Medieval writers of the Transi- 
tional period ( 600 A. C-1000 A. C. ), p. 25 ; ( a ) Sardfila, 
Matanga, Yastfka, Kasyapa and Durgasakti, p. 26 ; 5. I,ate 
Medieval Writings (1000 A. C.-1300 A. C.) : (a) The Sanglta- 
makaranda, (b) The Raga-taranginl, p. 27, (c) The Sanglta- 
samayasara, (d) Sangltaratnakara, p. 28. 

( viii ) 

IV. More about the Ancient Indian Theory and Practice of 


1. The Three Types of Character. 2. The Prominent 
position of the Nataka. 3. The Typical Theatrical Troupe, 
p. 29 ; 4. The Playwright as a Member of the Theatrical 
Troupe. 5. Distribution of Roles, p. 31 ; 6. The Principles 
of Personation, p. 32 ; 7. Special Importance of Women 
in Dramatic Production, 8. Impersonation of a king, p. 33, 
9. An Ideal Director, p. 34. 

V. More Data of India's Cultural History in the Natyasastra. 

1. Language. 2. Metre. 3. The Arthasastra, p. 35. 



Instrumental Music 

1-2, Three classes of Instruments, p. 1 ; 3-6, Threefold Appli- 
cation of the Instrumental Music. 7. Music of all kinds 
embellishes the Drama, p. 2 ; 8-9. Characteristics of the 
Gandharva, 10. Sources of Gandharva, 11. Three kinds of 
Gandharva, p. 3 : 12. Two Basts of Notes, 13-20 : Formal 
Aspects of music of the Vina and the Human Throat ; 
Aspects of the Verbal Themes in Music, Twenty aspects of 
theTala, p. 4 : 21-53, The Seven Notes, Mutual Relation 
of Notes, The Sonant and the Consonant Notes, p. 5 ; 

23. The Dissonant Notes, The Assonant Notes, p. 6 ; 

24. Description of the Two Gramas, p. 7 ; 25-26. Srutis in 
the $adja Grama, p. 8 ; 27-28. Srutis in the Madhyama 
Grama. The Mfirchanas. 29-30. Mfirchanas in the 
Sadjagrama, 31-32. Mfirchanas in the Madhyamagrama, 
p. 9, Initial Notes of the Mfirchanas in the two gramas, 
33-34. The four classes of Mfirchanas p. 10. Eightfold 
Tanas of the Mfirchanas, The Hexatonic Tanas, The 
Pentatonic Tanas, The Two Ways of Tanas, p. 12 ; The 
Overlapping, Two kinds of Overlapping, The Overlapping 
Notes, p. 13; 36-37. The- Overlapping Jfiti 37-39. The 
Jatis p. 14 ; 40-41. Seven Jatis in the Sadjagrama, Eleven 
Jatis in the Madhyama Grama, Two kinds of Jatis, p. 15 ; 
45-55. Modified Jatis p. 16 ; 56. Number of Notes in Jatis, 
The Jatis in Sadjagrama, the Heptatouic Jatis, the Penta- 
tonic Jatis, Jatis in the Madhyama Grama, the Hexatonic 
jatis, p. 17 ; 63-64. The Heptatonic Jatis, 65-73. Amsas in 

( ix ) 

jatis, 74. Characteristics of Jatis, p. 18 ; 75. The Graha 
76-78, The Amsa, p. 19 ; 79-93. AmSas of Jatis, p. 20; 
94. The High Pitch Movement, 95. The I,ow Pitch Move- 
ment, p. 21 ; Reduction and Amplification, 96-97. Ampli- 
. fication, Hexatonic Treatment, 98-99, Pentatonic Treatment, 
100. The Nyasa and ApanySsa, p. 23 ; 101-102. Jatis with 
their Characteristics, 103-104. $adja. 105-107. Arsabhl, p. 24 ; 
108-110. Dhavati, 111-112. Naisadi, 112-114. §adjakaisiki, 
115-117. Naisadi, 112-114. $adja Kaisiki, 115-117. §adjo- 
dicyava, 118-121. $adjamadhya, p. 25 ; 121-123. Gandharl, 
124-126. Raktagandharl, 126-127. Gandharodicyava, 128-130. 
Madhyama, p. 26; 131. Madhyamodicyava, 132-134. PaficamJ, 
135-136. Gandharapaficami, 137-139. Andhri, 140-143. Nanda- 
yantl, p. 27 ; 143-145. Karmaravi, 146-151. Kaisiki, p. 28. 

Stringed Instruments 

1-16. Application of Jatis to Sentiments, p. 29 ;• 17-22. Four 
Varnas, p. 31 ; 23-28. The Thirtyniue Alamkaras, p. 33 ; 
29-30. The Monotoiiic Alamkaras. 31-32. The Mixed 
Alamkaras, 33-34. The Ascending Alainkaras, 35-43. The 
Descending Alamkaras, 44-76. The Definition of the 
Alainkaras. p. 3i ; 77-81. Alainkaras depending on the Glti. 
p. 39 ; 82. Dhatus, 83-90. The Vistara Dhatus, p. 40 ; 91-92. 
The Karana Dhatus, 93-94. The Abiddha Dhatus, 95-102. 
The Vyafijana Dhatus, p. 41 ; 102-104. The three Vrttis, 
p. 42; 105-107. The Jatis, p. 43; 108-114. Three kinds 
of Music of the Vina, 114-122. The Karanas of Vipancl, 
p. 44 ; 122-125. The Bahir-gltas, 126-130. The Asravana 
p. 46; 131-36. The Arambha, p. 47; 137-142. The 
Vaktrapani, p. 47 ; 143-147. The Sanigh'otaua, p. 48; 148-150. 
The Parighattana, 151-154. The Margasfirita, 155-156. 
The lyllakrta, p. 49. 

Hollow Instruments 


Time Measure 

1-61. General terms and their Definitions, p. 53 ; 62-70. The 
Asarita,p. 60; 71-73. The medium- Asarita, 74-75. The 

( xii ) 

p. 203 ; 29-30. Two classes of Employment for characters, 
31-34. Female Inmates of the Harem, 35-37. The Chief Queen, 
p. 204 ; 38-39. Other Queens, 40-41. Other Highborn Queens, 
.42-43. Ordinary Wives, 44-45. Concubines, p. 205 ; 46-47. 
Craftswomeu, 48-51. Actresses, 51-54. Dancers, p. 206 ; 54-55. 
Maids in constant Attendance, 55-57. Maids of Special 
Work, 57-59. Maids in Constant Move, 59-60. Krrand Girls, 
60-61. Mahattaris, p. 207 ; 61-62. Pratiharls, 62-63. Maidens. 
63-64. Old Dames, 61-66. Ayuktikas, 67-70. Other Women 
Employees in the Harem, p. 208 ; 70-73. Other Inmates 
of the Harem, 73-74. The Snataka, 75-78. The Kaflcukiyas, 
78-79. The Nataklyii etc. p. 209 ; 79-80. The Varsadharas, 
80-81. The Nirmundas, 82-83. External Persons, p. 210 ; 
84-88. The King, 89-90. The Leader of the Army, 91. 
Chaplains and Ministers., p. 211; 92-93. Secretaries, 93-95. 
Judges, 95-97. Wardens of Princes, 98-99. Courtiers, p. 212. 


Distribution Of Roles 

1-4. General Principles of Distribution, 5-6. The Role of 
Gods, 7 8. The Role of Rfiksasas etc. 9-11. Role of Kings, 
p. 214 : 12-13. Role of Army-leaders and Secretaries, 14. Role 
of Kancnklyas and Srotriyas, 15-17. The Role of Minor 
characters, 18. The Role of fatigued persons, p. 215 ; 
18. The Role of a person in health, 19-21. Special cases of 
Assigning Roles, 22-24. Role of a character with Extra and 
Special limbs, 24. Entry of a character, 25. The Result of 
Impersonation, 26-27. Method of Proper Impersonation, p. 
216; 28. Three kinds of Impersonation, 29. The Natural 
Impersonation, 30. The Unnatural Impersonation, 31-32. 
The Imitative Impersonation, 33-36. Special Suitability 
of Men and Women, p. 217 ; 37. Women in Men's Roles, 
38-39. Women's special Merit, 40-42. Training Women 
in special Roles, p. 218, 43-46. Results of Proper Assign- 
meat of Roles, 47. Types of Dramatic Production, 48-52. 
The Delicate Type of Production, p. 219 ; 53-56. Energetic 
Type of production, 57-65. The Typical Impersonation of 
a King, p. 220; 66-71. Characteristics of a Director 
72-74. Natural Qualities of a Director p. 222- 74-75 
Characteristics of an Assistant of the Director, 75-76." 
Characteristics of an Actor, 76-77. Characteristics of a 
Parasite, 78. Characteristics of the Sakara, p. 223 • 79 

( xiii ) 

Characteristics of the Jester, 80. Characteristics of a Servant, 
81-83. Characteristics of a Courtezan, p. 224 ; 84-86. Charac- 
teristics of the Typical Heroine, 86-87. Women disqualified 
to take tip a role, 88-90. Members of a typical theatrical 
party, p. 225; 91. Characteristics of Bharata, 92-93. 
Characteristics of a Jester, 94. Characteristics of a 
Master-musician, 95. Meaning of the word Nata, p. 226 ; 
96-97. The Benediction, 98. Definition of a Director, 99. 
Definition of a Playwright, 100. Definition of an Actor, 
101. Definition of an Actress, p. 227 ; 102. The Crowu- 
maker, 103. The Maker of Ornaments, 104. Maker of 
Garlands, the Vesakara. 105. The Painter, the Dyer, and 
the craftsman, 106. The Kausllava, p. 228 ; 107-109. Other 
members of the party, p. 228. 


Descent of Drama on the Earth 

1-15. Sages question, p. 230 ; 16-29. Bharata answers, p. 231 ; 
30-32. Ablution of the Director on the stage, p. 232 ; 33-35. 
Bharata's sons offended the sages, 36-42. The Sages curse 
Bharata's sons, 43-44. (iods intercede in favour of Bharata's 
sons, 45-46. Bharata's sons approach their Father, 47-51. 
Bharata pacifies them, 52-54. Nahusa invites divine Artistes 
to the Earth, p. 234 ; 55-57. Gods reject the request, 58-59. 
Nahusa approaches Bharata, 60-63. Urvasl and the earthly 
Drama, 64-67. Bharata grants this request and sends his sons 
to the earth, 68-70. Kohala is the Successor of Bharata, 71-74. 
Bharata's sous come down to the Earth, p. 236 ; 75-76. 
Kohala and his associates, 77-79. Value of the Natya- 
sastra, 80-82. Value of the Dramatic show, p. 237 ; 83. 
The popular practice supplements dramatic rules, The 
Final Benediction, p. 238. 








Bh P. 

D., Dattila. 

GS. J. 
GS. IT. 



















— Abhiseka-nataka 

— Abhinayadarpana 

— Abhinavagupta 

— Apte's Sanskrit-English Dictionary 

— Arthasastra of Kautilya 

— Brhaddesl 

— Bhavaprakasana of Saradatanaya 

— Dattila's work on Music 

— Dasarfipa 

— Example 

— GitasfitrasSra (Bengali) 

— Gltasfltrasara (English Summary) 

— Kavyamala Series 

— Catura-Kallinatha, a commentator 

of the Sangltaratnakara 
— Malatlmadhava 
— Malavikagnimitra 
— Meghadfita 
—Music of Hindostau 
— Music of India 
— Mirror of Music 
— Mrcchakatika 
— Naradiya-siksa 
— Najyadarpana 
— Pratima-nataka 
— Abhijflanasakuntala 
— SinghabhOpala, a commentator of 

the Saiigitaratuakara 
— Sarngadeva 
— Sahityadarpaua 
— Sangltamakaranda 
—Sanglt a ratnakara 
— Svapnavasavadatta 
— Vikramorva&ya 


1. General works 

Apre, V. S., The Practical Skt. English Dictionary, Bombay, 1924. 
Banerjee, Krishnadhan, Glta-sfltrasara (Btngali) Parts I and II with 

a supplement to Part I by Himansusekhar Banerji, Calcutta, 


Banerjee, Krishuadhau, Glta-sfltrasara (English), Himansu Sekhar 
Banerjee's explanation and notes on Grammar and Theory 
of Hindusthani Music, as spoken of in Bengali by the 
author in Gltasutrasara, Calcutta, 1941. 

Companion to Shakespeare Studies, Cambridge, 1946. 
Danielou, Alain, Northern Indian Music, Vol. I, London, Calcutta, 

Ghosh, Chandra Mohan, Chhandahsara samgraha, Calcutta. 
Ghosh, Manomohan, Contribution to the Historv of Hindu Drama, 
Calcutta, 1957. 

Ghosh, Sautidev, Java-O-Balir Nrtya-git (Bengali), Calcutta,*1952. 
Gupta, Prabhat Chandra (ed.), Gltavitan-Varsikl (Bengali), Vol. I, 
Calcutta, 1946. 

Jolly, Julius, Hindu Law and Customs, Calcutta, 1929. 
Keith, A. B., The Sanskrit Drama, Oxford, 1924. 
Kommiserjvsky, Th., The Theatre, London, 1935. 
Popley, H. A., The Music of India, Calcutta 1950. 
Prajnauananda Svami, Sangita-Samskrti (Bengali) Vol. II, Calcutta, 

Roy, Hemendra Lai, Problems of Hindustani Music, Calcutta, 

Sen Gupta, N. C., Evolution of Ancient Indian Law, Calcutta, 

Strangways, A. H. Fox, The Music of Hindostan, Oxford, 1914. 
Tagore, Sourindra Mohan (ed), Hindu Music from Various 
Sources, Calcutta, 1875. 

Willard, Capt. N. Augustus, A Treatise on the Music of 
Hindoosthan (included in the preceding work) 

Winternitz, M., History of Indian Literature, Vol. I, Calcutta, 1927. 

2. Original Texts 

Abhinavabharatl ( Ag ) Chapter XXVIII— a transcript from the 
Oriental Institute, Baroda ; Chapters XXIX-XXXI, and 
Chapter XXXII (fragment )— Dr. S. K. De's Ms. 
Abhinayadarpana (AD) of Nandikesvara, ed. Manomohan Ghosh, 

Calcutta, 1934, 2nd ed. 1957. 
Abhisekanataka (Abhi) of Bhasa, ed. Devadhar in Bhasa's 

Collected Works, Pooua, 1937. 
Arthasastra of Kautilya, ed. J. Jolly, Lahore, 1923-24. 
Dattilara (I)) of D.ittila-muni, ed. K. Sambasiva Sastri (TSS. 102) 

Trivandnun, 1932. 
Naradlya-^iksa (NSS), edition in the &iksa-Samgraha, Benares, 

Pratitnauataka (Pratima), ed. Devadhar. 
Prakrta-Kalpataru of Ramasarma, ed. Manomohan Ghosh, 

Calcutta, 1954. 
Prakrt&ausasana of Purusottamadeva, ed. Nitti-Dolci, Paris, 1938. 
Brhatkatha-sloka-samgraha, ed. I^acote, Paris. 
Brhaddesi (Bd) of Matauga'muni, ed. K. Sambasiva Sastri (TSS. 

94), Trivandrum 1929. 
Bhavaprakasana (Bh P) of Saradatanaya, ed. G.O.S. 
Najyadarpana (ND) of Ramacaudra and Gunacandra, ed. GOS. 
Malavikagnimitra (Malavi), ed. S. P. Pandit, Bombay, 1889. 
MalatI in? dim va (Mala ti), ed. Nirnayasagar. 
Meghadflta (Megh), ed. S. Vidyaratna, Calcutta, Saka, 1821. 
Vikramorvaslya, (ed.JS. P. Pandit, Bombay, 1898. 
Sakuntala (Sak). ed. Iswar Ch. Vidyasagar, Calcutta, 1872. 
Sangltadarpana, ed. A. A. Bake with Translation and Notes, Paris 
193 of. ' 

Sangltamakarauda of Narada, ed. M. R. Telang, Baroda, 1920. 
Sangltaratnakara, ed. from Anandasrama and Adyar. 
Sangltasamayasara of Parsvadeva, TSS. 
Sahltyadarpana, ed. Bibliotheca Indica. 
Svapnavasavadatta, ed. Devadhara. 



The Volume II of the Natyasastra (translation) falls into 
two parts : (1) Chapters XXVIII-XXXIII which are on music 
in its vocal as well as instrumental aspect and (2) Chapters 
XXXIV-XXXVI which are on residual matters concerning the 
production of plays, and the legendary origin of drama (Natya). 
Though the age of the entire work and other relevant matters 
have been treated of in the Introduction to the Volume I, the 
remaining Chapters require some preliminary notes. Naturally 
the Chapters on music are to be taken up first. 

/. A Short History of the Study of Indian Musi? 

As in the case of our drama, William Jones was also 
the pioneer in studying Indian Music. His article "The Musical 
Modes of Hindoos" 1 , was originally written in 1784 five years 
before his translation of the Sakuntala, and it was the first of its 
kind. Persons who interested themselves during the half a 
century that followed, discussed Indian music more or less in 
the lines of Jones, till an English military officer was attracted 
by the beauty of Indian music. Captain N. 'Augustus Willard— 
for that was the name of the officer— "was known to be a skilful 
performer of several instruments and to have enjoyed local 
advantages of observation from his appointment at the court of 
the Nawab of Banda"'. This is perhaps the reason why his work 

1. Originally published in the Asatik Researches Vol. HI and republished 
in Sourindia Mohun Tagore's Hindu Music from various Authors, Calcutta, 1875 
(pp. 125-160.) 

2. See the review of Willard's work mentioned later, in the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society, Vol. XXV, 1834. This review has also been republished in Tagore's 
Hindu Music etc. (pp.235-239.) 


brought about a new orientation in the study of Indian music, 
and to some extent superceded the work of Jones and his 
followers. Willard being very cultured, and well-read in his 
subject and thoroughly proficient in Hindustani, his mode of 
treatment and the depth of insight displayed in his work, 
were very remarkable, and according to a specialist, it is the 
earliest systematic treatise on Hindustani music 3 which has not 
perhaps yet lost its value. The author's own summary of the 
contents of the work "A Treatise on the Music of Hindoostan" 
(Calcutta, 1884)'' shows the significant features of his work. But 
its special importance lies in putting emphasis on the actual 
practice of music apart from whatever is available from the old 
Sanskrit texts. William Jones however started his enquiry with 
such texts, and hence his discussion, according to Willard, has 
been too academic to do justice to the subject. 

But in spite of Willard's emphasis on the practical side while 
writing on Indian music, his charges against Jones 6 , were not 
justified. For, not only all discussion on classical Indian music, 
should be kept close to the traditional teachings contained in the 
texts, but one should bear in mind that Jones was a pioneer in 
the field without the advantage which Willard had in taking up 
the study after half a century during which much was already 
written on the subject. If Willard had a positive advantage over 
Jones in havitig wnat may be called a first-hand knowledge of 
the subject, his conclusions based on data collected from 
professionals only, needed checking in the light of old Sanskrit 
works. l„ order to have an historical view of Indian music such 
necking was indispensable. As Willard strove much merely 
o explore the contemporary (classical) music, and attained 
consider^ success in this, such a view was naturally beyond 
writing TInsisthereasouof his strong disapproval of Jones' 

Stxangways woAfMH)! ** W ° lk ^ n0t ° CCur in the bibliography of F. 
5, See.Roy'8 Problems, p. 39. 


Notwithstanding Willard's criticism, Jones' method did not 
long remain in disfavour. About thirtyfive years after he had 
written, Kshetra Mohan Goswami discussed (1863) the practice as 
well as theory of Indian classical music in his Samgitasara 
(Essentials of Music) written in Bengali. This was published 
under the patronage of Sourindra Mohan Tagore who himself 
compiled some years afterwards (1875) his Samgltasara-samgraha 
which contained extracts (with English translation) from ancient 
authors like Sarngadeva 6 and Damodara 7 . Considering the 
relative scarcity of authentic data in the shape of published 
Sanskrit works on music at that time, the contributions of 
Goswami and Tagore were highly commendable. The next 
important writer on the Indian classical music, was the 
rekuowued Krislinadhan Bauerji 8 . His magnum opus the Gltasfitra- 
sara (Essential Principles of Music) written in Bengali was 
published in 1885" just after a century of William Jones' first 
article on the subject. Bauerji besides being an accomplished 
Indian musician and a scholar, had sufficient acquaintance with 
the western music, and this imparted singular value to his work. 
According to a specialist, Bauerji has not left a single phase of 
ludiau classical music, without comments made with reaSon and 
insight, and "His critical faculty is. astonishingly sensitive to 
finer shades of analogies. The book is valuable for its discussion 
of fundamentals of music and the searching criticism of existing 
theories" 10 . Writers on Indian music coming after Bauerji, are 
legion, and they being more or less well-known will not be 
be mentioned in this short sketch. But a complete account of 
the ancient Indian music descriptive and historical, still remains 
to be written. For, a very few of the original Sanskrit texts on 

6. The author of the Samgita-ratnakara. 

7. The author of the Samgita-darpana. 

8. This scholar-musician of Bengal resigned his post in the Provincial Civil 
Service and devoted himself entirely to the study and dissemination of music. See 
the Gitavitana-varsiki, Calcutta, 1444, (p.25). 

9. Second Edition in 1S97. and Third Edition in 1934. To this third edition. 
a valuble appendix has been added by Himangsu Sekhar Banerji a very able 
musical scholar who has made the work upto date. A summary of the work along 
with this appendix, has also been separately published in English translation 
in 1941, H.A. Popley in his Music of India (2nd ed.) does not mention this work. 

10. H. L. Roy. Problems, p. 50. 


music have been critically studied", and the Natyasitstra which 
contains the oldest and most comprehensive treatment on the 
subject yet remains outside the reach of average interested 
persons 12 . Krishnadhan Banerji whose work is otherwise 
valuable, sometimes made assertions which need correction in 
tlie light of the NS. The same may possibly be said of other 
writers also, and cautious persons like F. Strangways, suspend 
their judgement in view of proper exploration of the contents 
of the N&. For example, Strangways once writes, "Unfortunately 
it is not possible at present to give such a detailed account of 
the Indian Murchana ( the equivalent of Harmonia ) ; more will 
perhaps be possible when Bharata's Natyafaitra has been adequately 
translated" (MH.p. 141). 

2. The Basic Text 

The original text of the Chapers XXVII1-XXXIII critically 
edited by the translator, has been published in a seperate volume. 
For details about its reconstruction, the readers are referred to the 
Introduction to the same and also to the Introduction to the 
Volume I of the translation (pp.XI,!). 

3. Translation and Motes 

Principles regarding the translation and its annotation have 
also been detailed in the Introduction to the Volume I of the 
translation (pp.XLI-XUI). 

h a ''.u^r^?'! ? '" thU regard) ,s D5 °""Ws Samgita-darpana ed 
by Arnold A. Bake with Engh.h translate, „„*, and introduction under the tide 
"» he Mil tor of Music". Paris. 1930f m« ^ t, u ,. "" uct tn e title 

H. A. Pople, (the second ed. of Ss Mus " of Ind^"" "^ * * D " nie, ° U ' »" d 

12. J. Grosset's Frend, translation of the Chapter XXVIII of f h„ w<< 
(treating of music) has not sati-fied writers ,,n *h I AA * U1 of thc Ns - 
Chapters XXIX-XXXIII also deaLing allw th I *"' *" MH ' P - UU 

before. - * Ith muS,c ' have not been translated 


/ . The Indian Conception of Music 

Though music occupied a very important place in the life of 
Indians of ancient time, one single word such as "Gandharva" 
denoting all its different aspects (vocal as well as instrumental) 
appears only in the middle of the 4lh century B.C. 1 This 
word occurs in the Jatakas. For according to the Guttila 
Jataka (no.243) the legendary Brahmadatta was born in a family 
of Gandharvas (musicians), and after gaining a great proficiency 
in the art of music he came to be known as a Gandharva. As this 
Jataka mentions playing of a Vina, and the two kinds of 
Mflrchaua 2 in this connection, the word Gandharva in the sense 
of music may well be pre-Buddhistic. And it is certainly not later 
than 200 B.C. For it occurs in the Hathigumpha inscription of 
Kharvela. In earlier times, gita (song) and vadya (instrumental 
music) were seperately mentioned, or the compound word gttavaditra 
(Pali, gttavaditta) represented music in its totality. But dance and 
drama (nrtta, nrtya and natya) were very closely associated with 
music vocal and instrumental, from ancient times, possibly long 
before the time of Buddha. For preksa (Pali, pekkha) was an equi- 
valent of "Najya" which included nrtta, g'tta and vadilra. Buddha 
forbade the monks to witness it [pekkha) as well as the separate 
performances of njtta, glta and vaditra. Due to this very close 
association of the three arts, there came into vogue in about the 
3rd century A.C. the word "Samglta" for signifying by means of 
a single term all the different phases of music including dance. 
For, according to Indian conception, dance (njtta, njtya) owing its 
origin to rhythm like its vocal and instrumental counterparts, 
was a kind of music, the vehicle of rhythm in this case being 
human body with its different limbs. The Natya also depending 

1. Though some of the Jatakas may be as old as the time of Buddha, all of 
them may not reach back to such antiquity. But it may be that they were in 
existence in the 4th century B. C. cf. Wintemitz, Vol. II. p. 121. 

2. In the Satapatha Brahmana the Uttaramandra Mutchani has been 
mentioned. See JAOS Vol. 50, 53 and Journal Univ. of Baroda Vol. JI, pp. 2» H. 


on ttftta, nrtya and abhinaya (gesture) belonged to the category of 
dance. Probably these facts led dance especially in its connexion 
with all kinds of dramatic spectacles, to a substantial union with 

2. The Vocal Music 

Though the vocal music was perhaps the oldest of human 
arts, its analytical study seems to have begun only after instru- 
ments of music came into existence and made considerable 
progress. For the N^ says that the bases of musical notes (svara) 
are twofold : the Vina of the human throat (lit. body) and the 
wooden Vina (harp or lute), and derives the gratis (intervals) 
exclusively from the wooden Vina. Now Sruti is the most 
important term in connection with the theory of Indian music. 

(a) Urutis. Though the ancient Indian authorities differ from 
one another about the meaning of the word, it may be translated 
as 'inervals"or "musical intervals"' which make up the notes 
of the octave (corresponding to Indian saptaka) in its different 
Grama*.* Ihe number of Srutis in the tfadja Grama are as 
follow*: three in Rsabha (ri), two in Gandhara (ga), four 
in Madhyama (ma), four in Pancama (pa), tree in 
Dhaivata (dha), two in the Nisada (ni) and fou in SadT W 
And the ber Qf grutis . n thc ^ Gram ^- 

follows: four m Madhyama (ma), three i„ Pancama (oaT 
four in Dhaivata (dha), two in Nisad-i ( n i\ f , 

M .three in Rsabha (ri) and two in G^aJ gi) .*" " tht 

described as ^^^ff^^ ^ ^ 
those two notes whiM, . y " tOT example, 

Srutis from ea h ot er T "" ^^ ° f Uine ° r "*■*» 
other are mutually Consonant, e.g. v S a dj a 


3. See p. 7. footnote 4 

4. See XXVIII. 24. 

5. See XXVIII. 25. 26. 

6. See XXVIII. 27. 28. 

7. SeetfXVIII.22f„. l 


Madhyama, Sadja and Paficama, Rsabha and Dhaivata, Gandhara 
and Nisada in the Sadja Grama. Such is the case in the Madhyama 
Grama except that Sadja and Paficama are not Consonant while 
Paficama and Rsabha are so.". 

(c) Different Gramas. The Grama may be translated as "scale". 
There are three Gramas in Indian mnsic : Sadja, Madhyama and 
Gandhara. According to F. Strangways the Sa-grama (Sadja- 
grSma) is the western Major with a sharpened Sixth, the Ma- 
grama (Madhyama-grama) the western Major C-c, but intended 
presumably to be used as an F-f scale with a sharpened Sixth, 
and Ga-grama (Gandhara-grfuna) possibly intermediate between 
these two long obsolete (MH. p. 106). The NS does not describe 
this Gandhara Grama, because it went out of use at its time. 

(d) The Murchanas. According to the Hindu theorists, each 
of the Gramas is the source of seven Murchanas. About the 
meaning of the term Murchaua which is now generally considered 
to be equivalent to mode of the Greeks, there is some obscurity. 
The Sadja Grama gives rise to seven Murchanas such as Uttara- 
niaudra, Rajanl, Uttarayata, Suddhasadja, Matsarlkrta, Asva- 
krantfi and AbhirudgatA." These are constituted as shown below. 

sa-ri-ga-ma-pa-dha-ni Uttaramandra 1 ° 
ri-ga-ma-pa-dha-ni-sa Rajanl 
ga-ma-pa-dha-ni-sa-ri Uttarayata 
ma-pa-dha-ni-sa-ri-ga Suddhasadja 
pa-dha-ni-sa-ri-ga-ma Asvakranta 
dha-ui-sa-ri-ga-iria-pa Matsarlkrta 
ni-sa-ri-ga-ma-pa-dha Abhirudgata 
The first six of these have a striking resemblance with the 

Greek ' ' modes which having eight notes including the first note 

repeated at the end, are as follows :— 

sa-ri-ga-ma-pa-dha-ui-sa Ionian mode 
ri-ga-ma-pa-dha-ni-sa-ri Dorian mode 
ga-ina-pa-dha-ni-sa-ri-ga Phrygian mode 
ma-pa-dha-ni-sa-ri-ga-raa Lydian mode 
pa-dha-ni-sa-ri-ga-ma-pa Mixolydian mode 
dha-ni-pa-ri-ga-ma-pa-dha Aeolian mode 

8. Sec XXVIII 22-23 9. See XXVIII. 29. 10. See note 2 above. 
11. These Greek modes were modified by St. Ambrose (c 4th century) and 
partly by St. Gregory (604 A.C). See ERE. 


The Madhyama Graina' 2 gives rise to the following seven 
Mflrchanas: Sauvlri, HarinSsva, Kalopanata, Suddhaniadhya, 
Margavl, Paiiravi and Hrsyaka. These are constituted as shown 

ma-pa-dha-ni-sa-ri-ga Sauvlri 

pa-dha-ni-sa-ri-ga-ma Harinasva 

dha-ni-sa-ri-ga-ma-pa Kalopanata 

ni-sa-ri-ga-ma-pa-dha Suddhamadhyfi 

sa-ri-ga-ma-pa-dha-ni Margavi 

ri-ga-ma-pa-dhi-na-sa Pauravl 

ga-ma-pa-dha-ni-sa-ri Hrsyaka 

The Gruidhara Grama also gave rise to seven Mflrchanas ; 13 
this Grama becoming obsolete at the time of the NS, they were 
not mentioned by the author. 

The four kinds of Murchanas— The Mflrchanas described above 
are heptatonic (purna-full). But there are also three other 
kinds of them, viz. hexatouic {sadava), pentatonic (audavd) and 
Mflrchanas including Overlapping notes (sadharani-krtay 4 To 
distinguish these three kinds from the heptatonic Murchanas they 
are also called Tanas. 15 Though these Murchanas and Tanas 
were used to embellish the songs, they were also used in connexion 
with the vocal training of the singer. For the NS says : The 
variety of the Tanas and the Mflrchanas thus arisiug, provides 
enjoyment to the hearer as well as to the musician. The 
Mfirchana aud Tana are also of use because their practice helps 
the (easy; attainment of Voice-registers (sthhnupraptiy «. 

(e) The Voice-registers. There are three Voice-registers the 
chest (uras), the throat (kantha) and the head (A7«)". Notes and 
the lr pnches proceed from these three registers. In calling one 
who is at a great distance, notes proceeding from the head 

12. See XXVIII. 30. 

13. See NaS. 1. 2. 9 and SR. 1. 4 25-26. 

14. See XXVIII. 32-33. 

15. See notes on XXVIII. 33-34. 

16. See -The two way, of Tana," under XXVUl-33-34 (pp. 12.13) 

17. See XX. 38-40, 41-42. 


register is used; but, for calling one who is not at a great 
distance, notes from the throat, and for calling a person who is 
by one's side, notes from the chest register serve the purpose. 

(f) The Overlapping note : The Overlapping note mentioned 
above is a transtional note like Kakall Nisada. 18 As regards 
the use of the note in the Mflrchana there appears to be a rule that 
it should be in the ascending scale (arohin) and be made specially 
weakened (alpa). If it is made descending (avarohin) it will lead 
the Srutis to Jati ragas or Jatis. 

(g) The Jatis : The Jatis whatever may be interpretation of 
this term by the scoliasts, probably stand for melody-types of 
the recognised kind, as opposed to those which were hybrids or 
got mixed up with folk-tunes. 19 Besides this, they developed 
some technical complexities from which the Mfirchanas, if they 
were melody-types too, were free. The Jatis eighteen in number 
were of two kinds ; pure (Suddha) and modified (vikjta). 

In the §adja Grama the pure Jatis are §adji, Arsabhl, Dhaivatt 
and Naisadl, 30 and in the Madhyama Grama, they are Gandharl, 
Madhyama and Paficami. "Pure" in this connexion means having 
Amsa, Graha, and Nyasa consisting of all the notes. When these 
Jatis lack two or more of the prescribed characteristics except 
the Nyasa, they are called "modified" (tibia). 21 In the observa- 
tion of the Nyasa in the pure Jatis, the note should be regularly 
Mandra, but in the case of the modified Jatis there is no (fixed) 
rule. The modified Jatis are eleven in number and they grow 
from combination of pure Jatis with each other. The Jatis which 
seem to be the fore-runner of later Indian Ragas and Raginls 
were sometimes, heptatonic, sometimes hexatonic and sometimes 
pentatonic. And they had ten characteristics such as, Graha, 
Am&, Tara, Mandra, Nyasa, Apanyasa, Reduction, Amplifica- 
tion, hexatonic treatment and pentatonic treatment." Among 
these, Graha has been sometimes considered to be equivalent to 
"clef" of the western music. Amsa has been rightly compared 

18. Daniilou calls it "intercalary note". See XXVIII. 34-35. 

19. For the meaning of Jati see the note on XXVIH. 38-39 (p. 14). A 
Danielou's interpretation of the word does not seem to be convincing (see Northern 
Indian Music, pp. 101, 122-123). See also XXVIH. 38-44. 

20. See XXVIII. 44. 

21. Ibid. 

22. See XXVIH. 74-100. 


with 'the Governing note' or 'the Keynote' of the western music. 
The Nyasa also has been compared with the cadence of the 
western music probably with some justification. The other 
terms in this connexion do not seem to have any equivalent 
in the western music. 

(h) The Jatis and their connexion with the Sentiments : As songs 
included in the preformance of plays were meant, among other 
things, for the evocation of Sentiments according to the require- 
ment of theatrical production, the Jati songs had' a distinct part 
to plnv in this regard. Hence the theorists have assigned them 
according to notes constituting them, to different Sentiments. 28 
For example, the Sadjodlcyavati and the Sadjamadhya are to be 
applied in the Erotic and the Comic Sentiments respectively, 
because of Madhyama and Paficama in them. The Sfldji and the 
Arsabhl are to be applied in the Heroic, the Furious and the 
Marvellous Sentiments after making respectively Sadja and 
Rsabha their Graha note. The Naisadl with Nisada as its Arnsa 
note and the Sadjakaisiki with Gandhara as its Arnsa note 
should be the Jati to be sung in the Pathetic Sentiment. 
The Dhaivati with Dhaivata as its Anisa note should be applied 
in the Odious and the Terrible Sentiments. Besides this, the 
Dhaivati is applicable in' the Pathetic Sentiment and similarly 
the Sadjaniadhya is to be applied a connexion with madness. 

(1) The Dhruvas : The dramatic songs per excellence were the 
Dhruvas in which Varna, Alainkara, tempo (laya), Jati and 
lani regularly occurred. They were of five classes such as 
~H : '\ ♦ ^ ' Nai?kramik! ' p rasadiki and Antara related 

(mskrama), calnnng ^asada) and transition (antara) in course of 
the progress of plays." 

chalet th f e 7 ri ° US SeDtimentS SUng at the e " tra «<* * 
characters m the stage are called Prave.4ikl Dhruvas » 

Songs sung at the e.sit of characters to indicate their 

gomg out are called Nai. 5 kramikl Dhruvas- 

^ Anta^Dhruvas were sung to divert the attention of the 

23. See XIX. Iff. 

24. See XXXII. 26-27. 

25. See XXXII. 365. 

26. Set XXXII, 366. 


audience from some shortcomings of the performance or when 
the principal characters became gloomy, absent-minded, angry 

Prasadiki Dhruvas were sung for claming the audience after 
they witnessed something which roused their feeling very much.' 8 

Aksepiki Dhruva was sung on occasions like one's being 
captured, obstructed, fallen, attacked with illness, dead or in 
swoon. ae 

The dhruvas from their detailed description seem to have 
been a sort of "background" music suggesting acts and moods 
of different characters in a play. Aud the suggestion had its 
vehicle in the contents of songs as well as in their metre, 30 
language, 31 tempo 311 and Tala. 33 The two Vlyas which were 
to follow the Dhruvas 31 also added to their power of suggestion. 

(j) Contents of Dhruvas : Dhruvas in case of men and women 
of superior, inferior or middling class should relate to objects 
comparable to them in quality. 36 In case of gods, and kings the 
comparable objects were the moon, fire, the sun and wind 
and in case of Daityas and Raksasas they are clouds, mountains 
and seas. 36 

Ex. (i) The moon which has its body covered with the 
canopy of clouds and has been robbed of beauty by the rays 
of the sun, and which has become colourless due to the advent 
of the morning, is no longer chasing the darkness with its 
(very bright) smile. 

(ii) Here arises in the sky the sun the lamp of the 
world. He is clad with myriads of rays, and his warmth is 
adored by Brahmins and Munis. 

(iii) The strongly blowing wind, shaking the tree-tops 
with constant rustle, moving about at the foot of the mountain 


See XXXII. 367, 


See XXXII. 368. 


See XXXII. 373. 


See XXX11. 37ff. 


See XXXII. 440 ff. 


See XXX11. 32 ff. 




See XXX11. 499-500 


See XXXII. 407 


See XXXII 408 and the notes, 


and raising up dusts red and brown, is running along like a 
very angry person. 

(iv) This cloud looking like smoke is roaring and with 
its lightning, is, as it were, piercing the earth, and like a 
terrible elephant, it is pouring quickly masses of water to cover 
the entire world. 

(v) With his head struck by lightning this lord of moun- 
tains sleeping under heat of fever, sinks down as it were into 
the earth. 

(vi) The sea on which the wind has raised ripples and 
waves, which has become very noisy due to the succession of 
waves, has its birds scared by swiftly blowing wind, has more 
waves due to perturbed fishes, has the sound of agitated clouds, 
suddenly appears now angry at the moment being surrounded 
by high mountains. 

In case of Siddhas, Gandharvas and Yaksas the comparable 
objects were the plants, stars and bulls, and for those persons 
engaged m the practice of austerities, comparable objects 
were the sun, fire and wind. 3 7 

Ex. (i) On learning that the moon in the sky has lost her 
beauty on being eclipsed by Rahu, the stars are weeping, as it 
were, m great grief, and are shedding tears in (the shape of) their 

(ii) The sun of unparalleled brightness which is the crown 
ot the eastern mountain, and is adored by Brahmins and Munis, 
is moving about in the sky. 

Kun,T e « PeaC ° t cks ' K ™«fica, ruddy geese and lakes with 
SltgcWteS: l"** («*.*> ^ be compared with 

is movTn.t ^ e / eiale Crane which dwells in the lotus-lake 
moving h e r dearest one's abode on the beach of the river. 

i tl appearance of do«ds the peacocks are dancing, 
abouuiwat ^ ^ h " ^ * *"—»■>* ™ving 

^^tmpare^^ «- - 

37. See XXXII 409 and the notes 

38. See XXXII 415 and the note.. 

39. Se«.XXXII 416 and the note.. 


Ex. (i) The cuckoo which has always a voice sweet to ears, 
is roaming about in the vernal forest where the Cuta, Tilaka, 
Kuruvaka and Asoka trees have flowered and attracted humming 
bees, is creating intoxication in young damsels. 

(ii) fair one, the bee after roaming for a long time in 
the lotus-lake, is now flying through the sweet-smelling Cuta 
forest adorned by spring, and it has a desire for tasting the asava 
(honey) from the mouth of its female companion. 

(iii) At the close of the night the terrible owl which had a 
fearful hooting, has behind it a group of chasing crows, and it is 
(now) hastily searching for its own hollow (of the tree). 

But the wives of superior, middling and iuferior characters 
were compared with another set of objects or animals. The 
night, earth, moon-light, lotus-lake, female elephant and the 
river were compared with the wives of kings. *" 

Ex. (i) The night which has rays of the moon as her 
necklace, the stars as the head-ornaments, and planets as orna- 
ments of other limbs, looks beautiful like a youthful woman. 

(ii) The humming of bees declares, as it were, that the 
lotus-lake which has just now opened beautifully its lotus-face, is 
shining while it is surrounded by lovers of lotus. 

(iii) In the great mountain ravaged by wind and struck by 
lightning, the she-elephant is weeping (in distress). 

Similarly, lake, osprey, creeper, female crane, pea-hen and 
female deer were compared with wives of middling characters 
as well as courtesans. 41 A hen, bee, crow, cuckoo and owl of 
the female species, were comparable in Dhruvas to wives of 
inferior characters.* 2 

(k) Metres of Dhruvas : Metres of varying length of their feet 
were suited to suggest differeut movements, situations and senti- 
ments. 43 For example, in the various acts of gods when there 
was no obstacle, the Anusfubh metre was to be used, and metres 
like Mala, Vaktra and Aparavaktra were suited to Pravesikl 
Dhruvas, and Puja and Culika suited to Naiskramiki Dhruvas. 

(1) Language af Dhruvis : Though the general rule about 

40. See XXXll 418 and the notes 

41. See XXXII 419 and the notes 

42. See XXXII 420 and the notes 

43. See XXXII 427 ff. ; 444 ff. 


*.* thev were to be in Saurasenl, some times 
JJhruvas was that they were o d „ Magadhi 

M&gadhl, Sanskrit and half-Sanskr t aiso w Sanskrit 

was evidently used in case of infenor characters. But Sanskrit 
las prescribed for heavenly beings, while in case of human 
beings half-Sanskrit was used. This half-Sanskrit was possibly 
something like the language of the metrical portion of the 


(in) The Tola and Graha of Dhruvas : Definite instructions 
regarding the use of Kalas and Padapata show the important 
part Tola played in singing of Dhruvas. The NS. devotes one 
long chapter XXXII over a very complex system of Tala to be 
used in all kinds of musical performance iucluding the singing 
of Dhruvas. Besides this, there are special rules of Grahas for 
such Talas in connexion with Dhruvas. 4 5 

(n) Special suggestibility of Dhurvas : Besides suggesting the 
situations and moods of characters, Dhruvas suggested also 
the time of different happenings. For example, the Pravesikl 
Dhruva was sung to indicate anything in the forenoon and the 
Naiskrainikl indicated anything occurring throughout the day 
and night. And gentle Dhruvas indicated the forenoon, while 
the pathetic Dhruvas indicated the happenings in afternoon and 
evening. 4 « 

3. The Instrumental Music 

It has been suggested before 4 ' that the study and analysis of 
notes in rongs began probably after the instruments of music were 
invented and considerably improved. The description of 
Varnas and Alamkaras given in the NS. in the chapter on stringed 
instruments seems to suggest this. It is also clear that the stringed 
instruments (fata) especially the Vina, played the most important 
part in this connexion. Besides the stringed ones there are also 
two other kinds of instrument. They are hollow (hsira), and the 
covered (avandha) or instruments of percussion. 

44. See XXXII 440 ff. 

45. See XXXII 471 ff, 

46. See XXXII 464 ff. 

47. Se« Above p. 6 of this Introduction . 


(a) The Stringed Instruments : 

(i) Varnas : Varnas 4 8 produced in a stringed instrument, 4 • 
as they are in the ascending (arohin) or descending (avarohin) order 
or are repeated ( sthayin-stxymg ) or are mixed in form, are 
called respectively Ascending, Descending, Monotonic or Mixed 

(ii) Alamkaras : The Varnas in their different combinations 
give rise to thirtythree Alamkaras. 80 But this number varies 
with authors according as they are early or late. The Alamk&ras 
as its name implies is meant for embellishing the instrumental 
music. Tanas seem to be the vocal counterpart of the Alamkaras 
of the stringed instruments. 61 

(iii) The Gitis : The N6 mentions after the Alamkaras four 
Gitis (lit. songs). But their special connexion with the stringed 
instruments remains obscure. Gitis have been described by some 
as an ancient system of classification of rhythm. 55 

(iv) The Dhatus : (radical sounds). 68 The playing of stringed 
instruments have four kinds of Dhatus (radical sounds). They are 
Vistara, Karana, Aviddha and Vyafijana. All of these have 
subdivisions, and they relate to different types of stroke, their 
pitch, number, grouping and the manner of production. For 
example : 

(1) The Vistara includes four kinds of stroke : Sainghataja 
(growing out of contrast), Samavayaja (growing out of combina- 
tion). Vistaraja (growing out of amplitude) and Anubandhaja 
(growing out of mere succession). 

48. Modern writers except Danielou have mostly ignored this. A. Danielou 
(MM p. 99) translates this as "Melodic movement". SceiXXIX 17-18 and the notes. 

49. Vocal Music also includes Varnas. 

50. A. Danielou translates this as "Ornamental vocalization" (Northern 
Indian Music p. 102). Other modern writers except Krishnadhan Banerji have 
ignored this. His treatment (G.S.I.p. 124) however is very shor<-. 

51. It seems that with the development of the Raga music, Alamkaras and 
Varnas which constiuted them became less important in the eyes of musicians. 
Hence in spite of their use no one paid special attention to them. 

52. HIMANSU BANERJI thinks that an old system of classification of 
rhythm depended on the Glti and it also included special formation of syllables and 
variation of speed. See GS. II pp. 72-73. Other modem writers ignore this 
altogether. The function of Glti in the dramaticperformance is not clear. 

53. See XXIX, 82 ff. and the notes. Modern writers ignore this altogether, 


(2) The Karana Dhatu consists of three, five, seven or nine 
strokes or all these combining and ending in a heavy stroke. 

(3) The Aviddha Dhatu consists of two, three, four or nine 
strokes made gradually and slowly, or a combination of these. 

(4) The Vyafijaua Dhatu consists of touching a string simul- 
taneously with the two thumbs, striking a string simultaneously 
with the two thumbs, striking a string with the left thumb after 
pressing it with the right one, striking it with the left thumb 
only, and striking with the left forefinger only, etc. 

(v) The Vrttis : The Dhatus described above relate to the 
three Vrttis in which the stringed instruments are to be played. 84 
The Vrttis or styles of Procedure are three : Citra, Vrtti and 
Daksina. They take their character from the kind of instrument, 
its Tula, Laya, Glti, Yati and the Grahamarga (way of beginning) 
resorted to in a performance. For example, in the Citra, the 
Magadhi Giti, concise instrumental music, Tala of one Kala, 
quick Lava, level Yati and Auagata-Graha preponderate. In the 
Vrtti style of procedure the S.imbhavita G3ti instrumental music, 
* * the time- metis ure of two Kihls, the tempo medium, Srotogata 
Yati Sama Grahamarga are preponderant. In the Daksina style, 
the Prthula Glti, Tala of four Kalas, slow tempo, Gopuccha Yati 
and Atlta Grahamarga are preponderant. 

These three styles of Procedure give quality to the 
instrumental music as well as to the song. 

(vi) The Jatis of the Instrumental Music : Styles of Procedure 
described above give rise to the Jatis" of the instrumental music 
when Dhatus of different kind are combined with these. For 
example, Vistara ( expansion ) Dhatus give rise to the Udatta 
Jati_of the instrument, the Vyanjana Dhatus the Lalita Jati, 
the Aviddha Dhatus the Ribhita Jati and the Karana Dhatus 
the Ghana Jati. 

Among these, the Udatta Jati seems to possess a general 
character, the Lalita Jati is noted for its gracefulness, the Ribhita 
jati is characterised by its frequency of strokes and the Ghana 
seems to be characterised by its proper observance of quantity of 
strokes. ' 

(vii) The special manner of playing the Vina : After giving 

54. See XXIX. 102 ff. and the note,. Modern writers ignore thi. altogether. 

55. See KXIX. 105 ff. 


detailed instructions about tbe different aspects of the stringed 
instruments, the N$, mentions three kinds of music produced 
by the Vina. 8 « They are Tattva, Anugata and Ogha. 8 ' 

The Tattva expresses properly the Lava, Tala, Varna, Pada 
Yati and Aksara of songs. 

The Anugata is the iustru mental music following a song. 

And the Ogha is the music which abounds in the Aviddha 
Karanas, has the Uparipani Grahamarga, quick Laya, and does 
not care for the meaning of the song. 

(viii) The special manner of playing the Vipahc'% : Like the Vina 
which is to be played by fingers, the Vipaflcl which is a Vina 
with nine strings is to be played with a plectrum. 88 It seems to 
have six ways of producing Karanas from it. Karanas here, as in 
the case of dance, seems to have been minor patterns made up of 

(ix) Playing of stringed instruments before the Preliminaries : The 
twelve kinds of Bahirglta or musical performance held before the 
actual beginning of a play, included playing of stringed instru- 
ments. 85 This seems to have been a musical prelude to prepare 
the audience for the dramatic spectacle which was to follow. 
Very elaborate instructions as regards the notes, Tala an*d Laya, 
etc., of the twelve kinds of music described, shows with what 
seriousness the ancient masters looked to every part of a dramatic 
performance from the stand-point of music, 
(b) Hollow Instruments : 

Hollow {lustra) musical instruments were originally made of 
Vainsa (bamboo)." Hence they were called Vamia-vadya or in 
short Vamsa (flute). In later times flutes were made of wood, ivory 
and of different kinds of metal. Notes of a. flute were known to 
consist of two, three and four snitis, and according to their 
manner of production they were shaken {kampita), half-open 
{ardha-mukta) and fully open (vyakta-mukta). Just as additional Srutis 
changed the character of a note of the Vina, so addition of a Srnti 
gave rise to a changed note. 

'"sTYmAe identification of Vina and its different parts see A K. 
Coomara.wamy's Parts of a Vina in JAOS, Vol. 50. 1930 (pp. 244 ff). 

57. See XXIX. 108 ff. 

58. See XXIX. 114 «. O i q q q 

59. See XXIX. 122 ff. *> H\ O'O 

60. See XXX. Iff. 

a. 2 2 z r : : ics2 


The note produced from a Bute-hole thoroughly free from 
finger, consists of four Gratis, that from a hole with a shaken 
finger placed on it, consists of three Srutis, and a note consisting of 
two Srutis is produced from a hole partly free from a finger on it. 
All these are the notes in the Madhyama Grama. Notes of the 
vSadja Grama will be as follows : — 

§adja, Madhyama and PaScama will arise from a hole fully 
open, Dhaivata and Rsabha from a hole covered by a shaken 
finger, and from a hole partly free from finger Gandhara and 
Nisada will arise. Nisada and Gandhara coming respectively in 
juxtaposition with §adja and Madhyama and modifying them- 
selves in characteristic Gratis, will give rise to Overlapping (Svara- 
sadharana) and the Kakall notes. 

According to the NS, the notes of a flute should be perfected 
with the help of the Vina and the human throat. The very notes 
which the singer has attained, should be sung in accompaniment 
of a flute. A unision of the human throat, the Vina and the flute 
is specially praised. 

(c) Covered Instruments {Instrument of Percussion) : 

The chapter on Covered musical instruments begins with a 
legendary account of their origin. The story goes that one day 
the sage (mam) Svati watched the sounds that torrential rains made 
on the lotus-leaves in a lake, and got therefrom the suggestion 
of making drums." Drums give rise to regular notes, Karanas" 
and Jatis .« But among them the Mrdanga, Pauava and Dardara 
(Dardura) more important than the rest, are used much in 
connexion with the production of plays." « Drums called Bherl, 
Pataha, Bhambha, Dundubhi and Dindima are merely for very 
deep and loud sounds. 88 

(i) The Vaskarana : The various syllables (sixteen in number) 
available from the drums are as follows • 
t, kh, g, gh t> thf d> Q t> thj dj ^ m> r q> j and h 

combined with the vowels a, a, i, i, u , , e> ai> au> am 

61. See XXXIII. 4 IT, 

62. See XXXIII. 91 ff 

63. See XXXIII. 129 ff. 

64. See XXXIII. 65-91. 
$5, Se.XXXHI.27, 


afi; they give rise to all the Vaskaraua or Bol" of the modem 

(ii) The music of drums has the following aspects": 

Four Margas, Vilepana (plastering), six Karanas, Three 
Yatis, three I*ayas, three Gatis, three Pracaras, three Saniyogas, 
three Panis, five Pani-prahatas, three Praharas, three Marjanas, 
eighteen Jatis and twenty Prakaras. 

Hence it is apparent that the playing of drums was a pretty 
complex affair. 

All the three principal drums, had their own peculiarities 
of technique, in spite of their having some common features in 
this regard. Thus there were almost endless varieties of playing 
of drums, and these were to accompany the various activities 
of different types of character on the stage 68 . Kor example, 
in walking and other movements, the experts were to provide 
for playing of drums with Talas of three or four kalas, after 
considering the tempo and the manner of walking of characters 
concerned. In case of movements of boats, chariots, and aerial 
cars, birds, moving heavenly bodies, the playing of drums 
should be by running the fingers on the surface of the drums, 
or by Catuskala strokes with two hands alternately, In case 
of sorrow, suffering, illness, cure, death of dear ones, loss of 
wealth, killing, imprisonment, vow, austerity, fasting, etc. the 
playing drums in the Utthapana should be according to the 
Alipta-mirga mentioned before. 

This playing of drums varied as the character concerned 
were superior, middling, inferior or male, female or hermaphro- 
dite. The N& lays down elaborate rules in this regard. 

(iii) Making of Drums. Elaborate rules have been given about 
the making of drums 69 . Characteristics of good hides to 
cover them have also not been left unmentioned 10 . There 
were elaborate ceremonies prescribed for the installation of 

66. See XXXIII, 30, 40, 42. 

67. See XXXIII. 37 ff. The text enumerating the three Jatis and the three 
Layas contain a misprint (omission). 

68. See XXXIII. 227 ff, 

69. See XXXIII. 242 ff. 
7a SeeXXXlI1.250ff. 


drums, in connexion with which various deities were to be 
worshipped 71 

(iv) The chapter on drums after describing in detail the 
characteristics of good drummers 7 *, of a good player of Mjrdanga" 
and Pauava, the general rules of drumming 7 * and qualities 
of the Mrdariga", emphasizes the importance of drumming 
as follows : 

"One should first of all bestow care on the playing of 
drums. For this playing has been called the basis of the 
dramatic performance. This playing, and songs being well- 
performed the production of plays does not run any risk" 7 * 

/. Early Writers (c. 600 B.C—200 A.C.) 

(a) Narada. Narada mentioned repeatedly in later literature 
on music, seems to be the earliest writer on the subject, and 
the Sik* named after him" appears, apart from its interpolated 
passages, to be a very old work, and it may be as old as 600 B. C, 
•»dite teachings may be «irlier still. As one couplet 7 • from it 

chierlvTntf" * S "^ &k " (c ' *» ^ * is writte » 

conned" itT "^ '' *** * tWata ° f mUsical theo »« * 
ZSZT - SmgmS f S&maS ' ThC faCt ^at it describes 
hows It T n rama 1U deUil ( together with **■ Mflrchanas) 
aWthe a h y A" 1 * fSmUCh ante »- ^ the NS which ignore 

obX T h : s w ma and wa : written wh - «*y ^oZ 

obsolete. fhe NS quotes the NaS. (1.3.13; at least once (XXXIII. 

71. See XXX11I. 259 ft 

72. See XXX1K. 263 ff. 

73. See XXXIII. 295-296 

74. See XXX1U. 299. 

75. See XXXUI, 300 

76. See XXXIII. 301. 

77. Na£ (NSradlya-iikaa). 

« *mrot mm* for,, tfm,, . „ T * mTra 

PataiSjali reads a. ^; „,. ^ iJJJ ™*™™l I 

changed the duplet to suit hi. own pj^" Evidentl * *«« Wthot of the Bha,y. 


227) without uaining it. As this Siksa discusses the seven notes 
in the three Gramas and the Mfirchauas and Tanas connected 
with them, the Indian Music seems to have been pretty advanced 
at the time when this work was composed. 

(b) Svati. Svati has been mentioned in the NS along with 
Narada, but not even a fragment of his teaching has reached us, 
and we are not sure whether he wrote any work on the subject or 
anything was written on his views. 

(c) Kohala. In the NS (I. 26) Kohala has been mentioned as 
one of the hundred sons of Bharata and as such he was anterior to 
the author of this work. From another passage in the NS 
(XXXVI 61) we learn that sesem uttaratantrena Kohalah kathayisjati 
'Kohala will speak of the remaining (teachings) on dramaturgy in 
a supplementary treatise.' Hence it may be presumed that 
Kohala was not widely separated in time from the author of the 
NS. Kohala's opinion has been referred to in Dattila's work in 
connexion with Tala. This is perhaps the earliest reference to 
his teaching. The Brhaddesl also refers to Kohala's views no less 
than five times while discussing notes, Tana and J&ti. The author 
of the Saingitamakarauda also mentions him twice in the chapter 
on dance (nftya), Parsvadeva in his Saipgit-asamayasara names 
Kohala in the beginning of his chapter on Tala. In his commen- 
tary of the chapters on music, Abhivavagupta while discussing 
Tala, refers at least twice to Kohala. From Abhinava's commen- 
rary, it is further learnt that Kohala wrote a work named the 
Sainglta-meru. Hence it is natural that Sarngadeva has named 
him as one of the old masters. 

Two other works the Tala-laksaua and the Kohala- 
rahasya,, have also been ascribed to Kqhala 10 . These may 
genuinely reflect the the teachings of Kohala. From all these it 
appears that Kohala was a very important early writer on music. 

(d) hirfilya and Vatsya. The NS has twice mentioned 
Vatsya and Sandilya together. Sandilya not Deing included 
amongst the hundred sons of Bharata, seems to be somewhat 
later. But one cannot be sure on this point. Sandilya has not 
been quoted in an early work. Only the author of the commen- 
tary "Tilaka" on the Ramayana, mentions him twice in connexion 

79. Svaml PwjMnaiwnda— StMlta-O-Saipikfti (Bengali) vol. ll. pp. 347 1 . 


with the Mflrchana and the Jati 80 . And Vatsya is not known to 
have been quoted by any work. 

(e) Viiakhila : Dattilam is the earliest work to mention 
Vi&khila. 81 As we have already seen that Da t til a was anterior 
to the N6. Visakhila was also a very old writer on music. The 
BrhaddesI also once refers to him. 88 The passage in question 
being- somewhat corrupt it has escaped the notice of other 
writers. It is as follows : 

nanu mfirchana-tauayoh ko bhedah ? ucyate— mflrchana- 
tanayo nunatvantaram ( = stu narthantaram) iti Visraiikhila ( = 
Visakhilah) etaccassmgatani. 

(77. Now, what is the difference between the Mflrchana and 
the Tana ? Vi.4akhila's view that the Mflrchana and the Tana are 
identical, is not correct.) Visakhila has been quoted and referred 
to at least seven times by Abhinavagupta in his commentary on 
ch. XXXVIII of the N&. 88 Cakrapauidatta (c. 11th century) 
also has quoted from Visakhila in his commenary on Caraka, 
Nidana-sthana, VII. 7."*. The relevant passage is as follows : 
Yad uktam Visakhina (wrong reading/or Visakhilena) 
samya daksina-hastena vamahastena talakah / 
ubhabhyam vadanam yat tu sannipitah sa ucyate / / 
(Tr. As has been said by Visakhila, the Samya is struk by 
the right hand, the Tala by the left hand, and that struk by both 
the hands is the Sannipata.) 

(f) Dattila: Another very old authority on music was 
Dattila 88 . Mentioned by the N$ as one of the sons of Bharata, he 
is earher than the writer of this work. But the work going by 
his name, r^ay not be actually written by him ; but its antiquity 
w great. For the teachings ascribed to him as available in the 
text named after him, seems to be less developed than that 
available xn the N«. For example, according to Dattila, Alamkaras 
are thirteen in number while according the NS ( XXIX. 23-28 ) 

numbe? ^ r ? h J ee ' ^ kter Writers further add to their 
number. The Brhaddesi makes quotation twice ( pp.29-30 ) from 

80. Ibid. pp. 352-353. 

81. Dattils, ft. 177. 

82. See page 26. 

85. ed. E. Sambasiva Sastti. 


Dattila. Ksirasvamin (11th century) the commentator of the 
Amara-ko&i (ed.R.G.Oka, Poona, 1913) also quotes passages twice 
from Dattila. 

Abhinavagupta in his commentery on the chapter XXVIH 
of the NS, has quoted passages from Dattila no less than ten 
times. And another comentator of the Amara-kosa(Vandyagha{:Iya 
Sarvananda ) also quoted from him the following : Mukbarn 
pratimukham caiva grabho vimarsa evacaetc. 86 Prom this it 
appears that Dattila wrote not only on music, but also on 

2. The Date of the Natyasastra. 

In the Introduction to the volume I of the present work 
the translator wrote "it may be reasonable to assume the 
existence of the Nafya&stra in the 2nd century. A. C. (p.LXXVI). 
By the Natyasastra was meant the present text of the work 
including some spurious passages (p.LXV) Hence the date of the 
NS in its original form will be earlier. After making a closer 
study of the concluding chapters, the translator is inclined to 
support the view of the late Haraprasad Sastri who concluded 
that the work belonged to 200 B.C." 7 But the question will be 
taken up later on. 

3. Early Medieval Writers on Music {200 A.C.—600 A.C.) 

(a) Vihavasu. The view of Visvavasu on Sruti has been 
quoted in the Brhaddegi (p.4). But it is difficult to identify him 
with Visvavasu the king of Gandharvas who according to the 
Mahabharata was an expert in playing a Vina. 

(b) Tumburu. Tumburu's view also has been quoted in the 
Brhadde& (p.4). But due to the corrupt nature of the passage 
quoted, this has escaped the notice of the earlier writers. The 
passage in question is as follows :— 

Apare tn vata-pitta-kapha-sannipata-bheda-bhinnain catur- 
vidhain srntiin pratipedire. tatha caha Tumburub {the last word 
wrongly read as caturab) : uccaistaro dhvanl rukso vijfieyo vatajo 
( wrongly valajah ) budhaih. gambhlro ghanallna&ca ( wrongly 
nlla£ca ) jneyo'sau pittajo dhvanih. snigdhaS ca sukumaraka 

86. See the Introduction to this text (Baroda ed.) 

87, See JP4SB, vol. V. (N. S.) pp. 351 ff. ; also vol. VI pp. 307 ft 


madhurah kaphajo dhvanih. trayanam gunasamyukto vijficyo * 

This quotation from Tumbttru occurs in a correct from 
in Kallinatha's commentary on the SR (1.3.13-16). Some writers 
think on the basis of the occurrence of the expression 'Tumburu- 
nataka' in Locana's Raga-taranginl (12th century) that Tumburu 
wrote a play. But this tumburu-nataka seems to have meant a 
kind of dance-drama originating with Tumburu. 

(c) The Markandeyapurana. Though not a work on music, the 
Markandeya-puraua may be considered in the present connexion ; 
because it gives us valuable informations regarding the musical 
theory and practice at the time of its compilation. Though here 
is no direct avidence about its exact age, scholars are agreed 
about its great antiquity, and according to Pargiter who studied 
this work very closely, its oldest parts may belong to the third 
century A. C. 88 . This suit very much the data of music obtained 
from it. For, it mentions the seven svaras ( notes ), seven Grama- 
ragas, seven Gltakas and as many Mfirchanas, fortynine Tanas, 
the three Gramas, four Padas, three Kfllas ( wrongly Talas ), three 
I^ayas^three Yatis and four Atodayas. Except the Grama-ragas 
mentioned in this Purana, all other terms occur in the NS. The 
Grama-ragas are ignored by the NS. They are probably related 
to the Grama.geya.gana (songs to be sung in a village) of the Vedic 
Sama-singers as distinguished from the Sama-singers' Araynya- 
gana or forest songs which were taboo in villages 89 . It seems 
that the term which may be earlier the NS was not recognised by 
the NS, for some reason or other. The three Kalas might also 
re ate to the time required to pronounce short, long and pluta 
syllables. From th»se facts, it may be concluded that the Mk. 
Purana was not compiled much later than the NS. Those who 
assign a lower date to the Purana refer to the Devl-mahatmya 
(ch 81-93) winch in their opinion is not much earlier than 600 
A.C. Tins however seems to be far from justified. For Durga 
glorified ,u this Purana was already an important deity in the 
later Vedic period, the Devl-sflkta being a part of the Khila- 

«7~wI«.Vol. I. p. 560. The chapter 23 of the Mk. Pur.*, ha. been 
cnncally ed.ted and published by Aiain Danielou and N. R. Bh.t. in 'Text*, de. 
Purana sur 1. theone musicale/ Pondichery, 1959. It reached the present author 

89. Winternity, p. 167. 


portion of the Rgveda. Hence the Mk. Purana may very well be 
placed in the 3rd century A.C. 

(d) The Vayupurana. The Vayupurana also should be con- 
sidered in connection with the medieval writings on music. 
For it contains two chapters (86-87) which treat of the Mflrchanas, 
Tanas and Gltalamkaras 90 . Even if these two chapters are in a 
very corrupt state, from them one can form a fairly correct idea 
about the musical teachings of the time. Though this Purana des- 
cribes the rule of the Gupta dynasty as it was in the 4th century 
A.C.* 1 , and though the Guptas, one very great among them being 
Samudragupta, were patrons of music, these two chapters seem 
to repeat only what is already available in the NS, except that 
they give the number of Alamkaras as thirty. (The second half 
of the first couplet of the chapter 87 should be emended as follows : 
trimiatye vai alamkaras tan me nigadatah irnu (see sl.21 below). But the 
N6 gives the number of Alamkaras as thirty-three (XXIX, 23-28). 
Another new information available in the Vayupurana is the 
affiliation of Tanas to different Vedic sacrifices. Due to a loss of 
some slokas between the two hemistichs of the couplet 41 of the 
chapter 86, some writers were led to attach these names to 
Mfirchanas. If these slokas occuring in the Brhaddesl have not 
been taken from the Vayupurana, they must have been taken from 
a common source by both these works. 

(e) Nandikehara. The Brhaddesl quotes (p.32) in one passage 
the view of Nandikesvara on the Murchana. From this we learn 
that he recognised a class of Murchana consisting of twelve notes. 
We also know one Nandikesvara as a writer on abhinaya (gesture) 
and Tala. And the two may be identical. The Rudra-damarud- 
bhava-sutra-vivaranam a commentary on the Mahesvara-sfitras, is 
also ascribed to Nandikesvara. This also may be from the 
hands of Nandikesvara the author on abhinaya etc. But before 
the work has been critically studied, one cannot be sure about 
this. And Nandikesvara the author of the Abhinaya-darpana 
as we have seen elsewhere" 11 was posterior to the 5th century. 

90. Svami Prajflanananda has printed these in his vol. II of the Sangita 
O-Samskrti, pp. 434 ff. The Visnudharmottara (C. 8th century) also contains some 
chapters on music. But these are not of much importance in the present connection. 
See Textes des Purana sur»la theorie musicale ed. by Daniilou and Bhatt. 

91. Winternitz. op. cit. p. 554. 

92. See the Introduction to the Abhinayadarpana ed. M. Gho«h (2nd ed). 
Calcutta, 1957. 



4. Medieval writers of the Transitional 
Period {600 A.C-1000 A.C.) 

(a) Sardula, Matahga, Yastika, Kasyapa and Durgaiaskti. 

It was during this period that the Ragas of later Indian 
music slowly developed from the Grama-ragas* 8 of early 
medieval music, which have been mentioned in the Markandeya 
Puraua. The Giti or the Bhasa-giti of various kinds mentioned 
in the BrhaddesI 94 had probably connection with this Gramaraga. 
And from this work, it is also learnt that Sardula recognised 
only one Giti called Bhasaglti, Mataiiga two Gitis, Bhasaglti 
and Vibhasa-gUi, Yastika three of them named Bhasaglti, 
Vibhasaglti and Antar-bhasikaglti. Durgasakti however gave 
their number as five, viz. Suddha, Bhinna, Vesara, Gaudi 
and Sadharanl. Kasyapa seems to agree with Yastika in this 
regard ; but one cannot be sure on this point. The personal 
view of the author of the BrhaddesI is that the Giti is of 
seven kinds : such as Suddha, Bhinnaka, Gaudika, Ragagiti, 
Bhasaglti and Vibhasaglti. It is probably to demonstrate the 
fuller nature of his own classification, that he brings in the 
view of his predecessors, which have been mentioned above. 
The evidence at our disposal for ascertaining the time of 
these authorities is meagre. But we are possibly not quite 
helpless in this matter. For, the term Bhasaglti seems to give 
some indication as to the upper limit to the age of these 
teachers. It seems to be evident that bhasa in this connection 
is nothing other than the deia-bhasa or regional dielects or 
languages, and that is the reason why the songs composed 
m deia-bhasa were also called Desl from which the BrhaddesI 
derives its name. Now bhasa came to be accepted as a vehicle 
of literary expression as early as the 6th century A.C. ; for 
Banabhatja mentions among his friends one Isftna who was a 
bhasa-kavi or a poet writing in bhasa. 96 Hence it may naturally 
be assumed that bhasa attained some prestige at that time in 
connection with the music also. In all probablity Sardula who 
recognised one kind of Giti called the Bhasaglti, might have 

93. See above p. 24. 

94. See page 82. • 

,. f B " Uetin of the Scho °» o* Oriental Studies Vol. 1 (1917-20), Grieiaon, 
Indo-Aryan Vernaculars, Chapter II, p. 65. 


been an younger contemporary of Banabha^a. Matanga, Yasjika, 
Kasyapa and Durgasakti all of whom might have followed 
him in later centuries, probably one after another, added to the 
number of Gitis or Bhasagltis. The new era reached right down 
to the time of the author of the BrhaddeSi who seems to have 
flourished about the 10th century A.C. when the Bhasa- 
movement may be said to have culminated in the development 
of New Iudo-Aryan languages and bhasa became the vehicle 
of the classical melodies of the Raga-type. 

(b) The Bfhaddeft. The work ascribed to Matanga cannot 
be takeu as a work written by Matanga. For as we have 
seen above, Mataiiga's view has been quoted in the work 
itself along wit.h the view of other earlier writers. Hence it 
seems have been compiled by some one other than Matanga 
himself, and was ascribed to the old master evidently for giving 
it a greater authority. About the date of this work we have 
given our view above. The fact that Sarngadeva recognised 
Durgasakti's view about the number of Gltis in opposition 
to the one given by the author of the Brhaddesl»«, probably 
shows that the two authors were not widely separated in 
time. The Brhaddesl extensively makes quotation form 
the NS. 

5. Late Medieval Writings (1000 A.C.-1300 A.C.) 

(a) The Sahgita-makaranda. This work » 7 ascribed to 
Narada, was evidently not from the hands of the author 
connected with the Siksa named after him. The fact that 
the Ragas known in later music make their appearance 
in it, speaks for its lateness. As it has, been utilized by 
Sarngadeva (1210-1247 A.C.) it may be tentatively placed in 
the 11th century A.C. 

(b) The Raga-tarahgini. This was composed by Locana- 
Kavi, the court-musician of the king Vallalasena of Bengal. 
It was written 1160 A.C.'' 8 , the year of Vallalasena's accession 

96. See SR. II. 1.7. 

97. Ed. M. R. Telang. 

98. See K«hitimohan Sen, Banglar Sangltacarya in the Gitavitana-varsikt 
Vol. I, 1350 ( B.E. ) Songs of Vidyapati available in the present text of the 
Rl(ataranginl are evidently a later interpolation and hence d» not determine its 
date. See ibid. 


to the throne. He therefore lived one generation earlier than 
Jayadeva the celebrated author of the Glta-govinda which 
was a lyrical poem to be sting with musical accompaniment. 
From the it is learnt that the author also wrote 
other works such as the Raga-gltasamgraha. But these have not 
come down to us. Locana's work mentions twelve basic 
ijanaka) Ragas to which eighty-six derivative (janya ) Ragas 
owe their origin. 

(c) The Sahgita-samayasara. This work 9 * was written by 
Parsvadeva of whom we do not know anything more. He was 
probably a Jain ; and as he names Bhoja 100 and Somesvara' 01 
he was later than these personages. But Sarngadeva who 
mentions them does not mention Parsvadeva. Parsvadeva 
therefore may be placed in the 13th century A.C. and may 
be considered to be a contemporary of the author of the 
Saiigita-ratnakara. Parsva's treatment of Ragas though pretty 
■exhaustive, is shorter than that of Sarngadeva. 

(d) The Sahgita-ratnakara. This is the most exhaustive treatise 
on Indian music. It was written by Sarngadeva (1210-1247) 
a South Indian whose grandfather was a Kashmirian. In the 
seven chapters of the work, he treats of notes, Ragas, 
miscellaneous topics, musical compositions, rhythms, musical 
instruments and gestures. He describes Sruti, notes, Gramas 
including the obsolete Gandhara Grama, Mfirchaua, Tana, 
Varna, Alamkara, Jati, Vadi, SamvadJ, Vivadl and Anuvadl 
notes very clearly, and summarizes whatever has been said by 
his predecessors. This gives the work a special importance 
in connection with a critical study of the NS. Many things 
occurring in this .latter work when otherwise obscure, become 
elucidated as soon as they are compared with similar items 
discussed in the Sanglta-ratnakara. As Sarngadeva elaborately 
describes the Ragas with their late developments, his work 
serves, as a bridge between the tradition of the NS and the 
works written in late medieval times (after the 13th century) 
which almost exclusively treat the Ragas and their different 
varieties. As these works are not of much importance regard- 
ing the study of Indian music in its ancient and early medieval 
aspects, we refrain from mentioning them. 

99. U. G.napati Sa.tri. 100. Ibid (II. 5). 101. Ibid (II. 5 ; IX. 2). 



1. The Three Types of Character 

Characters of all kinds male, female and hermaphrodite in- 
the ancient Indian plays, were classified into three types : 
superior, inferior and middling 1 , for the purpose of distinguish- 
ing them by assigning to them special movements to be followed 
by appropriate music and drumming. Division of Heroes 
(nayaka) and Heroines {nayika) into four classes, had also included 
the same purpose. 

2. The Prominent Position of the Kataka 

From the very detailed description given in the N6 of the 
various types of character such as the king and his entourage, 
inside and outside the royal palace 8 , it appears that the NStaka 
which usually include such characters, was the most prominent 
among the ten kinds of play. The special purpose of the 
description seems to have been to help the playwrights who 
cannot always be expected to possess a first-hand knowledge of 
habits and customs of such characters'. 

3. The Typical Theatrical Troupe 
From a detailed description of the various members of 
theatrical troupes 3 , it appears that such troupes moved from place 
to place just like the Bengali Jatrawalas, to give performance 
before people of different regions. It is only on the assumption of 
this kind that we may easily explain inclusion into the troupe, 
of such members as makers of headgears (mukutakaraka) and of 
ornaments, the dyer (rajaka), the painter and craftsmen of various 
kinds. If like the members of modern theatres of India they 
were restricted in their activity to any particular place, there 
might not have been any necessity of counting them as members 
of theatrical troupes. As communication and transport at 
that ancient time were not easy, the treatrical parties did not 

1. See XXXIV. 2 ff, 

2. See XXXIV. 29 ff. 

3. See XXXV. 89-90. 


probably like to add to their luggage in the shape costumes and 
ather paraphernalia of a dramatic performance. Skilled persons 
wrho accompanied them prepared these anew in every region, and 
:hese were used for a number of performances held in places 
not very distant from one another. The Artha&stra of Kautflya 
;eems to envisage this kind of itinerant theatrical troupes. 

4. The Playwright as a Member of the Theatrical Troupe 

The playwright (natyakaraka)* appearing as one of the 
aembers probably shows also that theatrical troupes moved 
rom place to place and did not depend exclusively on a fixed 
epertoire, but often constructed special plays based on local 
istory or popular legends, to suit the taste and interest of 
be people before whom they were called upon to give a 

The position of the playwrights was probably analogous 
■ some extent to their modern counterparts attached to some 
"ban theatres of modern India, which employ them for salary 
ith the purpose of making their dramatic compositions the 
cclusive property. 

5. Distribution of Roles 

The NS lays down some general principles for the 
stribution of roles in a play." For example, it says : 

"After considering together their gait, speech and 
ovement of the limbs, as well as their strength and nature, 
e experts are to employ actors to represent different roles [in a 

"Hence the selection of actors should be preceded by an 
quiry into their merits. The Director will have no difficulty 
er the choice [if such a procedure is followed]. After 
pertaining their natural aptitudes, he is to distribute roles to 
ferent actors". 

To clarify further these principles, the NS adds : 

"Persons who have all the limbs intact, well-formed and 
ck-set, who are full-grown, not fat or lean, or tall or large, who 

4. See XXXV. 99. 

5. See XXXV. 

6. See XXXV. 5-6. 


have vivacity, pleasant voice and good appearance, should be 
•employed to represent the role of gods. 7 

"Persons who are fat, and have a large body, a voice like the 
peal of hunder, furious looking eyes, and naturally knit eye-brows 
should be employed to represent the role of Raksasas, Danavas 
and Daityas ; for the performance of the male actors [should be] 
in conformity with their limbs and movements". 8 

"Actors of the best kind who have beautiful eyes, eye-brows, 
forehead, nose, lips, cheeks, face, neck and every other limb 
beautiful, and who are tall, possessed of pleasant appearance 
and dignified gait, and are well-behaved, wise, steady by nature, 
should be employed to represent the role of kings and princes.' 

In a similar manner the NS gives directions about assigning 
roles of army-leaders, councillors (ministers and secretaries) 
Kaficukins, the &rotriyas 10 as well as minor characters." 
The directions about the representation of fatigued and healthy 
characters show how careful the ancients were about the assign- 
ment of roles. For the NS says. 

"A person who is naturally thin should be employed in a 
play to represent tired characters." 1 * 

"A fat man should be employed to represent persons without 
any disease". 18 

From the very elaborate rules quoted above, it appears 
that the author of the NS was very careful in the assignment of 
roles. His rules were often found difficult to be carried into 
practice. But in spite of this, he was not a doctrinnaire in this 
regard, and permitted the Directors of theatres to train up 
properly persons available, even when they did not come up 
to the standard. On this point he says : , 

"If however, such persons are not available, the Director 
should exercise discretion to employ [some one] after a 
consideration of the latter's nature and movement as well as 
all the States [to be represented]." 


XXXV. 5-6. 


XXXV. 7-8. 


XXXV. 9-11. 


XXXV. 12.14. 


XXXV. 15-17. 


XXXV. 18. 




"Such persons' natural movements whether good, bad or 
middling, should be regulated by a contact with the Director 
and then they will properly represent all the States" 14 . 

6. The Principles of Personation 

The NS also very clearly laid down the principles of 
personation. It says "One should not enter the stage in his 
own natural appearance. His own body should be covered 
with paints and decorations" 16 . 

"In the production of a play, a person in his natural form 
of the body should be employed [to assume a role] according to 
his age and costume" 18 . 

"Just as a man who renounces his own nature together 
with the body, and assumes nature of someone else by entering 
into his body, so the wise actor thinking within himself 
that "I am he", should represent the States of another person 
by speech, gait, gestures and other movements" 17 . 

The stage-representation of characters according the N&, 
are of three kinds : natural (anurupa) unnatural (virtipa) and 
imitative (rupanusariniy*. 

These three kinds of representation are described as 
follows : — 

"When women impersonate female characters and men male 
characters and their ages are similar to that of characters 
represented, the impersonation is called natural 19 " 

"When a boy takes up the role of an old man or an old 
man that of a boy and betrays his own nature, the representa- 
tion is called unnatural 3 °. 

When a man assumes a woman's role, the impersonation 
is called imitative by the best actor. A woman also may 
assume if she likes, a man's role in actual practice. But an 

14. XXXV. 19-20. 

15. XXXV. 24. 

16. XXXV. 25. 

17. XXXV. 26-27. 

18. XXXV 28. 

19. XXXV. 29. 

20. XXXV. 30. 


old man and a young man should not try [to imitate] each 
other's manners 2 1 . 

7. Special Importance of Women in Dramatic Production 
Unlike what was the practice in ancient Greece or in 
medieval Europe, ancient Indians had no scruple to employ 
actresses possibly from the very ancient times. Hence the 
NS points out their special fitness on certain points. 
The relevant passages in the NS are as follows :— 
"A delicate person's role is always to be taken up by 
women. Hence in case of women as well as gods and men of 
delicate nature [women are to assume the roles]. [It is for 
this reason that] drama came to be established in heaven 
through Rambha, Urvasl and the like [nymphs]. And similar 
has been the case in king's harems in this world" 82 . "Want of 
fatigue in dance and music, is always considered a quality 
of women, and a dramatic production partly attains its 
sweetness and partly its strength due to this"' 8 . 

"This delicate type of production is pleasing to kings. 
Hence plays of this class including the Erotic Sentiment, 
should be produced by women"* 4 . An instance of the production 
of a play exclusively by women occurs in the Priyadarsika (III) 
of Harsa. Also in Cambodia the country which owes its drama 
to India, plays are produced exclusively by women 26 . In the 
palaces of some Sultans of Java too, women are exclusive 
performers of dance-dramas 8 *. It can scarcely be doubted 
that this practice had its origin in India in hoary antiquity 
and the relevant passage of the NS, quoted above, seems to 
support our assumption. 

8. Impersonation of a King 

Though the N§ has given description of a person suited 
to represent a royal character 8 ', it closes the topic of impersona- 

21. XXXV. 31-32. 

22. XXXV. 38-39. 

23. XXXV. 44. 

24. XXXV. 49. 

25. See the author's Contribution* to the History of Hindu Drama, 
Calcutta. 1957, p. 41. 

26. See notes on XXXIV. 48.51. 

27. XXXV. 9-11. 



tion by giving rather elaborate directions about the 
impersonation of a king. On this point it says : 

"How are the qualities of a king to be represented by an 
actor who has a few wearing apparels ? In this connection it has 
been said that when dramatic conventions have come into vogue 
I have made plays furnished with all these (i.e. conventions) . 

"In them (i.e. plays) the actor (nata) covered with paint, 
and decorated with ornaments, reveal the signs of kingship 
when he assumes a grave and dignified attitude and then he 
alone becomes, as it were, a refuge of the seven great 
divisions (saptadvlpa) of the world" 28 . 

"He should move his limbs only after he has been covered 
with paints. And trimmed according to the discretion of the 
Director and having the Saus&hava of limbs, the actor becomes 
like a king, and [thus trimmed] the king also will be [very 
much] like an actor. Just as the actor is, so is the king, and 
just as a king is, so is the actor" 29 . 

9. An Ideal Director 

Principles and practices of the ancient Hindu drama as 
described before, placed a very great responsibility on the 
Director of a theatre. Hence the N& describes the characteris- 
tics of an ideal Director as follows : — 

He should have "a desirable refinement of speech, 
knowledge of the rules of Tala, the theory of notes and instru- 
ments [in general]". And he who is "an expert in playing the 
four kinds of instruments, has various practical experience, is 
conversant with the practices of different religious sects, and 
with polity, science, of wealth and the manners of courtezans, 
ars amatoria and knows various conventional gaits and move- 
ments, thoroughly understands all the sentiments and the states, 
and is an expert in producing plays, acquainted with all arts 
and crafts, with words and rules of prosody, and proficient in 
all the Sastras, the science of stars and planets and the working 
of the human body, knows the extent of the earthly continents, 
divisions, and mountains, and people inhabiting them, and 
customs they have, and the names of descendants of royal 

28. XXXV. 57-59. 

29. XXXV. 60-61. 


lines, and who listens about acts prescribed in Sastras, can 
understand the same, and puts them into practice after under- 
standing them and gives instruction in the same, should be 
made a Director.' 


/. Language 

The NS mentions besides Sanskrit and the various kinds 
of Prakrit the Ardha-Samskrta as the language of Dhruvas.* ' 
By this last term we are probably to understand the so-called 
Gatha-Sanskrit which Prof. Edgerton has called hybrid Sanskrit. 
His hypothesis about its origin does not however appear to be 
convincing. This new nomenclature seems to ignore the 
historical circumstances which brought this kind of language 
into existence. 

2. Metre 

In course of describing Dhruvas the NS has described 
various metres. Most of these names are otherwise unknown. 3 8 

3. The Arthasastra 

The NS (XXXIV. 82-98) describes a king, an army-leader, 
a purohita (chaplain), ministers, secretaries, judges, wardens of 
princes (kumaradhikrta) and refers in this connexion to the views 
of Brhaspati who seems to be no other than the old master 
of this name repeatedly referred to in the Arthasastra of Kautilya. 
This probably points to the great antiquity of the NS. It is 
also gathered from the NS (XXXIV. Ti) that- Dauvarika 83 
mentioned as a great dignitary connected with the royal palace 
was a suataka 84 i.e., a Brahmaua who has duly finished his 
Vedic studies. This seems to give a clue to the sudden rise 
of the Suiigas (who were Brahmanas) after the Maurya dynasty 
declined. Pusyamitra Sutig.i described by Sylvain Levi as a 

30. XXXV. 65-71. 

31. XXX II. 440-142. 

32. See XXXII. 

33. See AS. 

34. See XXIV. 73-74. 


a"mayor of the palace" was probably a snataka employed as 
Dauvarika by the last Matirya king. 

The Sabhastara mentioned in the N& ( XXIV. 83,98 ) 
translated as members of the (royal) court, is also a very old 
word. The Kumaradhikrta ( XXXIV. 83,97 ) seems to be the 
warden of princes mentioned in th'e Artha£astra. 



Three Classes of Instruments 

I shall now explain the formal aspects (lit. rule) 
of the instrumental music (atodya). They are as follows : 

1. Begular musical instruments' are of four kinds, 
such as 'strinpd' (tata), 2 'covered' (avanaddha), 3 'solid' (ghanaf 
and 'hollow' (susira). 

2. [Among these,] the 'stringed' are those with strings, 
the 'covered' means the drums, the 'solid' the cymbals and 
the 'hollow' the flutes. 

(1) 'ownfcniilinta' literally means 'musical instruments possessed of 
auspicious marks'. NS. here considers only the traditional or well-known 
musical instruments as auspicious. 

'Explaining in detail the importance of stringed instruments 
(tata) in the production of a play Ag. says : 

m wpx% n npgft TC$y w m: i fl ft OT <row tfwwi fwin i ircrot irequtsiif?- 

«g< ftfifan »nwi iw«R itw^i flaHwam «w i ^nfwnqinf i infan m 

And after a while he explains why hollow instruments (supra) in 
spite of their affinity with the stringed ones, were not mentioned imme- 
diately after these, and then he discusses the position of 'hollow' and 'solid' 
instruments in the Orchestra. The relevant passage is as follows : 

nfaq if4roi[n]^. 

'towto vmwi, Ag. *^nfflpi **, Ag. 

xxv/n. 3-7] THE NATYASASTRA 

Threefold Application of the Instrumental Music 

3. In connexion with the dramatic performance (nitaka) 
they have threefold application : [that in which] the stringed 
instruments (lata) [preponderate], [that in which] the 
drums (avanaddha) [preponderate], and their [general] appli- 
cation during the dramatic performance {natyakrta). 

4-5. In the Orchestra of the stringed instruments 
(kutapaY, [appear] the singer igayand) and his attendants 2 
and players of Vipanol, 3 Vina* and flute. Players of Mrdanga 
( earthen drum ), Panava s and Dardura 6 are [collectively] 
called the Orchestra of the covered instruments (lit. in 
the rule of the covered instruments). 

6. The Orchestra related to actors and actresses 
{prakrtiy of the superior, the middling and the ordinary type, 
occupies different positions 2 on the stage during the produc- 
tion of plays (natyayoga). 

Music of all kinds embellishes the Drama 

7t Thus the song (gana), the instrumental music 
[vadyd) and the acting (natya) 1 having different kinds of 

(4-5) »$?i v& qrfn, $" "? <T" nqgis^-rafir Ag. The commentator again 
seems to give this word a new meaning. See Introduction to the Vol. 
I. pp. LXXVIf. Here kutapavinyasa should be read as kutapavinyase. 

'nfisrtt iwraw vz «rar wi*i: ^temftrarewr: Ag. It appears from this 
that the singer had near him attendants with brass cymbals. 

3 fir( ft )<?^t ^^WfjTit^n qftirarersfcn ^fnria ^ft'siffiet^l^n Ag. Vipahci seems 
originally to have been a ten-stringed Vina to be played with a plectrum. 

'See note 3 above. 

'qm^s'tw^W T^n*: Ag. Panava is a small drum or tabor. 

e ^t\ *iwist>*it: Ag. describes Dardura as being like a large gong 
made of bell-metal ; some consider it to be a flute. See Apte sub voce. 
Dardurika may however be derived from dardura which means a conch-shell 
the valve of which opens to the right. See Apte sub voce. But in spite of 
all this, Dardura was a kind of drum. See XXXIII. 4. 

(6) »See XXXIV. 1-12. 

"On the Ag. says : *m«Fnret: *wralf">feiitsraT g«*msifl n^tf i »irei3raTO 

(7) J This acting included dancing. 


appeals {vididhasraya, lit. depending on different things) 4 
should be made by the producers of plays like a brilliant entity 
(alatacakra-ftratima.). 3 

Characteristics of the Gandharva 

8. That which is made by the stringed instruments 
and depends [as well] on various other instruments, and 
consists of notes {savra), Tala (time-measure) and verbal 
themes (pada) should be known as the Gandharva. 1 

9. As it is very much desired by gods and as it gives 
much pleasure to Gandharvas, it is called the Gandharva 
(i.e. a thing belonging to Gandharvas.) 

Sources of the Gandharva 

10. Its source is the human throat (lit. body), the Vina 
and the flute (vam&a). I shall describe the formal aspects 
of (lit. arising from) their notes. 

Three kinds of the Gandharva 

11. The Gandharva is of three kinds' : that of the notes 
{svara), that of the Tala and that of the verbal theme^ (pada). 

a See note 3 below. 

8 Kalidasa uses this expression. See Vikram. V. 2. 0. Ag. explaining 
why these three different items are to be given unity, says : 

*rars ftfwm r*ra fetnw-ftfwfwreij jkhi? sa irejirai s<jwt 33fo3%TwraT n^ 
SWTfsrew T« f[ i In this connexion he rejects the suggestion that the mere 
reading of plays can fulfil their purpose, and says : 

*»tj g wn jfcnntafaftini?fq irat»mt qamwrcEfo sspmi? v€n fafeftatfr n,fam 
Ttfir i jut, t BsifSra ( 5fa ) sprat w nigral »rra?i, qft^J ^ s^awf? irera<flm*rf»?fo?tf%?r 
git:. Cf. Aristotle's view of tragedy (see Introduction to vol I. pp. XLII- 

(8) 1 Gandharva seems to be a combination of the vocal music and the 
music of instruments, such as vtna and flutes (See 10 below). From the 
Mrcch. (III. 2. 1) we learn that vim as as well human voice charmed 
Carudatta in a performance of Gandharva. Ag.'s explanation of aiWifara as 
IWwf firfroW win ^row* ?reietc., seems to be fanciful. See XVII. 92, 
94, 98, 102 etc. and XXI. 24, 25, 73, 77 etc The expression should be 
taken simply as a combination of gandharvam and iti. 

(II) 'The three kinds of gandharva seem to be three kinds of musical 
performance in which individual notes, beating time, or songs respec- 
tively play their principal or only part. 

Jtxvm. 12-20] THE NATYAgASTRA 4 

I shall describe the characteristics and the function of the 

Two Bases of Notes 

12. The notes (svara) have two bases : the human 
throat (lit. body) and the Vina. I shall speak about the 
formal aspects ot the notes arising from the two. 

Formal Aspects of Music of the Vina 

13-14. Notes (svara)\ Gramas, MurchanSs 2 , Tanas 3 , voice- 
registers (sthana), Vrttis 4 , Overlapping (sadharana) notes. 
Varnas, Alamkaras, Dhatus 5 , Srutis 6 and Jatis which are con- 
stituted by the regular notes (vidhisvara), are available (lit. 
united) in the wooden Vina. 

Formal Aspect of Music of the Human Throat 
15. Notes, Gramas, Alamkaras, Varnas, voice-registers 
Jatis and Overlapping notes are available in the Vina of the 
human throat. 

Aspects of the Verbal Theme in Music 

13-17. Consonants', vowels, euphonic combinations 
{sandhi), case- endings (vibkakti), nouns (nama), verbs (akhyata), 
prefixes (upasarga), particles (nipdta), secondary suffixes 
itaddhita), and syllabic and moric metres always relate to the 
verbal themes of music (pada). These are of two kinds • 
composed (nibaddha) and improvised* (anibaddha, lit. not 

Twenty Aspects of the Tala 

18-20. Nowlehall speak of the Tala'. AvSpa* Nis- 
krama, V^paJWsaka, fWya, Tala, Sannipata,Parivarta, 
03-14) iThis and the succeeding terms have been defined below. 

practicaiVSThV v ^t^.' T5naS « V **> Dh *« *"d Sruti related 
pract,cally to the or the stringed instruments of its class. 
See note 2 above. * Ibid. • Ibid . z IM 

33 3 ^ 6 * I !.V T -il and ! hcf0ll0ingtermshave bee * d^d in XV. 9, 

SUJfr T° gatasyapi shouid be read as ***** <&• 

This and the following terms have been defined later onf 

5 INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC [xxvm. 21-22 

Vastu, Matra, VidarL Ariga, tempo (Iqyd), Yati, Prakarana, 
Gihi, Avayava, Marga, PadabhSga, and Pani are the twenty 3 
formal aspects of the Tala. These [are] in brief about 
the Gandharva. Listen next in details about the same. 

The Seven Notes 

On the Notes (svara) : 

21. The seven notes are: Sa<Jja (sa), Rsabha (ri), 
Gandbara (ga), Madhyama (ma), Paficaina (pa), Dhaivata 
(dha) and Nisada (ni). 

Mutual relation of the Notes 

22. [According] as they relate to an interval of [more 
or less] Srutis, they are of four classes, such as Sonant 1 
(vadin), Consonant (samvadin) 2 Assonant (anuvadin 3 , and 
Dissonant (vivadinf. 

The Sonant and the Consonant Notes 
That which is an Atnsa' [note] anywhere, will in this 
connexion, be called there Sonant (vadin). Those two notes 

3 The text ity ekavimsako should be read as ity evam vimsako. 

(22) 'For an explanation of this and succeeding terms see below 
and GS. I. pp. 462, 463, 467, 468 ; GS. II. pp. 117-123, MM. p. 9. MH. 
p. MI. pp. 27-28. 

According to Dr. A. A. Bake (MM. p. 9.) "the sonant note is the 
melodic centre of the melody." See below note 1 of 76-78. 

2 See SR. I. 3. 47ff. Kn. says : qtft: OTgKxrcjfcw: sfTCT^pft fkwi l«rcfJW 
*j?rat v%n\£\ an 5*8*? ?ft fira: «mf?'fl ww; tft i Sbh. too says : ?rcJtret v ^rat 
eraft*!? <ra*f ?ft fa* V*li svfeft HW:. But Matariga (Bd. p. 14, 11. 1-2) says : 
9^r? 5 "5 H'- w^fww «fa wlww'flUBfinwI'jsn: ; and Dattilla (18) too says : 
firo: ffliMl vft aqteJWiraft. The difference between the two views, is 
more apparent than real. For Sbh. says «ufc %<0\: «^r«9fit ft *j^t ft?ra *pstw 
>jpral *7Rw^t <n *rfs «nf*r nsi rofc »j«nfsa»{ wstiifamwn <am[ i «nwif?fa^i 51 *rei 
«»nft «ram?nitfn»ift *^i iqfaai wtoum"^ eaifafa i *F« fro*!?: (on SR. I. 3. 
48-49). 'See below note 2 on 23. *See below note 1 on 23. 

"From its several variants it appears that the term atnsa is nothing 
but atnga misread from some very early ms. For more about this see the 

**vm. 23] THE NATYASASTRA 6 

which are at an interval, of nine or thirteen Srutis from 
each other are mutually Consonant (samvadin) e.g. Sadja 
and Madhyama, Sadja and Paficama, Rsabha and Dhai- 
vata, Gandh&ra and Nisada in the Sadja Grama. Such 
is the case in the Madhyama Grama, except that Sadja 
and Paficama are not Consonant while Paficma and Rsabha 
are so. [On these there] is a [traditional] Sloka : 

23. In the Madhyama Grama, Paficama, and Rsabha 
are Consonant while Sadja and Paficama are so in the Sadja 
Grama [only]. 

The Dissonant Notes 
The notes being at an interval of [two or] twenty Srutis 
are Dissonant' e.g. Rsabha and Gandhara, Dhaivata and 


The Assonant Notes 
Now Sonant, Consonant and Dissonant notes having 
been determined (lit. established) the remaining ones are 
to be called Assonant', e.g. Rsabha, Gandhara, Dhaivata 
and Nisada to Sadja ; Madhyama, Paficama and Nisada 
to Rsabha ; and Madhyama, Paficama and Dhaivata to 
Gandhara ; Dhaivata, Paficama and Nisada to Madhyama ; 

(23)>Matanga (p. 15. 11 11-12) says : *j*rears fwf*a*l 911*1 and Dattila 
(19) too says : »i=nft g farflpft Kn. says v&* ^awfaft q^i< PmMt *fij «w<r ^fa'fl 
wfij and reconciles this with the view of the NS, and other earlier writers 
as follows : .'wit^trerosRii «* wtosw ft^^n^Tt^Rwftna^q: (on SR. 
I. 3. 49). SR. (I. 3. 40) defines vivadi notes differently. It makes ni 
and ga, vivadi to ri and dha respectively. 

"Matanga (p. 144ff.) says that the "mutually anuvadi pairs of notes 
are : sa and ri, pa and dha, sa and dha, pa and ri in the Sadja-grama. 
Sbh. adds one more pair (ma and ri) to these (on SR. I. 3. 50). 

8 The Grama may be translated as 'scale'. Strangway's theory 
about its meaning does not appear to be sound (see MH. p. 106). Weber 
thinks that the Greek word gamma in its musical sense, is nothing but a 
derivation from the Sanskrit word grama. Indische Streifen, 1.3. (Ref.MM. 
p. 10). According to Narada there is one more Grama named Gandhara 
(NaS. I. 2. 8). SR (I. 4. 5) too mentions this. For more about Grama see 
MH. pp. 108*112. 


Dhaivata and Nisada to PaScama ; Rsabha, Pancama and 
Madhyama to Dhaivata. [All these are ] in the Sadja 
Grama. In the Madhyama Grama too, Pancama, Dhaivata 
and Nisada [are Assonant] to Madhyama ; Rsabha Sadja, 
and Gandhara to Pancama ; Sadja, Rsabha and G3ndhara to 
Dhaivata ; the same (Sadja, Rsabha and Gandhara) to 
Nisada. As a note [prominently] sounds it is called 
Sonant ; as it sounds in cosonance [with another] it is 
Consonant ; as it sounds discordantly [to another] it is 
Dissonant, and as it follows [another note] it is called 
Assonant. These notes become low or high according to 
the adjustment of the strings, and the varying condition 
(lit. diversity) of the beam of the Vina and of the sense* 
organs. So much about the aspects of four classes of 

Description of the Two Gramas 

Now, there are two Gramas' : Sadja and Madhyama. 
Each of these two (lit. there) include twentytwo. Srutis 
in the following manner : 

24. Srutis in the Sadja Grama are shown as follows : — 
three [in Rsabha], 1 two [in Gandhara], four [in Madhyama], 
four [in Pancama], three [in Dhaivata], two [in Nisada] and 
four [in Sadja]. 

In the Madhyama Grama Pancama should be made 
diffident in one Sruti. The difference which occurs in 
Pancama when it is raised 2 or lowered, by a Sruti and 
when consequential slackness 3 or tenseness [of strings] 
occurs, will indicate a typical (pramana) Sruti. 4 We shall 

(24) 'Probably due to the exigency of metre, the NS. in describing 
here the Srutis of each note, begins from Rsabha. 

'Utkarsas (increase) thrata, apakarso (decrease) mandata, Ag. 

t Mardavam (slackness) taniryah lithilikaranam, vipantatvam ayatatvam 
(tenseness) Ag. 

l Sruti may be translated as 'interval*. Early authorities differed from 
one another as to the nature and number of Srutis. Visvavasu thought 
they were two, some authority considered that their number was three, 

xxvni. 25-26] THE NATYASASTRA 8 

explain the system of these [Gratis]. The two Vinas wjth 
beams (danda) and strings of similar measure, 5 and with 
similar adjustment of the latter in the Sadja Grama 
should be made [ready]. [Then] one of these should be 
timed in the Madhyama Grama by lowering Paffcama 
[by one of Sruti]. The same (Vina) by adding one Sruti 
( lit. due to adding of one Sruti ) to Pancama will be 
tuned in the Sadja Grama. This is the meaning of de- 
creasing a Sruti (lit. thus a Sruti is decreased). Again due 
to the decrease of a Sruti in another [Vina] Gandhara and 
Nisada will merge with Dhaivata and Rsbha respectively, 
when there is an interval of two Srutis between them. 
Again due to the decrease of a Sruti in another (Vina) 
Rsbha and Dhaivata will merge with Sadja and Pancama 
respectively when there is an interval of [three] Srutis. 
Similarly the same [one] Sruti being again decreased Pancama, 
Madhyama and Sadja will merge with Madhyama, Gandhara 
and Nisada respectively when there is an in interval of four 
Srutis between them. Thus according this system of Srutis, 
[each of] the two Gramas should be taken as consisting 
of twentytwo Srutis. [The following] are the Slokas to 

this effect : 

Srutis in the Sadja Grama 

25-26. In the Sadja Grama, Sadja, includes four 
Srutis, Rsabha three, Gandhara two, Madhyama four, 
Pancama four, Dhaivata three and Nisada two. 

some twentytwo. some 'sixty six and some infinite. Views of the anony- 
mous authorities .tre known from the following couplet of Kohala : 

nfa<ns?irsn ii 

See Bd. pp. 4, 5 ; Sbh on SR. I. 3. 8. 9. For an elaborate discussion 
on the nature of Srutis in relation to the seven notes in the ancient 
Hindu scale see GS. I. pp. 298-379 ; GS. II. pp. 138-143. The following 
passage in NS. from fip?*>T 3l*m to *ifa«fa ^jflra: n«iwu«n: occurs in the Bd. 
(pp. 5-6) with a slight modification. SR. too follows this (See I. 3. 1 1-22). 

5 Ag. explains this 'measure' (pramana) as length and thickness, 
others include the number of strings also in this ( mxv^ mmvtikmjl; 
ipiftat gww" *wn ^ftwrf^ti ^fw *tai). 

9 INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC [xxvra. 27-30 

Srutis in the Madhyama Grama 

27-28. [In the Madhyama Grama] Madhyama consists 
of four Srutis. Paflcama three, Dhaivata four, Nisada two, 
Sadja four, Rsabha three and Gandhara two Srutis 1 . [Thus] 
the system of [mutual] intervals (antara) has been ex- 

The Murchanas 

Now about the Murohanas*. They are of fourteen kinds 
in the two Gramas 3 . 

Murchanas in the Sadja Grama 

29-30. Based on the Sadja Grama there are seven Mur- 
chanas : the first Uttaramandra, the second Eajani, the Ijhird 
TJttarayata, the fourth Suddhasadja, the fifth Matsarlkrta, 
the sixth ASvakranta and the seventh Abhirudgata. The first 
notes of these are [respectively] : Sadja, Nisada, Dhaivata. 
Pancama, Madhyama, Gandhara and Rsabha in the Sadja 

Murchanas in the Madhyama Grama 

In "the Madhyama Grama [occur the following Murch- 

(27-28) 'The Gandhara Grama became obsolete at the time of the 
NS., which ignores it. For its Srutis see SR. I. 4. 4-5 and MM. p. 10. 

*The 'Murchana* has often been translated as 'mode' of the 
Western music (See GS. I. p. 284 ; MH. p. 106 ; MM. pp. 10-11). But 
we are not sure about the accuracy of this. For further details 
about the term see GS. I. pp. 285ff; GS. II. pp. 14, 83ff. Matanga 
explains the term as follows : 

ijijim^jKiftijytoT* «y«ft i qfft 3* *mt ft i^fireftim ( Bd - P- 22 )- 
Sbh. further explains this as follows : 

itoni&C* w***H\ qfowww ' ft W* <fr frnfil (on SR. I. 4. 9-11). But 
curiously enough Ag. writes : whii ■qftniftqlW n^f.wwn *n(*i)Cwl syrafatf 

*TOTO«W*it ( V ) S*1' I 1JP" ft «3^ **&• 

"For the Murchanas of the Gandhara Grama see NaS\ 1. 2. 9 and 
SR. 1. 4. 25-26.. 


xxvm. 31-34] THE NATYASASTRA 10 

31-32. Based on the Madhyama Grama there are 
seven MQrchanSs : the first SauvM the second HarinasvS, the 
third Kalopanata, the fourth fsuddhamadhya, the fifth 
Margavi, the sixth Pauravl and the seventh Hrsyaka. 

[The first] notes 1 of these are respectively Madhyama, 
Gandhara, Rsabha, Sadja, Nisada, Dhaivata and Fancama. 

Initial Notes of the Murchanas in the two Gramas 

[Thus] the first notes of these serially are : in the Sadja 
Grama — UttaramandrS [is to begin] with Sadja, Rajani with 
Nisada, Uttarayata with Dhaivata, Suddhasadja with Pafi- 
cama, Matsarikrta with Madhyama, Asvakranta with Gan- 
dhara, and Abhirudgata with Rsabha. 

And in the Madhyama Grama — Sauviri [is to begin] 

with Madhyama, Harinasva with Gandhara, Kalopanata with 

Rsabha, Suddhamadhyama with Sadja, Margi (Margavi) with 

Nisada, Pauravl with Dhaivata, and Hrsyaka with Paficama. 

The Four classes of Murchanas 

Thus combined in [different] orders, the notes constitute 
fourteen Murchanas of four classes, such as heptatonic {puma, 
lit. full), hexatonic (sddavakrta), pentatonic {audavittkrtdf and 
that including the Overlapping note (sadharanakrta). 

33-34. The seven notes combined in [different] orders 
(lit. having an order) are called [full or heptatonio] Murcha- 
nas. Tanas 1 consisting of six and five notes are [respec- 

(31-32) 'Though N&. is silent on the point, the SR. gives the differ- 
ing pitch of notes as they appear in the Murchanas. (See I. 12-14 and 
Sbh. thereon). 

(33-34) » Tanas or pure Tanas are included into the Murchanas. 
difference between them seems to be that the latter includes all the 
seven notes, while in the former, one or two notes except Madhyama in all 
Gramas, and Dhaivata in the Sadja Grama, and Pancama in the Madhyama 
Grama are so very weakly 'worked' that they are considered as dropped. 
For the two ways of working such Tanas see below. NS. does not seem 
to be quite clear about the function of Murchanas, and Tanas which they 
include. But Ag. says mrra m* wigsqui*. It is doubtful whether the 
modern use # of the term Tana, is very old. The Murchana in its original 
sense seems to have disappeared from the later Indian music (see MH. p. 

11 INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC [xxvm. 33-34 

tively] called hexatone (sadava) 2 and pentatone {audavita)? 
Besides these, there is another kind of MQrchana which 
includes the Overlapping notes or is combined with the Kakall 
notes or the intermediate notes (antarasoara), and this belongs 
to both the Gramas (Sadja and Madhyama). 

The same MurchanS is produced (lit. accomplished) in 
two ways. In this connexion, Gandhara being reduced to 
Dhaivata by an increase of two Srutis in it, [the two terms] 
the Grama and the Murohana become differentiated in the 
Sadja Grama, and due to that, Madhyama and the notes 
following it, become serially reduced to Nisada and the notes 
following it. In the Madhyama Grama too, Dhaivata being 
softened (curtailed in Srutis) and Nisada being augmented, 
the two [terms] are differentiated. [In case of this Grama too] 
there being an interval of the same [number of] Srutis, the 
difference of terms [becomes justified]. The interval between 
Paiioama and Dhaivata is of four Srutis ; similarly due to an 
increase of Gandhara, the interval will be of four Srutis. The 
remaining Madhyama, Fancama, Dhaivata, Nisada, 'Rsabha 
and Sadja become reduced [serially] . to Madhyama and the 
notes following it. This is due to an interval of the same 
number of Srutis. 

The system of [mutual] intervals has been explained in 
connexion with the system of Srutis. 

106). About the function of the Murchana and Tana, Sbh. says : 
•t? Jjipiwrw wfimrowsfsyralfai tfii gw - nwt *ith ; m«n>a stftagaw ? 
wtf i i%fa$sita*im*smfa<n<<mre iratowHTiTfagjm' aw »t (on SR. I. 4. 
29-31). But Matanga's view given here, is not quite clear. 

'The term audavita and audava have often been read respectively as 
auduvita and audava with a notion about their connection with udu (—star). 
Odava or audava which lies at the basis of these terms, appears to be a 
non-Aryan word meaning probably 'five', and sadava too may likewise 
be of the same origin, and may mean 'six', and its another form might 
have been s odava connected with soda in sodala. This hypothesis may 
better explain in case of sat, the appearance of a cerebral sound in 
place of I-E k. 

s See note 2 above. 

Xxvm. 33-34] THE NATYA&STRA 12 

Eijghtyfour Tanas of the Murchanas 

Tanas which depend on Murchanas are eightyfour in 
number. Among these the hexatonic ones are fortynine, and 
the pentatonio ones thirty five. 

The Hexatonic Tanas 

The hexatonic ones have seven varieties, ■ e.g. four 
Tanas devoid of Sadja, Rsabha, Nisada and Paficama in the 
Sadja Grama ; three Tanas devoid of Sadja, Rsabha and 
Gandhara in the Madhyama Grama. Thus these being 
worked in all, the Murchanas [in the two Gramas] will give 
rise to fortynine Tanas. 

The Pentatonic Tanas 

The pentatonic ones have five varieties e.g. three Tanas 
devoid of Sadja and Paricama, of Rsabha and Paficama, and 
of Gandhara and Nisada in the Sadja Grama, two Tanas 
devoid of Rsabha and Dhaivata, and of Gandhara and Nisada 
in the Madhyama Grama. Thus these being worked in all, the 
pentatonic Murchanas [in the two Gramas] will give rise to 
thirtyfive Tanas, twentyone in the Sadja Grama and fourteen 
in the Madhyama Grama. 

The Two Ways of Tanas 
There are two ways of working the Tana in the string 
{tantrt) : Entrance (pravesa) and Arrest (nigraha). The 
Entrance is made by sharpening (lit. emphasizing) the 
preceding (adhara) note and by softening (mardava) the 
succeeding (uttara) note. And the Arrest is non-touch- 
ing, i.e., not touching the Madhyama note. The MQr- 
chana is indicated by the Madhyama note of the Vina, 
because it is oonstant (anasi. lit. not perishable). Hence the 
Entrance and the Arrest [do not] relate to the Madhyama 
note. The variety of the Tanas and the Murchanas thus 
[arising], provides enjoyment to the hearer as well as to 
the musician (prayoktr, lit. producer). The Murohana [and 
Tana] are also of use [because their practice helps] the 

13 INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC [*xvm. 34-35 

attainment of the voice-registers (sthana-prapti)* There 
are three voice-registers. Their description has been given 
in the rales regarding the Intonation (kaku). s 

The Overlapping 

I shall now relate the rules regarding the Overlapping 
of notes (sadharana-vidhi). The Overlapping (sadharana) means 
the quality of a note rising between two [consecutive] notes 
[in a Grama]. Why J The thing which exists between the 
two [similar things, partly merging into each other] is over- 
lapping (sadharana), e.g., the transition of a season. 

35. In the shade one feels cold, but while staying in 
the sun one sweats ( lit. the sweat comes out ). [ It seems 
that at this time ] neither has the spring come [fully], 
nor has the winter gone away completely. 

This is an example of the overlapping season. 
Two kinds of Overlapping 

There are two kinds of Overlapping : Overlapping in 
notes (savarasadharana) and Overlapping in Jatis (Jatisqdharana). 
The Overlapping Notes 

The Kakall and the transitional note (antarasvara) are 
the Overlapping notes (svarasadharana). Now if two Srutis 
are added to Nisada, it is called Kakall Nisada and not 
Sadja ; as it is a note rising between the two (pure Nisada 
and Sadja), it become Overlapping. Similarly [the two 
Srutis being added to it] Gandhara becomes transitional 
Gandhara and not Madhyama, because* it is a transitional 
note (antarasvara) between the two (Madhyama and Gandhara). 
Thus the Overlapping notes [occur]. 

Why is Nisada called K&kall 1 Because it is an in- 
distinct second, or it is produced with [slight] pulling 
(akrstatva 1 ) or due to its very fineness (saufcstnya 1 ) or be- 

'It appears from this that by imitating the Murchanas and Tar^s 
produced in the Vina, singers attained the facility of producing notes from 
any voice-register they liked. See above note 2 on 13-14. 

•Sec XIX. 37ff before. 

(35) '.tot - fotjre ( iRwit to ) i S «W 5ft«u' fi9«rei«m *. Ag. 

xxvin. 35-39] THE NATYASASTRA 14 

cause it behaves like the crow's eye {kakaksif and relates 
to the two [notes, Nisada and Sadja], it is called (kakall). 
Just as salt among the six [kinds of] taste (rasa), ia 
called KsSra (corrosive), so Nisada is called Kakall, and 
the Overlapping note is called the transitional note. 

The Overlapping Jati 

The Overlapping Jati 2 (jatisadharana) [arises] from 
observing in another Grama the notes which belong to 
the minor limbs of two or more Jstis which are in the 
same Grama and have common Amsas. The Overlapping 
note (svarasadharana) belonging to the two Gramas (Sadja 
and Madhyama) is of two kinds. Why f For, occur- 
ring in the Sadja Grama it is the Overlapping Sadja, and 
in the Madhyama Grama it is Overlapping Madhyama. 
The Overlapping here is a special nature of the note. 
This is so in the Sadja Grama, and the same [also] is the 
oase in the Madhyama GrSma. Due to the delicacy of 
its production (proyoga-sauksmya) it is fitly called Kaisika 
(capillary). This is the Overlapping note which is used 
in Jatis where Nisada and Gandhara are weak (alpa\ 
On these points there are the two Slokas : 

3<l The transitional note (antarasvara) should always 
relate to the ascending scale (arohin) and be made especially 
weakened (alpa), but it should never be in the descending 
scale (avarohln). 

37. If it is made in the descending scale whether weak 
or strong, the transitional notes will lead Gratis to the 

The Jatis 
We shall now explain the Jatis. 
38-39. The Jatis 1 relating to the Overlapping notes 

* Cf. irranfajfawra. 

(38-39) >On the meaning of Jati, Kn. says vmramwT if* smra: and 
Sbh. *mm ^^ifpw (on SR. I. 7. 3). See also Bd. pp. 55-56. 
But Jatis are the primitive melody-types from which Ragas of later Hindu 
music developed. Jati meaning 'birth* probably stands here for recog- 

15 INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC [xxvm. 39-44 

are three in number : Madhyama, PancamI and Sadjamadbya. 
Their constituent parts are Sadja, Madhyama and Pancama 
of which the Paiicaml will be distinct, but weaker than the 
rest in its own note (i. e. Pancama). 

Seven Jatis in the Sadja Grama 

40-41. The seven Jatis 1 in the Sadja Grama are ; 
Sadji, Arsabhl, Dhaivati, Nais&di, Sadjodicyavati, SadjakaisikI 
and Sadjainadhyama. 

Eleven Jatis in the Madhyama Grama 
42-43. The eleven Jatis 1 in the Madhyama Grama are ; 
Gandhari, Baktagandhari, GandharodlcyavS, Madhyamodl- 
cyava, Madhyama, PancamI, GandharapancamI, Andhri, 
NandayantI, Karmaravl and Kaisikl. 

44. There are the eighteen Jatis of which I spoke 
before. I shall now describe the Nyasa (terminal note)' 
and ApanySsa (semi-terminal note) which they include. 
Two kinds of Jatis 
Of these eighteen, seven owe their names to the seven 
notes. They are of two kinds :' .pure (iuddka) and modified 
(vikfta). In the Sadja Grama the pure (Jatis) are Sadji, 
Arsabhi, Dhaivati and Nisadavati ( = Nais3di) and in the 
Madhyama Grama they are Gandhari, Madhyama and 
PancamI. 'Pure' (iuddha) in this connexion means having 
Svaramsa 2 ( = Amsa), Graha 2 and Nyasa 2 consisting of alt the 
[seven] notes (lit. not diffident in notes). When some of 

nized melody-types of the day, which were considered to be of (pure) 
birth as opposed to other types which were hybrids. For the charac- 
teristics of the Jatis see 73-74 below. 


(40-41) 'See SR I. 7. 17. 

(42-43) 'See SR. I. 7. 18. SR. (I. 7. 18-20.) classifies them also into 
{«) Purna (heptatonic), (»'i) Purna-sadava (heptatonic and hexatonic) and 
(Hi) Purna-sidavaudavita (heptatonic, hexatonic as well as penta tonic). 

(44) »See above note 1 of (40-41) and 41-42). 

'For a definition of these term see below 74ff. 

xxvm. 44-52] THE NATYASASTRA 1ft 

these [Jatis] lack two or more of the [prescribed] characteris- 
tics except the Nyasa, they are called 'modified' (vikrta). 
Hence (lit. due to this) those indeed are pure Jatis, and these 
indeed are modified ones (i.e. Jatis). In the observation of 
the Ny5sa in the [pure], Jatis the note shouid be regularly 
Mandra ; but irf case the modified Jatis, there is no rule [about 
it]. The modified [Jatis] are eleven in number and they grow 
from combination. [These] eleven are formed from their 
mutual combination, as follows : 

45. Jatis are pure as well as modified, and the [latter] 
arises from the combination [of other Jatis]. Among them 
seven are pure while the remaining eleven are modified. 

The modified Jatis 

46. I shall now speak in due order and with proper 
brevity, of Jatis which grow out of notes, and Amsas of these 
[pure] Jatis. 

47. The Sadja-madhyama 1 is formed by the Sadji, 
the Madhyama. The Sadjakaisiki 2 Jati is formed by the 
Sadji and the Gandharl. 

48. The SadjodicyavatI is formed by the Sadji, the 
Gandhari and the Dhaivati combined or associated with one 

49. The Gandharodlcyava is formed by the Sadji, the 
Gandharl, the Dhaivati and the Madhyama. 

50. The Madhyamodlcyava is formed by the Gandhari, 
the Paffoami, the Dhaivati and the Madhyama. . 

51. The Raktagandhari is formed by the four: the 
Gandhari, the PaScami, the Naisadi and the Madhyama. 

62. The Andhri is formed by the Gandhari, and the 
Arsabhi'. The Nandayanti is formed by the Gandhari, the 
PaficamI and the Arsabhi. 

(47) »The constitution of modified Jatis, has been given in Bd. in 
a slightly different language (pp. 54-55). The passage appears there as a 
quotation from Bharata, though actually it has been re-written. See 
also SR. I. 7. 10-16. 'See note 1 above. 

(52) »C« reads Sadji instead of Arsabhi. But Bd.- read (p. 5* 
• *nwro «3Hfl*fl irwraW* *x*p{. See also SR. I. 7. 12. 

17 INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC [xxvm. 53-62 

63. The Gandharapancami is formed by the Gandhari 
and the Pancaml. 

53-54. The Karmaravl is formed by the Naisadi, the 
Arsabhl and the Pancami, and it is heptatonic (lit. full). 

The Kaisiki is formed by the SadjI, the Gandhari, the 
Madhyama, the PaHcami and the Naisadi (lit. the pure Jatis 
except the Dhaivati and the Arsabhl). 

55. These are the distinct Jatis growing out of mutual 
combination of notes in the two Gramas. 

The Number of Notes in the Jatis of the two Gramas 

66. Of these the four heptatonic (saptasvara) and the 
ten pentatonic (pancasvara) and the four hexatonic {satsvara)\ 

Jatis in the Sadja Grama : The Heptatonic Jatis 
57. [Of these] the Madhyamodlcava, the Sadjakaisiki, 
the Karmaravl and the Gandharapancami are heptatonic (lit. 
full) Jatis 1 . 

The Pentatonic Jatis 
58-60. The Gandhari, the Raktagandhari, the Madhyama, 
the PaffcamI, the Kaisiki, the five [Jatis] in the Madhyama 
[Grama], the Arsabhl, the Dhaivati, the Naisadi, the Sadja- 
madhyama and the Sadjodicyavatl, [the five Jatis] in the 
Sadja Grama, are the ten pentatonic Jatis. 

The Jatis in the Madhyama Grama : The Hexatonic Jatis 

60-61. The Gandharodlcyava, the Nandayanti and the 
Andhri, [the three Jatis , in the Madhyama Grama, and the 
Sadji alone in the Sadja Grama, are hexatonic. 

62. The Jatis (lit. those)r which have been described as 
pentatonic and hexatonic. may on rare occasions be changed 
respectively into hexatonic ( sadavlbhuta ) and pentatonic 

(56) 'See Bd. 188 (p. 55) ; SR. I. 7. 18. 

(57) !See Bd. 189 (p. 55). 

(58-60) ^ee Bd. 192, 191, 190 (p. 55). " 
(62) "See Bd. 194, 195 (p. 55). 


xxvin. 63-74] THE NATYaSASTRA 18 

The Heptatonic Jatis 
63-64. The Karmaravi, the Madhyamodlcyava and the 
Gandharapancami are the heptatonic (lit. full) Jatis in the 
Madhyama Grama, and the heptatonic Jati in the Sadja 
Grama is the Sadjakaisiki. 64-65. (A variant of60b-61a.) 

Amsas in the Jatis 

65-69. So much about the Jatis in the two Gramas. I 
shall now describe their different Amsas. 

The Sadjamadhyama should have no hexatonic treat- 
ment including Nisada (lit. the seventh), and there should be 
no Gandhara there, because of an elimination of its Consonant 
note ; and the G&ndhari, the Eaktagandhari and the Kaisiki 
should have no Fancama, and the Sadji should have no 
Gandhara, and the Sadjodlcyava no Dhaivata in their hexa- 
tonic treatment. These seven [notes] are to be discarded in 
connexion with the hexatonic treatment of the Jatis named, 
because of the elimination of their Consonant notes. 

69-71. The Gandhari and the Eaktagandhari Jatis 
should have no Sadja, Madhyama, Pancama and Naisada 
in their pentatonic treatment, and the Sadji and the 
Madhyama respectively should have no Gandhara and Nisada, 
and the Paficaml no Rsabha, and the Kaisiki no Dhaivata in 
their pentatonic treatment. These are the twelve notes 
which should be discarded in the pentatonic treatment. 

72-73. Hence these Jatis should always be without 
pentatonic treatment. From the Jatis any of (lit. all) the 
notes may be left out ; but Madhyama should never be left 
out. For the great sages who chanted the Samans, expressed 
an opinion in the Gandharva Kalpa that Madhyama the best 
of notes, is indispensible (lit. imperishable). 
The Characteristics of the Jatis 

74. Ten characteristics of the Jatis are : Graha, 
Amsa, Tara, Mandra, Nyasa, Apanyasa, Eeduotion, (alpatva), 

(74) >This and the following nine terms have been defined below 
(75fi). A later writer adds the Antaramarga, Samnyasa and Vinyasa to 
these, and make the number thirteen (MM. pp. 36-37). 

19 , INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC [xxvra. 75-78 

Amplification (bahutva), hexatonio treatment (sadava), and 
pentatonio treatment (audavita). 

The Graha 

75. 'Grahas have been like the Amsa of all the Jatis. 
That note which is taken up in the beginning [of a song] is 
the Graha, and is an alternative 2 term for the Amsa. 

The Amsa 

76-78. The ten characteristics of the Amsa 1 are [as 
follows] : — 

The Am£a [is that note in the song] on which its charm 
(raga) depends, and from which the charm proceeds ; it is the 
basis of the variation into low (mandra) and high (tara) 
pitches depending on the [first] five notes (pancasvarapara), and 
in the combination of many notes it is perceived promi- 
nently {atyartham), and ^noreover other strong notes may be 
to it in relation of Consonance and Assonance, and it is 

(75) 'The Graha is the note in which the song begins. Matanga says 
siwifeiratiit nm% %>nti vt :(Bd. p. 66). xm^ wM\ m e i? ^c **& (wrongly 
ascribed by GS. to SR.) ; to *TC fl *3I*ft 3l Jfaift Sflft'ff I fltffl'fUOT (The last 
two passages are quoted in GS. I. p. 121). F. Strangway's suggestion is 
that the term possibly means 'clef, though some writers differ from him. 
(See MM. pp. 12-13). But this view seems to be right, because the Graha 
and the Amsa are taken as synonymous by SR. See Sbh. and Kn. on. 
SR I. 7. 29-34. For a further discussion about it see GS. I. pp. 66-67, 
121 and GS. II. p. 21. The assumption of a rule of the Graha as well 
asoftheNyasa with regard to the Ragas only, seem however to be 
erroneous. These two relatemerely to songs in general (see GS. I. pp. 
67, 121). 

*See below note 1 on 76-78. 

(76-78) l This Amsa has been rightly compared to the Governing 
note or the Key-note of the Western music It is also called Vadln 
(Sonant) note and is the basis of the melodic structure of a song igita). 
For more about the term see GS. II. pp. 21, 29, 1 13, 1 17. See also above 
note 1 to 75. Though the Graha and the Amsa are synonmous, there is 
a distinction between the two. On this Kn. says, na'sit to »fa *roiif fin 
tffaw'iisifj tow mf 3 TOforat: v\ fnta tfit *n, wt— TOWtmfnf wr? m' t *>rcf 

xxvra. 79-87] THE NATYA&ASTRA 20 

related to the Graha, Apanyasa, Vinyasa 2 , Samnyasa 3 and 
Nyasa [notes], and it lies scattered throughout the song. 

Amsas of the Jatis 

79. The Jatis in the two Gramas have always sixtythree 
Amsas as well as Grahas. We shall now discuss the rule 
about the Amsa and the Graha [in relation to the Jatis]. 

80. Pahcama is the Amsa and the Graha of the Madhya- 
modicyava, the Nandayanti and the Gandharapanoami 

81. Dhaivata and Rsabha are the Amsa and the Graha 
of the Dhaivati Jati. Rsabha and Pancama are the Amsa 
and the Graha in the Pancami Jati. 

82. Sadja and Madhyama are the Amsa and the Graha 
in the GandhSrodlcyva, Rsabha, Dhaivata and Nisada are 
the Amsa and the Graha of the Arsabhi. 

b3-84. Rsabha, Gandhara, and Nisada are the Amsa 
and the Graha of the Naisadi. 

Sadja, Gandhara and Pancama are the Amsa and the 
Graha 'of the Sadjakaisikl. Thus have been described [the 
three Amsas] and ths Grahas of the three Jatis. 

84-85. Sadja, Madhyama, Dhaivata and Nisada are the 
four Amsas and the Grahas of the Sadjodicyavati. 

85-86. Rsabha, Pancama, Dhaivata and Nisada are the 
four Amsas [and the Grahas] of the Karmaravi. 

86-87 Rsabha, Gandhara, Pancama and Nisada are 
the four Amsas and Grahas of the Andhri. 

Afaiaifb w:, *fo jj vfonfiTOcwftft «*»*5: if* i maw wwr »r (p. 56) *& *i*n 
Vt *VS "(raift^firwgfw *fn (on SR. I. 7. 29-34). On the etymological sense 
of the term Sbh. says «m ^ smms^m^ ? ^ m ^ n ^ ^^ . ^^ ^ 
'ct»n%fitwi«iq l |R<fli?>w^iir^ i nrtii wm$nmit[ (on SR. I. 7. 32-34). 

•Amsa' in a few places has its variant as amga which seems to be the 
original form of the term. «Amga' note means the note which is an 
essential requisite or component of the song. For this meaning see Apte 
sub voce. 

'See below note 1 of 101-105. 

»See below note 1 of 101-105. 

21 INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC [xxvra. 87-94 

87-88. Sadja, Rsabha, Madhyama, Pancama and Dhai- 
vata are the five Amsas and the Grahas of the Madhyama. 

88-89. Sadja, GSndhara, Madhyama, Pancama and 
Dhaivata are the [five] Amsas and the Grahas of the Sadji. 

89-90. Rsabha, G&ndhara, Madhyama, Pancama and 
Nisada are the [five] Amsas and the Grahas of the G&ndbari 
and the Baktagandharl. 

90-9 1 . All the notes except Rsabha are the six Amsas 
[and the Grahas] of the Kaisikl. 

All the notes are the seven Amsas and Grahas of the 
Sadjamadhyama. These are the sixtythree Amsas and Grahas 
in the J&tis. Amsas are always Grahas in all these Jatis. 

92-93. Groups (gana) of all these Jatis are made up of 
three of them. They are always to be arranged (lit. known) 
as consisting of increasing [number of] notes in ascending 
order, such as those of one note, those of two notes, three 
notes, four notes, five notes, six notes and seven notes. 

The High Pitch Movement . 

The High pitch movement (taragati) depending on the 
[first] five notes, e.g. 

94. The raising of the pitch from the any of the Amsa 
[notes] should be up to the note fourth from it, or it may be 
to the fifth note even, but not to any beyond it. 1 

The Low Pitch Movement 

Three kinds of the low pitch movement : that depending 
on the Amsa, on the NySsa, and on the ApanySsa. 

(94) 1 Kn. gives the method of raising the pitch as follows. 

<rcm3f wnfif«r<r<?l writ i wn: qtfuipc: wty fowni iitTCfeft (on SR. I. 7. 35- 

xxvin. 95-96] THE NATYASASTRA 22 

95. There is no pitch lower than that of the Amis. 
[notes] ; in the Nyasa such a pitch will be separated by two 
notes, and when the G&ndhara is the Graha and the Nyasa, 
Rsabha and Dhaivata are seen [to bear a low pitch]. 1 

Reduction and Amplification 

Beduction {alpatva) 2 is of two kinds : that due to skipping 
over (lamghana) a note, and that due to non repetition of the 
same. Among these two (lit. there) the Reduction [of notes] 
due to skipping over, [leads to] the hexatonic and the penta- 
tonic treatment of the Amsas of songs, when they reach 
the Antaramarga 3 ; and the Eeduction of notes due to their 
non-repetition, consists of enunciating them once according 
to the Jatis [in which a particular songs is to be sung]. 

The Amplification 

The Amplification (bahutvaY is the opposite of the 
Eeduction. Likewise the Movement 5 (samcara) of the other 
notes which are strong, is of two kinds. 

96. The Eeduction as well as the Amplification al ways- 
occurs from convention (lit. early fixation) in relation to 
[particular] notes of the Jati, and the Eeduction is of two 

(95) 1 The translation is tentative. For the method of lowering pitch 
given in SR I. 7. 34-37 see Sbh.'s comment thereon (GS. II. pp. 113-124). 

2 Alpatva (Reduction) of a note is qualitative as well as quantitative. 
The former is skipping over or very lightly touching the note, and the 
latter is its non-repetition (See GS. II. p. 79). 

"The Antaramarga has been taken as an additional characteristic of 
the Amsa. But this is no addition to the definition of the term given in 
$&., but an amplification of the same. See SR. I. 7. 30, and Kn.'s- 
comment thereon. 

*Bahutva (Amplification) is also of two kinds : (a) qualitative «'.<► 
the note being perfectly (i.e. most audibly) produced and (b) quantitative 
i.e. the note being repeated in many ways (See GS. II. p. 79). 

8 The translation is tentative. 

23 INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC [xxvm. 97-100 

97. The Movement (samcara) of notes relates to the 
strong Amsa notes, and the Beduotion to the weak notes. 
[These are] the two treatment of the Antaram&rgas which 
gives character to the Jatis. 

The Hexatonic Treatment 
Hexatonio treatment (sadavita) relates to six notes [in 
a GrSma]. They are of fourteen kinds and have fortyseven 
subdivisions. These have been described before in their 
Jatis and Am£as. 

The Pentatonic Treatment 

98. The pentatonic treatment relates to five notes 
[in a Grama] and is to be known as being of ten kinds. Its 
subdivisions are thirty and have been mentioned before. 

99. [Groups of] six notes as well as of five notes have 
their application. Similarly [groups of] four notes also have 
their uses in the Avakrsta Dhruvas. 

The Nyasa and the Apanyasa 

Now about the Nyasa 1 . It occurs at the conclusion of 
the song (lit. limb) and is of twentyone kinds. The ApanySsa 
similarly occurs within the song' (lit. limb) 2 and is of fifty- 
six kinds. 

100. The Nyasa at the conclusion on the song (lit. 
limb) 1 should be made of twentyone kinds, and the ApanySsa 
oocurring within the song is of fiftysix kinds. 

(97) 'That is, anuvadin and samvadin notes to it. 2 See 58 60-61 before. 

(98) 'See 58 before. 

(99) 'The Nyasa has been compared to Cadence of the Western 
music. See GS. II. pp. 35, 1 18.. Some later writer connects the Nyasa 
with Ragas : nmw$ fr»* *W vmtmr. (wrongly ascribed by GS. to SR.) ; 
while the rest take this in connection with songs in general and not 
merely to Jatis. e.g. rflit SKifirewre: (SR. I. 7. 38) ; *m; ^ ft* $) ^ jfowmw 
(«tflW3«i. 145). 

'The Apanyasa note occurs at the conclusion of each division 
{vidari) of the song. Matanga says on this point: s >* towr vsfNl wqfit, 
Tftamt nih wlw. i m m TOinfin Hat Hfwrait tf n»»ra: i « ^ faiforin wfir i 
jfourftora ww:. See also GS. II. p. 1 18. 

(100) 'The emendation of the text, should be cancelled. 

xxvm. 101-107] THE NATYA6ASTRA 

Jatis with their Characteristics 

101-102. I have thus spoken properly oi the charateris- 
ties of the Jatis 1 . I shall now speak of their Nyasa and 

The Sadji 

103-104. In the Sadji Jati, the Amsa is of five notes 
[of the Grama], Nisada and rlsabha being excluded. Its 
Apany&sa is Gandhara and Pancama, and Nyasa Sadja, and 
Nisada (lit. the seventh) should be dropped from it. Its 
hexatonio treatment should exclude Nisada (lit. the seventh). 
In it, Dhaivata and Nisada should be reduced ; and Sadja 
and Gandhara as well as Dhaivata and Sadja should move 
together, and Gandhara should be amplified. 

The Arsabhi 

105-107. In the Arsabhi Jati, the Amsa is Rsabha, 
Dhaivata and Nisada. These are its Apany&sa, and the 
Nyasa is known as Rsabha. Skipping over Pancama in the 
ascending scale will be itsKeduction giving rise to a special 
hexatonic treatment. Its [ordinary] hexatonic treatment 
will exclude Nisada, and the pentatonic treatment Pancama. 
In it, the moving together' of the Dissonant notes has been 

(101-105) 'But the Vinyasa and the Samnyasa mentioned in 76-78 
above, have not been defined or explained. It is possible that the passages 
treating these items, have been lost. The Samnyasa is the closing note of 
the first division of a song, and is not vivadin to the Amsa. According to 
Matanga, tow ftqift mn >> *refo iraufcuifa'tf «rf% Rgwt wtfa «wi «mre *gr«nt 
(Bd. quoted by Sbh. comm. on SR. I. 7, 51-52). The Vinyasa is the 
closing note of the padas in a division of the song, and it is samvadin or 
muvadin to the Amsa. According to Matanga <nnw g «*re«(t W qwf 
fowft JRt ft»TO: I <«t qjtmsi **rag*r3 v q^faiW »w?lgjnm(on SR. I. 7. 47-51). 
SR. defines the Vinyasa as follows : fture: « ij m*ft i q) ftstftauwqiwnxf 
CTfireit (I. 7. 48). Kn. explained Jt follows : ftwif Hiwnfii *«»tanrm%«rci wm 
*iWH!'ft1wmw»imfir "»^*l "Rnfi *W ww*j?«n*n»it m*f fltwfwi %ft (on SR. I. 7. 

25 INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC fxxvm. 108-120 

The Dhaivati 
108-110. In the Dhaivati Jati the Amsa is Rsabha and 
Dhaivata, the Nyasa Dhaivata, the Apanyasa Rsabha, 
Madhyama and Dhaivata, and the pentatonio treatments will 
exclude Sadja and Pancama, and the hexatonic treatment 
Paffcama [only]. In it the two (the pentatonio and the 
hexatonic treatments) should be in an ascending scale, and 
Nisada and Rsabha should be skipped over and Gandhara 
should be amplified (lit. made strong). 

The Naisadi 
111-112. In the Naisadi Jati the Amsa is Rsabha, 
Gandhara and Nisada, and the Apanyasa the same, and the 
Nyasa Nisada. Its hexatonic and pentatonio treatments will 
be like those of the Dhaivati. And similar is its skipping over 
(Seduction) of notes, and strong notes (i.e., their ampli- 

The Sadjakaisiki 

112-114. In the Sadjakaisiki the Amsa is Sadja, Gandhara 
and Pancama, the Apanyasa Sadja, Pancama and Nisada, and 
the Nyasa Gandhara. No note will be omitted from it. 
Hence it is called a complete [Jati]. In it Rsabha and 
Dhaivata should be weakened (i.e., reduced). 

The Sadjodicyava 

115-117. In the Sadjodicyava Jati, the Amsa is Sadja, 
Madhyama, Dhaivata and Nisada, the Nyasa Madhyama, 
and the Apanyasa Sadja and Dhaivata.* The Amsa notes 
here are prescribed to come together (sam-car) with one 
another. Its pentatonio treatment excludes Rsabha and 
PafScama, and the hexatonic treatment Rsabha. And 
Gandhara should be made strong (i.e., amplified). 

The Sadjamadhya 

118-120. In the Sadjamadhya (-madhyama) Jati all the 

notes [in the Grama] are the Amsa ; the same are the 

Apanyasa. Its Nyasa is Sadja and Madhyama, and the 

pentatonio treatment is wanting in Gandhara arid Nisada, 


jcsvin. 120-130] THE NATYaSASTRA 26 

(lit. the seventh), and the hexatonio treatment in Nisada. 
Coming together (sam-cara) of all its notes have been prescribed. 
120-121. These are the seven Jatis depending on the 
Sadja GrSma. I shall now speak of those depending on the 
Madhyama Grama. 

The Gandhari 

121-123. In the Gandhari Jati the Amsa will be the 
five notes [of the Grama] Dhaivata and Rsabha being 
excluded, and its Apanyasa Sadja and Paficama, and the Nyasa 
Gandhara. Its hexatonic treatment excludes Rsabha, and 
the pentatonic treatment Rsabha and Dhaivata. [Besides 
these] they (i.e., Rsabha and Dhaivata) should be skipped over 
and Rsabha should always go to Dhaivata 1 , and Sadja and 
Madhyama should be amplified in it. 

The Raktagandhari 

124-126. In the Raktagandhari all the characteristics, 
such as the Nyasa, the exolusion of notes in hexatonic and 
pentatonic treatments, and the Amsa will be like those of 
the Gandhari. Its Dhaivata and Nisada should be amplified 
(lit. treated as strong), "and Gandhara and Sadja will come 
together (sam-car) with notes other than Rsabha, and its 
Apanyasa should be Madhyama. 

The Gandharodicyava 
126-127. In the Gandharodicyava the Amsa is Sadja 
and Madhyama. There is no pentatonic treatment in it. 
Its hexatonic treatment will exclude Rsabha. Its Reduction, 
Amplification, Nyasa and Apanyasa will be like that of the 

The Madhyama 
128-130. In the Madhyama the Amsa is Sadja, Rsabha, 
Madhyama, Paficama and Dhaivata, and they are the 
Apanyasa, and the Nyasa is Madhyama. The two notes of 
two Srutis (i.e., Gandhara and Nisada) are to be weakened, and 
its pentatonio treatment excludes Gandhara and Nisada, 
while its hexatonio treatment excludes Gandhara. In it the 

pi INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC [xxvm. 131-143 

Amplification of Sadja and Madhyama, and weakness (Seduc- 
tion) of Gandhara have been prescribed. 
The Madhyamodicyava 
131. In the Madhyamodicyava Jati the Amsa is 
PaHcama. The rest of the rules, is similar to those of the 


The Pancami 

132-134. In the Paficaml, the Amsa is Rsabha and 
Paiicama, the Apanyasa is Rsabha, Pancama and Nisada, 
the Nyasa is Pancama ; Rsabha and Madhyama are dropped 
from it. The hexatonic and pentatonic treatments in it 
should be as in the Madhyama. And Sadja, Gandhara and 
Madhyama should be made weak (i.e., reduced), and 
Madhyama and Rsabha should come together (sam-car) in it 
and go to Gandhara, and Nisada should also be made weak 
(i.e., reduced). 

The Gandharapancami 

135-136. In the Gandharapancami, the Amsa is 
Pancama, the Apanyasa Rsabha and Paiicama, the Nyasa 
Gandhara. and no note is wanting in it. Gandhara and 
Pancama in it come together. 

The Andhri 

137-139. In the Andhri, the Amsa consists of four notes 

such as, Rsabha, Pancama. Gandhara and Nisada, and similar 

is its Apanyasa. Its Nyasa is Gandhara and the hexatonic 

treatment is free from Sadja, and in it Gandhara and Sadja 

come together. [Besides these] its Dhaivata and Nisada 

should be amplified in an ascending scale, and Sadja should 

be skipped over (i.e., reduced) there should be no pentatonic 

treatment of it. 

The Nandayanti' 

140-143. In the Nandayanti the Amsa is always 

Pancama, the Apanyasa Madhyama and Paffcama. In the 

hexatonic treatment it excludes Sadja which should be 

skipped over (i.e., reduced). Notes coming together (samrcara) 

in it are like those in the Andhri. And Rsabha also should 

be skipped over, and there should be the low pitch (tnandta-gati) 

xxvai. 143-151) THE NATYA&ASTkA &, 

there, and Sadja should be in the high pitch and it should 
not be in a descending scale (lit. go backward). Its Graha 
should be Gandhara and the Nyasa also the same. 

The Karmaravi 

143-1 4fi. In the Karmaravi the Anisa is Rsabha, Paficama, 
Dhaivata and Nisada, and the same are its Graha. The 
Apanyasa is [also] the same, and tbe Nyasa is Paficama, 
and no note is left out. Notes other than those in the Amsa 
are strong (i.e., are to be amplified) and Gandhara comes 
together with all other notes. 

The KaisikI 

146-149. In the KaisikI Jati the Amsa consists of all 
the notes [in the Grama] except Rsabha, and these are the 
Apanyasa, and the Nyasa is Gandhara and Nisada, but when 
the Dhaivata and Nisada are the Amsa in it Paficama 
will be the Nyasa. In it Rsabha is weak and it is skipped over, 
and sometimes Rsabha will be its Apanyasa. 

Its hexatonic treatment excludes Rsabha, and the 
pentatonic treatment Rsabha and Dhaivata. Sadja (lit. the 
first) and Paficama are strong notes (i.e., should be amplified) 
in it. And Rsabha should be weakened and it will be specially 
skipped over, and coming together {sam-cara) of notes should 
be as in the Sadjamadhyama. 

160-151. These are the Jatis with their ten characteris- 
tics. These should be applied in the song (pada) with 
dance movements (KaranaB) and gestures suitable to them 
(lit. their own). I shall now speak of their distinction in 
relation to the Sentiments (rasa) and the States (bh&va). 
Listen about the manner in which they are to be applied in 
particular Sentiments. ' 

Here ends the Chapter XXVIII of Bharata's Natyasastra, 
which treats of Formal Aspects of the Instrumental Music. 


Application of Jatis to Sentiments 

1. The SadjodicyavatI and the Sadjamadhya should be 
applied in the Erotic and the Comic Sentiments respectively 
because Madhyama and Paficama' are amplified in them. 2 

2. The Sadji and the Arsabhi should be applied in the 
Heroic, the Furious and the Marvellous Sentiments after 
making [respectively] Sadja and Rsabha their Graha note'. 

3. The Naisadi with (lit. (in) Nisada as its Amsa note, 
and the Sadjakaisiki with (lit. in) Gandhara (as its Amsa 
note] should be the Jsti sung (lit. made) by expert singers' 
in the Pathetic Sentiment. 

4. The Dhaivati' with (lit. in) Dhaivata as its Amsa 
note [is to be applied] in the Odious and the Terrible 
[Sentiments]. [Besides this] the Dhaivati is applicable in 

(1) l The notes marked out for amplification are the Amsa notes of 
the Jatis (See 15 below). In the present case, Madhyama only is the 
Amsa note of the Sadjodicyavati (°cyava), and while both Madhyama 
and Pancama are such notes to the Sadjamadhya. See XXVIII, 84, 91. 

8 As songs included in the performance of a play, were to serve its 
principal purpose which was the evocation of Sentiments, the author 
discusses here how Jatis can be applied for this purpose. The seven notes 
which have already been assigned to different Sentiments (XIX. 31-40), 
played an important part in this connexion. All these ultimately led to 
the formation of the Ragas of the later Indian Music, in which the 
particular melody-types were meant not only to create a Sentiment appro- 
priate to a situation in a play, but also to act on the hearers' emotion in 
such a way that they might experience in imagination the particular situa- 
tions described in isolated songs as well. 

(2) l §adja and Rsabha are respectively included into the Graha 
notes of the Sadji and Arsabhi Jatis. See XXVIII. 88, 89, 92. 

(3) ' Nisada and Gandhara are respectively included into the Amsa 
notes of the Naisadi and the Sadjakaisiki Jatis. See XXVIII. 83-84. 

(4) ' Dhaivata is included into the Amsa notes of the Dhaivati Jati. 
Sec XXVIII. 81. 

xxix. 5-12] THE NATYASASTRA 30 

the Pathetic Sentiment 2 , and [similarly] the Sadjamadhya 
is to be applied in connection with madness. 

5. The Jatis should be made in the application of 
Dhruvas by the producers, after [very carefully] considering 
the Sentiments, the action and the States [in a play]. 

6. These are the Jatis of the Sacjja Grama known to 
the wise. I shall now speak of the Jatis of the Madhyama 

7. The Gandhari and the Baktag&ndhari, when they 
have Gandhara 1 and Nisada as their Amsa notes, should be 
applied in the Pathetic Sentiment. 

8-9. In the Erotic and the Comic Sentiments, the 
Madhyama, the Paiicami, the Nandayanti, the Gandhari, the 
Paficami and the Madhyamodlcyava Jatis with Madhyama 1 
and Paiicama amplified, should he applied. 

9-10. In the Heroic, the Furious and the Marvellous 
Sentiments, the Karmaravl, the Andhri and the Gandh&ro- 
dicyava, with Sadja and Rsabha as their Amsa notes, should 
be applied. And in the Odious and the Furious Sentiments 
the Kaisikl with Dhaivata as their Amsa note, should be 

11. Only the Sadjamadhya is the Jati which can 
accommodate all the Sentiments. All notes [of the Grama] 
may be its Amsa and these have been dealt with in the 
rules of [dramatic] production. 

12. When a note [representing a particular Senti- 
ment] is prominent (lit. strong) in a Jati, the producers, 
in regard to the production of such a Sentiment should 
combine the song with it, i.e., Bhould give it prominence 

2 As Gandhara and Nisada are not 'Amsa notes in the Dhaivati, it is 
not clear how this Jati can be applied in the Pathetic Sentiment. 
Cf. XIX. 38-40. 

(7) l Ga and ni are included into the Amsa notes of both the 
Gandhari and Raktagandhari Jatis. See XXVIII. 89-90. 

(8-9) 'Ma and pa are included into the Amsa notes of the Madhyama 
Fancami, Gandharapancami and Madhyamodlcyava Jati. See XXVIII. 80. 


13-14. [For example,] a song in the Erotio and the 
Comic Sentiments should abound in many Madhyamas and 
Paficamas (i.e., should be Jatis containing these notes in 
profusion), and in the Heroic, the Furious and the 
Marvellous Sentiments, songs should be made with many 
Sadjas and Rsabbas. And the song in the Pathetic Senti- 
ment should be full of many GandhSras and Nisadas (lit. 
the seventh). Similarly a song in the Odious and the 
Terrible Sentiments should have many Dhaivatas. 

15. In all the Atnsas, these notes are to be applied 
according to rules with the suitable K&kali and Antara-svara, 
and are to be made specially strong. 

16. These Jatis relating to the dramatic performance, 
should be known by the wise. Now, listen about the notes 
prescribed in the instrumental music. 

16ka-kha. The notes Madhyama and Paficama are to be 
produced in the Comic and the Erotic Sentiments, Sadja and 
Rsabha in the Heroic, the Furious and the Marvellous Senti- 
ments, Gandhara and Nisada in the Pathetic Sentiment, and 
Dhaivata is to be produced in the Odious and the Terrible 
Sentiments. I shall speak after this on the characteristics 
of the Varnas 1 and the Alamkaras 2 . 

The four Varnas 

17-18. The Varnas 1 on which the Alamkaras 2 depend 
are of four kinds, viz. 'Ascending' {arohinf 'Descending' 

(16-16kha) 'See below note 1 on 17-18. s Sec below note 1 on 23-28. 

(17-18) ' The Varna means the production of notes in a particular 
way i.e., in a particular order, pitch or with a particular grouping. SR. 
defines the term as inifaratoa W; (1. 6. I.) In explaining this Sbh. says 
strot wrorown?* wfim iiiwim samrftfa vm\ \ m ww ^Nft. But he also 
adds the view of Matanga as follows : «i« m% irofc ^r vnjpti ( *n#<j » ) 
flfvn: i Twwin Mt i\ 9 ««i?l w a^W i The Varnas are used to make up the 
Alamkaras (see below 23 ff.) It is probably this term which we meet 
with in Kalidasa ( vnfcn w?fwi' qftf?, Sak. V). 

2 See below note 1 on 23-28. 

3 See below note 1 on 18-19. 

xxix. 18-28] THE NATYASASTRA 32 

(avarohiny 'Monotonic' [sthayin, lit. staying) 5 and 'Mixed' 
{samearin, lit. moving together) 6 . 

18-19. The Varna in which the notes go up [in the 
scale], is called Ascending 1 and in which they go down 
[in the scale], is called Descending 2 . The Monotonic Varna 
is that in which notes are the same and are equal [in pitch] 3 , 
and when the various notes come together they constitute 
what is called a Mixed Varna. 4 

20. These four Varnas having [clearly] defined aspects, 
are taken (lit. born of) from the human (lit. physical) voice 
and they relate to the quality of the three voice registers 

21. When a regular (lit. having a characteristic) song 

{pada) adds [at least] two Varnas to it, then the Varnas' give 
rise to Sentiments. 

22. These four Varnas are to be known as applicable 
to songs. Now listen properly about the Alamkaras which 
depend on them. 

The Thirtythree Alamkaras 

23-28. The Alamkaras 1 are : Prasannadi, Prasann&nta, 
Prasannadyanta, Prasannaniadhya, Sama, Bindu, Venu, 
Nivrtta-pravrtta 2 , Kampita, Euhara, Eecita, Prenkholitaka, 

1 See below note 2 on 18-19. 

5 See below note 3 on 18-19. ° See below note 4 on 18-19. 

(18-19) l Example : sa ri ga ma pa dha ni. 

2 Ex : ni dha pa ma ri sa. 

3 Ex : sa sa*sa sa or ma ma ma etc. 

4 Ex : sa ri ga ga ri sa, ri ga ma ma ga ri etc. 

(21) ' Varnas embellishing the notes of a song seems to enhance 
its power of evoking Sentiments. 

(23-28) J The Alamkara known in later writing also as Varna- 
lamkara, Svaralamkara or Murchanalamkara, was evidently means to 
embellish songs. It seems that without these proper Alamkaras a song 
remained merely a chant, and authorities differ very much among them- 
selves about the number and definitions of the different Alamkaras. See 
below notes on 43 ff : also GS. pp. 124ff. 

8 Written in NS. as two words (Nivfttah Prav\Uah), but this is 
probably an error. Cf. SR (1. 6. 47) where we have Samnivrtta-pravrttah. 


Mandrat&raprasanna, Taramandraprasanna, Prasvara, Pra- 
sada, Udvahita, Avalokita, [Krama,] Niskujita, Udglta, Hrfida- 
mana, Eafijita, Avarta, Parivartaka, Udghattita, Aksipta, 
Sampradana, Hasita, Humkara, Sandhipracoh&dana, VidhOna', 
and Gatravarna. 

The Monotonic Alamkaras 

29-30. The Monotonic Alamkaras' are : Prasannadi, 

Prasannanta, Prasannadyanta, Prasannamadhya, Sama 2 , 

Eeoita, Prasvara 3 and Prasada. Listen again, about the 

Alamkaras depending on the Mixed Varnas. 

The Mixed Alamkaras 

31-32. Mandrataraprasanna, Bindu, Prenkholita, 
Nivrttapravrtta, Eeoita, Kampita, Sama, Kuhara, Venu, 
Eafijita, Avalokita, Avartaka and Parivartaka are of the mixed 

The Ascending Alamkaras 

33-34. The Asoending Alamkaras' are : Niskujita, 
Humkara, Hasita, Bindu, Eecita, Prenkholita, Aksipta, 
Vidhuna, Udghattita, Hradamana, Sampradana, * Sandhi- 
pracohadana, Prasannadi and Prasannanta. 
The Descending Alamkaras 

35. The Descending Alamkaras' are Vidhuna, Gatra- 
varna, Udvahita, Udgita and Venu. 

8 Written in some versions of NS. as Vidhuta also. 

(29-30) l See Bd. (125-126) SR. has under this head two different 
names with different definitions. 

2 SR. (I. 6. 5-6) has Krama in its place. ' 

3 SR. (loc. lit.) has Prastara in its place. 

(31-32) 'See Bd. (128-129) omits Nivrttapravrtta, Recita, Kampita 
and Sama ; this seems to be due to the loss of a hemistich in the text. SR. 
(I. 6. 26-29) has twentyfive names under this head, and they have been 
differently defined. 

(33-34) 'See Bd. (130-131). Though some names are in a corrupt 
form, this text seems to follow NS\ SR. (I. 6. 14-15) gives thirteen names 
and the common names have different definitions. 

(35) 'See Bd. (132). SR (I. 6. 26) has the same names here as under 
the previous head (arohi-var 5a), but with a direction that the notes are to 
be produced in these in descending order (avaroha-krama). * 


xxix. 36-43] THE NATYASASTRA 34 

36. These Alamkaras attached to songs of seven 1 
forms, should be known to the wise. These [however] are 
not generally used (lit. desired) in the Dhruvas 2 , because of 
their giving prominence to the Varnas of Jatis [which are 
not used there]. 

37. Alamkaras, such as Bindu and Venu, are not to be 
used in their own measure (pramana) while they are applied 
in the Dhruv&s. 

38-39. For the Dhruva conforming to the meaning of 
the play, is to suggest its meaning, while the Varnas (i.e., 
Varnalamkara) are to soften to (lit. weaken) the pada 1 . Now 
listen about the Varnas which are [commonly] used. 

39-43. [The Alamkaras] such as Prasannadi, 
Prasannanta, Prasannadyanta Prasannamadhya, Bindu, 
Kampita, Eecita, Tara, Taramandra, Taratara, Prenkholita, 
Mandra, Mandratara, Sama, Nivrttapravrtta, Prasada, Apanga, 
Avaloka and Venu, belong to all the Varnas 1 , and all the 
Varnas except the Monotonic ones, have their use [in songs] 2 . 
Next I shall describe the characteristic 3 of the Alamkaras 
arising from the Varnas. 

(36) 'This relates to the seven very old types of songs such as, 
Madraka, Ovenaka, Aparantaka, Prakari, Ullopyaka, Rovindaka and 
Uttara (NS. XXXI. 220-221 ; SR. V. 58). Some authorities add seven 
more names (SR. V. 59.) 

2 It appears from this that the Dhruvas were a kind of chant, an 
early form of songs. 

(38-39) 'This again shows that the Dhruvas were a kind of chant. 
For according to this passage, the Varnas (i.e. the Varnalarnkaras) made 
the words {pada) of the song obscure by Softening them. 

(39-43) 'See Bd. (133-135) seems to be corrupt and it omits some 
names from the list. SR. has nothing analogous. 

3 The monotonic Varnas are in general use, while the rest are to be 
used only to give special character to a song. 

'These characteristics as defined in later works such as SR. (I. 6. 
9ff.) vary from that given in NS. 


The Definition of the Alamkaras 

Prasannadi 4 — that in whioh a note rises (lit. becomes 
brilliant) gradually [from the low pitch]. 

44. Prasannanta 1 this (Prasannadi) enunciated in the 
reverse order. 

Prasannadyanta 2 — that in which the beginning and 
the ending notes are in a low pitch [and the middle one is in 
high pitch]. 

45. Prasannamadhya 1 — when note in the middle is 
of low pitch [but notes in the beginning and in the end are 
in high pitch], 

Sama 2 — that in which a note repeats itself in the same 
pitch and is equal in all [parts]. 

46. Bindu' — when a note of one Kala of low pitch 
after touching high pitch comes back [to its original pitch]. 

Nivrttapravrtta 2 — [when a note of one Kala of high 
pitch], after touching low pitch comes back to its original 

47. Venu 1 — that in which the tempo (laya) is play- 

Kuhara 2 — that in which notes (lit. the wind) being in 
the medium pitch (lit. stopped in the vocal passage) are (in 
a play-like tempo). 

4 The definitions of the Alamkaras are not always very clear. But 
with the help of Bd. which in many matters seems to be in general 
agreement with NS., they may be rightly interpreted. It is a pity 
that the former work has not been properly edited. 

See D. 100-101 ; Bd. pp. 35, 47. Besides in these places, Bd. quotes 
verbetim though in a corrupt form, the definitions of Alamkaras in 
140-169 (pp. 44-47). These have been referred to in the foot-notes to 
the translation whenever necessary. 

(44) 'See D. 101 ; Bd. ibid. 
* See D. 101 ; Bd. ibid. 

(45) > See D. 101 ; Bd. ibid. 

» See D. 106 ; Bd. pp. 36, 47. 

(46) 1 See D. 102-103 j Bd. ibid. 
» See D. 103 ; Bd. ibid. 

(47) » See Bd. ibid. > Bd. ibid. 

xxix. 48-53] THE NATYASASTRA . 36 

48. Eecita 1 — trembling notes of three Kalas in high 

pitoh (lit. in the head). 

Kampita 2 — trembling notes of three Kal&s in low pitch 
(lit. in the breast). 

49-50. Prenkholita 1 — -that in which the notes ascend- 
ing and descending ocour [in each Kala]. 

Tara — 'a note of medium pitch (lit. in the throat) 2 . 

Mandra — a note of low pitch (lit. in the breast) 3 . 

50-51. Taratara — a note of high pitch (lit. in the 
head) 1 . 

Taramandraprasanna 2 — when (in a Kala the fourth or 
the fifth note gradually falls (lit. assumes low gait) from a 
high pitch. 

51-52. Mandrataraprasanna 1 — when in [a Kala of] four 
or five notes they gradually rise to a high pitch from a low 
one after skipping over other low notes. 

Prasvara 2 — when [in a Kala], a note ascend gradually by 
one note. 

53.. Prasada 1 — when in a Kala, notes descend gradually 
by one note. 

Apaiigika 2 — when ih a Kala, notes come together (i.e., 
once ascend and once descend). 

(48) > Sec D. 107 ; Bd. ibid. 
" See D. 107 ; Bd. ibid. 

(49-50) > See D. 104 ; Bd. pp. 37, 47. 

2 The NS. has the name "of pitches as mandra (low), madhya 
(medium) and tara (high, lit. loud). But in the passage in hand it has 
mandra (low), tara (medium, lit. loud), taratara (high, lit. extra-loud) in 
their places ; cf. D. 8. It is not apparent why the term madhya {medium) 
has been given up here. See XIX. 45 ff ; 58-59 ff. * See note 2 above. 

(50-51) » See note 2 or 49-50 above. 

s See D. 104-105 ; Bd. pp. 37, 47. 

(51-52) » See D. 105-106 ; Bd. ibid. 

3 Bd. (p. 37, 48) has Prastara (perhaps wrongly) for Prasvara. 
(53) » See Bd. pp. 38, 48. 

a <Bd. ibid. om. Apangika. 


54. Udvahita 1 — when in a Kala two consecutive notes 
ascend, and two such Kalas make one unit. 

55. Avalokita (-loka) 1 — when in the Udvahita the 
repeated Kalas are in the descending scale. 

Krama 2 — when successive Kalas include one two, three, 
four, five, six, seven consecutive notes which ascend. 

56. Niskujita 1 - containing Kalas in which notes after 
ascending to the note following the one next to it, comes 
back to it. 

57. Udglta 1 — Kal§s in the Prasvara once (lit. in the 
beginning) ascending and next (lit. in the end) descending. 

58. Hradamana 1 — notes in this order (i.e., as in the 
Udglta) in two Kalas consisting of at least two or at most six 
notes, where alternate notes come together. 

59. Banjita 1 — after staying in two consecutive notes 
of two Kalas, it ascends half a Kala and then again descends 
to the preceding note. 

60-61. Avartaka 1 — eight Kalas of four consecutive notes 
ascending and descending. It is also formed with two alter- 
native notes. In that case four Kalas will have ascending 
and descending notes. 

62. Parivartaka 1 — eight Kalas in which a note ascends 
to the third one from it and skips over the next one to ascend 
in the note following, and descends in the same manner [in 
the next Kala]. 

63. Udghattita' — containing [eighteen] Kalas which 
ascend for two notes and then leaving out the next note 
ascend to the following one. 

(54) » See Bd. pp. 38, 48. 

(55) > Bd. (pp. 39, 48) has Upalolaka for Avaloka. a See Bd. ibid. 

(56) ' See Bd. ibid. 

(57) > NS. puts this after 69, though serially it comes after 56. See 
Bd. 164 and also pp. 42. Bd. has the name as Udgiti. 

(58) » See Bd. pp. 39, 48. 

(59) > See Bd. pp. 40, 48. 
(60-61) ' See Bd. ibid. 

(62) x See Bd. ibid. 

(63) ' See Bd. ibid. In p. 48 Bd. writes Udvahita (perhaps wrongly) 
for Udghattita. 

xxix. .64.72] THE NATYA^ASTRA 3a 

64. Aksiptaka'— containing six Kalas of three 

notes. . . 

65. Sampradana 1 — as in the Aksipta, constituted with 

Kalas of four notes, [alternating with] Kalas [of three] notes. 
in which, alternate notes are included. 

66. Hasita'— constituted with double KalSs of two- 
consecutive notes like laughter, as in the Aksipta. 

67. Humkara 1 — ascending as in the Hasita, at least- 
two or at most four notes in each Kala. 

68. Sandhipracchadana 1 — having groups of four Kalaa 
with notes asoending from the beginning (lit. place) to high 
note and ascending from it to the original one and there being, 
no throwing up. 

69. VidhOna 1 — after producing first the pada (song) 
containing two short notes, two consecutive notes will ascend 
in each Kala. 

70-71. Gatravarna'— as in the Humkara notes ascend 
consecutively in the alternate Kalas [of four notes] in which 
the first two are trembling and the next two are of low pitch. 

71-72. E and as well as the other long vowels' are 
to be added [to notes in Alamkaras]. This is the properly 
given rule of the Karanas 2 of the Alamkaras in songs. Songs 
should be decorated with these Alamkaras without [coming 
in] conflict with [the rule concerning] the Varnas. 3 

(64) l See Bd. pp! 40, 49. 

(65) l See Bd. ibid. 

(66) l See Bd. p. 41. 

(67) » See Bd. p. 41. 

(68) » See Bd. p. 42. 

(69) ' See Bd. (p. 42) which writes the name as Vidhuta. 
(70-71) » See Bd. pp. 42-43. 

(71-72) ' The other long vowels are probably 5, i and u. 

2 Compare the Karanas of dance mentioned in IV. 29 ff. 

3 Bd. (167) reads the second half of this passages as <tfirai*nf«iT 
jftf?H?»iifaT|Si, songs should be decorated with these Alamkaras without 

[coming into] conflict [with their spirit]. 


73. Alamkaras should be attached to proper places f 01 
example, the girdle {kahcif should not be placed (lit. fastened 
over the breast. And too many Alamkaras without any song 
{varna) should not be used. 

74. These are the Alamkaras depending on the Varnas. 
Now I shall speak of those depending on rhythm (chandas) 
and [the quality of] the syllables (aksara). 

76. A song without any Alamkara will be like a night 
without the moon, a river without water, a creeper without 
a flower and a woman without any ornament. 1 

76. These are the thirythree Alamkaras I spoke of. 
I shall now mention the characteristics of the Gitis. 1 

Alamkaras depending on the Giti 

77. Gitis are of four kinds : the first is Magadhi, the 
second Ardhamagadhi, the third Sambh&vita and the fourth 
Prthula. 2 

78. The Magadhi is sung in different tempos (vrtti).' 
The Ardhamagadhi changes (lit. revises) its tempo after 


79. The Sambhavita is known to be constituted with 
long syllables and the Prthula with short syllables. 

80-81. These Gitis are known to be without any 
connexion with the Dhruvas. 1 But they are always to be 

(73) » See XXIII. 31-32. 

(75) » See above note 1 on XXVIII. 8. 

(76) l See Bd. 171 ff. ; SR. I. 8. 14 ff. On the Giti depended an 
ancient system of classification of rhythms. The Giti also included special 
formations of syllable and variation in speed. See Banerji, GS. II. 
pp. 72-73. 

(77) ' See note 1 on 76 above. 

(78) x Also mentioned as gati-vttti in XXIX. 102 ff. Sarrigadeva 
uses the term marga to indicate vftti or gati-vrtti. See SR. V. II. On 
Marga or Vrtti too was based an ancient system of classifying of rythms, 
including that of Tala. See GS. II. p. 72. 

(80-81) i See XXXII. below. From this passage too it appears 
that the Dhruvas were a kind of chant. 

xxix. 82-89] THE NATYASASTRA 40 

applied by the musicians in the Gandharva 2 only. I have 
spoken properly of the Gitls. Now listen about the Dhatus. 3 
I shall now speak of the playing of the Dhatus. 
Dhatus in playing stringed instruments 

82. Four Dhatus' depending on the playing [of stringed] 
instruments 2 are : Vistara (expansion), Karana (production) 
Abiddha (breaking up) and Vyafijana (indication). 

The Vistara Dhatus 

83. The Vistara includes four kinds of strokes : 
Samghataja (growing out of contrast), Sainavayaja (growing 
out of combination), Vistaraja (growing out of amplitude) and 
Anubandhaja (growing out of mere succession). 

84-85. Its (i.e. of the Vistara) rules have been men- 
tioned first as follows : [the Vistara is of one stroke ;]' the 
Samghataja and the Samavayaja consist respectively of two 
and three [strokes]. The first is of four kinds, and the second 
of eight kinds. According, to the special ways of their 
production they have different rules. 

86-87. [Notes are] known to be of low and of high pitch 
as they come out [respectively] of low ( = mild) or high 
( = strong) [strokes]. This is the rule of striking that the 
players of stringed instruments 1 should know. 

The Samghataja strokes have the following varieties : 
two high, two low, low-high and high-low. 

88-89. The Samavayaja strokes have the following 
varieties : three h^gh ; three low ; two low, one high ; two- 

s See before the note 1 on XXVIII. 8. 

8 This is evidently a grammatical metaphar. The Dhatus 
(roots) relate to different aspects of strokes in playing stringed instruments. 
Sarngadeva (V. 122). says : tj nwfaitflwr. «nw *mfl wn:. 
(82) > See SR. V. 123-127. 

2 As Dhatus relate to the tata or stringed instruments, we shall 
translate vaditra as 'stringed instruments.' Sec below 91 (wna-iiadye 
karanadhatuh) and 101 (vinayam vyanjano dhatuh). 

(84-85) '<nnrcrwi1 fawns: (Kn. on SR. VI. 183). 
( 86-87) l Sec above note 2 on 82. 

41 STRINGED INSTRUMENTS [xjcix. 90-100 

high, one low ; one high, two low ; one low, two high ; one 
low, one high, one low •, and one high, one low, one high. 

90. The Anubandha [-krta] due to [its formation by] 
breaking up, and combining [of the groups of strokes described 
before,] is irregular. These are always the fourteen kinds of 
the Vistara Dhatus. 

The Karana Dhatus 

91. In the playing of the Vina the five kinds of the 
Karana Dhfitu are : Eibhita, Uccaya, Niratita, Hrada and 

92. The Karana Dhatus will consist respectively of 
three, five, seven and nine [light] strokes, and the being 
oombined 1 and all ending in a heavy [stroke]. 

The Abiddha Dhatus 

93. The Abiddha Dhatu is of five kinds : Ksepa, 
Pluta, Atipata, Atiklrna and Anubandha. 

94. The Abiddha Dhatus will consist respectively of 
two, three, four and nine strokes made gradually and slowly, 
and a combination of these.' 

The Vyanjana Dhatus 

95-100. The Vyanjana Dhatu in playing the Vina, is of 
ten kinds. They are : Kala, Tala, Niskotita, Unmrsta, 
Bepha, Avamrsta, Puspa, Anusvanita, Bindu and Anubandha. 

Kala — touching a string simulteneously with the two 

Tala — striking a string with the left.thumb after press- 
ing it with the right one. 

(92) ' Anubandha here means 'mixture' or 'combination.' See Kn. 
on SR. VI. 147. It may be that in the Anubandha variety of the Karana 
Dhatu, the strokes are 3 + 5, 3 + 9, or 5 + 7, 5 + 9 etc. 

(94) ' See above note 1 to 92. In the Anubandha of the Abiddha 
Dhatu too, the number of strokes are to be increased by adding together 
the numbers available in other Dhatus. 

(95-100) ' Savya means 'right' as well. See Apte sub voce. But here 
it is to be taken in its generally accepted sense, 
* ibid. 


xxix. 101-102] THE NATYASASTRA 42 

Niskotita — striking with the left 1 thumb only. 

Unmrsta — striking with the left 2 fore-finger (prade'sinl) 

Eepha— one single stroke with all the figures of a hand. 

Avamrsta — three strokes low down [in the string] with 
the little finger and the thumb of the right hand. 

Puspa — one stroke witli the little finger and the thumb. 

Anusvanita — the stroke being lower [in the string than] 
in the Tala [described above]. 

Bindu — one heavy stroke in a single string. 

101. Anubandha — one irregular combination' (lit. 
breaking up and combination) of all these and it relates to all 
the Dhatus. 

These are the ten Vyafijana Dhatus to be applied to 
the Vina. 

102. These are the four Dhatus with their charac- 
teristics, which relate to the three Vrttis' on which the 
playing of [stringed] instruments depends. 

The three Vrttis 

Styles of Procedure (gati-vrtli) to be principally reckoned 
are three : Citra (variegated), Vrtti (movement, i.e. having 
a simple movement) and Daksina (dexterous). Instrumental 
music, time-measure (tala) 2 tempo (laydf, Giti (rhythm)', Yati 5 

(101) l See above note 1 of 92. 

(102) l See above note 1 on 78. 
-' See XXXI. 

* The word laya signifies the speed at which a piece of music 
is performed. There are three primary degrees of speed i.e. rate of 
movement, in the Indian music : slow (vilambita), medium (madhya) and 
quick (drula). As in the European music, there is no fixed absolute 
measure of time for different degrees of speed mentioned here. See GS. 
II. p. 33. Sarngadeva (V. 48). defines laya as farawmfvnf'fl:. 

4 See above note 1 on 76. 

3 The Yati means 'succession of different kinds of speed' 
in the whole song, e.g. a song may be sung at a slow speed in the 
beginning, at a medium speed next and at a quick speed in the end, or 
these speeds at the singer's discretion may be taken up in a different order, 
See SR. V, 30 ff. and Kn. theron. 

43 STRINGED INSTRUMENTS [xxrx. 103-107 

and Graha-marga (way of beginning)" will determine their 
respective characters. [For example], in the Citra, [the 
Magadhi is the Glti], the instrumental music is concise (i.e. 
not elaborate), [the unit of] time-measure [is one Kala], tempo 
is quick, and Yati is level {samaf and the Anagata Grahas pre- 
ponderate. Similarly in the Vrtti [the Sambbavita] is the Glti, 
the instrumental music is * * , [the unit of] time-measure 
is two Kalas, the tempo is medium (madhya), the Yati is 
Srotogata", and the Sama Graha-margas are preponderant. 
In the Daksina, the Glti is [Prthula,] the unit of time-measure 
is of four Kalas, the tempo is slow {vilambita),\,h6 Yati is 
Gopuccha" and the Atita Graha-margas are preponderant. 

103. Names of the threa Styles of Procedure [vrtti) are 
Citra, Daksina and Vrtti. They give quality to the instru- 
mental music as well as to the song, and have been defined in 
due order. 

104. The Lalita 1 etc, the Jfttis 2 of all these Styles of 
Procedure (vrtti), when combined in the Dhatus, will become 
richer in quality. . 

The Jalis 

105. And from a combination of the Dhatus, come 
forth the Jfitis such as, Udatta, Lalita, Ribhita and Ghana. 

106. The Udatta relates to the Yistara Dhatus or to 
many other things. 

The Lalita relates to the Vyafijana Dhatus and is so 
called because of its gracefulness. 

107. The Bibhita relates to the Abid*dha Dhatus and 
is characterised by multitude of strokes. 

6 Marga in the text, should be taken here as graha-tmrga, 
which has been twice used later in this passage. Craha-marga means the 
manner of following a song or a piece of music by an instrument of Tala. 
See GS. I. pp. 197 fF, 469. SR. V. 54-56, 58 and VI. 186-187. 

' SeeSR. V. 51. 

• See SR. V. 51-52. • See SR. V. 52-53. 

(104) » See below 105. 

3 This term has been used- also in relation to songs. See 

XXVIII, 38 ff. and XXIX. I ff. 

Xxix. 108-1151 THE NATYASASTRA 44 

The Ghana relates to the Karana Dhatus and depends 
on their quantity (lit. aggregate of long and short notes). 

Three kinds of music of the Vina 

108. The experts are to produce three kinds of music 
from the Vln&. They are Tattva, Anugata, and Ogha which 
combine [in them] many Karanas. 

109. The music which expresses [properly] the tempo, 
time-measure, Varna, pada, Yati, and syllables of the song, 
is called the Tattva. 

And the instrumental music which follows the song, is 
called the Anugata. 

110. The Ogha is the music which abounds in the 
Abiddha Karanas, has the Uparipani Graha-marga, quick 
tempo and does not care for the meaning of the song. 

111. The rule in the playing of musical instruments, 
is that the Tattva is to be applied in a slow tempo, the 
Anugata in a medium tempo, and the Ogha in a quick tempo. 

112. The experts in observing tempo and time-measure, 
should apply the Tattva in the first song [to be sund during 
a performance], and the Anugata in the second, and the Ogha 
in the third one. 

113. These are the Dhatus in the music of the Vina, to 
be known by the experts. I shall now explain the Karanas 
included in the rules of playing the Vipailcl. 1 

The Karanas of the Vipanci 

114. The Karanas 1 [in playing the Vipaffcl] are 
Rupa, Krtapratikrta, Pratibheda, Rupasesa, Ogha and 

115. When on the Vina, two heavy and two light 
syllables are played, it is the Rupa. 1 

(113) » See below 120 for the definition of a Vipanci. 

(114) i Cf. SR. VI. 112. 

(115) I Cf. SR. VI. 113-114. 

45 INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC [xxix. 116-121 

And this Rupa performed in the Pratibheda it is the 
Krtapratikrta. 2 

116. When two different Karanas are side by side 
played on the VM, and heavy and light syllables are shown, 
it is called the Pratibheda.' 

Continuing [the music] in another Vina, when the 
[principal] Vina has stopped, is called the Rfipasesa. 2 

117. The Ogha 1 includes the Abiddha Karanas per- 
formed in the Uparip&ni Graha-marga. 

The Pratisuska 2 is the Karana which is played by means 
of one string [only]. 

118. During the application of the Dhrfivas, the experts 
should generally play with the plectrum (kona) two Vlnas to 
accompany a song or other instruments. 

119. Whether it be a place or a character, one should 
equally reflect it together with the song on the strings, and 
in the VipaiicI it will be something like the Karana called the 

120. The Citra 1 is [a Vina] with seven strings, and the 
VipaiicI 2 is that with nine strings. And the latter (VipancI) 
is to be played with the plectrum, and the Citra with the 
fingers only. 

121. The experts are thus to know of the VipancI which 
includes many Karanas. I shall next explain the Bahir-gitas 
whic have [their fixed] characteristics. 

-' Cf)SR. VI. 115. 

(116) » Cf. SR. VI. 115-116. 2 Cf. SR. VI. 117. 

(117) l Cf. SR. VI. 118. * See cf. SR VI. 119-120. 

(120) ' This Citra (vim) probably developed later into Persian 
sitar. It may be that the Greek kithara with seven strings is also connected 
with it. The seven strings in the Citra, were probably meant for pro- 
ducing seven notes of the octave. 

2 The nine strings of the Vipauci were probably for producing 
seven notes together with two Kakali notes (svara-sadlwratta, XXVIII. 36). 

xxrx. 122-130] THE NATYAsASTRA ^ 

The Bahir-gltas 

W-12i Asravana, ' Arambha] VaktrapSni, 'Samghotam \ 
Mgbu**\ MSrgtsSrW ^W, and the three kinds* of 
As As 'are the Bahir-gitas" to be applied first [ma play] by 
the producers, and [all] these should be applied without 
T.'ilas or with Talas, and in the Stylos of Procedure called 
the Citra and the Vrtti. 

125. The need for all theso has already been men- 
tioned by me in the rules for the Preliminaries 1 . I shall [now] 
describe their characteristics together with examples. 

Tha Asravana 

126. The Asravana should be [performed] with 
twice repeated Karanas' of the Vist&ra 2 Dhatu in [successive] 
sections (Kal&s), and then with a gradual increment by two 
repeated Karanas. 

127-128. It will consist of a pair of twentyfour 
syllables (varna) of which the first two, the eleventh, the 
fourteenth, the fifteenth and the twentyfourth are heavy, 
and a [three-fold fifteen syllables of which] the first is light, 
the next seven including the eighth heavy the next six again 
light, the final [three] syllables being heavy.' 

129-130. The Tala in the Asravana will be as follows : 
three Samy&s, and a Tala in the UparipanI, two Samyas and 
two Talas and again a Samya and two Talas, in the Saniapam, 
and suitable Uttara and Caiicatputa [Talas] of two Kalas.' 

(Its example is corrupt and untranslatable) 2 

(122-124) » See V. 8-11, 18-21. 

1 ibid. a ibid. * ibid. * ibid. 7 ibid. •' It seems that this 
item was not originally included in the Bahir-gitas (See V. 8-11). 

8 Short, medium and long. ,J These are called Bahir-gitas 

because they were outside {bahis) the performance of the play and were 
included in its Preliminaries. See V. 

(125) » See V. 8-11, 18-21. 

(126) i See XXIX 82. 2 ibid, also SR. VI. 134-144. 
(127-128^ Cf. SR. VI. 182-184. (129-130) » Cf. SR. VI. 186 ff. 

a It seems that these passages evidently corrupt, included 
magical formujas {mantra) for warding off evils. See V. 45-55, 176. 

47 STRINGED INSTRUMENTS [xxix. 131-137 

The Arambha 

131-132. The [constituting] syllables in the Arambha 
are as follows : the first eight heavy, the next twelve and the 
final one light [in the first section], and the four heavy, eight 
light, one heavy, four light, four heavy [in the second secfcionj, 
eight light and the final (light) [will form the next section]. 1 

J 33-134. It should be performed in three sections with 
the Karanas such as the Tala the Eibhita' and the Hrada 2 
in which the Vistara Dhfitus' will preponderate, and in it 
an ascent will be followed by a descent 4 . And in it the Karanas 
will first be descending twice or thrice and then will be played 
in the reverse order, and then all these are to be repeated. 5 

135-130. Its first Tala of three Kalas there will be a 
Samya of one Kala, a Tala of two Kalas, then a Samya of two 
Kalas a Tala of two Kalas and a Sannipata of two Kalas and 
a Satpitaputraka and a Caiicatputa of two Kalas. 1 

{Its example is corrupt and untranslatable) 2 
The Vaktrapani 

137. The music of the Viiktrapani will include the 
Karanas of the Abiddha 1 [Dhatu] and it has two members 
Ekaka of Vftt (= pravrtta) 2 and it is to have in its music 
half the member of the Vynjana' Dhatus. 

. (131-132) "The text the of the passage, is probably still more corrupt. 
Cf. SR. VI. 200 ff. 

(133-134) 'See XXIX. 91-92., SR. VI. 145-146. 2 ibid. 
3 See XXIX. 83-90., cf. SR VI. 134 fll 
* cf. SR. VI. 197. 
5 The translation is tentative. Cf. SR. VI. 198-199. 

(135-136) 'Cf. SR. VI. 204 ff. 

2 See note 2 of 129-130 above. 

(137) l See XXIX. 82, 93-94 ; cf. SR. VI. 148-150. 
s XXXI. 201. ff. 

3 See XXIX. 95-101. cf, SR. VI, 151-160, 

xxix. 138-147] THE NATYASASTRA 48 

138-139. [The syllabic scheme of] the Vaktrapani will 
be as follows : five heavy, six light, four times heavy, two 
heavy one light, four heavy, four light, three heavy, eight 
Jigh and one heavy.' 

140. The scheme of the Samya and the Tala used in 
the Madraka song of two Kalas, will be used in the Vaktrapani, 
but at the Mukha (beginning) it will consist of eight Kalas. 1 

14M42. The Tala in the Mukha and Pratimukha of 
the Vaktrapani will be as follows : a Samya, a Tala, a Tala, a 
Samya, and a Tala, a Samya, a Tala and a Sannipata and four 
Paficapanls. 1 

(Its example is corrupt and untranslatable) 2 
The Samghotana 

143. The music of the Samghotana will be by means 
of three Karanas of the Vistara' [Dhatu] class and it will 
observe the Citra 2 and the Vrtta 3 Styles of Procedure, and the 
three [such Karanas] will be repeated and will [gradually] rise. 

144-145. The syllables (lit. sequence of heavy and light 
syllables) of the theme of the Samghotana will be as follows : 
two heavy, eight light, two heavy, one light, one heavy, one 
light, four light, eight light and heavy in the end. 

146. In the Samghotana, the Vina taken with the two 
hands by its beam (danda), should be played with the fingers 
of the right hand and the two thumbs. 

147. The Samghotana is so called because of the 
playing together (samghotana) of the Consonant and the 
Dissonant notes together with the remaining Assonant ones. 
Its Tala, as in the Sirsaka will consist of the PancapSnis. 

(Its example is corrupt and untranslatable) 2 

(138-139) ' Cf. SR. VI. 209-210. 

(140) ' Cf. SR. VI. 211. 

(141-142) ' Cf. SR. VI. 212. 2 See note 2 of 129-130 above. 

(143) > See XXIX 83-90 ; ,cf. SR. VI. 134 ff. 

* Sec XXIX. 103 ; cf. SR. V. 11. * ibid. 

(144-145) » Cf. SR. VI. 213. 
(147) * The translation is tentative. 3 See note 2 of 129-130. 


The Parighattana 

148-149. [The syllabic scheme of] the Parighattana, is 
as follows : eight heavy, twentyfbur light 1 , one heavy, sixteen 
light and two heavy. / 

150. Its music should consist of many Karanas of 
the Vyafijana [Dhatu] and should be performed with 
Upavahana ( = TJpohana) by clever hands. 

151. Its Tala will be Samparkes^akah [as it will 
stand] combined with the Karana of the Dhatu (i.e. Vyafijana) 
due to the syllabic scheme [of the Parighattana] 1 . 

The Margasarita 

151-152. The syllabic scheme of the Margasarita in 
its Vastn will be as follows : four heavy, eight light, eight 
heavy, eight light and the final heavy. 

153. The instrumental music in the Margasarita will 
consist of Karanas of the Vistara and Abiddha Dhatus, and 
it will observe all Talas agreeing with its syllabic scheme. 

(The example is corrupt and untranslatable) 

154. Or it may be : four heavy, eight light, three heavy, 
three light, and heavy in the end. {The example is corrupt). 

The Lilakrta 

155. The expert producer, as an occasion will arise, 
should perform the Lilakrta as well as Abhierta and Parisrta 
according to the rules of the short Asarita, and it should 
observe Talas sweet to hear. 

The Asaritas may be long (jyestha), medium (madhya) 
and short (kanistha). They in [relation to] their Tala and 
measurement, will be explained in due order in the rules 
on Talas.' 

156. These are to be known about notes arising form 
the body of the Vina. I shall next explain the characteristics 
of the hollow musical instruments (susiratodya). 

Here ends the Chapter XXIX of Bharata's Natyasastra, 
which treats of the Bules of the Stringed Musical Instruments. 

(148-149) » lit. twice 8 light, twice 4 light. 
(151) » Cf. SR. VI. 211 ff. (155) > See XXXI. 




1 The hollow (susira) musical instruments, as the 
wise should know them, are made ol bamboo'. The rules 
regarding their notes (svara) and the Grama are the same as 
that of the Vina. 

2. The notes of a flute are known to have two, 
three and four [Srutis], and they are either 'shaken' (kampita), 
'half-open' {ardha-mukta) and 'fully open' {vyakta-mukta). 1 

8. As, above that 1 , a note of the Vina is changed into 
another, so in the case of the flute also it does likewise. 

4. The number of Srutis in notes [produced in a 
flute], will be two, three or four, and by prolonging the 
blow the remaining notes' may also be produced. 

5. Notes have characteristics determined by the Srutis 
numbering four, three or two produced by the application 
of fingers while playing the flute. Listen about that. 

6-7. The note produced from a [flute-]hole thoroughly 
free from a finger, consists of four Srutis, and that from 

(1) 'As the first Indian flute was made from vamsa or bamboo, 
it was called Vamsa. Sd. mentions also horns besides flutes made 
of wood (khadira and sandal), ivory and different metals (iron, kamsya, 
silver, and gold), which came into use in later times (see SR. VI. 424ff). 
The conchshell (lahkha) is also another hollow (susira) instrument, but 
it is scarcely used as a musical appliance. 

(2) l These indicate the ways of producing the notes. See 5 ff. 
below. Sd. however, mentions five such ways as kampita, valita, mukta, 
ardhamukta and nipidita (SR. VI. 457 ff). 

(3) * Here tatropari (lit. there above) means 'if srutis are further 

(4) l These are the Sadharana and the Kakali notes. See 
9-10 below. 

(6-7) l Sd. gives more elaborate directions in this regard (SR. VI. 


a hole, on which a shaking finger is placed, consists of 
three gratis, and a note consisting of two gratis, is produced 
from a hole which is partly (lit. half) free from a finger.' 

7-9. All these are the notes in the Madhyama Gr&ina.' 
Notes of the Sadja Grama will be as follows : Sadja 
Madhyama and Panama will arise from a hole fully 'open' 
Dhaivata and Rsabha from a hole covered by a shaking' 
finger, and from a hole partly (lit. half) free from a finger, 
will anse GSndhara and NisSda.-' 

9-10. Nisada and Gandhara [respectively] coming in 
juxtaposition with Sadja and Madhyama and modifying 
themselves in characteristic grub's, will give rise to the 
Overlapping (svara-sadharana) and the Kakall notes. 1 

11. The notes of the flute should be perfected (lit 
accomplished) with the help of the Vina and of the human 

The very notes which the singer will attain, should 
be sung m accompaniment of a flute. A unision of the 
human throat (lit. the body), the Vina and the flute, is 
[specially] praised.' 

(7-9) ' Though the Sadja Grama has been mentioned first in 
XXVIII (25-26), it has been given here the second place. The 
significance of this, is not clear. 

s To show the connexion of different fingers of the two hands 
with the production of seven notes, Ag. (p. 563) quotes the following : 

f«rcf,ws m*nfi maw: *f«rai to »' 
vvm x$i&ii< ^rct fan jn: i 
wflpirtSwnrt g {fast nmtwjk a 

(9-10) Sd. gives more detailed directions about the production of 
notes (SR. VI. 449-453). Mr. Fox Strangways gives a number of flute 
scales collected from different parts of India (MH. p. 102). These 
possibly include some valuable materials for the study of ancient Indian 
musical scales and intervals, for the flute has been one of the most 
primitive instruments of Indian music. 

(11) ' See SR. VI. 651. 

xxx. i2-13] 

trtE nAtya^Astra 52 

12. The music of the flute, which is steady, not 
very loud and furnished with the Varnas and the Alamkaras, 
and follows rules, 1 is sweet and soothing. 

13. These should be known regarding [musical] notes 
by persons playing flutes. I shall next speak of the solid 
musical instruments. 

Here ends the Chapter XXX of Bharata's N&tyasastra, 
which treats of the Hollow Musical Instruments. 

(12) ' The rules mentioned here possibly relate to the manner 
in which the flute should be played on different occasions in a play. The 
following quotation from Mataiiga by Ag. (p. 567) probably gives such 

This passage seems to have been paraphrased by Sd. in his SR. 
(VI. 652-653), but it does not occur in Bd. ascribed to Matanga. 


1. The [instrument named] Tala 1 is of the 'solid' class 
(ghana), and it relates to a division into Kalas (kalapata) 2 and 
to an observation of the tempo (laya). x Those who apply T&las 
in a musical performance, should know Ealas to be the 
measure of time {tala.) 

2. The popular Kala,' [together with] the Kastha- and 
Nimesa\ which has been accepted (lit. remembered) by the 
wise, is not the Kala in [observing] the Tala. The Kala 
arising from the Tala is different. 

3. Five Nimesas will make one Matra', and the Kala 
arises from the grouping of Matraa. And five Nimesas are 
also to be known as [the period of] interval between [two] 
Kalas, at the time of singing. And from these again, the 

(1) ' This word comes from tala .(the palm of the hand), and 
primarily refers to the beating of time by the clapping of hands, e.g. 
talaih Hnjavalaya-subhagaih nartilo kantaya me (Megh. 79). But generally 
it is used in the sense of 'time-measure.' Sd.'s explanation of this word 
(SR. VI. 2) seems to be fanciful. The word is also used as a variety of 
audible Tala which is of four kinds. See below 32. 

3 By following Sd. (SR. V. 5-6) one will probably sec in this 
compound two words kala and pala. But such a view will be misleading. 
3 See below 4 and 486. 

(2) 'According to Amara. (I. 3. 11), 18 Nimesas =1 Kastha, 
and 30 Kasthas-1 Kala ( tor* fo^i'g m%\ fa'Jm, m: nm: )• From this 
we have one Kala equivalent to eight seconds. In other systems of 
computation, it may be equal to fortyeight seconds and even to one 
minute. See Apte sub voce and also SM. II. 3. 53. 

8 See note 1 above. 

3 Ksirasvamin defines Nimesa as the time required for a twinkling 
of eyelids {nimeso , ksispanda-kalah) and see also SM. II. 3. 53. 

(3) ' According to Sd., Matra is the time required to pronounce 
five short syllables {panca-laghvaksaroccara-mita matra, SR. V* 16). 

kxxi. 4-10] THE NATYASASTRA 54 

tempo is made according to the time of the Kalas [into which 
they (Matr&s) are divided]. 

4. The tempo (laya) is of three kinds : quick (druta), 
medium (madhya) and slow {vilambita)\ and among these, the 
medium tempo determines the normal Kala (pramana-kala). 

5. This (i.e. the Kala) is known to be of three kinds, 
and is determined, according to the wise, by the three Margas.' 
lu the Citra [Style of Procedure] there should be three 
Matras, in the Vrtti the twice of it, and in the Daksina, its 
fourfold. These are the three [types of] Kalas. The Tala 
is so called because it measures [time by a division] of [songs 
into] Kalas. 

7. The Tala is of two kinds : Caturasra 1 (lit. four- 
cornered) and Tryasra 2 (lit. three-cornered) ; but the origin of 
these two kinds, is the same. 

8. Now listen about their twofold sources. They are 
the Cailcatputah' and the Capaputah. 2 

9-10. From each of these, the Tala of four or of two 
Kalas' proceeds. The Caficatputah is known to be Caturasra, 
and the Oapaputah is Tryasra. They consist of long and 
short syllables. 

(4) ' See below 468. 

(5) ' Sec above note 6 to XXIX. 103 prose, and also 487 below. 
The Margas are equivalent to the Panis (XXXI. 493-495). 

(7) ' This term is significant when the Talas mentioned below 
are made up of two or four Kalas. 

a ibid. 

(8) l This and similar other terms are probably mnemonics, and 
have no special significance. The variants of this term are Cancuputah 
(NS., KM ed.) and Caccatputah (SR.) 

2 The variants of this term are Cayaputah (NS., KM. ed.) and 
Cacaputah (SR). 

(9-10) ' Each of these two Talas have three varieties : yathaksara 
(literal), dvi-kala consisting of two Kalas, and catus-kala (consisting of four 
Kalas). • 

55 SOLID INSTRUMENTS [xxxi. 10-15 

10-11. The Caffcatputah' will consist of two long sylla- 
bles followed by one short syllable and the final Pluta syllable. 2 

11-12. The CSpaputah which is Tryasra, will consist of 
one long syllable followed by two short syllables and the 
final long syllable. A combination of these two, is called a 
mixed Tala. 

13-14. This (i.e. the mixed Tala) includes the Satpita- 
putrakah 1 and the PaficapSnih. 2 constituted according to long 
and short syllables occurring in their names. These in brief 
are the three kinds of Tala. 

14-15. [Their Patakala 1 will be as follows :] Sannipata, 2 
Samya,, 3 Tala, Samya ; or Samya, Tala, Samya, Tala^ ; or 
Tala. Samya, Tala, Samya [in the Canoatputah of one Kala]. 

15-16. The Cancatputati will, thus, be of three kinds : 
Sannipatadi,' Samyadi 2 and Tal&di.' 

(10-il) ' This is called the yathahara variety of it. Yathaksara 
(according to the syllables) means that the syllables (short and long) 
in the name {e.g. Cancatputah) indicate the syllables that this Tala 
contains. See SR. V. 18. 

8 This is to modify here the term yathahara, for according to the last 
aksara the final syllabic was to be long and not Pluta. 
(13-14) » See above note 1 to 8. 8 ibid. 

(14-15) > This term has teen explained by Kn. (on SR. V. 27) 
as follows : qim: to^i w/rw:, *m fiwv wmw i wfw: qiaii«nfa!ffc <a«w:. 

8 Absence of mumerical adjectives before these names means that 
they are single, i.e. one Sannipata, one Samya etc. 
3 See below note 1 to 32-33. 
* See SR. V. 28. 29. 
(15-16) ' It means the variety 'beginning with the Sannipata', or 
Sannipata, Samya and Tala Samya. See above 14-15. 

8 'Beginning with the 6amya, or 6amya, Tala, Samya and Tala. 
See ab6ve 14-15. 

3 'Beginning with the Tala', or Tala', Samya, Tala and Samya. See 
above 14-15, 

a* 16-25] THE NOT-4SASTRA 


16-17 The SannipMdi will be Caturasmin the 
Natya, and the 6awyMi will be applicable in the Asaritas. 
And similarly the TsMi in the Panika' and other [songs]. 

18. The three varieties of the Cancatput&h such as the 
Sannipatadi etc , will hold good in case of the CSpapnfah [too].' 

19. The Sannipatadi as well as the as other two, is 
strong in this (Capaputah) and Talas of six or of eight Kal&s 
proceed from this (i.e. the Sannipatadi)'. 

20. Due to the Samya, Tala and Pravesa, the another 
Tryasra is also produced. It is the Satpitaputrakah called the 
Paiicapanih. 1 

21-22. [Its Patakala is as follows :] the first syllable is 
Pluta, the second short, the third and the fourth long, the 
fifth short and the final Pluta', and this is the Satpitaputrakah 
with its long and short syllables. It is also called the 
Paiicapanih consisting of six Patas and six syllables. 

23. Its six Patas are as follows : Sannipata, Tala, 
Saniya, Tala, Saniya and Tala. 1 

24; Another Tryasra variety of the Taladi, is called the 
Samparkestakah.' It consists of five long syllables including 
the initial and final Pluta syllables 2 . Its Patas will be as 
follows : [Tala] 3 , Saniya, Tala, Samya and Tala. 

25. When the Tryasra will consist of all three heavy 
syllables and its Kalas will be as follows : Niskrama, Samya 
and Samya, it will be called the Udghattah.' 

(16-17) ' This is only a variety of very primitive songs. 

(18) ' Sd. curiously enough on the authority of the NS. recognizes 
only two of them in case of the Capaputah (his Cacaputah). See SR. V. 30. 

(19) ' The translation is tentative. 

(20) ' The translation is tentative. 
(21.22) »Cf. SR. V. 31. 

(23) » See SR. V. 31. 

(24) l Its variants arc Sampatkestakah (NS. KM. ed.) and Sam- 
pakkestakah (SR.), Sampadvestikah (SM.) 

"» SeeSR. V. 4'. 

8 SR. V. 41. Read 24 a as wi^l JIWWU«: etc. 

(25) l SeeSR.V.4Q. 

57 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 26-34 

26-28. Thus, there should be the pure Caficatputah etc. 
of one Kala. Such Talas have three varieties such as 
Yathaksara, 1 Dvikala 2 , and Catuskala, 1 each succeeding one 
being twice as long as its predeoessor. The Caturasra Tala is 
known to have three [special] varieties having respectively 
four, eight and sixteen Kalas. 

28-29. The Tryasra Tala has six [special] varieties 
having respectively three, six, twelve, twentyfour, fortyeight 
and ninetysix Kalas. 

30-31. Thus, the Tryasra {ayugma) Talas are of nine' 
kinds. And the Tala [in general] is of two kinds : silent (lit. 
without sound) and audible (lit. having sound). Listen about 
the two uses 2 which they have. I am going to describe them. 

31-32. [Of the two kinds], the silent Tala has four 
varieties such as, Avapa, Niskrama, Viksepa and Pravesaka.' 

32-33. The audible Tala is to be known as having 
four varieties such as Samya,' Tala, 2 Dhruva and Sannipata'. 

33-34. I shall now speak in due order, of the movement 
of hands and fingers 1 in relation to them, and tbeir.charac- 
teristics and measure. 

(26-28) ' See above note 1 to 9-10 and note 1 to 10-11. 
s ibid. 3 ibid. 

(30-31) l The three general varieties (26-28) and the six special 
varieties (28-29) make up the nine varieties mentioned here. 

* The purpose of having two such different sets of gesture for Talas, 
is not quite clear. It seems that the two different primitive methods of 
observing simple time-measures which included very few Kalas, originated 
independently. But these were subsequently brought together for the 
facility of indicating developed time-measures which included more 
complex schemes of very numerous Kalas. Two different varieties of 
gestures in all likelihood helped the musicians to avoid confusion which 
was possible in case of using only one kind of them. 

(31-32) 'Also called Kalas by Kn. (on SR. V. 5). 

(32-33) ' Sd. has this term as 6ampa. 

a This is different from the word standing for the time-measure 
in general. 

3 Also called Pitas and Kalas by Kn. (on SR. V. 5). 

(33-34) ' These were possibly required to guide the players of 
instruments for observing time-measure, 


xxxi. 34-42] THE NATYASASTRA 58 

34-36. The Avapa is the curving of fingers pointing 
upwards 1 , the Niskrama is spreading out the fingers [of the 
palm] turned downwards 2 . Swiftly moving that (i.e. the 
plam turned downwards) to the right side is the Viksepa,' 
and the Pravesa 4 is the drawing away of the palm turned 

36-37. After showing the Avapa (lit. the curving the 
fingers) one should be making the Niskrama and then the 
Viksepa and next the Pravesana (Pravesa). 

37-38. This is the rule when a combination [of Talas] 
consists of four Kalas 1 . [For] the Niskrama and the Pravesa 
[only will] make up two Kalas'. 

The alternate placing (lit. falling) of these, is known as 
the Pata 3 . 

39-40. These are to be known Samya, Tala and Sanni- 
pata. 1 The Samya is of the right hand, the Tala of the left 
hand, and the two hands coming together is the Sannipata, 
and the Dhruva is stopping (lit. falling) for a Matra, and it 
makes for the way of the Kagas 2 , and [moreover] the placing 
(lit. falling) of the three Kalas mentioned before, is also called 

41-42. In the Yathaksara 1 Tala, it (the Dhruva) will 
be a long syllable. The Tala consisting of Yathaksara Patas 
is its ordinary {yathasthita) type. With doubled long 
syllables it will consist of two Kalas. The doubling of two 
Kalas will make it consist of four Kalas. 

(34-36) ' See SR. V. 7. - ibid. 3 ibid. « ibid. 

(37-58) J 'Kalas' here means syllables and not the component 
parts of a Tala, which itself may consist of more than one syllable as 
in the Dvikala or the Catuskala Talas. 

2 Significance of this rules is not clear. 

3 The translation is tentative. Kn. applies this term to the audible 
Talas. See above note 3 to 32-33. 

(39-40) l It seems that one hemistich is missing here. 

8 This use of the word 'Riga' is likely to hava some connexion 
with the melodic types of the same name in the later Indian Music. 

59 THE TIME-MEASURE [ XXM . 43-51 

43-44. I have [already finished] describing the Pata 
arising in the Yathaksara [Tala]. Hence the Cancatpu^ah, the 
Capaputah the Pancapanih 1 [types] have three varieties. 

44-45. Apart from the Caturasra (jiugma) and the 
Tryasra (ojas) types there are five kinds of Talas. These are 
called the Udghattakah' etc., and are of the mixed kind and 
they relate to the different limbs of songs. 

45-46. These (i.e. the mixed Talas etc.) may consist 
of five, seven, nine, ten or eleven Kalis', and are [henoe] 
called miscellaneous Talas. 

46-47. These have no use in the seven kinds of songs' 
and in the Dhruvas. 2 And these are to be used by the singers 
in the Pravrtta' etc. 

47-48. I am [now] speaking about the theory that the 
Dhruvas will have the Caturasra and the Tryasra Talas 
consisting [respectively] of eight and of six Kalas. 

48-51. [The Tala of eight Kalas will be like this] : by 
the little finger' the Niskrama and the 6amya, by the little 
and the ring finger, the Niskrama, the Tala and the. Samya, 
by the middle finger the Pravesa, and by the fore finger are 
shown the Niskrama and the Sannipata. This is the method 
of showing Kalas by fingers, in the Caturasra {yugma) 

(43-44) ' Another name for the Satpitaputrakah. See SR. V. 23. 
(44-45) ' Udghattakah and Samparkeitakah. 
(45-46) ' Sd. seems to ignore these. 
(46-47) i See below 220. 
3 See XXX. 207. 

(47-48) » The Dhruvas used in connexion with the performance 
of the Natakas, were probably very early types of Indian songs, for 
their schemes of time-measure consisted of six or eight Kalas only, while 
in the later songs, the number of Kalas was much greater. 

(48-51) ' It is not clear why individual fingers were substituted 
for the hand-gestues which were conventionally used to indicate the 
time-measure. This may be compared with practice of indicating by 
fingers, different notes in the chanting of the Sama-veda (see MH. p. 259). 

xxxi. 51-64] THE NATYA^AsTRA 60 

51-53. [The Tala of six Kal&s will be like this] : 
by the little finger the Niskrama, the Sauaya, the Tala, and 
the Samya, and by the forefinger the Samya and the Sanni- 
pata are to be shown. This is the method of showing Ealas 
by fingers in a Tryasra Tala. 

54-67. By the little finger the Niskrama and the 
Pravesa, by the little and the ring fingers the Tala and the 
Samya, by the middle finger the Niskrama and the Tala, by 
the forefinger the Niskrama, the Samya and the Tala, by 
the little finger the Pravesa, by the forefinger the Niskrama 
and the Sannipata. 

58. This is the rule regarding the Tala of four Kalas 
in terms of Avapa and Viksepa, shown by fingers mentioned 

59. The Padabhagas consisting of two or four Kalas 
have been described [by me]. The four Padabhagas are 
technically called Matras 1 . 

60. These are the different varieties of the Caficatputah, 
the C&paputah and the Paiicapanih Talas. 

61. Thus I have described in brief the Talas which 
relate to the Asarita' and the Vardhamana 2 and to the body 
of other songs. 

The Asarita 

62-63. Now I shall speak of the characteristics of the 
Asaritas. In this, the master producer (lit. one who knows 
the art of production) first takes up the Caficatputah with 
its long, short and Pluta syllables and then the twofold 

63-64. And in the preceding Tala (i.e. the Caficatputah) 
he puts the syllables as indicated by the latter [in it name]. 

(59) 1 But according to Kn. the Kala is ordinarily identical with 
Matra ; but in the Ekakala Dvikala and Catuskala Talas) it means 
the long syllables laf^nHsftqrarag^raiw g ^am^i i**tfi wra: i vw mm 
*r«i (on SR. V. 19). 

(61) "See below. 

2 See below 76 ff. 

61 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 64-75 

Thus we get the same Pata as follows : Tala, Samya, Tala, 
Samya, Tala. 

64-66. In the first syllable of the Paiicapanih one should 
put in Sannip&ta, then Tala, Samya, Tala, Samya and Tala. 
And in the second syllable also, this is the rule in the Paiica- 
panih. And the Sannipata is to occur in case of the final 
Pluta. This is known by the wise as the short Yathaksara 

67-68. Now listen about the distribution of Pata as 
described in the name of the Talas. The ca {can) will indicate 
the Tala, cat (lit. the second) the Tala, pu again Samya, and 
the ta (tah) the Tala. Thus one should know the Caiicatputah, 
and the Paiicapanih comes afterwards. 

69-70. The sat will indicate the Sannipata, the pi the 
Tala, the ta Samya, the pu the Tala, the Ira the Samya, ka 
(hah) the Tala. The same will hold good in case of the second, 
and then comes the Sannipata. 

The medium Asarita 

71. On combining here the long syllables tfhis (the 
short Asarita) will be the medium [Asarita].' 

71-73. The Kala that will follow the doubling of 
the combined heavy syllables, should be applied in due order 
as before. And the medium [Asarita] when doubled, is called 
the long Asarita. In it, the Kal&s will be double the number 
of that in the medium [Asarita]. Their Vastu is characterised 
by the occurrence of Sannipatas. 

The Layantarita 

74. I shall now speak of the characteristics of the 
Layantarita. That which has the shortest Tala, is called the 
Layantarita. The Kala differing on account of the time 
required for it, becomes a different Kala. 

75. The application of these Talas gives special success, 
and in the Layantarita, there occurs a difference there in 
words and in the tempo. 

(71) ' The transl. is tentative. The text is possibly cwrupt here. 

xxxi. 76-88] THE NATYASASTRA 62 

The Vardhamana 

76. A combination of the Asaritas, is called the 
Vardhamana. Listen about its origin and characteristics 
as I am describing them. 

77-78. After killing the terrible Danavas, Rudra 
invented in the past the beautiful dance called the Tandava. 
Now the great-souled Bhutas created at that time the Vardha- 
mana adorned with the Pindibandhas.' 

79. On seeing this, Siva with his consort (Parvati) 
was much pleased, and he as well as the goddess gave them 
the best boon. 

80. Those who perform the Vardhamana as denned 
by him according to the traditional rules and order, will 
attain the proximity of Siva [after their death]. 

81. This was seen by me for the purpose of the 
Pindibandhas. Listen now about their characteristics. 

82. Performed in the three Margas, such as the Vrtti, 
Daksina and Citra, the Vardhamana which is constructed 
according to its own measure, is of two kinds. 

The Asaritas 

83. Its measure has two aspects : one with the Tala 
and the other without the Tala. There are four parts 
(kandkia) in all the Asaritas. 

84. [Each] part in the Dhruva is composed of Kalas 
by gods. The Margas are available (lit. joined) in the 

85-87. The first [group] is made up of nine Kalas, the 
second (lit. the next) of eight Kalas, the third of sixteen 
Kalas and the fourth of thirtytwo Kalas. Thus in the 
Vardhamana each part is made up of a fixed [number of] 
Kalis and it is born of the [proper] Marga and is devoid of 
tempo which is its minor limb. 1 

87-88. [The parts (kandika) are made up] of one, two, 
three and four [Kalas] and by them (i.e. the Kalas) are made 

(77-78) > The group-dances, See V 

(85-86) • l The text is possibly corrupt here in 86. 

63 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 88-98 

the As&ritas in the Vardham&na observing the [proper] M&rga 
and limbs of Talas. 

The Short Asarita 

88-89. After finishing the first part combined with the 
short (bald) T&la, one should make up the short As&riba, of 
which the second half will be deficient in one Kal&. 

89-90. If after finishing the second part, one adds to 
the first part in all its Kalas in the previous T&la, then it 
becomes the Layantara (°tarita) [in the Vardhamana]. And 
Vardham&na at that time should be done in the Citra Marga 
and not in the Vrtti. 

91-92. Whether in the Vardham&na or in other songs 
(lit. outside it) there is no short Asarita in the Daksina 
Marga. From the short Tala, as it doubles the number 
of syllables and applies other Margas, and regulates the time 
of dance, the Layantara (°tarita) proceeds. 

The medium Asarita 

92-93. The Tala which I have prescribed in case of 

the short Asarita, is wholly to be observed in the first two 

parts. The third, the second and the. first [parts] will have the 

same number of Kalas. Then this will be the medium Asarita. 

The Long Asarita 

94. If the fourth part is made the first Le. the parts 
are taken in an inverted order, and the four parts have an 
addition of four Kalas to them, then it is called the long 
Asarita. , 

95. When their application is taken in connexion 
with the PinrJIbandhas, then each of their limbs (minor 
parts) is to be made distinct (lit. separate). 

96. Mukha, Pratimukha, Deha and Samharana are 
the four limbs 1 in all the As&ritas. 

97-98. The Upohana is the Mukha, the Yugma is the 
Pratimukha, the Ojah is the Sarira (Deha) and the Samhara 
Charana). This is the serial order of the limbs and thus 
the As&ritas consist of four limbs. ■ 
(96) ' SeeSR. V. 183-184. 

xxxi. 98-108] THE NATYASASTRA 64 

The Vardhamana 

98-99. A song composed of the four 1 Asaritas, is called 
the Vardhamanaka. The Vardhamana is so called because 
of the [gradual] increase in it of the syllable (varna), Tala, 
tempo (laya^, the instrumental music and gestures, which 
lead to the embellishment of the performance of the dancers. 

100-101. The body of the Vardhamana and the Asarita 
being mutually related [respectively] as effect and cause 
constitute each other. Just as the seed grows from the 
tree, and the tree [in its turn] from the seed, [here too], the 
same [law of] mutual causal connexion is applicable. 

The Layantarita 

102. One Kala being added to the short [Asarita] 
it gives rise to the Layantara ■( = Layantarita) ; and two 
Kalas being added [it becomes] the medium [Asarita], and 
four Kalas being added [it is] the long [Asarita]. 

The Short Asarita 

103. The rnle of the Pata for the short [Asarita] is 
as follows : Samya, Tala, Saroya, Tala, (lit. one turn of 
the Caficatputah beginning with Samya), Sannipata, Tala, 
Samya, Tala, Samya, Tala, Sannipata, Tala, Samya, Tala, 
Samya, Tala, (lit. two Paiicapanihs beginning with Samya). 

104. This is the scheme of Tala in the Layantarita, 
and its characteristic growth has been mentioned before, 
and there will be here a difference of words and tempo. 

105-106. (The text is corrupt, but it is clear that the schemes 
of Tala for the medium and the long Asarita occur here). 

107. Those who have the short (lit. young) [Asarita] 
as consisting of nine Kalas, are not supported by the good 
authorities. The plaoing of the Sannipata [in it] has been 
made [by them] according to the rule of the Kala. 

108. For them the two Talas at the Mukha of it (i.e., 
the short Asarita) are regulated by the Dhruva Pata. I shall 
[now] speak of its [full] measure {mana) and [sequence of] 
long and short syllables. 

(98-99) ' l Short, Layantarita, medium and long. See below 102. 

65 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 109-114 

109. The Mukhas of the Jong and the medium 
Asaritas, the Layantarita and the short Asarita, will res- 
pectively consist of eight, seven, six 1 and five Kalas. 

110-111. In the Upavahanas of the As&rita [of all 
kinds] Asaranas 1 to be employed are of eight syllables two 
long, four short, two long [for the short Asarita], of twelve 
syllables two long, eight short, two long [for the Layantarita], 
of sixteen syllables two long, twelve short, two long 
[for the medium As&rita] and of twenty syllables, two 
long, sixteen short, two long [for the long Asarita] 2 . I 
shall now speak about the syllables which were sung in the 
past by Brahman. Example, (the text here is corrupt). 

112 This rule of the Upavahana, depending on the 
arrangement of syllables in Kalas and in the sequence of 
their being long and short, has been prescribed in case of 
tbe Mukhas of the As&ritas. 

113. Thus I have described the extent and measure- 
ment [of the Upavahana]. In the Caturasra (yugma) there 
are four ganas, and in the Tryasra (oja) there are six ganas. 

The Short Asarita 

114. In the Pancapanih and the C&paputah (lit. the 
second) [the number of ganas] will be six and a half. Thus 
will be the short [Asarita] in its syllables measured by T&las. 
Ex. Devarn devaih samstutam Isam 

daityair yaksaih pranamita-caranam, 
trailokyahitam Isam Haram 

rudram saranam upagatah. 
TV. I have come to take refuge with Hara (Siva) 1 
the terrible one, the benefactor of the three worlds, who 
is worshipped as the Lord God by the gods, and to whose 
feet Daityas and Yaksas bow down. 

(109) J Read sad eva for sasthi. See. SR. V. 182. 

(1 10-1 1 1) J The term Is probably synonymous with Asarita. 

2 The transl. is tentative, for the text seems to be corrupt. 
(114) ' This and similar examples below perhaps show the 
originial connexion of dance and drama with Siva, ' 


xxxi. 115-116] THE NATYASaSTRA 66 

The Medium Asarita 

115-116. In the CaHcatputah (lit. the first Tala) there 
should be eight regular ganas, and the ganas in the SatpitS- 
putrakah should be twelve, and in the third part of the 
Vastu' there should be thirteen ganas and a half 2 . These is 
the arrangement of syllables in the medium AsSrita ; 

Ex. Bhutadhipatim Bhaganetraharanam Isam devair 
vandyani suramakhamathanam raudram bhayadam gaja- 
carmapatam. Sambhum tryaksam jvalananibhajatam bhujanga- 
parikaram. Tridasaganavrtam daityair nityam paripathita- 
caritam amarapatinamitam abhimatasukhadam Rudram pitam 
pitrvananilayam GangSplavita-sobhanajatam tarn saranam 
gato'smi varadam ca Mahesvaram 3 . 

Tr. I have come to take refuge with Mahesvara, the 
giver of boons, the lord of creatures, who took out Bhaga's 
eyes, who is adorable to the gods, who destroys the sacrifice 
of the gods, who is terrible and fearful, who wears the hide of 
an elephant, who is the source of bliss, who is three-eyed 
and has matted hairs shining like fire, and who has serpents 
as his girdle, who is sorrounded by gods, whose exploits are 
always recited by the Daityas, who is bowed to by the lord 
of gods, who gives one pleasures of one's own choice, who is 
terrible, yellow, and is a dweller of the cremation ground, and 
whose beautiful matted hairs are soaked in water of the 

(115-116). ' The Vastu (thing) is a technical word meaning princi- 
pal parts of songs. See below XXX II. 7. This is probably equivalent 
to what the singers of North India call tuk in connexion with Dhrupada 
songs. See GS. I. p. 78. This word (Vastu) has been used by Kalidasa 
(Malavi. II. 0. 5 ; 3.1 ; 4.1.) It also means a song, and is equivalent 
to the term. eij. (lit. thing) used by the modern North Indian singers. 
See SR. V. 6 ; V. 61ff. 

8 See below 127. 

8 This very exhaustively describes Siva's mythological 
character, ' 

67 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxu 117-110 

The Long Asarita 

117-118. There should be first the Caifcatputah 
(=yugma) TSla of sixteen ganas, next the Capaputah (07a) Tsla 
of twentyfour ganas, and in the third there should be twenty- 
four ganas and a half. 1 These is the arrangement of syllables 
in the long Asarita. 

Ex. Amarapravaram Madanangaharam bhuvanaika- 
n&tham abhayapradam Tripuranaiakaram devani tarn aham 
pranatah. Surapitrmunigana-pranatacaranam prthivlsalila- 
nalapavana-yajiiSdhipati - surya - candra - vyomakbySh astau 
munibhir yasya karya pifcktah trailokyagurum tarn acintyam 
ajatn vidyanilayam bhairavarupam khatvarigadharam sthityut- 
pattipralayanimittam suksmaksam acintyam candrardha- 
dharam tilakardhadharam netrardhadharam kucardhadharani 
kantSrdhadharam bahulair vividhair vidhrtair vikatair 
mundair vimukhair visamair pramathaih parivrtam Isam 
satatam pranatah. 2 

Tr. 1 bow to the god (Siva) the greatest deity, the 
destroyer of Madana's body, the supreme master of the world, 
the giver of immunity from fear, and-the destroyer of Tripura. 
I always bow to the Lord (Siva) who is worshipped at his feet 
by gods, fathers and sages, who, the sages say, has created the 
eight [forms] known as the earth, water, fire, air, the master 
of sacrifices, the sun, the moon, and the space (lit. the sky), 
who is the preceptor of the three worlds, is beyond the reach 
of thought, is eternal (lit. without birth), the abode of 
knowledge, terrible in form, holder of khatvahga, the cause of 
existence, origin and destruction [of the world], who has 
subtle vision, who is unthinkable, who bears [ in his person ] 
half of a crescent, of a tilaka, of an eye, of breasts and of the 
beloved wife, and who is surrounded by many and various, 
aweful, shaven-headed, ugly and strange Pramathas. 

(117-118) » See below 127. 

8 See above note 3 to 115-116. 

xxxi. 119-128] THE NATYASASTRA 68 

119. The three varieties of As&rita, have been described, 
viz., literal (yathaksara ), double ( dvisatnkhyata ) and triple 

120. The literal Asarita is known to be made up 
of ganas of equal Varnas doubled in observing Talas, and its 
syllable are not repeated.' 

121. The literal As&rita ( lit. that ) when it is [once3 
repeated, is called the double Asarita 1 and when twice repeated 
it is called the triple Asarita. 

122. In [ the Tala of ] the Asarita songs, one should 
make its [ Kala ] of four etc., consist of ganas made up 
of four matr&s, their long and short syllables being as pres- 
cribed before. 1 

123-124. That* which is of four matras in aksaras will 
be two matras in Varnas. 1 The Kalas in the Vrfcti [ M&rga ] 
will be twice that in the Citra Marga. Hence, that Kala which 
is of four matras in the measure of Varna in the Vrtti 
[Marga], will be doubled in the Daksina [ Marga ]. 

126. No change of the Marga, is available as regards 
the syllables [ indicated by the name of Talas ].' It is only 
due to doubling the Matra that the variation of Varnas has 
been described. 

126. This is mostly the rule relating to the Varna and 
the Tala in Asarita songs of the literal class. 

127. In the double Asarita the repetition (nivrlti) 
should be made by adding half [gana] to [the literal 
Asarita], and in the triple Asarita, the double one should be 
augmented by half [a gana]. 

123. The double Asarita should not be performed in 
the Citra Marga, and the Triple one in tbe Vartika Marga. 1 

(119) » SeeSR. V. 190. 

(120) » ibid. 

(121) ' See SR. V. 191. 

(122) l The transl. is tentative. 
(123-124) > The meaning is not clear. 

(125) ' Aksaresu here means yatkaksaresu. See SR. V. 192. 

(128) 1 See SR. V. 192. 

69 THE TIME-MEASURE fxxxi. 129-137 

129. The triple Asarita should be in the Daksina 
Marga 1 , the double Asarita in V&rtika Marga 2 and the literal 
Asarita in the Citra Marga. 3 This is the fixed rule relating to 

130. The rule of observing the Marga in the triple 
Asarita is, that it should begin iu the Daksina, and in repeti- 
tion the Vrtti and the Citra [are to be adopted] serially. 

131-13*2. The double Asarita too should be performed 
( lit. desired ) according to this principle. Its performance 
may be in the Vrtti or Daksina Marga. After considering 
the relative strength ( lit. strength and weakness ) of the 
different limbs of a Yastu, the expert musician should observe 
the repetition at its beginning, middle or conclusion. 

133. When due to the composition of the Vastu, a Kala 
becomes wanting at the repetition, then [ the singer ] should 
prolong the Varna till this Kala is completed. 

134. The needs for repetition are as follows : enrich- 
ment of the Varnas and Alarnkaras, rest for the producing 
organs, and the application of the Tattva' etc. 

135. Thus I have mentioned the [ mutual ] connexion 
between the Varnas, Talas and syllables in [course of perform- 
ing ] the Asarita and the Vardhamana. 

The four limbs of the Vardhamana 

136. There are four limbs of the Vardhamana [song], 
viz. Visala, Samgata, Sunanda and Sumukhl. 1 

137. Of these, the first [limb] consist of nine Kalas, the 
second of eight, the third of sixteen and the last of thirtytwo 

(129) * SR. V. 192. 

s Cf. SR. V. 192. 

3 Cf. 125 above. 
(134) « See XXIX. 109. 

(136) l See SR. V. 195. 

(137) l See SR. V. 196. 

XXxi. 138-145] THE nATYA^ASTRA 70 

138-139. The Upohana of the Visala consists of five 
Kalas, that of Samgata of six KalSs, that of Sunanda of seven 
Kalas, and the Upohana of the Surnukhi is always eight 
Kalas. 1 I shall now speak of their sequence of long and 
short syllables. 

1*10. In the Upohana 1 of the Visala there should bo two 
long syllables first, then fourteen short ones, and finally 
a long syllable. 1 Ex. {The passage is possibly corrupt). 

141. The sages have said that four more short syllables, 
and the three long ones [being added to this i. e. to the 
Upohana of the Visala], will make the Upohana of the 
Samgata 1 . Ex. ( missing ). 

142. The learned are to know that the rule about the 
Upohana of the Sunanda, is that it will have four short 
syllable, and three long syllables [more than that of the 
Samgata,] 1 Ex. ( The passage is possibly corrupt). 

143. The rule of Upohana of the Sumukhi, is that it is 
to be known as consisting of twentyeight short and [three] 
long syllables. 1 Ex. (The passage is possibly corrupt.) 

144 Because, from this, the notes [in a song] are 
carried forward, and because from this, songs proceed, this 
consisting of unmeaning (lit. dry) syllables, is called the 
Upohana ( = Upavahana). 

145. Or, because a performance is carried forward by 
means of acts beginning with sucanaV this song depending on 
the musical instuments, is called the Upohana. 

(138-139) a Frotrf Kn. (on SR. V. 196-197) we learn that the 
Upohanas of the four parts of the Vardhamana consist respectively of 
five, six, seven and eight Kalas. 

(140) - See SR. V. 197. 

(141) - Cf. Kn. on SR. V. 197. 

(142) ' Here evam guru-samyutaih means that there will be three 
more long (guru) syllables as in the preceding Kanfika of the Vardhamana. 
Also cf. Kn. on SR. V. 177. 

(143) 1 Kn. onSR. V. 197. 

(145) ' Kn. (on SR. V. 92-93) reads stavariadikak for sucanadibhih. 
The original reading probably was stavanadibhih («by means of 
praises etc.). • 

71 THE TIME-MEASURE fxxxi. 146-156 

UG. t The Tala of the Upohana in the Visala is as 
follows : Samya, Tala, Samya, Tala, Sannipata. 1 

147. The Tala in [the Upohana of] the Samgata is the 
OaKcatputah of two Kalas, and this in its Taladi variety, 
preceded by the Tala of three Kalas (i.e. Udghatta), will be 
the Tala of the Upohana of the Sunanda ' 

148. The Tala of the Upohana of the Sumukhl, will 
be the Cancatputah of two Kalas. Upohanas twice repeated 
[in each case] will make up the Kandika. 

149. Thus I have spoken of the four Upohanas. Now 
listen about the performance of the limbs from the beginning. 

150. The Tala of the Visala, is as follows : Samya, 
Tala, Samya, Tala and Sannipata of three Kalas.' 

151. The Tala of the Samgata is Cancatputah of two 
Kalas and that of the Sunanda is the same (i.e., Cancatputah) 
of the four Kalas.' 

152. And the Tala of the Sumukhi should be the 
double' Cancatputah ( =yugma) of four Kalas together with 
two Sannipatas. 

153. I have thus spoken of the Talas in the individual 
limbs of the Vardhamana songs. Now listen about them 
collected together. 

154. First there should be the Visala produced with 
the shortest (lit. young) Tala. The Tala which has its end 
consisting of three Kalas, is the short (lit. young) Asfirita. 

155. When after taking up (lit. making the Graha of) 
the Saiugata, one applies Visala in all iljs Kalas and couples 
it with the previous Tala, then it is the Layantarita. 

156. Then one should perform the Sunanda and 
again the Samgata and again Visala and next the Sumukhi. 

(146). > See SR. V. 202. 

(147) ' The Tala of the Samgata is Niskrama, Samya, Tala, 
Samya, Niskrama, Sannipata, and in the Tala of the Sunanda these will 
be added to the preceding Tala. 

(150) * Cf. SR. V. 202. 

(151) » See SR. V. 202. 

(152) * The reading divicilrastu is probably corrupt. It seems to 

have been something like dvih extras tu. Cf. SR. V. 202. 

xxxi. 157-167] THE NATYASASTRA 72 

157. The Tala that has been mentioned in the 
short Asarita, is wholly to be applied first at the beginning 
(lit. the rise) of the Kandika. 

158. Then after taking up (lit. making) the Graha of 
Sunanda one should perform Sunanda, Samgata and Vis&la. 

159. The Tala that has been prescribed by me in case 
of the medium Asarita, should be observed in the three 
Samyas in case of the Sunanda and what follows. 

160. And again Sumukhi, Sunanda and Samgata 
should be performed (lit. is desired), and they should be 
applied beginning from the Sumukhi etc. 

161. Then one should know about the end of VisSlS 
and of the respetitions (nivrtli). The Tala in the long Asarita 
is either silent or audible. 

162. The same [Tala] should be performed in all 
[the limbs]. These are four Talas prescribed in the combina- 
tion of limbs. From a combination of these limbs the 
Vardhmana is made (lit. desired). 

163L The short (lit. youngest) [Asarita] consists of 
nine Kalas, the Layantara ( = Layantarita) of seventeen Kalas, 
the medium [Asarita] of thirtythree, and the long of sixtyfive 
Kalas. 1 

164. This is the rule about the Tala in all the Asaritas. 
The Yardhamanaka is so called because of a [gradual] 
increase of Kalas due to [gradual] increase (vardhana) of 
syllables, and because of an increase of the Laya (tempo) in 
its successive phases. 

165. In all the Asaritas and the Vardhamana songs 
the law of the syllables relates to an application of double the 
[ordinary] Tala. 

166-167. The Sannipata without an end (?) occurs at 
the end, then the final Kala should known as being made up 
of two matras. This is the characteristics of the Vardhamana 
as described by me. I shall now give a tabular view of the 
brief characteristics of the Asarita. 

(163) l <Sce SR. V. 195. 

73 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 168-177 

168. The wise presoribe the Dhruva [Tala] in a Kala 
which is not deficient. The remaining and final [T&las] 
should be conforming to the syllables of the T&las (i.e. the 
names of the T&las). 

169. There is no (i.e. should be no) Samya ( = Samya ?) 
in the pluta and short syllables represented by Dhruva T&Ia 
......Samatva is prescribed by means of three P&tas. 1 

170. The As5ritas, short medium and long are to 
be furnished (lit. made) with Talas, Sannipatas, S*amy&s and 
Dhruvas. 1 

171. By doubling aftorwards the Kalas of this (i.e. of 
the short As&rita) the medium Asarita consisting of Samya 
in the intervals of Talas should be made. 

172. In the first Vastu of the medium Asarita there 
should be the Uttarah ( = Sat pitSputrakah) Tala leaving out 
the three Kalas, and in it there should be two complete 
repetitions (parivrtta)* 

173-175. [The Pata of the medium Asarita will be as 
follows] : Samya, Tala of two Kalas, Samya of two Kal&s, 
Tala of one Kal&, Sannipata of three Kalas, TSla of thee 
Kalas, Samy& of one Kala, Tala of two Kalas, Samya of two 
Kalas, Tala of two Kalas, Sannipata of three Kalas again. 
In the third [Vastu] there are Sannipatas of twelve Kalas at 
the end. 

176. The first part of the medium Asarita is said to 
consist of eight Kalas, the second of twefve Kalas and the 
third should have a part [of twentyfonr Kal&s] ending in a 

177. The Pravesa, Viksepa and Niskr&ma made with 
fingers, which have been mentioned before, should all be 
observed by the experts in the medium As&rita. 

(169) ' The text seems to be corrupt. 

(170) l Cf. SR. V. 179. 
(172) » See SR. V. 180. 


xxjci. 178-194] THE NATYASASTRA 74 

178. Now in the long Asarita the wise should make 
the body made up of Samya and Tala with proper tempo 
(laya) and [this body] should consist of sixtyfive Kalas. 

179. In it the Avapa, Niskrama, Viksepa and Pravesaka 
of the fingers should consist [of groups] of four Kal&s. 

180. The long Asarita should have groups of four 
Kalas with its Av&pas and Viksepas, and its Vastu in other 
places will consist of seventeen Kalas beginning with Samya. 1 

181-183. [The Pata of this Asarita will be as follows :] 
Samya and Tala of four Ealas, Samya of four Kalas, Tala of 
two KalSs, Sannipata of six Kalas, Tala of six Kalas, Samya 
of two Kalas, Tala of two Kalas, and Sannipata of six Kalas. 

184. This is the entire rule [of Talas] in the third 
Sannipata, but at the end I shall speak of the throw of 
fingers [indicating them]. 

185-188. Avapa, Samya, Niskrama, Viksepa, Tala, 
Avapa, Niskrama with the ring-finger, Viksepa, Samya, 
Avapa, Tala, Vikesepana (Viksepa), Pravesa with the middle 
finger, Avapa and Niskrama again Viksepa and Sannipata, 
with the forefinger, these are the seventeen Kalas in the 
first Sannipata. 1 

189-193. Avapa, Nirgama (Niskrama) with the little 
finger Viksepa, Pravesa, Avapa and Tala with the ring and 
the little fingers, Tala and Viksepa with the ring and the 
little fingers, Samya, Avapa and Niskrama, Viksepa, and 
Samya with the forefinger, and these are the fifteen Kalas. 
and Avapa, Tala, Visepa, Pravesa, Avapa, Niskrama with the 
forefinger, Niskrama, Viksepa, Sannipata will make up the 
twentyfour Kalas [of the second Sannipata]. 

194. This is the rule [of Talas] in the third Sannipata. 
This is the arrangement of fingers in showing the Talas in 
the long Asarita. There will be sixteen Kalas in the first 

(180) l It seems that a portion of the text, has been lost after this. 

(188) » The text dealing with the medium Asarita seems to be 
lost from here. 

(189-191) » The text here seems to have some lacuna. Cf. SR. 
V. 181. 

75 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 197-206 

Sannipata, and twentyfour in the second and one more Kala 
than this (i.e. the second) in the third Sannipata. In each 
of these there should be ten or seven groups made up of 
Samya, Tala as well as Sannipata. 

197-198. In the first Vastu of the short and the 
medium Asaritas, the other two are to be applied as [pres- 
cribed] before. The three "Vastus [in them] will consist of six 
Samyas, eight Talas and three Sannip&tas. One should know 
the Asarita to consist of seventeen Fata [Kalfis]. 

198-200. Eight Talas, six Samyas and three Sannipatas 
are to be known [as used] in each of the Asaritas. This is 
the description of the Asarita spoken by me. [Now] I shall 
consider the application of the uses of the Vastus of songs. 
Next I shall speak about the characteristics of songs. 

201-202. In the Vastus 1 and bodies of the songs there 
are limbs such as Vivadha, 2 Ekaka and Vrtta. 3 

The Ekaka consists of one Vidari, 4 and the Vivadha of 
two and the Vrtta not less than three and not more than six 

203. That which consists of Padas or Varnas, is called 
a Vidari. 

And that which ends in the Nyasa, ApanySsa and 
Amsa is a Vastu.' 

204. Because it splits (vietarayali) notes, it is called 
Vidari 1 and it resembles heavy Varnas. 

205-206. The Vivadha and the Ekaka are generally 
used in the Madraka [song], in each half Vastu of the Prakarl, 
and in each quarter of the Eovindaka. But in the Bovindaka, 
Uttara, Ullopyaka, Panika, Bahirgltas and Lasya, the Vrtta 
is used. 

(197-198) » See SR. V. 197. 

(201-202) l Defined below in 203-204. 

» Dattila, (144) and SR. (V. 70) have this as 'Vividha'. 

» Defined below in 204. 

(203) • See Dattila, 140. 

(204) ' See Dattila, 142. 

xxxi. 207-217] THE NATYASASTRA 76 

207. The Vrtta is of two kinds : Pravrtta and Avag&dha. 
The fy.YSbgfkih& is due to being in an ascending scale and the 
Pravrtta due to being in a descending scale. 

208. Ascending as well as descending is of two kinds : 
one prescribed in connexion with tho Nyasa and the Apanyasa 
[notes], and the other made in the Margantara ( = Antara- 
marga ?). 

209. Vidarls in a song are said to bo three 1 in the 
minimum and eleven in the maximum, [but] their highest 
number may [in rare cases] be twentyfour. 

210. But in case of the Ullopyaka and the Vaihayasa 
[the number of J Vidarls will be half as much more in the 
third Sannipata. 

211. They are to be performed there with the Vivadha 
or the twofold Vrtta, and the Ariga will not come to a close 
in a half of the Sannipata. 

212. The Vivadha is said to have been of three kinds, 
viz. Samudga, Ardhasamudga and Vivrtta. 

216. The Vivadha is always Jo be known as ending in 
the Nyasa note except in the case of the Qoyaka, and in the 
beginning of the Madraka the Samudga has been prescribed. 

214. But the Geyaka in the Samudga should be 
applied like the short Varnas. And applied at the end and 
in the third [Vidari] it is called Geyaka. 

215. When in application, one half of a Vidarls is 
similar to [one half of another Vidari] and the other half is 
dissimilar [to the 'remaining half of it], it is called the 

216. The Vidari is uneven in tho Nyasa and the 
Apanyasa, and its copious use is called the Vivrtta. 

217. The Vivadha, Ekaka and Vrtta are respectively 
to end in the Nyasa, the Apanyasa and the Amsa [notes]. 

(207) > See above note 3 on 202. 

(209) » See SR. V. 77. The text' of SR. is corrupt here. Ava- 
raikadalapara should be emended into Tryavaraikadasapara. Kn. 's Comm. 
too requires emendation. It should begin as tryavarai ca etc ; otherwise 
the next sentence which supports the emended text, becomes meaningless. 

77 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 218-223 

218. The Sannyasa and the Vinyasa notes occur in 
the middle of the Anga, and the Vinyasa is known to occur 
in the middle of the Vidari. 

219. The Vinyasa may rarely be at the end of a word 
in a Vidarl ; but too much of it has not been prescribed by 
the experts. 

The Seven Types of Songs 

220. The Seven [traditional Types of] songs are the 
Madraka, Ullopyaka, Aparantaka, Prakari, Ovenaka, Rovin- 
daka and Uttara. 1 

The Madraka 

221. [Among these] the Madraka 1 is of two kinds : one 
consisting of four Vastus and the other consisting of three 
Vastus 2 , and that which consists of three Vastus, includes a 
Slrsaka. 3 


The Aparantaka 

222. In the Aparantaka, Slrsakas should be five, six 
or seven in number, and in the Prakari they should be four, 
three and a half and u.e. seven and a half in all). 1 

The Rovindaka 

223. The Eovindaka consists of seven limbs [in the 
minimum] and sixteen limbs in the maximum, and Ekakas 
in them should consist of two [consecutive] padas 1 consisting 
of equal Varnas. 

(220) ' See SR. V. 58. The later Indian music seems to com- 
pletely ignore these Seven Types of Songs. 

(221) l See SR. V. 77 ff. 

2 See above note 1 on 115-116. 

1 A part of the song with a particular kind of time-measure. 

(222) > See SR. V. 92. 

(223) x Pada- one quarter of a couplet in a song. 

xxxi. 224-234] THE NATYA^ASTRA 1Q 

224. And in that (i.e. Rovindaka) one is to apply in 
the beginning the Pravrtta and Vivadha and then the body 
and the limbs are to be placed in their proper position. 

225. In its middle should occur Akara (i.e. the syllable 
&) and in the end too the same, and in its end should come 
a clear Sirsaka. 

The Ovenaka 

226. The Ovenaka is known to be consisting of seven 
or twelve limbs. And that with seven limbs ends in two (j) 
and that with twelve limbs ends in three (?). 

227-228. The twelve limbs of the Ovenaka are Pada, 
Sandhi, Masaghata, Vajra, Sampistaka, Sirsaka, Caturasra, 
Upavartana, Upap&ta, two Pravenis and Samharana having 
two limbs. 

229. When Sampistaka, Upapata, two Pravenis and 
Upavartana are left out from among the twelve limbs, the 
Ovenaka is called a seven-limbed one. 

230. The -seven limbs common to the both [Ovenakas] 
having similar Varnas and Padas are called Vivartana, and 
in the twelved-limbed [Ovenaka], Padas [in other limbs] are 
to be different. 

The Ullopyaka 

231:234. The rule about the limbs of the Ullopyaka 
is this. 1 Its three limbs are Avagadha, Pravrtta and Maha- 
janika. It becomes two-limbed when the Mahajanika is 
left out. 

2 And when Sthita is combined with Pravrtta, it [the 
Ullopyaka) is also called one-limbed, and the Mahajanika also 
may constitute the one-limbed Ullopyaka. And the Sthita 
and the Pravrttaka may constitute a two-limbed Ullopyaka 
or an one-limbed one (separately). 

(231-234) * The original of this sentence seems to be corrupt 
and superfluous. 

2 The original of this passage seems to be a variant of 234-236. 

79 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 234-244 

In the two-liinbed (Ullopyaka) the rule of the Dhruvas 
and the Dhatus [hold good] separately, and in a combined 

234-236. The three limbs [of the Ullopyaka] is the 
Sthita, Pravrtta and the Mahajanika. And the two- 
limbed [Ullopyaka] will exclude the Mahajanika, and the 
Mahajanika [only] will constitute the one-limbed [Ullopyaka], 

These are, separately and in combination the rules 
about the many limbs [of the Ullopyaka] whioh may be 
Caturasa, Tryasra and Visra (Dvisra = Dvyasra?). 

237. The Samhara ( = Samharna) of the Ovenaka is 
made up of two limbs or one. And this (Samhara) should not 
be used at the beginning or in the middle. 1 

238. The Ekaka or the Vivadha should always be 
used in the end, and the Ullopyaka should not have less than 
six and more than twenty limbs. 1 

239-240. Of these [limbs] the Samharana will have 
the Mukha and the Pratimukha [as its two parts], and it may 
be with the Vaihayasaka or without it. And it will not have 
less than three and more than twelve limbs. And the 
Vaihayasaka will consist [even] of one limb and not more 
than six limbs. 

241-242. Three limbs having been sung the performance 
it is to begin. The limbs Mukha and Pratimukha have been 
prescribed for the Ullopyaka and the Uttara. Then the other 
limbs may be compressed or oxtended. 

243-244. The Mukha and the Pratimukha are to be 
known as the Vivadha. 

The Vrtta occurs in the Pratimukha and may shortly 
be in other [limbs] as well, and the Sakha in the Ullopyaka, 
the Uttara and the Aparantaka as well as the Pratisakha 
will have same kinds of Varrias and Padas [as the Mukha and 
the Pratimukha have.] 

(237) ' This passage seems to have belonged to the discussion 
on the Ovenaka (226-230 above). 

(238) > See Dattila, 194-195. 

xxxi. 244-255] THE NATYASASTRA 80 

The Uttara 

244-245. The Uttara will not have less than six and 
more than twelve limbs * * * Its Slrsaka should specially 
be placed at the end. 

246. This is the rule of limbs to be observed in case 
of Songs of Seven Forms. Next I shall speak of the measure- 
ment of Vastus in the songs. 

The Madraka 

247. In all the Vastus, Kalas should consist of sixteen 
M&tras. And each quarter of it is a Padabhaga. 

248-249. First eight in the beginning are long and the 
next eight short, and one is to make Upohana (Upavahana) 
with two long Matras in the beginning, and than the third 
will be long to make the Pratyupohana and in the fourth 
and the fifth long syllables there will be [two] SamySs. 

250. The sixth and the seventh will be Tala and 
then the eighth will be Samya, [all these] in the heavy 
syllables. Then a pada of eight Kalas is to be made with 
short syllables. 1 

251-253. In Talas of heavy syllables padas will consist 
of one [entire] KalS. 1 [The Patakala will be as follows : ] 
Samya, Tala, Tala, Samya, Tala, Samya, Tala and Sannipata. 

Thus the Slrsaka is to be constructed with the 
Cancatputah, and this will be the system of Talas of one 
Kala in the Madraka [song]. When heavy syllables are 
separated in a pada they will bo considered as consisting 
of two Kalas. 

254-255. After separating them the Kalas are to be 
arranged as was done previously. And in the Madraka of 
two Kalas, the Upohana will consist of three Kalas and 
the Pretyupahana of one or two Kalas. 1 

(248-249) See Kn, on SR. V. 79. 

(250) ' Tato'rdhakalikam in the text should be emended into 
tato'sla-kalikam ; see above note 1 on 248-249. 

(251-253) 1 The text here seems to be corrupt. 
(254-255) > See SR. V. 80 ff. and Kn. on it. 

81 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 256-259 

256. Four [Kalas] will make one Matra 1 and the 
Vastu will consist of three MatrSs. [Each of] these three 
Vastus will consist of two Kalas. This is the rule of Pada 
in Pata. 

257. The Patas such as Samya and Tala etc., which 
have been prescribed in case of heavy syllables, should be 
used in the PadabhSga of two Kalas. 

258. The eighth the tenth and the sixteenth will 
have Samya and in the twelfth and the fourteenth will have 

259. The rule of Pata in case of eight light [syllables] 

has been mentioned before. In three Vastus of two Kal&s 

too, these Patas should be applied. And the Sirsaka of 

six Kalas should be made with Pafiacapanih. 1 

Kramdam kramdam ssailendra-raja-samsthitam Isam 
... i . . * 

santam Sivam pannagendra paribaddhajatani. 
Munigana-namitam dhyanabhiratam jfianamayam 

niadanamgaharam vibhum prabhum. 
s\aranagato'ham daityair nSgaih samstutam Isam 

tvam vedamayam tvam kartaram bhavanapatim 

^gyajuh-paripathitam gamgadharam iuladharam bhuja- 

gendradharam pranato'smi Sivam mrgaraja-carma- 

Vipulagatim vrsabhagatim jvalanasikhisadrsa-kapila- 

jatam tam aham namami Sivam sirasa. 

(Here ends the Madraka of twtr Kalas) 
Devam pranatartiparaiii mayadharam 

mayarupam jatilam namami Sivam sirasa. 

(Here ends the Sirsaka of six Kalis) 
Tr. I seek shelter with Thee, the peaceful lord Siva whose 
matted hairs have been tied up with the king of serpentB, 
who is bowed to by the Munis, who is constantly engaged 

" "(256) ' See SR. V. 21, and notes on 254-254 above. 

(258) l See Kn. on SR. V. 84 (asya prasiarah etc.) The fourth foot 
should be read as talam vai etc. 

(259) > See Kn. on SR. V. 79 (asyo prasiSrah etc.). 


xxxi. 260-264] THE NATYASASTRA 82 

in meditation, and is full of wisdom and who has destroyed 
the body of Madana (Kama) and who is supreme and 
all-powerful, who is adored by the Daityas, and Serpents 
and who is the creator and the lord of the world and is 
bowed to by all the people. 

To Thee who is praised by the Rk and Yajur Veda, who 
carries, Gamga [on his head], the spike [in his hands], the 
lord of Serpents [in his matted hairs], I bow my head to 
Thee who is bliss, and is clad in the skin of the lord of beasts, 
whose gait is prodigous and is comparable to that of a bull, 
and his twany matted hairs are like the burning fire. {The 
end of the Madraka of two Kolas). 

I bend my head to Siva, the pure god who removes 
the affliction of persons bowing to him, who is the con- 
tainer of the MSya, and is himself the Maya in form, and 
who wears matted hairs (The end of the Sirsaka of the 
Madraka of two Kalas). 

260. I shall now speak properly of the Catuskala 
[Madraka which will be characterised] in terms of Padabhagas 
of four Kalas. 

261. Four [Kalas] will make one Matra and three 
MStras will make one Vastu 1 . In giving the Padabhagas 
I shall speak of the Pata in due order. [This is as follows]. 

562. [In the first Vastu] there will be Ssamya at the 
end of the fourth, fifth, eighth, tenth, the eleventh Kalas 
and in the beginning' (lit. not second) of the ninth Kala. 2 

263. [And in it] at the end of the sixth, seventh and 
ninth and in the beginning (lit. not second) 1 of the tenth and 
Beventh there will be Talas. 

264. And at the end of the twelfth, first of all there 
will be Sannipata. Thus there will be the rule of Pata and 
thus one should apply all the Vastus. 

(261) » See 256 above and its notes. 

(262) 1 Read smmfWtai for vm fWtar. 2 See notes on 259 above. 
(268) * i Read ^i fWlq: ( - *i trfWto:) for $n mr. 

83 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 265-273 

'265. In the first Vastu, the eight Kalas in the beginn- 
ing will constitute the Upohana, and the Fratyupohana in the 
second Vastu will be of two Kalas. 

266. In the third [Vastu] there will be three Kalas 
and in the fourth four Kalas, and the Sirsaka at its end 
will be made up of Satpitaputrakah. 

267. In [the Vastu of] two Kal&s there should apply 
a time-measure consisting of four Yathaksara Pancapanih, 
and in the third and the fourth [Vastu] there should be 
Dvigeyaka 1 in due order. 

268-269. And in the fourth [Vastu] the Parivarta 
should come to an end. And the first and the second Vastus 
will be the Upohana and parts of the Madra[ka] and they will 
include three Vastus of three [different] lengths arising out 
the Tryasra Tala.' 

269-270. The double of a Vastu of two Kalas will make 
up a Vastu of four Kalas. In it the seventh and the final 
[syllables] will be light and the doubling has been prescribed 
here. So the four Kalas are regular here, and the Upohana 
[will then] consist of eight Kalas, and Pratyupohana will 
consist of one, two or four Kalas. 

271-272. Sirsaka of the [ordinary] Madraka should be 
in the Yathaksara 1 Pancapanih. But in the Divkala [Madraka] 
of two Kalas, the same (Pancapanih) will consist of two 
Kalas and in [the Madraka of] four Kalas the same will 
consist of four Kalas. 

273. It will consist of three Vastus of three different 
measures and they will arise from the Tryasra Tala. Thus 
the Madraka will have thirteen Patas. 

(265) 'SeeSR.V.86. 

(267) Mftoici wnr<i<«iat <w <r*l itifa « n*wi imm iftn ww 
"it«t«tftiftfl #1:1 q^sftgn wrti « Statural ^w ztm *nfti Kn. on 
SR. V. 87. 

(268-269) ' Read triwtu ttipramanam for caturthas tu tripramanam. 

(271-272) l Read \jathaksara stu] for yathaksarasya. 

xxxi. 274-282] THE NATYA&iSTRA 84 

The Aparantaka 

274. It will have four heavy syllables and four light 

t In the second [syllable] which is heavy there will be 
Samya, in the third, Tala'. 

275. In the third and the fourth there will be S*amya 
and Tala for the light syllables and Tala, Samya, two Talas 
and Sannipata are to be applied to these, and in the light 
syllables there will be Patas consisting of eight Kalas. 

276. The Aparantaka is to be known as originating 
in the Tryasra Tala [represented by] Tala, SamyS, Tala and 

277. After separating the long syllables one should 
apply [the Talas of] two Kalas. These Talas of two Kalas 
and of four Kalas are [to be represented] by six Padabbagas 
[as follows]. 

278. [S*amya, Tala, two Talas], Samya, and Tala. 
Arrangement of the Pata will be as before in case of the fifth 
and the'sixth [Kala]. 

279. The Tala of four Kalas includes AvSpa and 
Viksepa. And it is furnished with the Padabhagas of four 
or six Kalas. 

280. One is to apply here Vastus five six or seven in 
number'^ In the end of the second, fifth [Kalas] there should 
be two Samyas. 

281. And in the end of the third, the second and the 
fifth and at the beginning the sixth there should be Tala 
and then the Sannipata will be at the end. 

282-283. These are the Patas relating to the previous 
Vastus in case of [the Aparantaka of] four Kalas. 

This is the application [of Talas] in the Aparantaka 
of four Kalas. This is to be known as the Aparantaka in 
Patas of literal Talas. 

(274) s See SR, V. 91. This passage in its second hemistich seems 
to be corrupt. 

(280) ' The passage seems to be corrupt. 

85 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 283-292 

283-286. In the beginning, the Upavahanas of the Kala 
will be doubled in grouping (j) 1 . In [the Aparantaka of] two 
Kal58 the Upohana will consist of one or of two Kalas, and 
similarly in [the Aparantaka of] one Kala the Upohana will 
be of one Kala. This (i.e., the Aparantaka of two Kalas) 
being doubled, is to be known as the Aparantaka of four Kalas. 
In thiB third [Aparantaka] of light syllables the last Kala will 
be doubled. 

286. This is the Aparantaka in which the Vastu' aris- 
ing from the Tryasra Tala represented (lit. adorned) with six 
Kalas, is called the Sakha. 2 

287. Its Pratisakha 1 is similar to its Sakha. It is like 
its latter (pasrima) half and consists of different words'. Its 
Slrsaka {iiras) is to be made with the Pancap&nih of one Kala. 

'288. In course of performing the four Vastus it should 
apply the Nivrtta in the Vrtti [Marga]. This is the special 
rule in the following [half]. 

289-290. Then there will be two Talikas of six Kala- 
patas. And by means of the literal Paficapanih of one Kala 
there will be an Upavartana of these two". 

290-29!. Its (i.e., of the Aparantaka of four Kalas) 
Upohana will consist of half [the number of Kalas in] the 
Vastu and its Pratyupohana will be of two Kalas. 

[The Aparantaka of] two Kalas is to be performed in 
the Daksina [Marga] and that of four Kalas in the Vrtti 
[Marga]. And in case of the remaining ones 1 , there should be 
no Upohana here 2 . 

292. This is the time-measure prescribed by me for 
the Aparantaka. 

(283-285) l The passage seems to be corrupt. 

(286) ' Read Vastu sakha for vaslusakha. 

2 inOfif Htmww *w i fit mwWSft sfimwrat ftfiwroi i Kn. on 
SR. V. 92. 

(287) » See note 2 above. 2 See SR. V. 97. 

(289-290) l cf SR. V. 98. Read nwnugii [i] for irfa««f gwsfir. 
(290-291) ! Read «i m itfvmwn - s See SR. V. 104-105. 

kxxi. 293-304] THE nATYA6ASTRA 86 

The Ullopyaka 

[The Vastu of] the Ullopyaka will consist of two long 
syllables, two short syllables and a long syllable. 

293. Its Kalas will be as follows. Samya, Tala, Samya 
Tala and Sannipata and these representing the five Patas 
indicated by the syllables of the literal Caturasra [Tala]. 

294. According to the aforesaid rules there will be the 
[Ullopyaka of] two and of four Kalas. After its three limbs 
have been sung there should be the Vaihayasika. 

295-297. It will have one limb in the minimum and 
twelve limbs in the maximum. It will consist of twelve 
Kalas, or seven Patas [which are as follows :] Samya of two 
Kalas. Tala of two Kalas, the Samya, Tala and Sannipata 
[each of one Kala one after another]. This is the Sakha ; the 
Pratisakha [will be like this, but it] will consist of different 
Padas (words). 1 

29&-299. When it will come to a close then will take 
place the Antaharana.' The Samharya is regularly to be made 
up of the literal Pancapanih. The Samhara of the endless (?) 
is to be carried on in its own Tala. The Nivrtta of two kinds 
consists of three Am&ts and are [again]of three kinds. 

300-301. The three kinds [of Nivrtta] are Tryasra, 
Caturasra and mixed. The three limbs of it are Sthita, 
Pravrtta and Mahajanika. There should be Antaharana with 
the Pancapanih Tala and similarly Sthita with the Yugma 
Tala. Its rule of Pata will be as follows : 

302-303. Samya of two Kalas, Tala of two Kalas, 
Sannipata of four Kalas. Then comes Pravrtta. It has 
Samyas of two Kalas, Tala of one Kala, Caffoatputah of Taladi 
class, and Sannipata. 

304. Mahajanika should be performed with the Sthita 
Tala, and Nivrtta should truly be in the Nivrtta Tala. 1 

(295-297) » SeeSR.V. 119. 

(298-299) 1 The text here seems to be corrupt. 

(304) l The text here seems to be corrupt. 

87 THE TIME-MRASURE [xxxr. 305-317 

305. Of Sthita and Mahajanika, there should be mostly 
Upavartana and before it Udghattakah and Parivartak a 
should be performed. 

306. Yugma being of mixed Tala, should be applied 
in the Anta [Tala]. 1 Vivadha with Ekaka is the entire rule 
in Anta [Tala]. 

307. Thus I have described properly the Anta Tala 
which is Yugma as well as mixed. Now I shall describe the 
Tryasra Tala. 

308. [It is as follows : Samya of two Kalas, Tala, 
Sannipata of three Kalas. Then comes Pravrtta. 

309. Here Pravrtta should be properly made Parivar- 
tana with Paiicapanih of the literal (yathaksara) class. 

310. Its Mahajanika should be in the Sthita Tala, and 
Nivrtta Tala should be observed in its Anta-nivartana. 

311. Mixed Tala being [a combination of] Yugma and 
Ayugma (ojah) Talas, should be the Antahpravartana. 
Vivadha with Ekaka is the entire rule of Anta Tala. 

312. Sthita should briefly be made up of two'limbs or 
one. That with Yugma [Tala] should be of two limbs, and 
that with Tryasra of one limb. 

313. Pravrtta also will be of two limbs or one. Maha- 
janika will be of one limb and Samharana of two limbs. 

314. In the Ullopyaka this is the Anta beginning from 
Sthita ending with Pravrtta. 

The Prakari 

315. The Vastu of the Prakari, cousists of six Matras 
and nineteen Patas, and it (Vastu) should be of four Kalas in 
length 1 . 

316-317. There should be no literal (yathaksara) Tala 
or Tala of two Kalas. After the initial three MatrSs there 
should be &amya and Tala 1 . Then the Vastu should be serially 

(306) ' Read yugmopy antah for yugme hyantah, 
(315) » Sec SR. V. 136-137. 
(316-317) » See SR, V. 137-138. 

xxxi. 318-330] THE NATYA6ASTRA 88 

made of Patas consisting of six Matras. And the Upohana 
will be in the first half of the Vastu. 

318-321. Its second Matra will be Samya with Tala and 
Samya again will be at the end of the three Matras. In 
the fourth Matra there should be twelve Talas and in the 
fifth eighth 1 Talas. In the sixth there should be Samya of 
two KalaB, Tala of two Kalas, again Tala of two Kalas and 
Samya of two Kalas and Samya, Tala, Tala, Samya and Tala, 
Samya, Tala and Sannipata 2 . 

321-322. When four and a half Vastus will constitute 
the Prakarl, it will be the latter half of the Pada and 
its half should be placed before. Its Samharana should be 
made with the short Asarita. 1 

The Ovenaka 

323-328. The first Pada of the Ovenaka is to be made 
equal to that of the Sakha of the Aparantaka, and its second 
Pada is to be made equal to that of its Pratisakha. And the 
same will be its Patakala and Masaghata afterwords. 
The rule of its Pata, will be six Patas of twelve Kalas, [They 
will be as follows :] Samya of two Kalas, Tala of two Kalas, 
Tala of two Kalas, Samya of two Kalas, Tala of one Kala, 
Sannipata of three Kalas, and its Masaghata generally will 
be a limb of Vivadha. At its end should be Sandhi and 
sometimes Upavartana, and its Ogha will be made up of 
Pancapanih of one Kala, and the Sandhi should be made of 
literal Pancapanih, and Bkaka and Vivadha are its limbs. 

329-330. Its rule like of that of Upavartana, is 
different. The rule which is applicable at the beginning 
of the final Caturasra, is to be wished [as] the Caturasraka 
according to the same limb of Vivadha. 1 

(318-321) ' Read casta[kah] smttah for castamah smftah. 2 cf. SR. 
V. 141-142. 

(321-322) ' Read karyam samharanam for kayam satnharanam. See 
SR. V. 139. 

(329-33(5) * The text here seems to be corrupt. 

89 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 330-343 

330-333. The Sampistaka will be of two kinds : 
Sandhivat and Vajratala. 1 They will consist respectively of 
seven limbs of twelve Kalas, and of twelve limbs of ten 
Kalas. One should use here Kiskrama, three S*amyas, three 
Talas, and a Samya and a Tala, a Samya a and Tala, then a 
Sannipata. This is the Sampistaka in the Ovenaka of seven 

333-334. This, after adding to it two Samyas and a 
Tala, is desired in the [Sampistaka of] twelvo limbs. Nine or 
eleven Patas are called the Sampistaka, and tho Upavartana 
is to be applied like Vajra. 1 

335-338. Combined with Vivadha and Vrtta, the Praveni 
is of two kinds. The application of the Praveni should be 
made the literal Panoapanih, and it should consist of two 
Kalas or mixed [Kalas] according to the limbs, and some- 
times Upavartana should be made at its end, and the same 
should bo according to the prescribed use of the Paiicap5nih. 
The second Tala /ailing from it, is called Apapfita. Its 
Antaharana should be made in the Vajratala. 
The Roviudaka 

338-341. In the Eovindaka, there should be six Matras 
with the Padabhaga of four Kalas. Here the Pata is desired 
after the half of the five Matras. [This Pata will be as 

/ / ; 

follows :] Tala, Samya, Tala, Samya, Tala, Samya. This is 

the rule of five Matras in due order. Fourteen are the Talas 
desired in the Matras of the fifth. 1 Similarly the sixth will 
have four Kalas as in the Madraka. 

342-343. In the beginning there should the Upohana con- 
sisting of eight Kalas. Then there should be tho Pratyupohana 
of two Kalas. The Patas should end in a Sannipata and 
include Vivadha and Ekaka. In the end its collection of 
Varnas, will consist of eight Kalas, This the.tabular view 
[of the first Pada of the Eovindaka]. 

(330-333) ' The text here seems to be corrupt. 
(333-334) ' The text here seems to be corrupt. 
(338-341) ' The text here seems to be corrupt. 


xxxi. 344-356] THE NATYASASTRA 90 

344-345. The second Pada will also have similar 
Varnas in its Upohana. Its tabular view should give the 
T&las in its body. This should be represented by Paiicapanih 
of two Kalas, and its total length will be twelve Kalas only. 

346-349. In the body of the Eovindaka, there should be 
the Upohana of six Kalas, and in its beginning there should 
be Vivadha and Pravrtta. And it should begin with Av&pa 
(a-kara) 1 and is to consist of four or of three Kalas according 
to one's option, and joining of limbs is to come afterwards. 
Its Sirsaka should not bo of any special kind, and it should 
be made up of literal Paficpanih. In its beginning there should 
be Ekaka, and at the end Pravrtta. This is the Eovindaka. 
The Uttara comes aftewards. 

The Uttara 

350. I shall speak of the Uttara having characteristics 
according to rules. It should havo Mukha and Pratimukha. 

351. As in the Ullopyaka, it should have in the begin- 
ning a Matra made up of four Kalas, and as in the Eovindaka 
it should use at the beginning a group 1 with Avapa (akara). 2 

352-354. It should have six limbs in the minimum 
and twelve limbs in the maximum, and its Sakha, should 
have six Patas consisting twelve Kalas Thoy (i.e. the Patas) 
will be as follows :] Tula of two'Kalas, Samya of one Kala, 
Tala of two Kalas, Samya of two Kalas, Tala of one 
Kala, Sannipata of three Kalas'. The Pratibtiklia will be 
just like the Sakha, and only it will have a different 

355. Though it is performed without any speciality 
it should have some rule at the end. At its end, the Sirsaka 
should be observed with the [literal] Paiicapanih. 

356. The Pratiaakha should also be performed with the 
Pancapanih of two Kalas having Patas mentioned above. 

(346-349) The reading here is probably corrupt. 
(351) * Read ganam adyan in the text. 
2 See note 1 on 346-349 above. 
(352-354) * The passage seems to be corrupt. 

91 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 357-3G6 

357. This is the Tala of the Daksina Marga in the 
Seven Types of song. The timo which is suitable in the 
Daksina [Marga] will bo used also in the Vartika [Marga]. 

358-350. And the same [rule will hold good] in the 
Citra [Marga] when there is nothing special. This is the rule 
of time in dance 1 due to Ardhayoga 2 , except in the two 
Mukhas of the Ullopyaka and of the Uttara. The Ardhoyoga 1 
at that time will consist of two Kalas 

360. And similarly in the case of the Eovindaka and of 
the Ullopyaka as well as of the Madraka and of the Uttara, 
the second syllablo will consist of four or of two Kalas. 

361-362. Tho is the rule in the bodies [of songs] and in 
the remaining [caso] there should be Prakrti, and in the Prakrti 
too, four Kalas should bo used along with two Kalas. 1 In 
case of the Vrtti (Vartika) Marga, the Ardhayoga in time, will 
consist of groups of four Kalas. Tho combination (Toga) of 
four Kalas available in the Vrtti Marga, will also occur some- 
times in tho Daksina Marga. 

363. The rule of Tala in the Daksina [Marga] men- 
tioned in case of the Mukha and the Upavahana of the 
Madraka and Ullopyaka, will also he available in the Vrtti 
(Vartika) Marga. 

364. In the Citra [Marga] whether it is used by itself 
or along with auothor 1 , both these (i.e. rules of Kala) have 
been prescribed. In tho Citra, tho rule about the Sakhas may 
end in any of the three Margas. 2 

365-366. Theso are the [songs of] Seven Types [sung] 
in tho three Margas, and they are of two kinds :' Kulaka and 

(358-359) ' Read mile for vrtte in the text. 
2 Read ardhayoga in the text. This term has not been explained before. 

s ibid. 
(361-362) ' The text here seems to be corrupt. 
(364) 1 Read citre vyaste in the text. ? Read Uayatrmgikam. The 
trans, is tentative. 

(365-366) > See S. R. V. 60. 

xxxi. 366-374] THE NATYASASTRA 92 

Chedyaka. [A song of] one sentence (lit. meaning) is Kulaka 2 
and that of] different sentences, is Chedyaka. 3 

366-367. The songs of Seven Types are [again] of three 
kinds' : Niryukta, Pada-niryukta and Aniryukta. . 

367-368. The Niryukta 1 is that which has Sakha 
from outside the body of the song. The Padaniryukta 2 is that 
which is partially free from such elements outside the song, 
and the Aniryukta' is quite free from such elements. 

369. These are the two classes of songs of Seven 
Types. These Seven Types of songs uttered by Brahman, 
have come out of the Samaveda. 1 

370. Songs and instrumental music [performed in] the 
worship of gods, [bring] limitless merit, and at the conclusion 
of all such songs, Chandaka (Chedyaka ?) has been prescribed. 

371-372. This is the rule of the Rk, Gatha and Panika 
having forms consisting of two four, three or nine Caturasra, 
Talas. According to this rule, one should prescribe Caturasra 
and Tryasra Talas. 

372-374. The group (gana) mentioned before 1 , should 
have one Kala at its beginning. And this Kala should consist 
of four Matras. The Madraka (madrikl), the Panika and the 
Catuspada songs connected with the praise [of a deity], 
should be made up of eight or of six limbs, in Talas of 
Caturasra or Tryasra forms. Such songs with one, two, or 
three limbs are to be made'up of four Padas. 

2 Sd. gives clearer definitions. According to him, the Kulaka 
is a song in which different limbs constitute a single sentence (SR. V. 
61.) and when such limbs are different sentences, the song is called the 
Chedyaka (ibid). For the limbs see 223, 236, 231-234, 244-245 above. 

9 See note 2 above. 

(366-367) * See SR. V. 61. 

(367-368) > Sd. seems to define this differently. Cf. SR. V. 62. 

2 See note 2 above. 8 See note 2 above and also cf. SR. V. 63. 

(369) » See I. 17-18. 

(372-374) l It is not clear where this has been mentioned. 

93 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 375-385 

376. Caturasra and Tryasra forms [of Tala] are pres- 
cribed separately or jointly in these limbs. This is [all 
about] the Tala of songs of the Seven Types prescribed by me. 

376. Dhruv&B are to be known as Caturasra and 
Tryasra. The rule of their Talas [relate] briefly to Bix kinds. 

377. [Of these] the Addita 1 and Utthita 2 are Caturasra 
in form consisting of four Sannipatas in the Caficatputah. 

378-379. At the end of the Supratistha 1 , there should 
be Sannipata. Apakrsta should be in Tryasra [Tala] depend- 
ing on Capaputah. It is combined with four Sannipatas at 
the end of the Pada. The aka'sagraha of all these will be 
the Cancatputah. 2 

380. The Vilambita [Dhruva] will be Tryasra, and it 
will be followed by these two, and it is to be joined with 
the Cancatputah beginning with Niskrama. 

381. The two Padas known as the pair, at the end of 
the Padas (?) in the Sannipata, are to bo regularly connected 
with the Cancatputah of two Kal&s. Sfrsakas are to be applied 
with the Pancapanih (i.e. Caturasra) Tala in two .different 
manners. 1 

382. Along with four Sannipatas quite at the end 
of the Pada, one should apply two final Matras of the Tala. 

383-384. The two Matras in their time, are to be made 
equal to Jhamkaras. 1 When there will be a Kala [in Dhruvas] 
without any excess, an expert in [dramatic] production 
should make it of equal Matras by reduction or prolongation. 

384-385. Along with the increase of Varnas, there 
should be an increase of [the form of] Talas. A new Kala in 
the syllables of the Niryukta [songs], will be Jhamkara. This, 
due to a connection with Kala and Tala, is [called] Suska 

(377) ' Not defined anywhere. 

? Not defined anywhere. 
(378-379) > See below XXXII. 55. 

8 The trans, is tentative. 
(381) This passage seems to be corrupt, and the trans, is tentative. 
(383-384) 1 This term has not been mentioned before/ 


386-387. A [proper] Kala and Tala are to be observed 
in all the Dhruv&s. The principal 1 Tula should be regularly 
observed in the case of Natkutas. In its Kalapata it will 
be in the Canoatputah Tala. This Tala will be Tyrasra in the 
Khaiijaka Dhruva. 

3^8-389. This limb 1 will be Akridita. Tho limbs which 
are [applied] in the Dhruvas, are to be made up of eight or of 
six Kalas. This is all about tho Tala prescribed by me. 

The Catuspada 

390-391. I shall now speak of its rules (Jit. cbaratoris- 
tics), at tho end 1 of a [discussion] on the Catuspada 
(quatrain). 2 

The Tala of the dance which begins with delicato [move- 
ments] and relates to the Erotic Sentiment, and which has 
been created by the goddess 3 [Parvati], will now bo described. 

391-392. [The song known as] the Catuspada, should 
be performed by women, and it is of two kinds, viz. Tryasra 
and Caturasra. 

392-393. The Catuspada according as it relates to the 
speech of one, of two orof many, will be of three kinds, and 
will abound in the Erotic Sentiment. 

393-394. It will again be of three kinds, viz. Sthita, 
Pravrtta and Sthita-pravrtta. 

394-395. 7 [Its Tala will be as follows :] Niskrama, 
Samya, Tala, Samya being preceded by Niskrama and 
followed by Sannipata. 

395-396. There will be twenty-eight varioties of Catus- 
pada. I shall speak of these varieties in due order. 

396-398. The Catuspada of the Sthita class will have 
a quick tempo, and that of the Pravrtta class a slow tempo 

(386-387) i Read ahgatala for bhahgatala. 
(388-389) ! See not 1 to 386-387 above. 
(390-391) l The passage seems to be corrupt. 

2 This seems to be the term used by Kalidasa (deuak, 
Sarmisthayah kftir layamadhya Catuspada, Malavi. II, 0.5). 
* 3 See AD. (text) 5. p. 1. 

95 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi^ 398-409 

and the CatuspadS of the Sthita-pravrtta class •will have a 
medium tempo, and the Tala there, will be the Caiicatputah as 
well as the Capaputah, and their Patas will be in double Kalas. 

398-402. [The Catuspada has the following varieties :] 
Bahvaksara, Vipula (Prthula) Magadhi, ArdhamagadhI, 
SamSksarapadS, Visamaksara, Adyantapahrana 1 , Anikinl, 
Avasanapaharana, Antapabarana, Abhyantarapaharana, Ardha- 
natkuta, Ardhakhafija, Misra, Slrsaka, Ekavasana, Niyataksara 
and Ardhapravrtta. 

402-403. Now listen about their characteristics. 

That song which has its words fully expressed, and 
consists mostly of short [syllables], is uttered quickly and 
is sung in a quick tempo, is called Bahvaksara. 

403-404. The song which consists mostly of long and 
prolated syllables, and includes short sentences and words, 
and observes successively throe different tempos, is called 
Prthula in connoction with the practice of delicate [dance]. 

404-405. That song which observes three tempos and 
three Yatis, and includes three kinds of syllables [in equal 
measure], and requires a Tala of thirtyone [Kalas], is called 


405-406. The song which consists of long and short 
syllables only, and observes quick and medium tempos and has 
half the number of Kalas required for the Magadhi, is called 
the ArdhamagadhI. 1 

406-407. The song which has a regular number of 
short and long Matras in its Padas, and, its Padas, Varnas, 
tompo and Tala are regular, it is called Samaksarapada. 

407-408. The song which has an irregular number of 
syllables and Matras [in its feet], and has its feet irregular in 
number, and which observes no regular tempo and Tala, is 
called Visamaksara (Yisamaksarapada.) 

408-409. That 1 song which requires the final Sannipata 

(398-402) 2 Read adyantyapaharana for tasyantyapaharana. 

(404-405) l See XXIX, 76-77 and also XXXII. 488-489. 

(405-406) .' See XXIX, 78 and also XXXII. 481. 

(408-409) ' Read yah syat for yat syat. 

tm. 409.419] TBB NATYA6ASTRA ge 

and the final Anusvara is sailed AdyantapaharanS made oi 
An us vara. 

409-410. The song which has in its middle, beginning 
and end, syllables with Anusvara, and the remaining Padas 
are without any such restriction, is called Anikini. 

410-411. The song with no fixed number of syllables 
in its Padas, is always called Avasan&paharana, 

Such a song which has Anusvara, and is quick in tempo, 
is called Antapaharana. 

411-412. The song which has its second Kala in Sanni- 
pata, and has syllables in its middle, is called Abhyantara- 
paharana with Anusvaras 1 . 

412-413. The song which is divided into halves, is called 
Ardhanatkuta. And when followed by Tryasra Tala, it is 
called Ardhakhaiija 1 . 

413-414. When in a song, the Khafija and the Natkuta 
have been mixed up, and it is sung in the Tryasra or the 
Caturasra Tala, it is called Misra (the mixed one). 

414-416. The song of which the half is suddenly [com- 
menced and] finished, and is adorned with Sirsa, is called the 

415-416. The Catuspada song, of which one Pada ends 
with half of the Varnas, is called Ekavasana'. It should have 
only long and short syllables in the previous Pada. 

416-417. The Ekapadavasana song which is furnished 
with a Sirsaka in each of its Pada, is called Niyataksara. 

417-418. The. song in which the Sthita or the Pravrtta 
is half applied, is called Ardhapravrtta, and it is created by 
both of these two. 

418-419. Its (i. e. of the Catuspada) Tala is as follows : 
Niskrama, Samya, Tala, Samya, Avapa, and Sannipata, 

There are three kinds of Upohana in the delicate [kinds 
of dance]. 

(411-412) » The text is evidently corrupt. 
(412-413) l Read hy ardhakhahjeva for °khanjena. 
(415-416^ 1 Read ekavasana for ekauasana. 

97 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 420-428 

420. Its Pratyupohana consists of two Kalas in the 
minimum, and three Kalas in the maximum. Its final Kala 
being called a double one, will end in SannipSta. 

421. This song will have San nipatapah arena, in its 
middle and end, and it may be completed in two or in many 

422. It may consist of one, two, three or four padas, 
and of not more than four. 

423. For, making it full of numerous padas, does not 
create beauty and kills' the nature of the Varnas and obstructs 
the expression of limbs. 

424. Hence the Sthlta is always to contain two padas, 
and it 1 should be also performed in one pada, and the Pravrtta 
is to consist of four padas. 

425. The Padapatas there, will have one form and will 
consist of one pada, and its Kalas will be twentytwo in the 
maximum, and shall contain a SannipSta in its pada.' 

426. In its medium size it is known as having three 
padas. And on account of the Sannipata it should be sung 
in a medium tempo. 

The LSsyas 

427. I shall now describe for you in due order, the 
characteristics and application of the Lasya, of which I spoke 
to you before. 1 

428. It is said that the Lasya is so called because of 
its shining (lasana). It relates to mutual attraction of 
men and women, and like the Bhana 1 it is to be performed 
by one person, and its subject-matter also should be suitable. 

(423) 'The passage is corrupt. Emend asfa «R?f° etc. as 

(424) 'This passage also seems to be corrupt. Emend n*»ra <rt 
«pn as ntfn to fijrai. 

(425) 'This passage is also -possibly corrupt. The trans, is tentative. 

(427) >See XX. 132 ff. 

(428) »See XX. 107-109. 


xxxi. 429-437] THE NATYASASTRA 98 

429. That (i.e. its subject-matter) having one topic or 
many topics, has been mentioned in connexion with its 
[different] types (ahga). 1 It has ten 2 such types and I am 
going to define them. 

430-432. The types of Lasya, 1 are Geyapada, Sthitapa^bya, 
Aslna[pathya], Puspagandika, Pracchedaka, Trimudhaka, 
Saindhava[ka], Dvimudhaka, Uttamottamaka, Vicitrapada, 
Uktapratyukta and Bhava (Bhavita). 

432-433. The Asina 1 should be performed carefully 
by a woman while she is seated. And the Sthitapathya 
should however include the earthly Carls, 2 at the time of 
dance and of playing of instruments, and at the beginning 
and the closing of songs. 

433-434. The rules which hold good at the time of 
[ordinary] dance and of the playing of instruments, should 
generally be followed in the Lasya. 

434-435. Types of the Lasya, are briefly ten in number, 
I shall [now] speak of their application and characteristics. 

The Geyapada 

435-437. After 1 the musical instruments have been 
placed in proper order and the screen has been drawn 
away 2 and the flower offerings have been made, to the seat 
assumed to have been taken [by Brahman, 5 ] and the drums 
have been tuned, and the Trisarnan, 4 has been chanted, [the 
wise] should perform the Suska Asarita in accompaniment 
of three flutes. Then the Asarita should be performed in 
the Tala prescribed for the Margasarita. 

(429) >Ch. XX. 132 footnote. *See the note on 476-478 below. 

(430-432) 'See XX. 132 f. n. 

(432-433) 'The fuller form of the Asina is Asinapathya. 

»See XI. 13-28. 
(435-437) >See V. 17. Emend *ufw*rf<gfa*re: as w foft vrrafanf. 

"SeeV. 11-12. "See V. 74. 

*This term has not been defined anywere. Does it mean 
•the three Slman chants' in the Vedic manner ? See XXXI. 369, 

M ME TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 438-450 

438. Then there should be the Upohana in the Tryasra 
Tala of two Kalas, and afterwards the three Parivrttis ; and 
this should be the conclusion [of the Preliminaries]. The 
experts should [then] observe the conclusion with Parivrttis 

439-440. During the Parivarta a male sentence should 
be uttered first. An aggregate of three sentences, is 'male,' 
whereas that of four sentences, is 'female'. This should 
be done for attaining the Nirvahana at the conclusin. 

441-444. This is what is known as the first type of 
Lasya called the Geyapada. 

The Sthitapathya 

I shall [now] speak of the Sthitapathya. One or 
two Vrttas (Parivartas) should be sung in the Paiicapanih 
TSla, and the two Khafijakas are to be sung in the 
Cancatputah Tala of two Kalas. [This Tala should be] of 
the literal (yathaksara) class, and should include eight 
Sannip&tas, and it should end in the Cancatputah of two 
Kalas in a quick [tempo]. 

The Asinapathya 

445. After adopting the Tryasra Tala the Asina- 
pathya should properly be performed with a song composed 
in metres of long feet, expressing wholly manly feelings. 

446. Thus the Asinapathya should be performed in 
the four feet [of its song] expressing .the meaning sung 
in the Paiicapanih Tala. 

447-448. In the Asinapathya one should employ 
a 3irsaka consisting of eight Sannipatas and of Talas etc. 
And this should be in the literal Paiicapanih Tala. 

448-449. In its second Parivarta when the eighth 
Sannipata is over, one should then sing a sloka in the 
Gaturasra (yugma) Tala. 

449-450. The playing of drums performed in the 
Asinapathya should agree with (lit. be similar to) the 
movement of limbs made in it. 

xxxi. 451-461] THE NATYA&ASTRA 100 

460-451. One should then sing eighteen or twelve 
Padas, and the Nirvahana should afterwards be performed 
in the Uttarah Tala. This is the rule regarding the Asina- 

The Puspagandika 

452-453. Now listen about the type of Lasya called 
the Puspagandika which is adorned with various kinds 
of metres, and in which singing and playing of instruments 
are done alternately, and during [the singing of] every foot 
of songs, there should be appropriate Aiigaharas and the 
playing of instruments. 

454-455. One should sing (lit. use) there a song in 
a male metre of the Samavrtta class. At tbe time of singing 
each foot, there should be a suitable dance and the playing 
of instruments in the Cancatpntah Tala with four Sanni- 

455-456. Then the two [songs of] metres of the Khafija- 
Natkuta class should be sung, and at the end of their 
Nirvahana there should be a Sirsaka in the Paficapanih 
Tala, and the dance in it should be performed in the 
Aviddha Carl and with expressive Angah&ras. 

The Pracchedaka 

457-459 An expert in tbe performance of Lasyas 
should know that the Pracchedaka consists of three limbs 
and two Dhatus. When the theme of the Lasya relates to 
the joy [of a heroine] on seeing the face of the lover in 
moonlight, in a temple or in a mirror, the expert should 
know that it is the Pracchedaka in which, dance predomi- 
nates and which is rich in games, and is besides adorned with 
[different] expressions of Passion (hela). 

469-461. Its games should be performed in the Cafi- 
catputah Tala and with a song of regular (lit. equal) feet 
in the M&travrtta (moric) metre and with eight Sannipatas, or 
it should include a song in the Totaka metre of many 
syllables and meanings, and should be performed in the Pafica- 
panih Tala of two Kalas or of one Kala, or the both mixed 

101 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 462-471 

with each other. [Its] Sirsaka should be made up mostly 
of heavy syllables, and it should be performed in the Tryasra 
Tala of the literal kind including eight Sannipatas. 

462-463. The LasySfiga called the Pracchedaka 
should include games and be performed with songs combin- 
ed with Vivadha and Ekaka, and these should relate to the 
the Kaisiki Jati. 

The Trimuclhaka 
463-467. The Trimudba[ka] consisting of soft words 
devoid of harshness, sung in the Gandh&rl Jati, should be 
performed in the Cancatputah Tala of two Kalas. Thu« 
performed in the proper Marga and with proper number 
of Kalas [in its Tala] and with [such] Vidaris, and Vivadha, 
it should have in it sixtyfour Sannipatas. But there should 
not be in it any Angahara and Viskambha. The recitative 
here connected with the play, should be delivered in the 
attitude of a male person, and the Natkutaka and Khaiija- 
kas are to be performed in this way. Thus has been 
described the Trimudhaka which has in it many Sentiments, 

The Saindhavaka 

467-468. The Saindhavaka 1 should be known as a per- 
formance without very clear Angaharas and without many 
Recakas, and it should be in the dialect of Sindh (Sindhu) 2 
Accompanied with instrumental music, it should be in an 
energetic metre. 

469-471. The recitative in it should not be short, 
and the instrumental music in it, should be rich in Yitasta 
and Alapti, and it should mostly include heavy syllables 
and be followed by many mild Angaharas. The Saindhavaka 
should be performed in the Caturasra (yugma) Tala with 
Akridita Bhagas (?). 

(467-468) 'See note 2 below. 

2 May this not be considered as an evidence of the 
inhabitants of Sindh, who descended from the Indus people, having 
dramatic dances in a very remote antiquity ? 

xxxi. 471-4793 THE NATYAsAsTftA l02 

The Dvimudhaka 

471-473. The Dvimudha[ka] should have the Mukha and 
the Pratimukha in the OSpaputah Tala which should contain 
twelve Sannipatas. It should have a theme with more 
than one set of events and with many meanings, and it 
should relate to manly feelings and should consist of one 
limh or of a limb called Slrsaka. 

The Uttamottamaka 

473-475. In the Uttamottamaka, one should first of all 
sing the Natkuta and then a Sloka with various meanings. 
And then the theme of the song should be in the Apar&ntaka 
Sakha, and the Slrsaka in it should be in the literal Pafica- 
panih Tala, and the performance should be adorned with 
the expression of Passion {held.). 1 

The Uktapratyukta 

476-479. The Uktapratyukta is always described as 
abounding in references to anger and its pacification, and 
it is always characterised by beautiful dialogues and 
censuring actions. Its Tala should be in the half-measure 
of the Vastu of the Prakari, And afterwards it should 
perform the Slrsaka in the Paftcapanih Tala. The Vastu (?) 
and Sarapistaka of these should be in the Tryasra Tala. 
Thus the Uktapratyukta should end in pacification. 1 This 
is the L§sya of ten' types which I have finished describing, 
and these ten types may occur in the same manner in a 

(473-475) l The description of the Vicitrapada the tenth 
Lasyanga expected after this, is missing. 

(476-478) 'The description of the Bhava (Bhavita) the twelfth 
Lasyanga, expected here, is missing. It should be remembered in this 
connexion that Visvanatha does not consider the Vicitrapada and the 
Bhava to be among the Lasyaiigas (See SD. ed. Jivananda. p. 393). 

(479) }.See Visvanatha's view quoted above in the note to 476-478. 

103 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 480-488 

Importance of the Tala 

480-483. A break in the Lasya is known as the 
Samcara, because of its inversion. 1 These are the schemes 
of Talas of songs [in the Lasyas]. In observing these, one 
ought to make great efforts ; for a dramatic performance 
(natya) is based on the Tala. 2 And the same rule holds good 
in case of playing all the musical instruments in a dramatic 
performance, for the Tala relating to the timing, always 
gives it proper measure. For a song defficient [in a Varna] 
or having a superfluous Varna is held [within measure] by the 
Tala. Hence this should be carefully studied by the 
producers [of plays]. 

483-484. The Seven Types of traditional songs such 
as the r>k, Gatha and Panika etc., and the Prakirnaka, 
Catuspada and Vardhamana, are all recognised by their 
Tala. Hence one should, with every effort learn (lit 
ascertain) their Talas. 

485-486. One cannot be a singer or player of instru- 
ments, unless one knows the Tala. Hence one. should 
observe the rules given above. 

The Three Layas 

486-487. There are three kinds of Laya (tempo) such 
as quick (drula), medium {madhya), and slow (vilambitay This 
tempo is made manifest in different M&rgas 2 of songs and 
playing of instruments, and it is an essential aspect (lit. the 
soul) of these two (i.e. singing, and playing of musical 
instruments). In these Margas there are, besides, three Yatis 
related to the tempo. 

488. That which is known as completion of metres, 
syllables and words, is called the Laya 1 or Mana (measure) 
depending on the variation of timing in Kal5s [in its Tala]. 

(480-483) 'The reading here in probably corrupt. ! See SR. V. 2. 
(486-487) 'See SR. V. 48. s See SR. V. 1 1. 

(488) 'See SR. V. 50 ff. 

xxxi. 489-495] THE NATYASASTRA 104 

The Three Yatis 

489-490. The Yati which is of three kinds such as, 
Even (sama), Current-like (srologata) and Cow's-tail (go-puccha) 1 
is the regulating of the duration (lit. increase) of words, 
Varnas or of syllables in relation to songs and to playing of 

490. The Yati, when it has the same tempo in the 
beginning, in the middle and in the end, for Varnas and 
words, is called Even 1 . It is used in the Oitra Marga, and it 
predominates generally in the playing of instruments. 

491-492. The Yati which in traversing the path of 
musical sounds, is sometimes staid and sometimes running, is 
called Current-like 2 , and it is used in the Vrtti Marga. 

492-493. When syllables are thus indistinguishable 
as long and short 1 * * * * 

The Cow's-tail Yati is a prolonged one and iB generally 
used in songs (geya-bhuyistha). 

The Three Panis 

493-i94. The Panis relating to songs and playing of 
instruments, are of three 1 kinds : Samapani, Avapani and 
Uparipani. The playing of instruments which is simultaneous 
with the start of Laya is called the Samapani. 

495. That (i.e. playing of instruments) which precedes 
the start of Laya, is called the Avapani. And the 
playing of instruments which follows the start of Laya, 
is called the Uparipani 1 . 

(489-490) 'See SR. V. 51-53. 

(490) 'SeeSR.V.51. (491-492) See SR. I. 52. 

(492-493) >It seems that a portion of this definition has been 
lost. For Sarngadeva's definition see SR. V. 52-53. 

(493-494) 'Sarngadeva defines the three Grahas and in the same 
connexion defines Panis also. See SR. V. 54-55. 

(495) » See the note on 493-494 above, 

105 THE TIME-MEASURE [xxxi. 496-502 

496. The totality of syllables penultimate to the Yati, 
will indioate the tempo, and from the tempo the measure 
of these will change. 

497-498. A decrease of Kalas should be made in 
other Panis. In the slow tempo, there should be one 
Sannipata, in the medium tempo two Sannipatas, and in the 
quick tempo the number of Sannipatas should be four. 

499. That which is indicated by this difference, is 
called the quick and the medium tempo, and the Avapani 
is dependent on a medium tempo. 

500. When [the Talas of one Kala] becomo the 
Antarakala played in quick tempo, then it is called the 
Uparyuparipani. 1 

501-502. There is no provision for KalSs bigger than 
this.' Yatis, Panis and Layas should be observed 2 in due 
manner by experts after considering the application of songs. 
This is the rule of Tala for the Dhruvas, when the Tala is 
to be observed in their cases. I shall hereafter speak about 
the limbs of the Dhruvas. 

Here ends the Chapter XXXI of Bharata's Natyasastra, 
whioh treats of tho Time-Moasure. 

(500) 'The passage is probably corrupt. 
(501-502) 'This perhaps refers to Sannipatas in 497-498 above. 
2 The word kartavyam should be emended as karlavya. 



1. Listen [now] from me about those types [of songs] 
which have been oalled Dhruvas by Brfihmanas such as 
Narada 1 and others. 

2. The Rk 1 , PSnikfi* and Gathfi 1 , and the Seven [tradi- 
tional] Types [of songs]' which have seven different measures, 
are called Dhruvas. 

3. Brahmanas, I shall discuss thoso [songs] in 
different metres which being created from those types, attain 
the status of Dhruvas. 

4-6. The five classes of Dhruvas have always the follow- 
ing limbs (ahga) : Mukha, Pratimukha, Vaihayasaka, Sthita, 
Pravrtta, Vajra, Sandhi, Samharana, Prastara, Upavarta, 
Masaghata, Caturasra, Upapfita, Praveni, Slrsaka, Sampistaka, 
Antaharana and Mahajanika. 

7. Songs consisting of ono, two, throo and four Vastus 
are respectively called 'the Dhruva. Parigltika, Madraka 
and Catuspada. 

8. Tho Dhruva is so called, because in it words, Varnas 
Alamkara, tempo, Jati and Panis are regularly (dkruvam) 
connected with one another. 

Dhruvas and their limbs 

9. Depending on different conditions, the Dhruvas 
are known to be of five classes. I shall speak of the seven 
limbs which they consist of. 

10. Limbs of the Pr&vesikl Dhruva are Upaghata, 
Pravrtta, Vajra and Slrsaka. 

(1) 'An old authority on music. 

(2) 'The recitation of Rk stanzas. 
2 This term is otherwise unknown. 

"The Saman chants. See MH (Ch. X). «See XXXL. 22Qff, 

167 THE DHRUVA SONGS [xxxn. 11-22 

11. Limbs of the Arjclita' Dhruva are Prastara, 
Masaghata, Mahajanika, Praveni and Upapata. 

12. Limbs of the Avakrsta. Dhruva, are Mukha and 
Pratimukha, and of the Sthita Dhruva, limbs are Vaihayasa 
and Antaharana. 

13. Similarly, of tho Khaiija-Natkuta Dhruva the limbs 
are Samhara (Samharana) and Caturasra, and of the Antara 
Dhruva, the limbs are Sandhi and Prastara. 

14. The limbs and the Kalas which aro included in 
the songs, should bo represented iu the Dhruvas by means 
of [appropriate] types of metros. 

15. Tho Tala in a Dhruva being Tryasra and Catu- 
rasra should, as said before, consist respectively, of six or 
of eight Kalas. 

16. The limbs of all songs, which have been mentioned 
[before] are Vrtta, Vivadha and Ekaka. 

17-J8. [Tho part of the song] which completes the 
Pada and the Varna, is called the Vidarl. 1 I shall now speak 
of the rules regarding tlioir 2 application to [different] 
characters [in a play], Tho Vrtta class of limbs will apply 
to the superior characters, and tho 'Vivadha to the middling 
ones, and the Ekaka to the inferior characters. 

18-19. Taking into account the application (yoga) [of 
the Tala] which may be Tryasra or Caturasra, one should 
perform the Avasaniki Dhruva in its [proper] measure. 

19-20. The Avasaniki Dhruva should have feet of 
metres which rest between Gayatri and Atiiakkarl. 

20-21. The Avasaniki Dhruva which falls between the 
Sakkarl and Atikrti metres, consists of a foot and a half of 

21-22. The foot of an Avasaniki Dhruva should be 
made up of short and long syllables, according to the rules 
of Yati, metre and its measurement in matras. 

(11) 'This is perhaps a non-Aryan word. 
(17-18) 'The definition of the Vidari is probably misplaced. 
"Their' relates to limbs mentioned in 16 above. 

xxxii. 22-32] THE NATYASASTRA 108 

22-23. For the superior and the middling characters 
the Avasaniki Dhruva should be Caturasra, and for the 
inferior characters it will be Tryasra. When the Dhruva is 
full of meaning in all its parts (artha-purna-padi) Vftta Bhonld 
be applied in it. On the strength of the Vrtta the Dhruva 
should be Avasaniki. 

24. Dhruvas originating in various metres are of 
five kinds. According to Sentiments which they contain they 
are superior, middling and inferior. 

25. Dhruvas are of three classes : Kanistbikagraha, 
Sannipatagraba, and Apagraha. 

2G-27. The first Dhruva is Pravesiki (entering), the 
second one AksepikI (indioating\ the third one Prasadiki 
(calming), the fourth one Antara (transitional) and the fifth 
one is Naiskramiki (departing). I shall describe their metres. 

28. The Vastu of the Gandliarva which 1 have spoken 
of as consisting of notes, Tala and words, will be [called] 
Pada 1 when it will reflect notes and Tfilas. 

29. All that is made up of syllables, is called the Pada 
It is of two kinds according as it is [regularly] composed 
(nibaddha) or not so composed (a-nibaddka). 

30. It is again of two kinds : conforming to no time- 
measure (a-tala) and conforming to a time-measure (sa-lala). 

For the purpose of the Dhruva, it is to conform to a 
time-measure and is to be [regularly] composed. 

31. A Pada which conforms to no time-measure and 
which is not regularly composed, is connected with the 
Earanas 1 and • it embellishes the playing of all kinds of 
musical instruments. 

32. That which is furnished with a fixed number of 
syllables and which has a metre including caesura and has 
a time-measure and tempo (laya) for its syllables, is called a 
regularly composed Pada. 

(28) * The meaning of pada as 'song' which is available in New 
Iudo-Aryan, probably goes back to this. 

(31) VKaranas here relate musical instruments. 

109 THE DHRUVA SONGS [xxut. 33-44 

33. That which has a free metre and caesura and has 
no fixed number of syllables and has no [prescribed] time- 
measure and tempo, is called an irregularly composed Pada. 

31. The syllables not regularly composed will be out- 
side the Jati songs, and one should describe their performance 
along with the Karanas of the musical instruments. 

35. The Padas which are irregularly composed and 
not furnished with any time-measure, are connected with the 
musical instruments and they are [meant] to embellish the 

36. But thoso (Padas) which are regularly composed 
in persuance of the [rule of] syllables in a metre, are called 
the Dhruvas. I shall next speak of their characteristics. 

37. The three Tryasra classes [of metre] to be applied 
in the Sthitapakrsta [Dhruva] are the Atyukta, Madbya, 
Pratistha and Gayfitri. 

38. The Yngma class [of metres] to bo applied in the 
Prasadiki Dhruvas are the Usnik, Anustup, Brhatiaud Pankti. 

39-40. The classes [of metre] known to be in use in 
the Dhruvas of speed, aro the Anustup, Brhati, Jagati, Druta, 
Oapala, Udgata and Dhrti. 

40-41. Now listen about the class [of metres] for the 
Pr&veslki Dhruvas in case of energetic [characters]. The 
class of metres applicable to such characters are Pankti, 
Tristup, Jagati, AtijagatI and Sakkarl. 

42. For all these classes three kinds of syllabic metres 
have been proscribed. They may be inostiv in long syllables or 
in short syllables or may equally have long and short syllables. 

43. The Apakrsta Dhruvas should be in metres mostly 
with long syllables, and the Druta (quick) Dhruvas should be 
in metres containing mostly short syllables, and the remaining 
Dhruvas should be in metres having short and long syllables 
[in almost equal numbers]. 

44. Metres with odd number of syllables are to be 
applied in the Mukha, and these when made up of short 
syllables of even number, are to be applied in the Druta 

[j. 45-51] ? HE XAJYA&ASTRA 

45". ifetfras tvA/c/i have a small number of syllables 
and are considered small metres, are to be applied in the 
Druta Apakrsta as well as the AksepikI Dhruvas. 

46. Metres beginning with long syllables are to be used 
in the Sthita [Dhruva], and those beginning with short 
syllables are to be made the Druta Dhruva, and metres with 
odd and even numbers [in alternate feet] are to bo made the 
AksepikI Dhruva. 

47. A metro consisting of short, and even number of 
syllables or of odd and small number of syllables are to be 
applied in the AksepikI Dhruvas. 

48. In case their Varnas are to bo increased they should 
include Samya in their Tala. I am now describing all the 
classes of metre with examples of their patterns and according 
to their names, extent and use. Listen about these from me. 

The metres used in different Dhruvas 

49. Hrl.— The metre with all syllables long in parts 
of gatha feet, is called Hrl. 1 

Ex. To gahgasrt. 1 

50. Atyukta —The metre which has all syllables long 
[in all its feet of two syllables,] is Atyukta. 

Ex. ham devam 
sarvam vande? 
Tr. I adore the god Sarva. 

51. Tati— When the syllable in the middle is short [in 
feet of three syllables, the metre is Tati]. 

Ex. Samkarah sulabhrt 
patu mam tokakrt. 1 
Tr. Let Samkara who carries the Trident and creates 
the world, protect me. 

(49) 'This def. is not elear. 

2 This example is in Skt. and so arc those in 50, 51, 52 and 53. 

(50) , §ce note on 49. (51) Hbid. 

Ill THE DHRUVA SONGS [ XX xii. 52-59 

52. Dhffct — When the first syllable in its feet of three 
syllables is short [the metre is Dhrti]. 

Ex. Umefah surendrah 
tavayur dadatu. 1 
Tr. Let the lord of UmS who is the lord of gods, give 
you [long] life. 

53. RajanI— When the two syllables are short and one 
long in the triad of its feet, the metre is RajanI. 

Ex. Adhikam virahe 
madano dahati. x 
Tr. Love afflicts (lit. burns) greatly when one [is] in 
separation [from one's beloved]. 

54. This (RajanI) is also known as MadhyS. These 
[Dhruvas] are all of the Vrtta (syllabic) class. I shall now 
speak of the characteristics [of tho Dhruva of] the Tratistha 
and tho Supratistha classes. 

55. Pratistha — The metre which has in its fpefc of four 
syllables the second long, is Pratistha. 

Supratistha—When tho two more (i.e. the 3rd and the 4th 
syllables) are short it (Pratistha) becomes Supratistha. 

56. Ex. (Seetoxt.)' 

TV. Drying up the limbs the wind blows carrying the 
[scent of] (lowers. 

57. Ex. (See text.) 1 

58-59. Bhramaii — The metre which has in its feet of 
four syllables the first two short and the noxt two long, is 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. Whon the forest region is in bloom, the [solitary] 
elephant feels distressed. 

(52) Hbid. (53) Hbid. 

(56) 'Examples from here are in the Pkt. For avoiding prolixity 
they are not given here. 

(57) 'The passage is corrupt. 

xxxii. 60-71] THE NATYA&ASTRA 112 

60-61. JayS— The metre which has in its feet of four 
syllables two pairs of short and long syllables (i.e. short 
followed by a long one) is Jaya. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The forest region being struck with frost, the 
elephant is in (lit. has come to) tears. 

62-63. VijayS— When the third syllable is short in the 
above, it is Vijaya. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. At the appearance of clouds the peacocks are danc- 
ing in their honour. 

64-65. Vidyud-bhranta— The motre which has in its 
feet of five syllables all long, is Vidyud-bhranta. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. Here appear the clouds which are roaring, pouring 
Wutor and covering the world. 

66-67. Bhiltala-tanvl— The metre which has in its feet 
of five syllables the second and the third short, is Bhiitala- 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. On seeing the sky overcast with clouds, the wife 
of a person travelling abroad, is shedding tears. 

68-69. Kamala-mukhi— The metre which has in its feet 
of five syllables the' final one long, is Kamala-mukhi. 
Ex. (Seo text.) 

Tr. The rain-clouds carried away by wind, move above 
in the sky like serpents. 

70-71. Guru—The metre whioh has in its feet of five 
syllables the first, the third and the last long, is Guru. 
Ex. (fcee text.) 

Tr. Having lost light due to the colour of clouds 
r [covering her], this moon is always pale. 

113 THE DHRUVA SONGS [xxxn. 72-82 

72-73. Sikha-The metre which has in its feet of five 
syllables the s cond, the fourth and the last ones long, i B 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The roaring clouds are, as it were, laying seige to 
the sky from all sides. 

74-75. Ghana-pankti— The metre which has in its feet 
of five syllables the first two short, is Ghana-pankti. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The sky obscured by clouds together with' light- 
ning, is shedding tears, as it were, by its torrents 
of water. 

76. These are the classes of Dhruva known as the 
Supratistha. I shall now speak of the Gayatri class. 

77-78. Tanu-madhya— The metre which has in its feet 
of six syllables the first two and the last two long, is Gayatri. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. With his head struck by lightning this lord of 
mountains sleeping under a burning heat of fever, 
sinks down, as it were, into the earth. 

79-80. Malini— The metre which has in its feet of six 
syllables the first, the fourth and the last syllables long, is 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. In this great mountain ravaged by wind and struck 
by lightning, the she-elephant is weeping [in 
distress]. 1 

81-82. Makaraka-sirsa — The metre which has in its 
feet of six syllables two syllables in the end long, is Makaraka- 

Ex. (See text.) 

(74-75) 'lit. lighted up with. 

(79-80) 'It is probably because she misses her male companion. 

. 10 

xxxn. 83-94] THE NATYAiSASTRA 114 

Tr. In this winter which excites passion, the wind is 
blowing in the pleasure garden. 

83-84. Vimala— The metre which has in its feet of six 
syllables the fourth and the final ones long, is Vimala. 
Ex. (See text.) 

7V. The elephant in rut, enters into the lake which is 
full of lotuses, and where the bees settle them- 

85-86. Vithi — The metre which has in its feet of six 
syllables the first three and the last one long, is Ylthi. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. In the pleasant autumn, the clouds are roaring, 
peacocks are dancing and the bees are humming. 

87-88. Gira — The metre which has in its feet of six 
syllables the first three and the fifth short, is Gira. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tf. The [male] elephant on hearing the roar of clouds, 
trumpets in the forest ; for it apprehends a rival. 1 

89-90. Jala— The metre which has in its feet of six 
syllables the first four and the last one long, is Jala. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. On seeing the tree struok with frost and shorn of 
all leaves, the female flamingo is weeping. 

91-92. Eamya— The metre which has in its feet of six 
syllables the fourth syllable short and the remaining ones 
long, is Eamya. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The terrific black clouds which are roaring and 
covering the world, are creating an alarm. 

93-94. Kanta — The metre which has in its feet of six 

(87-88) >Cf. Bhattikavya. II. 9. 

115 THE DHRUVA SONGS [xxxn 95-105 

syllables the first, the fourth, fifth and the sixth long, is 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. O dear one, are you in a state of daring courage ? 
Do you wish to meet her who is angry, intoxi- 
cated [but] well-meaning ? 

95-96. Pankti— The metre which has in its feet of six 
syllables the first three syllables and the sixth long, is Pankti. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. This bride of swan is passionately waiting in this 
forest to meet her beloved. 

97-98. Nalini— The metre which Las in its feet of six 
syllables twice two short syllables followed by a long one is 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. Young trees slightly shaken by wind at the time 
of flowering, are as it were, smiling. 

99-100. Nilatoya— The -metre which Las in its feet 
of six syllables the second syllable "short and the remaining 
four long, is Nilatoya. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. This insufferable wind scattering the cluster of 
clouds, is blowing to make the trees dance. 

101. These are the regular syllabic metres of the 
Gayatrl class. I shall now speak of those of the Usnik class. 

102-103. Drutagati-Capala— The metre which has in 
its feet of 7 syllables, the final one long, is Drutagati-Capala. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. This your face with the beautiful eyes which 
are like the best jewels, develops passion in me. 

104-105. Vimala — The metre which has in its feet of 
seven syllables the third, the fifth and the final one long, 
is Vimala. 

xxx«. 106415] THE nATYA^ASTRA U 6 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. This breeze of the spring-time, blows pleasantly 
and excites passion, like a lover. 

106-107. Kamini — The metre which has in its feet of 
seven syllables short syllables alternating with long ones, is 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. On seeing the spring arriving at a distance, the 
southern beeeze blows to shake the trees [in its 

108-109. Bhramaram&la- The metre which has in its 
feet of seven syllables the first two and the last two long, 
is Bhramaramala. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. In this autumn season, the fragrant water is 
beautiful to look at with swans moving about in it 
and with its cloth of kasa flowers. 

110-111. Bhogavati— The metre which has in its feet 
of seven syllables the first, the fourth and the last one 
long, is Bhogavati. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The cakravaki 1 with her lover, is passionately 
moving about in water. 

112-113. Madhukarika — The metre which has in its 
feet of seven syllables the first two and the final one long, 
is Madhukarika. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. This priyaka creeper with its beautiful ornaments, 
has flowered in a season which inspires passion. 

114-115. Subhadra — The metre which has in its feet 
of seven syllables the second, the fourth, the penultimate 
and the last one long, is Subhadra. 

Ex. (See text.) 

(1 10-1 1?) 'lit. bride of one who has cakra as his name-sake. 

117 THE DHRUVA SONGS [ XX xu. 116-123 

Tr. The ratting elephant comes out without its 
female to the forest which has been blighted by 
frost and which has no mud-water in it. 

1 16-1 17. KusumavatI— The metre which has in its feet 
of seven syllables the last two long and the rest short,, is 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The elephant with its female companion, is 
moving about in the mountain groves which are 
soaked in water. 

118-119. Mudita— The metre which has in its feet of 
seven syllables the second, the third and the last two long, 
is called Mudita. 

Ex. (See text ) 

Tr. A great canopy of clouds, fastened with the 
chaiu of cranes and roaring very terribly, has 
been fixed in the sky. 

120-121. Prakasita — The metro which has in its feet of 
seven syllables the fourth, the sixth and the final one long, 
is called Prakasita. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. A pleasant wind which carries the fragrance of 
flowers and is laden with particles of water, is 
blowing to excite love. 

122-123. Dlpta— A metre which in its feet of seven 
syllables has the first the fifth short and the rest long, is 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. In the winter the wind carrying the fragrance of 
flowers, blows exciting love and creating terror in 
me. 1 

124-125. Vilambita— The metre which has in its feet 

(123 : 124) 'These are the words of a separated lover. , 

xxxn. 125-134] THE NATYA&ASTRA Ub 

of seven syllables the second, the fourth and the last two 
long, is Vilambita. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The drying-up and [almost] waterless rivers from 
which birds have been scattered and the cakrkvakas 
are going away, do not shine. 

126-127. Caficalagati— The metre which haB in its 
feet of seven syllables the first, the fifth and the last one 
long, is Oaiicalagati. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The full moon free from the stain of clouds and 
coming out of white clouds, shines in the courtyard 
of the sky. 

128. These are metres to be applied in the Pr&sadikl 
Dhruvas. I shall now speak of those in the Anustubh class. 

129-130. Vimalajalii — The metre which has in its feet 
of eight syllables the third and the last ones long, is 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. A bird is roaming about in the wide expanse of 
clear water where white lotuses are smiling and 
the bees are humming. 

131-132. LalitagatI— The metre which has in its feet of 
eight syllables the fifth and the last one long, is Lalitagati. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. This bride of the swan, is roaming about in the 
park of the pleasure resort which is perfumed 
with the smell of flowers and therefore excites 

133-134. Mahl— The metre which has in its feet of 
eight syllables sixth and eighth long, is Mahi. 
Ex. (See text.) 
Tr. .The female swan with her male companion is 

119 THE DHRUVA SONGS [xxxii. 135-143 

roaming about in the lotns-Iake which is adorned 
with many flowers. 

135-136. Madhukara— The metre which lias in its feet 
of eight syllables first six short and the rest long, is Madhu- 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. In the autumn, the wind which passes over many 
forests, and is sweet-smelling on account of the 
[full-blown] lotuses, is blowing to awaken the 
kumuda flowers. 

137-138. Nalini— The metre which has in its feet of 
eight syllables the fifth and the final long ones, is Nalini. 
Ex. (See text.) 
Tr. The female stork which dwells in the lotus-lake 

is moving to her dearest one's abode on the beach 

of the river. 

139-140. Nadl-The metre which has in its. feet of 
eight syllables the first and the final one long, is Nadl. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The female bee is roaming about in the forest 
where the swans are in great number and which is 
resounded by the noise of storks and where the 
bees are intoxicated [with sucking honey]. 

141. These are the Prftvesiki Dhruvas of the Anustnbh 
class, and now listen about the Apakrsta ones which are to be 
applied in case of women of the best and the middling class. 
142-143. Euoiranta -The metre of which has in feet 
of nine syllables the first, the fourth, and the last two long, 
is Buciranta. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. On learning that the moon in the sky has lost 
her beauty on being eclipsed by Eahu, the 
stars are weeping, as it were, in great grief, and are 
shedding tears in [the shape of] their rays. 

xxxn. 144-152] THE NATYASASTRA 120 

144-145. Pramita — The metre which has in its feet of 
ten syllables, the third, the fifth and the last three long, is 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The lightless moon thrown in amongst the clouds 
and obscured in her beauty due to rays of the 
morning sun, is not shining while she is moving 
in the expanse of the sky. 

146-147. Gatavisoka — The metre which has in its feet 
of eleven syllables the sixth and the final long is Gatavisoka. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The moon which has her body covered with the 
canopy of the clouds and which has been robbed 
of beauty by the rays of the sun and which has 
become colourless due to the advent of the morn- 
ing, is no longer chasing the darkness with hor 
[very bright] smile. 

149-149. Visloka-jfiti — The metre which in its feet of 
twelve syllables the first two, the fourth, the eighth and 
the tenth and the last one long is Vislokfi-jfiti. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. ( The example is corrupt.) 

160-151. Lalita — The metre which in its feet of twelve 
syllables, the first, fourth, the eighth, the tenth and the last 
one long, is Lalita., 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The big elephant in rut with its restless head 
and with its feet in chains in its eagerness to 
follow other elephants, has become thin, and is 
looking to the beautiful forest which is being 
shaken by happy wind. 

152. Vilambita — The metre which has in its feet of 
thirteen syllables, the third, the fifth, the ninth, the eleventh 
and the la&t one long, is Vilambita. 

121 THE DHRUVA SONGS xxxii. 153-164 

153. Tr. The moon rising in the evening amidst the 
forests which have turned black on account of the 
coming darkness, does not shine well, because she 
has thereby shortened her light and dimmed it. 

154. These are the classes of metres in Dhrnvas of 
the Pr&vesikl Sthita class. I shall now describe those of 
the AksepikI Apakrsta class. 

155. Metres of the Supratistha class, aro to bo applied 
in the Apakrsta [Dhruv&s.] 

156. The arrangement of syllables and Yatis and the 
PSnis xxx 1 . It is the Apakrsta. 

157. The Apakrsta should have Sthayl Varnas, Sthita 
Laya, [proper nurabor of] syllables in its different Kalas (?) 
and the Sama Pani and Sam5 Yati. 

158. Syllables in the Kalas and Antara Kal&s of the 
Apakrsta DhruvSs should be according to the rules of the 
Vrtta metres. 

159. The Apakrsta DhrnvS should always consist of 
a short Vastu and Pada, and. of the Priiveilki Dhruva [the 
Vastu should be] shortened, because of its taking up 

160. These are to be known as the metres of Vrtta 
class for the Apakrstri Dhruvas. I shall now speak of motres 
of the Druta Dhruv&s. 

161. In its beginning there should be the Totaka 1 , and 
the rest should be in short syllables, or the rest may have 
Bhort syllables in alternate positions. 2 

162. This Dhruva will have metres of the JagatI and 
of the Atidhrti classes of different type, 

163-164. Vikr&nta— The metre which has in its feet of 
twelves syllables the first nine and the last long, is Vikranta. 

(156) 'There is a lacuna here. For Apakrsta Dhruva see 12 before. 

(161) 'It has not been defined before. This is possibly the name 
of a metre. 

, Hit. in places designated by even and odd numbers. 


xxxn. 165-170] THE NATYA&ASTRA 122 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. This cloud looking like smoke, is roaring, and with 
its lighting is, as it were, piercing the earth, and 
like a terrible elephant, it is pouring quickly 
masses of water to cover the entire world. 

165-166. Vidynn-mfila— The metre which has in its feet 
of thirteen syllables the first eight and the final long, is 

{The example is corrupt.) 

167-168. BhOtala-tanvI Skhalita-gati— The metre which 
has in its feet of fourteen syllables the first five, the eighth, 
the ninth and the last long, is Bhfitala-tanvi Skhalita-gati. 

Ex. i (See text.) 

Tr. The lovely crescent moon free from clouds and 
possessing bright rays, shines above with its 
attractive body, and it has been thrown up, as lit 
were, by Siva (lit. the carrier of GangS) for sport, 
and thus in. the month of Jaistba under the 
asterism MulS, it rises and dwells in the sky with 
a larger (?) body. 

Ex. ii (See text.) 

Tr, Among the stars the moon free from clouds, has 
bright rays, and looks silver-like, and spreading 
the beauty of light it moves sportfully in the sky. 

169-170. Vibhrama— The metre which has in its feet 
of fourteen syllables the ninth, the twelfth, the thirteenth 
and the last long, is Vibhrama. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. O beautiful lady, the moon which is the friend 

of full-blown kumuda flowers, and is ever shining 

and is near the silver mountain, and is your heart's 

delight, is rising up in the sky where the dense 

r darkness being gone, bright stars have appeared. 

1*3 ME DHRUvA SONGS txxxiI . m . m 

171-172. Bhutala-tanvi -The metre which has in its 
feet of fifteen syllables the first, the fourth the fifth, the sixth 
the ninth, the tenth and the last long, is Bhutala-tanvi 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The strongly blowing wind, shaking the tree- 
tops with constant rustle, moving about at the foot 
of the mountain and raising up dusts red and 
brown, is running along like one very angry. 

173. Sukumava -The metre which has in the feet of 
sixteen syllables the first, the fourth, tho seventh the tenth 
and the last long, is Sukumara. 

174. Ex. {The passage is fragmentary). 

175. Skhalita-vibhrama— The metre which has in its 
feet of sixteen syllables the third, the fourth, the seventh, 
the eighth, the ninth, the twelfth, the thirteenth, and the last 
long, is Skhalita-vibhrama. 

177. Ex. (The passage is corrupt). 

178. Bucira-mukhi— The metre which has in* its feet 
of seventeen syllables the fifth", the eighth, the eleventh, the 
twelfth and the last long, is Bucira-mukhi. 

179. Ex. (The passage is corrupt). 

180-181. Druta-capala— The metre of which has in its 
feet of eighteen syllables the fifth, the eighth, the thirteenth 
and the last long, is Druta-capala. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The water of the lake in which the lotuses have 
been turned down by wind, and to which the petals 
[of those lotuses] have given sweet smell, and in 
which the moving waves have broken the kumuda 
flowers, is sending forth a call, as it were, by 
the cries of birds which have been agitated. 

182-183. Kanaka-lata— -The metre whioh has in its feet 
of nineteen syllables the thirteenth, the fourteenth and the 
last long, is Kanaka-lata. 

xxxii. 184-192] THE NATYA&STRA 124 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. fair one, the beautiful moon of silver colour, 
surrounded by the bright planets, and free from the 
scattered clouds, dispelling darkness by its cluster 
of rays, is moving about like Balarama (lit. the 
plough-bearer) in the autumn sky. 

18-1-185. Mukha-capala — The metre which has in its 
feet [of nineteen syllables] the fifth, the twelfth and the last 
syllables long, is Mukha-capala. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. Look at the sky where moves the young heavenly 
damsel ( = lightning) who changes her face quickly 
and has made it beautiful by her passion. 

180. These eight are the principal classes of metre 
for Dhruvas. From these have come out the metres of even 
aud of odd number of syllables (in the feet), and metre of these 
two kinds mixed up. 

187. These are the classes of metre for Dhruvas of 


the Druta types, and they relate to the comparison of gods 
aud kings. 

188. Ksiptaka — The metre which has in its feet [of 
seventeen syllables] the third, the fifth, the eighth, the 
eleventh, the seventeenth long, is Ksiptaka.' 

189. {This passage is corrupt.) 

190. These .classes of metres are Dvipada Tryasra. 
I shall speak hereafter about those which are Dvipada 

191-192. Mala — The metre which has in its feet 
of sixteen syllables all long, is Mala. 
Ex. (See text.) 
Tr. The olouds covering the earth, roaring loudly, 

giving fourth lightning and pouring water, are 

up [in the sky]. 

(188) •'Its ex. is missing. 

125 THE DHRUVA SONGS [xxxii. 193-207 

193-194. Prabhavati— (The definition of the metre and its 
example are both corrupt.) 

195-196. Citra— (The definition is corrupt). 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. Excited on hearing the roaring of clouds the 
elephant surrounded by its female companions, is 
rushing through the forest and is smashing the 

197-198. M&lakita— ( The definition of this metre is corrupt). 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The forest which has been maddened by the song 
of cuckoos, is dancing, as its were, on being 
shaken by the wind of the early winter. 

199-200. (The definition of this metre and its example are 

201. These are the Caturasra classes of metre for the 
Vilainbita Dhruvas 1 shall now speak of the classes of 
metre for the DrutA Dhruvas. 

202-203. Manojiia-gamana • (The definition of this metre 
is corrupt). 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. In the autumn, the femalo swan is bathing in 
the water of the sweet-smelling lotus-lake, and is 
sporting with her beloved before her. 

204-205. Lalita-gati— The metre which has in its two 
feet of twenty-three syllables, five sa-s followed by oueja, and 
the last syllable long and the rest short, is called Lalita-gati. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. ( The example is corrupt). 

206. Rati— The metre which has in its feet, the 
sixth, the tenth, the thirteenth, the sixteenth and the last 
long, is Eati. 

207. (The example is corrupt) . 

Xxxn. $08-218} tllE NATYASasTRA 126 

208-209. Bhujaga-mukhl- {The definition is corrupt). 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. O friend, this sweet-smelling wind which has come 
along with clouds, and has been made restless 
by the god of love, creates passion, kills sleep and 
is [therefore] helpful to women. 

210-211. Druta-padaga— (The definition is corrupt). 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The humming of the bees declares, as it were, 
that the lotus-lake which has just now opened 
beautifully its lotus-face, is shining while it is 
surrounded by lovers of lotuses. 

212. These are the Catursra classes of metres pres- 
cribed for Druta Dhruvas. I shall now speak of metres for 
the Uddhata Dhruvas. 

21?-2t4. Kanaka-lafcaksipta — The metre which in its 
feet of nine syllables, haB the first two, and the last three 
long, is Kanaka-lataksipta. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. O friend, I see in the sky a terribly big cloud 

which is roaring and is drenching the earth with 

a new shower of water. 

215. Surucira'-citra— The metre which has in its feet of 
eleven syllables the first two and the last three long, is 

216. ( The example is corrupt). 

217-218. Sasi-rekha— The metre which has in its feet 
of nine syllables the fifth and the last long, is Sasi-rekha. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The cluster of clouds driven by strong wind, 
moves about like mountain-elephants, and roars 
.like the agitated sea. 

127 THE DHRUVA SONGS [xxxn. 219-227 

219-220. Salabha-vicalita— The metre which has in ita 
feet of nine syllables, the Bixth and the final [two] long, is 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The night which has the rays of the moon as 
the necklace, the stars as the head-ornaments and 
the planets as the ornaments of other limbs, 
looks beautiful (lit. shines) like a youthful lady. 

221-222. Manigana-nikara-krtJL— The metre which has 
in its feet of nine syllables, the first eight short, is Manigana- 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The night with stars as her flower [ornaments] 
and planets as the lilaka 1 marks on her face, is 
going to the moon. 2 

223-224. Sinihakranta— The metre which has in its 
feet of nine syllables, the first four and the last, long, is 

• ■ 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. This cloud with its wealth of waters, and glimmer 
of lightning, is moving on, shaking tho surface of 
the earth as well as the dome of the sky. 

225. These are the metres of the Bihatl class, suitable 
for the Pr5veiikl (entering) DhruvSs. T shall speak hereafter 
about the metres of the Pankti class. • 

226-227. Sura-dayitli— The metre which has in its feet 
of ten syllables the first, the fourth, and last long, is 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The young couple of swans which are as white as 
kunda flowers and the moon, is moving about in 

(221-222) i Tilaka here means alaka-tilaka (decorating spots made 
on the face). 

2 The night is here conceived as an (tbhismfa 

xxxii. 228-235] THE NATYASASTRA 128 

the clear water of the lotus-lake, and the cranes 
are following them. 

228-229. Kusuma-samndita — The metre which has in 
its feet of ten syllables the first three and the last long, is 
Kusuma-samuditS or Kumudini. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. O fair lady, now has come the joyous evening 
of tho spring which is full of sweet-smelling 
flowers, and which causes emaciation of one who 
is separated from the lover. 

230-231. Vrtta (?)— The metre which has in its feet 
of ten syllables the first, the fourth, the sixth, the seventh and 
the last long, is Vrtta. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. Here the elephant on hearing the peals of thunder 
arising in the sky, is burning in anger and is 
moving about [restlessly] in the forest. 

232-233. KrtoddhatS — The metre which has in its 
feet of ton syllables the first three, tho sixth, the ninth and 
the last, is Krtoddhatii. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The sky covered with rain-clouds, fringes of which 
are lighted up by the flash of lightning, is madden- 
ing tho herd of elephants which being lashed by 
storm, are shivering [in cold]. 

234-235. Puspa-samrddha — The metre which has in its 
feet of ten syllables, the first four, tho fifth, the sixth and the 
last long, is Puspa-samrddha. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The elephant on seeing the masses of cloud which 
are [occasionally] brightened up with the flash of 
lightning, and against which the rows of cranes 
are flying, has become enraged and are running 
amidst the birch forest with great trumpeting. 

129 THE DHRUVA SONGS [xxxn. 236-244 

236-237. Vipula-bhuja— The metre which has in its 
feet of ten syllables the fifth, the eighth and the ninth and 
the last long, is Vipula-bhuja. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The elephant which is restless due to the flow of 
ichor, has become perturbed on hearing the 
peal of thunder, and is rushing in anger to the 
forest, and is moving on with violently proud 

238. These are in brief the metres of [the Pankti 
class]. I shall now speak of those of the Tristubh class. 

239-240. Capala— The metre which has in its feet of 
eleven syllables, the first two, and the last long, is Capalfi. 
Ex. (See text) 

Tr. Here have appeared in the sky, terrible clouds 
which are like mountains, which make sounds 
like drums and which look like [large] birds of blue 
and black colour. 
241-242. Rucira-mukhi' -The metre which has in its 
feet of eleven syllables, the two' middle ones (the fifth and the 
sixth) and the last long, is Rucira-mukhi. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr The moon which is a friend of the stars and is 
the lover of kumuda flowers, is shaking (?) the 
path of rays, and is ascending the oastern moun- 
tain, before appearing in the sky. 

243-244. Drutapada-gati— The metre which has in its 
feet of eleven syllables, the fifth, the eighth and the last long, 
is Drutapada-gati. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. Here appears in the sky the moon which is 
adorned with thousands of rays and which is 
going to traverse the path of heavens, after push- 
ing aside the soreen of clouds. 1 

(241-242) 'There is a Ruciramukhi in 187. 

(241-244) 'Here the moon has been compared with a dancer. 

• 17 

xxxir. 245-254) THE NATYA&STRA m 

215-216. Aticapatt - The metre which has in its teet 
,,t eleven syllables, the two middle ones the 6tth and the 
sixth) and the last long, is Ati-capla. 
Ex. (See text ) 

Tr. Hera in tho early autumn when there open many 
flowers, the wind perfumed with their smell, is 
making the trees dance, and is roving about among 
the lotus flowers of the pleasure-garden. 

217-2 iH. Vimala— The metre which has in its feet of 
eleven syllables, the third, the fifth, the sixth, the seventh 
and the last long, is Vimala. 
Ex. (Seo text.) 

Tr. The elephant in rut, is moving about in the clear 
water of the lake which is full of lotus plants and 
which is strewn with flowers, and bees also are 
buzzing about the flowers in the lake where the 
[aquatic] birds are enjoying themselves. 

249-250. KuchA— The metro which has in its feet of 
eleven syllables, the fourth, the fifth, the. penultimate and the 
last long, is Rueirii. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The wind which is moving tho canopy of clouds, is 
shaking the host of kumuda flowers, and is scatter- 
ing the masses of water, is blowing on quickly like 
one who is angry. 
251-252. Laghu-gati Ati-capala — The metre which has 
in its feet of thhtaen syllables, the last one long, is Laghu-gati 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr, This sun of unparallelled brightness which is tho 
crown of tho eastern mountain, and is adored by 
Brahmins and the Munis is moving about in 
the sky. 

253t254, Mada-kalita— The metre which has in its feet 

131 THE DHRUVA SONGS [ XX xh. 255-250 

of thirteen syllables the fifth, and the last two long, is Mada- 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. This is the moon which is like the silver mountain 
and is as bright as a mass of crystal, and is ascend- 
ing the dome of tho sky, has graced tlie new 

255:256. These are tho Tristubh metres. Nuw listen 
about those of tho Jagati class. 1 

Kamala-locana- The metro which has in its feet of 
thirteen syllables, tho ninth and the last long, is Kamala- 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. Here arises in the sky the sun the lamp of the 
world. He is clad with myriads of rays, and his 
warmth is adorod by tho Brahmins aud the 

257-258. Apara-vaktra — Tho metre which has in its 
feet [of eleven syllables] the seventh, the ninth and the final 
long, is Apara-vaktra. 1 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. This great cloud moving about near the mountain 
side, is shaking the earth with a peal of thunder 
and is coming down quickly with cleverly made 

259. These are the metres to bo used in the Entering 
Dhruvas of the quick (druta) variety. I shall now speak 
about the Vardhamana metres'. 

(255-256) 'It seems that some verses arc missing from here. 

(257-258) "It seems that this metre has been misplaced. 

(269) 'These metres have respectively one, two and three syllables 
more in their second, third and fourth syllables than in regular metic of 
the same n#me.< 

xxxii. 260-267] THE NATYA$ASTfcA 132 

260. Definition of all these beginning with Pratistha 
metre have been given before regularly with a description 
of their feet. 

261. Pratistha. 
Ex. (See text.) 

TV. On hearing the clap of thunder in the early 
autumn, the big elephant has become angry. 

262. Supratistha 
Ex (See text.) 

TV. The starless sky having been beaten by wind 
with whips of lightning, is weeping incessantly. 

263. Cayatri. 
Ex. (See text.) 

TV. Tbis sky in which tho luminaries have been 
covered, and the sun has been obscured, weeps 
as it were, after being perturbed by peals of 


26 J. Usnik. 

Ex. (See text.) 

TV. The swan surrounded by its female companions, is 
roaming about in the pleasure-garden where trees 
in flower are being shaken by fragrant wind. 

•265. These are the Vardhamana metres of the Tryasra 
kind. I shall now describe those of the Caturasra kind. 
Listen about them. 

266. Annstubh. 
Ex. (See text.) 

TV. Here arises in the sky after throwing aside the 
curtain of clouds, the moon which is the illu- 
minator of the night, the friend of the stars, and 
is adorned with myriads of rays. 

267. Brhatl. 
Ex. *(See text.) 

133 THE DHRUVA SONGS frxxii. 268-S75 

Tr. The bird-couple which is accustomed to roam about 
in the very fragrant forest, is flying about in the 
garden of Sumeru where the gods and the Siddhas 
sing their songs. 

268. Pankti. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. fair one, the forest-wind which has been per- 
fumed by the ichor of elephants, is blowing onto 
shake the tree-tops, and to mako the garden-trees 

269. Tristubh. 
Ex. (See text.) 

TV. Here rises in the sky the moon of clear rays. It 
adorns the kumuda flowers, throws aside the the 
curtain of clouds and climbs the eastern mountain. 

270. Jagatl. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. This sun whose body is as brilliant as molten 
gold, and which is praised by Brahmins and 
Mum's, is quickly ascending the dome of the sky 
and will be roaming there very soon. 

271. These are the metres of the Caturasra-vivardhita 
class. I shall speak below of-metres on the basis of mora. 

272-273. The final foot of Supratistha metres, is to 
consist of two ganas and a half, while their four feet will 
contain only six ganas. Similarly the Apakrsta [Dbruvas] 
should have the final foot consisting of two ganas and a half, 
and [the entire song] should consist of ten ganas. 

274. In case of the Adclita [Dhruva] the final foot 
will consist of three ganas and a half, while the entire song 
will consist of fourteen ganas. 

275. The Dvipadas of the Tryasra class should have 
its final foot consisting of six ganas and half while the entire 
the song should have eleven ganas. 

xxxn. 276-286J THE N&TYAsASTRA }34 

276. The [tinal] foot of the Caturasra Dvipadas should 
consist of eight ganas and a half, while the entire song should 
consist of fifteen ganas. 

'111. In the first feet of the Caturasras the ganas 
containing one long and one short, should be not less than 
two, and more than nine. 

278. In the Tryrasra such ganas should not be less 
than five and more than nine, and in the Caturasra 
such ganas should not be less than seven and more than 

279. Ganas if they consist of heavy syllablos, should 
ba in Caturasra not loss than five, and mora than nine 
if thoy are all short. Or they may be not less than seven if 
they are all long, and more than thirteen if they are all 

280. Theso are the accounts of the total number of 
syllables in case of all Dhruvas. I shall now speak of the 
different parts of the Dvipada and number of ganas they are 
to contain. 

281. In the Tryasra Dhruvas, the first foot will consist 
of oleven and the final .foot of twentyone ganas jwhich are 
made up of a long syllablo followed by a short one. 

28.\ In the Caturasra Dhruvas the first foot will 
consist of sixteen and the last foot of twenty ganas made up 
of a long syllablo followed by a short one. 

283. Slrsakas have no rule of their feet. They are to 
consist of two long syllables in the beginning, the middle and 
the end, followed by a short syllable. 

284. In the Tryasra Dhruvas the Sannipata should 
be of five ganas [in length], and in the Caturasra Dhruva the 
Sannipata should be of eight ganas. 

285. The two padas are the Sannipata of the Dhruvas. 
They are Druta and Sirsaka, and besides these there are 
other two. 

286. Ganas in the Tryasra are not less than five and 
more than nine, and in the Tryasra they are not less than 
eight and more than eighteen. 

135 THE DHRUVA SONGS [xxxn. 21)7-298 

287. Ganas if they consist of long syllable should bo 
in the Oaturasra Dhruva not less than five and more 
than nine, if they are all short. Or they may consist of not 
less than eight and more than thirteen. 

288. These are the ganas to be known by the expert 
in Dhruvas. I shall now speak of the distribution of ganas 
and matras in the Druta Dhruvas. 

289. The Sannipata of the Drutfi Dhruvas is to consist 
of six ganas and a half, and these aro to bo made up of twonty- 
two matras in long and short syllables. 

290. In the Sirsakas these should be rules regarding 
their padas, and they are to be made up of different metres. 

291. In them there should be ganas beginning with long 
syllables or with short syllables or having all short syllables, 
and they will vary from tho precious metro (?). 

292. The Sirsaka will have pfidas consisting of seven 
ganas and a half, and they will include their matras in padas 
of even or odd number of syllables. 

293. In the Sirsaka there should be not joss tlian 
twentyone and more than twentysix syllables in each 


291. In the four feet there should be oven and odd 
number of syllables mixed up, and according to rule there 
should be collection of short syllables in the Sirsaka. 

295. If there are three short ganas in tho beginning, 
three such in the end, and two long ganas in the middle, then 
tho Capala will be called Sirsaka. 

296. In the first half there should always be four short 
and four mixed ganas, and the rest will be collection of short 


297. Pauses (virama) of the Dhruv&s to be made by tho 
Prfisadikl, Antarfi and Aksepiki Dhruvas should have dura- 
tion of one, two, three, four, six or eight Kalas. 

298. The Pause in the Tryasra Dhruva will bo of 
three Kalas, and in tho Oaturasra it will be of four Kalas. 
This is the rule in the Pravesikl as well as the Naiskriimilii 

Xxxn. 299-307] THE NATVA^ASTRA 136 

299. The Pause in the Antara Dhruva is of two Kalas 
duration, and the Cause in the Antara is at the end of a 

300. In the Sthita and the Prasad iki Dhruvas the 
pause will be at the end of half of the pada, and the Kalas 
will be as described above increased by half a Kala, and they 
will consist of short and long syllables. 

301. The Sthita Dhruva should have mostly long 
syllables, and the Druta Dhruva mostly short syllables and 
the Prasadiki and the Antara Dhruvas an admixture of short 
and long syllables [in equal measure]. 

3C2. Thus should be made metres of the Dhruvas 
originating in the Vrtta class. I shall next speak of defini- 
tion of the various Slrsakas. 

304-305. Syeni-— The metre which in its feet of 
twentyone syllables, the first, the third, the fifth, the seventh, 
the eighth and the last long, is Syeni. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. O fair one, this pleasant wind moving on swiftly 
like a chariot, in shaking the sea, striking the king 
of mountain, ' creating a unique terror amongst 
the trees, and raising dust to soften the sharp 
rays of the sun, is moving on, exciting the passion 
in men. 

306-307. KrauHca— The metre which has in its feet 
of twentytwo syllables, the first five, the eighth, the ninth, 
and the last long, is Rraufica recited by Brahmins and Munis. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. O fair one, this clean-bodied moon has become 
the illuminator and the joy of the world after 
tossing the darkest screen of black clouds, and is 
moving about in the sky with stars and planets 
following it, and is covering the palaces with great 
white sheets, and is gladdening the worlds far and 

137 THE DHRUVA SONGS xxxu. 303-313 

308-309. Puspa-samrddha - The metre which has in its 
feet of twentythree syllables, the first six, the ninth, the 
tenth and the last long, is Puspa-samrddha recited by the 
Brahmins and the Munis. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. fair one, the forest wind is moving on violently 
and with great noise among the trees at the foot 
of the mountain, and i3 driving away the clouds, 
raising a canopy of flowers, scattering lotus-petals 
and is giving rise to a murmuring sound in the 
water of lakes. 

310-311. SambhrSnta— The metre which has in its feet 
of twentyfour syllables, the fifth, the sixth, the seventh, the 
tenth and the last long, is SambhrSnta. 

Ex. (See text.) 

7V. In the early autumn, there rises in the sky the 
moon who is the lover of Eohini 1 , and the brother 
of planets. It illumines the world, and is as white 
as a mass of kumuda flowers, and has a lovely 
white lustre like that ,of crystal gems, and is 
followed by stars and other luminaries, and is 
scattering its thousands of rays and is waking up 
the kumuda flowers whose friend it is. 

312-313. Mattakrlrja-Vidyun-mSla— The metre which 
has in its feet of twentythree syllables, the first eight, and 
the last long, is MattakrldS-Vidyun-mala.' 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. This rain-cloud being like [a mass of] collyrium is 
making sounds like thunder, Murajas and shrill 
Patahas, and being lighted up by many a flash of 
lightning, followed by [other] clouds, and wearing 
a heap of lovely flowers of various colours as its 
tatahka, it is moving about like a mobile mountain. 

(310-311) •RohinI was the most beloved among Candra's twenty- 
seven who were daughters of Daksa and they became stars, 

- r l8 

xxxii. 313-320] THE NATYASaSTRA 138 

313-316. Skhalita— The metre which has in its feet 
of twentyfour syllables, the first, the fourth, the seventh, the 
tenth, the eleventh and the last long, is Skhalita. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The sea on which the wind has raised ripples 
and waves, which has its water as bright as 
crystal gems, has become very noisy due to the 
succession of waves, has its birds scared by swiftly 
blowing wind, has more waves due to perturbed 
fishes, has the sound of agitated clouds, suddenly 
appears now to be angry at the moment on 
being surrounded by high mountains. 

317-318. Capala— The metro which has in its feet of 
twentyfive syllables, the fifth, the eight, the eleventh, the 
twelfth and the last long, is Capala. 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. O fair lady, the sun with the body as bright as 
highly heated gold, after removing the very dark 
screen of heavens, is rising to wake up the masses 
of lotus flowers and to give joy to the world with 
its myriads of rays, and the Yatis and Munis 
are singing its praise, and the Munis and thou- 
sands of other worshippers are augmenting its 
rays [by their sacrificial offerings]. 

319-320. Vegavati— The metre which has in its feet 
of twentysix syllables the fifth, the twelfth, the thirteenth 
and the last long, is Vegavati. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. Here appears the light of the world (the moon) 
with rays as white as masses of kumuda flowers, 
ascending the dome of the sky with all the stars 
and planets in its train. And its body is compar- 
able to a silver mountain, and it spreads a coverlet 
of its rays Tall over the world] and looks as white 
,.rs the face of Balaranja (lit, the carrier of plough), 

13S THE DHRUVA SONGS [xxxtt. 321-330 

and is a friend of young women and causes in- 
toxication to all. 

321. These eight are the metres for the Sirsakas. Now 
listen about that of the Natkutas. 

322. Eight are the basic metres for the Natkutas. 
Listen now about their definitions and examples. 

323. They are Eathoddhata, Budbuda(ka), Udgata, 
Vamsa-patraka 1 , Pramitaksara, Ketumati, Hamsasya and 

324-325. Eathoddhata— The metre which bas in its 
feet of eleven syllables, the first, tho third, the seventh and 
the last long, is Eathoddhata. 
Ex. (See text.) 

TV. The female bee having her [temporary] abode in 
the interior of the lotus, has her feet beautifully 
coloured with flower-pollen, and sho is now flying 
over the lake with an affectionate humming 
in quest of [her mate]. 

326-327. Budbuda— The metre which has in its feet 
of thirteen syllables, the third, the tenth, the eleventh and 
the last long, is Budbuda. 

Ex. (It is very corrupt). 

328-330. Udgata— The metre which has in its feet of 
sixteen syllables, the third, the fifth, the ninth, the twelfth, 
the fourteenth and the last long, is Udgata. 
Ex. (See text.) 

TV. At the approach of autumn, this lake the abode 
of full-blown lotuses aDd of cakling geese (kala- 
hamsa) becomes like the sea polluted by herds of 
big elephants, and it is now softly giving rise to 
constant sounds, in harmony with the humming 
of bees [flying "over its flowers]. 

(323} 'This is the shortened form of Vamsapatrapatita, See 331 

xxm 531-339] WENATYASASTRA U o 

331-332. Vamsa-patra-patite— The metre which has in 
its feet of seventeen 'syllables, the first, the fourth, the sixth, 
the tenth, and the last long, is Vamsa-patra-patita. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. This cuckoo which has always a voice sweet to 
ears, is roaming about in the vernal forest where 
the Outa (mango), Tilaka, Kuruvaka and Asoka 
trees have flowered and attracted humming bees, 
is creating intoxication in young damsels. 

333-335. Pramit&ksara— The metro which has in its 
feet of twelve syllables, the third, the fifth, the ninth and the 
last long, is Pramitaksara. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The young swan roaming for a long time with his 
young consort and drinking asava (honey) from her 
mouth, is now in the autumn, swiming in the 
lotus-lake redolent with the smell of flowers. 

fair one, the bee after roaming for a long 
time in the lotus-lake, is now flying through the 
sweet smelling Ciita forest adorned by spring, 
and it has a desire for tasting the asava (honey) 
from of the mouth of its female companion. 

336-337. Ketuinati — The metre which has in its first 
foot fourteen m&trSs, and in oach of the remaining feet 
sixteen matras, is Ketumati. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. When the young elephant after smashing the 
[forest]-bower went to the lake where lotuses have 
blown, the young bee with its female companions 
left the lotuses to roam about [elsewhere]. 

338-339. Dhvajinl — The metre which has in in its 
first (three) feet of ten syllables, the fifth, and the last long, 
and in the last foot of ten syllables, the fourth and the sixth 
syllables long, is Dhvajinl. 

141 THE DHRUVA SONGS [xxxii. 340 _3 48 

Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The female bee tempted by flowers, is sporting 
among the lotuses, and after swiftly drinking 
honey she is becoming restless [for joy], 

340-341. Hamsaya— Tho metre which has in its feet 
of twelve syllables, the second, the fourth, the sixth, the 
tenth and th? last long, is Hamsasya. 1 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The sweet-smelling wind blowing over the beauti- 
ful lake with its waves and full-blown lotuses, 
is tempting bees as well as birds. 

342-344. Hamsasya — The metre which has in its feet 
of twelve syllables the third, the fourth, the sixth, the 
seventh, the tenth and the last long, is Hamsasya. 1 It belongs 
to the Natkuta class of Dhruvfis. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. A swarm of bees after constant Hying in quest 
of honey of flowers, over the lotus-lake where 
swans and other birds have come, is now moving 
among the lotus-leaves. 

345-346. Totaka — The metro which has in its feet of 
twelve syllables the third, the sixth, the tho ninth, and the 
last long, is Totaka. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. At the close of night the terrible owl which had 

a fearful hooting, has bohind it [a group of] chasing 

crows, and it is [now] hastily searching after its 

own hollow [of the tree], 

347-348. These in brief are metres for the Natkuta 

[Dhruvas]. I shall now speak of the metres for the Khafijaka 

[Dhruvas]. Pramoda, Khafijaka and Matta-cestita are the 

three metres for the Khafijaka [Dhruvas]. 

(340-341) 'This belongs to the longer recension. 
(342-344) 'This belongs to the shorter recension. 

xxxii. 349-358] THE NATYASASTRA 142 

349-350. Pramoda— The metre which has in its feet of 
twentytwo feet, the first, the fourth, the sixth, the tenth, 
the sixth and the last long, is Pramoda. 

Ex. (Very corrupt.) 

351-352. Bhavini — The metre which has in its feet 
of nine syllables the first, the third, the fifth and the seventh 
and the last long, is Bhavini. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The bee coming out from the flowers smeared with 
a beautiful clay, is swiftly running about shaking 
its wings [to cleanse them]. 

353-354. Matta-cestita — The metre which has in its 
feet of eight syllables the first, the third, the fifth, and the 
seventh short, is Matta-cestita. 
Ex. (See text.) 

Tr. The cuckoo comes to the forest where other birds 
have [already] come to adorn it and where the 
trees are in flowers and the bees are singing. 

355. These are the primary (lit. original) classes of the 
Natkuta, and from these come out others having even or 
odd [number of syllables in their feet or having feet ofj un- 
equal [number of syllables].' 

356. Dhruvas have sixtyfour primary classes some of 
which are made up of equal number of syllables [in their 
feet] and different ffom this [are made up of] unequal [number 
of syllables]. 

357. Dhruvas of three kinds having even or odd 
number of syllables or having even and odd or unequal 
[number of syllables in their feet] may be of various metres. 

358. Dhruvas having even [uumber of syllables in 
their] metrical feet are two hundred and eighty five in number, 
and those having partially even number are one hundred and 

(355) 'The meaning of this and the four succeeding couplets, is not 
quite clear. • 

143 THE DHRUVA SONGS [xxxn. 359-366 

ten, and similar is the number of DhruvSs which are having 
uneven [number of syllables in their feet.] 

359. Dhruvas of uuequal length in feet or with 
unequal number of feet, are [also] generally made, and the 
names to these metres may be given according to one's 
will 1 

Five Aspects of Dhruvas 
360 These are the classes [of Dhruvas] arising out of 
various metres. I shall now speak of their [different] aspects 
due to five causes. 

361. These five causes are : Class (Jati), Occasion 
(sthana), Variety (prakara), Measure (pramana) and Name (nama). 

362. The number of syllables in the metre of a Dhruva 
constitute its Glass (Jati).' 

Such numbers being odd or even, will give rise to its 
Variety (prakara). 

363-364. The Tala of six or eight Kalas observed in 
Dhruvas will constitute their Measure (pramana), 1 and just 
as Names are applied to men according to their clan (gotra) 
family (kula) and customs (acara), so they are applied to 
Dhruvas according to their depending on an Occasions 

Five occasions for Dhruvas 

364. Occasions in connexion with. Dhruvas are five, 
Viz. entrance (prave'sa), diversion (aksepa), departure (niskrama) 
calming (prasadana) and transition (antara). 1 

365. Themes of various Sentiment sung at the entrance 
of persons [into the stage] are called the Praveslki DhruvS. 

366. When in a [dramatic] performance at the end of 
Acts songs are sing at the exit of characters to indicate their 
going out, they are Naisk&iniki Dhruvas. 

(359) 'This passage is corrupt. 
(362) 'This relates to syllabic metres. 
(363-364) ' See above Ch. XXXI on Tala. 
(364) 'See above 26-27, 

xxxn. 367-378] THE NATYASaSTRA 144 

367. When the experts, in disregard of the rules, 
have a Dhruva of medium or of slow tempo sung in a quick 
tempo, it is called the Antarii Dhruva. 

368. The song which after [sudden] distraction calms 
the audience (lit. auditorium) who aro enjoying a different 
Sentiment, is called a Prasiidiki Dhruva because it calms 
(prasadayati) their feeling. 

369-370. The Antara Dhruvas are those songs which 
are sung at the time of the [principal] characters being gloomy, 
absont-minded, angry, asleep, intoxicated, or their enjoying 
other's company, being under heavy weight, or being in a 
swoon, or their fainting due to poisoning, or being in error, 
or their adjusting or fixing up clothes and ornaments, and 
in covering any of their faults [in acting], 

371. I shall now speak about the Occasions (sthana) to- 
gether with the Sentiments and States where all the Dhruvas 
are to be sung carofully. 

372. The Occasions are of two kinds, viz., relating to 
others and relating to one's own-self. Listen now from me 
about that [Occasion] which- is connected with diversion 

373. When one is captured, obstructed, fallen, attacked 
with illness, or is dead or in a swoon, thei-e the Apakrsta 
Dhruva in the Pathetic Sentiment should be sung. 

374. Where one is in [a state of] impatience, dis- 
simulation, anxiety, lamentation, weariness, depression and 
dispair, a Dhruva in a slow tempo should be sung. 

375. In these States and in pathetic reports the Dhruva 
should be sung in a quick tempo furnished with a rapid move- 

376. Where there is any sorrow from seeing before 
one's own eyes any one killed or wounded, the Dhruvas there 
should be in a slow tempo and in the Pathetic Sentiment. 

377-378. In case of seeing any calamity, of intolerence, 
seeing anything supernatural, being in despair, in carelessness 
and in anger, and in showing one's spirit, and in a direct 
report of anything in Furious, Heroic, Terrible and such other 

145 THE DHRUVX SONGS [xxxn. 379-389 

Sentiments, and in agitation and in hurry, the Dhruva should 
be sung in a quick tempo. 

379-380. In propitiating, requesting or recollecting any 
one or in an exggerated speech or in meeting [of lovers] for 
the first time, in joy, in begging or in seeing anything strange 
in connection with love-making the Dhruva should be of the 
Fr&sadiki class and in a medium tempo. 

381. In physical distress and in anger and in aiming 
a missile [against any one] the Antara Dhruva should be 
made continuous. 

382. No Dhruva should be sung when there is 
any entry of weeping or singing persons, «nd when 
there is any hurry in their coming or when they announce 
anything, or any calamity or surprise occurs [at the 

383. Dhruvas should be thus applied after taking into 
consideration the rule regarding themes, places, times and 
seasons [involved], the characters [in the play] and indication 
of the States. 

884. Dhruvas are of six kinds, v ; z. Sirsaka, Uddhata, 
Anubandha, Vilambita, Addita and Apakrsta. 

385. A Dhruva which is at the position of Ursa (head) 
is called the Sirsaka. 

A Dhruva is called Uddhata because it is sung in an 
uddhata (elevated) manner. 

386. A Dhruva which is begun in a playlike (?) manner 
and which adopts a tempo meant for it, is called Anu- 

387. The Vilambita Dhruva is that which according 
to the dramatic convention, moves always slowly or not very 

388. When a Dhruva arises in connexion with the 
Erotic Sentiment and has some extraordinary quality, it is 
pleasant and is called Addita. 

389. A Dhruva which for the reason of its being sung 
(lit. drawn up) in other States (?) for reasons [other than 
that with which it began] is called the Apakrsta. 


xxxn, 390-400] THE NATYA&STRA 146 

390. The Excited PravesikI Dhruva, when the move- 
ment has been arrested (?y or delayed, should be applied in 
case of male characters. 

391. The Pasadiki Dhruva in case of females will be 
[of] the Addita [class], and when it is in a slow tempo it 
will be Apakrstfi and that which is not Druta will be 
Vi Iambi ta. 

392. As tempo, instrumental music, pause, words, 
letters and syllables accompany a song, these six are called 
its enteriug aspects. 

393. Slrsaka and Addita belong to kings and gods. 
Addita is to be applied in case of women of divine, royal 
and Vaiysa origin. 

394. At the entrance of middling characters the 
Dhruva should be of the Druta- Vilambita [class], and in case 
of inferior characters it should be of the Natkuta and Khaiijaka 

395. The Khaiijaka and Natkuta will be for bringing 
joy to the occasion. Why is it so T Because these two 
belong to Comic and Erotic Sentiments. 

396. Tn case of inferior characters and of auy one dead, 
there should b9 Anubandha with [proper] tempo. In case 
of women of the. Ksatriya and Vaisya classes there should be 
Apakrlsta Dhruva in proper tempo. 

397. The PravesikI Dhruva should have Tala with four 
Sannipatas. The remaining ones are to have two SannipStas, 
and the Slrsakas are to have Bix padas. 

398. Addita with a slow tempo, is not to be sung in 
case of inferior characters. In their movements relating to all 
the States, one should sing the Natkuta Dhruva. 

399. These (the inferior characters) have only three 
States, viz. Comic, Pathetic and Terrible. One should apply 
Dhruva to them with a view to this fact. 

400. The wise should apply the Dhruva after taking 
into consideration the theme {vastu), performance (prqyoga), 
characters (prakrti), in a play, Sentiments, States, seasons, 
age, locality, time and mental condition (apastha\ 

i47 THE DHRUVA SONGS [xxxii. 401-408 

401. The theme {vastu) arises from a locality, and may 
relate to a city or a forest. The performance (prqyoga) relates 
to divine and human beings. 

402. The characters in a play (prakrti) are of three 
kinds, viz. superior, inferior and middling. Sentiments and 
States have already been described before. The season (rtu) 
occurs due to the flux of time. 

403. Infancy, youth and old age are the three ages. 
Locality relates to the Zonal and other divisions of 

various kinds. 1 

404. The time is fixed by day and night, and by months 
and seasons. The [mental] condition relates to joy and 

405. These are always the features in different situa- 
tions. The wise should apply all these [in a play] after 
taking the Sentiments aud the States into consideration. 

406. Those things which cannot be expressed in speech 
should be presented in a song ; for through songs only, the 
strength and ripeuess comes to the moaning of. words 

Contents of Dhruvas 

407. Dhruvas in case of men and women of superior 
inferior or middling class, should relate to [objects] compar- 
able to them in quality. 

408. In case of gods and kings the comparable objects 
are- the moon 1 , fire, the sun 2 and tho.wind,' and in case 
of Daityas and Eaksasas they are clouds, 4 mountains' aud 

(403) 'See XIV. 3fF. 

(408) 'See 145, 147, 153, 168, 170, 183, 242, 244, 254, 266, 269, 307, 
311, 320 above. 

-'See 252, 256, 270, 318 above. 

"See 56, 82, 121, 172, 209, 224, 246, 250, 268, 309 above. 

«See 65, 67, 69, 71, 73, 75, 92, 100, 119, 164, 192 above. 

6 See 78, 80 above. 

•See 207, 316 above. 

xxxii. 409-416] THE NATYASASTRA 148 

409. In case of Siddhas, Gandharvas and Yaksas, 
comparable objects are the planets, stars' and bulls, and for 
all these persons engaged in practice of austerities (tapas) 
comparable objects are the sun 2 , fire and wind. 3 

410. For all Brahmins and and other persons engaged 
in austerities, the comparable object is fire, and for their 
wives the comparable object will be the same. 

411. Lightning 1 , meteor, and the sun's rays are objects 
comparable to the heavenly beings, and objects comparable 
to gods, apply to the case of kings also. 

412. Elephants 1 , lions and bulls are not comparable to 
heavenly beings, and elephants, serpents and lions are to be 
compared with kings. 

413. Mischievous beings like the Yaksas, Raksasas and 
Bhutas are comparable to the baffalo, rum deer, lions and other 
carnivorous animals. 

414. A rutting elephant 1 and a swan 2 are compared 
with superior characters in connection with various Senti- 


416. Cranes 1 (sarasa), peacocks 2 , kraunca, ruddy geese 5 , 
and lakes with kumuda flowers, have quality [enough] to be 
compared with middling characters. 

416. The cuckoo 1 , bee 2 , crow, osprey 3 , owl 4 and crane, 
pegion and kadamba are oomparable to inferior characters. 

(409) 'See 143 above. *See 252, 256, 270, 318 above. 

2 See note 3 <on 408) above. 

(411) "See 185 above. 

(412) 'See 115, 117, 121, 151, 194, 231, 235, 237, 248, 261, above. 

(414) 'See 115, 117 above. 

'See 1.35, 134, 203, 227, 264, 334 above. 

(415) 'See 138 above. 
2 See 63 above. 

3 See 90, 111 above. 
«See 181 above. 

(416) 'See 332 above. 

'See 140, 324, 335, 337, 339, 341, 344, 350, 352 above. 
'See 346 above. 8 See note 1 (on 415) above. 

149 THE DHRUVA SONGS [xxxn. 417-426 

417. Now listen about the objects comparable to wives 
of superior, inferior and middling characters. 

418. The night', earth, moonlight, lotus-lake 2 , female 
elephant, and the river have qualities enough to be compared 
with wives of kings. 

419. A lake 1 , osprey, creeper 2 , female crane 3 , pea-hen 
and female deer are always to be compared with wives of 
middling characters as well as with courtezans. 4 

420. A hen, bee 1 , crow, cuckoo and owl of female species 
are to be mentioned in the Dhruvas conuected with wives 
of inferior characters. 

421. Comparison about going, and any other movement 
[should be indicated by] the Pravesiki and Naiskramiki 

Dhruvas to suit time and occasion 

422. The Praveiiki Dhruva is to be sung to indicate 
anything happening in the forenoon. And the Naiskramiki 
DhruvS may serve [in general] for anything occurring 
throughout day and night. 

423. Gentle Dhruvas are tp be sung to indicate the 
forenoon, and excited (dipta) Dhruvas are to be sung to 
indicate the noon, whereas pathetic Dhruvas are to be sung 
in case of afternoon and evening. 

424. Any report about going is to be expressed by the 
Pravesiki Dhruva, and that which relates to anything station- 
ary is to be have recourse to the Aksepiki Dhruva. 

425. The Aksepiki Dhruvas are all to be sung in a quick 
as well as in a slow tempo. Thus will be these Dhruvas when 
they arise in connexion with anger and intolerance, and are 
in the Pathetic, Marvellous and Terrible Sentiments. 

426. All objects existing in the earth in connexion 
with a dead body or with a god, are to be mentioned in 
the [Dhruva] song with suitable comparison. 

(418) 'See 220, 222 above. • 2 See 21 1 above. 

(419) 'See 181, 330 above. 2 See 113 above. 

v 'See 138 above. 'See 140, 324 above. 

Xxxn. 427-435] THE nAtYASASTRA 150 

Dhruvas to indicate movements 

427. Comparable objects in case of stationary things 
should be stationary, and in case of their moving they should 
be compared with moving objects, and their States due to joy 
and sorrow should ba related to qualities in their objects of 

428. In case of chariots, horses, elephants, deer, birds, 
palanquins and aerial cars, the experts should make Dhruvas 
with a view to their movement and progress. 

429-430. In case of chariots, arrows, horses, elephants, 
heavenly cars, swings and birds as vehicles, the expert should 
compose the Dhruva with words and syllables which can be 
uttered quickly. In case of bulls, elephants, lions and bears, 
the Dhruva should be made up of heavy syllables that can 
be uttered with force. 

430-431. In case of crows, monkeys, swans, and pea- 
cooks, the Dhruvas should be made up of light syllables with 
swift movement, and of heavy syllables with their slowness. 

This being the case one should apply swift [Dhruvas] 
after knowing the States [in their connexion]. 
Metres for Dhruvas 

432-433. Words of a song cannot be without a metre. 
Hence after considering [contents of] the Dhruva song, one 
should put it in a suitable metre. 1 Hence a Dhruva to express 
the movement of a vehicle, should be made up of [suitable] 
syllables, so that the different limbs of the song may agree 
with the instrumental music. 

434. The metre which is prescribed for the foot of a 
Dhruva in connexion with the movement of a vehicle, should 
also be available in the instrumental music, and it should be 
also agreeing with the movement of all the limbs [of a song], 

435. The song should be taken up first, then the instru- 
mental music, and the dance will be taken up afterwards. A 
combination of song and instrumental music [with dance] 
is called a performance (praj/oga). 

(432-433^ 'See 49ff above. 

151 THE DHRUVA SONGS [xxxn. 436-442 

436. The State which is in one's heart, should be 
depicted by means of histrionic representation in all its limbs 
and with Sfica of the Nivrtyankura' [class], 

437. The Pr&sadiki Dhruva arising from the quality of 
giving joy, should be applied when there is a man in the sky 
and speaking to the sky. 1 

438-439. The Dhruva in this case connected with 
speaking, should [complotely] suit the meaning of its name, 
when the Dhruva connected with pleasing or jealousy and 
anger, attains the Erotic Sentiment, it should be suited to 
the meaning [of it name]. 

And when there are occasions of pleasing, Dhruvas con- 
nected with the [different] Sentiments, should be made 
Prasadiki to suit the meaning [of their names]. 
The Language of Dhruvas 

440. The language in the application of Dhruvas 
should be isuraseul.' Sometimes it may be Magadhf when 
[the Dhruvas of] the Natkuta [class] are to be made by the 

441. Sanskrit songs' 'have been prescribed by the 
authorities in case of heavenly beings ; and in case of human 
beings half-Sanskritr [songs] should be used. 

442. Listen about their treatment if- the gods who have 
been made objects of comparison, makes entrance in a play 
in course of its action. 

(436) > See XXIV. 48 above. 

(437) 'See XXVI. 83-85 above. 

(440) 'This is the wellknown Sauraseni. Though 6. has been 
included in the list of seven major dialects mentioned earlier (XVIII. 47), 
we are not sure of its characteristics as envisaged by the author of the 
NS. The Prakrit described in XVIII. 8-23 may be Sauraseni. See note 

on XVIII. 47 above. 

'Magadhi though mentioned in the NS {loc. cit) has not been 

described there. 

(441) 'This probably points to the very early development of the 
Skt. drama. For further discussion about this see the Introduction. 

'This term probably indicates a language like that of the 
metrical portions of the MahaVastu, 

xxxt , 443-m THE NATYAtiSTRA ^ 

443. That which is their S&ttvika, State and constitutes 
a narration of their deeds, should be expressed through a song 
according to tho authoritative rules. 

Metres of Dhruv5s 

444. Songs in case of heavenly beings are desired to 
be in metres of [suitable] measure (size). This should relate 
to their praise or a narration of their exploits. In the feet 
of Dhruvas one should describe that which relates to the 
qualities of comparison. 

445. [In this connexion] the metres [like] Mala, Vaktra, 
Putavrtta Visloka, Culika, Udgatfi and Aparavaktra should 
be used by the producors. 

446-447. I have described their structure (lit. rules of 
metre) before.' In case of gods, these (i.e. Dhruvas) should 
include words expressing victory or blessing, and for 
them (i.e. gods), Re, Gatha and P&nika, 2 will be understood as 
their form (lit. measure). As these are pleasing to hear they 
should be put in tune (lit. applied in songs). 

448: The Jatis including Gandhara, Sadja, Madhyama, 
Paficama and Dhaivata should be reckoned as the [suitable] 
form of these songs.' 

449. Their form to suit tho four occasions should be 
such as Prasadiki, Sthita, NaiskramikI and Pravesiki. 

450. In the various acts of gods when there is no 
obstacle, Sanskrit should often be used in the Anustubh metre. 

451. The metres like Mala, Vaktra, and Aparavaktra 
are suited to Praveiiki Dhruva, and Puta and Culika are 
meant for NaiskramikI Dhruvas. 

452. Udgata (metre) is applicable in the Prasadiki Dhruva 
and Anustubh in the Vilambita Dhruva. These occasions 
are to be expressed by one who is an expert in measures. 

453-454. The song which is in the Anustubh metre, 
and is in a slow tempo, and relates to a fall due to curse, 
suffering from anxiety, and abounds in heavy syllables, notes 

(447) » See XXXII. 49ff above. 

(448) 'See XXVIII. 103ff, above, 


[xxxn. 455-464 

of pathetic expression, and long-drawn-out Varnas, should 
have the Sthita Sthana. 

455. For the excitement of human beings, and for their 
roaming [over different places], heavenly beings are to resort 
to songs in the Anustubh metre. 

456. In relating the memory of those of heavenly 
beings who are born amongst mortals, one should resort to 
suitable songs expressing heavenly States. 

457. And suitable songs relating to the sorrow of 
these very beings when these are meant to kill sorrow and 
anxiety, are to deal with a change due ' to afflicted 

Dhruvas to suit occasions 

458. Listen now what are generally to be done for the 
rule of Dhruv5s occurring to their division of occasions. 

459. When the instruments of music have been placed 
in order, and the three Samans have been uttered, one should 
apply the Asravana 1 included in the Bahirgita. 2 

460. After performing -the Bahirgita one should per- 
form the Purvaranga 1 and the Porvaranga having been 
undertaken one should perform the Bangadvara. 2 

461. In connexion with the entrance of characters, 
one should sing the Dhruva indicating movement and also 
the Parivarta. 

462. By taking steps upon the stage while singing 
or due to [some other] need, one should make six Pari- 
vartas. 1 

463-464. The Dhruva in this case should be made as in 
the case of gods, and the Patas there, should be twentyone 
in number. The Dhruva in its application in drama should 
be of the Tryasra or of the Caturasra type. In case of 

(459) 'See V. 18. 'See V. 30-31ff. 

(460) 'For Purvaranga and its different parts see V. 7ff. 
'See V. 26-27 and 116-119. 

(468) iSce V. 65ff, and the note on 471 below. 

xxxn. 465-474] THE NATYA6ASTRA 


the Tryasn the Pada-pate will consist of three Kalas, while 
in the Ottoman the P&da-pata will consist of four Kalas. 

465-466. The Dhruva in case of superior characters 
will be Caturasra and in case of the middling characters 
Tryasra type, and in case of the inferior characters it will be 
of the Khanj'a and the Natkuta class. This will be the rule 
about tunes in connexion with the movement of feet. 

467. In case of hurry, calamity and anger it will consist 
of one Kala or half of a Kala. And the movement of feet 
will consist of three, two, one or of four Kalas. 

468. At that time there should be a harmony of dance 
with the instrumental music and not with song. There 
should be no pause in Dhruva of one or two Kalas in dance. 
So, there should be a harmony [of dance] with the instrument 
and not with the song 

469. One should know the setting of feet in case of the 
State mentioned before, depending on the slow or the quick 
tempo, and should make harmony with the instrumental music. 

470. The entrance after tossing the curtain, on account 
excessive joy, sorrow and anger, 'Should be made simultaneous 
with the divisions (?). 

The Rule of Graha 

471. These are tho rules about Parivarta 1 in a play. 
I shall now describe the Grahas 2 in connexion with the 

472. The song should start its Parivarta 1 without any 
[music of the] instrument, and in tho fourth Parivarta 1 there 
should be the Graha of the instrument. 

473. Sometimes there should be Sannipata Graha, 
sometimes Tarjani Graha and sometimes AkSsa Graha in the 
Dhruva songs. 1 

474. As the Graha in the Dhruva is regulated by Kala, 
Tala and tempo (laya), it should be observed in the move- 
ments and walks, by means of instruments. 

(471) 'This term probably means 'a single performance of a song' 
when it is repeated. 

'See XXXIII. 180ff below. 
(473) "See above note 1 to 471, 

155 THE DHRUVA SONGS [xxx„. 475484 

475. In the Sirsaka of the Uddhata classes of Dhruvas 
the Graha should be by the Pradesini, and in the Vilambitil 
Addita Dhruva, it should be by the Sannipata and the third 

476-477. InNatkuta, Addita and Prasadikl Dhruvas 
the Graha will be in Sannipata and in Druta (quick) Dhruvas 
the Graha will be from above, 1 and in Naiskramikl and Anu- 
bandha Dhruvas the Graha will be with tho instruments. 
And for songs, there should not be made any repetition by the 

478. Natkuta Dhruvas should have four Grahas such 
Sannipata, Samya, Tala and Akaia. 

479. In the entrance [of any character] with hurry, 
excitement and joy, there should bo the Graha with the song, 
and such a Graha is called Udghatya. 

480. In case of falling of ornaments, clothes or of 
any disorder, any loss of memory, fatigue, and in the [general] 
covering of faults, there should bo the Udghatya Graha of 
the Antara [Dhruva]. 

Application of songs 

481. Producers should in this manner apply in their 
proper places, the Dhruvas required for dance and drama. 

482. Just as a well-built dwelling house' does not 
become beautiful without any colour, so without any song 
the drama does not attain [the capacity of giving] joy. 

483. The rule regarding songs have been mentioned 
in connection with [the formalities of] tlie Purvarariga (Preli- 
minaries), and the worship of gods has also been mentioned 
there. 1 

484. Hence notes in the two Gramas as well as the 
Overlapping [note], 1 should be applied to plays (lit. poetical 
compositions) which express the various States. 

(476-477) 'i.e. Akasa Graha. 

(482) ' eilram nivesanam. 

(483) 'See V. 60-63ff! 

(■184) ' See XXVIII. 35 above. 


xxxu. 485-493] l " J* 

485-486. Id the Opening' of tie drama there should 
be the Bongs of the Madhyama Grama, Sadja in the Progres- 
sion, the Overlapping in the Development, Paiicamafmi) in 
the Pause, and Kaisikafkl) in the conclusion. These songs 
depending on the Junctures and metres, should be of suit- 
able Sentiments and States. 

487. Dhruvas depending on the context and made to 
express Sentiments suited to the situation, embellish the 
drama just as the stars illumine the sky. 

488. The M&gadhl is the first Giti, then ArdbamagadhI 
[the second], Sambhavita the third and Prthula the remaining 
one (i. e. the fourth). 1 

489. MSgadhi is known by the repetition of its padas 
[in different tempo] and it is in the Citra [Vrtti].' Similar 
is the Ardaniagadhi, which has recourse to repetition twice. 

490. Sambhavita depending mostly on heavy syllables 
is applied in the Vartika (Vrtti), and Prthula consisting of 
light syllables in the instrumental music, is to be applied 
in the Daksina Vrtti. 

491'. These four Gltis are everywhere to be applied 
in songs by singers. These consisting of appropriate syllables 
are applied in Dhruvas also. 

492. That which includes full notes, Varnas, is embel- 
lished by instruments, relates to the three voice-registers, 
has three Yatis and three M&tras, gives joy, is harmonious 
(sama) and delicate, contains Alamk&ras, is performed with 
ease, and has sweetness, is called a song [per excellence].' 

493. One should first of all bestow care on songs. For 
songs have been called the resting place (lit. bed) of the 
drama. The song and the playing of musical instruments 
being well-executed, the performance of the drama does not 
encounter any risk. 1 

(485-486) 'Sec XXI. 58ff. 
(488) » See XXIX. 77ff above. 
(490) 'Vrtti - g «*»-pr«i. See XXIX. 102ff. 

(493 J 'This shows that songs were indispensable in producing 

15? THE DHRUVA SONGS [ xxx „, 491 . 50l 

Qualities of singers and players of instruments 

494. I have thus spoken properly of the characteristics 
of Dhruvae. I shall now speak of [requisite] qualities of 
singers and players of musical instruments. 

495. Knowledge proceeds from qualities, and mind 
gets repulsed due to faults. Hence one should carefully know 
in brief the qualities and faults. 

496. The singer should be of young age, have a loving 
nature and a throat full of sweet voice. He should thoroughly 
know about tempo, Tala, division of Kalas, their measure and 
application. 1 

497-498. A woman possessing a good physique, brilliance, 
courage and sweetness, also a voice which is soft, sweet and 
has a charming resonance, and is harmonious, and auspicious, 
and who can properly observe a pause, is never nervous, and 
is an expert iu songs together with their Tala and tempo, and 
can regulate her Karanas according to musical instruments, 
and is young, is known as a female singer 1 [per excellence]. 
Characteristics of a Vina player f 

499-500. The two VlnS players should be properly 
conversant with the use of Pani/'tempo and Yati 2 properly 
alotted [to different parts of a soDg], should have nimble hands 
in producing sweet sounds, and should have the qualities of 
[good] singers. They should be attentive in mind and be able 
to sing well in accompaniment of other instruments and 
clearly produced Karanas 1 and should be industrious, and 
should have a pleasing voice, much experience and should 
be experts in playing instruments in Vrttis like Citra etc. 
Characteristics of a flute-player 

501. The flute-player should be strong and careful, 
should properly know songs and their tempo, and be able to 
sing well in accompaniment of other instruments, and to 
produce a note which is voluminous as well as sweet and 
pleasing, and should possess a strong breath. 

(496) 'See SR. III. 13-22. (497) •See SR. III. 23. 

(499-500) 'See XXXI. 494-495. 'See XXXI. 489-493. 

3 i.e. Karanas produced by the dancer. 

Xxxn. 502-509] THE nAtYAJ&STRA 158 

602. The music of a flute should thus be steady, conti- 
nuous, expressive of Varna and Alamkara, and be sweet, pleas- 
ing and able to cover the faults [of a performance]. 

Difference between male and female song and recitation 

503. Generally songs are naturally suited to women, 
and recitatives are similarly suited to men. For women's 
voice is naturally sweet and that of men are [naturally] strong. 

504. The good quality in women's recitation and 
sweetness in men's songs, should be considered their adventi- 
tious qualities (lit. ornament) [and no part of their nature]. 1 

605. If men lead [in songs] and the songs possess good 
characteristics, but have no sweetness, then these, do not 
impart any beauty [to the performance]. 

506. Hence women's songs are naturally successful 
and so are men's recitatives. 1 When these are not [indiscri- 
minately) attempted by one another, they become easy to 

507. D&navas, Asuras, Rfiksasas, Yaksas and Ur;igas 
(N&gas) . as males and females, have many actions and 

608. [In such cases] women are to play men's parts 
[very] carefully. For women are naturally able to make 
graceful movements [only]. 1 

509. Men acquire Sausthava 1 by regular exercise and 
practice, and women's movement of limbs are naturally 

(504) 'This shows that good singing was once supposed to be a 
monopoly of women. So Maitreya in the Mrcch. (Ill) does not approve 
of Carudatta's praise for Revila's singing {mama dava duvehimjjeva hassam 
jaadi, itthiae sakkaam pathantie, manussena a kaalim gaantena). Carudatta too 
continues his compliments to Revila by saying 'had he been out of sight 
(i.e. behind a screen), I might have taken him for a woman' (antarhito 
yadi bhaved vaniteti manye). 

(506) ' See note 1 above. 

(508) 'The movements of Danavas and Asuras etc., are mostly 

(509) »For the meaning of Sausthava see XI. 91. Generally it 
means 'beauty and grace of the body in its movement'. 

159 THE DHRUVA SONGS [xxxn. 510 . 5 , 9 

510. With an eye to this fact, (lit. thus) men are to 
instruct women in songs, musical instruments and recitatives 
relating to different characters. 

511. There may be [allowed] a loss of proper note in 
women's songs and playing of musical instrument. But this 
will not be sweet to the ear in case of men. 

Qualities of a teacher 

512. The six qualities which a teacher should have, 
are memory, intelligence (rnedha), judgement (mati\ reasoning 
positive and negative {uh'apoha), and ability to train pupils. 

Qualities of a disciple 

513. The six qualities which a disciple should have, 
are intelligence, memory, willingness to serve (slagha), devo- 
tion [to work], spirit of emulation (samgharsa), and enthusiasm. 

Qualities of voice 

514. The six qualities of voice are that it should be 
loud, compact, smooth, sweet, careful, and distinctly related to 
the three voice-registers, 1 

515. That which is heard from a distance, .is called 
loud (sravaka). The loud voice which is sweet but not diffused, 
is called compact (ghana). 

516. The voice which being loud does not become harsh, 
is smooth [snigdha). If at the highest point of the voice- 
registers, there occurs no discordance, then the voice is called 
sweet (madhura). 

517-518. The voice which does not lapse into excess 
or defficiency, is called careful (avadhanavan). 

The voice which striking the head, the throat [and the 
chest] become sweet with reference to three places, provides 
always sweetness to the three voice-registers, is considered 
distinctly related to voice-registers (tristhanasobhi) . 
Faults of a singer 

519. The five faults of a singer are that his voiw 
(lit. he) may be Kapila, unsteady, Sandasta (bitten), Kfiki 
(crowlike), and Tumbaki (nasal). 1 - 

(514) >SeeSR. III. 49-63. 
(519) 'See SR. Ill, 24-37. 

xxxn. 520-525] THE NATYA&ASTRA 160 

520. When the voice is unnatural, and there is a gurgl- 
ing sound, it is called Eapila. The voice of one who has 
phlegm in the throat, is also called Eapila. 1 

521. When there is an irregular excess or want of 
volume in voice, it is callod unsteady. A lean voice is also 
given this name. 

522-523. Voice produced by [unduly] using teeth, is 
called Sandasta (bitten) by good masters. 

The voice which in its enunciation does not properly 
touch its due voice-register, and which is harsh, is called 
K5kl (crow-like). 

The voice connected with the nose is called TumbakI 

524. These are the essential facts about the qualities, 
and faults of voice, related by me. I shall next speak about 
the covered (avanaddka) instruments. 

525. This is the Gandharva 1 which 1 have now described. 
This was formerly described by Narada. 

A man (lit., son of Mann) who will cause this to be per- 
formed, will receive the highest honour in this world. 

Here ends the Chapter Thirtytwo of the NatyasSstra, 
which treats of the DhruvS Songs. 

(520) ' It may be that the word is a wrong reading for *Kaphala. 
(525) 'This is the Gandharva which the Ceta in Mrcch. (Ill) speaks 
about (ka vi vela ajja-Carudattassa gandhavvam sunidum gadassa). 



1-2. I have spoken briefly about the stringed instru- 
ments. I shall now speak of the class of covered musical 
instruments, their characteristics and functions as well as of 
playing drums named Mrdanga, 1 Panava' and Dardura.' 

3. Svati and Narada' have [respectively] spoken about 
the Gandharva, and the playing of musical instruments 
together with their quality of amplitude, and their charac- 
teristics and functions. 

Origin of drums 

4. Now following Svati I shall speak briefly about the 
origin and development of musical instruments called 
Puskaras (drums). 

5. During an intermission of studies in the rainy 
season, Svati once went to a lake for fetching water.' ' 

6. He having gone to the lake, P&kai&sana (Indra) by 
[sending] great torrential rains comnionced to make the world 
one [vast] ocean. 

7. Then in this lake, torrents of water falling with the 
force of wind made clear sounds on the leaves of lotus. 

8. Now the sage hearing suddenly this sound due to 
torrents of rain, considered it to be an wonder and observed it 

(1-2) 'A kind of earthen drum still in use in Bengal among the 
singers of Vaisnava kirtana. 

2 A drum or tabor made probably of wood. See the note 6 on 

XXVIII. 4-5. 

3 This is also called 'Dardara'. Possibly this is the right form of the 
name. One side of its wooden frame is covered with hide ; it looks likv 
a large gong. See also note 6 on XXVIII 4-5. 

(3) 'See above XXXII. 525. It does not mention Svati. 

(5) J The story given here about the invention of drums may net be 
quite fanciful. 


xxxiii. 9-15] THE NATYASASTRA 162 

9. After observing the high, medium and low sounds 
produced on the lotus-leaves as deep, sweet and pleasing, 
he went hack to his hermitage. 

10. And after coming to the hermitage, he devised the 
Mrdangas, and then the Puskaras' [like] Panavas and 
Barduras with [the help of] Vlsvakarman. 

11. On seeing the Dundubhi' of gods, he made Muraja, 2 
Aliiigya, 3 Urdhvaka' 1 and Ankika/ 

12. Then he who was a master of reasoning of the 
positive and the negative kind, covered these and Mrdanga, 
Dardura and Panava with hide, and bound them with 

13. He also made other drums such as Jhallarl,' Pataha 2 
etc., and covered them with hide. 

14. Listen now about the instruments which men are 
to play as minor and major limbs [of a performance] in an 
assembly of instrument-[players]. 

15. Among the wooden [stringed instruments] "Vipafici 1 
and Citra 2 are major limbs' and Kacchapl 4 and Ghosaka' etc., 
are minor limbs." 

(10) 'Puskara seems to be a general name for drums made of wood. 

(11) 'A large kettle-drum made probably of earth. 

2 This seems to be a kind of Pakhoaj. 

8 It seems to be a drum held against the breast of the player 
who embraced it as it were. Hence came this name (alihgya « an instru- 
ment to be embraced). See 242ff. below. 

4 See242ff. below. sgec 242ff. below. 

(13) 'This seems to be very small drum without any complexity. 
Cf. SR. 1135-1137. 

2 It seems to be different from the one mentioned by SR. VI 
802-808. See also 27 below. 

(15) 'See the note 3 on XXVIII. 4-5, and the note 2 on XXIX. 220. 
8 See the note 1 on XXIX. 120. 
3 For their functions see 25-26 below. 

* This seems to be an one-stringed (ekatantri) instrument made 
with a tortoise (kacchapa) shell. 

* This seems to be a kind of Tanpura used merely as a drone. 
8 . For their functions see 27 below. 

16$ ON COVERED INSTRUMENTS [xxxm. 16-24 

16. Among the drums, Mrdanga Dardura and Panava 
are the major limbs, while Jhallarl and Pataha etc., are i the 
minor limbs. 

17. [Among the hollow instruments] the flute (vamia) 
has the characteristics of the major limbs [of a performance], 
and conch-shell and Dakkinl [that of] the minor limbs. 

Use of Drums 

18. There is no instrument which cannot be used in 
the ten kinds of play (dakrupaka). 

Each kind of instrument may be used in a play after 
considering the Sentiments and States there. 

19-20. In a festival, a royal procession, and a Maugala 
ceremony, in an auspicious and happy occasion, at the time of 
marriage and of birth of sons etc., in a battle where many 
fighters assemble, and during such other acts, all the musical 
instruments should be played. 1 

21. Small number of instruments are to bo played 
during ordinary (lit. natural) household affairs.. During 
expeditionary marches and performance of plays, all the 
instruments should be played. 1 

22. For the harmonious blending of the different limbs 
[of a performance] and for covering the faults, the instruments 
are played. 

General Description of Drums 

23. I shall now speak of the covered instruments which 
give rise to regular notes, has many Karanas and Jatis. 

24. All the instruments covered with hide such as 
the three Puskaras, 1 are called covered instruments. 

(19-20) 'See SR. VI. 10-21. 

(21) 'See the note above. 

(24) 'The three Puskaras of the NS. arc Mrdanga, Panava and 
Dardura (Dardara) ; see 1-2, 10 and 16 above. But according to SR. VI. 
1024-1025 they are Mrdanga, Mardala and Muraja. Out Mardala is 
unknown to NS. 

xxxm. 25-35] THE NATYAS\ASTRA 164 

25-26. And these have one hundred' varieties. But I 
shall now speak of the characteristics of the three Puskaras. 
For these have no harshness of sound like the remaining 
instruments. The latter produce no [distinct] notes, for them 
no [regulated] strokes [are necessary], no distinct syllables 
are available from them, and they require no Marjana. 

27. By [the playing of] Bherl, Pataha, and Bhambha, as 
well as Dundubhi and Dindimas, one desires the depth of 
sound from their slackness and extensive surface. 

28. These are generally to be played with a view to 
time and occasion [in a play]. But listen about the rules of 
the three Puskaras. 

29. Metres depend on Vasu (?) and are of two kinds, viz. 
those which relate to notes only, and those which relate 
to words carrying meaning. 

30. Metres relating to words carrying meaning, express 
many States and Sentiments, and those relating to notes 
only, depend on various instruments. 

31. , Seven are the notes in the Vina of the [human] 
body, and from those have come out the notes of musical 

32. Notes coming out first from the human body go 
to the wooden Vina and then they go to the Puskara and the 
solid instruments. 

33. Strokes 1 on them by various movements, are to be 
known as giving shelter to words. These are always to be 
applied to the playing of Vina [and] at the time of battles etc. 1 

34. In the Vina of the human body there should be 
Vaskarana 1 (mnemonic patterns) such &sjhihtu jagati kat (?) 
together with many Karanas. 

35. The notes produced by the singer should be produced 
by the musical instruments, and these should contain light 
and heavy syllables showing appropriate Yati and Pani. 

(25-26) *SR. names no less than twentythree varieties. See Ch. VI. 

(33) 1 Bahviranair. The reading here is probably corrupt. 

(34) 'This word is probably to be derived from vacaskarana and 
is similar in mianing to bol used by modern drummers of Northern India. 


Aspects of Puskaras 

36. I shall speak about the rules of playing Puskaras 
with reference to Mrdanga, Panava and Dardura. 

37-39. Puskara instruments have following aspects : 
sixteen syllabic sounds (aksara^, four Margas, Vilepana, six 
Earanas, three Yatis, three Layas, three Gatis, three 
Pracaras, three Yogas, three Panis, five Pani-prahata, 
three Praharas, three Marjanas, eighteen Jatis and twenty 

Music of Puskaras should possess all these aspects. 

40. Now I shall speak of the sixteen syllabic sounds, 
^» kh, g, gh, t, th, d, [n], t, th, d, dh, [si]', r, I, and h are the 
sixteen syllabic sounds. These are the always to be used in 
the Vaskarana 1 of the Puskara music. 

Four Margas 1 — The four Mfirgas are Alipta, Addita, 
Gomukha and Vitasta. 

Vilepana 2 (plastering)— Plastering of [Savya], Vfima and 

Six Karanas 1 -Eupa, Krta-pratikrta, Pratibheda, Bupa- 
sesa, Ogha and Pratisuska. 

Three Yatis 4 — Sama, Srotogata", Gopuccha. 

Three Layas 15 - quick, medium and slow. 

Three Gatis" (Prakrti)— Tattva, Ghana ( = Anugata) 
and Ogha. 

Three Pracaras 7 — Sama Pr., Visama Pr. and Sama 
Visama Pracara. 

Three Samyogas 8 — Guru Sam., Laghu Sam. and Guru- 
laghu Samyoga. 

Three Panis 9 — Sama, Avara and Upari Panis. 

Five Paniprahatas 10 — Sama-pani, Ardha-pani, Ardhardha 
pani, Parsva-pani and Pradesini Prahatas. 

(37-39) > See 44ff below. 

(40) 'The text gives dh for n andji for m.See SR. VI. 819. 
» See 1 1 1 . 1 16 and 258-259 below. 

3 See 92-93 below. 4 See 94ff below. 

6 jj;^ « See 118-120 below. 

' See *47fF. below. s See 117 below. 

» See 93 below. 10 See 83 below. 

ixna. 41-42] THE NATYA&ASTRA \ 66 

Three Prabaras"— controlled, semi-controlled and free. 

Three Mar/anas' 2 — [MSyun, Ardba-mayurf and Karma- 

Eighteen Jatis" — Suddha, Ekarupa, Des&nurupa, Dei&d- 
apetarGpa, Paryaya, Viskambha, Parsni-samasta, Duskara- 
karana, Urdhvagosthika, Uccitika, Evamvadya, Mrdanga- 
panava, Avaklrna Ardhavakirna, SamplavS and VidhDta. 

Twenty Prakaras" are Citra, Sania, Vibhakta, Chinna, 
Chinna-viddha, Viddha, Anuviddha, SvarQp&nugata, Anusrta, 
Vicyata, Durga, Avaklrna, Ardhavakirna, Ekarupa, Pariksipta, 
Sacikrta, Samalekha, Citralekha, Sarvasanjavaya and Drdha 15 . 

41. The sixteen syllabic sounds which have been men- 
tioned before applies to Puskaras, such as Panava, Dardura 
and Mrdanga as well. 

Productions of Consonant and Vowel sounds in Drums 

42. K, t, r, t, th, d, dh are to be produced on the right 
face and g, h, and th on the left face of the drums and th 
on the Urdhvaka and k, r, n , dh, v and / on the Alingya. 

Now I shall speak about combining vowels with them. 

a, a, i, I, u, u, e, ai, o, au, am and ah are the vowels to be 
added to the consonants. ■ 

To k— a, i, u, e, o and am can be added to produce ka, ki, 
ku, ku, ko, and kam. 

To kh — i, u and o can be added to produce khi, khu 
and kho.- 

To g — a, e and o can be added to produce gu, ge and go. 

To gh — a, e anqj o can be added to produce gha, ghe and 

To t—a, i, o and am can be added to produce ta, ti, to 
and tarn. 

To th — a, i, o and am can be added to produce tha, thi, 
tho and tham. 

To d — a and o can be added to produce da and do. 

" See 42 below. 12 See 102ff. below, 

i" See 130ff. below. I4 See 198ff. below. 

1 6 Later writers like Sarngadeva include most of the technical 
terms into th»hastapi(as. See SR. VI 81 Off. 


[To n-a, i and e can be added to produce na, ni an ne] 
To t and th—a, a, i and e can be added to produce respec- 
tively ta, ta, ti, te and tha, tha, thi and the. 

To d—a, u, e and o can be added to produce de, du, de 
and do. 

To dha - a, i, o and am can be added to produce dha, dhi, 
dho and dham. 

To r — a, «, i and « can be added to produce ra, ra, «' 
and re. 

To /—a, 5, i and e can be added to produce la, la, li and le. 

//and m are applied without any vowel. 

Among these k, gfi, t, th and dh bas r as their appendage 
{anubandha) e.g. ghrum, dhra, (re, kram, thra, [dram], dhram. 

K and I also act as appendages, o g. [klam, kle\ 

Sounds producable by two hands are made by combining 
all these. Dham however is produced in Ankika, Mrdanga 
and two Puskaras by the simultaneous strokes of two hands. 

Ku is produced by running fcho finger (against the sur- 
face of the drum-face), and dha by controlling it. When it is 
half-arrested there is tha. .When the back of tho hand 
strikes it, there is kl ; from curving, the fingers conios ksa (kli). 
By the simultaneous striking of Urdlivnka and Vamaka' 
by the two hands, there occurs ham, and by striking Alingya 
with the forefinger kle [is heard]. 

Some of the sounds are produced from one face [of a 

drum], some from two faces [of a drum], and some from three 

faces [of two drums], e.g. r from all faces, (i.e. from any single 

face), d, dh, from Alingya and Daksina 2 , g from Vama[-ka] 

and Urdhvaka for the sake of facilities. Dh is sometimes is 

to be made from Alingya. There should be no disregard of 

this rule. So much about the combination of vowels and 


Five Hand-strokes 

Five kinds of hand-stroke (paniprahata) : level-handed 

(Samapani), half-handed {Ardhapani), quarter-face (Ardhar- 

dhap'ani), hand-side (Parsva-pani) and fore-finger {Pradesini). 

(42) 'This is possibly our wr. 2 This is possibly qur wfwi. 

xxxm. 43-44] THE NATYAiSASTRA 168 

Now these hand-strokes, according to their application 
are controlled, semi-controlled or free. 

Among these m is a stroke with the level-hand and is 
controlled ; g, d and dh are half-controlled and is a stoke with 
half of the hand. K, kh, t and (fare strokes with the side of a 
hand and are controlled. T, th and h are strokes by half of the 
hand and are semi-controlled. M, th, r, I and h are two-handed 
strokes and are free. Klam is a stroke of the forefinger and is 
free. Dram dhram and klam are two-handed strokes with the 
side of a hand and are free. Kletn is a stroke of the half of the 
hand and is controlled. # is a stroke of the side of a hand 
and is controlled. Thus one is to make strokes according to 
their requirement. 

43. Sixteen are the sounds coming out of [covered] 
musical instruments. The wise are to make Vaskarana from 
their combinations. 

The Four Margas 

I shall now explain what has been called the four 
Margas. ' 

44. The four Margas relating to the strokes of the 
(covered) musical instruments are Adrjita, Alipta, Vitasta and 
Gomukha. The Adrjita Marga relates to a combination of 
strokes of Alingya and Mrdanga. 

The Alipta Marga relates to a combination of the 
strokes of "Vamaka and Urdhvaka. 

The Vitasta Marga relates to a combination of strokes 
of Urdhvaka, and th'e right face of Aiikika. And the Gomukha 
Marga relates to the strokes of all Puskaras mixed up mostly 
with those of Alingya. 

Examples of the Adrjita Marga strokes are ghattam, kal- 
thita ghattam ghenta ghattam gatthimam gatthi ghantam gatthi. 

Now the Alipta Marga — dadhro ma madro mam sta du rpere 
ghram ghtm gn dn (gu) ranandum ghem, prem (ghra) dram ghem dro 
mam are the strokes of the Alipta Marga. 

(44) 'The reconstruction this bol and the following ones is tentative 
These have suffered most in the transmission of the text. 


onthe two, the level hand is seen to be used ^ 

stroke and [in the Gomukha Marga] the following [stroke 
are also to be made: dhittha tittha dittha kita khadfktdl 
gudhum du lentajhatti titthana dhitlan hu vadhe 

Similarly strokes in the Vitasta Mar 8 a should bo devoid 
of those for/, m and r. In the Urdbva (?) Marga of the 
Gomukha the strokes will he khatamatthi matta ghanta ghura- 
khettatn khata mam (vudu) na kill kitli kill man khu klm J ddhe 
dhe dho dho. 

Now the playing of Gomukha-/^ da ghenta pa khandu 
layghu khe ghata matta tarn nu dha [khu khu] nam tthi ghalam ghiti 
mam kakku tarn nu ghem kill mam ghe ghe ko mo ma. 

45. Strokes produced in the Alipta (Marga) can be 
used in all Margas. 

Graha of Mrdangas consists of groups of Aksaras 

46. I shall give their examples in the four Margas in 
due order. ° 

In the Addita [Marga] they are ghrh ghrhg ghata gheh 
matthi matthi, madatthi thin mana gheh krah kathi katah. 

In the Vitasta they are ghaga gemdra laki ta ghr ghrh ghro 
kiti ghentan gan dhi kiti kettha tha kuta kita kiri dam. 

In the Alipta they are do man gudur gheh ghe ghanlahghe 
gha ta du ma. 

_ In the Gomukha they are ghe ghetatthi katah gutta gheh 
gheta ghamtan dhi madhi tthiyam ke sa te ghe ga gheno no nam. 

47. For its Marga three are the Pracaras of the 
Puskaras, such as Sama, Visama and Sama-visama. 

xxxm. 48-57] THE NATYAjSASTRA 


J8. Sama should be the Pracara of the Vamaka and 
the Urdhvaka and of the Vamaka and Savya[ka] in the 
Aclrjita Marga, and in the Alipta Marga too. 

49. In striking the Vamaka, Urdhvaka and Madhyaka, 
the Mb hand should be used. And in striking the Savya 
and Urdhvaka, should be used the right hand in the Visama 

50. Similarly the two hands should be used in a cross- 
wise stroke in the Vitasta Marga, and the same is [to be 
done] in the Visama Pracara. 

51. In the rest of the Margas, the Pracara of hands 
will be according to one's convenience (svacchanda). In the 
combination of the Arkjita and Gomukha Margas, the Pracara 
of the hands should be Sama-visama. 

52. In connexion with the Erotic and the Comic 
Sentiments, the instruments should be played in the Addita 
Marga. In the Heroic, the Marvellous and the Furious 
Sentiments, they should be played in the Vitasta Marga. 

53., The playing of the instruments in the Pathetic 
Sentiment should be in the Alipta Marga, and in the Odious 
and the Terrible Sentiments this should be in the Gomukha 

54. Instruments should be played in connexion with 
a dance to suit the Sentiments and the States and the Sattva 
[of characters] and their gestures, mode of walking and the 
location [of the scene]. 

Playing of Dardura and Panava 

55. This rule of strokes according to the traditional 
way, should be followed by the wise. I shall speak hereafter 
of the playing of Dardura and Panava. 

56. This playing of drums is of three kinds : AtivSdita, 
Anuvadya and Samavadita. Among these, the Ativadita is 
the playing of Puskara before [a performance]. 

57. When the playing of Mrdangas follow a per- 
formance, ft is Anuvadya. 

i?l ON COVERED INSTRUMENTS [xxxin. 58-66 

When the Mrdangas are played simultaneously with a 
performance, it is Samavadita. 

68. The syllabic sounds such as k, kh, g, pn [dh] r v ah 
pr, h, nad brhulan dhra hu lam are to be used in playing a 

And kiri ghintam tho tho no dho tr hulam kiri ghintam no no 
na ntam co ktri kiri kanda mata mata tthi te te te donnam is the 
music of Panava. 

59. The experts shoiild produco in striking loosely 
and tightly Panava, the different Karanas by means of the 
tip of the little and the ring fingers. 

60. The syllabic sounds for colouring Karanas should 
be produced by the little and the ring fingers. In producing 
the remaining sounds, there should be strokes by other 

61. The playing with the Kona and the ring finger, 
should begin with the middle finger. 

The playing with the Kona and the ring linger should 
be a simple (suddha) stroke # 

62. From playing in irregular Karana, comes Irikulaham 
which is the begining of the irregular playing. It continues 
as ribhata as Karana and Anubandha, and to it is added a 

double tra. 

63. In tho Anubandha of the mixed Karana, die is 
produced by striking with the raised hand. This is to be 
specially done by the best player of drums. 

64. Notes which are charming due to their being in 
the various Karanas, are to be produced by the tip of the 
little finger. By that very finger should be produced the 
strokes a ni ni b. 

Playing of Panava 

65. This should be done by the tip of the little 
finger in a loosely trimmed drum. By tightly trimmed 
Panava should be produced dhattvo dvana 

66. In the tightly and loosely trimmed Pam-vas 
strokes ka [ha na ta ni na are produced. Similarly irregular 

xxxiu. 67-76] 


Karanaa are not produced in the Panava which is tightly or 
loosely trimmed. 

67. In the tightly trimmed Panava there can be 
strokes like kha kha nana * * * 

In the loosely trimmed Panava there should always 
the strokes like la tha. 

68. In the trimmed Panava k, kh and ta strokes should 
be produced. 

[The strokes] should be combined with irregular Karanas. 

69. It is possible to create a resonance of t in a tightly 
trimmed Panava. In the same way hn including n is also 

70. This stroke is to be made on the face of the drum 
held obliquely. The stroke will sound as kahulam krakhulatn * * 

71. This in brief is the regular playing of Panava 
described by me. 

Playing of Dardura 

I shall now similarly speak of the syllabic strokes of 
the Dardura. 

72. The free strokes in Dardura should include * * 
rakti trikalas klecadrq gauno hathipa, and thananna. 

73. One should make there [strokes to produce] 
enanaksara gradha * * * by one's right hand, and to produce 
go maltha by touching Dardura by the tip of the left 

74. Strokes giving muktolla * * should be produced 
by two * * controlled hands, and the sounds being pressed 
after seizing [the drum] by freely holding it. 

75. Thiithen ira should be produced by pressing [the 
hand] in the usual manner. Sounds produced freely will 
be special ones, while those produced by arresting the stroke 
will be [half] free and half checked. 

76. The sound will be wrongly produced if they are 
too swiftly done or done in quick succession. These in brief 
are to be known of the strokes on Dardura. 


'77. These are the pure strokes not mixed up with 
strokes of drums of other types. I shall now speak of the 
combined playing of Dardura, Panava and Mrdanga. 

Playing together the three Puskaras 

78. In the mixed playing of instruments some Karanas 
are distinctly expressed while some Karanas are produced 
simultaneously or some serially. 

79-80. In such mixed playing, individual strokes like 
n g and r and dhehka kattham Iroikho kehulam takita in the 
Mrdangas, dang syeh dreh kahulam matam in Panava and tham- 
matatthi dam kahutam matalthi den neh in Dardura are to be 

81. The [Karanas] other than these are to be always 
mixed in production, those mentioned previously are also 
to ba mixed up according to necessity. 

82. Now in the Panava simultaneously produced 
Karanas are kahatam nnannam khu khu knne khe dromo donam the 

tho rlhidr. 

83. The best player should gradually produce such 
Karanas as ta ta ta te ghonanana kirini * * kinna. 

84. In the Anubandha of Panava, the Karanas should 
be nnu khu khu na, and players of Mrdanga and Dardura should 
play the Krtapratikrta. 

85. Those [Karanas] which are to be produced (lit. 
made) in Muraja at the time of walking and other move- 
ments [of different characters in a play], should also be 
followed in all its syllables in the playing of Panava. 

86. Experts should not have any playing of [drums] 
in the Gitra Marga at in the time of walking and other 
movements. When the setting of feet is not perceptible, 
[the playing] at that time should be Sama-visania. 

87. The Uparipani [hand] should be freely used in 
playing Panava and Mrdanga. Playing of Mrdanga (?) should 
be made by similar strokes. 

88-89. Generally Panava should be taken up for play- 
ing before all other instruments. 

xxxin. 90-92] THE nAtya&STRA 174 

I shall now speak of the strokes of Dardura, which are 
dasa senta tetietsade vede revitanritamathi. After making these 
two free, and then stopping, one should make strokes like 

90. And then one should make strokes bhredhl kithi by 
the right hand and gudathim klam by the left hand. And 
then the tips of the hand making tatvavrstha, the two hands 
should be checked after striking tarn. 

91. And [the stroke] takam should indicate the rest of 
the Karan&nubandha. 

Karanas of three Puskaras 

These are the strokes in Dardura. I shall next speak 
of the (six) Karanas. 

92. The six Karanas are Eupa, Krta-pratikrta, Prati- 
bheda, Eupasesa, Pratisuska and Ogha. 

Eupa — when Karanas are produced by two hands. 

Ex. gham khu khu na khu gham kramam tlhimam ttheUaram 
ghatam ghatthi metthi ghenta kata guddharana kiti gham ghe kaghatam 
ghe kakham. 

Krtapratikrta — when one Karana originatos from the 
three Puskaras. 

Ex. tham ghu khu na khutham kramamthi vaggem raghatam 
ghatatthi gham tsam idu ghe kuhulannam do dno na. 

Pratibheda — when after the two Karanas of Mrdangas 
have been made simultaneously, the [playing] takes to Upari 
Karana. Ex. dho dhq na kho ta la na, na, tthi tadhi ghandam. 

Eupasesa — the want of distinction of Karanas. Ex. 
khu khu no ma mataghem ghendamatx ghota mathi alyam ghom. 

Pratisuska — the harmony amongst the players of 
Mrdanga, Panava and Dardura. Ex. ghatamata tthi duna ther 
jakiti keghih ghon gghendagnona kho kho kha kutr kitr vakatthi 

Ogha or Catuska^—the playing of all the instruments 
in slow tempo to produce sonant syllables. Ex. tham kiti mam 
rhi hi kiti ghih ghandanam ghonda ghona ghonv ghata ghata ghata 
gheh gham ght virini m ge ham tho tathan ghe. 

175 ON COVERED INSTRUMENTS [xxxni. 93-102 

93. Combination of Karanas are of six kinds. The 
wise should use Karanas according to this rule. 

Three Yatis 

The three Yatis are Sama, Srotogata and Gopuccha. 
The Yati is the three ways of combining tempo and Pani. 
It is of three varieties, such as Raddha, Viddha and 

The three tempos are quick, medium and slow. 

The three PSnis are Sama Pani, Ardha Pani and Upari 
Pani, the three ways of combining the Karanas. 

91. When in a performance the Yati is Sama, the 
tempo is quick and there is Upari Pani, then it is the Raddha 
playing (lit. rule). 

85. Similarly when the playing of instruments is 
given prominence and there is Upari Pani, Sama Yati and 
the medium tempo, then it is called the Raddha playing 

96. When the Yati is Srotogata, the tempo is medium 
and there is Sama Pfini, the playing is called Viddha,- 

97. The playing of music is called Viddha when in case 
characters of superior or middling typo, its procedure is 
Vartika or Daksina. 

98. When there is Ardha Pani stroke, slow tempo, 
and the Gopuccha Yati, it is called Sayyagata playing. 

99. When the singing is given prominence and 
procedure is Daksina the playing of atyukta (?) instruments is 
called Sayyagata. 

100. Their standard arises from the slow tempo etc. 
In other Panis, Kalas are to be reduced. 

101. The Yati, P&ni and the tempo in connection 
with the playing of instruments, should be observed according 
to one's liking, afrer considering the [special] performance 

of plays. 

The Three Marjanas 

102. The three Marjanas are M&yuri, Ardba-mayCrl 
and Karmaravl These three Marjanas are known to relate 
to notes of Puskaras. 

xxxn. 103-113] THE NATYA6ASTRA 176 

103. Notes in the Mayuri Marjana 1 are Gandhara in 
the Vamaka, and Sadja in the Daksina Puskara and 
Madhyama in the Urdhavaka. 

104. Notes in the Ardha-mayuri are Sadja in the . 
Vamaka Puskara, Rsabha in the Daksina, and Dhaivafci in 
the Urdhavaka. 

105. - Notes in the Karm&ravl are Rsahha in the 
Vamaka Puskara, Sadja in the Daksina Puskara and Pancama 
in the Urdhavaka. 

106. On having Marjana in Alingya one should provide 
for Nisada which is assonant to the notes [mentioned above] 
and which is a note of Jatis. 

107. The Mayuri Marjana will be in the Madhyama 
Grama, the Ardha-(Mayuri) in the Sadja Grama, and the 
Karmaravl in the Gandhara Grama, and these will include 
Over-lapping notes. 

108. Notes which include regular Srutis, are fixed. 
These relate to the Marjan&s, and the remaining ones are 
considered transitory (samcari) 

109. By the Vamaka and the Urdhvaka, accessory 
notes should be produced by their plastering which will give 
them slackness or tenseness. Similar treatment should be 
given to the Alingya and the Aiikika. 

110. Players [of drums] should by their slackness and 
tenseness as weli as piercing (?) of hides, produce notes of 
these kinds, 

Earth for the Marjana of Vamaka and Urdhvaka 

111. This Marjana of the Vamaka and the Urdhvaka 
should be done by means of earth. Now listen about the 
characteristics of the earth [suitable for this purpose]. 

112-113. The earth which contains no gravel, sand, 
grass and husks of grains, and which does not stick and not 
which is white, alkaline, pungent, yellow, black, sour or 
bitter, is suitable for plastering, and with it one should make 

(103) JKalidasa gives a description of this in Malavi I. 24. 

177 ON COVERED INSTRUMENTS [xxxm. 114-119 

114. The blackish earth from a river-bank, which is fine 
after giving out water, should be used for MarjanS. 

115-116. When the earth which spreads very much, is 
white or black or heavy or unstable or is full of husks, and 
the blackish earth not producing desirable notes, are only 
available, then one should use wheat flour or barley flour for 
this purpose. Sometimes a mixture of wheat flour and 
barley flour 1 is also used. 

117. One defect of this (i. e. the mixture) is that it 
will create a monotonous sound. 

Thus the blackish earth applied for the Marjana, will 
produce proper notes. 

Three Samyogas 

tho best of Brahmins, I shall now speak of the three 

The three Samyogas are Guru-sancaya, Laghu-saficaya 
and Guru-laghu-saiicaya. 

The Guru-saiicaya— in heavy syllables, slow tempo and 
Ogha-pravrtti, e. g. ghelo ketatn candram khetam dvam dvam 
khetam dhvam dvam dvam draghetam batlam kheltam. 

The Laghu-sancaya -light syllables and quick tempo 
e. g. ghata mala mata ghata matthighatu ghatu ghatu 

The Guru-laghu-saiicaya— light syllables [with heavy 
ones], quick tempo, e. g. ghata vimathi mathitham kitam gha 
gamgha mothikam taddham kata thim karaslhi maghave. 

Three Gatas 

The three Gatas'— Tattva, Anugata; and Ogha. 

J 18. In the Tattva playing [of drums] there should be 
strokes similar to [recognised] syllables, distinctly expressing 
words and syllables, conforming to the metre [of songs], and 
well-divided in Karanas. 

119. The Anugata playing [of drums], should begin 
with the Sama Pani or the Avara Pani, and it should hav 

(U5-116J 'Wheat flour is still used for the Marjana of drums like 

(117) 'Gata was also known as Prakrti. See C. 107. 
s It was also called Ghana. See 40 above. 

• ' 23 

xxxih. 120-129] THE NATYA£ASTRA 178 

Karanas produced by distinct strokes, and it should follow 
the song. 

120. The Anugata playing [of drums] should begin 
with Upari Pani and it should not rest on one Karana 
[only] ; it should have quick tempo ; its Karanas should 
be Aviddha and it should be used extensively. 

Eight Conformities 

121. All playing of drums should have eight Confor- 
mities {samya). e. g. in syllables, limbs, Tala, tempo, Yati, 
Graha, Nyasopanyasa and Pani. 

122. The playing which follows the metre consisting 
of short and long syllables shows Conformity in syllables. 

123. The playing which follows the song equally in the 
three limbs in its beginning (graha), end (moksa), and in its 
Kalas and Antara Kalas, shows Conformity in limbs. 

124. The playing which by its measure of Kalas and 
time, equals the body of the song, shows Conformity in Tala. 

125. The playing which follows the song equally in 
its performance in slow, medium and quick tempos, shows 
Conformity of Laya (tempo). 

126. When the playing follows Sama, Srotogata and 
Gopuccha Yati of songs, it is an instance of Conformity in 

127. The Graha of similar Srutis by stringed, and 
covered instruments and flutes along with the songs, is an 
instance of Conformity in Graha. 

128. Playing of flutes and Vlnas in such a way that 
the notes in their Nyasa and Apanyasa may agree to that 
of the song, is an instance of Conformity in Nyasa and 

129. When the Samapani, Avapani and Uparipani 
playing of instruments follow the song, it is an instance of 
Conformity in Pani. 

Eighteen Jatis 

I shall now] explain what has been called the Jatis. 
They are puddha, EkarOpa, Desanurupa, De£ad-apetarupa, 

179 ON COVERED INSTRUMENTS [xxxiu. 130-141 

Pary&ya, Viskambha, Paryasta, Samrambha, Parsni-sauiasta, 
Duskara-karanS, Urdhva-gosthika, Uccitika, Evam-vadya 
Mridanga-panava, Avakirna, Ardhavaklrna, Samplavfi and, 
Vidhuta. I shall describe their characteristics and 

130. The playing [of drums] which consists of 
Karanas of one or of two syllables, and which is fit to be 
used in all movements (lit. work), is called Suddha. 

131. The Jati consisting of kho kho kham kham kham 
kham is called Suddha ; it is the Jati [for the action] of the 
middling and superior women. 

132. When one plays separately Gomukha in the 
Addita, Alipta or Vitasta Marga, it is called Ekarupa. 

133. The playing which produces syllables of the 
Addita Marga such as droh ghoh don ghoh ghegheh is also 
Ekarupa ; it is to be used in case of songs of male singers. 

134. This Jati (i. e. Ekarupa) should be used in case 
of all characters while the Dhruva is sung in a slow or quick 
tempo, and it may also be used after one has judged Jproperly] 
the place, time and condition [of characters] in case of 
Dhruvas sung in a medium tempo. . 

135. When all other instruments follow one Karana in 
pursuance of the playing of Mrdariga, it is called Ekarupa. 

136. The Desanurupa Jati played in the Addita Marga, 
is used in the Erotic Sentiment involving the onjoyment 
of love (Srngara). It should be performed in a slow tempo. 

137. Ml mathi thamabhu tihi kima w,ill be the syllables 
in Desanurupa Jati. It is to be used in the best Erotic 
Sentiment of women. 

138. Desad-apetarupa Jati is played in Vamaka and 
Urdhvaka in a quick tempo of Avakrsta Dhruvas. It is to 
be used in the Pathetic Sentiment. 

Ex. Ghedrah ghedrah ghe gheru are the syllables in the 
Desad-apetarupa Jati in playing [drums]. 

140-141. When the same set of Karanas played 
previously are followed in all three tempos, it is the Paryaya 
Jati. Ex. ghodah ghidih gudugnou played in the Vamaka and 

xxxih. 142-151] THE NATYASASTRA 180 

Urdhvaka by the left hand should be applied in the Heroic, 
Marvellous and Furious Sentiments. 

142-143. Two heavy syllables, two light syllables, one 
light syllable, three heavy syllables, and a light syllable such 
as sin man ghata ghendra gu du gheh gheh ghama tthi metchap 
constitute Viskambha Jati. It is to be applied in the 
Erotic Sentiment of superior women. 

144. Playing of drums n all Margas with Karanas of 
one syllable, and with the Sama Pracara of hands, is called 
the Paryasta Jati. 

145. Paryasta is to used in the case of the quick 
movement of chariots, Vimanas. Vidyadharas, Bhujaiigas 
(serpents) the sky, or in torrential rains. 

145. Paryasta Jati which should be used n the move- 
ment of slow tempo in the Erotic Sentiment of superior 
characters ; it should also be used in the case of inferior 

146. Gheh tan ghohnam should constitute the Sanuambha 
Jati to be applied in case of inferior women. 

147. The Jati which has Karanas of Ardhap&ni, and 
and medium tempo in the beginning, and quick tempo in the 
end, is called Samrambha. 

1 48. Ex. Magalham kuyu ihakim. 

Parsni-samasta Jati should be played on the face of 
Urdhvankika and Daksina by quick strokes in the Vitasta 
Marga, and it is to be applied in movements of Erotic and 
Comic Sentiments. 

149. Parsni-samasta Jati should be played with 
Karanas tatthim katam mamcchi and dhandrah gudheh gu dhitah, 
with the pressure of the Parsni. This is to be applied to 
the movement of superior male character of calm type, and 
of the Danavas. 

150. By striking of all the Mrdahgas with the 
movement of Svastika hands, one should play the Duskara- 
karana Jati in all their tempos. 

151. Duskara-kararia Jati should include syllables like 
duna duno dyna kimka dhima ghoh ghoteh madatthidugakiti ghoh. 

«« uuviSKlSD INSTRUMENTS [xxxin. 152-165 

152. Duskara-karana Jati should be applied in case of 
movements of Daitya kings, chiefs, Nagas (bhujaga), Raksasas, 
Pisacas, Gandharvas, and Guhyakas, etc, 

153. Light strokes on the face 'of Urdhvaka, Ankika 
and Daksina in the Vitasta Marga or striking of Daksinaka 
and Vamaka after beginning with Ankika and Urdhvaka 
[will constitute Urdhva-gosthikfi.] 

154. Playing almost violently udhidhrh dhrh in the 
Vitasta Marga will constitute Urdhva-gosthika Jati. It is 
meant for the movement of heavenly characters. 

155. The playing which includes all the Margas 
connected in an imperceptible chain, is called Uccitika Jati. 

156. This Jati includes syllables like kentakennahgadi'tam 
and is to be applied in the natural movement of kings. 

157. The Evam-vadya Jati should bo played with 
syllables of the Gomukhi, and it should have all the strokes 
of Mrdanga ; and it should be applied in the pantomime of 
jugglary by persons with or without disguise, and it should 
include the syllables like ghehtantado tadhita gheh gheh ghalatthi 
ghata ihghe. 

159. This should be applied in case of the movement 
of dwarfs, confused persons and lame men and those who 
have pain in their body and wound in their feet, 

160. [The playing of drums] in which there is striking 
of the earth in different sections (parva) [of Karanas] is the 
Jati which suits all stages (jnanra). 

161-162. It includes syllables such as ghrom ghrom km 
tern and this Jati is to be applied to women's movements. 
Avaklrna Jati is the playing of Mrdanga with three fold 

And when the same is added to the playing of Dardura 
and Panava, it is called Ardhavaklrna Jati. 

163. This Ardhavaklrna Jati should consist of kentam 
hentam kentam played in the Gomukha Marga. 

164-165. Dardura, Panava and Mrdanga should be 
played by halves (?) the manner of the ArdhavakirnP. Jati 
and with light syllables included in the suitable, Marga, and 

xxxm. 166-175] THE NATYA&ASTRA 182 

it should consist of syllables like than goda ghehdaa. sendram. 
This called the Samplava JSti. 

166. The Samplava Jati produced by using all the 
fingers and by all the strokes of Mrdanga, is to be applied to 
movement of terrified persons and to any movement of them 
in the sky. 

167. The Vidhuta Jat produced with various charm- 
ing (divya) Karanas and strokes of Mrdangas, is to be applied 
in case of natural movement of superior persons. 

168. It should consist of syllables like darige gudughin 
titthi klama totthi kanam kukram. 

169. These are the Jatis to be known by the wise for 
application in the walk and other movements. Those which 
are not mentioned hero, should be taken from the people and 
with a view to their meaning. 

Playing of drums in three Gatas 

170. Wise men should play [drum] according to their 
rules specially in walks and other movements [of characters] 
in the ten' kinds of play (dasarupa). 

171. Tattva, Anugata and Ogha playing [of drums] is 
desired in the [songs of] seven kinds and the AsSrita metre. 

172. One who desires unision [of the two] should play 
drums with heavy and small number of syllables at the time 
of songs [indicating] walks and other movements. 

173. Tattva and sometimes Ogha too, should be applied 
in case of king, for these are natural to their charming 

174. Tattva should be applied to the first song, 
Anugata to the second and Ogha should be the playing of 
drum at the time of walking and other movements. 

Playing of drums in Dhruvas 

175. In case of remaining Dhruvas, one should have 
various [manner playing drums] according to one's liking. 

In case of the Sthitavakrsta Dhruva the playing should 
be of the Anugata kind. 

J83 ON COVERED INSTRUMENTS [xxxm. 176-186 

176. Iu ase of the Pravesiki Dhruva [the playing] 
should be Anugata. In the NaiskrSmikl and AntarS Dhruva 
the playing should have all the three tempos (laya). 

177. The Pr&sadikl Dhruva should have quick tempo, 
and Dhruvas [in general] will be of five types. This will be 
the playing [of drums] in the Prakaranas. 

178. Experts should observe through playing of drums 
the Matras and divisions in the pada of .Dhruvas at the time 
of walking and other movements. 

179. The producers should thus apply the playing [of 
drums] at the time of walking and other movements. 

How to begin the playing of drums 
I shall now speak of the manner of beginning the play- 
ing of drums. 

180. According to some this should begin with Samya 
and Tala, and according to others with the middle finger ; some 
say that it should begin with the empty space (akasa) and 
others with the fore-finger. 

18'J-181. The Samy.1 will always be the Graha in the 
Daksina drum, and in the Yama and the Urdhvaka [drum] 
the Graha will be Tala, and in the Alingya it [the Graha] will 
always by the fore-finger. 

.182-183. In the exit (niskrama) the Graha may also 
be from Akaia. The Asarita songs will always have the 
Samya Graha and the two Talas growing from the limbs of 
Dhruvas, and * * * * will have the fore-finger as its 
Graha. And the Graha of the Sirsaka will, be by the fore-finger. 

184. The Graha of the Natkuta and the Adclita as 
well as of Prasadiki will be Sannipata, and it will consist of 
[divisions of] one Kala. 

185. The Akasa Graha consists of four divisions of 
two Kalas. Its songs will be composed of limbs suiting it 
in due order. 

186. These are the Grahas relating to the drums (lit. 
instruments), to be known by the wise. 1 shall next speak of 
the playing of these in dances of energetic and of de'icate 

xxxih. 187-195] THE NATYA6ASTRA 181 

187. One Parlvarta (performance) of the song should be 
without any accompaniment of instruments. At the end of 
this the Graha should be the Sannipata in playing instrument. 

188. Or, for the embellishment of dances there should 
be change of limbs [of the performance]. And the change of 
the tempo of the song should be made. 

189. When a limb [of the performance] requires the 
use of gestures, thore should be no playing of music (i.e. 
drum). But when there is dance consisting of AngahSras 
then there should be music [to accompany it]. 

190. When due to the manner of its performance a 
limb is repeated again and again, then first it should be 
accompanied by gestures, and finally it should be connected 
with dance. 

191. The playing of drums (lit. instruments) should 
be similar in metre to that of the songs. The movement of 
limbs should be made in conformity to the measures of songs. 
and of instrumental music. 

192. The playing [of drums] in the Mukha and Upava- 
hana ( = Upohana) should consist of heavy syllables along 
with light ones, and this should be loud {prakrsta) in [the 
production of such] syllables {varna). 

193. The playing of drums along with songs in a slow 
tempo should he by mild strokes, with that in a medium 
tempo with strokes sufficient to produce the syllables (lit. 
equal to syllables) and in all these the Uparipfini should be 

194. In the Class Dance (tandava), the playing [of 
drums] by those who know [properly] about the tempo, should 
be harmonious (sama), pleasing (rakta), divided [into Kalas],. 
distinct (sphuta), produced by simple (lit. pure) strokes and 
accompanying the [various] limbs of the performance (lit. 

195. In performances including dance, the Tattva 
followed by Anugata should be played in drums, while in 
performances without any dance, the Tattva should be followed 
by Ogha. . 

185 ON COVERED INSTRUMENTS [xxxiu. 196-204 

196. [The drum] should be played [on these occasions] 
in slow, medium or quick tempo as in the case of a song, and 
the same should be the method [of playing drums] in the 
performance of Padas and dance with Angaharas. 

197. Eules regarding Padas and syllables which apply 
in case of songs and playing of instruments, should be 
observed in dance with Angaharas in connection with 
dramatic performances. 

Twenty Prakaras and their application 

198. These are the eighteen Jatis relating to drums. 
I shall now speak of Prakaras connected with them. Now the 
Prakaras are Citra, Sama, Vibhakta, Chinna, Ghinnaviddha, 
[Viddha], Anuviddha, Svarupanugata, Anusrta, [Anusrta- 
vicyuta], Durga, Avalurna, Ardhfivaklrna, Ekarupa, Pariksipta, 
Sacikrta, Sama-lekha, Citra-lokha, Sarva-samavfiya and Drdha. 

199. The playing which is performed with various 
Karanas 1 such as Nirvartita etc., by many kinds of hands, 
and which has the three tempos and the three Panis, is called 


200. Dardara, Panava and .Mrdanga aro played with 
various Karanas, and this playing combined with Tala, limbs 
and flutes is called Sama. 

201. When the playing is not very broad in position, 
and it observes equally syllables, Pani and tempo in its 
divided Karanas, it is Vibhakta. 

202. The playing [of drums] in a quick tempo suddenly 
stopping when all other instruments are separately played, 

is called Chinna 

203. The playing in which the Mrdaiigas are taken up 
with Avapani and the Panava with Upari Pani, is called 

204. When Panavas are played with the Karanas used 
for Mrdangas, and such Karanas are the various Suci-vedhas 1 , 
the playing is called Viddha. 

(199) >See92nbove. 

(204) 'This term does not appear elsewhere. 

' 24 

xxxhi. 205-217] THE NATYA£ASTRA 186 

205. The playing which is iniermixed with Viddha and 
is seen in connection with all the instruments, is called 
Anuviddha, because of the mutual Anuvedha 1 . 

206. When the playing has a simple nature and is 
done by Sama Pani, and follows its own [fixed] pattern, it is 
called Svarupa. 

207. When the Panava follows the Muraja, and 
the Dardara follows the Panava, the playing is called 

208. When after following these instruments, they 
attain the same tempo and are heard simultaneously with 
these, it is called Anusrta. 

209. When the playing of a drum following another 
instrument in its own Jati, passes into another JSti, it is 
called Anusrta-vicyuta. 

210. The playing which being irregular in its move- 
ment, develops all the Margas 1 and is done with undivided 
syllables, is called Durga. 

211. When Mrdaugas are played together with Panavas 
in many and various Karanas, the playing is called 

212. When- a Panava or a Dardara is played in quick 
tempo and with Avapani, the playing is called Ardhava- 

213. When the playing of all the instruments follow 
one Karana, it is called Ekarupa. 

214. When .the playing in a low sound of Mrdanga 
with undivided syllables, is covered with that of Panava, 
it is called Pariksipta. 

215. When various Karanas are played in one instru- 
ment to follow a dance with Arigaharas, it is called Sficikrta. 

216. When a Panava and a Muraja after being played 
first, take up (lit. looks up) the Murajas, the playing is called 

217. When different instruments with Mrdanga and 

(205) 'This passage is not quite clear, 
(210) /See above 44ff. 

18) ON COVERED INSTRUMENTS [xxxi , m . m 

Panava etc. are played together in various ways, then it is 
oalled Citralekha. 

218. The playing which follows all the Margas, adopts 
all the Panis and Layas, is various, and is well-divided 
[in their syllables], is oalled Sarva-samavaya. 

219. The playing which is in a medium tempo, har- 
monious, and has clearly produced syllables and is fit to 
accompany movements, is called Drdha. 

220. These different Prakaras of the playing of drums, 
should be taken up to follow movements and songs, after 
considering the Sentiments and the States involved. 

221. Prakaras and J&tis apply to all M&rgas. But in 
movements they are to be in their pure forms. 

Seating of the Musicians 
I shall now speak about their application. [The 
members of] the Orchestra (kutapa) should be seated on the 
stage with their face to the east. The Orchestra should be 
placed between the two doors of the tiring room mentioned 
before. The player of a Muraja (Mrdanga) should face the 
stage ; to his right should sit tho player of a Panava, and to 
his left the player of a Dardara. Here the Orchestra relates 
first to the players of covered instruments. Among them 
a male singer will face the north, to his left will be the Ylna- 
player and to his right the two flute-players. And a femalo 
singer will face the male singer. So much about the seating 
the Orchestra. 

The Tri-Sama 

Now, the players of the Mrdanga, Panava and Dardara, 
male and female singers, players of flute and Vina being 
seated, and strings of stringed instruments being tightened, 
controlled and sounded with relation to proper Grama, KSga 
and Murchana, and the Mrdanga being struck in quick succes- 
sion by pressed {nip'tdita), arrested {nigrhita) half-arrestei. 
(ardha-nigrklta), and free {mukta) strokes, the players placing 
their hands on the best Dardaras, should first of all observe 
the ceremony of the Tri-Sama for the purpose of welc om- 
ing the gods and bidding them farewell. 

xxxm. 222-2263 THE NATYA&ASTRA 188 

By means of the first Saman arising from the mouth 
of Brahman who creates, stabilizes and destroys all the living 
and non-living objects 1 , he (i e. the singer) pleases very much 
the moon on the left, the serpents on the right, and the 
creatures of water who are between these two. 

By the second SAman he pleases the Munis (sages) and 
by the wide and great third Saman the gods [in general]. 

222. As one thus pleases in due order the gods [by 
the three S&mans], so the wise are to know them as the 

223. As one thus takes shelter with Brahman, Kesava 
and Siva, so it is called the Tri-sama by the sages. 

224. As [the syllable] Om is pronounced in the 
beginning of the four Vedas, so the Tri-sama is sung [in the 
beginning] of all the songs. 

225. This Tri-sama is to observe three Prakaras, three 
tempos, the Addita Marga, and a division of six or three 
Kalas [in its accompaniment by drums]. 

226 ( . Its syllables should be of three kinds including 
heavy and light ones, and its au ( = a and a), and m should be 
uttered thrice with the triads. 

At the end of this (i.e. Trisama), after following the 
procedure of the Preliminaries, one should perform the 
Bahir-gltas in three tempos with the drumming which will 
follow the song in its metre and syllables. At the application 
of the Asarita song, one should perform the drumming of the 
Tattva and Anugafca Prakrti. When after the Trisama the 
Pratyah&ra etc, have reached their end, then the drumming 
is to begin. There one should first of all play all the drums 
in the following order : the Vamake and Urdhvaka should be 
struck first, then the Alingyaka with the Gopuccha Yati, and 
playing of the Vipafici should be performed afterwards. [If 
you ask] why, [the answer is] that the drums played first will 
give rise to Suocess. 

(221) description of Brahman possessing himself all the separate 
functions of the Hindu Trinity, is probably to be met with in no other 
work. * 


The Performance of the Dhruva is first indicated by 
drums. Then proceeds in the auditorium full of women 
and common people, the music which is capable of creating 
their interest. 

Different Tastes of Listeners 

227. Masters [of the musical art] like a harmonius 
closure (sama), the scholars distinct [enunciation of] words 
{pada) of the song, the women a sweetness [of voice in 
singers] and the rost [of the audience] a full-throated singing 
(lit. crying aloud). 

Variety of Drumming to suit Occasions 

At the conclusion of this [playing of drums], the 
experts in the Mrdaiiga should produce in their instruments, 
mostly by the touch of their fingers, a music which will 
consist of a collection of light Yarnas, and which will rotate 
to the Tanrlava, at the time of female dancer's appearance 
[on the stage]. The song relating to the appearance of tho 
fainale dancer being finishod, the Sannipatas should be taken 
up, [In connection with them] a music related to the 
Karanas conforming to the Angajiaras of tho Lasya dance, 
should be combined with the Karana Dhiitu. Hence thore 
is the saying samam raktam. 

Next, at the start of the performance music should be 
played in relation to the Karana of the Alipta Miirga. It 
should be performed by striking tho Vamaka and the 
Urdhvaka, and will be as follows ; dlujf mali dhah matha dheh 
dhiti tit sam ham ham khoka ne devyam kentam kit gheh. 

The change after these two [kinds of playing] will be to 
that of pure Jati in the four Margas consisting of kho kho nam 
kho kho nam kho kho khona' 

After their stoppage there should be kho kho do kho kha 
ke nam gha gha gha tagham in setting the neuter foot'. Just as 
there should be playing of kondukhoh at the time of entering 
of the Caturthak&ra. 2 This should be played mostly by running 
fingers [on the drums]. 

(227) "'See V. 99-100. 2 See V. 101-104. 

Jtxjtra.] TliE NATYA§AsTRA 190 

In the Utthapana of the Vastu and in the Apakys^a 
Oari there, the playing should begin with gheghentam gheh ho 
ghakhanadonam gho ghagheghaghe. 

In the Suskapakrsta Dhruva of the NSndl, the playing 
should be in the Pratisuska Karana and should have Tho gho 
tho khe kha ghoghegheh nadabhyah khoddho kutam kha khe khena kasu 
guka gheh nokhi kheh tan kheh nam kiti kiti ghagheh ghe katuka 
ghudu kamla volakho kho kho kho vaghnu tetam malim hammam kiti 

One should take to Sannip&ta of the Addita Marga, 
when the Carl accompanying the recitation of the Jarjara- 
sloka 2 , is performed during the ceremonies of the Rangadv&ra 3 . 
And in the Mahaoari 4 [connected with this] there should be 
playing of drums in the Vitasta Marga, and the Graha therein 
should be by the forefinger. Similarly during the Preli- 
minaries an extraordinary playing of drums suited to Tancjava 
(Class dance) has been recommended, and it should have 
Sannipata Graha and should be played by the left hand [with 
the following syllables] : hho kho nam do do dokah mokah dahena 
natha tho no gho gha tamata thigham gho gho katha kata jham kho 
khokhita kata katam ghata kamatthi gho gho milhi ham kiti kinatn 

Next an example of playing of the Alipta Marga Bhould 
be given. 

The playing in the Vitasta Marga should have its 
Graha with the forefinger : It is as follows : nana kho ka 
nano madhunam kho kho mathi takitam tavitam kinti kitam kiti 
kinto kho kho matita matthi tramati tikiti kentam drentam nata 
kentam taghitandram krntam dram drantam kinnam kinnam kentam 
mudr&m ghreh ghreh kleh ghram ghram dragram ghadre dram 
ghendram ghendram ghahe kleh. 

Prom the time of tossing the curtain, there should be 
the playing of drums, during the Caturasra Preliminaries, for 
the success of the performance. In the Tryasra Preli- 

»SeeV. 118-119. 
»SeeV. 116-118. 
«See V. f27ff. 

191 ON COVERED INSTRUMENTS [xxxm. 228-231 

minaries there should be the same playing without any 
interval of time. 5 

I shall also give directions about the playing of drums 
suitable at the time of walking and other movements of the 
four Heroes 6 Dhlrodatta, Dhiroddhata, Dhlralalita and 
Dhiraprasanta, in different plays like Nataka. 

During the movements of gods, the playing should 
inolude bram, dhram dhram dhradram. During that of kings 
it should have ghemtim, and in case of middling men the 
playing should include dhram klam dhatu gheh ghet titthi duna, 
kiti dram nam nam dhradram. 

Now I shall speak about the playing of drums in the 
Sthlta [Dbruva]. 

228. At that time, steps [of dance] should conform to 
rhythm consisting of three Kalas, two Kalas or of one Kala. 
And the song should conform to drums. Now I shall speak 
of the playing of drums in different conditions [of characters 
in a play]. In their quick walking, tho playing should 
include vam vam ghe ghe tarn, and it should be performed by 
the unequal strokes by fingers. These have been written 
properly while discussing the . movement of fingers. 
Again I shall describe the rules regarding the playing 
of drums. 

229. In walking and other movements the experts 
should provide for playing of drums with Talas 1 of three or 
four Kalas, after considering the tempo and manner of 
walking [of characters concerned]. , 

230. In the playing of drums there should be no pause 
of one Kala or of two Kalas between the Dhruvas. Hence 
the movements should be in unision with the playing of 
drums and not with the songs. 

231. In quick walking, the Pata [of Tala] should be 
as described in case of walking and other movements. Strokes 
like dhrah dhrah gheh gheh should mostly be made in this 

•See above V. 148ff. «See XXXIV 18-20. 

(229) > See above XXXI. on Tabs. 

xxxra. 232] THE NATYAiSASTRA 192 

232. In case of movements of boats, chariots and aerial 
cars, birds, moving heavenly bodies, the playing of drums 
should be by running the fingers [on the face of drums] or by 
striking in the Catuska by the two hands alternatively. 

In case of sorrow, suffering illness, curse, death of dear 
ones, loss of wealth, killing, imprisonment, vow, austerity 
and fasting etc, the playing drums in Utthapana should 
be according to the Alipta Mavga mentioned before. 

In case of walking of Daityas, Danavas, Yaksas, 
Raksasas and Grahas the playiDg of drums should include 
Karanas such as Ark dhrh khada together with gha tn tn tanta 

In case of dancing movements the playing of drums 
should include ghetam katakam. 

In case of walking of Yatis, Munis, Pasupatas and 
Sakyas the playing of drums should include do kho dvilvikhi 
duguvoo klanado dhanti kitiki. 

And in the walking of old Srotriyas, Kaficuklns and cor- 
pulent persons, the playing should include dhram dhrom dhram 
droh dhih dronam kho kho na. 

In case of movements of elephants, horses, asses, 
camels chariots and aerial cars, the playing should include 

In case of superior, middling and inferior men, the 
playing of drums should be performed after a consideration 
of Sentiments and States in this world. 

So much abo,ut the playiDg of drums in case of males. 
I shall now . describe that in case of females. The playing 
in case of superior females who are goddesses, will include 
mostly vamgati kipi dhmela prathi ghe. And in case of queens 
it should include mostly kathi kathi mathi do do khu khu. In 
case of Brahmin women it should have cam hitti, kitthi ghata 
mala thi ghe. In case of middling women who are courtezans, 
female artisans and actresses, the playing should include gha 
khu khu ghikita matthi kina tonam gho. For inferior women the 
playing should include marathi kule kedu khukhi khi mostly. So 
much in brief about the playing in case of females. 

193 ON COVERED INSTRUMENTS [xxxm. 233-235 

In their special conditions, playing in similar conditions 
of males, should be performed. And from these the general 
Vibhavas like fear, suffering, sorrow, anger etc. arise. Here 
also, there shonld be playing of drums in proper Margas 
which relate to Sentiments and States. 

233. Moreover a person who plays drums after observing 
proper Jati, Marga and Prakara in suitable Karanas and 
syllables, is the best player. 

Now the interval-playings are Anuvaddha, Vipraharika 
Siddhi-grahana and Paricchinna. 

Ex. of the Anuvaddha playing is kho khe tie khe ghe. 

Praharita ( = Vipraharita) at tho conclusion or play iDg 
is dhram dram kho kho. 

Siddhi [grahana] also. 

234. Siddhi [grahana] should be played at the acquisi- 
tion of wealth, forgetfutness, fatigue and at the tightening 
of clothes and ornaments. 

This is Siddhi should take to proper Margas, and include 
Citra Karanas and consist of five or six Kalas. 
It should also be played— 

235. At the stopping of recitatives, at the pause coming 
in the wake of doing anything, at the falling of clothes or 
ornaments or in controlling the crown or the headgear, 

The playing after the beginning of the Dhruva, should 
be clear and should relate to all the drums aud should include 
dhum dhum dhum Ika in the Vitasta Marga. 

' In case 'of superior females there should be a playing 
in the Addita Marga, which is to include na nam kho khe nannam 
In case 'of inferior females there should be playing suited to 
Kbanja Natkuta Dhruva, and should include sam ke te kih 
vinnam. In other conditions these should be reduced by a half. 
" Now about the playing of drums in the PrasadikI and 
PravesikI, Aksepiki and Avakrsta [Dhruvas]. 

The playing in the PrasadikI [Dhruva] should be with 
Sama Pani and is to be divided into Karanas. While th.s 
is in a quick tempo the playing should be with the Upari Pam 
in the. Citra Karana. 

xxxra. 236-239] THE NATYA6ASTRA 194 

And in the Sthita (slow) tempo * * * * 
In the Avakrsta Dhruva in the Addita Marga there 
should be Ardha-sannip&ta. 

236. Thus there should be playing of drums in walking 
and other movements at the time of Prasadikl and Antara 

237. As a ohange, one song without any playing of 
drums should be sung, and at the end of the Sannipata, the 
drums should b9 taken up for playing. 

In the quick and slow tempos there should be strokes 
ta sa sa. In the Addita Dhruva na de de de de de kho kho kha 
and in the Khanja and Natkuta Dhruvas na nanna vu vu na na 
kho na nna de de de de kho kho kho kha. 

Now the Udghatya [playing]. 

238. The playing which is performed at the time of 
excess of hurry or joy or surprise, excitement or sorrow or at 
the time of receiving a gift, is called Udghatya. 

Now I shall speak of the closure (lit. release) [of playing]. 
It is of tw,o kinds : Samhanana and Sanisarana. Now closure 
at the Uddhata* and the quick Anubandlia 2 should include 
ghettam kikiti datta kettikim godo ghaghe do gha le gho gheyado. 

Now the closure of the Khaflja-Natkuta ; it should 
include dham dram dham dram takitam takitam gududhe. 

The closure of the same in the slow tempo should 
include dhe dham dheta matadhe ghe chimatam kantachi matacht 
harmaka dldhiti 

The closure of the Addita Dhruva is kinta kintam. The 
olosure of the same in the slow tempo should include ghatatam 
In the Avakrsta it should be vavota. 

239. These are the beginning and the closure of 
Dhruvas of Niskr&ma (exit), Pravesa (entrance), AksepikI 
and Antara classes. 

The player of drums should strive in this way with a 
knowledge of the Tula, time and the notes. 

On this there are the following couplets : 
(238) 'This has not been explained before, 

195 ON COVERED INSTRUMENTS ixxxm. 240-251 

Faults of a Drummer 

240. The wise say that a player of drums, who does 
not know about the Tala, [proper] occasion and the S&stra 
about it, is merely 'a striker of hides' (carma-ghataka). 

241. The producer should apply the playing of drums 
according to these rules. Next I shall speak about the 
characteristics of drums. 

Characteristics of Drums 

242. Three are the shapes of Mrdangas. In shape 
they are like myrobalan, barley and cow's tail. 

243. The Ankl or Aukika is like a myrobalan. and the 
Urdhvaka is like a barley, and the Alingya resemble's a cow's 

244. The Mrdanga and the Ankike should be three 
Talas 1 and a half long, and their face should be twelve fingers 
[in diametre]. 

245. And the Urdhvaka should be four Talas long and 
its face should be fourteen fingers [in diametre]. 

246. The Alingya should bo made three Talas long 
and its face eight fingers [in diametre]. 

247. The Panava should be made sixteen fingers long 
and its middle should be thin, and faces should be eight and 
five fingers [in diametre]. 

248. Its lips (i.e. rims) should be mado half of a finger 
[in thickness], and its middle should be hollow and four 
fingers [in diametre], 

249-250. The Dardara should be like a bell sixteen 
fingers [in diametre]. Its face should be that of Ghata and 
should be twelve fingers [in diametre], and have a fat lip on 
all sides. 

Characteristics of the best Hides 

250-251. Next I shall speak of the best characteristics 
of hides. These should not be old, torn, pecked by crows, 
covered with the least fat, soiled by smoke or fire. 

(20) 'For the measurement of Tala see the note on ftl. 21. 

Xxxm. 252-263] THE nAtYAiSAsTRA 1§6 

252-253. Cow's hide which is free from these six 
blemishes, and the face of which is like blossoms in colour, 
or is white like snow or Kunda flowers, and glossy and free 
from flesh and is fresh, is good. 

253-264. After procuriDg such hides with hairs on 
them, an intelligent person should soak them in water for a 
night and then take them out. 

On the making of Drums 

254-255. Then one should bind and fix to drums the 
small round cuttings (candraka) of this, after rubbing these well 
with cleansed oowdungs. 

255-256. In these round cuttings [fixed to drums] one 
should make Puspavarta of three layers {trivarti), and a 
Parikara named Kaksa, and a Svastika in its neck {griva). x 

One should make three hundred aksaras by drums. 

257. (This couplet is corrupt and untranslatable). 

Applying Rohana to Drums 
258-259. This rule is applicable to all the Aiikikas. 
But one should not apply to Mrdangas, a Kohana consisting 
of sesamum paste mixed with cow's ghee and oil. 

Ceremony of Installing Drums 

259-260. After binding the Ankika, Alingya and 
Urdhvaka [with strings] in this manner, these should be 
placed on the ground after worshipping the gods. 

260-263. Under the asterism of Citra or Hasta during 
an auspicious day of the Suklapaksa, a well-born master of 
[dramatic arts] who is free from passions, is an expert in 
playing solid instruments, and who knows the theory of 
songs, has a sweet temper, has his sense-organs under 
control, has fasted and cut his hairs short, and has worn 
white clothes, and has taken strong vow, should make three 
Mandalas* with cowdung free from bad smell, and assign these 
three to Brahman, Sankara (Siva) and Visnu. 

(255-256) l The terms used here are not clear. 
(260-263) J Mandala - circular space. 

1» ON COVERED INSTRUMENTS txX x,„. 263 . 2 75 

«. J^f S Fir8t ° f aU h6 8 il 0uld P lace the Alingya in 
the Mancjala of Brahman, and the Urdhvaka should be placed 
in the second Mancjala named after Eudra. And the 
Utsangika (Ankika) should be put across the Mandala of 

265. To the Alingya he should make an offering 
consisting of honey mixed with Payasa accompanied by 
various kinds of flower. 

266-267. To the Ankika an offering of Apupa and 
Locika should be given. And next should be made all the 
offerings, to the Urdhvaka in a Svastika together with Locika, 
ApQpa, Pinda and Kendavika (?). 

267-268. This offering should be decorated wilh 
Dhustura, Karavlra and other flowers, and the offering 
should also be carefully made of blood together with red 

268-269. To the Ankika which is on the Vaisnava 
Mancjala surrounded by all the Blja[mantra], one should place 
an offering together with garlands, clothes and unguents of 
yellow colour, and Payasa and.Caru of various kinds! 

269-270. After making the Brahmins utter Svasti on 
paying them Daksina previously, and after worshipping tho 
Gandharvas [one should play drums]. 

270-271. Then the Panava should be bound on all sides 
with well-prepared strings. And then the Puskarikas should 
be covered with hide. In this way Mrdangas, Panavas and 
Dardura are to be made. , 

272-274. I shall [now] speak of the gods of these 
[instruments]. Vajreksana, Sankukarna and Mahagramani are 
said to be gods of Murajas (drums). Mrdangas are so called 
because of being made of mrt (earth), and they are called 
Bhandas because they bhramayati (move about) Murajas are 
so called because they are placed in an upright position 
{urdhvakarana), and they are called Atodya because of relating 
to todana (striking). 

274-275. Eules of Bhandas have been given. Now the 
rules of Panava are being described. 'Daru' io> so called 

kxxin. $75-287] tHE NATYA&ASTRA 198 

because of darqyati (one splits it up). And from the same 
Dardara originates. 

275-276. After seeing that the Mrdangas, Panavas and 
Dardaras have been made, the great sage [Svati] brought 
about a similarity of their notes with those of clouds. 

276-279. The high sounding cloud named Vidyujjihva 
gave note to Vama[ka], the great cloud named Airavana to 
Urdhvaka, the rain-cloud named Tadit to Alingya, the 
Puskara cloud to the Daksina, and Kokila to the Vamafka] 
and (the cloud named) Nandi to the drum named Alingya 
and the cloud name Siddhi to Ankika and Pingala to Alingya. 

279-280. Those who want Success [of performances] 
should make to these clouds, offerings which are dear to 
spirits (bkuta). 

After worshipping these gods one should produce a 
dramatic spectacle (preksa) in the stage. 

The Mrdanga should bo placed in a heap of dried 

281-282. One 1 should then perform the regular Sauti 
rites with the Atodyas and Panavas brought out by the dancer. 

282-283. In the performance of the ten kinds of play 
{da'sarupa) four Panavas should be used, and a similar number 
of Atodyas are also to be played in different situations [in 
those plays]. 

283-284. The Mrdanga, Panava and Dardara are to be 
played in the Nataka, Prakarana, Vithi, Bhana and Dima. 

These are the. characteristics of Mrdangas that should 
be known by wise [producers]. 

Characteristics of Upahastas 

285-286. I shall now speak of characteristics of 
Upahastas. These are five viz. Kartari, Samahasta, Hasta- 
pani, Vartana and Dandahasta. 

286-287. The movement of the forefinger and the 
thumb of the two hands by letting them fall one after another 
is called Kartari. 

(281-282) ^he preceding verse is corrupt. 

199 ON COVERED INSTRUMENTS [xxxm. 287-296 

287-288. The serial falling in the same T&la of the 
two halves of the two palms [on the face of the drum] is 
called Samahasta. 

288-289. The clear falling of the back [of the palm] 
and the fingers of the left hand, and the falling once of the 
right [palm], is called Panitraya. 

289-290. The four [strokes] when the right hand falls 
first and the left hand afterwards, are called VartanS, because 
they occur by turns. 

290-291. When one taking with strikes by the right 
hand after beginning the stroke with the left hand, the serial 
strokes are called Dandahasta. 

291-292. The four qualities of all these hands are 
eleganco, switftness, variety and firmness. These are what 
I had to say about the characteristics of hands. 

Characteristics of Good Drummers 

263-294. I shall next speak of the characteristics of a 
[good] player of drums. He who is an expert in songs, playing 
of instruments, Kala, tempo, -and who knows how to begin a 
song, to bring it to a finish, and has a mini ble hand [in 
playing] and knows about the various Panis, and [general] 
rules of the Success, and is an expert in singing DhruvSs, and 
who practises Kal&s, and has a pleasing hand [in playing 
instruments], power of concentration, and who can produce 
pleasing Marjana and is strong [in body], and regular in his 
physical and intellectual habits, and is- an accomplished 
[artist], is called the best player [of drums]. 

Qualities of a good player of the Mrdanga 

295-296. One who knows how to give proper plastering 
to drums and has undergone laborious training in the four 
Margas, has earned success of all kinds, has no defect of limbs, 
has practised all the Karanas well, and knows songs in the 
Sama(?)and knows many kinds of Grahas and knows how 
to perform good music, is called a good player of the Mrdanga, 
because of his various qualities [mentioned above]. • 

xxxn. 297-301] THE NATYA&STRA 200 

Qualities of a good player of the Parjava 

297. He who is unerring, expert in the use of hands 
and in observing time and in covering faults of performance, 
and well-practised in playing Karanas, is an expert player of 
Pariava due to the qualities [mentioned]. 

298. The player of the Dardara, who is firm, clever [in 
his art], swift, nimble, knows all the rules of playing and 
knows to play other instruments as well, is praised [by all]. 

General Rules of Drumming 

299. After observing the performance of all kinds of 
plays, the playing of drums has been described after consider- 
ing the taste of all men. That which has not been mentioned 
should be devised by good [producers] after considering the 
Marga and the Jati [of songs]. 

Qualities of the Mrdauga 

300. The playings of Mrdangas in which strokes are 
distinct, clear, well-divided, loud though controlled, and 
adheres ,to the palm, and includes the three MarjanSs, and 
is full of combination of pleasing notes, is mentioned 
for its quality. 

Indispensability of Drums in a Performance 

301. One should first of all bestow care on the playing 
[of drums]. For this playing has been called the basis (lit. 
bed) of the dramatic performance. This playing and the 
songs being well-performed the production of plays do not run 
any risk. 

Here ends the Chapter XXXIII of Bharata's NatyasSstra, 
which treats of Covered Instruments. 



1. I shall next speak of the salient features of 
characters, and of all the four kinds of Heroes „ e 
essential aspeot. eir 

Three Types of Character in a Play 
2-3 Characters male and female [in a play], are 
m general of three types : superior, middling and inferior. 

A Superior Male Character 

3-4. [A man] who has controlled his senses, is wiso 
skilled 1 in various arts and crafts (iilp a ), honest, expert in 
enjoyment, 2 brings consolation to the poor, is versed in 
different Sastras, grave, liberal, patient and munificent, is to 
he known as a 'superior' (uttama) [male]' character. 

A Middling Male Character 
4-5. [A man] who is an expert in the manners of 
people, proficient 1 in arts and crafts as well as in Sastras, 

(3-4) 'See note 1 on 4-5 below. 

2 The text here is corrupt, The reading bhogadaksa 
is suggested on the assumption that a superior male character 
controlling his senses should not invariably be an ascetic, and he 
should be disposed to enjoy life legitimately. 

3 As female characters have been treated of below, this and the 
two following passages relate to male characters. 

(4-5) 'If should be noticed that a superior male character 
should be skilled in various arts and crafts, while a middling male 
character should be proficient in these. The purpose of this distinc- 
tion seems to be significant. A superior character should have 
knowledge of arts and crafts as an accomplishment, while the middl- 
ing character should be capable of making a professional use of 
these for earning a livelihood. Samvahaka ((Mrcch. II) who is a 
middling character, seems to support this view. About his practis- 
ing massage, he says : Madam, I learnt it as an art. It has now 
become my profession (ajjae kaleti sikkhida, ajivia danim samvutla). 

' 26 

xxxiv. 6-16] THE NATYASASTRA 202 

has wisdom, sweetness [of manners], is to be known as a 
'middling' (tnadhyama) [male] character. 

Inferior Male Characters 

6-9. [Men] who are harsh in words, ill-mannered, low- 
spirited, criminally disposed, 1 irascible and violent, can kill 
friends, can kill anyone by torturing, 2 are prone to engage him- 
self in useless things, speak very little, are mean, haughty 
in words, ungrateful, indolent, expert in insulting honoured 
persons, covetous of women, fond of quarrel, treacherous, doers 
of evil deeds, stealers of others' properties, are to be known 
as 'inferior' {adhama) [male] characters. These are the three 
classes of male oharacter according to their nature. 
A Superior Female Character 

10-12. I shall now speak in due order of female 
characters. A woman who has a tender nature, is not fickle, 
speaks smilingly, is free from cruelty, attentive to words of 
her superiors, bashful, good-mannered, has natural beauty, 
nobility and such other qualities, and is grave and patient, 
is to be known as a 'superior' [female] character. 

A Middling Female Character 
12-13. A woman who does not possess these qualities 
to a great extent and always, and has some faults mixed 
with them, is to be known as a 'middling' [female] character. 

An Inferior Female Character 

13-14. An 'inferior* female character is to be known 
in brief from an inferior male character. 

A Character of Mixed Nature 
14-16. Maid servants and the like are characters 
of mixed nature. A hermaphrodite is also a mixed character, 
but of the inferior kind. O the best of Brahmins, the 
Sakara 1 and the Vi$a a and others [like them] in a drama, are 
also to be known as characters of mixed nature. 

(6-9) l Safyabuddhika. *Citraghataka. 

(14-16> »SeeXXXV,78 ! See XXXV. 77. 

563 TYPES OF CHARACTER [xxxiv. 17.27 

So much about the characters which may be male, 
female or hermaphrodite. 

Four Classes of Hero 

17-18. I shall now describe their classes according to 
their conduct. Among these, Heroes (nayaka) are known to 
be of four classes, and they belong to the superior and the 
middling types and have various characteristics. 

18-19. The Hero is described as being of four kinds : tho 
self-controlled and vehement (dlurotldhata), the self-controlled 
and light-hearted (dhiralalita), the self-controlled and exalted 
(dhirodatta) and self-controlled and calm {dhuapra'santa). 

19-21. Gods are self -con trolled and vehement, kings 
are self-controlled and light-hearted, ministers are self- 
controlled and exalted, and Brahmins and merchants are 
self-controlled and calm Heroes. 

The Four Classes of Jesters 
21-22. To these again belong the four classes of 
Jesters. They are Sannyasins, Brahmins, other twice-born 
castes and disciples, in cases respectively of gods, kings, 
ministers (amatja) and Brahmins.' 

These should be friends during [the Heroo's] separation 
[from the beloved one], and experts in conversation. 

The Hero 

23. In case of many male characters in a play, one 
who being in misfortune or distress, ultimately attains eleva- 
tion, is called the Hero. 

24. And when there are more than one of such 
description, one whose misfortune and elevation are promi- 
nent, should be called the Hero. 

Four Classes of Heroine 
25-27. These [four] are always Heroos in dramatic 
works (lit. poetical compositions). I shall now speak of 
Heroines who [also] are of four classes : a goddess, a queen, a 

(21-22) 'The text here has been emended with the help of the 
ND. (168b). See also BhP. (pp. 281-282). 

xxxiv. 27-37] THE NATYA&ASTRA \204 

woman of high family, and a courtezan. These according 
to their characteristics, are of various kinds, such as self- 
controlled (dhira), light-hearted (lalita), exalted (udatta) and 
modest (nibhrta). 

27-28. Goddesses and king's women possess all these 
qualities. Women of high family, are exalted and modest, 
while a courtezan and a crafts-woman may he exalted and 

Two Glasses of Employment for Characters 

29-30. The characters [in a play] have two kinds of 
of employment : external (bahya) and internal [abhqyantara). 
I shall now speak of their characteristics. 

[The character] which has dealings with the king, is 
an internal employee, and one who has dealings with the 
[people] outside, is an external employee. 

Female Inmates of ths Harem 

31-34. I shall now describe the classes and functions 
of women 1 who have dealings with the king. They are the 
chief queen (mahadevi), other queens {devi), other highborn 
wives (svamirii), ordinary wives (sthayini), 2 concubines (bhoginl), 
craftswomen (silpakarinl), actresses (nalaklya), 3 dancers {nartaki), 
maids in constant attendance (anucarika), maids of special 
work (paricarika), maids in constant movement (sancarika), 
maids for running errands (presana-carika), Mahattaris 
(matrons), Pratiharis (ushers) and maidens (kutnari) and 
SthavirSs (old dames) and Ayuktikas (female overseers). 

The Chief Q,ueen 

35-37. The chief queen is one who has been conse- 
crated on her head, is of high birth and character, possessed 

(31-34) 'This gives us a very good glimpse of the royal harem 
in ancient India. 

'This passage shows that a kiug in ancient India, had a large 
number of wives. According to a Ceylon tradition, the king 
Bindusara had sixteen wives. In Svapna. (VI. 9) Udayana refers 
to his mother-in-law Mahasena's chief queen as sotfoiantahpurajyesfha 
(being at the head of the sixteen wives). 

3 Cf. Pali natakUlhi. 

205 TYPES OF CHARACTER txxxiv. 38-45 

of accomplishments, advanced in age, indifferent [to her 
rivals] 1 , free from anger and malice, and who [fully] under- 
stands the king's character, shares equally his joys and 
sorrows, is always engaged in propitiatory rites for the good 
of the [royal] husband, and is calm, affectionate, patient, and 
benevolent to the inmates of the harem 

Other Queens 
38-39. Those [wives of the king] who have all these 
qualities except that they are denied proper consecration, 
and who are proud and of royal descent, are eager for enjoy- 
ing affection, are pure and always brilliantly dressed, 
jealous of their rivals, 1 and maddened on account of their 
young age and [many other] qualities, are called queens 


Other Highborn Wives 

40-41. Daughters of generals, or ministers or of other 
employees when they (i.e. their daughters) are elovated 
by the king through bestowal of affection and honour, and 
become his favourite due to good manners and physical 
charm, and attain importance through their own merits, are 
known as highborn wives (svamini). 

Ordinary Wives 

42-43. Ordinary wives of a king are those who have 
physical charm and young age, is violent [in sexual acts], 
full of amorous gestures and movements, expert in the 
enjoyment of love, jealous of rivals, [always] alert and ready 
[to act], free from indolence and cruelty, and capable of 
showing honours to person according to their status. 


44-45 Concubines of the king are women who are 
honest {dak*) and clear [in their dealings], exalted, always 
brilliant with their scents and garlands, and who follow 
the wishes of the king and are always devoid of jealousy, 

i8M9)"~Bhasa seems to disregard this rule. For Padniavatl 
has no jealousy against Vasavadatta (see Svapna.). 

xxxiv. 46-54J THE nAtVaSAsTRA 2o6 

are well-behaved, demand no honour, are gentle [in manners] 
and not very vain, and are sober, humble, and forbearing. 


46-47. Those women who are conversant with various 
arts and skilled in different crafts, know different branches 
of the art of perfume-making, are skilled in different modes 
of painting, know all about the comfort of beds, seats and 
vehicles, and are sweet, clever, honest (daksa), agreeable 
(citra), clear [in their dealings], gentle, and humble, are to 
be known as crafts- women (tilpa-karika). 


48-51. Women who have physical beauty, good 
qualities, generosity, feminine charm, patience, and good 
manners, and who possess soft, sweet and charming voice, 
and varying notes in her throat, and who are experts in the 
representation of Passion (held), and Feeling (bhava), know 
well of representation of the Temperament (sattva), have 
sweetness of manners, are skilled in playing musical instru- 
ments, have a knowledge of notes, Tala and Yati, and are 
associated with the master [of the] dramatic art, clever, skilled 
in acting, capable of using reasoning positive and negative 
(uhapoha), and have youthful age with beauty, are known as 
actresses (nataktya). 1 


61-54. Women who have [beautiful] limbs, are convers- 
ant with the sixtyfour arts and crafts (Jtda), are clever, 
courteous in behavour, free from female diseases, always 
bold, free from indolence, inured to hard work, capable of 
practising various arts and crafts, skilled in dancing and 

(48-51) 'Perhaps for the personal safety of the king, male 
actors were not admitted in the theatre attached to the royal harem. 
The Brhatkatha-sloka-samgraha (II. 32, ed. Lacote) testifies to the 
antiquity of this practice. In the palaces of the king of Cambodia 
and of some Sultans of Indonesia too, women only are engaged to 
product: plays. See Santidev Ghosh, Java-O-Balir Nrtya-glt (Bengali) 
Calcutta, 1952 p. 11. 

207 TYPES OF CHARACTER [xxxiv. 54-61 

songs, who excel by their beauty, youthfulness, brilliance and 
other qualities all other women standing by, aro known as 
female dancers (nartaki). 

Maids in Constant Attendance 
54-55. Women who do not under any condition loave 
the king, are maids in constant attendance {anucarika). 

Maids of Special Work 
55-57. Those women who are employed for looking after 
the umbrella, bed, and seat as well as for fanning and 
massaging him, and applying scent to his body and [assisting 
him] in his toilet, and his wearing of ornaments, and gar- 
lands, are known as maids of special work (paricarika). 
Maids in Constant Move 
57-59. Those women who [always] roam about in 
different parts [of the palace], gardens, temples, pleasure 
pavillions, and strike the bell indicating the Y&mas, 1 and those 
who having these characteristics are precluded by the play- 
wrights from [sexual] enjoymont, 2 are called maids in cons- 
tant move (samcarika). 

Errand Girls 
59-60. Women who are employed by the king in secret 
missions connected with his love-affairs, and are often 
to be sent [in some such work], are to be known as errand- 
girls (presaM'carika). 

60-61. Women who, for the protection of the entire 
harem and for [the king's] prosperity, take pleasure in singing 
hymns [to gods], and in performing auspicious ceremonies, 
are known as Mahattarls (matrons). 

(55^)^ Vikram. (V. 3. 1.) a Yavanl brings the king his 
bow. She was indeed a paricarika. But her Yavai.a origin is n»t 
mentioned in the NS. 

(57-59) 'Yania -one eighth part of the day, three hours. 

'That is, they should not be personally implicated in love- 

xxxiv. 61-70] THE NATYa£ASTRA 208 

61-62. Women who lay before the king any business 
related to various affairs [of the state] such as treaty, war 
and the like, are called Pratiharis (usher). 

62-63. Girls who have no experience of love's enjoy- 
ment (rati-sambhoga), and are quiet, devoid of rashness, modest, 
and bashful, are said to be maidens (kumarl). 1 

Old Dames 

63-64. Women who know the manners of departed 
kings, and have been honoured by them, and who know the 
character of ali [the members of the harem] are said to be 
old dames (vrddha). 


64-66. Women who are in charge of stores, weapons, 1 
and fruits, roots and grains, who examine the food 
[cooked for the king], and are in charge of [lit. thinkers 
of] scents, ornaments and garlands and clothes [he is to use\ 
and who are employed for various [other] purposes, are called 
Ayuktikas (female overseer). 2 These in brief are the different 
classes women of the [royal] harem. 

Other Women Employees in the Harem 

67. I shall now speak of the characteristics of the 
remaining characters who are employed in some duty or 
special work [in the harem]. 

68-70. Those who are not rash, restless, covetous and 
cruel in mind, and, are quiet, forgiving, satisfied, and have 
controlled anger and have conquered the senses, have no 
passion, are modest and free from female diseases, attached 
and devoted [to the king] and have como from different parts 
of the state, and have no womanly infatuation, should be 
employed in the palace of a king. 

(62-63) *Ex. Vasulaksml (Vasulacchl) iu the Malavi. 

(64-65) 'See above note 1 on 55-57. Kalidasa seems to ignore 
this functionary of the harem. 

»Cf. Tula (-Tukta) in Asoka's Girnar Rock III. Ayuktika may 
be his female, counterpart in the royal harem. 

209 TYPES OF CHARACTER [xxxiv. 70-79 

Other Inmates of the Harem 

70-73. The hermaphrodite who is a character of the 
third class, should be employed in a royal household for 
moving about in the harem. And Snatakas,' Kaiicuklyas, 2 
Varsadharas, 3 Aupasthayika-ninmindas; 1 are to be placed in 
different parts of the harem. Persons who are eunuchs or 
are devoid of sexual function, should always bo made the 
inmates of the harem in a Nataka. 

The Snataka 

73-74. A Snataka 1 with polished manners, should be 
made the warden of the gate (dvastka). 2 Old Brahmins who are 
clever and free from sexual of passion, should always be 
employed by the king for various needs of queons. 
The Kancukiyas etc. 

75-78. Those who have loarning, truthfulness, are 
free from sexual passion, and have deop knowledge and 
wisdom, aro known as Kancukiyas.' The king should 
employ them in business connected with polity. .And the 
Varsadharas should bo employod in errands relating to 
love-affairs. And the Aupasthfiyika-nirmurulas are to bo 
employed in escorting women, and in guarding maidens and 
girls. In bestowing honour to women the king should employ 
the maids in constant attendance. 

The Natakiya 

78-79. Women in the royal harem who attend all the 
movements of the king, should bo employed, when they are 

(70-73) 'See below note 1 on 73-74. 

'See below note 1 ou 75-78. 3 See below note 1 on 78-80. 

4 See below note 1 on 80-81. 

(73-74) 'From later dramas the Snataka disappears altogether. 
Was Pnsyamitra described by S. Levi as 'a mayor of the palace, 

» According to the AS of Katitilya, dauvarika was important 
officer of high rank and not a simple door-keeper of the ordinary 
menial type. See AS. I. 2. 8. , 

(75-78) 'See note Ion XIII. 112-118. Bhasahas'Kancukly.. 


xxxtv. 78-83] THE NATYAiSASTRA 210 

proficient in performing all classes of dance, in the [royal] 
theatre under the authority of the harem. 1 

The Varsadharas 
79-SO. Persons of poor vitality, who are clever and 
are hermaphrodites and have feminine nature, but have not 
been defective from birth, are called Varsadharas.' 

The Nirmundas 
89-81. Persons who are hermaphrodites, but have no 
of womanly nature and have no sexual*knowledge, are called 

These are the eighteen kinds of inmates of the [royal] 
harem described by me. 

External Persons 

82-83. I shall next speak of persons who move about 
in public. 

They are : the king, the leader of the army (senapati), 
the chaplain (purodhas), ministers (mantrin),* secretaries (saciva). 2 
judges (pradoivaka), wardens of princes {kumaradhikrtdf and 
many other members of the king's court (sabhastara). I shall 

(78-79) 'See above 48-51 and the note !on the word nataktya. It 
is not clear why the nataktya has been described over again and 

(79-80) 'The word varsadhara often wrongly read as varsavara 
literally.ineans 'one whose seminal discharge has been arrested.' 

(80-81) i Nirmunda or aupasthayika-nirmunda probably meant one 
who had the head (mundd) of his membrum virile (upastha) cut off. The 
definition given here seems to have been due to a concoction when 
the real significance was lost sight of. 

(82-83) * Amatya also has been used before to indicate a minister. 
But AS. (1. 8. 9.) distinguishes between amatya and mantrin. 
Kamandaklya Nitisara (VIII. 1) also does the same. According to 
the latter amatya seems to be identical with saciva (see IV. 25, 30, 31). 
According to Sukraulti saciva, amatya and mantrin are three different 
functionaries (See II. 94, 95 and 103). The Rudradaman inscription 
seems to distinguish between mantrin and saciva. 

i Saciva as well as amatya originally meant secretary. 

* Kumaradhikrta probably is identical with the Kumaradhyaksa of 

211 TYPES OF CHARACTER [xxxrv. 84-91 

speak of their classes and characteristics. Please listen about 

The King 
84-88. The king should be intelligent, truthful, master 
of his senses, clever, and of good character, and he should 
possess a good memory, and be powerful, high-minded and 
pure, and he should be far-sighted, greatly energetic, grateful, 
skilled in using sweet words ; he should tako a vow of protect- 
ing people and be an expert in the mothods of [different] work, 
alert, without carelessness, and he should associate with old 
people, and be well-versed in the Arthasastra and the practice 
of various policies, a promoter of various arts and crafts, and 
an expert in the science of polity, and should have a liking 
for this, [Besides these] he should know his actual position, 
prosperity and its decline, and the weak points of his 
enemies, and [principles of] Dharma, and bo free from evil 

The Leader of the Army 
89-90. One who possesses a good character and 
truthfulness, and is always active (lit. has given up 
idleness), sweet-tongued, knows the rules regarding weak- 
ness of the enemy, and proper time for marching against 
him, has a knowledge of the Arthas&stra and of everything 
about wealth, is devoted [to the king], honoured in his own 
clan, and has a knowledge about time and place, should be 
made a leader of the army, for these qualities of him. 

The Chaplains and Ministers 

91. Those who are high-born, intelligent, well-versed 
in Jutland polity, fellow-countrymen [of the king], devoted 
[to him], free from guile (lit- P««) and followers of Dharma, 
should be chaplains and ministers, for these of 
them. 1 

(91) «B. reads the passage differently. In translation ins a> 
follows "Those who are high-born, intelligent, weU.versed » 
w oTs Was, affectionate [to the king], incorrupt^ by ene„,c , 
lot haughty/the compatriot [of the kmg], free, from *oo, 

xxxiv. 92-98] THE NATYASASTRA 212 

92-93. Those who are intelligent, versed in polity, 
powerful, sweet-tongued, conversant with the Arthas&stra, 
and attached to the subjects and are followers of Dharma, 
should 09 always appointed by kings as secretaires (amatya). 1 


93-95. Those who know well about litigation, and 
the true nature of pecuniary transactions, are intelligent, and 
well-versed in many departments of knowledge, impartial, 
followers of Dharma, wise, able to discriminate between good 
and bad deeds, and are forbearing and self-controlled, and can 
control anger, are not haughty and have similar respect for 
all, should be placed in seats of justice as judges (prad- 
vivaka). 1 

Wardens of Princes 

95-97. Those who are alert, careful, always active 
(lit. free from indolence), inured to hard work, affectionate, 
forbearing, disciplined, impartial, skillful, well-versed in polity 
and in discipline, and who are masters of reasoning positive 
and negative, have knowledge o'f all the SSstras and are not 
vitiated by passion and such other things, and who are heredi- 
tary servants of the king, and are attached to him, should 
be made wardens of princes, 1 because of their possessing 
these various qualities. 


98. Members of the court (sabhastara) x should be 
appointed by practical people according to the views of 

disciplined, trust-worthy, and virtuous are to be made chaplains 
and ministers." The taking together of the chaplain and the 
minister probably shows that at one time the same person 
discharged the functions of the two. 

(92-93) 'See note 1 on 81-83 before. 

(93-95) 'The radical meaning of the term pradvivaka is one who 
decides a cause after questioning the parties. 

(95-97) See in this connexion AS. 

(98) 'Vyasa (smjti) mentions sabhastara who should hold 
discourse abqut morals (dharmavakya) for the edification of those who 

213 TYPES 0F CHARACTER [xxxiv< 99 

Bfhaspati 2 after taking note of the [various] qualities of these 
(i.e. ministers etc.). 

99. These are the characteristics of various characters, 
[in a play], that I was to say. I shall next speak of the 
characteristics of [persons suited to] various roles. 

Here ends Chapter XXXIV of Bharata's Natyaiastra, 
which treats of the Types of Different Characters. 

are present [in the court]. In Mbh 4. 1. 24 however the sMastara 
appears only as a courtier (sabhya Nilakantha) who is particularly 
interested in gambling. Jolly, Hindu I y aw and Customs, pp. 287-288. 
Visimdharmasutra first speaks of the qualification 01 sabhasadas who 
were probably the king's helpers in the administration of justice. 
N. C. Sengupta, Evolution of Ancient Indian Law, p. 46. 

a That the author of the NS. like the authors of the AS. 
refers to Bfhaspati, probably shows that they were not very widely 
separated in time. Vatsyayana, Mbh. (Vanaparvan) and Bhasa 
also refer to Bfhaspati. 


1. I shall now speak of the distribution of roles in 
a play or of the kinds of men by which different roles are to 
be represented. 

General Principles of Distribution 

2. After considering together their gait, speech and 
movement of limbs as well as their strength and nature, the 
experts are to employ actors to represent different roles [in 
a play]. 

3. Hence the selection of actors should be preceded 
by an enqury into their merits. The Director (lit. the 
master) will not feel difficulty in the choice [if such procedure 
is followed]. 

4. After ascertaining thoir natural aptitudes, he is to 
distribute roles to different actors. 

The. Role of gods 

5-6. Persons who have all the limbs intact, well- 
formed and thick-set, who are full-grown (vqyo'nvita), not fat 
or lean or tall or large, who have vivacity, pleasant voice and 
good appearance, should be employed to take up the role of 

The Role of Raksasas etc. 

7-8. Persons who are fat, and have a large body and a 
voice like the peal of thunder (lit. cloud), furious looking eyes 
and naturally knit eyebrows, should be employed to take up 
the role of Raksasas, Danavas and Daityas ; for the per- 
formance of male actors [should be] in oonformity with 
their limbs and movements. 

The Role of Kings 
9-11. Aotors of the best kind who have beautiful eyes, 
eyebrows, forehead, nose, lips, cheeks, face* neck, and every 

215 DISTRIBUTION OF ROLES [xxxv . m , 

other limbs beautiful, and who are tall, possessed of pleasant 
appearance, dignified gait, and are neither fat nor lean 
and are well-behaved, wise and steady by nature, should be 
employed to represent the role of kings and princes (kumara). 

The Role of Army-leaders and Secretaries 
12-13. Persons who have well-formed limbs, distinct 
speech, are neither tall nor fat, are heroic, have reasoning 
positive and negative, are brave, and eloquent and have 
presence of mind, should be employed to take up the role of 
army-leaders (senapati) and secretaries (amatya). 

The Role of the Kancukiyas and the Srotriyas 

14. Persons who have brown eyes, long nose, and who 
are short or tall, should be employed in the role of Kancukiyas 
and Srotriyas. 1 

The Role of Minor Characters 

15. In other cases too, similar dramatic convention 
has been prescribed ; roles should be assigned after consider- 
ing the actors' ago and physical condition. 

16-17. [For example], ■ persons 1 who are slow-moving, 
very dwarfish, hunch-backed, uncouth, odd-faced and fat, 
who have expressionless (lit. motionless) eyes, ono eye blind, 
small chin and low nose, ugly raiments, evil nature, deformed 
body and who have marks of a slave, should be employed in 
the role of slaves. 

The Role of Fatigued Persons 
18. A person who is naturally thin, should be employed 
in a play to represent a tired person. 

(14) 'The racial type indicated by this description probably 
shows that the K. and S. were of the Aryan descent. 

(16-17) 'From the general description given in this passage 
and the marks mentioned in particular, it appears that slaves were 
of non-Aryan descent. And Kautilya seems to support this view 
by saying that aryasya na dasa-bhavah (an Aryan should not be 
enslaved). From this description it "also appears that the slaves 
were at one time branded with marks. 

xxxv. 19-26] THE NATYASASTRA 216 

The Role of a Person in Health 
A fat person should be employed to represent a person 
without any disease. 

Special Cases of Assigning Roles 

19. If however such persons are not available, the 
Director (lit. the master) should exercise discretion to employ 
[some one] after a consideration of the latter's nature and 
movement as well as States [to be represented], 

20. Such persons' natural movements whether good, 
bad or middling, should be regulated by contact with the 
Director (lit. the master), and then they will properly 
represent [all] the Statos. 

21. In other cases too, similar dramatic convention 
has been prescribed, and roles should be assigned to persons 
after considering their native places (desa) and costume (veh). 

The Role of a Character with Extra and Special Limbs 

22-24. In case of characters which have many arms, 
many heads, and uncouth faces and faces of animals,including 
beasts of prey, asses, camels, horaes and the like, the Director 
(lit. the master) should according to his direction have the 
masks (lit. them) made with clay, wood, lao and leather. 1 

The Entry of a Character 

24. One should not enter the stage in his own 
natural appearance. His own body should be covered with 
paints and decorations. 

The Result of Impersonation 

25. In the production of a play, a person in his natural 
form of the body, should be employed [to assume a role] 
according to his age and costume. 

The Method of Proper Impersonation 

26-27. Just as a man who renounces his own nature 
together with his body and assumes another's nature by 

(22-24) Details regarding this are given in XXIII, 

217 DISTRIBUTION OF ROLES [xxxv . 28 . 34 

n in h ? ° Uld repr6Sent the Spates of another 

person by speech, gait, gesture and other movements. 

Three Kinds of Impersonation 

«. * 28 " ^ Uman character8 as th ey are represented on 
he stage fall into three classes : natural (anurupa), unnatural 
(virupa) and imitative (rupanusarini). 

The Natural Impersonation 
29 When women impersonate female characters and 
men male characters, and their ages are similar to that of 
the characters represented, the impersonation is called 
natural' [anurupa). 

The Unnatural Impersonation 

30. When a boy takes up the role of an old man or an 
old man takes up that of a boy and betrays his own nature 
in acting, the representation is called 'unnatural' (virupa). 
The Imitative Impersonation 

31-32. When a man assumes a woman's character, 1 the 
impersonation is called imitative (rupanusarini) by the' best 
actors. A woman also may assume if she likes, a man's role 
in actual practice. But an old and ayoung man should 
not try [to imitate] each other's manners.' . 

Special Suitability of Men and Women 

33-3-1. Bold men who have heroism and strength 
should be employed for recitatives, and women [should always 
be employed] for songs. Women's nature is suitod mostly to 
songs and that of men to recitatives.' For women's voice is 
naturally sweet and that of men is forceful. 

(26-27) l This is said on the assumption that a Yogin possess- 
ing miraculous powers could, according to his will, leave his own 
body and enter that of another when the latter was just dead. 
Sankaracarya is said to have practised this kiud of miracle. 

(31-32) *In the Shakesperian stage young men took up the rok 
of women. Ag. (p. 502) explains balisa as virupa (ugly). 

'This is due to an utter impossibility of successfully taking 
up of each other's role by old and young men. 

(33-34) 'See XXXII. 504 and the note, and also XXXII. 5CU 
" 28 

xxxv. 35-42] THE NATYASASTRA 218 

35-36. Though men know the rules of singing in their 
traditional characteristics, their songs being devoid of sweet- 
ness, do not create beauty. 

Whenever there is [any] merit in women's recitation and 
sweetness of voice in men, these are to be considered as being 
due to freaks (lit. inversion) of nature, and as such these 
should bo [considered] ornaments. 1 

Women in Men's Roles 

37. In temples, 1 palaces 2 and houses of army-leaders 
and other prominent persons, dramatic performances (prayoga) 
are mostly held by women in men's role. 

Women's Special Merit 

38. A delicate person's role is always to be taken up 
by women. Henoe, in case of women as well as gods and 
men of delicate nature [women are to assume the roles]. 

39. [It is for this reason that] drama came to be 
established in heaven' through KambhS, Urvail 2 and the like 
[nymphs]. And similar has been the case in king's harems 
in this world. 

Training Women in Different Roles 

40. Directors (lit. masters) should instruct women 
according to the Siistras, but they should not themselves give 
coaching to women in learning their [feminine] roles. 

41-42. But masculine (lit. depending on men) roles 
should be carefully directed by them. 

As natural amorousness is observed in women, their 
naturally graceful limbs are easily accessible to Sausthava ; 
and sportful nature 1 will be their additional qualities (lit. 
ornaments) [when they assume a male role]. 

(35-36) >See XXXII. 504. 

(37) ^Devadasis or 'maid-servants to gods' seem to have been 
not only dancers, but also actresses assuming male roles also. 

a Por the reason of women assuming male roles see above notes 
on 33-34. 

(39) >Cf. Vikram III. {Viskambhaka). 'See below XXXVI. 60. 

(41-42) f 'The sportful nature belongs naturally to males. 

2i9 DISTRIBUTION OF ROLES [xxxv. 43-48 

Result of Proper Assignment of Roles 

43. When actors and characters in a play have similar 
conditions and behaviour, and have natural limbs and organs 
{karana), they will embellish a dramatic performance. 

44. Want of fatigue in dance and music, is always a 
quality of women, and a dramatic production partly attains 
its sweetness and partly its strength due to this. 

45. A woman who is an adept in the practice of love, 
and is an expert in [representing] love-affairs, eppears through 
her graceful acting on the stage, like a creeper full of various 
charms, on account of its [many] flowers. 1 

46. Hence [a Director] should always bestow undivided 
attention to women's exercise (yogya ) [in dance and music], 
for without this, the States, Sentiments, the Sausthava cannot 
be produced by them in tho least. 1 

Types of Dramatic Production 

47. The production of a drama which includes many 
States and Sentiments, is of two kinds : delicate (sukumara) 
and energetic (aviddha). 

The Delicate Type of Production 

48. Nataka*, Prakarana, Bhana, VithI and Anka'are 
to be known of the delicate type. For they depend on human 

(45) 'It seems that boys also had tt> represent women's 
character hi the ancient Hindu theatre (see the l'rastavana to Malatl) 
And this shows the benefit of engaging actresses hmploymen of 
boys in women's role was considerably a handicap in cepicUng 
female characters in the Shakesperian stage. On Ins sec Shakes- 
peare's Dramatic Art" in Companion to Shakespeare Studies, 

^(^ThS'p^obably stresses on the importance of repeated 

rehCa X lF or a definition of this and the following types of play 
see XX. 10-llff. 48ff, 107-108ff, 112-113ff, 94ff. 
'It is called Utsrstikanka also. See XX- 93. 

xxxiv. 49-59] THE nAtYASASTRA 220 

49. This delicate type of production is pleasing to 
kings. Hence plays of this olass including the Erotio 
Sentiment, should be produced by women. 1 

50. The play in which there occur violent fighting, 
great speed [of movement], and much excitement, should not 
be enacted by females, but by males. 

51-52. If a play includes ordinary (lit. not exalted) 
incidents and no hurried or violent movement of limbs, and 
requires an observance of proper tempo, Tala, Kalfi and 
regulated utterance of syllables, and clearly divided words 
and has plenty of desired Sentiments, it should be produced 
by women. 1 

Ths Energetic Type of Production 

53-54. The play which requires energetic (aviddha) type 
of Angaharas to represent cutting, piercing, and fighting, and 
includes [a representation of] the use of magic and thau- 
maturgy as well as artificial objects and costumes, and has 
among its dramatis personae many males and a small number of 
females who are of quiet nature, and mostly the Grand and 
the Energetic Styles applied in its production, is of the 
energetic type. 

55-56. Dima, Samavakara, Vyayoga and lhamrga are 
known to be plays of the energetic of type by producers. 

Production of plays of this kind, should be made by [an 
impersonation of] gods, Danavas and B&ksasas. 

56. Thus one should assign different roles in the 
production of a play. t Next I shall speak how a play attains 
excellence due to costumes and make-up. 

The Typical Impersonation of a King 

67-59. How are the qualities of a king to be represented 
by an actor who has a few wearing apparels ? In this connec- 
tion it has been said that when dramatic conventions have 

(49) x An instance of such a play occurs in Priyadarsika. 
Act III. 

(51-52) 'This probably shows that the Nafaka etc. mentioned 
in 48 above, being plays of ballet-type were better suited to be pro- 
duced by women. 

221 DISTRIBUTION OF ROLES (xxxv. 60-65 

come into vogue I have made plays furnished with all these 
(i. e. conventions). 

In them (i. e. plays) the actor (nata) covered with paint, 
and decorated with ornaments, roveal the signs of kingship 
when he assumes a grave and dignified attitude, and then 
he alone becomes, as it were, a refuge of the seven great 
divisions (saptadvlpa) of the world. 

60-61. He should move his limbs only after be lias beon 
covered with paints. And trimmed according to the discre- 
tion of the Director and having the Sausthava of limbs, the 
actor becomes like a king, and [thus trimmed] tho king also 
will be [very much] like an actor. 1 

61-63. Just as an actor is, so is the king and just as 
a king is, so is the actor.' The two will represent their States 
by similar deportments and Sausthava of limbs. 

Just as by properly carrying out tho instruction of the 
Direotor, the actor illumines tho stage, similarly the king 
also will always be naturally brilliant. 

His followers will be like that of divine personages. 2 
In a play they are to be introduced with proper costume, 
language and age. 

64. The producer should let the actor have the natural 
appearance of a character Lby giving him suitable costume] 
and by associating him with suitable ago through [proper] 


65. Thus one should make a selection of persons for 
representing kingly manners. I shall, next speak of the 
qualities of a Director {sutradhara). 

(60-61) >This is a very clever statement. The king though 
he is nothing but an ordinary human being, often assumes consci- 
ously or unconciously an extraordinary appearance. 1 he story goes 
that Napoleon sought the guidance of a contemporary actor of 
repute before taking up the imperial crowu. 

(61-63) »See the note above. 

'This was because the king was a incarnation of God or goc'.s. 

Xxxv. 66-74] THE nAtYaSAsTRA 222 

Characteristics of a Director 

In this connection I shall speak of the qualities of a 
Director. First of all, he should possess knowledge of 
characteristics [of everything concerning the theatre], desirable 
refinement of speech, knowledge of the rules of Tala and 
theory of notes and instruments [in general]. 1 

66-71. One who is an expert in playing the four kinds 
of musical instrument, has various practical experience, is 
conversant with the practices of various religious sects, and 
with polity and the science of wealth (arthasaslra) and the 
manners of courtezans and ars amatoria, and knows the various 
conventional Gaits and movements, thoroughly understands 
all the Sentiments and the States, and is an expert in 
producing plays, acquainted with all arts and crafts, with 
words and the rules of prosody, and proficient in all (the 
Sastras, the science of stars and planets, and the working 
of the human body, knows the oxtent of the earth, its 
continents, devisions, and mountains and people inhabiting 
them, and the customs these have, and the names of descen- 
dants of royal lines, and who listens about acts prescribed in 
Sastras, can understand the same, and puts them into practice 
after understanding them, and gives instructions in the same, 
should be made a teacher and Director. 

Natural Qualities of a Director 

72-74. Now listen to me speaking about the natural 

qualities [which he should possess]. He should be possessed 

of memory and intelligence, and should be patient, liberal, 

firm in his words, poetical, free from any -'disease, sweet [in 

(65j 'This and the two following passages (66-71, 72-74) show 
that the Hindus had very advanced ideas about of the responsibi- 
lities of a Director. Like his modern counterpart the regisseur (or 
('producer" as he is called in England) he was required to be an 
expert not only as regards acting but in all those arts which together 
constitute a performance. The Komisarjevsky, The Theatre, 
London, 1935, p. 15. Thus so many varied qualities were required 
to ensure his fitness. 

223 TYPES OF CHARACTER [xxxv. 74-78 

his manners], forbearing, self-possessed, sweet-tongued, freo 
from anger, truthful, impartial, honest, and free from greed for 

praise. 1 

Characteristics of an Assistant of the Director 

74-75. A person of the middling type who has slightly 

less number of qualities than that the Director is to pessess, 

should be known as an Assistant (pariparivika) of the 


Characteristics of an Actor 

75-76. An actor (nata) should be lively (lit. bright), 
possessed of a good physique, acquainted with [theatrical) 
accessories and their uses, possessod of intelligence, 
conversant with the rules [of the theoretical practice], and 
expert in his own work. 

Characteristics of a Parasite 
76-77 Possessing all tho qualities which tho Director 
is to have with regard to tho theatrical production, the 
Parasite {vita) should be an expert in dealing with courtezans, 
sweet [in his words], impartial, poetic, proficient in the 
mN .un- of the &stru and, in the knowledge of courtezans, 
capable" seeing the positive and- the negative side of any 
argument, and eloquent and clever. 

Characteristics of the SaktiFa 
78 The Sakara' is one who wears gaudy (lit. brilliant) 


ship with the king and was laughed at by pe ople H nee 

become Ma (a term of abus ). So?^ ^ 

him euphemistically as ^ .^F^ not give u such a 
■with aninitiaU ^"f"/ J^ fc^,^.tiU.^ 

social position, 

xxxv. 79-83] THE NATYA£ASTRA 224 

clothes and ornaments and grows angry without adequate 
reason and gets pacified likewise, and who is an inferior 
character and speaks MagadhI 2 and has manifold changes [in 
his conduct]. 

Characteristics of the Jester 

7i). The Jester (vidusaka) should be dwarfish, should 
possess big teeth, and be hunch-backed, double-tongued 1 
bald-headed and tawny-eyed. 

Characteristics of a Servant 

£0. A servant (ceta) be should be fond of quarrel, 1 
garrulous, uncouth in form and give service under bondage, 
and be expert in distinguishing between persons who are to 
be honourd and who are not. 

Characteristics of a Courtezan 

81-83. A woman who is always engaged in attending 
the teacher (acaryd) in connection with application of 
[various] arts and crafts, and is endowed with amorous move- 
ments, "Emotion (hava) and Feeling (bhava), Temperament 
(sattoa), discipline, sweetness [of manners], and is conversant 
with the sixtyfour arts and crafts ((kala), is expert in dealing 
with the king, and free from female diseases, and has sweet 
and endearing words, is clear in her speech, clever and 
undaunted by fatigue 1 is callod a courtezan (ganika). 

2 It has been mentioned before that Sakaras should speak 
the Sakari dialect (XVIII 52). But by Sakari wc are to understand 
a dialect of MagadhI. See Purusottama's Prakrtanuiasana. ed. 
Nilti-Dolci. XIII. 1 ; also Prakrtakalpataru, ed. Ghosh, II. iii, 2ff. 

(79) 'The reading dvijan-man for dvijihva is evidently wrong 
See XXXIV. 21ff. 

(80) 'The ceta was evidently a slave. The term bandhasevaka 
(giving service under bondage) seems to indicate this. 

(81-83) 'The courtezan was evidently somewhat like a Greek 

225 DISTRIBUTION OF ROLES [xxxv. 84-90 

Characteristics of a typical Heroine 

84-86. A woman with the following qualities should be 
given the role of a Heroine : she should be endowed with a 
good physical form, good qualities, character and young 
age and should possess gold necklace and garlands and 
should be shining, affectionate, sweet, and should possess 
charmiug words with a lovely voice and should be steady 
(lit. unperturbed) in the exercise (yogya), and conversant with 
Laya and Tala and Sentiments, and should have all 
kinds of ornaments and be dressed with garlands and 

Women disqualified to take up a role 

86-87. But a woman should not be made a Heroine in 
any theatrical show when she smiles on wrong occasions, is 
rough [in appearance], has an uneven gait and movement, 
persistent anger, miserable look, and is always haughty and 
fickle. These are the characters that the producers of plays 
should know about. 


Members of a typical theatrical party 

88-90. I shall next speak of different members of a 
theatrical party {bharata). They are : Bharata 1 [proper] (actor), 
who resort to Bharata (i.e. his art), tho Jester {vidusaka), the 
musicians {tauripa), the actor-dancers (nata), the Director 
{sulradhara), playwright (natyakara) the crown-maker {mukuta- 
k'araka), the maker of ornaments (abharanakrt) and garlands, the 

(84-86) 'The last hemistich of the text probably shows textual 

(88-90) l The term "Bharata" seems to have originally meant 
those who sang ballads connected with the heroic exploits of 
the Bharata race. The term 'Bharthari' meaning singers on the 
exploits of Bhartrhari a prince who renounced the world and 
attained spiritual eminence, is analogous to Bharata. The Bharata 
ballads were the nucleus of the Mbh. According to the hypoth-s.s 


xxxv. 91-95] THE NATYASASTRA 226 

dyer (rajaka), the painter (citrakara), other and craftsmen 
{karu and silpin), and Kusilavas and others who are to be 
known by their names. 

Characteristics of Bharata 
91. As ho alone conducts as the leador [the performance 
of] a play by acting in many roles and playing many 
instruments and by providing many accessories, he is called 

Characteristics of a Jester 
92-93. One who looks to people's pleasure, can imitate 
manners of all people, resorts to various [means] and 
mixes with women, is ready-witted in disclosures made 
through Pleasantry,' or in Covert Pleasure 2 and is clover, and 
can give censure through his words, is to be known as a 
Jester {vidmaka).* 

Characteristics of a Master-musician 
94. ,Ono who is skilled in playing Tiira,' has a liking 
for all the instruments and is an expert in playing them 
all, and possesses [all kinds of] musical instruments, is called 
Tauripa 2 (master-musician). 

Meaning of the word 'Nata' 

05. Meaning of the root nat is 'to act' (lit. acts) and 
honco, as he acts (natayati) again and again the stories of 

of Winternitz, such ballads gave rise to drama. See in this con- 
nexion the author's Contributions to the History of Hindu Drama, 
Calcutta, 1957, pp. 15ff. 

(91) 'See note 1 to 8890 above. 

(92-93) l SeeXXII,50. 2 See XXII, 53. 

8 For another definition of a Jester see 79 above. 

(94) 'Its etymology is obscure. See note 2 below. 

2 The word though connected with lira is not directly available 
from it. The basis of tauripa is possibly tauripa one who engages 
himself with tiira meaning probably musical instruments in general, 

2*7 DISTRIBUTION OF ROLES [xxxv . 96 . 101 

men with Sentiments, States and Temperament, he i s 
called (lit. he becomes) a Nata (actor). 

The Benediction 
96-97. As one pleases by it the audience (lit. people) 
with sweet words of blessing, it is called Nfiudl (Benodiotion). 
That which is spoken in the performance of a play to please 
people in various ways, with Sanskrit and Prakrit recitatives, 
is to be known as Nandl. 

Definition of a Director 

98. One who knows from the toaching of tlio learned 
(sisla) the principles (sutra) of applying songs, instrumental 
music and recitatives in their unity, is called a Siitradhara 
(Director). 1 

Definition of a Playwright 

99. Because ho puts in [different] Sentiments, States 
and Temperaments, as taught in the Sastra, in different 
characters, a person is called a playwright (natyakaray 

Definition' of an Actor 

100. One who can apply the music of four kinds of 
instrument, and produce a play according to tho meaning of 
the Sastra as well as his own reasoning, is called an actor. 
(nata), 1 

Definition of an Actress 

101. A woman who knows all about the playing of 
drums, Laya (tempo) and Tala and is conversant with Senti- 
ments, and is beautiful in all her limbs, should be made an 
actress 1 (nataklya). 

(98) 'For another definition of the Sutradhara see 66-74 above. 

(99) 'His duty was to compose a play on any given theme. He 
is comparable to 'poets' employed by Elizabethan theatrical 
Companies. For more about the playwright see the introduction. 

(100) 'This probably shows the original connection of drama 
with music of all kinds. 

(101) 'This word has been used by Bhasa. See Pratima T. 4.8. 

Xxxiv. 102-106] THE NATYaSASTRA 228 

The Crown-maker 

102. He who makes masks and various special dresses 
together with headgears (slrsaka = pratisirsaka) suited to various 
characters, is called a crown-maker (mukutakara). 1 

The Maker of Ornaments 

103. One who makes ornaments according to various 
rules, is called a maker of ornaments 1 (abkaranakrt) and each 
[maker of ornaments] is to be named according to the 
material he uses. 

The Maker of Garlands 

104. He who makes five kinds 1 of garland, is called 
a maker of garlands (malyakrt). 

The Vesakara 

He who looks after dressing is called Vesak&ra. 

The Painter, the Dyer and the Craftsman 

105. One who knows painting is a painter (cilrakara), 
and from his [knowledge of] dying (ranjana) [clothes] a person 
is called a dyer (rajaka).* 

And one who fashions different objects out of lac, stone, 
metal and wood, is called a craftsman (karu). 

The Kusilava 

106. He who can apply the principles of instrumental 
music and is himself an expert in playing instruments, is 
called a Kusilava because of his being ku'sala (clever) and 
avadata (refined) and free from agitation (avyalhila). l 

(102) 'For rules about crowns see XXIII. 129ff- 

(103) l For varieties of ornament used see XXIII. 1 Iff. 

(104) 'For the five kinds of garlands see XXIII. 10 
2 For the rules for different costumes see XXIII. 1 lOff. 

(105) 'For uses of clothes of different colour see XXIII. 53-56, 
60, and for colours see XXIII,. 69ff. 

"See XXIII. 43, 

(106) 'The real etymology is obscure. This is only a folk- 
etyinology of the word. There are however reasons to believe that 
it originally meant ballad-singers. The names of Rama's twin sous 
probably had its origin in ktmlava. 

229 DISTRIBUTION OF ROLES [xxxv. 107-109 

Other members of the party 

107. The man who takes to an art or a craft (silpa), a 
profession, or a practice, and has himself acquired proficiency 
in it, is oalled hy its name. 1 

108. So much about the hereditary groups (jati) known 
in connection with the rules of theatre as Natas who relate 
to various accessories [needed] for the production of various 
types of play. 

109. I have spoken about the assignment of roles and 
about the makers of a drama according to their function, 
and have pronounced the Canons of Drama. Please mention, 
O sages, what more is to be said now. 

Here ends the Chapter XXXV of the Natyaiiistra, 
which treats of the Distribution of Eoles. 

(107) 'Besides the craftsmen mentioned above, the theatrical 
troupes probably had with them artisans who made things with 
bamboo, grass and hide etc. 



Sages question. 
1-6. Being pleased with this, the sages such as Atreya, 1 
Vasistha, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Arigiras, Gautama, Agastya, 
Manu, the wise Ayus, Visvamitra, Sthulasiras, Samvarta, 
Pratimardana, Usanas, Brhaspati, Vatsa, Cyavana, Kasyapa, 
Dhruva, Durvasas, Jamadagni, Markarwjeya, Galava, Bhara- 
dvSja, Eaibhya, the venerable Valmiki, Sthulaksa, Saiikulaksa, 
Kanva, Medhatithi, Kusa, Narada, Parvata, Susarman, the 
two Ekadhanvins, Nisthyuti, Bhavana, Dhaumya, Satananda, 
Krtavrana, Jamadagnya Eama, Jamadagni and Vamana 
again spoke out of cariosity to the omniscient Bharata these 

7. "The ancient N&tyavcda which you havo spoken, 
has been .properly comprehended by us listening to it atten- 

8. [But] you, venerable sir, should also remove (lit. 
explain) any doubt we may have in this regard. For who 
else cau speak definitely about the Natyaveda ? 

9-10. Wo shall enquire from you [more] about drama 
for our onlightenment and not out of any distrust, rivalry 
or jealousy. We did not speak earlier (lit. then) [about this], 
for there should not be any interruption. So, speak to us 
exhaustively about the mystery of drama. 

11. You have [already] said that exploits of men 1 
constitute drama, hence you should speak definitely about 
what has been kept hidden from people. 

12-14. the best Brahmin (lit. the bull of the twice- 
born), tell us about the character of the god who appears in 

(1-6) 'The shorter recension of the N&. omits these names,. See 

(11) iSee I. 111-112. 

231 DESCENT OF DRAMA ON THE EARTH [xxxvi. 24-32 

the Preliminaries (purvarahga). Why is the sound [of 
musical instruments] applied there 1 What purpose does it 
serve when applied ? What god is pleased with this, and what 
does he do on being pleeised J Why does the Director being 
himself clean, perform ablution again on the stago ?' How, 
sir, the drama has come (lit. dropped) down to the earth 
from heaven ? Why have your descendants come to be 
known as Sudras t" 

15. The sage Bharata on hearing these words of the 
wise men, spoke again to them for explaining the matter 
which was confidential. 

Bharata said : 

16. 'I shall explain to you, Brahmins, what you 
persons with excollont vow, enquiro regarding the rules of 
the Preliminaries. Listen properly about it. 

17. The Preliminaries have been doscribed in continua- 
tion of whatever I havo said [earlier] about the destruction 
obstacles. 1 

18-22. Just as the body, is covered [with an armour] for 
warding off missiles, so sins of all kinds are avoided with 
Homa. After I have thus warded off the sins and destroyed 
the obstacles by worshipping gods with Japa, Homa, words 
of adoration and blessing, aud songs about their [benevolent] 
deeds and attitudes, and with the playing of all instruments, 
and sound of songs, they (i.e. gods) being pleased with the 
singing of their praise, said, 'We are exceedingly delighted 
with the performance of yours; as it nandati [pleases] the 
people, after pleasing the gods and the Asuras, this perfor- 
mance will be called Nandi (Benediction). 

23. When auspicious words uttered with proper into- 
nation in accompaniment of songs and playing of instruments 
resound a region, all evils will disappear, and prosperity will 
ensue there. 

(12-14) 'See V- 80-83. 
(17) 'SeeV,70ff. 

xxxvi. 15-23] THE NATYASASTRA 232 

24. In so much spaoe as is filled with sound of musical 
instruments there will be there no Raksasas or leaders of 
Vighnas (vighna-vinqyaka). 

25-26. On hearing the sound of Nandi, and recitatives, 
songs and playing of instruments during marriages of all 
kinds, 1 and sacrifices performed for the prosperity of kings, 
ferocious spirits will make themselves scarce. And this 
(i.e. the sound of the N&ndl) will be equal to the exposition 
Vedic Mantras. 

27. I have heard from the god of gods (Indra) and 
afterwards from Samkara (Siva) that music vocal as well as 
instrumental, is in fact a thousand times superior to bath [in 
holy waters] and to Japa. 

28. In places in which there occur instrumental 
music and dramatic performance, or song and instrumental 
music, there will surely be there never any kind of inauspi- 
cious happening. 

29. Thus I have devised the Preliminaries as a cere- 
mony of adoration for worshipping deities, with laudatory 
verses and Mantras. 

Ablution of the Director on the Stage 

30. As the head becomes fatigued by bowing on the 
stage, the rule permits the Director to bathe it with water. 1 

31. After the ablution the Director should worship 
the Jarjara with Mantras. All this has been said in connec- 
tion of the Preliminaries. 1 This is the reason for the 

32. I shall now tell you in detail how drama came 
(lit. dropped down) to the earth from Heaven, for I am 
unable to withhold anything from you. 

(25-27) i Avahe ea vivahe ea. Avaha is the marriage which takes 
place in bridegroom's place and vivaha takes place in the bride's, 

(30) >See the note on 12-14. 

(31) 'See V. 118-119, 


Bharata's Sons offended the Sages. 

33-34. All these sons of mine being intoxicated with 
[the knowledge of] the Natyaveda, practised in course of time 
an art tiring the entire people with Prahasanas connected 
with laughter. 

34-35. And they on purpose, produced in an assembly 
[of spectators] a play which caricatured the sages and 
which was unaccoptablo and full of wicked acts, and 
which encouraged rural manners and was cruel and inauspi- 

The Sages curse Bharata's Sons. 

36-37. On hearing this, the sages were extremely angry 
and excited, and spoke to them (i.e. sons of Bharata) burning 
them, as it were, with their words, '0 Brahmins, it is not 
proper that wo should be thus caricatured. What is this 
insult [for], and what is your intention ? 

38. As due to pride in your knowledge [of drama] 
you have taken to arrogance (avinaya), your evil knowledge 
will get destroyed. 

39. In the community of -sages and Brahmins or in 
meeting them, you will appear as being no followers of the 
Vedas and will attain the character of Sudras. 

40. You will become mere Sudras and attain their 
functions, and those to be born in your line, will be impure. 

41. And your posterity will be dancers who will wor- 
ship others along with their wives and children (i.e. they will 

all be Sudras). 1 

42. Gods on hearing of the origin of curse on my sons 
became anxious and approached the sages. 

Gods intercede in favour of Bharata's Sons 

43. Then the gods with Sakra (Indra) as their leader 
said, 'Afflicted [thus] with misery the drama will perish. 

. (41 ) ^modern states, Directors of theatres would be dragged 
to law-courts for a similar offence. 

xxxvi. 44-53] THE NATYA6ASTRA ?34 

44. The sages said in reply that drama would not 
perish, but the remaining portion of their curse would take 
effect in its entirety. 

Bharata's Sons approach their Father. 

45-46. On hearing the words of the sages of terrible 
spirit, my sons became sad, and with a desire to kill them- 
selves they approached me and said, 'We bave been totally 
rained by you, and for the fault of drama we have been made 
to take to Sodra's conduct.' 

Bharata pacifies them. 

47-48. For their consolation I said, 'Do not be sorry 
for it ; the rule that words of sages will never prove untrue 
has indeed been made by fate (krtanta) ; so you should not 
turn to the destruction [of your own selves], after being tbus 

49. Kemember (lit. know) that this dramatic art has 
been described by Brahman [himself]. So teach it to your 
disciples and others through its practice. 

60. ' Do not destroy this drama which has been devised 
with great difficulty, and which depends on great things, 
brings merit and has its origin in the Vedas, their Arigas and 
UpAngas. 1 

51. After holding the performance of a drama according 
to [rules] which I have heard from Apsarasas, you are to 
undergo a purificatory ceremony {praya'scitta). 

NahusaJnvites divine Artistes to the Earth. 

52. In course of time, a king named Nahusa attained 
the kingdom of heaven through his polity, intelligence and 
prowess. He then governed the kingdom and obtained a 
divine prosperity (vyusti). 

53. And on seeing the musical performance (gandharva) 
and drama [of the gods], he became anxious [for these]. 

(50) 'In spite of this passage, it is difficult to believe that 
drama of India was of Vedic origin. On this see the translator's 
Contributions to the History of Hindu Drama, Calcutta, 1957, pp. 3-4, 


54. And he thought within himself as to how the dra- 
matic performance of gods might be held in his own house [on 
the earth] and to the gods he spoke for [causing such] a perfo" 
mance, with joined palms. 'Let the drama [produced] by the 
Apsarasas be performed in our house [on the earth].' 

Gods reject the request. 

56. But in reply to this, the gods with Brhaspati as 
their leader said to him 'The meeting of divine damsels and 
human beings has not been prescribed [anywhere]. 

57. [But] as you are the lord of heaven, you should 
be given an advice which is friendly as well as suitable. Let 
the master [of the dramatic art] go there [at your place] 
and please you.' 

Nahusa approaches Bharata. 

58. Then the king with joined palms said to me, 
'Revered sir, I should like to see this dramatic performance 
established on the earth. 

59. I have been promised earlier [by gods] your service 
as a trainer. best of Brahmins, I have now got it directly 
[by approaching you]. 

Urvasi and the earthly drama 

60. In the house of my grand father (Pururavas), this 
drama together with his work has been described by Urvaii 
to the members of the harem. 

61. But when the members of the harem were distressed 
on the death of the king who became insane 1 due to her 
disappearance, this [dramatic art] was lost. 

62. I wish this again to be openly produced on the 
earth during sacrifices to be done on different days of the 
moon, so that a happy and auspicious situation may arise. 

63. Hence, plays (lit. composition) relating to many 
characters produced in my house through graceful movement 
of women, will add to your fame.' 

(61) "The fourth act of Kalidasa's Vikrain. deals with th's 
theme in a masterly fashion. 

xxxvi. 64-72] THE NAlYAsASTRA 236 

Bharata grants this request and sends his sons to the earth. 

64-67. 'Let this be so' said, I in reply to the king Nahusa, 
and called my sons, and spoke to them as well as to gods the 
conciliatory words [as follows :] 'This king Nahusa begs us 
with joined palms that you may go down for your own 
good to the earth to produoe drama there. Drama being 
produced there, I shall make an end of your curse and you 
will no longer be despised by Brahmins and kings. So go 
down to the earth to produce drama there, [for] I shall not 
be able to disregard the words of this earthly king.' 1 

Kohala is the Successor of Bharata. 

68-69. For us all and for the magnanimous Nahusa, 
the Self-born One (Brahman) has said that success in drama 
would depend on his authoritative instruction {aptopadsa). 
The rest will be related by Kohala in his supplementary 
treatise {uttara-tanlra) 1 which also will treat [of more rules on] 
the application [of dramatic art], the Memorial verses {karika) 
and the etymologies (nirukta). 

70. For the purpose of diversion, this Sastra has been 
established by me in heaven with the help of Apsarasas and 
the sage Sv&ti and Narada." 

Bharata's sons come down to the earth. 

71. Then, Brahmins, they went down to the earth 
in the house of Nahusa, and devised in due order the produc- 
tion of various plays with the help of women. 

72. Afterwards they my sons, begot progeny in women 
of the earth and devised for them more dramas (lit. creation) 
on various themes. 

(64-67) 'The implication of this mythical account is beautiful. 
It seeks to impress on us the idea that dramatic performance 
flourished in heaven, and it is a gift of gods. 

(68-66) l In ancient Indian medical works we meet with 
Mara-sthanas which are evidently later additions. See Sarnihitas 
ascribed to Kasyapa and Susrnta. Kohala's work has reached us in 
a, very damaged ms. not yet published. 

237 DESCENT OF DRAMA ON THE EARTH [xxxvi. 73-81 

73. On begetting sons and devising plays in due 
order they were permitted to return again to heaven. 

74. Thus through a curse the dramatic performance has 
been brought down to the earth, and the successive genera- 
tions of dramatic artistes [bharata) have come into being. 

Kohala and his associates 
75-76. Kohala 1 and others together with V&tsya* 
Sandilya,' and Dhurtila' (Dattila) stayed in this earth for some 
time as mortals, and put into practice this S&stra which 
augments the intellect of men, deals with the deeds of the 
three worlds and is a specimen of all other Sastras. 

Value of the Natyasastra 
77-79. He who always hears the reading of that [Sastra] 
which is auspicious, sportful, originating from Brahman's 
mouth, very holy, pure, good, destructive of sins, and who 
puts into practice and witnesses carefully the performance [of 
a drama], will attain the same blessed goal which masters 
of Vedic knowledge 1 and performers of sacrifices or givers 
of gifts will attain [in the end]. 

Value of the Dramatic Show 

80. Of all duties of the king, this has been proclaimed 
as possessing the best result (mahapkala): Of all kinds of 
chanties, allowing people to enjoy a dramatic show without 
payment, has been praised most. 

81. Gods are never so pleased on being worshipped 
with scents and garlands as they are delighted with the 
performance of dramas. 

(75-76) See the introduction. 

Hbid Hbid ^id 

(77-79) 'This passage probably shows that the theatrical art 

was originally connected with the pre-Vedic religion flie author 

Jf the NS. tried here to give it a status similar to that of the Vedtc 

practices. , 

(80) 'Some modern states also find it profitable to spend 

money on dramatic arts. 

Xxxvi. 82-83] THE NATYASASTRA 238 

82. The man who properly attends the performance of 
music (gandharva) and dramas will [after his death] attain the 
happy and meritorious path in the company of Brahminic 

The popular practice supplements dramatic rules. 

83. Thus many practices sanctioned by Sastras have 
been desoribed in connection with the performance of dramas. 
Whatever remains unmentioned should be included into 
practice by experts from an observation (lit. imitative) of 
people (i.e. their usage). ' 

The Final Benediction 
What more should I say ? Let the earth be full of 
grains, and be free from diseases for all time. Let there be 
peace for cows and Brahmins, and let the king protect thus 
the entire earthy 

Here ends the Chapter XXXVI of the Natyasastra, 

which treats of the Descent of 

Drama on the Earth 

(83) ' This shows that the author of the Sastra did not like to 
see drama eternally tied to his prescriptions. 

*This is the typical pattern of Bharata-vakyas met with in 
available plays. The term 'Bharata-vakya' however does not occur 
in the Natyasastra.